Håkansson, Andreas; Magnusson, Emma; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars
2012-08-31
Direct determination of hydrodynamic radius from retention time is an advantage of the field-flow fractionation techniques. However, this is not always completely straight forward since non-idealities exist and assumptions have been made in deriving the retention equations. In this study we investigate the effect on accuracy from two factors: (1) level of sophistication of the equations used to determine channel height from a calibration experiment and (2) the influence of secondary relaxation on the accuracy of hydrodynamic radius determination. A new improved technique for estimating the channel height from calibration experiments is suggested. It is concluded that severe systematic error can arise if the most common channel height equations are used and an alternative more rigorous approach is described. For secondary relaxation it is concluded that this effect increases with the cross-flow decay rate. The secondary relaxation effect is quantified for different conditions. This is part one of two. In the second part the determination of hydrodynamic radius are evaluated experimentally under similar conditions.
Magnusson, Emma; Håkansson, Andreas; Janiak, John; Bergenståhl, Björn; Nilsson, Lars
2012-08-31
In this study we investigate the effect of programmed cross-flows on the error in the hydrodynamic radii (r(h)) determination with asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF). Three different standard polystyrene particles (nominal radii of 30 and 40 and 50 nm) are fractionated with exponentially and linearly decaying cross-flows with different decay rates. Hydrodynamic radii are calculated according to retention theory including steric effects. Rapid decay is expected to give rise to systematic deviations in r(h) determination. The error in r(h) was found to be small when decay rates with half-lives longer than 6 min were used, whereas steeper decays could give rise to errors as high as 16% of the particle size. The error is often explained in terms of secondary relaxation. However, comparisons show that experimental errors are significantly larger than what would be expected due to secondary relaxation, suggesting that other factors also have to be considered in order to fully understand deviations for rapidly decaying cross-flow.
Hydrodynamical noise and Gubser flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Li; Grönqvist, Hanna
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamical noise is introduced on top of Gubser's analytical solution to viscous hydrodynamics. With respect to the ultra-central collision events of Pb-Pb, p-Pb and p-p at the LHC energies, we solve the evolution of noisy fluid systems and calculate the radial flow velocity correlations. We show that the absolute amplitude of the hydrodynamical noise is determined by the multiplicity of the collision event. The evolution of azimuthal anisotropies, which is related to the generation of harmonic flow, receives finite enhancements from hydrodynamical noise. Although it is strongest in the p-p systems, the effect of hydrodynamical noise on flow harmonics is found to be negligible, especially in the ultra-central Pb-Pb collisions. For the short-range correlations, hydrodynamical noise contributes to the formation of a near-side peak on top of the correlation structure originated from initial state fluctuations. The shape of the peak is affected by the strength of hydrodynamical noise, whose height and width grow from the Pb-Pb system to the p-Pb and p-p systems.
Audebert, M; Oxarango, L; Duquennoi, C; Touze-Foltz, N; Forquet, N; Clément, R
2016-09-01
Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal solid waste landfills as bioreactors. To ensure optimal water content distribution, bioreactor operators need tools to design leachate injection systems. Prediction of leachate flow by subsurface flow modelling could provide useful information for the design of such systems. However, hydrodynamic models require additional data to constrain them and to assess hydrodynamic parameters. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a suitable method to study leachate infiltration at the landfill scale. It can provide spatially distributed information which is useful for constraining hydrodynamic models. However, this geophysical method does not allow ERT users to directly measure water content in waste. The MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy) methodology was proposed to delineate the infiltration area precisely during time-lapse ERT survey in order to avoid the use of empirical petrophysical relationships, which are not adapted to a heterogeneous medium such as waste. The infiltration shapes and hydrodynamic information extracted with MICS were used to constrain hydrodynamic models in assessing parameters. The constraint methodology developed in this paper was tested on two hydrodynamic models: an equilibrium model where, flow within the waste medium is estimated using a single continuum approach and a non-equilibrium model where flow is estimated using a dual continuum approach. The latter represents leachate flows into fractures. Finally, this methodology provides insight to identify the advantages and limitations of hydrodynamic models. Furthermore, we suggest an explanation for the large volume detected by MICS when a small volume of leachate is injected.
Latini, M; Schilling, O
2005-01-31
Shock refraction is a fundamental shock phenomenon observed when shocks interact with a material interface separating gases with different properties. Following refraction, a transmitted shock enters the second gas and a reflected wave returns back into the first gas. In the case of regular shock refraction, all of the waves meet at a single point called the triple-point, creating five different states for the two gases. Analytical methods based on shock polar analysis have been developed to determine the state of two ideal gases in each of the five refraction regions. Furthermore, shock refraction constitutes a basic example of complex hydrodynamic flows. For this reason, shock refraction is used in this report as one validation of the high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method, as implemented in the HOPE code. The algorithms used in the HOPE code are described in detail, together with its current capabilities. The following two-step validation process is adopted. First, analytical results are obtained for the normal and oblique shock refraction (with shock-interface angle {beta}{sub interface} = 75{sup o}) observed for a Ma = 1.2 shock. To validate the single-fluid and the two-fluid implementations of the WENO method, two pairs of gases, argon/xenon, having equal adiabatic exponents {gamma} and air(acetone)/sulfur hexafluoride, having different adiabatic exponents, are considered. Both the light-to-heavy and heavy-to-light gas configurations are considered. Second, numerical simulations are performed using the fifth-order WENO method and values of the density, pressure, temperature, speed of sound, and flow velocity in each of the five refraction regions are compared with the analytical predictions obtained from shock polar analysis. In all of the cases considered, excellent agreement is found between the simulation results and the analytical predictions. The results from this investigation suggest that the WENO method
Oscillatory hydrodynamic flow induced by chemical waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miike, Hidetoshi; Müller, Stefan C.; Hess, Benno
1988-05-01
Hydrodynamic flows in a reactive liquid induced by the propagation of waves of chemical activity are investigated for the ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction in thin layers by microscope video imaging techniques. The motion of added polystyrene spheres is observed with laser light illumination. Oscillations in the hydrodynamic flow were detected in rotating spiral waves with an open liquid/gas interface.
Windsor, Shane P; Norris, Stuart E; Cameron, Stuart M; Mallinson, Gordon D; Montgomery, John C
2010-11-15
Blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus) sense the presence of nearby objects by sensing changes in the water flow around their body. The information available to the fish using this hydrodynamic imaging ability depends on the properties of the flow field it generates while gliding and how this flow field is altered by the presence of objects. Here, we used particle image velocimetry to measure the flow fields around gliding blind cave fish as they moved through open water and when heading towards a wall. These measurements, combined with computational fluid dynamics models, were used to estimate the stimulus to the lateral line system of the fish. Our results showed that there was a high-pressure region around the nose of the fish, low-pressure regions corresponding to accelerated flow around the widest part of the body and a thick laminar boundary layer down the body. When approaching a wall head-on, the changes in the stimulus to the lateral line were confined to approximately the first 20% of the body. Assuming that the fish are sensitive to a certain relative change in lateral line stimuli, it was found that swimming at higher Reynolds numbers slightly decreased the distance at which the fish could detect a wall when approaching head-on, which is the opposite to what has previously been expected. However, when the effects of environmental noise are considered, swimming at higher speed may improve the signal to noise ratio of the stimulus to the lateral line.
Hydrodynamic Flow Control in Marine Mammals
2008-05-06
Hydrodynamic flow control in marine mammals Frank E. Fish,1,* Laurens E. Howle† and Mark M. Murray§ Department of Biology, West Chester University...the flow of water around the body dictates the performance of marine mammals in the aquatic environment. Morphological specializations of marine mammals ...and maneuverability. The morphological features of marine mammals for flow control can be utilized in the biomimetic design of engineered structures
Hydrodynamics of viscous inhalant flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
True, Aaron C.; Crimaldi, John P.
2017-05-01
Inhalant flows draw fluid into an orifice from a reservoir and are ubiquitous in engineering and biology. Surprisingly, there is a lack of quantitative information on viscous inhalant flows. We consider here laminar flows (Reynolds number Re≤100 ) developing after impulsive inhalation begins. We implement finite element simulations of flows with varying Re and extraction height h (orifice height above a bottom bed). Numerical results are experimentally validated using particle image velocimetry measurements in a physical model for a representative flow case in the middle of the Re-h parameter space. We use two metrics to characterize the flow in space and time: regions of influence (ROIs), which describe the spatial extent of the flow field, and inhalation volumes, which describe the initial distribution of inhaled fluid. The transient response for all Re features an inviscid sinklike component at early times followed by a viscous diffusive component. At lower Re, diffusion entrains an increasing volume of fluid over time, enlarging the ROI indefinitely. In some geometries, these flows spatially bifurcate, with some fluid being inhaled through the orifice and some bypassing into recirculation. At higher Re, inward advection dominates outward viscous diffusion and the flow remains trapped in a sinklike state. Both ROIs and inhalation volumes are strongly dependent on Re and extraction height, suggesting that organisms or engineers could tune these parameters to achieve specific inhalation criteria.
Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw
2016-12-01
In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.
Windsor, Shane P; Norris, Stuart E; Cameron, Stuart M; Mallinson, Gordon D; Montgomery, John C
2010-11-15
Blind Mexican cave fish (Astyanax fasciatus) are able to sense detailed information about objects by gliding alongside them and sensing changes in the flow field around their body using their lateral line sensory system. Hence the fish are able to build hydrodynamic images of their surroundings. This study measured the flow fields around blind cave fish using particle image velocimetry (PIV) as they swam parallel to a wall. Computational fluid dynamics models were also used to calculate the flow fields and the stimuli to the lateral line sensory system. Our results showed that characteristic changes in the form of the flow field occurred when the fish were within approximately 0.20 body lengths (BL) of a wall. The magnitude of these changes increased steadily as the distance between the fish and the wall was reduced. When the fish were within 0.02 BL of the wall there was a change in the form of the flow field owing to the merging of the boundary layers on the body of the fish and the wall. The stimuli to the lateral line appears to be sufficient for fish to detect walls when they are 0.10 BL away (the mean distance at which they normally swim from a wall), but insufficient for the fish to detect a wall when 0.25 BL away. This suggests that the nature of the flow fields surrounding the fish are such that hydrodynamic imaging can only be used by fish to detect surfaces at short range.
Hydrodynamic boundary condition for superfluid flow
Pomeau, Yves; Roberts, David C.
2008-04-01
We discuss the hydrodynamic boundary condition for a superfluid moving tangentially to a rough surface. Specifically, we argue that the scattering of quantum fluctuations off surface roughness affects the nature of the boundary condition, and that this has important consequences including a theorized critical speed and the presence of normal fluid at any nonzero speed, even if the boundary is held at zero temperature (i.e., a moving superfluid flow creates a sustained temperature difference between the superfluid and the boundary). This hydrodynamic boundary condition is relevant not only for superfluid helium experiments but also for experiments with trapped dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, in particular, those involving atomic waveguides near surfaces.
Modeling multiphase flow using fluctuating hydrodynamics.
Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B; Garcia, Alejandro L; Donev, Aleksandar
2014-09-01
Fluctuating hydrodynamics provides a model for fluids at mesoscopic scales where thermal fluctuations can have a significant impact on the behavior of the system. Here we investigate a model for fluctuating hydrodynamics of a single-component, multiphase flow in the neighborhood of the critical point. The system is modeled using a compressible flow formulation with a van der Waals equation of state, incorporating a Korteweg stress term to treat interfacial tension. We present a numerical algorithm for modeling this system based on an extension of algorithms developed for fluctuating hydrodynamics for ideal fluids. The scheme is validated by comparison of measured structure factors and capillary wave spectra with equilibrium theory. We also present several nonequilibrium examples to illustrate the capability of the algorithm to model multiphase fluid phenomena in a neighborhood of the critical point. These examples include a study of the impact of fluctuations on the spinodal decomposition following a rapid quench, as well as the piston effect in a cavity with supercooled walls. The conclusion in both cases is that thermal fluctuations affect the size and growth of the domains in off-critical quenches.
Cell adhesion under hydrodynamic flow conditions.
Gopalan, P K; Jones, D A; McIntire, L V; Smith, C W
2001-05-01
This unit describes a hydrodynamic assay to study the relative importance of various receptor/ligand interactions in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion and to quantitate the strength of their binding. The basic protocol describes how to assemble the single-chamber flow system with the substrate, add the cells in suspension, and record the experiment on videotape. Alternate protocols present assays to determine how monoclonal antibodies and stimulating and inhibiting agents affect the substrate and the perfusing cells in suspension. Another alternate protocol details the use of the double-chamber flow system. Support protocols describe how to construct the single- and double-chamber flow systems and how to analyze the data from an experiment. Recording and analyzing the flow experiment requires the use of video equipment and, optionally, a computer and imaging software.
Biomimetic Survival Hydrodynamics and Flow Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triantafyllou, Michael S.; Weymouth, Gabriel D.; Miao, Jianmin
2016-01-01
The fluid mechanics employed by aquatic animals in their escape or attack maneuvers, what we call survival hydrodynamics, are fascinating because the recorded performance in animals is truly impressive. Such performance forces us to pose some basic questions on the underlying flow mechanisms that are not yet in use in engineered vehicles. A closely related issue is the ability of animals to sense the flow velocity and pressure field around them in order to detect and discriminate threats in environments where vision or other sensing is of limited or no use. We review work on animal flow sensing and actuation as a source of inspiration and as a way to formulate a number of basic problems and investigate the flow mechanisms that enable animals to perform these remarkable maneuvers. We also describe some intriguing mechanisms of actuation and sensing.
Hydrodynamic interactions between two semiflexible inextensible filaments in Stokes flow.
Young, Y-N
2009-04-01
Hydrodynamic interactions between two semiflexible inextensible filaments are shown to have a significant impact on filament buckling and their subsequent motion in Stokesian fluids. In linear shear flow, hydrodynamic interactions lead to filament shear dispersion that depends on the filament aspect ratio and the initial filament separation. In linear extensional flow, hydrodynamic interactions lead to complex filament dynamics around the stagnation point. These results suggest that hydrodynamic interactions need to be taken into account to determine the self-diffusion of non-Brownian semiflexible filaments in a cellular flow [Y.-N. Young and M. J. Shelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 058303 (2007)].
Smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monaghan, J. J.
2006-01-01
This paper is concerned with the smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation of shear flow and the recent claim by Imaeda & Inutsuka that SPH has a fundamental flaw that is revealed by shear flow simulations. In order to clarify the SPH simulations, we study several representative shear flows. First, to compare against realistic exact time-dependent solutions, we simulate steady, periodic, low Mach number, inviscid shear flow in rectangular domains and the time-dependent, viscous, low Mach number evolution of both Couette flow in a rectangular domain and axisymmetric spin-down in a cylinder. These simulations are in good agreement with exact solutions. Secondly, to determine how well SPH simulates astrophysical discs, we simulate a differentially rotating, adiabatic, self-gravitating disc using as initial states variable-mass particles on a lattice, equal-mass particles on rings and on a lattice, and particles placed at random. The results show that the SPH results agree well with theory and are independent of the initial particle setup provided they are settled to equilibrium. Thirdly, we simulate a thin, two-dimensional, gaseous torus orbiting a gravitating mass and show that it is stable for at least the time integrated, and that when strongly perturbed the motion conserves circulation. None of these systems shows the huge density fluctuations found by Imaeda & Inutsuka. The flaw in the argument of Imaeda & Inutsuka may be the way they set up the initial configurations, but this is not certain because they do not describe their initial setup in sufficient detail to allow their simulations to be repeated. The conclusions of the present paper are in agreement with those obtained recently by Price, who simulated some of the systems considered by Imaeda & Inutsuka and found that the SPH results were in good agreement with theory.
Latini, M; Schilling, O
2005-04-27
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further elucidate the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [68]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [29] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF{sub 6} shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and on the spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing.
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulation of Iron Ore Pellets Flow
Gustafsson, G.; Haeggblad, H.-A.; Oldenburg, M.
2007-05-17
In this work the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is used to simulate iron ore pellets flow. A continuum material model describing the yield strength, elastic and plastic parameters for pellets as a granular material is used in the simulations. The most time consuming part in the SPH method is the contact search of neighboring nodes at each time step. In this study, a position code algorithm for the contact search is presented. The cost of contact searching for this algorithm is of the order of Nlog2N, where N is the number of nodes in the system. The SPH-model is used for simulation of iron ore pellets silo flow. A two dimensional axisymmetric model of the silo is used in the simulations. The simulation results are compared with data from an experimental cylindrical silo, where pellets are discharged from a concentric outlet. Primary the flow pattern is compared.
Schilling, O; Latini, M
2004-10-06
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is a fundamental fluid instability that occurs when perturbations on an interface separating gases with different properties grow following the passage of a shock. This instability is typically studied in shock tube experiments, and constitutes a fundamental example of a complex hydrodynamic flow. Numerical simulations and models for the instability growth and evolution have also been used to further understand the physics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. In the present work, the formally high-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) shock-capturing method using a third-order total-variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta time-evolution scheme (as implemented in the HOPE code [57]) is applied to simulate the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock in two spatial dimensions. The initial conditions and computational domain for the simulations are modeled after the Collins and Jacobs [23] single-mode, Mach 1.21 air(acetone)/SF6 shock tube experiment. The following boundary conditions are used: (1) periodic in the spanwise direction corresponding to the cross-section of the test section; (2) outflow at the entrance of the test section in the streamwise direction, and; (3) reflecting at the end wall of the test section in the streamwise direction. The present investigation has three principal motivations: (1) to provide additional validation of the HOPE code against available experimental data; (2) to provide numerical simulation data for detailed analysis of mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, and; (3) to systematically investigate the dependence of mixing properties on both the order of WENO reconstruction and spatial resolution. The present study constitutes the first comprehensive application of the high-resolution WENO method to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with reshock, as well as analysis of the resulting mixing. First, analytical, semi-analytical, and
Hydrodynamic interactions suppress deformation of suspension drops in Poiseuille flow.
Sadlej, Krzysztof; Wajnryb, Eligiusz; Ekiel-Jezewska, Maria L
2010-08-07
Evolution of a suspension drop entrained by Poiseuille flow is studied numerically at a low Reynolds number. A suspension drop is modeled by a cloud of many nontouching particles, initially randomly distributed inside a spherical volume of a viscous fluid which is identical to the host fluid outside the drop. Evolution of particle positions and velocities is evaluated by the accurate multipole method corrected for lubrication, implemented in the HYDROMULTIPOLE numerical code. Deformation of the drop is shown to be smaller for a larger volume fraction. At high concentrations, hydrodynamic interactions between close particles significantly decrease elongation of the suspension drop along the flow in comparison to the corresponding elongation of the pure-fluid drop. Owing to hydrodynamic interactions, the particles inside a dense-suspension drop tend to stay for a long time together in the central part of the drop; later on, small clusters occasionally separate out from the drop, and are stabilized by quasiperiodic orbits of the constituent nontouching particles. Both effects significantly reduce the drop spreading along the flow. At large volume fractions, suspension drops destabilize by fragmentation, and at low volume fractions, by dispersing into single particles.
Heat and mass transfer and hydrodynamics in swirling flows (review)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leont'ev, A. I.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Popov, I. A.
2017-02-01
Research results of Russian and foreign scientists of heat and mass transfer in whirling flows, swirling effect, superficial vortex generators, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics at micro- and nanoscales, burning at swirl of the flow, and technologies and apparatuses with the use of whirling currents for industry and power generation were presented and discussed at the "Heat and Mass Transfer in Whirling Currents" 5th International Conference. The choice of rational forms of the equipment flow parts when using whirling and swirling flows to increase efficiency of the heat-power equipment and of flow regimes and burning on the basis of deep study of the flow and heat transfer local parameters was set as the main research prospect. In this regard, there is noticeable progress in research methods of whirling and swirling flows. The number of computational treatments of swirling flows' local parameters has been increased. Development and advancement of the up to date computing models and national productivity software are very important for this process. All experimental works are carried out with up to date research methods of the local thermoshydraulic parameters, which enable one to reveal physical mechanisms of processes: PIV and LIV visualization techniques, high-speed and infrared photography, high speed registration of parameters of high-speed processes, etc. There is a problem of improvement of researchers' professional skills in the field of fluid mechanics to set adequately mathematics and physics problems of aerohydrodynamics for whirling and swirling flows and numerical and pilot investigations. It has been pointed out that issues of improvement of the cooling system and thermal protection effectiveness of heat-power and heat-transfer equipment units are still actual. It can be solved successfully using whirling and swirling flows as simple low power consumption exposing on the flow method and heat transfer augmentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gusti, T. P.; Hertanti, D. R.; Bahsan, E.; Soeryantono, H.
2013-12-01
Particle-based numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), may be able to simulate some hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviors better than grid-based numerical methods. This study simulates hydrodynamics in meanders and advection and turbulent diffusion in straight river channels using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. The simulators generate three-dimensional data for hydrodynamics and one-dimensional data for advection-turbulent diffusion. Fluid at rest, sloshing, and helical flow are simulated in the river meanders. Spill loading and step loading are done to simulate concentration patterns associated with advection-turbulent diffusion. Results indicate that helical flow is formed due to disturbance in morphology and particle velocity in the stream and the number of particles does not have a significant effect on the pattern of advection-turbulent diffusion concentration.
[Intraocular hydrodynamics failure as a part of age cataract etiopathogenesis].
Ignat'ev, S G; Shilkin, G A; Iartseva, N S; Ignat'eva, S G; Al'-Dandan, I Kh
2011-01-01
59 (105 eyes) patients with initial, premature and mature cataract are studied. Besides 14 patients (19 eyes) 1-2 years after cataract phacoemulsification with IOL implantation were examined. All patients underwent routine ophthalmological examination and tonography. Average indexes of intraocular hydrodynamics coefficients differed from normal rates: in initial and premature cataract F- coefficient was lower by 34% compared to normal, in mature cataract it was higher by 8,9% than upper limit of normal, in pseudophakia by 86,8% lower. In all groups with cataract patients disbalance of intraocular hydrodynamics was revealed in more than 70% cases, and in pseudophakia group it was found in 100%. Disbalance of intraocular hydrodynamics in cataract confirms hypothesis that intraocular hydrodynamics failure is an important part of cataract etiopathogenesis.
Superreflection of waves in hydrodynamic flows
Fabrikant, A.L.
1987-08-01
The amplification mechanism of various type waves in hydrodynamics in analyzed for reflection from planar and cylindrical tangential discontinuities. The problem of wave momentum and energy in a medium is discussed. The amplification is related to the presence of negative energy waves.
Nucleation and chiral symmetry breaking under controlled hydrodynamic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Xiao-Lun; Martin, Brian; Tharrington, Arnold
1994-01-01
The effects of hydrodynamic convection on nucleation and broken chiral symmetry have been investigated for a simple inorganic molecule, sodium chlorate (NaClO3). Our experiment suggests that the symmetry breaking is a result of hydrodynamic amplification of rare nucleation events. The effect is more pronounced when the primary nucleation occurs on the solute-vapor interface, where mixing in the surface sublayer becomes important. The transition from the achiral to the chiral states appears to be smooth as the hydrodynamic parameters, such as flow rate, are varied.
Hydrodynamic Electron Flow and Hall Viscosity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scaffidi, Thomas; Nandi, Nabhanila; Schmidt, Burkhard; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; Moore, Joel E.
2017-06-01
In metallic samples of small enough size and sufficiently strong momentum-conserving scattering, the viscosity of the electron gas can become the dominant process governing transport. In this regime, momentum is a long-lived quantity whose evolution is described by an emergent hydrodynamical theory. Furthermore, breaking time-reversal symmetry leads to the appearance of an odd component to the viscosity called the Hall viscosity, which has attracted considerable attention recently due to its quantized nature in gapped systems but still eludes experimental confirmation. Based on microscopic calculations, we discuss how to measure the effects of both the even and odd components of the viscosity using hydrodynamic electronic transport in mesoscopic samples under applied magnetic fields.
Mitamura, Yoshinori; Kido, Kazuyuki; Yano, Tetsuya; Sakota, Daisuke; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Sekine, Kazumitsu; OKamoto, Eiji
2007-03-01
To overcome the drive shaft seal and bearing problem in rotary blood pumps, a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless direct current (DC) motor were employed in an axial flow pump. This enabled contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear. The axial flow pump consisted of a brushless DC motor, an impeller, and a guide vane. The motor rotor was directly connected to the impeller by a motor shaft. A hydrodynamic bearing was installed on the motor shaft. The motor and the hydrodynamic bearing were housed in a cylindrical casing and were waterproofed by a magnetic fluid seal, a mechanically noncontact seal. Impeller shaft displacement was measured using a laser sensor. Axial and radial displacements of the shaft were only a few micrometers for motor speed up to 8500 rpm. The shaft did not make contact with the bearing housing. A flow of 5 L/min was obtained at 8000 rpm at a pressure difference of 100 mm Hg. In conclusion, the axial flow blood pump consisting of a hydrodynamic bearing, a magnetic fluid seal, and a brushless DC motor provided contact-free rotation of the impeller without material wear.
Alaia, Alessandro; Puppo, Gabriella
2011-06-20
In this work we present a hybrid particle-grid Monte Carlo method for the Boltzmann equation, which is characterized by a significant reduction of the stochastic noise in the kinetic regime. The hybrid method is based on a first order splitting in time to separate the transport from the relaxation step. The transport step is solved by a deterministic scheme, while a hybrid DSMC-based method is used to solve the collision step. Such a hybrid scheme is based on splitting the solution in a collisional and a non-collisional part at the beginning of the collision step, and the DSMC method is used to solve the relaxation step for the collisional part of the solution only. This is accomplished by sampling only the fraction of particles candidate for collisions from the collisional part of the solution, performing collisions as in a standard DSMC method, and then projecting the particles back onto a velocity grid to compute a piecewise constant reconstruction for the collisional part of the solution. The latter is added to a piecewise constant reconstruction of the non-collisional part of the solution, which in fact remains unchanged during the relaxation step. Numerical results show that the stochastic noise is significantly reduced at large Knudsen numbers with respect to the standard DSMC method. Indeed in this algorithm, the particle scheme is applied only on the collisional part of the solution, so only this fraction of the solution is affected by stochastic fluctuations. But since the collisional part of the solution reduces as the Knudsen number increases, stochastic noise reduces as well at large Knudsen numbers.
Hydrodynamic stability of compressible plane Couette flow
Chagelishvili, G.D. Department of Plasma Physics, Space Research Institute, str. Profsoyuznaya 84 Rogava, A.D. ); Segal, I.N. Department of Plasma Physics, Space Research Institute, str. Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117810 Moscow )
1994-12-01
The evolution of two-dimensional spatial Fourier harmonics in a compressible plane Couette flow is considered. A new mechanism of energy exchange between the mean flow and sound-type perturbations is discovered.
Electrohydrodynamics and other hydrodynamic phenomena in continuous flow electrophoresis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saville, D. A.
1982-01-01
The process known as continuous flow electrophoresis employs an electric field to separate the constituents of particulate samples suspended in a liquid. Complications arise because the electric field generates temperature gradients due to Joule heating and derives an electrohydrodynamic crossflow. Several aspects of the flow are discussed including entrance effects, hydrodynamic stability and a flow restructuring due to the combined effects of buoyancy and the crossflow.
Ratchets in hydrodynamic flow: more than waterwheels
Sturm, James C.; Cox, Edward C.; Comella, Brandon; Austin, Robert H.
2014-01-01
The transport of objects in microfluidic arrays of obstacles is a surprisingly rich area of physics and statistical mechanics. Tom Duke's mastery of these areas had a major impact in the development of biotechnology which uses these ideas at an increasing scale. We first review how biological objects are transported in fluids at low Reynolds numbers, including a discussion of electrophoresis, then concentrate on the separation of objects in asymmetric arrays, sometimes called Brownian ratchets when diffusional symmetry is broken by the structures. We move beyond this to what are called deterministic arrays where non-hydrodynamic forces in asymmetric arrays allow for extraordinary separation, and we look to the future of using these unusual arrays at the nanoscale and at the hundreds of micrometre scale. The emphasis is on how the original ideas of Tom Duke drove this work forward. PMID:25485086
Robust-mode analysis of hydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.; Hua, Jia-Chen; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.
2017-04-01
The emergence of techniques to extract high-frequency high-resolution data introduces a new avenue for modal decomposition to assess the underlying dynamics, especially of complex flows. However, this task requires the differentiation of robust, repeatable flow constituents from noise and other irregular features of a flow. Traditional approaches involving low-pass filtering and principle components analysis have shortcomings. The approach outlined here, referred to as robust-mode analysis, is based on Koopman decomposition. Three applications to (a) a counter-rotating cellular flame state, (b) variations in financial markets, and (c) turbulent injector flows are provided.
A coning motion apparatus for hydrodynamic model testing in a non-planar cross-flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, David C.
1989-06-01
As part of continuing research into the flow about slender bodies of revolution, a coning motion apparatus for hydrodynamic model testing was built and demonstrated. This is the first known use of a rotary balance apparatus for external flow hydrodynamic applications. The vorticity shed by the hull and appendages creates a wake field that interacts with the velocity distribution over the vehicle's surface. This in turn effects the surface pressure distribution and thus, when integrated over the body's surface, the total force on the hull/appendage combination. It is this interaction that prevents a closed-form analytic solution to the problem.
Hydrodynamic stability of three-dimensional homogeneous flow topologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Aashwin A.; Girimaji, Sharath S.
2015-11-01
This article examines the hydrodynamic stability of various homogeneous three-dimensional flow topologies. The influence of inertial and pressure effects on the stability of flows undergoing strain, rotation, convergence, divergence, and swirl are isolated. In marked contrast to two-dimensional topologies, for three-dimensional flows the inertial effects are always destabilizing, whereas pressure effects are always stabilizing. In streamline topologies with a negative velocity-gradient third invariant, inertial effects prevail leading to instability. Vortex-stretching is identified as the underlying instability mechanism. In flows with positive velocity-gradient third derivative, pressure overcomes inertial effects to stabilize the flow.
Modeling hydrodynamic nonequilibrium in cavitating flows
Chen, Y.; Heister, S.D.
1996-03-01
A nonlinear numerical model has been developed to assess nonequilibrium effects in cavitating flows. The numerical implementation involves a two-phase treatment with the use of a pseudo-density which varies between the liquid and gas/vapor extremes. A new constitutive equation for the pseudo-density is derived based on the bubble response described by a modified form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Use of this constitutive equation in a numerical procedure permits the assessment of nonequilibrium effects. This scheme provides a quantitative description of scaling effects in cavitated flows. With minimal modifications, the model can also be used for bubbly two-phase flows.
Launch Environment Water Flow Simulations Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce T.; Berg, Jared J.; Harris, Michael F.; Crespo, Alejandro C.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate the water flow from the rainbird nozzle system used in the sound suppression system during pad abort and nominal launch. The simulations help determine if water from rainbird nozzles will impinge on the rocket nozzles and other sensitive ground support elements.
Water Flow Simulation using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vu, Bruce; Berg, Jared; Harris, Michael F.
2014-01-01
Simulation of water flow from the rainbird nozzles has been accomplished using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The advantage of using SPH is that no meshing is required, thus the grid quality is no longer an issue and accuracy can be improved.
Hydrodynamics of a DNA molecule in a flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, R. G.; Perkins, T. T.; Smith, D. E.; Chu, S.
1997-02-01
The hydrodynamics of a single, fluorescing, DNA molecule held at one end by 'optical tweezers' and subjected to a uniform flow are compared with Monte Carlo simulations that account for the molecule's entropic elasticity, Brownian motion, and hydrodynamic drag. Using self-diffusion data and analytic expressions to obtain the drag in the limits of the undeformed coil and of the fully stretched thread, the predicted chain stretching and mass distribution are in quantitative agreement with measurements. The results explain the success of the nonlinear elastic 'dumbbell' model in predicting the rheological properties of dilute polymer solutions.
Prediction of Hydrodynamics for Unidirectional Flow
2009-01-01
representation of the flow field can be obtained. These methods have also recently been used to correct initial estimates of model parameters (e.g. Losa et...estimation for stochastic systems. Non-linear Processes in Geophysics, 10, 253. Losa , S., Kivman, G., Ryabchenko, V., 2001, Weak constraint parameter
Hydrodynamic focusing investigation in a micro-flow cytometer.
Yang, An-Shik; Hsieh, Wen-Hsin
2007-04-01
Hydrodynamic focusing behavior is characterized by two fluids coflowing at different velocities inside a micro-flow cytometer. In this study, a two-fluid model has been established to describe the flow transport behavior and interaction of sample and sheath fluids. The analysis treats the sample and sheath fluids as two-dimensional, laminar, incompressible, and isothermal. The theoretical model comprises two groups of transient conservation equations of mass and momentum with consideration of the interfacial momentum exchange. The governing equations are solved numerically through an iterative SIMPLEC algorithm to determine the flow properties. Since the ratio of the sheath velocity to the sample velocity varies from 5 to 70, the predicted focusing width and length are in good agreement with the experimental data in the literature. In addition, the present study explored the hydrodynamic focusing flowfield as well as the pressure drop across a micro-flow cytometer and the time needed for the completion of one focusing event in detail. To enhance the understanding of hydrodynamic focusing in the design of cytometers, ten numerical experiments were conducted to examine the effects of the inner nozzle length, inner nozzle exit width, inner nozzle shape, and fluid properties on the width of the focused sample stream.
Differences between hydrodynamic and macromolecule induced clusters in microcapillary flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Christian; Claveria, Viviana; Aouane, Othmane; Coupier, Gwennou; Misbah, Chaouqi; Abkarian, Manouk
2015-03-01
Recent studies have been shown that despite the large shear rates, the presence of either fibrinogen or the synthetic polymer dextran leads to an enhanced formation of robust clusters of RBC in microcapillaries under flow conditions. The contribution of hydrodynamical interactions and interactions induced by the presence of macromolecules in the cluster formation has not been established. In order to elucidate this mechanism, we compare experimentally in microchannels under flow condition, the pure hydrodynamical cluster formation of RBCs and the cluster formation of RBCs in the presence of macromolecules inducing aggregation. The results reveal strong differences in the cluster morphology. Emphasizing on the case of clusters formed by two cells, the surface to surface interdistances between the cells in the different solutions shows a bimodal distribution. Numerical simulations based on the boundary integral method showed a good agreement with the experimental findings.
Applications of Modern Hydrodynamics to Aeronautics. [in Two Parts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prandtl, L
1923-01-01
The report gives, rather briefly, in part one an introduction to hydrodynamics which is designed to give those who have not yet been actively concerned with this science such a grasp of the theoretical underlying principles that they can follow the subsequent developments. In part two there follows a separate discussion of the different questions to be considered, in which the theory of aerofoils claims the greatest portion of the space. The last part is devoted to the application of the aerofoil theory to screw propellers. A table giving the most important quantities is at the end of the report. A short reference list of the literature on the subject and also a table of contents are added.
Microfluidic Device for Studying Controllable Hydrodynamic Flow Induced Cellular Responses.
Zheng, Chunhong; Zhang, Xiannian; Li, Chunmei; Pang, Yuhong; Huang, Yanyi
2017-03-07
Hydrodynamic flow is an essential stimulus in many cellular functions, regulating many mechanical sensitive pathways and closely associating with human health status and diseases. The flow pattern of blood in vessels is the key factor in causing atherosclerosis. Hemodynamics has great effect on endothelial cells' gene expression and biological functions. There are various tools that can be used for studying flow-induced cellular responses but most of them are either bulky or lack precise controllability. We develop an integrated microfluidic device that can precisely generate different flow patterns to human endothelial cells cultured on-chip. We monitored cell morphology and used small-input RNA-seq technology to depict the transcriptome profiles of human umbilical vein endothelial cells under uni- or bidirectional flow. Such integrated and miniatured device has greatly facilitated our understanding of endothelial functions with shear stimulus, not only providing new data on the transcriptomic scale but also building the connection between cell phenotypic changes and expression alternations.
The helical flow pump with a hydrodynamic levitation impeller.
Abe, Yusuke; Ishii, Kohei; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Ono, Toshiya; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Nakano, Emiko; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Fukunaga, Kazuyoshi; Ono, Minoru; Imachi, Kou
2012-12-01
The helical flow pump (HFP) is a novel rotary blood pump invented for developing a total artificial heart (TAH). The HFP with a hydrodynamic levitation impeller, which consists of a multi-vane impeller involving rotor magnets, stator coils at the core position, and double helical-volute pump housing, was developed. Between the stator and impeller, a hydrodynamic bearing is formed. Since the helical volutes are formed at both sides of the impeller, blood flows with a helical flow pattern inside the pump. The developed HFP showed maximum output of 19 l/min against 100 mmHg of pressure head and 11 % maximum efficiency. The profile of the H-Q (pressure head vs. flow) curve was similar to that of the undulation pump. Hydrodynamic levitation of the impeller was possible with higher than 1,000 rpm rotation speed. The normalized index of the hemolysis ratio of the HFP to centrifugal pump (BPX-80) was from 2.61 to 8.07 depending on the design of the bearing. The HFP was implanted in two goats with a left ventricular bypass method. After surgery, hemolysis occurred in both goats. The hemolysis ceased on postoperative days 14 and 9, respectively. In the first experiment, no thrombus was found in the pump after 203 days of pumping. In the second experiment, a white thrombus was found in the pump after 23 days of pumping. While further research and development are necessary, we are expecting to develop an excellent TAH with the HFP.
Numerical simulation of hydrodynamic flows in the jet electric
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarychev, V. D.; Granovskii, A. Yu; Nevskii, S. A.
2016-02-01
On the basis of concepts from magnetic hydrodynamics the mathematical model of hydrodynamic flows in the stream of electric arc plasma, obtained between the rod electrode and the target located perpendicular to the flat conductive, was developed. The same phenomenon occurs in the welding arc, arc plasma and other injection sources of charged particles. The model is based on the equations of magnetic hydrodynamics with special boundary conditions. The obtained system of equations was solved by the numerical method of finite elements with an automatic selection of the time step. Calculations were carried out with regard to the normal plasma inleakage on the solid conducting surface and the surface with the orifice. It was found that the solid surface facilitates three swirling zones. Interaction of these zones leads to the formation of two stable swirling zones, one of which is located at a distance of two radii from the axis and midway between the electrodes, another is located in the immediate vicinity of the continuous electrode. In this zone plasma backflow scattering fine particles is created. Swirling zones are not formed by using the plane electrode with an orifice. Thus, the fine particles can pass through it and consolidate.
Hydrodynamic Fluctuations in Laminar Fluid Flow. II. Fluctuating Squire Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortiz de Zárate, José M.; Sengers, Jan V.
2013-02-01
We use fluctuating hydrodynamics to evaluate the enhancement of thermally excited fluctuations in laminar fluid flow using plane Couette flow as a representative example. In a previous publication (J. Stat. Phys. 144:774, 2011) we derived the energy amplification arising from thermally excited wall-normal fluctuations by solving a fluctuating Orr-Sommerfeld equation. In the present paper we derive the energy amplification arising from wall-normal vorticity fluctuation by solving a fluctuating Squire equation. The thermally excited wall-normal vorticity fluctuations turn out to yield the dominant contribution to the energy amplification. In addition, we show that thermally excited streaks, even in the absence of any externally imposed perturbations, are present in laminar fluid flow.
Hydrodynamic interaction in sediment-laden open channel turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Debasish; Ghoshal, Koeli
2017-04-01
In the present study, a theoretical model is proposed to predict the vertical distribution of suspended sediments in open channel turbulent flow. The mathematical model is derived based on six hydrodynamic mechanisms, namely upward sediment flux due to turbulent diffusion, downward gravitational settling of sediments in fluid, hindered settling phenomenon, secondary current in sediment-laden flow, fluid induced lift force on the suspended particles and the gradient of Reynolds normal stresses. The importance of including such mechanisms is described through the real characteristics of the suspended load profile. We also address the significance of the co-existence of those mechanisms for estimating the particle concentration in a flow region. The model agrees satisfactorily with a wide spectrum of experimental data. A benchmarking exercise with previously published models shows that the proposed model has better prediction accuracy—as confirmed by a detailed error analysis.
Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam
2017-05-01
Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.
Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Parks, Michael L.
2017-04-01
We present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier-Stokes, Poisson-Boltzmann, and advection-diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. The new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.
Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; ...
2017-01-03
In this paper, we present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier–Stokes, Poisson–Boltzmann, and advection–diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. Lastly, the new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.
Hydrodynamic interaction of two deformable drops in confined shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yongping; Wang, Chengyao
2014-09-01
We investigate hydrodynamic interaction between two neutrally buoyant circular drops in a confined shear flow based on a computational fluid dynamics simulation using the volume-of-fluid method. The rheological behaviors of interactive drops and the flow regimes are explored with a focus on elucidation of underlying physical mechanisms. We find that two types of drop behaviors during interaction occur, including passing-over motion and reversing motion, which are governed by the competition between the drag of passing flow and the entrainment of reversing flow in matrix fluid. With the increasing confinement, the drop behavior transits from the passing-over motion to reversing motion, because the entrainment of the reversing-flow matrix fluid turns to play the dominant role. The drag of the ambient passing flow is increased by enlarging the initial lateral separation due to the departure of the drop from the reversing flow in matrix fluid, resulting in the emergence of passing-over motion. In particular, a corresponding phase diagram is plotted to quantitatively illustrate the dependence of drop morphologies during interaction on confinement and initial lateral separation.
Hydrodynamics beyond Navier-Stokes: the slip flow model.
Yudistiawan, Wahyu P; Ansumali, Santosh; Karlin, Iliya V
2008-07-01
Recently, analytical solutions for the nonlinear Couette flow demonstrated the relevance of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) models to hydrodynamics beyond the continuum limit [S. Ansumali, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 124502 (2007)]. In this paper, we present a systematic study of the simplest LB kinetic equation-the nine-bit model in two dimensions--in order to quantify it as a slip flow approximation. Details of the aforementioned analytical solution are presented, and results are extended to include a general shear- and force-driven unidirectional flow in confined geometry. Exact solutions for the velocity, as well as for pertinent higher-order moments of the distribution functions, are obtained in both Couette and Poiseuille steady-state flows for all values of rarefaction parameter (Knudsen number). Results are compared with the slip flow solution by Cercignani, and a good quantitative agreement is found for both flow situations. Thus, the standard nine-bit LB model is characterized as a valid and self-consistent slip flow model for simulations beyond the Navier-Stokes approximation.
A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad
2017-06-01
The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.
Refining a relativistic, hydrodynamic solver: Admitting ultra-relativistic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernstein, J. P.; Hughes, P. A.
2009-09-01
We have undertaken the simulation of hydrodynamic flows with bulk Lorentz factors in the range 102-106. We discuss the application of an existing relativistic, hydrodynamic primitive variable recovery algorithm to a study of pulsar winds, and, in particular, the refinement made to admit such ultra-relativistic flows. We show that an iterative quartic root finder breaks down for Lorentz factors above 102 and employ an analytic root finder as a solution. We find that the former, which is known to be robust for Lorentz factors up to at least 50, offers a 24% speed advantage. We demonstrate the existence of a simple diagnostic allowing for a hybrid primitives recovery algorithm that includes an automatic, real-time toggle between the iterative and analytical methods. We further determine the accuracy of the iterative and hybrid algorithms for a comprehensive selection of input parameters and demonstrate the latter’s capability to elucidate the internal structure of ultra-relativistic plasmas. In particular, we discuss simulations showing that the interaction of a light, ultra-relativistic pulsar wind with a slow, dense ambient medium can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow.
Impact of diffusion on surface clustering in random hydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klyatskin, V. I.; Koshel, K. V.
2017-01-01
Buoyant material clustering in a stochastic flow, which is homogeneous and isotropic in space and stationary in time, is addressed. The dynamics of buoyant material in three-dimensional hydrodynamic flows can be considered as the motion of passive tracers in a compressible two-dimensional velocity field. The latter is of interest in the present study. It is well known that the clustering of the density of passive tracers occurs in this case. We evaluate the impact of diffusion on the clustering process by using a numerical model. In general, the effect of diffusion is negligible in the very beginning of the evolution of initially uniformly distributed passive tracers. Therefore, the clustering of the density of passive tracers can emerge in accordance with the general theory. We analyze the long time clustering affected by diffusion and show that the emerged cluster structure persists in time in spite of the diffusion effect. However, the clusters split in time.
Coupling Kinetic and Hydrodynamic Models for Simulations of Gas Flows and Weakly Ionized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolobov, V. I.; Arslanbekov, R. R.
2011-10-01
This paper presents adaptive kinetic/fluid models for simulations of gases and weakly ionized plasmas. We first describe a Unified Flow Solver (UFS), which combines Adaptive Mesh Refinement with automatic selection of kinetic or hydrodynamic models for different parts of flows. This Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement (AMAR) technique limits expensive atomistic-scale solutions only to the regions where they are needed. We present examples of plasma simulations with fluid models and describe kinetic solvers for electrons which are currently being incorporated into AMAR techniques for plasma simulations.
Two-Phase Flow Hydrodynamics in Superhydrophobic Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevens, Kimberly; Crockett, Julie; Maynes, Daniel; Iverson, Brian
2016-11-01
Superhydrophobic surfaces have been shown to reduce drag in single-phase channel flow; however, little work has been done to characterize the drag reduction found in two-phase channel flow. Adiabatic, air-water mixtures were used to gain insight into the effect of hydrophobicity on two-phase flows and the hydrodynamics which might be present in flow condensation. Pressure drop in a parallel plate channel with one superhydrophobic wall (cross-section 0.5 x 10 mm) and a transparent hydrophilic wall were explored. Data for air/water mixtures with superficial Reynolds numbers from 20-215 and 50-210, respectively, were obtained for superhydrophobic surfaces with three different cavity fractions. Agreement between experimentally obtained two-phase pressure drops and correlations in the literature for conventional smooth control surfaces was better than 20 percent. The reduction in pressure drop for channels with a single superhydrophobic wall were found to be more significant than that for single phase flow. The effect of cavity fraction on drag reduction was within experimental error.
Hydrodynamic waves in films flowing under an inclined plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohlfs, Wilko; Pischke, Philipp; Scheid, Benoit
2017-04-01
This study addresses the fluid dynamics of two-dimensional falling films flowing underneath an inclined plane using the weighted integral boundary layer (WIBL) model and direct numerical simulations (DNSs). Film flows under an inclined plane are subject to hydrodynamic and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, leading to the formation of two- and three-dimensional waves, rivulets, and eventually dripping. The latter can only occur in film flows underneath an inclined plane such that the gravitational force acts in a destabilizing manner by pulling liquid into the gaseous atmosphere. The DNSs are performed using the solver interFoam of the open-source code OpenFOAM with a gradient limiter approach that avoids artificial oversharpening of the interface. We find good agreement between the two model approaches for wave amplitude and wave speed irrespectively of the orientation of the gravitational force and before the onset of dripping. The latter cannot be modeled with the WIBL model by nature as it is a single-value model. However, for large-amplitude solitarylike waves, the WIBL model fails to predict the velocity field within the wave, which is confirmed by a balance of viscous dissipation and the change in potential energy. In the wavy film flows, different flow features can occur such as circulating waves, i.e., circulating eddies in the main wave hump, or flow reversal, i.e., rotating vortices in the capillary minima of the wave. A phase diagram for all flow features is presented based on results of the WIBL model. Regarding the transition to circulating waves, we show that a critical ratio between the maximum and substrate film thickness (approximately 2.5) is also universal for film flows underneath inclined planes (independent of wavelength, inclination, viscous dissipation, and Reynolds number).
Hydrodynamics and heat transfer for pulsating laminar flow in channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valueva, E. P.; Purdin, M. S.
2015-09-01
The problem about laminar pulsating flow and heat transfer with high pulsation amplitudes of average cross-section velocity in a round tube and in a flat channel is solved using the finite element method. The difference scheme's optimal parameters are determined. Data on the pulsation amplitude and phase are obtained for the hydraulic friction coefficient, tangential stress on the wall, liquid temperature, heat flux on the wall q w (at ϑw = const), and wall temperature ϑw (at q w = const) are obtained. Two characteristic modes, namely, quasi steady-state and high-frequency ones are separated based on the value of dimensionless pulsation frequency. During operation in the quasi steady-state mode, the values of all hydrodynamic and thermal quantities correspond to the values of time-average velocity at the given time instant. For operation in the high-frequency mode, it is shown that the dependences of the pulsating components of hydrodynamic and thermal quantities on the dimensionless pulsation frequency have the same pattern for rectilinear channels having different shapes of their cross section. It is found that certain nodal points exist on the distribution of thermal characteristics along the tube (liquid temperature, heat flux density on the wall at ϑw = const, and wall temperature at q w = const) in which the values of these quantities remain unchanged. The distances between the nodal points decrease with increasing the pulsation frequency. The pulsations of thermal quantities decay over the tube length.
Design of hydrodynamically confined microfluidics: controlling flow envelope and pressure.
Christ, Kevin V; Turner, Kevin T
2011-04-21
Closed-channel microfluidic devices are widely used in a number of chemical and biological applications; however, it is often difficult to interact with samples, such as cells, that are enclosed inside them. Hydrodynamically confined microflows (HCMs) allow microfluidic-type flows to be generated in open liquid environments, such as Petri dishes, thus greatly increasing the flexibility of microfluidic approaches. HCMs have previously been used for protein patterning and selective cell treatment applications, but the underlying fluid mechanics is not fully understood. Here, we examine the effect of device geometry and flow parameters on the properties of the flow envelope and pressure drop of several two-port HCM devices using a combination of experiments and modeling. A three-port device, which allows for different flow envelope shapes to be generated, is also analyzed. The experimental results agree well with the 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulations, with the majority of the measurements within 10% of the simulations. The results presented provide a framework for understanding the fluid mechanics of HCMs and will aid in the design of HCM devices for a broad range of applications.
Optical Electronic Bragg Reflection Sensor System with Hydrodynamic Flow Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyons, D. R.
2003-01-01
This project, as described in the following report, involved design and fabrication of fiber optic sensors for the detection and measurement of dynamic fluid density variations. These devices are created using UV (ultraviolet) ablation and generally modified transverse holographic fiber grating techniques. The resulting phase gratings created on or immediately underneath the flat portion of D-shaped optical waveguides are characterized as evanescent field sensing devices. The primary applications include the sensor portion of a real-time localized or distributed measurement system for hydrodynamic flow, fluid density measurements, and phase change phenomena. Several design modifications were implemented in an attempt to accomplish the tasks specified in our original proposal. In addition, we have established key collaborative relationships with numerous people and institutions.
Hydro-dynamic damping theory in flowing water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monette, C.; Nennemann, B.; Seeley, C.; Coutu, A.; Marmont, H.
2014-03-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) has a major impact on the dynamic response of the structural components of hydroelectric turbines. On mid-head to high-head Francis runners, the rotor-stator interaction (RSI) phenomenon always has to be considered carefully during the design phase to avoid operational issues later on. The RSI dynamic response amplitudes are driven by three main factors: (1) pressure forcing amplitudes, (2) excitation frequencies in relation to natural frequencies and (3) damping. The prediction of the two first factors has been largely documented in the literature. However, the prediction of fluid damping has received less attention in spite of being critical when the runner is close to resonance. Experimental damping measurements in flowing water on hydrofoils were presented previously. Those results showed that the hydro-dynamic damping increased linearly with the flow. This paper presents development and validation of a mathematical model, based on momentum exchange, to predict damping due to fluid structure interaction in flowing water. The model is implemented as an analytical procedure for simple structures, such as cantilever beams, but is also implemented in more general ways using three different approaches for more complex structures such as runner blades: a finite element procedure, a CFD modal work based approach and a CFD 1DOF approach. The mathematical model and all three implementation approaches are shown to agree well with experimental results.
Pencil: Finite-difference Code for Compressible Hydrodynamic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang
2010-10-01
The Pencil code is a high-order finite-difference code for compressible hydrodynamic flows with magnetic fields. It is highly modular and can easily be adapted to different types of problems. The code runs efficiently under MPI on massively parallel shared- or distributed-memory computers, like e.g. large Beowulf clusters. The Pencil code is primarily designed to deal with weakly compressible turbulent flows. To achieve good parallelization, explicit (as opposed to compact) finite differences are used. Typical scientific targets include driven MHD turbulence in a periodic box, convection in a slab with non-periodic upper and lower boundaries, a convective star embedded in a fully nonperiodic box, accretion disc turbulence in the shearing sheet approximation, self-gravity, non-local radiation transfer, dust particle evolution with feedback on the gas, etc. A range of artificial viscosity and diffusion schemes can be invoked to deal with supersonic flows. For direct simulations regular viscosity and diffusion is being used. The code is written in well-commented Fortran90.
Toward Developing a Hydrodynamic Flow & Inundation Model of the Lower Pearl River
2010-01-20
Hydrodynamic Flow & Inundation Model of the Lower Pearl River 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0602782N 6...release, distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 20100126157 14. ABSTRACT The lower Pearl River in Mississippi and Louisiana flows through...In order to improve flow and flood prediction capabilities, a hydrodynamic flow and inundation model for the lower Pearl River is being developed
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method for evaporating multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiufeng; Kong, Song-Charng
2017-09-01
The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been increasingly used for simulating fluid flows; however, its ability to simulate evaporating flow requires significant improvements. This paper proposes an SPH method for evaporating multiphase flows. The present SPH method can simulate the heat and mass transfers across the liquid-gas interfaces. The conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy were reformulated based on SPH, then were used to govern the fluid flow and heat transfer in both the liquid and gas phases. The continuity equation of the vapor species was employed to simulate the vapor mass fraction in the gas phase. The vapor mass fraction at the interface was predicted by the Clausius-Clapeyron correlation. An evaporation rate was derived to predict the mass transfer from the liquid phase to the gas phase at the interface. Because of the mass transfer across the liquid-gas interface, the mass of an SPH particle was allowed to change. Alternative particle splitting and merging techniques were developed to avoid large mass difference between SPH particles of the same phase. The proposed method was tested by simulating three problems, including the Stefan problem, evaporation of a static drop, and evaporation of a drop impacting a hot surface. For the Stefan problem, the SPH results of the evaporation rate at the interface agreed well with the analytical solution. For drop evaporation, the SPH result was compared with the result predicted by a level-set method from the literature. In the case of drop impact on a hot surface, the evolution of the shape of the drop, temperature, and vapor mass fraction were predicted.
PIV measurements of hydrodynamic interactions between biofilms and flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Kenneth T.; Kazemifar, Farzan; Aybar, Marcelo; Perez-Calleja, Patricia; Nerenberg, Robert; Sinha, Sumit; Hardy, Richard J.; Best, Jim L.; Sambrook Smith, Greg H.
2015-11-01
Biofilms constitute an important form of bacterial life in aquatic environments and are present at the interface of fluids and solid such as riverbeds or bridge columns. They are also utilized in bioreactors for bioremediation and water treatment purposes. They are permeable, heterogeneous, and deformable structures that can influence the flow and mass/momentum transport, yet their interaction with flow is not fully understood in part due to technical obstacles impeding quantitative experimental investigations. We have attempted to address these challenges using the PIV technique and fluorescence imaging to investigate the flow field around cylinders covered with biofilms at different growth stages. These measurements are meant to uncover the coupled dynamics of turbulence and the biofilm development. Preliminary results of PIV measurements of flow-biofilm interactions in channel flow will be presented.
Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Flow Field Induced by a Symmetrical Suction Elbow at the Pump Inlet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muntean, S.; Bosioc, A. I.; Drăghici, I.; Anton, L. E.
2016-11-01
The paper investigates the hydrodynamic field generated by the symmetrical suction elbow at the pump impeller inlet. The full three-dimensional turbulent numerical investigation of the flow in the symmetrical suction elbow is performed using FLUENT then the flow non-uniformity generated by it is numerically computed. The numerical results on the annular cross section are qualitatively and quantitatively validated against LDV data. A good agreement between numerical results and experimental data is obtained on this cross section located downstream to the suction elbow and upstream to the pump impeller. The hydrodynamic flow structure with four vortices is identified plotting the vorticity field. The largest values of the vorticity magnitude are identified in the center of both vortices located behind the shaft. The vortex core location is plotted on four annular cross sections located along to the cylindrical part between the suction elbow and the pump inlet. Also, the three-dimensional distribution of the vortex core filaments is visualized and extracted. The shapes of vortex core filaments located behind the pump shaft agree well with its visualization performed on the test rig. As a result, the three-dimensional complex geometry of the suction elbow and the pump shaft are identified as the main sources of the flow non-uniformity at the pump inlet.
Hydrodynamic Modeling of Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion Injector Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Canino, J. V.; Heister, S. D.; Garrison, L. A.
2004-01-01
The main objective of this work is to determine the unsteady hydrodynamic characteristics of coaxial swirl atomizers of interest in oxidizer-rich staged combustion (ORSC) liquid rocket engines. To this end, the pseudo-density (homogeneous flow) treatment combined with the Marker-and-Cell (MAC) numerical algorithm has been used to develop an axisymmetric with swirl, two-phase, unsteady model. The numerical model is capable of assessing the time-dependent orifice exit conditions and internal mixing for arbitrary fuel and oxidizer gas injection conditions. Parametric studies have been conducted to determine the effect of geometry, gas properties, and liquid properties on the exit massflow rate and velocity. It has been found that the frequency at which the liquid film oscillates increases as the density ratio and thickness increase, decreases as film thickness and liquid swirl velocity increase, and is unaffected by the mixing length. Additionally, it has been determined that the variation in the massflow rate increases as the liquid swirl velocity and liquid film thickness increase, and decreases as the density ratio, collar thickness, and mixing length increase.
Patterning of cell-instructive hydrogels by hydrodynamic flow focusing.
Cosson, Steffen; Allazetta, Simone; Lutolf, Matthias P
2013-06-07
Microfluidic gradient systems offer a very precise means to probe the response of cells to graded biomolecular signals in vitro, for example to model how morphogen proteins affect cell fate during developmental processes. However, existing gradient makers are designed for non-physiological plastic or glass cell culture substrates that are often limited in maintaining the phenotype and function of difficult-to-culture mammalian cell types, such as stem cells. To address this bottleneck, we combine hydrogel engineering and microfluidics to generate tethered protein gradients on the surface of biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Here we used software-assisted hydrodynamic flow focusing for exposing and rapidly capturing tagged proteins to gels in a step-wise fashion, resulting in immobilized gradients of virtually any desired shape and composition. To render our strategy amenable for high-throughput screening of multifactorial artificial cellular microenvironments, a dedicated microfluidic chip was devised for parallelization and multiplexing, yielding arrays of orthogonally overlapping gradients of up to 4 × 4 proteins. To illustrate the power of the platform for stem cell biology, we assessed how gradients of tethered leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) influence embryonic stem cell (ESC) behavior. ESC responded to LIF gradients in a binary manner, maintaining the pluripotency marker Rex1/Zfp42 and forming self-renewing colonies above a threshold concentration of 85 ng cm(-2). Our concept should be broadly applicable to probe how complex signaling microenvironments influence stem cell fate in culture.
Recent developments of analysis for hydrodynamic flow of nematic liquid crystals
Lin, Fanghua; Wang, Changyou
2014-01-01
The study of hydrodynamics of liquid crystals leads to many fascinating mathematical problems, which has prompted various interesting works recently. This article reviews the static Oseen–Frank theory and surveys some recent progress on the existence, regularity, uniqueness and large time asymptotic of the hydrodynamic flow of nematic liquid crystals. We will also propose a few interesting questions for future investigations. PMID:25332384
Hydrodynamic modeling of granular flows in a modified Couette cell.
Jop, Pierre
2008-03-01
We present simulations of granular flows in a modified Couette cell, using a continuum model recently proposed for dense granular flows. Based on a friction coefficient, which depends on an inertial number, the model captures the positions of the wide shear bands. We show that a smooth transition in velocity-profile shape occurs when the height of the granular material is increased, leading to a differential rotation of the central part close to the surface. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. The model provides predictions for the increase of the shear band width when the rotation rate is increased.
Non-Abelian hydrodynamics and the flow of spin in spin orbit coupled substances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leurs, B. W. A.; Nazario, Z.; Santiago, D. I.; Zaanen, J.
2008-04-01
Motivated by the heavy ion collision experiments there is much activity in studying the hydrodynamical properties of non-Abelian (quark-gluon) plasmas. A major question is how to deal with color currents. Although not widely appreciated, quite similar issues arise in condensed matter physics in the context of the transport of spins in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. The key insight is that the Pauli Hamiltonian governing the leading relativistic corrections in condensed matter systems can be rewritten in a language of SU(2) covariant derivatives where the role of the non-Abelian gauge fields is taken by the physical electromagnetic fields: the Pauli system can be viewed as Yang-Mills quantum-mechanics in a 'fixed frame', and it can be viewed as an 'analogous system' for non-Abelian transport in the same spirit as Volovik's identification of the He superfluids as analogies for quantum fields in curved space time. We take a similar perspective as Jackiw and coworkers in their recent study of non-Abelian hydrodynamics, twisting the interpretation into the 'fixed frame' context, to find out what this means for spin transport in condensed matter systems. We present an extension of Jackiw's scheme: non-Abelian hydrodynamical currents can be factored in a 'non-coherent' classical part, and a coherent part requiring macroscopic non-Abelian quantum entanglement. Hereby it becomes particularly manifest that non-Abelian fluid flow is a much richer affair than familiar hydrodynamics, and this permits us to classify the various spin transport phenomena in condensed matter physics in an unifying framework. The "particle based hydrodynamics" of Jackiw et al. is recognized as the high temperature spin transport associated with semiconductor spintronics. In this context the absence of faithful hydrodynamics is well known, but in our formulation it is directly associated with the fact that the covariant conservation of non-Abelian currents turns into a disastrous non
Centimeter-Scale Surface Interactions Using Hydrodynamic Flow Confinements
2016-01-01
We present a device and method for selective chemical interactions with immersed substrates at the centimeter-scale. Our implementations enable both, sequential and simultaneous delivery of multiple reagents to a substrate, as well as the creation of gradients of reagents on surfaces. The method is based on localizing submicroliter volumes of liquids on an immersed surface with a microfluidic probe (MFP) using a principle termed hydrodynamic flow confinement (HFC). We here show spatially defined, multiplexed surface interactions while benefiting from the probe capabilities such as non-contact scanning operation and convection-enhanced reaction kinetics. Three-layer glass-Si-glass probes were developed to implement slit-aperture and aperture-array designs. Analytical and numerical analysis helped to establish probe designs and operating parameters. Using these probes, we performed immunohistochemical analysis on individual cores of a human breast-cancer tissue microarray. We applied α-p53 antibodies on a 2 mm diameter core within 2.5 min using a slit-aperture probe (HFC dimension: 0.3 mm × 1.2 mm). Further, multiplexed treatment of a tissue core with α-p53 and α–β-actin antibodies was performed using four adjacent HFCs created with an aperture-array probe (HFC dimension: 4 × 0.3 mm × 0.25 mm). The ability of these devices and methods to perform multiplexed assays, present sequentially different liquids on surfaces, and interact with surfaces at the centimeter-scale will likely spur new and efficient surface assays. PMID:27653338
Lin, Shiang-Chi; Yen, Pei-Wen; Peng, Chien-Chung; Tung, Yi-Chung
2012-09-07
Flow cytometry is a technique capable of optically characterizing biological particles in a high-throughput manner. In flow cytometry, three dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing is critical for accurate and consistent measurements. Due to the advantages of microfluidic techniques, a number of microfluidic flow cytometers with 3D hydrodynamic focusing have been developed in recent decades. However, the existing devices consist of multiple layers of microfluidic channels and tedious fluidic interconnections. As a result, these devices often require complicated fabrication and professional operation. Consequently, the development of a robust and reliable microfluidic flow cytometer for practical biological applications is desired. This paper develops a microfluidic device with a single channel layer and single sheath-flow inlet capable of achieving 3D hydrodynamic focusing for flow cytometry. The sheath-flow stream is introduced perpendicular to the microfluidic channel to encircle the sample flow. In this paper, the flow fields are simulated using a computational fluidic dynamic (CFD) software, and the results show that the 3D hydrodynamic focusing can be successfully formed in the designed microfluidic device under proper flow conditions. The developed device is further characterized experimentally. First, confocal microscopy is exploited to investigate the flow fields. The resultant Z-stack confocal images show the cross-sectional view of 3D hydrodynamic with flow conditions that agree with the simulated ones. Furthermore, the flow cytometric detections of fluorescence beads are performed using the developed device with various flow rate combinations. The measurement results demonstrate that the device can achieve great detection performances, which are comparable to the conventional flow cytometer. In addition, the enumeration of fluorescence-labelled cells is also performed to show its practicality for biological applications. Consequently, the microfluidic
Comparison and Validation of Hydrological E-Flow Methods through Hydrodynamic Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuriqi, Alban; Rivaes, Rui; Sordo-Ward, Alvaro; Pinheiro, António N.; Garrote, Luis
2017-04-01
Flow regime determines physical habitat conditions and local biotic configuration. The development of environmental flow guidelines to support the river integrity is becoming a major concern in water resources management. In this study, we analysed two sites located in southern part of Portugal, respectively at Odelouca and Ocreza Rivers, characterised by the Mediterranean climate. Both rivers are almost in pristine condition, not regulated by dams or other diversion construction. This study presents an analysis of the effect on fish habitat suitability by the implementation of different hydrological e-flow methods. To conduct this study we employed certain hydrological e-flow methods recommended by the European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA). River hydrology assessment was based on approximately 30 years of mean daily flow data, provided by the Portuguese Water Information System (SNIRH). The biological data, bathymetry, physical and hydraulic features, and the Habitat Suitability Index for fish species were collected from extensive field works. We followed the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) to assess the flow-habitat relationship taking into account the habitat suitability of different instream flow releases. Initially, we analysed fish habitat suitability based on natural conditions, and we used it as reference condition for other scenarios considering the chosen hydrological e-flow methods. We accomplished the habitat modelling through hydrodynamic analysis by using River-2D model. The same methodology was applied to each scenario by considering as input the e-flows obtained from each of the hydrological method employed in this study. This contribution shows the significance of ecohydrological studies in establishing a foundation for water resources management actions. Keywords: ecohydrology, e-flow, Mediterranean rivers, river conservation, fish habitat, River-2D, Hydropower.
Hydrodynamic flow of the eutectic under the conditions of superplasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korshak, V. F.; Kryshtal', A. P.; Shapovalov, Yu. A.; Samsonik, A. L.
2010-10-01
In this paper we present original experimental data indicating the manifestation of a hydrodynamic mode of deformation under the conditions of superplasticity. The investigations have been performed on a cast alloy Sn-38 wt % Pb at room temperature. The manifestation of the hydrodynamic mode is related to the high level of internal stresses arising in the process of tension in connection with the occurrence of structural and phase transformations stimulated by plastic deformation in the initially metastable alloy and caused by a preliminary swaging of the samples.
Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO _{2} -Acidified Brine Flow
Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.
2013-08-15
Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel
Hydrodynamic Forces on Macromolecules Protruding from Lipid Bilayers Due to External Liquid Flows.
Jönsson, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt
2015-11-24
It has previously been observed that an externally applied hydrodynamic shear flow above a fluid lipid bilayer can change the local concentration of macromolecules that are associated with the lipid bilayer. The external liquid flow results in a hydrodynamic force on molecules protruding from the lipid bilayer, causing them to move in the direction of the flow. However, there has been no quantitative study about the magnitude of these forces. We here use finite element simulations to investigate how the magnitude of the external hydrodynamic forces varies with the size and shape of the studied macromolecule. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the effective hydrodynamic area of the studied molecule, Ahydro, multiplied by the mean hydrodynamic shear stress acting on the membrane surface, σhydro. The parameter Ahydro depends on the size and shape of the studied macromolecule above the lipid bilayer and scales with the cross-sectional area of the molecule. We also investigate how hydrodynamic shielding from other surrounding macromolecules decreases Ahydro when the surface coverage of the shielding macromolecules increases. Experiments where the protein streptavidin is anchored to a supported lipid bilayer on the floor of a microfluidic channel were finally performed at three different surface concentrations, Φ = 1%, 6%, and 10%, where the protein is being moved relative to the lipid bilayer by a liquid flow through the channel. From photobleaching measurements of fluorescently labeled streptavidin we found the experimental drift data to be within good accuracy of the simulated results, less than 12% difference, indicating the validity of the results obtained from the simulations. In addition to giving a deeper insight into how a liquid flow can affect membrane-associated molecules in a lipid bilayer, we also see an interesting potential of using hydrodynamic flow experiments together with the obtained results to study the size and
Experimental observation of a hydrodynamic mode in a flow duct with a porous material.
Aurégan, Yves; Singh, Deepesh Kumar
2014-08-01
This paper experimentally investigates the acoustic behavior of a homogeneous porous material with a rigid frame (metallic foam) under grazing flow. The transmission coefficient shows an unusual oscillation over a particular range of frequencies which reports the presence of an unstable hydrodynamic wave that can exchange energy with the acoustic waves. This coupling of acoustic and hydrodynamic waves becomes larger when the Mach number increases. A rise of the static pressure drop in the lined region is induced by an acoustic excitation when the hydrodynamic wave is present.
A Pure Hydrodynamic Instability in Shear Flows and Its Application to Astrophysical Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Sujit Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
2016-10-01
We provide a possible resolution for the century-old problem of hydrodynamic shear flows, which are apparently stable in linear analysis but shown to be turbulent in astrophysically observed data and experiments. This mismatch is noticed in a variety of systems, from laboratory to astrophysical flows. There are so many uncountable attempts made so far to resolve this mismatch, beginning with the early work of Kelvin, Rayleigh, and Reynolds toward the end of the nineteenth century. Here we show that the presence of stochastic noise, whose inevitable presence should not be neglected in the stability analysis of shear flows, leads to pure hydrodynamic linear instability therein. This explains the origin of turbulence, which has been observed/interpreted in astrophysical accretion disks, laboratory experiments, and direct numerical simulations. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first solution to the long-standing problem of hydrodynamic instability of Rayleigh-stable flows.
Enhanced Heat Flow in the Hydrodynamic Collisionless Regime
Meppelink, R.; Rooij, R. van; Vogels, J. M.; Straten, P. van der
2009-08-28
We study the heat conduction of a cold, thermal cloud in a highly asymmetric trap. The cloud is axially hydrodynamic, but due to the asymmetric trap radially collisionless. By locally heating the cloud we excite a thermal dipole mode and measure its oscillation frequency and damping rate. We find an unexpectedly large heat conduction compared to the homogeneous case. The enhanced heat conduction in this regime is partially caused by atoms with a high angular momentum spiraling in trajectories around the core of the cloud. Since atoms in these trajectories are almost collisionless they strongly contribute to the heat transfer. We observe a second, oscillating hydrodynamic mode, which we identify as a standing wave sound mode.
Self-sustained hydrodynamic oscillations in a natural-circulation two-phase-flow boiling loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jain, K. C.
1969-01-01
Results of an experimental and theoretical study of factors affecting self-sustaining hydrodynamic oscillations in boiling-water loops are reported. Data on flow variables, and the effects of geometry, subcooling and pressure on the development of oscillatory behavior in a natural-circulation two-phase-flow boiling loop are included.
Kinetic freeze-out, particle spectra, and harmonic-flow coefficients from mode-by-mode hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2014-03-01
The kinetic freeze-out for the hydrodynamical description of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is discussed using a background-fluctuation splitting of the hydrodynamical fields. For a single event, the particle spectrum, or its logarithm, can be written as the sum of the background part that is symmetric with respect to azimuthal rotations and longitudinal boosts and a part containing the contribution of fluctuations or deviations from the background. Using a complete orthonormal basis to characterize the initial state allows one to write the double differential harmonic-flow coefficients determined by the two-particle correlation method as matrix expressions involving the initial fluid correlations. We discuss the use of these expressions for a mode-by-mode analysis of fluctuating initial conditions in heavy-ion collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cha, Jeesung Jeff
Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTC) are a class of rugged and high-endurance refrigeration systems that operate without a moving part at their low temperature ends, and are capable of easily reaching 120°K. These devices can also be configured in multiple stages to reach temperatures below 10 °K. PTCs are particularly suitable for applications in space, missile guiding systems, cryosurgery, medicine preservation, superconducting electronics, magnetic resonance imaging, weather observation, and liquefaction of nitrogen. Although various designs of PTCs have been in use for a few decades, they represent a dynamic and developmental field. PTCs ruggedness comes at the price of relatively low efficiency, however, and thus far they have been primarily used in high-end applications. They have the potential of extensive use in consumer products, however, should sufficiently higher efficiencies be achieved. Intense research competition is underway worldwide, and newer designs are continuously introduced. Some of the fundamental processes that are responsible for their performance are at best not fully understood, however, and consequently systematic modeling of PTC systems is difficult. Among the challenges facing the PTC research community, besides improvement in terms of system efficiency, is the possible miniaturization (total fluid volume of few cubic centimeters (cc)) of these systems. The operating characteristics of a PTC are significantly different from the conventional refrigeration cycles. A PTC implements the theory of oscillatory compression and expansion of the gas within a closed volume to achieve desired refrigeration. Regenerators and pulse tubes are often viewed as the two most complex and essential components in cryocoolers. An important deficiency with respect to the state of art models dealing with PTCs is the essentially total lack of understanding about the directional hydrodynamic and thermal transport parameters associated with periodic flow in
Smolt Responses to Hydrodynamic Conditions in Forebay Flow Nets of Surface Flow Outlets, 2007
Johnson, Gary E.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Hedgepeth, J. B.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Anderson, Michael G.; Deng, Zhiqun; Khan, Fenton; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Sather, Nichole K.; Serkowski, John A.; Steinbeck, John R.
2009-04-01
This study provides information on juvenile salmonid behaviors at McNary and The Dalles dams that can be used by the USACE, fisheries resource managers, and others to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance fish passage. We researched smolt movements and ambient hydrodynamic conditions using a new approach combining simultaneous acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and acoustic imaging device (AID) measurements at surface flow outlets (SFO) at McNary and The Dalles dams on the Columbia River during spring and summer 2007. Because swimming effort vectors could be computed from the simultaneous fish and flow data, fish behavior could be categorized as passive, swimming against the flow (positively rheotactic), and swimming with the flow (negatively rheotactic). We present bivariate relationships to provide insight into fish responses to particular hydraulic variables that engineers might consider during SFO design. The data indicate potential for this empirical approach of simultaneous water/fish measurements to lead to SFO design guidelines in the future.
Hydrodynamic flow of expanding Bose-Einstein condensates
Brazhnyi, V. A.; Konotop, V. V.; Kamchatnov, A. M.
2003-09-01
We study expansion of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after switching off the confining harmonic potential. Exact solution of dynamical equations is obtained in the framework of the hydrodynamic approximation and it is compared with the direct numerical simulation of the full problem, showing excellent agreement at realistic values of physical parameters. We analyze the maximum of the current density and estimate the velocity of expansion. The results of the 1D analysis provides also qualitative understanding of some properties of BEC expansion observed in experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Anika; Cuomo, Sabatino; Wang, Xueliang; Zhang, Luqing
2016-04-01
Debris flows and landslide dams are a major natural hazard causing high socioeconomic risk in inhabited mountainous areas. This is also true for vast parts of southwestern China, which are highly prone to slope failures due to several factors, such as a humid climate with high precipitation in the summer months, geological predisposing factors with highly weathered sedimentary rocks and a high seismicity. Not only do the landslides and flooding related to landslide dams threaten residents, buildings and transportation structures, but also do flooding conditions endanger power supply, which relies in this region partly on hydropower. In order to assess the potential of landslides to block rivers, it is crucial to understand which factors influence possible run-out distances and how they can be quantified. In the study we are presenting a numerical modeling analysis for a particular case of a complex landslide in Ningnan county, southwestern China, which transformed into a debris flow and blocked the river and the major road leading through the valley after heavy rainfall. For this purpose a quasi-3D Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model was implemented that can account for geotechnical slope parameters, run-out distance, velocities and deposition heights. A digital terrain model and the geometry information of the landslide were used as input data in order to estimate the relevant geotechnical parameters by back-analysis. The results of the analysis can be used for the prediction of run-out distances for future events at this site and other similar sites.
Acoustic-hydrodynamic-flame coupling—A new perspective for zero and low Mach number flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pulikkottil, V. V.; Sujith, R. I.
2017-04-01
A combustion chamber has a hydrodynamic field that convects the incoming fuel and oxidizer into the chamber, thereby causing the mixture to react and produce heat energy. This heat energy can, in turn, modify the hydrodynamic and acoustic fields by acting as a source and thereby, establish a positive feedback loop. Subsequent growth in the amplitude of the acoustic field variables and their eventual saturation to a limit cycle is generally known as thermo-acoustic instability. Mathematical representation of these phenomena, by a set of equations, is the subject of this paper. In contrast to the ad hoc models, an explanation of the flame-acoustic-hydrodynamic coupling, based on fundamental laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, is presented in this paper. In this paper, we use a convection reaction diffusion equation, which, in turn, is derived from the fundamental laws of conservation to explain the flame-acoustic coupling. The advantage of this approach is that the physical variables such as hydrodynamic velocity and heat release rate are coupled based on the conservation of energy and not based on an ad hoc model. Our approach shows that the acoustic-hydrodynamic interaction arises from the convection of acoustic velocity fluctuations by the hydrodynamic field and vice versa. This is a linear mechanism, mathematically represented as a convection operator. This mechanism resembles the non-normal mechanism studied in hydrodynamic theory. We propose that this mechanism could relate the instability mechanisms of hydrodynamic and thermo-acoustic systems. Furthermore, the acoustic-hydrodynamic interaction is shown to be responsible for the convection of entropy disturbances from the inlet of the chamber. The theory proposed in this paper also unifies the observations in the fields of low Mach number flows and zero Mach number flows. In contrast to the previous findings, where compressibility is shown to be causing different physics for zero and low Mach
Self-motion effects on hydrodynamic pressure sensing: part I. forward-backward motion.
Akanyeti, Otar; Chambers, Lily D; Ježov, Jaas; Brown, Jennifer; Venturelli, Roberto; Kruusmaa, Maarja; Megill, William M; Fiorini, Paolo
2013-06-01
In underwater locomotion, extracting meaningful information from local flows is as desirable as it is challenging, due to complex fluid-structure interaction. Sensing and motion are tightly interconnected; hydrodynamic signals generated by the external stimuli are modified by the self-generated flow signals. Given that very little is known about self-generated signals, we used onboard pressure sensors to measure the pressure profiles over the head of a fusiform-shape craft while moving forward and backward harmonically. From these measurements we obtained a second-order polynomial model which incorporates the velocity and acceleration of the craft to estimate the surface pressure within the swimming range up to one body length/second (L s(-1)). The analysis of the model reveals valuable insights into the temporal and spatial changes of the pressure intensity as a function of craft's velocity. At low swimming velocities (<0.2 L s(-1)) the pressure signals are more sensitive to the acceleration of the craft than its velocity. However, the inertial effects gradually become less important as the velocity increases. The sensors on the front part of the craft are more sensitive to its movements than the sensors on the sides. With respect to the hydrostatic pressure measured in still water, the pressure detected by the foremost sensor reaches values up to 300 Pa at 1 L s(-1) swimming velocity, whereas the pressure difference between the foremost sensor and the next one is less than 50 Pa. Our results suggest that distributed pressure sensing can be used in a bimodal sensing strategy. The first mode detects external hydrodynamic events taking place around the craft, which requires minimal sensitivity to the self-motion of the craft. This can be accomplished by moving slowly with a constant velocity and by analyzing the pressure gradient as opposed to absolute pressure recordings. The second mode monitors the self-motion of the craft. It is shown here that
The hydrodynamics of off-vertical flow for corrosion modeling
Zhang, X.; Rajagopalan, S.; Wagner, J.; Tree, D.A.; High, M.S.
1998-12-31
A study has been conducted on pressure drop modeling in horizontal two-phase flow in order to extend the corrosion prediction software package, DREAM, into off-vertical wells and collection lines. Thermodynamic pressure has a significant influence on the amount of liquid present in gas wells which, in turn, influences the flow regime and mass transfer. Thus an accurate pressure drop model is essential to the prediction of corrosion rate. Four pressure drop models were evaluated for stratified flow, and three pressure drop models were evaluated for annular flow. The results from the pressure drop models were compared with experimental data. Based on the comparison with the experimental data, the best available pressure drop models are the model of Spedding and Hand for stratified flow and the Olujic model for annular flow.
Hydrodynamic pairing of soft particles in a confined flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aouane, O.; Farutin, A.; Thiébaud, M.; Benyoussef, A.; Wagner, C.; Misbah, C.
2017-06-01
The mechanism of hydrodynamics-induced pairing of soft particles, namely closed bilayer membranes (vesicles, a model system for red blood cells) and drops, is studied numerically with a special attention paid to the role of the confinement (the particles are within two rigid walls). This study unveils the complexity of the pairing mechanism due to hydrodynamic interactions. We find both for vesicles and for drops that two particles attract each other and form a stable pair at weak confinement if their initial separation is below a certain value. If the initial separation is beyond that distance, the particles repel each other and adopt a longer stable interdistance. This means that for the same confinement we have (at least) two stable branches. To which branch a pair of particles relaxes with time depends only on the initial configuration. An unstable branch is found between these two stable branches. At a critical confinement the stable branch corresponding to the shortest interdistance merges with the unstable branch in the form of a saddle-node bifurcation. At this critical confinement we have a finite jump from a solution corresponding to the continuation of the unbounded case to a solution which is induced by the presence of walls. The results are summarized in a phase diagram, which proves to be of a complex nature. The fact that both vesicles and drops have the same qualitative phase diagram points to the existence of a universal behavior, highlighting the fact that with regard to pairing the details of mechanical properties of the deformable particles are unimportant. This offers an interesting perspective for simple analytical modeling.
Hydrodynamic turbulence in quasi-Keplerian rotating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Liang; Hof, Björn; Rampp, Markus; Avila, Marc
2017-04-01
We report a direct-numerical-simulation study of the Taylor-Couette flow in the quasi-Keplerian regime at shear Reynolds numbers up to O (105) . Quasi-Keplerian rotating flow has been investigated for decades as a simplified model system to study the origin of turbulence in accretion disks that is not fully understood. The flow in this study is axially periodic and thus the experimental end-wall effects on the stability of the flow are avoided. Using optimal linear perturbations as initial conditions, our simulations find no sustained turbulence: the strong initial perturbations distort the velocity profile and trigger turbulence that eventually decays.
A Hydrodynamic Analysis of Collective Flow in Heavy-Ion Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Li
Recent progress in the hydrodynamic simulation of heavy-ion collisions have characterized the fluctuating initial state and the viscous corrections to the corresponding collective flow. These fluctuations naturally explain the "ridge" and "shoulder" structure of the measured two-particle correlation functions at RHIC and the LHC. We introduce a cumulant expansion for analyzing the azimuthal fluctuations in the initial state. The cumulant definitions systematically describe the azimuthal anisotropy order by order. In particular, the dipole asymmetry epsilon 1 appears at third order in the expansion, and the response to this initial fluctuation produces a radipity even dipole flow v 1, which has been subsequently confirmed by experiment. In addition, the cumulant expansion organizes the study of the nonlinear response to the initial conditions. The linear and nonlinear response coefficients to a given initial state were calculated with ideal and viscous hydrodynamic simulations. The collective flow is generated either linearly or nonlinearly, and the relative contribution of these two mechanisms to the observed flow pattern is calculated as a function of harmonic order, collision centrality, and the shear viscosity. For non-central collisions and high harmonic orders n ≥ 4, the nonlinear response is the dominant mechanism. This result is also seen in event-by-event hydrodynamic simulations. Using the cumulant expansion and the corresponding linear and nonlinear response coefficients, we determine the event plane correlations and compare to first measurements of this type. The observed event plane correlations are rooted in the initial state participant plane correlations, but a large fraction of the observed correlations are determined by harmonic mixing during the bulk expansion. Viscous corrections to the hydrodynamic formulation of collective flow are reflected in hydrodynamic equations of motion, as well as the correction to the distribution function at freeze
CSF hydrodynamic studies in man. 2 . Normal hydrodynamic variables related to CSF pressure and flow.
Ekstedt, J
1978-01-01
With the patient in the supine position, the subarachnoidal space was infused with artificial CSF at several constant pressure levels. The resulting flow of liquid was recorded. By draining CSF at a low pressure the CSF production rate was determined. Normal values are given and discussed for (1) the resting pressure, (2) the conductance of the CSF outflow pathways, (3) the formation rate of CSF, (4) the pressure difference across the CSF outflow pathways, and (5) the sagittal sinus pressure. None of the variables showed any age dependence, nor was there any sex difference. PMID:650242
The hydrodynamics of surface tidal flow exchange in saltmarshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, David L.; Bruder, Brittany L.; Haas, Kevin A.; Webster, Donald R.
2016-04-01
Modeling studies of estuary circulation show great sensitivity to the water exchange into and out of adjacent marshes, yet there is significant uncertainty in resolving the processes governing marsh surface flow. The objective of this study is to measure the estuary channel-to-saltmarsh pressure gradient and to guide parameterization for how it affects the surface flow in the high marsh. Current meters and high-resolution pressure transducers were deployed along a transect perpendicular to the nearby Little Ogeechee River in a saltmarsh adjacent to Rose Dhu Island near Savannah, Georgia, USA. The vertical elevations of the transducers were surveyed with static GPS to yield high accuracy water surface elevation data. It is found that water level differences between the Little Ogeechee River and neighboring saltmarsh are up to 15 cm and pressure gradients are up to 0.0017 m of water surface elevation change per m of linear distance during rising and falling tides. The resulting Little-Ogeechee-River-to-saltmarsh pressure gradient substantially affects tidal velocities at all current meter locations. At the velocity measurement station located closest to the Little Ogeechee River bank, the tidal velocity is nearly perpendicular to the bank. At this location, surface flow is effectively modeled as a balance between the pressure gradient force and the drag force due to marsh vegetation and bottom stress using the Darcy-Weisbach/Lindner's equations developed for flow-through-vegetation analysis in open channel flow. The study thus provides a direct connection between the pressure gradient and surface flow velocity in the high marsh, thereby overcoming a long-standing barrier in directly relating flow-through-saltmarsh studies to flow-through-vegetation studies in the open channel flow literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carneiro, J.; Doutel, E.; Campos, J. B. L. M.; Miranda, J. M.
2016-10-01
This study reports the generation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) droplets by hydrodynamic flow focusing technique in a PDMS square microchannel. The droplet generation was characterized and a flow regime map addressed by the capillary numbers of each phase was assembled. Different flow regimes were found—dripping, jetting, threading and viscous displacement and the respective boundaries were sketched. Droplet size, breakup distance and formation frequency were analysed and quantified for the jetting and dripping regimes. The dripping regime showed better results for droplet formation, leading to the highest throughput of monodisperse droplets: formation frequency of ≈12 Hz and droplets almost uniform in size (2.8% the coefficient of variance). The qualitative analysis and quantitative measurement of the different variables and their correlation within a capillary dependent regime map proved to be an invaluable tool to study droplet formation by hydrodynamic flow focusing technique in a PDMS square microchannel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prandtl, L.
1979-01-01
A discussion of the principles of hydrodynamics of nonviscous fluids in the case of motion of solid bodies in a fluid is presented. Formulae are derived to demonstrate the transition from the fluid surface to a corresponding 'control surface'. The external forces are compounded of the fluid pressures on the control surface and the forces which are exercised on the fluid by any solid bodies which may be inside of the control surfaces. Illustrations of these formulae as applied to the acquisition of transformations from a known simple flow to new types of flow for other boundaries are given. Theoretical and experimental investigations of models of airship bodies are presented.
The effect of blade pitch in the rotor hydrodynamics of a cross-flow turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somoano, Miguel; Huera-Huarte, Francisco
2016-11-01
In this work we will show how the hydrodynamics of the rotor of a straight-bladed Cross-Flow Turbine (CFT) are affected by the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR), and the blade pitch angle imposed to the rotor. The CFT model used in experiments consists of a three-bladed (NACA-0015) vertical axis turbine with a chord (c) to rotor diameter (D) ratio of 0.16. Planar Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) was used, with the laser sheet aiming at the mid-span of the blades, illuminating the inner part of the rotor and the near wake of the turbine. Tests were made by forcing the rotation of the turbine with a DC motor, which provided precise control of the TSR, while being towed in a still-water tank at a constant Reynolds number of 61000. A range of TSRs from 0.7 to 2.3 were covered for different blade pitches, ranging from 8° toe-in to 16° toe-out. The interaction between the blades in the rotor will be discussed by examining dimensionless phase-averaged vorticity fields in the inner part of the rotor and mean velocity fields in the near wake of the turbine. Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, Grant BES-2013-065366 and project DPI2015-71645-P.
Delft3D-FLOW on PRACE infrastructures for real life hydrodynamic applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donners, John; Genseberger, Menno; Jagers, Bert; de Goede, Erik; Mourits, Adri
2013-04-01
PRACE, the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, offers access to the largest high-performance computing systems in Europe. PRACE invites and helps industry to increase their innovative potential through the use of the PRACE infrastructure. This poster describes different efforts to assist Deltares with porting the open-source simulation software Delft3D-FLOW to PRACE infrastructures. Analysis of the performance on these infrastructures has been done for real life flow applications. Delft3D-FLOW is a 2D and 3D shallow water solver which calculates non-steady flow and transport phenomena resulting from tidal and meteorological forcing on a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid in Cartesian or spherical coordinates. It also includes a module which sediment transport (both suspended and bed total load) and morphological changes for an arbitrary number of cohesive and non-cohesive fractions. As Delft3D-FLOW has been developed over several decades, with a variety of functionality and over 350k lines of source code, porting to PRACE infrastructures needs some effort. At the moment Delft3D-FLOW uses MPI with domain decomposition in one direction as its parallellisation approach. Because it is hard to identify scaling issues if one immediately starts with a complex case with many features enabled, different cases with increasing complexity have been used to investigate scaling of this parallellisation approach on several PRACE platforms. As a base reference case we started with a schematic high-resolution 2D hydrodynamic model of the river Waal that turned out to be surprisingly well-suited to the highly-parallel PRACE machines. Although Delft3D-FLOW employs a sophisticated build system, several modifications were required to port it to most PRACE systems due to the use of specific, highly-tuned compilers and MPI-libraries. After this we moved to a 3D hydrodynamic model of Rotterdam harbour that includes sections of the rivers Rhine and Meuse and a part of the North
Hydrodynamic Study of a Submerged Entry Nozzle with Flow Modifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Miranda-Tello, Raul; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus
2017-04-01
The fluid flow modifier technology for continuous casting process was evaluated through numerical simulations and physical experiments in this work. In the casting of steel into the mold, the process presents liquid surface instabilities which extend along the primary cooling stage. By the use of trapezoid elements installed on the external walls of the submerged nozzle, it was observed that it is possible to obtain symmetry conditions at the top of the mold and prevent high level fluctuations. The flow modifiers have equidistant holes in the submerged surface to reduce the velocity of the liquid surface by energy and mass transfer between the generated quadrants. A flow modifier drilled with a 25 pct of the submerged surface provides stability in the mold and structural stability of the proposal is guaranteed.
Hydrodynamic Study of a Submerged Entry Nozzle with Flow Modifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Miranda-Tello, Raul; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus
2016-12-01
The fluid flow modifier technology for continuous casting process was evaluated through numerical simulations and physical experiments in this work. In the casting of steel into the mold, the process presents liquid surface instabilities which extend along the primary cooling stage. By the use of trapezoid elements installed on the external walls of the submerged nozzle, it was observed that it is possible to obtain symmetry conditions at the top of the mold and prevent high level fluctuations. The flow modifiers have equidistant holes in the submerged surface to reduce the velocity of the liquid surface by energy and mass transfer between the generated quadrants. A flow modifier drilled with a 25 pct of the submerged surface provides stability in the mold and structural stability of the proposal is guaranteed.
Hydrodynamic-type systems describing 2-dimensional polynomially integrable geodesic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manno, Gianni; Pavlov, Maxim V.
2017-03-01
Starting from a homogeneous polynomial in momenta of arbitrary order we extract multi-component hydrodynamic-type systems which describe 2-dimensional geodesic flows admitting the initial polynomial as integral. All these hydrodynamic-type systems are semi-Hamiltonian, thus implying that they are integrable according to the generalized hodograph method. Moreover, they are integrable in a constructive sense as polynomial first integrals allow to construct generating equations of conservation laws. According to the multiplicity of the roots of the polynomial integral, we separate integrable particular cases.
The application of single particle hydrodynamics in continuum models of multiphase flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Rand
1988-01-01
A review of the application of single particle hydrodynamics in models for the exchange of interphase momentum in continuum models of multiphase flow is presented. Considered are the equations of motion for a laminar, mechanical two phase flow. Inherent to this theory is a model for the interphase exchange of momentum due to drag between the dispersed particulate and continuous fluid phases. In addition, applications of two phase flow theory to de-mixing flows require the modeling of interphase momentum exchange due to lift forces. The applications of single particle analysis in deriving models for drag and lift are examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sohrab, Siavash H.
1999-01-01
Counterflow premixed flames play a significant role in the modeling of laminar flames. This is in part motivated by the fact that stretched premixed flames simulate local flamelet dynamics within turbulent premixed flames. In the present study, the modified form of the Navier-Stokes equation for reactive fields introduced earlier is employed to investigate the hydrodynamics of spherical flows embedded within counterflows. The geometry of premixed flames near the stagnation point is also determined. The predictions are in favorable agreement with the experimental observations and prior numerical studies.
Comparison of hydrodynamic and semi-kinetic treatments for plasma flow along closed field lines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Nagendra; Wilson, G. R.; Horwitz, J. L.
1993-01-01
Hydrodynamic and semi-kinetic treatments of plasma flow along closed geomagnetic field lines are compared. The hydrodynamic treatment is based on a simplified 16-moment set of transport equations as the equations for the heat flows are not solved; the heat flows are treated heuristically. The semi-kinetic treatment is based on a particle code. The comparison deals with the distributions of the plasma density, flow velocity, and parallel and perpendicular temperatures as obtained from the two treatments during the various stages of the flow. In the kinetic treatment, the appropriate boundary condition is the prescription of the velocity distribution functions for the particles entering the flux tubes at the ionospheric boundaries; those particles leaving the system are determined by the processes occurring in the flux tube. The prescribed distributions are half-Maxwellian with temperature T(sub 0) and density n(sub 0). In the hydrodynamic model, the prescribed boundary conditions are on density (n(sub 0)), flow velocity (V(sub 0)) and temperature (T(sub 0). It was found that results from the hydrodynamic treatment critically depend on V(sub 0); for early stages of the flow this treatment yields results in good agreement with those from the kinetic treatment, when V(sub 0) = square root of (kT(sub 0)/2 (pi)m), which is the average velocity of particles moving in a given direction for a Maxwellian distribution. During this early stage, the flows developing form the conjugate ionospheres show some distinct transitions. For the first hour or so, the flows are highly supersonic and penetrate deep into the opposite hemispheres, and both hydrodynamics and kinetic treatments yield almost similar features. It is found that during this period heatflow effects are negligibly small. When a flow penetrates deep into the opposite hemisphere, the kinetic treatment predicts reflection and setting up of counterstreaming. In contrast, the hydrodynamic treatment yields a shock in the
Hydrodynamic alignment of Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose in extensional flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Håkansson, Karl; Lundell, Fredrik; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Wågberg, Lars; Söderberg, Daniel; Wallenberg Wood Science Center Team
2012-11-01
The aim of this work is to manipulate the orientation of cellulose fibrils in order to enable control of material properties. Cellulose fibrils are the load bearing component of wood and separation of the fibrils from the cell wall is possible through enzymatic and mechanical treatment. The resulting product is called Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose, NFC, consisting of elongated particles with diameters of 40 nm and lengths of a few μm. Films and fibers made by NFC show great potential in terms of material properties. This work includes experiments, computations and simulations in order to determine the alignment of NFC in a laminar extensional flow. A flow focusing setup is used where water is accelerating a semi-dilute NFC-dispersion, this particular design minimizes the shear on the NFC-dispersion. The relative mean orientation is found through 2D birefringence measurements. The Smoluchowski equation including an orientational diffusion term and a flow forcing term is solved numerically in 1D. Flow field simulations are made in order to find the local acceleration, and also to confirm the shape of the suspension thread formed. The computations predict the same trend as is seen in the experiments; at higher accelerations the NFC-fibrils become more aligned.
Universally applicable three-dimensional hydrodynamic microfluidic flow focusing.
Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Mei, Zhe; Lien, Victor; Wu, Tsung-Feng; Lo, Yu-Hwa
2013-05-07
We have demonstrated a microfluidic device that can not only achieve three-dimensional flow focusing but also confine particles to the center stream along the channel. The device has a sample channel of smaller height and two sheath flow channels of greater height, merged into the downstream main channel where 3D focusing effects occur. We have demonstrated that both beads and cells in our device display significantly lower CVs in velocity and position distributions as well as reduced probability of coincidental events than they do in conventional 2D-confined microfluidic channels. The improved particle confinement in the microfluidic channel is highly desirable for microfluidic flow cytometers and in fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We have also reported a novel method to measure the velocity of each individual particle in the microfluidic channel. The method is compatible with the flow cytometer setup and requires no sophisticated visualization equipment. The principles and methods of device design and characterization can be applicable to many types of microfluidic systems.
CFD modelling of flow field and particle tracking in a hydrodynamic stormwater separator.
Lee, J H; Bang, K W; Choi, C S; Lim, H S
2010-01-01
The best management practices (BMPs) for control of urban stormwater pollution are evaluated to remove solid particles containing various pollutants. Currently, most storm runoff treatment devices using primary pollutant removal mechanism are applied to storm water since most pollutants in runoff are associated with the solid particulates. A hydrodynamic separator is a storm water treatment device using centrifugal motion which separates solids pollution from runoff. In this study, the velocity flow field and particle tracking of hydrodynamic separator were investigated using anthracite as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model particle. The Fluent 6.3.26 CFD program was used to predict the solid particles removal efficiency for various parameters such as particle size, surface loading rate, and the ratio of underflow to overflow. The velocity flow field in a hydrodynamic stormwater separator (HDS) has been simulated using CFD RNG κ-ε model. Modeling results for the removal efficiency of HDS were similar with the results obtained from experimental measurements of laboratory scale HDS. These results showed that the simulated velocity field was useful to interpret the behavior of flow in the hydrodynamic separator. The results obtained from particle tracking can be applied to predict the separation efficiency.
Hydrodynamical Approach to Vehicular Flow in the Urban Street Canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duras, Maciej M.
2001-06-01
The vehicular flow in the urban street canyon is considered. The classical field description is used in the modelling of the vehicular movement and of gaseous mixture in generic urban street canyon. The dynamical variables include vehicular densities, velocities, and emissivities: of pollutants, heat and exhaust gases, as well as standard mixture components' variables: densities, velocities, temperature, pressures. The local balances' equations predict the dynamics of the complex system. The automatic control of the vehicular flow is attained by the sets of coordinated traffic lights. The automatic control is aimed at minimization of traffic ecological costs by the application of variational calculus (Lagrange's and Bolz's problems). The theoretical description is accompanied by numerical examples of computer fluid dynamics based on real traffic data.
Hydrodynamics of annular-dispersed flow. [PWR; BWR
Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.
1982-01-01
The interfacial drag, droplet entrainment, and droplet size distributions are important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular dispersed two-phase flow. In view of this, recently developed correlations for these parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. The drag correlations for multiple fluid particle systems have been developed from a similarity hypothesis based on the mixture viscosity model. The results show that the drag coefficient depends on the particle Reynolds number and droplet concentration. The onset on droplet entrainment significantly alters the mechanisms of mass, momentum, and energy transfer between the film and gas core flow as well as the transfer between the two-phase mixture and the wall. By assuming the roll wave entrainment mechanism, the correlations for the amount of entrained droplet as well as for the droplet size distribution have been obtained from a simple model in collaboration with a large number of data.
Elliptic Anisotropy ν2 May Be Dominated by Particle Escape instead of Hydrodynamic Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zi-Wei; He, Liang; Edmonds, Terrence; Liu, Feng; Molnar, Denes; Wang, Fuqiang
2016-12-01
It is commonly believed that azimuthal anisotropies in relativistic heavy ion collisions are generated by hydrodynamic evolution of the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma. Here we use transport models to study how azimuthal anisotropies depend on the number of collisions that each parton suffers. We find that the majority of ν2 comes from the anisotropic escape of partons, not from the parton collective flow, for semi-central Au+Au collisions at 200A GeV. As expected, the fraction of ν2 from the anisotropic particle escape is even higher for smaller systems such as d+Au. Our transport model results also confirm that azimuthal anisotropies would be dominated by hydrodynamic flow at unrealistically-high parton cross sections. Our finding thus naturally explains the similarity of azimuthal anisotropies in small and large systems; however, it presents a challenge to the paradigm of anisotropic flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Joy, Ashwin
2016-11-01
In Navier-Stokes fluids, shear flows are known to become unstable leading to instability and eventually to turbulence. A class of flow namely, Kolmogorov Flows (K-Flows) exhibit such transition at low Reynolds number. Using fluid and molecular dynamics, we address the physics of transition from laminar to turbulent regime in strongly correlated-liquids such as in multi-species plasmas and also in naturally occurring plasmas with K-Flows as initial condition. A 2D phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic model is invoked wherein the effect of strong correlations is incorporated via a viscoelastic memory. To study the stability of K-Flows or in general any shear flow, a generalized eigenvalue solver has been developed along with a spectral solver for the full nonlinear set of fluid equations. A study of the linear and nonlinear features of K-Flow in incompressible and compressible limit exhibits cyclicity and nonlinear pattern formation in vorticity. A first principles based molecular dynamics simulation of particles interacting via Yukawa potential is performed with features such as configurational and kinetic thermostats for K-Flows. This work reveals several interesting similarities and differences between hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics studies.
Fluid flow in nanopores: An examination of hydrodynamic boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokhan, V. P.; Nicholson, D.; Quirke, N.
2001-08-01
Steady-state Poiseuille flow of a simple fluid in carbon slit pores under a gravity-like force is simulated using a realistic empirical many-body potential model for carbon. In this work we focus on the small Knudsen number regime, where the macroscopic equations are applicable, and simulate different wetting conditions by varying the strength of fluid-wall interactions. We show that fluid flow in a carbon pore is characterized by a large slip length even in the strongly wetting case, contrary to the predictions of Tolstoi's theory. When the surface density of wall atoms is reduced to values typical of a van der Waals solid, the streaming velocity profile vanishes at the wall, in accordance with earlier findings. From the velocity profiles we have calculated the slip length and by analyzing temporal profiles of the velocity components of particles colliding with the wall we obtained values of the Maxwell coefficient defining the fraction of molecules thermalized by the wall.
Relativistic Flows Using Spatial And Temporal Adaptive Structured Mesh Refinement. I. Hydrodynamics
Wang, Peng; Abel, Tom; Zhang, Weiqun; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2007-04-02
Astrophysical relativistic flow problems require high resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations. In this paper, we describe a new parallel three-dimensional code for simulations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using both spatially and temporally structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We used method of lines to discrete SRHD equations spatially and used a total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. For spatial reconstruction, we have implemented piecewise linear method (PLM), piecewise parabolic method (PPM), third order convex essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) and third and fifth order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes. Flux is computed using either direct flux reconstruction or approximate Riemann solvers including HLL, modified Marquina flux, local Lax-Friedrichs flux formulas and HLLC. The AMR part of the code is built on top of the cosmological Eulerian AMR code enzo, which uses the Berger-Colella AMR algorithm and is parallel with dynamical load balancing using the widely available Message Passing Interface library. We discuss the coupling of the AMR framework with the relativistic solvers and show its performance on eleven test problems.
Hydrodynamics of passing-over motion during binary droplet collision in shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Cheng-Yao; Zhang, Cheng-Bin; Huang, Xiang-Yong; Liu, Xiang-Dong; Chen, Yong-Ping
2016-10-01
A combined experimental and numerical study is undertaken to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of single-phase droplet collision in a shear flow. The passing-over motion of interactive droplets is observed, and the underlying hydrodynamic mechanisms are elucidated by the analysis of the motion trajectory, transient droplet deformation and detailed hydrodynamic information (e.g., pressure and flow fields). The results indicate that the hydrodynamic interaction process under shear could be divided into three stages: approaching, colliding, and separating. With the increasing confinement, the interaction time for the passing-over process is shorter and the droplet processes one higher curvature tip and more stretched profile. Furthermore, the lateral separation Δy/R 1 exhibits larger decrease in the approaching stage and the thickness of the lubrication film is decreased during the interaction. As the initial lateral separation increases, the maximum trajectory shift by the collision interaction is getting smaller. During the collision between two droplets with different sizes, the amplitude of the deformation oscillation of the larger droplet is decreased by reducing the size ratio of the smaller droplet to the bigger one. Project supported by the NSAF (Grants No. U1530260), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51306158), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20130621), and the Special Program for Applied Research on Super Computation of the NSFC-Guangdong Joint Fund (the second phase).
Liu, Ke; Tian, Yu; Burrows, Sean M; Reif, Randall D; Pappas, Dimitri
2009-09-28
The ability to quickly measure flow parameters in microfluidic devices is critical for micro total analysis system (microTAS) applications. Macrofluidic methods to assess flow suffer from limitations that have made conventional methods unsuitable for the flow behavior profiling. Single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been employed in our study to characterize the fluidic vortex generating at a T-shape junction of microscale channels. Due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, the corresponding magnitudes relative to different flow rates in the main channel can be quantitatively differentiated using flow time (tau(F)) measurements of dye molecules traversing the detection volume in buffer solution. Despite the parabolic flow in the channel upstream, a heterogeneous distribution of flow has been detected across the channel intersection. In addition, our current observations also confirmed the aspect of vortex-shaped flow in low-shear design that was developed previously for cell culture. This approach not only overcomes many technical barriers for examining hydrodynamic vortices and movements in miniature structures without physically integrating any probes, but it is also especially useful for the hydrodynamic studies in polymer-glass based micro-reactor and -mixer.
Hydrodynamics of Cellular Cortical Flows and the Formation of Contractile Rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salbreux, G.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J. F.
2009-07-01
We propose a mechanism for the formation of contractile rings and the apparition of a flow in the cortical layer of cells undergoing cytokinesis at the end of cell division or during the healing of a wound in the cortex of Xenopus eggs. We generalize the hydrodynamic active gel theory along the lines of thin shell theory of continuum elasticity to describe the cell cortex. As in liquid crystal physics, the flow couples to the orientation of the actin filaments. The cortical flow is driven by an increased density of myosin motors in the cortex, and orients the filaments to form the ring.
Simulation of Vortex Flow in Centrifugal Pump by Method of Hydrodynamic Features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davydenko, A. K.; Kostornoi, S. D.; Mieshkova, N. D.; Khatuntsev, A. Yu
2017-08-01
A numerical experiment performed by ECM based on different mathematic models and algorithms permits to investigate and evaluate internal and external dynamics of centrifugal pumps being operated in regimes of a flow without separation and separation one around bodies with excessive degree of reliability. This paper researches simulation of the flow within a centrifugal pump impeller by the method of hydrodynamic features. Streamlines and vortex lines were developed. Their relative positions were studied. Friction losses and losses induced by vortex dissipation have been evaluated in dependence to a flow rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yunong; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia
2017-08-01
In this paper, a lattice hydrodynamic model is derived considering not only the effect of flow rate difference but also the delayed feedback control signal which including more comprehensive information. The control method is used to analyze the stability of the model. Furthermore, the critical condition for the linear steady traffic flow is deduced and the numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the advantage of the proposed model with and without the effect of flow rate difference and the control signal. The results are consistent with the theoretical analysis correspondingly.
Hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of a nanopore induced by an applied voltage
Mao, Mao; Ghosal, Sandip; Hu, Guohui
2013-01-01
Continuum simulation is employed to study ion transport and fluid flow through a nanopore in a solid-state membrane under an applied potential drop. Results show the existence of concentration polarization layers on the surfaces of the membrane. The nonuniformity of the ionic distribution gives rise to an electric pressure that drives vortical motion in the fluid. There is also a net hydrodynamic flow through the nanopore due to an asymmetry induced by the membrane surface charge. The qualitative behavior is similar to that observed in a previous study using molecular dynamic simulations. The current–voltage characteristics show some nonlinear features but are not greatly affected by the hydrodynamic flow in the parameter regime studied. In the limit of thin Debye layers, the electric resistance of the system can be characterized using an equivalent circuit with lumped parameters. Generation of vorticity can be understood qualitatively from elementary considerations of the Maxwell stresses. However, the flow strength is a strongly nonlinear function of the applied field. Combination of electrophoretic and hydrodynamic effects can lead to ion selectivity in terms of valences and this could have some practical applications in separations. PMID:23689946
Hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of a nanopore in response to an applied voltage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Mao; Ghosal, Sandip
2013-11-01
Continuum simulation and analytical modeling is employed to study ion transport and fluid flow through a nanopore in a solid-state membrane under an applied voltage. The ion distribution near the surface of the membrane arises due to the combined effect of the intrinsic surface charge as well as concentration polarization due to the applied field. It gives rise to an electric pressure that drives hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of the pore. There is a net hydrodynamic flow through the nanopore due to the asymmetry in the Debye layer induced by the membrane surface charge. The qualitative behavior is similar to that observed in a previous study using molecular dynamic simulations. The flow strength is a strongly nonlinear function of the applied field. Combination of electrophoretic and hydrodynamic effects can lead to ion selectivity in terms of valences and this could have some practical applications in separations. This work was supported by grant number R01HG004842 from the National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health. One of us (SG) acknowledges support from the Leverhulme Trust (UK).
Schneider, Thomas; Chapman, Glenn H; Häfeli, Urs O
2011-10-15
Hydrodynamic flow focusing is a seminal, easy-to-use technology for micro- and nanodroplet generation. It is characterized by the co-axial focusing of two (or more) immiscible liquid streams forced through a small orifice. In this method, the outer continuous phase has a much higher flow velocity than the inner disperse phase. While passing through the orifice, the prevailing pressure drop and shear stress force the inner phase to break up into uniform droplets. Using a biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer solution as the disperse phase, monodisperse and user-defined polymer micro- and nanospheres can be generated. Here we present a consecutive parameter study of hydrodynamic flow focusing to study the effect of chemical and physical parameters that effect the dispersity of the droplets generated in the 1-5 μm range. The parameter study shows the applicability and challenges of hydrodynamic flow focusing in the preparation of biodegradable microspheres. Applications for microspheres made with this method can be found in the medical, pharmaceutical and technical fields.
THE FLOW AROUND A COSMIC STRING. I. HYDRODYNAMIC SOLUTION
Beresnyak, Andrey
2015-05-10
Cosmic strings are linear topological defects which are hypothesized to be produced during inflation. Most searches for strings have relied on the string’s lensing of background galaxies or the cosmic microwave background. In this paper, I obtained a solution for the supersonic flow of collisional gas past the cosmic string which has two planar shocks with a shock compression ratio that depends on the angle defect of the string and its speed. The shocks result in the compression and heating of the gas and, given favorable conditions, particle acceleration. Gas heating and over-density in an unusual wedge shape can be detected by observing the Hi line at high redshifts. Particle acceleration can occur in the present-day universe when the string crosses the hot gas contained in galaxy clusters and, since the consequences of such a collision persist for cosmological timescales, could be located by looking at unusual large-scale radio sources situated on a single spatial plane.
Fulton, John W.; Wagner, Chad R.
2014-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, developed a validated two-dimensional Resource Management Associates2 (RMA2) hydrodynamic model of parts of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) to help assess the effects of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs) on the rivers. The hydrodynamic model was used to drive a water-quality model of the study area that was capable of simulating the transport and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria and chemical constituents under open-water conditions. The study area includes 14 tributary streams and parts of the Three Rivers where they enter and exit Allegheny County, an area of approximately 730 square miles (mi2). The city of Pittsburgh is near the center of the county, where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers join to form the headwaters of the Ohio River. The Three Rivers are regulated by a series of fixed-crest dams, gated dams, and radial (tainter) gates and serve as the receiving waters for tributary streams, CSOs, and SSOs. The RMA2 model was separated into four individual segments on the basis of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigational pools in the study area (Dashields; Emsworth; Allegheny River, Pool 2; and Braddock), which were calibrated individually using measured water-surface slope, velocity, and discharge during high- and low-flow conditions. The model calibration process included the comparison of water-surface elevations at five locations and velocity profiles at more than 80 cross sections in the study area. On the basis of the calibration and validation results that included water-surface elevations and velocities, the model is a representative simulation of the Three Rivers flow patterns for discharges ranging from 4,050 to 47,400 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) on the Allegheny River, 2,550 to 40,000 ft3/s on the Monongahela River, and 10,900 to 99,000 ft3/s on the Ohio River. The Monongahela River was
Hydrodynamic and macromolecules induced clusters of red blood cells in microcapillary flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Claveira, Viviana; Aouane, Othmane; Coupier, Gwennou; Misbah, Chaouqi; Abkarian, Manouk; Wagner, Christian
2015-11-01
Recent studies have been shown that despite the large shear rates, the presence of either fibrinogen or the synthetic polymer dextran leads to an enhanced formation of robust clusters of RBC in microcapillaries under flow conditions. The contribution of hydrodynamic interactions and interactions induced by the presence of macromolecules in the cluster formation has not been established. In order to elucidate this mechanism, we compare experimentally in microchannels under flow condition, the pure hydrodynamic cluster formation of RBCs and the cluster formation of RBCs in the presence of macromolecules inducing aggregation. The results reveal strong differences in the cluster morphology. Emphasizing on the case of clusters formed by two cells, the surface to surface interdistances between the cells in the different solutions shows a bimodal distribution. Numerical simulations based on the boundary integral method showed a good agreement with the experimental findings.
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Panchenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We present a novel formulation of the Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model (PF-SPH) and use it to simulate two- and three-phase flows in bounded domains. In the PF-SPH model, the Navier-Stokes equations are discretized with the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the Young-Laplace boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface and the Young boundary condition at the fluid-fluid-solid interface are replaced with pairwise forces added into the Navier-Stokes equations. We derive a relationship between the parameters in the pairwise forces and the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we demonstrate the accuracy of the model under static and dynamic conditions. Finally, to demonstrate the capabilities and robustness of the model we use it to simulate flow of three fluids in a porous material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Panchenko, Alexander
2016-01-01
We present a novel formulation of the Pairwise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model and use it to simulate two- and three-phase flows in bounded domains. In the PF-SPH model, the Navier-Stokes equations are discretized with the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and the Young-Laplace boundary condition at the fluid-fluid interface and the Young boundary condition at the fluid-fluid-solid interface are replaced with pairwise forces added into the Navier-Stokes equations. We derive a relationship between the parameters in the pairwise forces and the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we demonstrate the model's accuracy under static and dynamic conditions. Finally, we use the Pf-SPH model to simulate three phase flow in a porous medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Hantao
Efficient dissipation of the orbital energy of plasma occurs in accretion disks ranging from those in which planets form around protostars, to those around supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei. Two mechanisms have been proposed for the turbulence that drives dissipation and angular-momentum transport in such disks: (1) a linear instability of magnetized and electrically conducting flow known as magnetorotational instability (MRI); and (2) nonlinear hydrodynamic shear-flow instability. Two laboratory apparatuses have been constructed at Princeton to study these mechanisms. The LiquidMetal MRI experiment is designed to study MRI and related MHD instabilities. The Hydrodynamic Turbulence Experiment (HTX) is designed to study nonlinear hydrodynamic transition. Both of these devices are novel in two respects: large Reynolds numbers (Regtrsim 10(6) ) and multiple independently driven rings on the axial boundaries to minimize secondary (Ekman) flows. We have demonstrated negligible angular momentum transport at Re ≤ 2× 10(6) in quasi-keplerian hydrodynamic flow with minimized Ekman circulation. This result, published in Nature, has generated significant interest among astrophysicists and fluid dynamicists. Recently, the MHD experiment has demonstrated robust nonaxisymmetric Shercliff-layer instabilities in strong axial magnetic fields. The latter result has paved a clear path towards first conclusive demonstration of MRI in the laboratory. Support is requested to continue fundamental laboratory studies with these devices. The proposed research will focus on experimental studies of the following major questions: (Q1) Why are quasi-keplerian flows resistant to turbulence? Can the turbulence found by other experiments be explained by differences in the boundary conditions or diagnostics used? Can nonlinear hydrodynamic transition occur in flow that is partially magnetized but too diffusive for MRI? (Q2) How do MRI, Shercliff-layer instabilities, and other
On the dynamics of nonlinear, unsteady landslide flow within the smoothed particle hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khvostova, O.; Averbukh, E.
2012-04-01
In the present study the idea of landslide modeling by particle method is described. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics was invented in 1977 by Leon Lucy and independently by Bob Gingold and Joe Monaghan [1]. It was used for astrophysics phenomena's simulation. Later it was adapted for hydrodynamics, gas dynamics and solid body problems. Landslides can be caused by the influence of different factors. Landslides occur when the angle of inclination of the slope of the slope or if the slope is burdened with loose material. A landslide flow is a thin homogeneous layer of nearly incompressible fluid. It is considered that at the initial moment shifted part of a ground mass is splitting and turning into liquid of several layers which then is streaming down along the slope. The landslide flow motion is described with the Navie-Stocks set of equations: D→u-= - 1\\upsidedownBigTriangle P + μ \\upsidedownBigTriangle →u + g Dt ρ (1) D-ρ = 0, Dt (2) where u is velocity vector, t is time, ρ is a flow density, P is a pressure, μ is a viscosity coefficient, g is gravity. Continuum discretization by finite number of lagrangian particles is the main idea of SPH [2,3]. Particles moves with the flow and arbitrary connectivity is allowed. Therefore, SPH does not need a grid to calculate spatial derivatives. For any field A(r), involved in equation (1), e.g. pressure, density, viscosity etc., we consider an approximation with a finite function: A(r) = ∫ω A (r')W (r- r',h)dr' (3) where A is a desired field, r is a radius-vector, W is an interpolating kernel. The free boundary condition problem is discussed. Finding the particles on a free surface is described. Also the surface tension force defining is shown. Described method is implemented and mathematical modeling of landslide flows motion along slope is simulated. Different types of slopes are considered: with constant and variable steepness, long and wide. Wave-breaking effects near the wall are shown. Findings are analyzed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, M. G.; Patel, V. C.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Mulcahey, T. I.; Helvensteijn, B. P.; Kashani, A.; Feller, J. R.
2013-12-01
The regenerator, typically a microporous structure that is subject to periodic flow of a cryogenic fluid, is the most critical component of Pulse Tube or Stirling cryocoolers, which are widely used for high-demand defense and aerospace applications. Despite the critical impact of hydrodynamic irreversibilities in the regenerator on the overall cycle efficiency, the impact of the parameters that influence these losses are poorly understood.
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Trask, Nathaniel; Pan, K.; Jones, Bruce D.; Pan, Wenxiao; Williams, John R.
2016-03-11
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is a Lagrangian method based on a meshless discretization of partial differential equations. In this review, we present SPH discretization of the Navier-Stokes and Advection-Diffusion-Reaction equations, implementation of various boundary conditions, and time integration of the SPH equations, and we discuss applications of the SPH method for modeling pore-scale multiphase flows and reactive transport in porous and fractured media.
Schneider, Thomas; Zhao, Hong; Jackson, John K; Chapman, Glenn H; Dykes, James; Häfeli, Urs O
2008-11-01
The present study was conducted to investigate the use of hydrodynamic flow focusing for the generation of biodegradable polymer microspheres encapsulating the anticancer drug camptothecin. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactide) (PLA) were used as the matrix materials. Camptothecin was dissolved in the disperse phase and microspheres with a mean size between 2 and 3 microm generated using hydrodynamic flow focusing. When up to 1 wt.% of the drug was added to PLA, the drug encapsulation efficiency was 64%. For PLGA, the drug encapsulation efficiency was between 39 and 46%. Drug release from PLA particles was rapid and complete within 6 h, while drug release from PLGA particles showed no burst effect and followed a first order release profile. The encapsulated camptothecin stayed in its active lactone form, as shown by HPLC, and was able to exert cell toxic effects as shown by a cell viability assay. Hydrodynamic flow focusing is a promising tool for the preparation of drug-releasing biodegradable microspheres typically made by solvent evaporation and/or solvent extraction, as indicated by the successful encapsulation of the anticancer drug camptothecin.
Nanoparticle Brownian motion and hydrodynamic interactions in the presence of flow fields
Uma, B.; Swaminathan, T. N.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Eckmann, D. M.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.
2011-01-01
We consider the Brownian motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian fluid medium (quiescent or fully developed Poiseuille flow) with the fluctuating hydrodynamics approach. The formalism considers situations where both the Brownian motion and the hydrodynamic interactions are important. The flow results have been modified to account for compressibility effects. Different nanoparticle sizes and nearly neutrally buoyant particle densities are also considered. Tracked particles are initially located at various distances from the bounding wall to delineate wall effects. The results for thermal equilibrium are validated by comparing the predictions for the temperatures of the particle with those obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation functions and mean square displacements with analytical and experimental results where available. The equipartition theorem for a Brownian particle in Poiseuille flow is verified for a range of low Reynolds numbers. Numerical predictions of wall interactions with the particle in terms of particle diffusivities are consistent with results, where available. PMID:21918592
Waddle, T.J.; Holmquist, J.G.
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models are being used increasingly as alternatives to traditional one-dimensional instream flow methodologies for assessing adequacy of flow and associated faunal habitat. Two-dimensional modelling of habitat has focused primarily on fishes, but fish-based assessments may not model benthic macroinvertebrate habitat effectively. We extend two-dimensional techniques to a macroinvertebrate assemblage in a high-elevation stream in the Sierra Nevada (Dana Fork of the Tuolumne River, Yosemite National Park, CA, USA). This stream frequently flows at less than 0.03?m3?s?1 in late summer and is representative of a common water abstraction scenario: maximum water abstraction coinciding with seasonally low flows. We used two-dimensional modelling to predict invertebrate responses to reduced flows that might result from increased abstraction. We collected site-specific field data on the macroinvertebrate assemblage, bed topography and flow conditions and then coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indices to evaluate habitat across a range of low flows. Macroinvertebrate indices were calculated for the wetted area at each flow. A surrogate flow record based on an adjacent watershed was used to evaluate frequency and duration of low flow events. Using surrogate historical records, we estimated that flow should fall below 0.071?m3?s?1 at least 1?day in 82 of 95?years and below 0.028?m3?s?1 in 48 of 95?years. Invertebrate metric means indicated minor losses in response to modelled discharge reductions, but wetted area decreased substantially. Responses of invertebrates to water abstraction will likely be a function of changing habitat quantity rather than quality.
Study of inertial hydrodynamic focusing in sheath-driven flows for lab-on-a-chip flow cytometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panwar, Nishtha; Song, Peiyi; Yong, Ken-Tye; Tjin, Swee Chuan
2017-05-01
Miniature flow cytometer models enable fast and cost-effective management of diseases in vulnerable and low-end settings. The single-line focusing of cell or particle samples is achieved using hydrodynamic forces in the microfluidic channels. The two common configurations among them are the single-sheath and dual-sheath flows wherein the sample is directed through the main channel, and the surrounding sheath fluids are directed into the main channel through inlets on either side of the main channel. Most models predict the width of the focused sample stream based on hydrodynamic focusing in the low Reynolds number regime (Re << 1), where the viscous forces dominate the inertial forces. In this work, we present comparative analysis of particle focusing by single-sheath and dual-sheath configurations for focusing of micron-sized cells/particles in the range 2 to 20 μm in the higher Re (10 < Re < 80) laminar regime. A quantitative analysis of the relative focused stream width (wf/wch) as a function of flow rate ratio (FRR = Sample flow rate/Sheath flow rate) for the two configurations is presented. The particle tracing results are also compared with the experimental fluorescent microscopy results at various FRR. The deviations of the results from the theoretical predictions of hydrodynamic focusing at Re << 1, are explained analytically. These findings clearly outline the range of flow parameters and relative particle sizes that can be used for cytometry studies for a given channel geometry. This is a highly predictive modeling method as it provides substantial results of particle positions across the microchannel width according to their size and FRR for single-line focusing of particles. Such information is crucial for one to engineer miniaturized flow cytometry for screening of desired cells or particles.
Hydrodynamic interaction between two vesicles in a linear shear flow: asymptotic study.
Gires, P Y; Danker, G; Misbah, C
2012-07-01
Interactions between two vesicles in an imposed linear shear flow are studied theoretically, in the limit of almost spherical vesicles, with a large intervesicle distance, in a strong flow, with a large inner to outer viscosity ratio. This allows to derive a system of ordinary equations describing the dynamics of the two vesicles. We provide an analytic expression for the interaction law. We find that when the vesicles are in the same shear plane, the hydrodynamic interaction leads to a repulsion. When they are not, the interaction may turn into attraction instead. The interaction law is discussed and analyzed as a function of relevant parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jensen, Kaare H.; Valente, André X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.
2014-05-01
We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order of scaling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharehdaghi, Samad; Moujaes, Samir
2013-10-01
Flexible duct air distribution systems are used in a large percentage of residential and small commercial buildings in the United States . Very few empirical or predictive data are available though to help provide the HVAC design engineer with reliable information . Moreover, because of the ducts flexibility, the shapes of these ducts offer a different set of operating fluid flow and thermal conditions from traditional smooth metal ducts. Hence, both the flow field and heat transfer through this kind of ducts are much more complex and merit to be analyzed from a numerical predictive approach. The aim of this research paper is to compute some of the hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of the air flow inside these ducts over a range of Re numbers commonly used in the flow conditions of these air distribution systems. The information resulting from this CFD simulation, where a κ-ɛ turbulent model is used to predict the flow conditions, provide pressure drop and average convective heat transfer coefficients that exist in these ducts and was compared to previously found data. Circulation zones in the depressions of these ducts are found to exist which are suspected of influencing the pressured drop and heat transfer coefficients as compared to smooth ducts. The results show that fully developed conditions exist much earlier with regard to the inlet for both hydrodynamic and thermal entrance regions than what would be expected in smooth ducts under the same turbulent conditions.
Hydrodynamic instabilities of near-critical CO2 flow in microchannels: Lattice Boltzmann simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holdych, D. J.; Georgiadis, J. G.; Buckius, R. O.
2004-05-01
Motivated by systematic CO2 evaporation experiments which recently became available (J. Pettersen, "Flow vaporization of CO2 in microchannel tubes," Doctor technicae thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2002), the present work constitutes an exploratory investigation of isothermal flow of CO2 near its liquid-vapor critical point through a long 5 μm diameter microchannel. A modified van der Waals constitutive model—with properties closely approximating those of "real" near-critical CO2—is incorporated in a two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann hydrodynamics model by embedding a dimensionless parameter X, with X→1 denoting the "real" fluid. The hydrodynamic phenomena resulting by imposing a constant pressure gradient along a periodic channel are investigated by considering two regimes in tandem: (1) transition from bubbly to annular flow with a liquid film formed at the channel walls and (2) destabilization of the liquid film by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Due to numerical constraints, intrinsic modeling errors are introduced and are shown to be associated with discrepancies in the relative vapor-liquid interfacial thickness, which is expressed by X. The effects of these errors are investigated both theoretically and numerically in the physical limit X→1. Numerically determined flow patterns compare qualitatively well with direct visualization results obtained by Pettersen. Overall, the characteristics of isothermal near-critical two-phase flow in microchannels can be reproduced by the appropriate modification of the thermophysical properties of CO2.
Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Flow in an Axial Rotor and Impeller for Large Storage Pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosioc, A. I.; Muntean, S.; Draghici, I.; Anton, L. E.
2016-11-01
In hydropower systems among hydropower plants there are integrated pumping stations (PS). In order to ensure higher flow rate, the pumps have constructive differences besides regular. Consequently, the complex shape of the suction-elbow with symmetric inlet generates an unsteady flow which is ingested by impeller. These phenomena's also generate stronger unsteady flow conditions, such as stall, wakes, turbulence and pressure fluctuations, which affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the pump with vibration, noise and radial and axial forces on the rotor. Alternatively, an axial rotor can be installed in front of the impeller. In this case, the flow non-uniformity will be decreased and the static pressure will be increased at the impeller inlet. Consequently, the efficiency behaviour practically remains unchanged while the cavitational behaviour is improved. From the assembly between axial rotor and centrifugal impeller, the axial rotor usually works in cavitation and is often replaced. The paper investigates experimentally and numerically the comparison between pump impeller without and with axial rotor hydrodynamics taking into account the flow given by the symmetrical suction elbow. Full three-dimensional turbulent numerical investigation of the symmetrical suction elbow, with axial rotor and without, pump impeller and volute are performed. The hydrodynamic analysis confirms that once the axial rotor is mounted in front of the pump impeller increase the static pressure and the incidence angle is improved at the inlet of the pump impeller.
Models of hydrodynamic flow in the bowhead whale filter feeding apparatus.
Werth, Alexander J
2004-09-01
Anatomical and behavioral analyses suggest that the filtration mechanism of bowhead and right whales (Balaenidae) is driven by hydrodynamic as well as ram hydraulic pressures. Complementary models were devised to investigate biomechanical aspects of water flow in the buccal cavity of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus during continuous filter feeding. A mathematical model was created to test and quantify water flow predictions with steady state hydromechanical equations; a physical model of the bowhead mouth (approximately 1/15 scale) was constructed to visualize flow processes. Both models rely on morphometric data obtained from whales harvested by Inupiat Eskimos for subsistence purposes along with information on foraging ecology (locomotor velocity, gape, etc.). Results indicate that unique features of balaenid oral construction and function (e.g. subrostral gap, orolabial sulcus, curvature of baleen, extensive mandibular rotation and lingual mobility) not only permit steady, unidirectional flow of water through the mouth, but also establish Bernoulli and Venturi effects during feeding. These hydrodynamic conditions allow balaenids to improve filtering efficiency and avoid creation of an anterior compressive wave (by increasing flow velocity and thereby reducing pressure) so that they may capture elusive prey even at slow swimming speeds.
Deformation of double emulsions under conditions of flow cytometry hydrodynamic focusing.
Ma, Shaohua; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Balabani, Stavroula
2015-11-21
Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) microfluidics double emulsions offer a new route to compartmentalise reagents into isolated aqueous microenvironments while maintaining an aqueous carrier fluid phase; this enables compatibility with commercial flow cytometry systems such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Double emulsion (inner core) deformation under hydrodynamic focusing conditions that mimic the environment double emulsions experience in flow cytometry applications is of particular importance for droplet stability and cell viability. This paper reports on an experimental study of the dynamic deformation of aqueous cores of w/o/w double emulsions under hydrodynamic focusing, with the sheath flow directed at 45° to the sample flow. A number of factors affecting the inner core deformation and recovery were examined. Deformation was found to depend significantly on the core or shell viscosity, the droplet-to-sheath flow velocity ratio, and core and shell sizes. Core deformation was found to depend more on the type of surfactant rather concentration with high molecular weight surfactant exhibiting a negligible effect on deformation whereas low molecular weight surfactant enhancing deformation at low concentrations due to their lateral mobility at the interface.
Flow-Dependent Topographic and Hydrodynamic Variability Control Channel Change in Mountain Rivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, R. A.; Pasternack, G. B.
2013-12-01
An emerging view in fluvial geomorphology is that rivers are systems with multiple scales of variability. This is especially true in mountain rivers that have spatially variable alluvial-bedrock boundaries as multiple scales of topography, from individual boulders to valley scale deposits, can steer flow paths affecting the erosion and deposition patterns of transported sediments. We hypothesize that depending on flow discharge and stage, different scales of channel topography can become dominant in routing sediment such that the resulting topography is a layered sequence of past flows. Here we evaluate gravel and cobble channel change associated with hydraulic unit to reach scale (e.g. 10-1-102 channel widths) changes in topographic and stage-dependent hydrodynamic variability in a mixed alluvial-bedrock river canyon. This study takes advantage of a unique opportunity where 4,535 metric tons of gravel ranging from 6-128 mm was augmented directly below a dam for spawning habitat rehabilitation in a 1,200 m long mountain river reach with no other sources of gravel sediment supply and an existing substrate of bedrock, large cobbles (>250mm), angular shot rock (>0.5m) and boulders (>1m). While the study site is a regulated river flows above 117 m3/s, just below the bankfull discharge, still overtop the dam so natural aspects of the hydrograph are still retained such that the reach still experiences large floods capable of considerable topographic change. We utilize kite-blimp aerial photography, kayak-based surveying, topographic change detection, and 2D modeling to understand how flow discharge can activate topographic features that ultimately control channel change following a controlled gravel injection upstream of a mountain river with no other gravel or cobble sediment inputs. The spatial covariance of flow width and bed elevation are strongly associated with the volume of gravel deposition and erosion, but this also changes depending on flow discharge as
Hydrodynamics of a Pacific Atoll System - Mechanisms for Flow and Ecological Implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, J.; Monismith, S. G.; Koweek, D.; Torres, W.; Dunbar, R. B.
2016-02-01
We present characterization of the waves and hydrodynamics of the Palmyra Atoll system based on field measurements from 2012 to 2014, and modeling simulations using a coupled waves and three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COAWST). At the scale of the atoll itself, strong regional flows create flow separation and a well-defined wake, similar to the classical fluid mechanics problem of flow past a cylinder. Circulation within the atoll is primarily governed by tides and waves, and secondarily by wind and regional currents. Tidally driven flow is important at all field sites, and tidal phase delay occurs between the forereef and interior lagoons. Wave driven flow is significant at most of the field sites, and is a strong function of the dominant wave direction. The wave climate is characterized by strong northerly waves which drive across the atoll to the south and through the lagoon system to the west and out the channel to offshore. Wind driven flow is generally weak, except on the shallow terraces. Bottom stress is significant for depths less than about 10 m. Based on Lagrangian float tracks, the mean age appears to clearly differentiate the geomorphic structures. The biological cover shows significant trends with mean flow, age and temperature. While high mean flow appears to differentiate productive coral regions, low water age and low temperature appear to be the most important variables for distinguishing between biological cover types at this site. The resulting connectivity within the atoll system shows that the general trends follow the mean flow paths; however, some connectivity exists between all ten regions of the atoll system.
Fluidic low pass filter for hydrodynamic flow stabilization in microfluidic environments.
Kang, Yang Jun; Yang, Sung
2012-04-24
Fluctuations in flow rate invariably occur in microfluidic devices. This fluidic instability results in a deteriorating performance and the suspension of their unique functions occasionally. In this study, a fluidic-LPF (low pass filter), which is composed of an ACU (air compliance unit) and a FCSP (fluidic channel with high fluidic resistance for sufficient preload), has been proposed for providing the stabilization of hydrodynamic flow in microfluidic devices. To investigate the characteristics of various fluidic networks including our fluidic-LPF, we used a parametric identification method to estimate the time constants via a transient response that was based on a discrete parameter model. In addition, we propose the use of a pulsation index (PI) to quantify the fluctuations in flow rate. We verified the formula for PI derived herein by varying individually both the periods and the air compliance volumes in the ACU, both theoretically and experimentally. We found that the PI depended strongly on either the time constants or the periods of the flow rates at the inlet. Additionally, the normalized differences between the experimental results and the theoretical estimations were less than 6%, which shows that the proposed formula for PI can provide an accurate quantification of the fluctuations in flow, and estimate the parametric effects. Finally, we have successfully demonstrated that our fluidic-LPF can regulate fluctuations in the flow at extremely low flow rates (~ 10 μL h(-1)) and can also control severe fluidic fluctuations (PI = 0.67) with excessively long periods (100 s) via a microfluidic viscometer. We therefore believe that the stabilization of hydrodynamic flow using a fluidic-LPF could be used easily and extensively with a range of microfluidic platforms that require constant flow rates.
Pavlov, Evgen; Taiji, Makoto; Scukins, Arturs; Markesteijn, Anton; Karabasov, Sergey; Nerukh, Dmitry
2014-01-01
A novel framework for modelling biomolecular systems at multiple scales in space and time simultaneously is described. The atomistic molecular dynamics representation is smoothly connected with a statistical continuum hydrodynamics description. The system behaves correctly at the limits of pure molecular dynamics (hydrodynamics) and at the intermediate regimes when the atoms move partly as atomistic particles, and at the same time follow the hydrodynamic flows. The corresponding contributions are controlled by a parameter, which is defined as an arbitrary function of space and time, thus, allowing an effective separation of the atomistic 'core' and continuum 'environment'. To fill the scale gap between the atomistic and the continuum representations our special purpose computer for molecular dynamics, MDGRAPE-4, as well as GPU-based computing were used for developing the framework. These hardware developments also include interactive molecular dynamics simulations that allow intervention of the modelling through force-feedback devices.
Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Geyer, Tobias
2013-09-01
Flow on fracture surfaces has been identified by many authors as an important flow process in unsaturated fractured rock formations. Given the complexity of flow dynamics on such small scales, robust numerical methods have to be employed in order to capture the highly dynamic interfaces and flow intermittency. In this work we present microscale free-surface flow simulations using a three-dimensional multiphase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Pairwise solid-fluid and fluid-fluid interaction forces are used to control the wetting behavior and cover a wide range of static and transient contact angles as well as Reynolds numbers encountered in droplet flow on rock surfaces. We validate our model via comparison with existing empirical and semi-analyical solutions for droplet flow. We use the model to investigate the occurence of adsorbed trailing films of droplets under various flow conditions and its importance for the flow dynamics when films and droplets coexist. We show that flow velocities are higher on prewetted surfaces covered by a thin film which is qualitatively attributed to the enhanced dynamic wetting and dewetting at the trailing and advancing contact line.
Modeling the hydrodynamic and electrochemical efficiency of semi-solid flow batteries
Brunini, VE; Chiang, YM; Carter, WC
2012-05-01
A mathematical model of flow cell operation incorporating hydrodynamic and electrochemical effects in three dimensions is developed. The model and resulting simulations apply to recently demonstrated high energy-density semi-solid flow cells. In particular, state of charge gradients that develop during low flow rate operation and their effects on the spatial non-uniformity of current density within flow cells are quantified. A one-dimensional scaling model is also developed and compared to the full three-dimensional simulation. The models are used to demonstrate the impact of the choice of electrochemical couple on flow cell performance. For semi-solid flow electrodes, which can use solid active materials with a wide variety of voltage-capacity responses, we find that cell efficiency is maximized for electrochemical couples that have a relatively flat voltage vs. capacity curve, operated under slow flow conditions. For example, in flow electrodes limited by macroscopic charge transport, an LiFePO4-based system requires one-third the polarization to reach the same cycling rate as an LiCoO2-based system, all else being equal. Our conclusions are generally applicable to high energy density flow battery systems, in which flow rates can be comparatively low for a given required power. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dukhin, Stanislav S; Labib, Mohamed E
2017-05-20
Current drug delivery devices (DDD) are mainly based on the use of diffusion as the main transport process. Diffusion-driven processes can only achieve low release rate because diffusion is a slow process. This represents a serious obstacle in the realization of recent successes in the suppression of lymphatic metastasis and in the prevention of limb and organ transplant rejection. Surprisingly, it was overlooked that there is a more favorable drug release mode which can be achieved when a special DDD is implanted near lymphatics. This opportunity can be realized when the interstitial fluid flow penetrates a drug delivery device of proper design and allows such fluid to flow out of it. This design is based on hollow fibers loaded with drug and whose hydrodynamic permeability is much higher than that of the surrounding tissue. The latter is referred to as hollow fiber of high hydrodynamic permeability (HFHP). The interstitial flow easily penetrates the hollow fiber membrane as well as its lumen with a higher velocity than that in the adjacent tissue. The interstitial liquid stream entering the lumen becomes almost saturated with drug as it flows out of the HFHP. This is due to the drug powder dissolution in the lumens of HFHP which forms a strip of drug solution that crosses the interstitium and finally enters the lymphatics. This hydrodynamically-driven release (HDR) may exceed the concomitant diffusion-driven release (DDR) by one or even two orders of magnitude. The hydrodynamics of the two-compartment media is sufficient for developing the HDR theory which is detailed in this paper. Convective diffusion theory for two compartments (membrane of hollow fiber and adjacent tissue) is required for exact quantification when a small contribution of DDR to predominating HDR is present. Hence, modeling is important for HDR which would lead to establishing a new branch in physico-chemical hydrodynamics. The release rate achieved with the use of HFHP increases proportional
Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul
2008-01-01
Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced
Autebert, Julien; Kashyap, Aditya; Lovchik, Robert D; Delamarche, Emmanuel; Kaigala, Govind V
2014-04-01
We devised, implemented, and tested a new concept for efficient local surface chemistry that we call hierarchical hydrodynamic flow confinement (hierarchical HFC). This concept leverages the hydrodynamic shaping of multiple layers of liquid to address challenges inherent to microscale surface chemistry, such as minimal dilution, economical consumption of reagent, and fast liquid switching. We illustrate two modes of hierarchical HFC, nested and pinched, by locally denaturing and recovering a 26 bp DNA with as little as 2% dilution and by efficiently patterning an antibody on a surface, with a 5 μm resolution and a 100-fold decrease of reagent consumption compared to microcontact printing. In addition, valveless switching between nanoliter volumes of liquids was achieved within 20 ms. We believe hierarchical HFC will have broad utility for chemistry on surfaces at the microscale.
Flow-field dynamics during droplet formation by dripping in hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidics.
Funfschilling, D; Debas, H; Li, H-Z; Mason, T G
2009-07-01
Using microscopic particle image velocimetry, we examine the flow field around an oil droplet as it is formed by hydrodynamic focusing in an aqueous solution using a pressure-driven cross-channel microfluidic device. By detecting the temporal dependence of the instantaneous flow fields of the continuous phase in the dripping regime, we show that shear is not the primary mechanism that initiates droplet formation in our low flow rate and moderate capillary number experimental conditions. Instead, the advancing finger of oil partially and temporarily plugs the outlet channel, creating a pressure difference that builds up and is released when water from the side channels pushes the tip of the finger into the outlet channel, thereby facilitating the birth of the droplet by interfacial pinch-off that is primarily initiated by an extensional flow.
Miyagawa, Yoichi; Morisada, Shintaro; Ohto, Keisuke; Hidetaka, Kawakita
2016-08-01
Separation of colloidal particles in non-Newtonian fluid is important in food engineering. Using hydrodynamic chromatography, colloidal particles and starch granules originating from corn were individually injected into dextran solutions (Mw 2,000,000g/mol) flowing through a coiled tube for efficient size separation. Rheological properties of dextran solutions ranging from 50 to 250g/L were determined, revealing pseudoplastic fluid behavior. Velocity profiles for dextran solution flow in coiled tubes were obtained from rheological power law parameters. Suspensions of colloidal particles of diameters 1.0 and 20μm were individually injected into the dextran flows, demonstrating that dextran solutions at high concentration separated colloidal particles. Starch granules were separated by size using a dextran solution flow (250g/L). Thus, we expect to obtain efficient separation of colloidal particles in foods using highly concentrated dextran solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NMR imaging and hydrodynamic analysis of neutrally buoyant non-Newtonian slurry flows
Bouillard, J.X.; Sinton, S.W.
1995-02-01
The flow of solids loaded suspension in cylindrical pipes has been the object of intense experimental and theoretical investigations in recent years. These types of flows are of great interest in chemical engineering because of their important use in many industrial manufacturing processes. Such flows are for example encountered in the manufacture of solid-rocket propellants, advanced ceramics, reinforced polymer composites, in heterogenous catalytic reactors, and in the pipeline transport of liquid-solids suspensions. In most cases, the suspension microstructure and the degree of solids dispersion greatly affect the final performance of the manufactured product. For example, solid propellant pellets need to be extremely-well dispersed in gel matrices for use as rocket engine solid fuels. The homogeneity of pellet dispersion is critical to allow good uniformity of the burn rate, which in turn affects the final mechanical performance of the engine. Today`s manufacturing of such fuels uses continuous flow processes rather than batch processes. Unfortunately, the hydrodynamics of such flow processes is poorly understood and is difficult to assess because it requires the simultaneous measurements of liquid/solids phase velocities and volume fractions. Due to the recent development in pulsed Fourier Transform NMR imaging, NMR imaging is now becoming a powerful technique for the non intrusive investigation of multi-phase flows. This paper reports and exposes a state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methodology that can be used to study such flows. The hydrodynamic model developed for this study is a two-phase flow shear thinning model with standard constitutive fluid/solids interphase drag and solids compaction stresses. this model shows good agreement with experimental data and the limitations of this model are discussed.
Fluorescence photobleaching to evaluate flow velocity and hydrodynamic dispersion in nanoslits.
Cuenca, Amandine; Bodiguel, Hugues
2012-05-07
Velocity measurement is a key issue when studying flows below the micron scale, due to the lack of sensitivity of conventional detection techniques. We present an approach based on fluorescence photobleaching to evaluate flow velocity at the nanoscale by direct visualization. Solutions containing a fluorescent dye are injected into nanoslits. A photobleached line, created through laser beam illumination, moves through the channel due to the fluid flow. The velocity and effective diffusion coefficient are calculated from the temporal data of the line position and width respectively. The measurable velocity range is only limited by the diffusion rate of the fluorescent dye for low velocities and by the apparition of Taylor dispersion for high velocities. By controlling the pressure drop and measuring the velocity, we determine the fluid viscosity. The photobleached line spreads in time due to molecular diffusion and Taylor hydrodynamic dispersion. By taking into account the finite spatial and temporal extensions of the bleaching under flow, we determine the effective diffusion coefficient, which we find to be in good agreement with the expression of the two dimensional Taylor-Aris dispersion coefficient. Finally we analyze and discuss the role of the finite width of the rectangular slit on hydrodynamic dispersion.
Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing
Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo
2014-01-01
A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance. PMID:25657874
Blockage effects on the hydrodynamic performance of a marine cross-flow turbine.
Consul, Claudio A; Willden, Richard H J; McIntosh, Simon C
2013-02-28
This paper explores the influence of blockage and free-surface deformation on the hydrodynamic performance of a generic marine cross-flow turbine. Flows through a three-bladed turbine with solidity 0.125 are simulated at field-test blade Reynolds numbers, O(10(5)-10(6)), for three different cross-stream blockages: 12.5, 25 and 50 per cent. Two representations of the free-surface boundary are considered: rigid lid and deformable free surface. Increasing the blockage is observed to lead to substantial increases in the power coefficient; the highest power coefficient computed is 1.23. Only small differences are observed between the two free-surface representations, with the deforming free-surface turbine out-performing the rigid lid turbine by 6.7 per cent in power at the highest blockage considered. This difference is attributed to the increase in effective blockage owing to the deformation of the free surface. Hydrodynamic efficiency, the ratio of useful power generated to overall power removed from the flow, is found to increase with blockage, which is consistent with the presence of a higher flow velocity through the core of the turbine at higher blockage ratios. Froude number is found to have little effect on thrust and power coefficients, but significant influence on surface elevation drop across the turbine.
Micro flow cytometer with self-aligned 3D hydrodynamic focusing.
Testa, Genni; Persichetti, Gianluca; Bernini, Romeo
2015-01-01
A micro flow cytometer with a single step 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing has been developed. The proposed design is capable to create a single-file particle stream that is self-aligned with an integrated optical fiber-based detection system, regardless of the flow rate ratio between the focusing and core liquids. The design approach provides the ability to adjust the stream size while keeping the position of the focused stream centered with respect to the focusing channel. The device has been fabricated by direct micro milling of PMMA sheets. Experimental validation of the hydrodynamic sheath focusing effect has been presented and sample stream with tuneable size from about 18 to 50 μm was measured. Flow cytometry measurements have been performed by using 10-23 μm fluorescent particles. From the analysis of the signals collected at each transit event we can confirm that the device was capable to align and measure microparticles with a good coefficient of variance.
Hong, Sungmin; Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Chou, Chao-Kai; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Su, Chin B; Hung, Mien-Chie; Kameoka, Jun
2012-06-01
A simple microfluidic 3D hydrodynamic flow focusing device has been developed and demonstrated quantitative determinations of quantum dot 525 with antibody (QD525-antibody) and hemagglutinin epitope tagged MAX (HA-MAX) protein concentrations. This device had a step depth cross junction structure at a hydrodynamic flow focusing point at which the analyte stream was flowed into a main detection channel and pinched not only horizontally but also vertically by two sheath streams. As a result, a triangular cross-sectional flow profile of the analyte stream was formed and the laser was focused on the top of the triangular shaped analyte stream. Since the detection volume was smaller than the radius of laser spot, a photon burst histogram showed Gaussian distribution, which was necessary for the quantitative analysis of protein concentration. By using this approach, a linear concentration curve of QD525-antibody down to 10 pM was demonstrated. In addition, the concentration of HA-MAX protein in HEK293 cell lysate was determined as 0.283 ± 0.015 nM. This approach requires for only 1 min determining protein concentration. As the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to determinate protein concentration by using single molecule detection techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Tsang-Jung; Kao, Hong-Ming; Chang, Kao-Hua; Hsu, Ming-Hsi
2011-09-01
SummaryA meshless numerical model is proposed to investigate shallow-water dam break flows in 1D open channels. The numerical model is to solve the shallow water equations (SWE) based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The concept of slice water particles (SWP) is adopted in the SPH-SWE formulation. The numerical sensitivity analysis is first performed to study the appropriate SWP number and variable smoothing length through dam break flows in an idealized 1D channel with dry/wet beds. Extensive validation by comparison with laboratory and field data is next conducted for four benchmark problems, including dam break flows through a rough flat channel, a rough bumpy channel with various downstream boundary conditions, a nonprismatic channel, and a realistic scale model of the Toce river in Italy. The simulated results indicate that accurate performance is reached in the presence of shock discontinuities, shock front motion, hydraulic jumps, dry/wet bed flow, supercritical/subcritical/transcritical flow, reverse flow, contraction flow, overtopping flow, partial reflections and multiple wave interaction without special numerical treatment. All of the simulations are carried out by PC within 10 min. Thus, the proposed numerical model has proved its efficiency and reliability for dam break flow computations in open channels.
Boundary Layer Theory. Part 2; Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
The flow laws of the actual flows at high Reynolds numbers differ considerably from those of the laminar flows treated in the preceding part. These actual flows show a special characteristic, denoted as turbulence. The character of a turbulent flow is most easily understood the case of the pipe flow. Consider the flow through a straight pipe of circular cross section and with a smooth wall. For laminar flow each fluid particle moves with uniform velocity along a rectilinear path. Because of viscosity, the velocity of the particles near the wall is smaller than that of the particles at the center. i% order to maintain the motion, a pressure decrease is required which, for laminar flow, is proportional to the first power of the mean flow velocity. Actually, however, one oberves that, for larger Reynolds numbers, the pressure drop increases almost with the square of the velocity and is very much larger then that given by the Hagen Poiseuille law. One may conclude that the actual flow is very different from that of the Poiseuille flow.
Ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering flow detector using hydrodynamic focusing.
Negri, Pierre; Jacobs, Kevin T; Dada, Oluwatosin O; Schultz, Zachary D
2013-11-05
Label-free, chemical specific detection in flow is important for high throughput characterization of analytes in applications such as flow injection analysis, electrophoresis, and chromatography. We have developed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) flow detector capable of ultrasensitive optical detection on the millisecond time scale. The device employs hydrodynamic focusing to improve SERS detection in a flow channel where a sheath flow confines analyte molecules eluted from a fused silica capillary over a planar SERS-active substrate. Increased analyte interactions with the SERS substrate significantly improve detection sensitivity. The performance of this flow detector was investigated using a combination of finite element simulations, fluorescence imaging, and Raman experiments. Computational fluid dynamics based on finite element analysis was used to optimize the flow conditions. The modeling indicates that a number of factors, such as the capillary dimensions and the ratio of the sheath flow to analyte flow rates, are critical for obtaining optimal results. Sample confinement resulting from the flow dynamics was confirmed using wide-field fluorescence imaging of rhodamine 6G (R6G). Raman experiments at different sheath flow rates showed increased sensitivity compared with the modeling predictions, suggesting increased adsorption. Using a 50 ms acquisition, a sheath flow rate of 180 μL/min, and a sample flow rate of 5 μL/min, a linear dynamic range from nanomolar to micromolar concentrations of R6G with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 nM is observed. At low analyte concentrations, rapid analyte desorption is observed, enabling repeated and high-throughput SERS detection. The flow detector offers substantial advantages over conventional SERS-based assays such as minimal sample volumes and high detection efficiency.
Hydrodynamic modelling and global datasets: Flow connectivity and SRTM data, a Bangkok case study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trigg, M. A.; Bates, P. B.; Michaelides, K.
2012-04-01
The rise in the global interconnected manufacturing supply chains requires an understanding and consistent quantification of flood risk at a global scale. Flood risk is often better quantified (or at least more precisely defined) in regions where there has been an investment in comprehensive topographical data collection such as LiDAR coupled with detailed hydrodynamic modelling. Yet in regions where these data and modelling are unavailable, the implications of flooding and the knock on effects for global industries can be dramatic, as evidenced by the recent floods in Bangkok, Thailand. There is a growing momentum in terms of global modelling initiatives to address this lack of a consistent understanding of flood risk and they will rely heavily on the application of available global datasets relevant to hydrodynamic modelling, such as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and its derivatives. These global datasets bring opportunities to apply consistent methodologies on an automated basis in all regions, while the use of coarser scale datasets also brings many challenges such as sub-grid process representation and downscaled hydrology data from global climate models. There are significant opportunities for hydrological science in helping define new, realistic and physically based methodologies that can be applied globally as well as the possibility of gaining new insights into flood risk through analysis of the many large datasets that will be derived from this work. We use Bangkok as a case study to explore some of the issues related to using these available global datasets for hydrodynamic modelling, with particular focus on using SRTM data to represent topography. Research has shown that flow connectivity on the floodplain is an important component in the dynamics of flood flows on to and off the floodplain, and indeed within different areas of the floodplain. A lack of representation of flow connectivity, often due to data resolution limitations, means
Lee, Cheegwan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.; Divers, Arya-Behbehani
2006-08-03
The Willamette Falls Hydroelectric Power Dam, operated by Portland General Electric (PGE), is located on the Willamette River, Oregon. The Project site consists of T.W. Sullivan Power Plant and a 2,950-ft-long spillway located on the top of the Willamette Falls Dam. As part of the effort of protection and enhancement of environmental resources, a flow control structure at the dam was proposed to improve the flow field and enhance the downstream juvenile fish passage in the region just upstream of the forebay (pre-forebay). The flow in the pre-forebay of Willamette Falls Dam is affected by the complex geometry and bathymetry, powerhouse flow, fish ladder flow and the spillway around the dam. The expectation was that the flow would be sensitive to the proposed flow control structures and could be modified to enhance downstream migration. In this study, a three-dimensional, free-surface hydrodynamic model (EFDC) was developed for the pre-forebay region of Willamette Falls to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed alternative and its effect on the flow field in two different flow regimes (low and high river flow), as well as to assess the hydraulic capacity of flow control structures. One of the key challenges in this modeling study was to properly specify the free open boundary conditions along the 2,950-feet-long spillway. In this study, a pressure boundary condition based on hydraulic head rating curves was applied to the free spillway boundary. The numerical model was calibrated with ADP velocity measurements at 17 stations for the existing low flow condition. Good agreements between model results and measured data were obtained, indicating the successful application of pressure boundary condition on the free spillway boundary. The calibrated model was applied to simulate the flow field and free surface elevation in the high flow region near the control flow structures under different alternative conditions. The model results were used to evaluate the
Experimental and Computational Study of Multiphase Flow Hydrodynamics in 2D Trickle Bed Reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, H.; Ben Salem, I.; Kurnia, J. C.; Rabbani, S.; Shamim, T.; Sassi, M.
2014-12-01
Trickle bed reactors are largely used in the refining processes. Co-current heavy oil and hydrogen gas flow downward on catalytic particle bed. Fine particles in the heavy oil and/or soot formed by the exothermic catalytic reactions deposit on the bed and clog the flow channels. This work is funded by the refining company of Abu Dhabi and aims at mitigating pressure buildup due to fine deposition in the TBR. In this work, we focus on meso-scale experimental and computational investigations of the interplay between flow regimes and the various parameters that affect them. A 2D experimental apparatus has been built to investigate the flow regimes with an average pore diameter close to the values encountered in trickle beds. A parametric study is done for the development of flow regimes and the transition between them when the geometry and arrangement of the particles within the porous medium are varied. Liquid and gas flow velocities have also been varied to capture the different flow regimes. Real time images of the multiphase flow are captured using a high speed camera, which were then used to characterize the transition between the different flow regimes. A diffused light source was used behind the 2D Trickle Bed Reactor to enhance visualizations. Experimental data shows very good agreement with the published literature. The computational study focuses on the hydrodynamics of multiphase flow and to identify the flow regime developed inside TBRs using the ANSYS Fluent Software package. Multiphase flow inside TBRs is investigated using the "discrete particle" approach together with Volume of Fluid (VoF) multiphase flow modeling. The effect of the bed particle diameter, spacing, and arrangement are presented that may be used to provide guidelines for designing trickle bed reactors.
Flow dichroism as a reliable method to measure the hydrodynamic aspect ratio of gold nanoparticles.
Reddy, Naveen Krishna; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Lang, Peter R; Dhont, Jan K G; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Vermant, Jan
2011-06-28
Particle shape plays an important role in controlling the optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties of nanoparticle suspensions as well as nanocomposites. However, characterizing the size, shape, and the associated polydispersity of nanoparticles is not straightforward. Electron microscopy provides an accurate measurement of the geometric properties, but sample preparation can be laborious, and to obtain statistically relevant data many particles need to be analyzed separately. Moreover, when the particles are suspended in a fluid, it is important to measure their hydrodynamic properties, as they determine aspects such as diffusion and the rheological behavior of suspensions. Methods that evaluate the dynamics of nanoparticles such as light scattering and rheo-optical methods accurately provide these hydrodynamic properties, but do necessitate a sufficient optical response. In the present work, three different methods for characterizing nonspherical gold nanoparticles are critically compared, especially taking into account the complex optical response of these particles. The different methods are evaluated in terms of their versatility to asses size, shape, and polydispersity. Among these, the rheo-optical technique is shown to be the most reliable method to obtain hydrodynamic aspect ratio and polydispersity for nonspherical gold nanoparticles for two reasons. First, the use of the evolution of the orientation angle makes effects of polydispersity less important. Second, the use of an external flow field gives a mathematically more robust relation between particle motion and aspect ratio, especially for particles with relatively small aspect ratios.
Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Sakota, Daisuke; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu
2015-01-01
We have developed a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulatory support. In the blood pump, a spiral groove bearing was adopted for a thrust bearing. In the spiral groove bearing, separation of erythrocytes and plasma by plasma skimming has been postulated to occur. However, it is not clarified that plasma skimming occurs in a spiral groove bearing. The purpose of this study is to verify whether plasma skimming occurs in the spiral groove bearing of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. For evaluation of plasma skimming in the spiral groove bearing, an impeller levitation performance test using a laser focus displacement meter and a microscopic visualization test of erythrocyte flow using a high-speed microscope were conducted. Bovine blood diluted with autologous plasma to adjust hematocrit to 1.0% was used as a working fluid. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the spiral groove bearing was estimated using image analysis. As a result, hematocrits on the ridge region with gaps of 45 μm, 31 μm, and 25 μm were calculated as 1.0%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Maximum skimming efficiency in this study was calculated as 70% with a gap of 25 μm. We confirmed that separation of erythrocyte and plasma occurred in the spiral groove bearing with decrease in bearing gap in a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.
Mao, Xiaole; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Lapsley, Michael Ian; Zhao, Yanhui; McCoy, J Philip; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Huang, Tony Jun
2012-06-01
In this work, we demonstrate an integrated, single-layer, miniature flow cytometry device that is capable of multi-parametric particle analysis. The device integrates both particle focusing and detection components on-chip, including a "microfluidic drifting" based three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing component and a series of optical fibers integrated into the microfluidic architecture to facilitate on-chip detection. With this design, multiple optical signals (i.e., forward scatter, side scatter, and fluorescence) from individual particles can be simultaneously detected. Experimental results indicate that the performance of our flow cytometry chip is comparable to its bulky, expensive desktop counterpart. The integration of on-chip 3D particle focusing with on-chip multi-parametric optical detection in a single-layer, mass-producible microfluidic device presents a major step towards low-cost flow cytometry chips for point-of-care clinical diagnostics.
Lattice hydrodynamic modeling of two-lane traffic flow with timid and aggressive driving behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Sapna
2015-03-01
In this paper, a new two-lane lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model is proposed by considering the aggressive or timid characteristics of driver's behavior. The effect of driver's characteristic on the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. It is shown that for both the cases of lane changing or without lane changing the stability region significantly enlarges (reduces) as the proportion of aggressive (timid) drivers increases. To describe the propagation behavior of a density wave near the critical point, nonlinear analysis is conducted and mKdV equation representing kink-antikink soliton is derived. The effect of anticipation parameter with more aggressive (timid) drivers is also investigated and found that it has a positive (negative) effect on the stability of two-lane traffic flow dynamics. Simulation results are found consistent with the theoretical findings which confirm that the driver's characteristics play a significant role in a two-lane traffic system.
Role of receptor patch geometry for cell adhesion in hydrodynamic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korn, Christian; Schwarz, Ulrich
2008-03-01
Motivated by the physiological and biotechnological importance of cell adhesion under hydrodynamic flow, we theoretically investigate the efficiency of initial binding between a receptor-coated sphere and a ligand-coated wall in linear shear flow. Using a Langevin equation that accounts for both hydrodynamic interactions and Browian motion, we numerically calculate the mean first passage time (MFPT) for receptor-ligand encounter. We study how the MFPT is influenced by flow rate, receptor and ligand coverage, and receptor patch geometry. With increasing shear rate, the MFPT decreases monotonically. Above a threshold value of a few hundreds, binding efficiency is enhanced only weakly upon increasing the number of receptor patches. Increasing the height of the receptor patches increases binding efficiency much more strongly than increasing their lateral size. This strong dependance on out-off-plane geometry explains why white blood cells adhere to the vessel walls through receptor patches localized to the tips of microvilli, and why malaria-infected red blood cells form elevated receptor patches (knobs). [1] C. Korn and U. S. Schwarz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97: 138103, 2006. [2] C. B. Korn and U. S. Schwarz. J. Chem. Phys. 126: 095103, 2007
Analysis of hydrodynamic conditions in adjacent free and heterogeneous porous flow domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, D. B.; Hanspal, N. S.; Nassehi, V.
2005-09-01
The existence of a free-flow domain (e.g. a liquid layer) adjacent to a porous medium is a common occurrence in many environmental and petroleum engineering problems. The porous media may often contain various forms of heterogeneity, e.g. layers, fractures, micro-scale lenses, etc. These heterogeneities affect the pressure distribution within the porous domain. This may influence the hydrodynamic conditions at the free-porous domain interface and, hence, the combined flow behaviour. Under steady-state conditions, the heterogeneities are known to have negligible effects on the coupled flow behaviour. However, the significance of the heterogeneity effects on coupled free and porous flow under transient conditions is not certain. In this study, numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of heterogeneous (layered) porous media on the hydrodynamics conditions in determining the behaviour of combined free and porous regimes. Heterogeneity in the porous media is introduced by defining a domain composed of two layers of porous media with different values of intrinsic permeability. The coupling of the governing equations of motion in free and porous domains has been achieved through the well-known Beavers and Joseph interfacial condition. Of special interest in this work are porous domains with flow-through ends. They represent the general class of problems where large physical domains are truncated to smaller sections for ease of mathematical analysis. However, this causes a practical difficulty in modelling such systems. This is because the information on flow behaviour, i.e. boundary conditions at the truncated sections, is usually not available. Use of artificial boundary conditions to solve these problems effectively implies the imposition of conditions that do not necessarily match with the solutions required for the interior of the domain. This difficulty is resolved in this study by employing stress-free boundary conditions at the open
New control strategy for the lattice hydrodynamic model of traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Chenqiang; Zhong, Shiquan; Li, Guangyu; Ma, Shoufeng
2017-02-01
The new delayed-feedback control strategy is applied for lattice hydrodynamic model of traffic flow by considering the control signal of the variation rate of the optimal velocity. The linear stability condition is derived in the frequency-domain with control theory. Then, different feedback gains under the periodic boundary scenery and on-ramp scenery are simulated. The periodic boundary scenery provides an initial small disturbance situation on the circle road, while the on-ramp scenery reproduces the disturbance triggered by the on-ramp on the open road. Both the theoretical analysis and simulations show that this new control signal has a positive effect to suppress traffic jams.
Tandon, P; Diamond, S L
1997-01-01
We have modeled platelet aggregation in a linear shear flow by accounting for two body collision hydrodynamics, platelet activation and receptor biology. Considering platelets and their aggregates as unequal-sized spheres with DLVO interactions (psi(platelet) = -15 mV, Hamaker constant = 10(-19) J), detailed hydrodynamics provided the flow field around the colliding platelets. Trajectory calculations were performed to obtain the far upstream cross-sectional area and the particle flux through this area provided the collision frequency. Only a fraction of platelets brought together by a shearing fluid flow were held together if successfully bound by fibrinogen cross-bridging GPIIb/IIIa receptors on the platelet surfaces. This fraction was calculated by modeling receptor-mediated aggregation using the formalism of Bell (Bell, G. I. 1979. A theoretical model for adhesion between cells mediated by multivalent ligands. Cell Biophys. 1:133-147) where the forward rate of bond formation dictated aggregation during collision and was estimated from the diffusional limited rate of lateral association of receptors multiplied by an effectiveness factor, eta, to give an apparent rate. For a value of eta = 0.0178, we calculated the overall efficiency (including both receptor binding and hydrodynamics effects) for equal-sized platelets with 50,000 receptors/platelet to be 0.206 for G = 41.9 s(-1), 0.05 for G = 335 s(-1), and 0.0086 for G = 1920 s(-1), values which are in agreement with efficiencies determined from initial platelet singlet consumption rates in flow through a tube. From our analysis, we predict that bond formation proceeds at a rate of approximately 0.1925 bonds/microm2 per ms, which is approximately 50-fold slower than the diffusion limited rate of association. This value of eta is also consistent with a colloidal stability of unactivated platelets at low shear rates. Fibrinogen was calculated to mediate aggregation quite efficiently at low shear rates but not at
Magneto-hydrodynamic detection of vortex shedding for molten salt flow sensing.
Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Crocker, Robert W.
2012-09-01
High temperature flow sensors must be developed for use with molten salts systems at temperatures in excess of 600ÀC. A novel magneto-hydrodynamic sensing approach was investigated. A prototype sensor was developed and tested in an aqueous sodium chloride solution as a surrogate for molten salt. Despite that the electrical conductivity was a factor of three less than molten salts, it was found that the electrical conductivity of an electrolyte was too low to adequately resolve the signal amidst surrounding noise. This sensor concept is expected to work well with any liquid metal application, as the generated magnetic field scales proportionately with electrical conductivity.
Baleen Hydrodynamics and Morphology of Cross-Flow Filtration in Balaenid Whale Suspension Feeding
Werth, Alexander J.; Potvin, Jean
2016-01-01
The traditional view of mysticete feeding involves static baleen directly sieving particles from seawater using a simple, dead-end flow-through filtration mechanism. Flow tank experiments on bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) baleen indicate the long-standing model of dead-end filtration, at least in balaenid (bowhead and right) whales, is not merely simplistic but wrong. To recreate continuous intraoral flow, sections of baleen were tested in a flume through which water and buoyant particles circulated with variable flow velocity. Kinematic sequences were analyzed to investigate movement and capture of particles by baleen plates and fringes. Results indicate that very few particles flow directly through the baleen rack; instead much water flows anteroposteriorly along the interior (lingual) side of the rack, allowing items to be carried posteriorly and accumulate at the posterior of the mouth where they might readily be swallowed. Since water flows mainly parallel to rather than directly through the filter, the cross-flow mechanism significantly reduces entrapment and tangling of minute items in baleen fringes, obviating the need to clean the filter. The absence of copepods or other prey found trapped in the baleen of necropsied right and bowhead whales supports this hypothesis. Reduced through-baleen flow was observed with and without boundaries modeling the tongue and lips, indicating that baleen itself is the main if not sole agent of crossflow. Preliminary investigation of baleen from balaenopterid whales that use intermittent filter feeding suggests that although the biomechanics and hydrodynamics of oral flow differ, cross-flow filtration may occur to some degree in all mysticetes. PMID:26918630
Baleen Hydrodynamics and Morphology of Cross-Flow Filtration in Balaenid Whale Suspension Feeding.
Werth, Alexander J; Potvin, Jean
2016-01-01
The traditional view of mysticete feeding involves static baleen directly sieving particles from seawater using a simple, dead-end flow-through filtration mechanism. Flow tank experiments on bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) baleen indicate the long-standing model of dead-end filtration, at least in balaenid (bowhead and right) whales, is not merely simplistic but wrong. To recreate continuous intraoral flow, sections of baleen were tested in a flume through which water and buoyant particles circulated with variable flow velocity. Kinematic sequences were analyzed to investigate movement and capture of particles by baleen plates and fringes. Results indicate that very few particles flow directly through the baleen rack; instead much water flows anteroposteriorly along the interior (lingual) side of the rack, allowing items to be carried posteriorly and accumulate at the posterior of the mouth where they might readily be swallowed. Since water flows mainly parallel to rather than directly through the filter, the cross-flow mechanism significantly reduces entrapment and tangling of minute items in baleen fringes, obviating the need to clean the filter. The absence of copepods or other prey found trapped in the baleen of necropsied right and bowhead whales supports this hypothesis. Reduced through-baleen flow was observed with and without boundaries modeling the tongue and lips, indicating that baleen itself is the main if not sole agent of crossflow. Preliminary investigation of baleen from balaenopterid whales that use intermittent filter feeding suggests that although the biomechanics and hydrodynamics of oral flow differ, cross-flow filtration may occur to some degree in all mysticetes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anaya, A. A.; Padilla, I. Y.
2013-12-01
High productivity of karst groundwater systems is often associated with conduit flow and high matrix permeability. Spatial heterogeneities and anisotropy, among others factors, result in highly complex flow patterns in these systems. The same characteristics that make these aquifers very productive also make them highly vulnerable to contamination and a likely for contaminant exposure. The understanding of contamination fate and transport processes in these complex aquifers demand different statistical and numerical approaches, such as the Temporal Moment Analysis (TMA). TMA of solute breakthrough curves provide qualitative and quantitative results to characterize hydrodynamic variables that affect the release, mobility, persistence, and possible pathways of contaminants in karst groundwater systems. The general objective of this work is to characterize flow and transport processes in conduit and diffusion-dominated flow under low and high flow conditions using TMA in a karstified physical model. A multidimensional, laboratory-scale, Geo-Hydrobed model (GHM) containing a karstified limestone block collected from the karst aquifer formation of northern Puerto Rico are used for this purpose. Experimental work entails injecting dissolved CaCl2 and trichloroethene (TCE) in the upstream boundary of the GHM while monitoring their concentrations spatially and temporally in the limestone under different groundwater flow regimes. Results from the TMA show a highly heterogeneous system resulting in large preferential flow components and specific mass-transfer limitations zones especially in diffuse flow areas. Flow variables like velocity and Reynolds number indicates defined preferential flow paths increasing spatially as flow rate increase. TMA results show to be qualitatively consistent with a previous statistical novel approach developed using mixed models. Comparison between the dissolved CaCl2 tracer and TCE show implications for reactive contaminants in the karst
Mao, Xiaole; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Dong, Cheng; Huang, Tony Jun
2009-06-07
In this work, we demonstrate an on-chip microfluidic flow cytometry system based on a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic focusing technique, microfluidic drifting. By inducing Dean flow in a curved microfluidic channel, microfluidic drifting can be used to hydrodynamically focus cells or particles in the vertical direction and enables the 3D hydrodynamic focusing in a single-layer planar microfluidic device. Through theoretical calculation, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization, we found that the microfluidic drifting technique can be effectively applied to three-dimensionally focus microparticles with density and size equivalent to those of human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, we developed a flow cytometry platform by integrating the 3D focusing device with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection system. The system was shown to provide effective high-throughput flow cytometry measurements at a rate of greater than 1700 cells s(-1).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordilla, J.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Geyer, T.
2014-12-01
Unsaturated flow in fractured porous media exhibits highly complex flow dynamics and a wide range of intermittent flow processes. Especially in wide aperture fractures, flow processes may be dominated by gravitational instead of capillary forces leading to a deviation from the classical volume effective approaches (Richard's equation, Van Genuchten type relationships). The existence of various flow modes such as droplets, rivulets, turbulent and adsorbed films is well known, however, their spatial and temporal distribution within fracture networks is still an open question partially due to the lack of appropriate modeling tools. With our work we want to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying flow and transport dynamics in unsaturated fractured media in order to support the development of more refined upscaled methods, applicable on catchment scales. We present pore- and fracture-scale flow simulations obtained with a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model. The model allows to simulate free-surface flow dynamics including the effect of surface tension for a wide range of wetting conditions. Several empirical and semi-analytical solutions are used to verify the model. We show that our results satisfy the empirical scaling laws for droplet velocity and critical contact angle. Due to the efficient generation of surface tension via particle-particle interaction forces the dynamic wetting of surfaces as well as the velocity enhancement of droplets on saturated surfaces can readily be obtained. Furthermore, we study the effect of surface roughness on droplet velocities. Lastly, we present flow and transport simulations in the presence of an adjacent porous matrix in order to investigate its influence on the fracture surface flow dynamics and transport across the matrix-fracture interface.
Rohan Benjankar; Daniele Tonina; James McKean
2014-01-01
Studies of the effects of hydrodynamic model dimensionality on simulated flow properties and derived quantities such as aquatic habitat quality are limited. It is important to close this knowledge gap especially now that entire river networks can be mapped at the microhabitat scale due to the advent of point-cloud techniques. This study compares flow properties, such...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, C.-X.; Zhou, J.-W.; Cui, P.; Hao, M.-H.; Xu, F.-G.
2014-06-01
Debris flow is one of the catastrophic disasters in an earthquake-stricken area, and remains to be studied in depth. It is imperative to obtain an initiation mechanism and model of the debris flow, especially from unconsolidated soil. With flume experiments and field investigation on the Wenjiagou Gully debris flow induced from unconsolidated soil, it can be found that surface runoff can support the shear force along the slope and lead to soil strength decreasing, with fine particles migrating and forming a local relatively impermeable face. The surface runoff effect is the primary factor for accelerating the unconsolidated slope failure and initiating debris flow. Thus, a new theoretical model for the initiation of debris flow in unconsolidated soil was established by incorporating hydrodynamic theory and soil mechanics. This model was validated by a laboratory test and proved to be better suited for unconsolidated soil failure analysis. In addition, the mechanism analysis and the established model can provide a new direction and deeper understanding of debris flow initiation with unconsolidated soil.
A quasi-continuum hydrodynamic model for slit shaped nanochannel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N. R.
2013-08-01
We propose a quasi-continuum hydrodynamic model for isothermal transport of Lennard-Jones fluid confined in slit shaped nanochannels. In this work, we compute slip and viscous contributions independently and superimpose them to obtain the total velocity profile. Layering of fluid near the interface plays an important role in viscous contribution to the flow, by apparent viscosity change along the confining dimension. This relationship necessitates computing density profiles, which is done using the recently proposed empirical-potential based quasi-continuum theory [A. V. Raghunathan, J. H. Park, and N. R. Aluru, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174701 (2007)], 10.1063/1.2793070. Existing correlations for density dependent viscosity provided by Woodcock [AIChE J. 52, 438 (2006)], 10.1002/aic.10676 are used to compute viscosity profile in the nanopores. A Dirichlet type slip boundary condition based on a static Langevin friction model describing center-of-mass motion of fluid particles is used, the parameters of which are dependent on the fluctuations of total wall-fluid force from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Different types of corrugated surfaces are considered to study wall-fluid friction effects on boundary conditions. Proposed hydrodynamic model yields good agreement of velocity profiles obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for gravity driven flow.
Hydrodynamics of embedded planets' first atmospheres - I. A centrifugal growth barrier for 2D flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ormel, Chris W.; Kuiper, Rolf; Shi, Ji-Ming
2015-01-01
In the core accretion paradigm of planet formation, gas giants only form a massive atmosphere after their progenitors exceeded a threshold mass: the critical core mass. Most (exo)planets, being smaller and rock/ice-dominated, never crossed this line. Nevertheless, they were massive enough to attract substantial amounts of gas from the disc, while their atmospheres remained in pressure-equilibrium with the disc. Our goal is to characterize the hydrodynamical properties of the atmospheres of such embedded planets and the implications for their (long-term) evolution. In this paper - the first in series - we start to investigate the properties of an isothermal and inviscid flow past a small, embedded planet by conducting local, 2D hydrodynamical simulations. Using the PLUTO code, we confirm that the flow is steady and bound. This steady outcome is most apparent for the log-polar grid (with the grid spacing proportional to the distance from the planet). For low-mass planets, Cartesian grids are somewhat less efficient as they have difficulty to follow the circular, large speeds in the deep atmosphere. Relating the amount of rotation to the gas fraction of the atmosphere, we find that more massive atmospheres rotate faster - a finding consistent with Kelvin's circulation theorem. Rotation therefore limits the amount of gas that planets can acquire from the nebula. Dependent on the Toomre-Q parameter of the circumstellar disc, the planet's atmosphere will reach Keplerian rotation before self-gravity starts to become important.
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
Direct numerical simulation of a fluid flow in core samples based on quasi-hydrodynamic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balashov, V. A.; Savenkov, E. B.; Kuleshov, A. A.
2016-12-01
Direct numerical modeling techniques for the evaluation of a macroscopic permeability coefficient of samples of naturally occurring geological media using their micro-computer tomography (micro-CT) images is considered. The basic mathematical model of a flow is based on quasi-hydrodynamic (QHD) equations for viscous heat-conducting compressible gas flows. The evaluation of a permeability coefficient of artificial and real porous media is discussed. Free available micro-CT images are used. Results of computations for artificial porous media are compared with the analytic ones, for real porous media — with the results obtained by the Lattice Boltzmann method and results obtained by other researchers. It is shown that the approach based on QHD equations is highly competitive with other approaches.
Anomalous preasymptotic colloid transport by hydrodynamic dispersion in microfluidic capillary flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fridjonsson, Einar Orn; Seymour, Joseph D.; Codd, Sarah L.
2014-07-01
The anomalous preasymptotic transport of colloids in a microfluidic capillary flow due to hydrodynamic dispersion is measured by noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The data indicate a reduced scaling of mean squared displacement with time from the
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics pore-scale simulations of unstable immiscible flow in porous media
Bandara, Dunusinghe Mudiyanselage Uditha C.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Oostrom, Martinus; Palmer, Bruce J.; Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong
2013-12-01
We have conducted a series of high-resolution numerical experiments using the Pair-Wise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) multiphase flow model. First, we derived analytical expressions relating parameters in the PF-SPH model to the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we used the model to study viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media for a wide range of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios. We demonstrated that the steady state saturation profiles and the boundaries of viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement regions compare favorably with micromodel laboratory experimental results. For displacing fluid with low viscosity, we observed that the displacement pattern changes from viscous fingering to stable displacement with increasing injection rate. When a high viscosity fluid is injected, transition behavior from capillary fingering to stable displacement occurred as the flow rate was increased. These observation also agree with the results of the micromodel laboratory experiments.
General Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulation of Accretion Flow from a Stellar Tidal Disruption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiokawa, Hotaka; Krolik, Julian H.; Cheng, Roseanne M.; Piran, Tsvi; Noble, Scott C.
2015-05-01
We study how the matter dispersed when a supermassive black hole tidally disrupts a star joins an accretion flow. Combining a relativistic hydrodynamic simulation of the stellar disruption with a relativistic hydrodynamics simulation of the subsequent debris motion, we track the evolution of such a system until ≃ 80% of the stellar mass bound to the black hole has settled into an accretion flow. Shocks near the stellar pericenter and also near the apocenter of the most tightly bound debris dissipate orbital energy, but only enough to make its characteristic radius comparable to the semimajor axis of the most bound material, not the tidal radius as previously envisioned. The outer shocks are caused by post-Newtonian relativistic effects, both on the stellar orbit during its disruption and on the tidal forces. Accumulation of mass into the accretion flow is both non-monotonic and slow, requiring several to 10 times the orbital period of the most tightly bound tidal streams, while the inflow time for most of the mass may be comparable to or longer than the mass accumulation time. Deflection by shocks does, however, cause some mass to lose both angular momentum and energy, permitting it to move inward even before most of the mass is accumulated into the accretion flow. Although the accretion rate still rises sharply and then decays roughly as a power law, its maximum is ≃ 0.1× the previous expectation, and the timescale of the peak is ≃ 5× longer than previously predicted. The geometric mean of the black hole mass and stellar mass inferred from a measured event timescale is therefore ≃ 0.2× the value given by classical theory.
Hydrodynamic behavior in the outer shear layer of partly obstructed open channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Meftah, Mouldi; De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele
2014-06-01
Despite the many studies on flow in partly obstructed open channels, this issue remains of fundamental importance in order to better understand the interaction between flow behavior and the canopy structure. In the first part of this study we suggest a new theoretical approach able to model the flow pattern within the shear layer in the unobstructed domain, adjacent to the canopy area. Differently from previous studies, the new analytical solution of flow momentum equations takes into account the transversal velocity component of the flow, which is modelled as a linear function of the streamwise velocity. The proposed theoretical model is validated by different experiments carried out on a physical model of a very large rectangular channel by the research group of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Building Engineering and Chemistry of the Technical University of Bari. An array of vertical, rigid, and circular steel cylinders was partially mounted on the bottom in the central part of the flume, leaving two lateral areas of free flow circulation near the walls. The three-dimensional flow velocity components were measured using a 3D Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. A comparison of the measured and predicted data of the present study with those obtained in other previous studies, carried out with different canopy density, show a non-dependence of this analytical solution on the array density and the Reynolds number. In the second part of the paper, detailed observations of turbulent intensities and spanwise Reynolds stresses in the unobstructed flow are analyzed and discussed. Differently from some earlier studies, it was observed that the peak of the turbulence intensity and that of the spanwise Reynolds stress are significantly shifted toward the center of the shear layer.
An Integrated Numerical Hydrodynamic Shallow Flow-Solute Transport Model for Urban Area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alias, N. A.; Mohd Sidek, L.
2016-03-01
The rapidly changing on land profiles in the some urban areas in Malaysia led to the increasing of flood risk. Extensive developments on densely populated area and urbanization worsen the flood scenario. An early warning system is really important and the popular method is by numerically simulating the river and flood flows. There are lots of two-dimensional (2D) flood model predicting the flood level but in some circumstances, still it is difficult to resolve the river reach in a 2D manner. A systematic early warning system requires a precisely prediction of flow depth. Hence a reliable one-dimensional (1D) model that provides accurate description of the flow is essential. Research also aims to resolve some of raised issues such as the fate of pollutant in river reach by developing the integrated hydrodynamic shallow flow-solute transport model. Presented in this paper are results on flow prediction for Sungai Penchala and the convection-diffusion of solute transports simulated by the developed model.
Mustafa, Adil; Erten, Ahmet; Ayaz, Rana M Armaghan; Kayıllıoğlu, Oğuz; Eser, Aysenur; Eryürek, Mustafa; Irfan, Muhammad; Muradoglu, Metin; Tanyeri, Melikhan; Kiraz, Alper
2016-09-20
A novel noncontact technique based on hydrodynamic trapping is presented to study the dissolution of freely suspended liquid microdroplets into a second immiscible phase in a simple extensional creeping flow. Benzyl benzoate (BB) and n-decanol microdroplets are individually trapped at the stagnation point of a planar extensional flow, and dissolution of single microdroplets into an aqueous solution containing surfactant is characterized at different flow rates. The experimental dissolution curves are compared to two models: (i) the Epstein-Plesset (EP) model which considers only diffusive mass transfer, and (ii) the Zhang-Yang-Mao (ZYM) model which considers both diffusive and convective mass transfer in the presence of extensional creeping flow. The EP model significantly underpredicts the experimentally determined dissolution rates for all experiments. In contrast, very good agreement is observed between the experimental dissolution curves and the ZYM model when the saturation concentration of the microdroplet liquid (cs) is used as the only fitting parameter. Experiments with BB microdroplets at low surfactant concentration (10 μM) reveal cs values very similar to that reported in the literature. In contrast, experiments with BB and n-decanol microdroplets at 10 mM surfactant concentration, higher than the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 5 mM, show further enhancements in microdroplet dissolution rates due to micellar solubilization. The presented method accurately tests the dissolution of single microdroplets into a second immiscible phase in extensional creeping flow and has potential for applications such as separation processes, food dispersion, and drug development/design.
Two-phase electro-hydrodynamic flow modeling by a conservative level set model.
Lin, Yuan
2013-03-01
The principles of electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) flow have been known for more than a century and have been adopted for various industrial applications, for example, fluid mixing and demixing. Analytical solutions of such EHD flow only exist in a limited number of scenarios, for example, predicting a small deformation of a single droplet in a uniform electric field. Numerical modeling of such phenomena can provide significant insights about EHDs multiphase flows. During the last decade, many numerical results have been reported to provide novel and useful tools of studying the multiphase EHD flow. Based on a conservative level set method, the proposed model is able to simulate large deformations of a droplet by a steady electric field, which is beyond the region of theoretic prediction. The model is validated for both leaky dielectrics and perfect dielectrics, and is found to be in excellent agreement with existing analytical solutions and numerical studies in the literature. Furthermore, simulations of the deformation of a water droplet in decyl alcohol in a steady electric field match better with published experimental data than the theoretical prediction for large deformations. Therefore the proposed model can serve as a practical and accurate tool for simulating two-phase EHD flow.
Kummrow, A; Theisen, J; Frankowski, M; Tuchscheerer, A; Yildirim, H; Brattke, K; Schmidt, M; Neukammer, J
2009-04-07
We present three-dimensional microfluidic structures with integrated optical fibers, mirrors and electrodes for flow cytometric analysis of blood cells. Ultraprecision milling technique was used to fabricate different flow cells featuring single-stage and two-stage cascaded hydrodynamic focusing of particles by a sheath flow. Two dimensional focussing of the sample fluid was proven by fluorescence imaging in horizontal and vertical directions and found to agree satisfactorily with finite element calculations. Focussing of the sample stream down to 5 microm at a particle velocity of 3 m s(-1) is accessible while maintaining stable operation for sample flow rates of up to 20 microL min(-1). In addition to fluorescence imaging, the micro-flow cells were characterised by measurements of pulse shapes and pulse height distributions of monodisperse microspheres. We demonstrated practical use of the microstructures for cell differentiation employing light scatter to distinguish platelets and red blood cells. Furthermore, T-helper lymphocytes labelled by monoclonal antibodies were identified by measuring side scatter and fluorescence.
Effect of diffusion on impedance measurements in a hydrodynamic flow focusing sensor.
Nasir, Mansoor; Price, Dorielle T; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Ligler, Frances
2010-10-21
This paper investigated the effects of diffusion between non-conductive sheath and conductive sample fluids in an impedance-based biosensor. Impedance measurements were made with 2- and 4-electrode configurations. The 4-electrode design offers the advantage of impedance measurements at low frequencies (<1 kHz) without the deleterious effects of double layer impedance which are present in the 2-electrode design. Hydrodynamic flow focusing was achieved with a modified T-junction design with a smaller cross-section for the sample channel than for the focusing channel, which resulted in 2D focusing of the sample stream with just one sheath stream. By choosing a non-conductive sheath fluid and a conductive sample fluid, the electric field was confined to the focused stream. In order to utilize this system for biosensing applications, we characterized it for electrical and flow parameters. In particular, we investigated the effects of varying flow velocities and flow-rate ratios on the focused stream. Increasing flow-rate ratios reduced the cross-sectional area of the focused streams as was verified by finite element modeling and confocal microscopy. Antibody mediated binding of Escherichia coli to the electrode surface caused an increase in solution resistance at low frequencies. The results also showed that the diffusion mass transport at the interface of the two streams limited the benefits of increased flow focusing. Increasing flow velocities could be used to offset the diffusion effect. To optimize detection sensitivity, flow parameters and mass transport must be considered in conjunction, with the goal of reducing diffusion of conducting species out of the focused stream while simultaneously minimizing its cross-sectional area.
Yoganathan, A P; Cape, E G; Sung, H W; Williams, F P; Jimoh, A
1988-11-01
An understanding of the basic concepts of the physics of blood flow is of vital importance to the cardiologist as he or she attempts to utilize new blood flow imaging modalities, such as Doppler ultrasound and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Concepts such as the Bernoulli equation and its limitations, the continuity equation and volume flow calculations and the theory of free and confined jets have applications in cardiac blood flow-related problems. For example, mitral regurgitant flow may be treated with the free jet theory. Aortic stenosis results in confined jet flow. It is important that the cardiologist understand the basic principles behind these hydrodynamic concepts so that he or she can use them in appropriate applications. The limitations of the simplification of complex hydrodynamic relations that are used clinically need to be clearly understood so that these simplified principles are not used improperly or used to draw oversimplified conclusions.
Analysis of hydrodynamic fluctuations in heterogeneous adjacent multidomains in shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Xin; Deng, Mingge; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George Em
2016-03-01
We analyze hydrodynamic fluctuations of a hybrid simulation under shear flow. The hybrid simulation is based on the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on one domain and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) on the other. The two domains overlap, and there is an artificial boundary for each one within the overlapping region. To impose the artificial boundary of the NS solver, a simple spatial-temporal averaging is performed on the DPD simulation. In the artificial boundary of the particle simulation, four popular strategies of constraint dynamics are implemented, namely the Maxwell buffer [Hadjiconstantinou and Patera, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 08, 967 (1997), 10.1142/S0129183197000837], the relaxation dynamics [O'Connell and Thompson, Phys. Rev. E 52, R5792 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevE.52.R5792], the least constraint dynamics [Nie et al., J. Fluid Mech. 500, 55 (2004), 10.1017/S0022112003007225; Werder et al., J. Comput. Phys. 205, 373 (2005), 10.1016/j.jcp.2004.11.019], and the flux imposition [Flekkøy et al., Europhys. Lett. 52, 271 (2000), 10.1209/epl/i2000-00434-8], to achieve a target mean value given by the NS solver. Going beyond the mean flow field of the hybrid simulations, we investigate the hydrodynamic fluctuations in the DPD domain. Toward that end, we calculate the transversal autocorrelation functions of the fluctuating variables in k space to evaluate the generation, transport, and dissipation of fluctuations in the presence of a hybrid interface. We quantify the unavoidable errors in the fluctuations, due to both the truncation of the domain and the constraint dynamics performed in the artificial boundary. Furthermore, we compare the four methods of constraint dynamics and demonstrate how to reduce the errors in fluctuations. The analysis and findings of this work are directly applicable to other hybrid simulations of fluid flow with thermal fluctuations.
Principles of physics in surgery: the laws of flow dynamics physics for surgeons - Part 1.
Srivastava, Anurag; Sood, Akshay; Joy, S Parijat; Woodcock, John
2009-08-01
In the field of medicine and surgery many principles of physics find numerous applications. In this article we have summarized some prominent applications of the laws of fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics in surgery. Poiseuille's law sets the limits of isovolaemic haemodilution, enumerates limiting factors during fluid resuscitation and is a guiding principle in surgery for vascular stenoses. The equation of continuity finds use in non-invasive measurement of blood flow. Bernoulli's theorem explains the formation of post-stenotic dilatation. Reynolds number explains the origin of murmurs, haemolysis and airflow disturbances. Various forms of oxygen therapy are a direct application of the gas laws. Doppler effect is used in ultrasonography to find the direction and velocity of blood flow. In this first part of a series of articles we describe some applications of the laws of hydrodynamics governing the flow of blood and other body fluids.
Khalili, Amelia Ahmad; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan
2015-11-09
Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh) manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid's velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications.
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Stochastic Model for Flow and Transport in Porous Media
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Meakin, Paul
2008-11-03
A meso-scale stochastic Lagrangian particle model was developed and used to simulate conservative and reactive transport in porous media. In the stochastic model, the fluid flow in a porous continuum is governed by a combination of a Langevin equation and continuity equation. Pore-scale velocity fluctuations, the source of hydrodynamic dispersion, are represented by the white noise. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics method was used to solve the governing equations. Changes in the properties of the fluid particles (e.g., the solute concentration) are governed by the advection-diffusion equation. The separate treatment of advective and diffusive mixing in the stochastic transport model is more realistic than the classical advection-dispersion theory, which uses a single effective diffusion coefficient (the dispersion coefficient) to describe both types of mixing leading to over-prediction of mixing induced effective reaction rates. The stochastic model predicts much lower reaction product concentrations in mixing induced reactions. In addition, the dispersion theory predicts more stable fronts (with a higher effective fractal dimension) than the stochastic model during the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.
Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidic Biochip for Single-Cell Trapping Application
Ahmad Khalili, Amelia; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan
2015-01-01
Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh) manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid’s velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications. PMID:26569218
Xie, Nan; Battaglia, Francine; Pannala, Sreekanth
2008-01-01
Simulations of fluidized beds are performed to study and determine the effect on the use of coordinate systems and geometrical configurations to model fluidized bed reactors. Computational fluid dynamics is employed for an Eulerian-Eulerian model, which represents each phase as an interspersed continuum. The transport equation for granular temperature is solved and a hyperbolic tangent function is used to provide a smooth transition between the plastic and viscous regimes for the solid phase. The aim of the present work is to show the range of validity for employing simulations based on a 2D Cartesian coordinate system to approximate both cylindrical and rectangular fluidized beds. Three different fluidization regimes, bubbling, slugging and turbulent regimes, are investigated and the results of 2D and 3D simulations are presented for both cylindrical and rectangular domains. The results demonstrate that a 2D Cartesian system can be used to successfully simulate and predict a bubbling regime. However, caution must be exercised when using 2D Cartesian coordinates for other fluidized regimes. A budget analysis that explains all the differences in detail is presented in Part II [N. Xie, F. Battaglia, S. Pannala, Effects of Using Two-Versus Three-Dimensional Computational Modeling of Fluidized Beds: Part II, budget analysis, 182 (1) (2007) 14] to complement the hydrodynamic theory of this paper.
Enhancement of microfluidic particle separation using cross-flow filters with hydrodynamic focusing
Chiu, Yun-Yen; Huang, Chen-Kang
2016-01-01
A microfluidic chip is proposed to separate microparticles using cross-flow filtration enhanced with hydrodynamic focusing. By exploiting a buffer flow from the side, the microparticles in the sample flow are pushed on one side of the microchannels, lining up to pass through the filters. Meanwhile a larger pressure gradient in the filters is obtained to enhance separation efficiency. Compared with the traditional cross-flow filtration, our proposed mechanism has the buffer flow to create a moving virtual boundary for the sample flow to actively push all the particles to reach the filters for separation. It further allows higher flow rates. The device only requires soft lithograph fabrication to create microchannels and a novel pressurized bonding technique to make high-aspect-ratio filtration structures. A mixture of polystyrene microparticles with 2.7 μm and 10.6 μm diameters are successfully separated. 96.2 ± 2.8% of the large particle are recovered with a purity of 97.9 ± 0.5%, while 97.5 ± 0.4% of the small particle are depleted with a purity of 99.2 ± 0.4% at a sample throughput of 10 μl/min. The experiment is also conducted to show the feasibility of this mechanism to separate biological cells with the sample solutions of spiked PC3 cells in whole blood. By virtue of its high separation efficiency, our device offers a label-free separation technique and potential integration with other components, thereby serving as a promising tool for continuous cell filtration and analysis applications. PMID:26858812
Enhancement of microfluidic particle separation using cross-flow filters with hydrodynamic focusing.
Chiu, Yun-Yen; Huang, Chen-Kang; Lu, Yen-Wen
2016-01-01
A microfluidic chip is proposed to separate microparticles using cross-flow filtration enhanced with hydrodynamic focusing. By exploiting a buffer flow from the side, the microparticles in the sample flow are pushed on one side of the microchannels, lining up to pass through the filters. Meanwhile a larger pressure gradient in the filters is obtained to enhance separation efficiency. Compared with the traditional cross-flow filtration, our proposed mechanism has the buffer flow to create a moving virtual boundary for the sample flow to actively push all the particles to reach the filters for separation. It further allows higher flow rates. The device only requires soft lithograph fabrication to create microchannels and a novel pressurized bonding technique to make high-aspect-ratio filtration structures. A mixture of polystyrene microparticles with 2.7 μm and 10.6 μm diameters are successfully separated. 96.2 ± 2.8% of the large particle are recovered with a purity of 97.9 ± 0.5%, while 97.5 ± 0.4% of the small particle are depleted with a purity of 99.2 ± 0.4% at a sample throughput of 10 μl/min. The experiment is also conducted to show the feasibility of this mechanism to separate biological cells with the sample solutions of spiked PC3 cells in whole blood. By virtue of its high separation efficiency, our device offers a label-free separation technique and potential integration with other components, thereby serving as a promising tool for continuous cell filtration and analysis applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charogiannis, Alexandros; Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Markides, Christos N.
2017-01-01
We present results from the simultaneous application of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), complemented by direct numerical simulations, aimed at the detailed hydrodynamic characterization of harmonically excited liquid-film flows falling under the action of gravity. The experimental campaign comprises four different aqueous-glycerol solutions corresponding to four Kapitza numbers (Ka=14 , 85, 350, 1800), spanning the Reynolds number range Re=2.3 -320 , and with forcing frequencies fw=7 and 10 Hz . PLIF was employed to generate spatiotemporally resolved film-height measurements, and PIV and PTV to generate two-dimensional velocity-vector maps of the flow field underneath the wavy film interface. The latter allows for instantaneous, highly localized velocity-profile, bulk-velocity, and flow-rate data to be retrieved, based on which the effect of local film topology on the flow field underneath the waves is studied in detail. Temporal sequences of instantaneous and local film height and bulk velocity are generated and combined into bulk flow-rate time series. The time-mean flow rates are then decomposed into steady and unsteady components, the former represented by the product of the mean film height and mean bulk velocity and the latter by the covariance of the film-height and bulk-velocity fluctuations. The steady terms are found to vary linearly with the flow Re, with the best-fit gradients approximated closely by the kinematic viscosities of the three examined liquids. The unsteady terms, typically amounting to 5 %-10 % of the mean and peaking at approximately 20 % , are found to scale linearly with the film-height variance. And, interestingly, the instantaneous flow rate is found to vary linearly with the instantaneous film height. Both experimental and numerical flow-rate data are closely approximated by a simple analytical relationship with only minor deviations. This relationship
Atomic hydrodynamics of DNA: coil-uncoil-coil transitions in a wall-bounded shear flow.
Sandberg, William C; Wang, Guan M
2008-12-01
Extensive experimental work on the response of DNA molecules to externally applied forces and on the dynamics of DNA molecules flowing in microchannels and nanochannels has been carried out over the past two decades, however, there has not been available, until now, any atomic-scale means of analyzing nonequilibrium DNA response dynamics. There has not therefore been any way to investigate how the backbone and side-chain atoms along the length of a DNA molecule interact with the molecules and ions of the flowing solvent and with the atoms of passing boundary surfaces. We report here on the application of the nonequilibrium biomolecular dynamics simulation method that we developed [G. M. Wang and W. C. Sandberg, Nanotechnology 18, 4819 (2007)] to analyze, at the atomic interaction force level, the conformational dynamics of short-chain single-stranded DNA molecules in a shear flow near a surface. This is a direct atomic computational analysis of the hydrodynamic interaction between a biomolecule and a flowing solvent. The DNA molecules are observed to exhibit conformational behaviors including coils, hairpin loops, and figure-eight shapes that have neither been previously measured experimentally nor observed computationally, as far as we know. We relate the conformational dynamics to the atomic interaction forces experienced throughout the length of a molecule as it moves in the flowing solvent past the surface boundary. We show that the DNA conformational dynamics is related to the asymmetry in the molecular environment induced by the motion of the surrounding molecules and the atoms of the passing surface. We also show that while the asymmetry in the environment is necessary, it is not sufficient to produce the observed conformational dynamics. A time variation in the asymmetry, due in our case to a shear flow, must also exist. In order to contrast these results with the usual experimental situation of purely diffusive motion in thermal equilibrium we have also
Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul
1996-11-01
This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and movements that the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull. The first part of the book is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections and wings, and to propellers in uniform flow, with guidance for design and pragmatic analysis of performance. The second part covers the development of unsteady forces arising from operation in nonuniform hull wakes. A final chapter discusses the optimization of efficiency of compound propulsors. Researchers in ocean technology and naval architecture will find this book appealing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Meftah, M.; Mossa, M.
2016-11-01
In this manuscript, we focus on the study of flow structures in a channel partially obstructed by arrays of vertical, rigid, emergent, vegetation/cylinders. Special attention is given to understand the effect of the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the obstructed area width to the width of the unobstructed area, on the flow hydrodynamic structures and to analyze the transversal flow velocity profile at the obstructed-unobstructed interface. A large data set of transversal mean flow velocity profiles and turbulence characteristics is reported from experiments carried out in a laboratory flume. The flow velocities and turbulence intensities have been measured with a 3D Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)-Vectrino manufactured by Nortek. It was observed that the arrays of emergent vegetation/cylinders strongly affect the flow structures, forming a shear layer immediately next to the obstructed-unobstructed interface, followed by an adjacent free-stream region of full velocity flow. The experimental results show that the contraction ratio significantly affects the flow hydrodynamic structure. Adaptation of the Prandtl's log-law modified by Nikuradse led to the determination of a characteristic hydrodynamic roughness height to define the array resistance to the flow. Moreover, an improved modified log-law predicting the representative transversal profile of the mean flow velocity, at the obstructed-unobstructed interface, is proposed. The benefit of this modified log-law is its easier practical applicability, i.e., it avoids the measurements of some sensitive turbulence parameters, in addition, the flow hydrodynamic variables forming it are predictable, using the initial hydraulic conditions.
Hyperscaling-violating Lifshitz hydrodynamics from black-holes: part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiritsis, Elias; Matsuo, Yoshinori
2017-03-01
The derivation of Lifshitz-invariant hydrodynamics from holography, presented in [1] is generalized to arbitrary hyperscaling violating Lifshitz scaling theories with an unbroken U(1) symmetry. The hydrodynamics emerging is non-relativistic with scalar "forcing". By a redefinition of the pressure it becomes standard non-relativistic hydrodynamics in the presence of specific chemical potential for the mass current. The hydrodynamics is compatible with the scaling theory of Lifshitz invariance with hyperscaling violation. The bulk viscosity vanishes while the shear viscosity to entropy ratio is the same as in the relativistic case. We also consider the dimensional reduction ansatz for the hydrodynamics and clarify the difference with previous results suggesting a non-vanishing bulk viscosity.
Hydrodynamic theory for nematic shells: The interplay among curvature, flow, and alignment.
Napoli, Gaetano; Vergori, Luigi
2016-08-01
We derive the hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystals lying on curved substrates. We invoke the Lagrange-Rayleigh variational principle to adapt the Ericksen-Leslie theory to two-dimensional nematics in which a degenerate anchoring of the molecules on the substrate is enforced. The only constitutive assumptions in this scheme concern the free-energy density, given by the two-dimensional Frank potential, and the density of dissipation which is required to satisfy appropriate invariance requirements. The resulting equations of motion couple the velocity field, the director alignment, and the curvature of the shell. To illustrate our findings, we consider the effect of a simple shear flow on the alignment of a nematic lying on a cylindrical shell.
Dust particles in high-speed flows: calculations of small-particle re-entry hydrodynamics
Sandford, M.T. II
1984-02-01
Numerical hydrodynamic calculations are used to model the dispersion of dust injected into a supersonic flow by the explosive disruption of a re-entry vehicle. The particles constitute an initial dustball that expands into the existing velocity field after the detonation. Dust grains subsequently form a plume along the vehicle path. The importance of aerodynamic and radiative heating of the dust is considered but not included in the calculations. Particles in the bow shock heat to the vaporization temperature because of drag and radiative heating, but particles in the dustball are shielded and consequently suffer only a small amount of vaporization. About 20% of the initial dust mass will be vaporized. Application of the results to dust grains entrained in the air blast of a near-surface nuclear explosion is briefly considered. 4 references, 6 figures, 1 table.
Hydrodynamic chromatography and field flow fractionation in finite aspect ratio channels.
Shendruk, T N; Slater, G W
2014-04-25
Hydrodynamic chromatography (HC) and field-flow fractionation (FFF) separation methods are often performed in 3D rectangular channels, though ideal retention theory assumes 2D systems. Devices are commonly designed with large aspect ratios; however, it can be unavoidable or desirable to design rectangular channels with small or even near-unity aspect ratios. To assess the significance of finite-aspect ratio effects and interpret experimental retention results, an ideal, analytical retention theory is needed. We derive a series solution for the ideal retention ratio of HC and FFF rectangular channels. Rather than limiting devices' ability to resolve samples, our theory predicts that retention curves for normal-mode FFF are well approximated by the infinite plate solution and that the performance of HC is actually improved. These findings suggest that FFF devices need not be designed with large aspect ratios and that rectangular HC channels are optimal when the aspect ratio is unity.
On the influence of cold-water coral mound size on flow hydrodynamics, and vice versa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cyr, Frédéric; Haren, Hans; Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerard; Bourgault, Daniel
2016-01-01
Using a combination of in situ observations and idealistic 2-D nonhydrostatic numerical simulations, the relation between cold-water coral (CWC) mound size and hydrodynamics is explored for the Rockall Bank area in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is shown that currents generated by topographically trapped tidal waves in this area cause large isopycnal depressions resulting from an internal hydraulic control above CWC mounds. The oxygen concentration distribution is used as a tracer to visualize the flow behavior and the turbulent mixing above the mounds. By comparing two CWC mounds of different sizes and located close to each other, it is shown that the resulting mixing is highly dependent on the size of the mound. The effects of the hydraulic control for mixing, nutrient availability, and ecosystem functioning are also discussed.
Hydrodynamic theory for nematic shells: The interplay among curvature, flow, and alignment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Napoli, Gaetano; Vergori, Luigi
2016-08-01
We derive the hydrodynamic equations for nematic liquid crystals lying on curved substrates. We invoke the Lagrange-Rayleigh variational principle to adapt the Ericksen-Leslie theory to two-dimensional nematics in which a degenerate anchoring of the molecules on the substrate is enforced. The only constitutive assumptions in this scheme concern the free-energy density, given by the two-dimensional Frank potential, and the density of dissipation which is required to satisfy appropriate invariance requirements. The resulting equations of motion couple the velocity field, the director alignment, and the curvature of the shell. To illustrate our findings, we consider the effect of a simple shear flow on the alignment of a nematic lying on a cylindrical shell.
Hydrodynamic ratchet: Controlled motion of a polymer in an alternating microchannel flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhen; Stark, Holger; Mikhailov, Alexander S.
2013-10-01
Using ratchets, periodic or irregular oscillations can be transformed into steady translational or rotational motions. Here, we consider a model system that operates as a hydrodynamic ratchet. A polymer is placed inside a narrow channel where an oscillating Poiseuille flow is externally created. The ratchet mechanism is implemented by introducing a feedback control for the lateral position of the polymer through which its mobility becomes effectively dependent on the direction of its motion along the channel. We employ the semi-flexible elastic chain modeling for the polymer and use the method of multi-particle collision dynamics to simulate the fluid. We indeed observe directed motion of the polymer and determine the dependence of the propagation velocity on the model parameters.
Hydrodynamics and Segregation in Poiseuille Flow of a Binary Granular Mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Ronak; Alam, Meheboob
2016-11-01
Steady State profiles of hydrodynamic fields have been computed for the Poiseulle flow of a dilute bi-disperse granular mixture using DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) method. The effects of mass bidispersity and inelasticity are studied and it is found that species segregation follows a non-monotonic trend with increasing mass-ratio if the particles are inelastic. Mixture velocity shows a similar trend. Nonequipartition of granular temperature is expectedly enhanced with increasing mass-ratio and inelasticity, but is additionally a strong function of Knudsen number. Effort is made to compare simulation results with a continuum theory for dilute binary granular mixtures, with the aim being to check if theory is able to predict the novel segregation tendencies uncovered in DSMC simulations.
Tresset, Guillaume; Marculescu, Catalin; Salonen, Anniina; Ni, Ming; Iliescu, Ciprian
2013-06-18
Synthesis of surfactant-polyelectrolyte nanoparticles was carried out in a microfluidic device with a fine control over the size and the polydispersity. An anionic polysaccharide (sodium carboxymethylcellulose, CMC) solution was focused using a cationic surfactant (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB) solution in a microfluidic channel at selected ratios of flow rates and reagent concentrations. The methodology ensured a controlled mixing kinetics and a uniform distribution of charges at the mixing interface. The resulting nanoparticles exhibited remarkably well-defined and repeatable size distributions, with hydrodynamic diameters tunable from 50 up to 300 nm and polydispersity index around 0.1 in most cases. Microfluidic-assisted self-assembly may be an efficient way to produce well-controlled polyelectrolyte-based nanoparticles suitable for colloidal science as well as for gene delivery applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunn, R. J.; El Mountassir, G.; MacLachlan, E.; Moir, H.
2013-12-01
Evidence of fossilized microorganisms embedded within mineral veins and mineral-filled fractures has been observed in a wide range of geological environments. Microorganisms can act as sites for mineral nucleation and also contribute to mineral precipitation by inducing local geochemical changes. In this study, we explore fundamental controls on microbially induced mineralization in rock fractures. Specifically, we systematically investigate the influence of hydrodynamics (velocity, flow rate, aperture) on microbially mediated calcite precipitation. We use a case study of microbially induced calcite precipitation as a model biomineralization system to investigate potential feedback mechanisms between the temporally varying patterns of mineral precipitation within a fracture and the resulting variations in the local velocity field. Fractures are represented as a series of precision-etched parallel channels between a pair of sealed Perspex plates. Multiple channels are designed to maintain a constant flow rate, whilst independently adjusting channel aperture and width to explore the effects of aperture and fluid velocity on biomineral precipitation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a feedback mechanism exists between the gradual reduction in fracture aperture due to precipitation, and its effect on the local fluid velocity. This feedback results in mineral fill distributions that focus flow into a small number of self-organizing channels that remain open, ultimately controlling the final aperture profile that governs flow within the fracture. This feedback mechanism exists because precipitation on the fracture walls (as opposed to in solution) requires the bacteria to be transported to the fracture surface. Bacteria settle out of a quiescent solution at a velocity that is dependent on individual floc size and density. This settling velocity competes with the bed shear velocity, inhibiting deposition via entrainment. As precipitation progresses, the flow
Collision energy dependence of viscous hydrodynamic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Chun; Heinz, Ulrich
2012-05-01
Using a (2+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamical model, we study the dependence of flow observables on the collision energy ranging from s=7.7A GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to s=2760A GeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). With a realistic equation of state, Glauber model initial conditions, and a small specific shear viscosity η/s=0.08, the differential charged hadron elliptic flow v2ch(pT,s) is found to exhibit a very broad maximum as a function of s around top RHIC energy, rendering it almost independent of collision energy for 39⩽s⩽2760A GeV. Compared to ideal fluid dynamical simulations, this “saturation” of elliptic flow is shifted to higher collision energies by shear viscous effects. For color-glass-motivated Monte Carlo-Kharzeev-Levin-Nardi initial conditions, which require a larger shear viscosity η/s=0.2 to reproduce the measured elliptic flow, a similar saturation is not observed up to LHC energies, except for very low pT. We emphasize that this saturation of the elliptic flow is not associated with the QCD phase transition, but arises from the interplay between radial and elliptic flow, which shifts with s depending on the fluid's viscosity and leads to a subtle cancellation between increasing contributions from light particles and decreasing contributions from heavy particles to v2 in the s range, where v2ch(pT,s) at fixed pT is maximal. By generalizing the definition of spatial eccentricity ɛx to isothermal hypersurfaces, we calculate ɛx on the kinetic freeze-out surface at different collision energies. Up to top RHIC energy, s=200A GeV, the fireball is still out-of-plane deformed at freeze-out, while at LHC energy the final spatial eccentricity is predicted to approach zero.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinakhov, D. A.; Sarychev, V. D.; Granovsky, A. Yu; Solodsky, S. A.; Nevsky, S. A.; Konovalov, S. V.
2017-01-01
Air pollution with harmful substances resulting from combustion of liquid hydrocarbons and emitted into atmosphere became one of the global environmental problems in the late 20th century. The systems of neutralization capable to reduce toxicity of exhaust gases several times are very important for making environmentally safer combustion products discharged into the atmosphere. As revealed in the literature review, one of the most promising purification procedures is neutralization of burnt gases by catalyst converter systems. The principal working element in the converter is a catalytic layer of metals deposited on ceramics, with thickness 20-60 micron and a well-developed micro-relief. The paper presents a thoroughly substantiated new procedure of deposing a nano-scale surface layer of metal-catalyst particles, furthering the utilization of catalysts on a new level. The paper provides description of mathematical models and computational researches into plasma fluxes under high-frequency impulse input delivered to electrode material, explorations of developing Kelvin-Helmholtz, Marangoni and magnetic hydrodynamic instabilities on the surface of liquid electrode metal droplet in the nano-scale range of wavelengths to obtain a flow of nano-meter particles of cathode material. The authors have outlined a physical and mathematical model of magnetic and hydrodynamic instability for the case of melt flowing on the boundary with the molten metal with the purpose to predict the interphase shape and mutual effect of formed plasma jet and liquid metal droplet on the electrode in the nano-scale range of wavelengths at high-frequency impact on the boundary “electrode-liquid layer”.
2012-05-03
Froude Scaled Model Destroyer for In- situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization LT Dave Cope 3 May 2012 Advised by Prof Chrys Chryssostomidis Dr...Scaled Model Destroyer for In-situ Hydrodynamic Flow Visualization (BRIEFING CHARTS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Design and build a 1/30th Froude scaled, free-running model of the David Taylor Model Basin 5415 hull for hydrodynamic visualization and
Mach Cones and Hydrodynamic Flow:. Probing Big Bang Matter in the Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betz, Barbara; Rau, Philip; Stöcker, Horst
A critical discussion of the present signals for the phase transition to quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is given. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed from 1 to 50 A GeV laboratory bombarding energies, this observation is interpreted as potential evidence for a first-order phase transition at high baryon density. A detailed discussion of the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS) of hot dense matter at RHIC follows. Here, hadronic rescattering models can explain < 30% of the observed elliptic flow v2 for pT > 2 GeV/c. This is interpreted as an evidence for the production of superdense matter at RHIC. The connection of v2 to jet suppression is examined. A study of Mach shocks generated by fast partonic jets propagating through the QGP is given. The main goal is to take into account different types of collective motion during the formation and evolution of this matter. A significant deformation of Mach shocks in central Au+Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies as compared to the case of jet propagation in a static medium is predicted. A new hydrodynamical study of jet energy loss is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawicki, Jerzy; Paczkowski, Tomasz
2015-05-01
The paper presents the results of experimental studies of electrochemical machining process oriented on occurring in the treatment critical states caused by electrolyte flow hydrodynamic conditions in the gap between electrodes. Material forming in electrochemical machining is carried out by anodic dissolution. In general in ECM process, the essence of the treatment is that the workpiece is the anode and the tool is the cathode. The space between the anode and cathode is filled by electrolyte. The current flow between the electrodes causes anodic dissolution process, resulting in the removal of material from the anode. Choosing in the process of electrochemical machining, respectively: anode and cathode material, electrolyte and processing parameters, such conditions can be created that enable a high process efficiency and smoothness of the surface. Inappropriate selection of machining parameters can cause the emergence of critical states in the ECM, which are mainly related to the flow of the electrolyte in the gap between electrodes. This work is an attempt to assess the occurring critical states in ECM on the example of machining of curved surfaces with any sort of outline and curved rotating surfaces.
MAESTRO: An Adaptive Low Mach Number Hydrodynamics Algorithm for Stellar Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nonaka, Andrew; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Zingale, M.
2010-01-01
Many astrophysical phenomena are highly subsonic, requiring specialized numerical methods suitable for long-time integration. We present MAESTRO, a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code that can be used to simulate long-time, low-speed flows that would be prohibitively expensive to model using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO is based on an equation set that we have derived using low Mach number asymptotics; this equation set does not explicitly track acoustic waves and thus allows a significant increase in the time step. MAESTRO is suitable for two- and three-dimensional local atmospheric flows as well as three-dimensional full-star flows, and uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to locally refine grids in regions of interest. Our initial scientific applications include the convective phase of Type Ia supernovae and Type I X-ray Bursts on neutron stars. The work at LBNL was supported by the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The work at Stony Brook was supported by the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448. We made use of the Jaguar via a DOE INCITE allocation at the OLCF at ORNL and Franklin at NERSC at LBNL.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Craig; Kozarek, Jessica; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Guala, Michele
2016-02-01
An investigation into the interactions between a model axial-flow hydrokinetic turbine (rotor diameter, dT = 0.15 m) and the complex hydrodynamics and sediment transport processes within a meandering channel was carried out in the Outdoor StreamLab research facility at the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. This field-scale meandering stream with bulk flow and sediment discharge control provided a location for high spatiotemporally resolved measurements of bed and water surface elevations around the model turbine. The device was installed within an asymmetric, erodible channel cross section under migrating bed form and fixed outer bank conditions. A comparative analysis between velocity and topographic measurements, with and without the turbine installed, highlights the local and nonlocal features of the turbine-induced scour and deposition patterns. In particular, it shows how the cross-section geometry changes, how the bed form characteristics are altered, and how the mean flow field is distorted both upstream and downstream of the turbine. We further compare and discuss how current energy conversion deployments in meander regions would result in different interactions between the turbine operation and the local and nonlocal bathymetry compared to straight channels.
Conservation laws and evolution schemes in geodesic, hydrodynamic, and magnetohydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markakis, Charalampos; Uryū, Kōji; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Nicolas, Jean-Philippe; Andersson, Nils; Pouri, Athina; Witzany, Vojtěch
2017-09-01
Carter and Lichnerowicz have established that barotropic fluid flows are conformally geodesic and obey Hamilton's principle. This variational approach can accommodate neutral, or charged and poorly conducting, fluids. We show that, unlike what has been previously thought, this approach can also accommodate perfectly conducting magnetofluids, via the Bekenstein-Oron description of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. When Noether symmetries associated with Killing vectors or tensors are present in geodesic flows, they lead to constants of motion polynomial in the momenta. We generalize these concepts to hydrodynamic flows. Moreover, the Hamiltonian descriptions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics allow one to cast the evolution equations into a hyperbolic form useful for evolving rotating or binary compact objects with magnetic fields in numerical general relativity. In this framework, Ertel's potential vorticity theorem for baroclinic fluids arises as a special case of a conservation law valid for any Hamiltonian system. Moreover, conserved circulation laws, such as those of Kelvin, Alfvén and Bekenstein-Oron, emerge simply as special cases of the Poincaré-Cartan integral invariant of Hamiltonian systems. We use this approach to obtain an extension of Kelvin's theorem to baroclinic (nonisentropic) fluids, based on a temperature-dependent time parameter. We further extend this result to perfectly or poorly conducting baroclinic magnetoflows. Finally, in the barotropic case, such magnetoflows are shown to also be geodesic, albeit in a Finsler (rather than Riemann) space.
Hydrodynamic-flow-driven phase evolution in a polymer blend film modified by diblock copolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rysz, J.; Ermer, H.; Budkowski, A.; Bernasik, A.; Lekki, J.; Juengst, G.; Brenn, R.; Kowalski, K.; Camra, J.; Lekka, M.; Jedliński, J.
We have studied surface-directed phase separation in thin films of deuterated polystyrene and poly(bromostyrene) (with 22.7% of monomers brominated) using ^{{3}}He nuclear reaction analysis, dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy combined with preferential dissolution. The crossover from competing to neutral surfaces of the critical blend film (cast onto Au) was commenced: polyisoprene-polystyrene diblock copolymers were added and segregated to both surfaces reducing in a tuneable manner the effective interactions. Two main stages of phase evolution are characterised by i) the growth of two surface layers and by ii) the transition from the four-layer to the final bilayer morphology. For increasing copolymer content the kinetics of the first stage is hardly affected but the amplitude of composition oscillations is reduced indicating more fragmented inner layers. As a result, a faster mass flow to the surfaces and an earlier completion of the second stage were observed. The hydrodynamic flow mechanism, driving both stages, is evidenced by nearly linear growth of the surface layer and by mass flow channels extending from the surface layer into the bulk. The final bilayer structure, formed even for the surfaces covered by strongly overlapped copolymers, is indicative of long-range (antisymmetric) surface forces.
Hydrodynamic Dryout in Two-Phase Flows: Observations of Low Bond Number Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weislogel, Mark M.; McQuillen, John B.
1998-01-01
Dryout occurs readily in certain slug and annular two-phase flows for systems that exhibit partial wetting. The mechanism for the ultimate rupture of the film is attributed to van der Waals forces, but the pace towards rupture is quickened by the surface tension instability (Rayleigh-type) of the annular film left by the advancing slug and by the many perturbations of the free surface present in the Re(sub g) approximately 0(10(exp 3)), Re(sub l) approximately 0(10(exp 4)), and Ca approximately 0(10(exp -1) flows. Results from low-gravity experiments using three different test fluids are presented and discussed. For the range of tests conducted, the effect of increasing viscosity is shown to eliminate the film rupture while the decrease of surface tension via a surfactant additive is shown to dramatically enhance it. Laboratory measurements using capillary tubes are presented which reveal the sensitivity of the dryout phenomena to particulate and surfactant contamination. Rom such observations, dryout due to the hydrodynamic-van der Waals instability can be expected in a certain range of flow parameters in the absence of heat transfer. The addition of heat transfer may only exacerbate the problem by producing thermal transport lines replete with "hot spots." A caution to this effect is issued to future space systems designers concerning the use of partially wetting working fluids.
Hydrodynamic dryout in two-phase flows: Observations of low bond number systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weislogel, Mark M.; McQuillen, John B.
1998-01-01
Dryout occurs readily in certain slug and annular two-phase flows for systems that exhibit partial wetting. The mechanism for the ultimate rupture of the film is attributed to van der Waals forces, but the pace towards rupture is quickened by the surface tension instability (Rayleigh-type) of the annular film left by the advancing slug and by the many perturbations of the free surface present in the Reg~O(103), Rel~O(104), and Ca~O(10-1) flows. Results from low-gravity experiments using three different test fluids are presented and discussed. For the range of tests conducted, the effect of increasing viscosity is shown to eliminate the film rupture while the decrease of surface tension via a surfactant additive is shown to dramatically enhance it. Laboratory measurements using capillary tubes are presented which reveal the sensitivity of the dryout phenomena to particulate and surfactant contamination. From such observations, dryout due to the hydrodynamic-van der Waals instability can be expected in a certain range of flow parameters in the absence of heat transfer. The addition of heat transfer may only exacerbate the problem by producing thermal transport lines replete with ``hot spots.'' A caution to this effect is issued to future space systems designers concerning the use of partially wetting working fluids.
Mass Flow Rate Measurements in a MicroChannel: from Hydrodynamic to Free Molecular Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graur, I. A.; Perrier, P.; Ghozlani, W.; Méolans, J. G.
2008-12-01
Mass flow rate measurements in a single silicon micro channel were carried out for various gases in isothermal steady flows. The results obtained, from hydrodynamic to near free molecular regime by using a powerful experimental platform, allowed us to deduce interesting information, notably about the reflection/accommodation process at the wall. In the 0-0.3 Knudsen range, a continuum approximated analytic approach was derived from NS equations, associated to first or second order slip boundary conditions. Identifying the experimental mass flow rate curves to the theoretical ones the TMAC of various gases were extracted. Over all the Knudsen range [0-50] the experimental results were compared with theoretical values calculated from kinetic approaches: using variable TMAC values as fitting parameter, the theoretical curves were fitted to the experimental ones. Whatever the Knudsen range and the theoretical approach, the TMAC values are found decreasing when the molecular weights of the gas considered increase (as long as the different gases are compared using the same approach). Moreover, the values of the various accommodation coefficients are rather close one to other but sufficiently smaller than unity to conclude that the full accommodation modelling is not satisfactory to describe the gas/wall interaction.
Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr
2017-01-13
An electrophoretic apparatus with a flow-gating interface has been developed, enabling hydrodynamic sequence injection of the sample into the separation capillary from the liquid flow by underpressure generated in the outlet electrophoretic vessel. The properties of the apparatus were tested on an artificial sample of an equimolar mixture of 100μM potassium and sodium ions and arginine. The repeatability of the injection of the tested ions expressed as RSD (in%) for the peak area, peak height and migration time was in the range 0.76-2.08, 0.18-0.68 and 0.28-0.48, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the apparatus was used for sequence monitoring of the reaction between the antidiabetic drug phenyl biguanide and the glycation agent methyl glyoxal. The reaction solution was continuously sampled by a microdialysis probe from a thermostated external vessel using a syringe pump at a flow rate of 3μLmin(-1) and was injected into a separation capillary at certain time intervals. The electrophoretic separation progressed in a capillary with an internal diameter of 50μm with a length of 11.5cm and was monitored using a contactless conductivity detector.
Kudo, Shigetada; Vennell, Ross; Wilson, Barry
2013-06-21
This study describes the effect of hand acceleration on hydrodynamic forces acting on the human hand in angular and general motions with variable hand accelerations. Even if accelerations of a swimmer's hand are believed to have an important role in generating hydrodynamic forces on the hand, the effect of accelerations in angular and general motions on hydrodynamic forces on the swimmers hand has not been previously quantified. Understanding how hand acceleration influences force generation can provide useful information to enhance swimming performance. A hand-forearm model attached to a tri-axial load cell was constructed to measure hydrodynamic forces acting only on the hand when the model was rotated and accelerated in a swimming flume. The effect of acceleration on hydrodynamic forces on the hand was described by comparing the difference between accelerating and non-accelerating hands in different flow conditions. Hydrodynamic forces on the accelerating hand varied between 1.9 and 10 times greater than for the non-accelerating hand in angular motion and varied between 1.7 and 25 times greater than for the non-accelerating hand in general motion. These large increases occurred not only during positive acceleration phases but also during negative acceleration phases, and may be due to the added mass effect and a vortex formed on the dorsal side of the hand. This study provides new evidence for enhanced stroke techniques in swimming to generate increased propulsion by changing hand velocity during a stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Probe Without Moving Parts Measures Flow Angle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corda, Stephen; Vachon, M. Jake
2003-01-01
The measurement of local flow angle is critical in many fluid-dynamic applications, including the aerodynamic flight testing of new aircraft and flight systems. Flight researchers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center have recently developed, flight-tested, and patented the force-based flow-angle probe (FLAP), a novel, force-based instrument for the measurement of local flow direction. Containing no moving parts, the FLAP may provide greater simplicity, improved accuracy, and increased measurement access, relative to conventional moving vane-type flow-angle probes. Forces in the FLAP can be measured by various techniques, including those that involve conventional strain gauges (based on electrical resistance) and those that involve more advanced strain gauges (based on optical fibers). A correlation is used to convert force-measurement data to the local flow angle. The use of fiber optics will enable the construction of a miniature FLAP, leading to the possibility of flow measurement in very small or confined regions. This may also enable the tufting of a surface with miniature FLAPs, capable of quantitative flow-angle measurements, similar to attaching yarn tufts for qualitative measurements. The prototype FLAP was a small, aerodynamically shaped, low-aspect-ratio fin about 2 in. (approximately equal to 5 cm) long, 1 in. (approximately equal to 2.5 cm) wide, and 0.125 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) thick (see Figure 1). The prototype FLAP included simple electrical-resistance strain gauges for measuring forces. Four strain gauges were mounted on the FLAP; two on the upper surface and two on the lower surface. The gauges were connected to form a full Wheatstone bridge, configured as a bending bridge. In preparation for a flight test, the prototype FLAP was mounted on the airdata boom of a flight-test fixture (FTF) on the NASA Dryden F-15B flight research airplane.
Petersen, Hannah; Bleicher, Marcus
2009-05-15
The elliptic flow excitation function calculated in a full (3+1) dimensional hybrid Boltzmann approach with an intermediate hydrodynamic stage for heavy ion reactions from GSI Schwerionen Synchrotron to the highest CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is discussed in the context of the experimental data. In this study, we employ a hadron gas equation of state to investigate the differences in the dynamics and viscosity effects. The specific event-by-event setup with initial conditions and freeze-out from a nonequilibrium transport model allows for a direct comparison between ideal fluid dynamics and transport simulations. At higher SPS energies, where the pure transport calculation cannot account for the high elliptic flow values, the smaller mean free path in the hydrodynamic evolution leads to higher elliptic flow values. In contrast to previous studies within pure hydrodynamics, the more realistic initial conditions employed here and the inclusion of a sequential final state hadronic decoupling provides results that are in line with the experimental data almost over the whole energy range from E{sub lab}=2-160A GeV. Thus, this new approach leads to a substantially different shape of the v{sub 2}/{epsilon} scaling curve as a function of (1/SdN{sub ch}/dy) in line with the experimental data compared to previous ideal hydrodynamic calculations. This hints at a strong influence of the initial conditions for the hydrodynamic evolution on the finally observed v{sub 2} values, thus questioning the standard interpretation that the hydrodynamic limit is only reached at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setsuhara, Yuichi; Uchida, Giichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu
2015-09-01
Atmospheric nonequilibrium plasma jets have been widely employed in biomedical applications. For biomedical applications, it is an important issue to understand the complicated mechanism of interaction of the plasma jet with liquid. In this study, we present analysis of the discharge characteristics of a plasma jet impinging onto the liquid surface under various gas flow patterns such as laminar and turbulence flows. For this purpose, we analyzed gas flow patters by using a Schlieren gas-flow imaging system in detail The plasma jet impinging into the liquid surface expands along the liquid surface. The diameter of the expanded plasma increases with gas flow rate, which is well explained by an increase in the diameter of the laminar gas-flow channel. When the gas flow rate is further increased, the gas flow mode transits from laminar to turbulence in the gas flow channel, which leads to the shortening of the plasm-jet length. Our experiment demonstrated that the gas flow patterns strongly affect the discharge characteristics in the plasma-jet system. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).
Juna, Shazia; Huber, Anton
2012-01-06
A detailed study of the elution behaviour, apparent molecular characteristics and hydrodynamic properties of amylopectin-type fraction (isolated from normal corn starch) in aqueous media employing asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) was undertaken by systematically varying the channel flow (F(ch)), cross flow (F(cr)) and F(cr)/F(ch) ratios. Distributions of apparent molar masses and radii of gyration, mass recoveries and hydrodynamic radii decreased as a function of increasing F(cr) at a fixed F(ch), due to the increase in the retention of amylopectin-type fraction in the AF4 channel. Increased retention of the amylopectin-type fraction in the AF4 channel was also observed at low F(ch) and high F(cr)/F(ch) ratios. Large amylopectin-type molecules/particles (possibly aggregates) eluted at high F(ch), low F(cr) and low F(cr)/F(ch) ratios. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hydrodynamics, wall-slip, and normal-stress differences in rarefied granular Poiseuille flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Ronak; Alam, Meheboob
2017-02-01
Hydrodynamic fields, macroscopic boundary conditions, and non-Newtonian rheology of the acceleration-driven Poiseuille flow of a dilute granular gas are probed using "direct simulation Monte Carlo" method for a range of Knudsen numbers (Kn, the ratio between the mean free path and the macroscopic length), spanning the rarefied regime of slip and transitional flows. It is shown that the "dissipation-induced clustering" (for 1 -en>0 , where en is the restitution coefficient), leading to inhomogeneous density profiles along the transverse direction, competes with "rarefaction-induced declustering" (for Kn>0 ) phenomenon, leaving seemingly "anomalous" footprints on several hydrodynamic and rheological quantities; one example is the well-known rarefaction-induced temperature bimodality, which could also result from inelastic dissipation that dominates in the continuum limit (Kn→0 ) as found recently [Alam et al., J. Fluid Mech. 782, 99 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.523]. The simulation data on the slip velocity and the temperature slip are contrasted with well-established boundary conditions for molecular gases. A modified Maxwell-Navier-type boundary condition is found to hold in granular Poiseuille flow, with the velocity slip length following a power-law relation with Knudsen number Knδ, with δ ≈0.95 , for Kn≤0.1 . Transverse profiles of both first [N1(y ) ] and second [N2(y ) ] normal stress differences seem to correlate well with respective density profiles at small Kn; their centerline values [N1(0 ) and N2(0 ) ] can be of "odd" sign with respect to their counterparts in molecular gases. The phase diagrams are constructed in the (Kn,1 -en ) plane that demarcates the regions of influence of inelasticity and rarefaction, which compete with each other resulting in the sign change of both N1(0 ) and N2(0 ) . The results on normal stress differences are rationalized via a comparison with a Burnett-order theory [Sela and Goldhirsch, J. Fluid Mech. 361, 41 (1998), 10
Hydrodynamics, wall-slip, and normal-stress differences in rarefied granular Poiseuille flow.
Gupta, Ronak; Alam, Meheboob
2017-02-01
Hydrodynamic fields, macroscopic boundary conditions, and non-Newtonian rheology of the acceleration-driven Poiseuille flow of a dilute granular gas are probed using "direct simulation Monte Carlo" method for a range of Knudsen numbers (Kn, the ratio between the mean free path and the macroscopic length), spanning the rarefied regime of slip and transitional flows. It is shown that the "dissipation-induced clustering" (for 1-e_{n}>0, where e_{n} is the restitution coefficient), leading to inhomogeneous density profiles along the transverse direction, competes with "rarefaction-induced declustering" (for Kn>0) phenomenon, leaving seemingly "anomalous" footprints on several hydrodynamic and rheological quantities; one example is the well-known rarefaction-induced temperature bimodality, which could also result from inelastic dissipation that dominates in the continuum limit (Kn→0) as found recently [Alam et al., J. Fluid Mech. 782, 99 (2015)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/jfm.2015.523]. The simulation data on the slip velocity and the temperature slip are contrasted with well-established boundary conditions for molecular gases. A modified Maxwell-Navier-type boundary condition is found to hold in granular Poiseuille flow, with the velocity slip length following a power-law relation with Knudsen number Kn^{δ}, with δ≈0.95, for Kn≤0.1. Transverse profiles of both first [N_{1}(y)] and second [N_{2}(y)] normal stress differences seem to correlate well with respective density profiles at small Kn; their centerline values [N_{1}(0) and N_{2}(0)] can be of "odd" sign with respect to their counterparts in molecular gases. The phase diagrams are constructed in the (Kn,1-e_{n}) plane that demarcates the regions of influence of inelasticity and rarefaction, which compete with each other resulting in the sign change of both N_{1}(0) and N_{2}(0). The results on normal stress differences are rationalized via a comparison with a Burnett-order theory [Sela and Goldhirsch,
On a bivariate spectral relaxation method for unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic flow in porous media.
Magagula, Vusi M; Motsa, Sandile S; Sibanda, Precious; Dlamini, Phumlani G
2016-01-01
The paper presents a significant improvement to the implementation of the spectral relaxation method (SRM) for solving nonlinear partial differential equations that arise in the modelling of fluid flow problems. Previously the SRM utilized the spectral method to discretize derivatives in space and finite differences to discretize in time. In this work we seek to improve the performance of the SRM by applying the spectral method to discretize derivatives in both space and time variables. The new approach combines the relaxation scheme of the SRM, bivariate Lagrange interpolation as well as the Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The technique is tested on a system of four nonlinear partial differential equations that model unsteady three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic flow and mass transfer in a porous medium. Computed solutions are compared with previously published results obtained using the SRM, the spectral quasilinearization method and the Keller-box method. There is clear evidence that the new approach produces results that as good as, if not better than published results determined using the other methods. The main advantage of the new approach is that it offers better accuracy on coarser grids which significantly improves the computational speed of the method. The technique also leads to faster convergence to the required solution.
Zhao, Xuan; Seyler, C. E.
2015-07-15
The magnetized shock problem is studied in the context where supersonic plasma flows past a solid obstacle. This problem exhibits interesting and important phenomena such as a bow shock, magnetotail formation, reconnection, and plasmoid formation. This study is carried out using a discontinuous Galerkin method to solve an extended magneto-hydrodynamic model (XMHD). The main goals of this paper are to present a reasonably complete picture of the properties of this interaction using the MHD model and then to compare the results to the XMHD model. The inflow parameters, such as the magnetosonic Mach number M{sub f} and the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure β, can significantly affect the physical structures of the flow-obstacle interaction. The Hall effect can also significantly influence the results in the regime in which the ion inertial length is numerically resolved. Most of the results presented are for the two-dimensional case; however, two three-dimensional simulations are presented to make a connection to the important case in which the solar wind interacts with a solid body and to explore the possibility of performing scaled laboratory experiments.
Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean -Francois; Rogers, William; ...
2016-07-29
Both experimental tests and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the fluidization behavior of a solid CO2 sorbent with a mean diameter of 100 μm and density of about 480 kg/m, which belongs to Geldart's Group A powder. A carefully designed fluidized bed facility was used to perform a series of experimental tests to study the flow hydrodynamics. Numerical simulations using the two-fluid model indicated that the grid resolution has a significant impact on the bed expansion and bubbling flow behavior. Due to the limited computational resource, no good grid independent results were achieved using the standard models as farmore » as the bed expansion is concerned. In addition, all simulations tended to under-predict the bubble size substantially. Effects of various model settings including both numerical and physical parameters have been investigated with no significant improvement observed. The latest filtered sub-grid drag model was then tested in the numerical simulations. Compared to the standard drag model, the filtered drag model with two markers not only predicted reasonable bed expansion but also yielded realistic bubbling behavior. As a result, a grid sensitivity study was conducted for the filtered sub-grid model and its applicability and limitation were discussed.« less
Simulation of unsaturated flow in complex fractures using smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul
2005-08-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) models were used to simulate unsaturated flow in fractures with complex geometries. SPH is a fully Lagrangian particle-based method that allows the dynamics of interfaces separating fluids to be modeled without employing complex front tracking schemes. In SPH simulations, the fluid density field is represented by a superposition of weighting functions centered on particles which represent the fluids. The pressure is related to the fluid density through an equation of state, and the particles move in response to the pressure gradient. SPH does not require the construction of grids that would otherwise introduce numerical dispersion. The model can be used to simulate complex free-surface flow phenomenon such as invasion of wetting and nonwetting fluids into three-dimensional fractures. These processes are a severe challenge for grid-based methods. Surface tension was simulated by using a van der Waals equation of state and a combination of short-range repulsive and longer-range attractive interactions between fluid particles. The wetting behavior was simulated using similar interactions between mobile fluid particles and stationary boundary particles. The fracture geometry was generated from self-affine fractal surfaces. The fractal model was based on a large body of experimental work, which indicates that fracture surfaces have a self-affine fractal geometry characterized by a material independent (quasi universal) Hurst exponent of about 0.75.
Effect of Anode Change on Heat Transfer and Magneto-hydrodynamic Flow in Aluminum Reduction Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiang; Li, Baokuan; Fafard, Mario
2016-02-01
In order to explore the impact of anode replacement on heat transfer and magneto-hydrodynamic flow in aluminum smelting cells, a transient three-dimensional coupled mathematical model has been developed. With a steady state magnetic field, an electrical potential approach was used to obtain electromagnetic fields. Joule heating and Lorentz force, which were the source terms in the energy and momentum equations, were updated at each iteration. The phase change of molten electrolyte (bath) was modeled by an enthalpy-based technique in which the mushy zone was treated as a porous medium with porosity equal to the liquid fraction. A reasonable agreement between the test data and simulated results was achieved. Under normal conditions, the bath at the middle of the cell is hotter, while becoming colder at the four corners. Due to the heat extracted from the bath, the temperature of the new cold anode increases over time. The temperature of the bath under the new cold anode therefore quickly drops, resulting in a decrease of the electrical conductivity. More Joule effect is created. In addition, the bath under the new cold anode gradually freezes and flows more slowly. The temperature of the new anode located at the middle of the cell rises faster because of the warmer bath. It is easier to eliminate the effect of anode change when it occurs in the middle of the cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Akihiko; Leong, Lap Yan; Kong, Wei Song
2017-04-01
The basic formulation of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been re-examined for analysis of gas-liquid two-phase flows with large density differences. The improved method has been verified in the calculation of dam-break flow and has been applied to an open-channel flow over steep sloped stepped spillway. In the calculation of the flow over the steps, not only is the trapped air but entrained air bubbles and water droplets are reproduced well. The detailed variation of the time-averaged mean quantities will have to be further examined but overall prediction with relatively small number of particles is done well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Guang-Kun; Shen, Gong-Xin; Huang, Shuo-Qiao; Su, Wen-Han; Ke, Yu
When swimming in water by flapping its tail, a fish can overcome the drag from uniform flow and propel its body. The involved flow mechanism concerns 3-D and unsteady effects. This paper presents the investigation of the flow mechanism on the basis of a 3-D robotic fish model which has the typical geometry of body and tail with periodic flapping 2-freedom kinematical motion testing in the case of St = 0.78, Re = 6,600 and phase delay mode (φ = - 75°), in which may have a greater or maximum propulsion (without consideration of the optimal efficiency). Using a special technique of dye visualization which can clearly show vortex sheet and vortices in detail and using the inner 3-component force balance and cable supporting system with the phase-lock technique, the 3-D flow structure visualized in the wake of fish and the hydrodynamic force measurement were synchronized and obtained. Under the mentioned flapping parameters, we found the key flow structure and its evolution, a pair of complex 3-D chain-shape vortex (S-H vortex-rings, S1 - H1 and S2 - H2, and their legs L1 and L2) flow structures, which attach the leading edge and the trailing edge, then shed, move downstream and outwards and distribute two antisymmetric staggering arrays along with the wake of the fish model in different phase stages during the flapping period. It is different with in the case of St = 0.25-0.35. Its typical flow structure and evolution are described and the results prove that they are different from the viewpoints based on the investigation of 2-D cases. For precision of the dynamic force measurement, in this paper it was provided with the method and techniques by subtracting the inertial forces and the forces induced by buoyancy and gravity effect in water, etc. from original data measured. The evolution of the synchronized measuring forces directly matching with the flow structure was also described in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Guang-Kun; Shen, Gong-Xin; Huang, Shuo-Qiao; Su, Wen-Han; Ke, Yu
2007-11-01
When swimming in water by flapping its tail, a fish can overcome the drag from uniform flow and propel its body. The involved flow mechanism concerns 3-D and unsteady effects. This paper presents the investigation of the flow mechanism on the basis of a 3-D robotic fish model which has the typical geometry of body and tail with periodic flapping 2-freedom kinematical motion testing in the case of St = 0.78, Re = 6,600 and phase delay mode ( φ = -75°), in which may have a greater or maximum propulsion (without consideration of the optimal efficiency). Using a special technique of dye visualization which can clearly show vortex sheet and vortices in detail and using the inner 3-component force balance and cable supporting system with the phase-lock technique, the 3-D flow structure visualized in the wake of fish and the hydrodynamic force measurement were synchronized and obtained. Under the mentioned flapping parameters, we found the key flow structure and its evolution, a pair of complex 3-D chain-shape vortex (S-H vortex-rings, S1-H1 and S2-H2, and their legs L1 and L2) flow structures, which attach the leading edge and the trailing edge, then shed, move downstream and outwards and distribute two anti-symmetric staggering arrays along with the wake of the fish model in different phase stages during the flapping period. It is different with in the case of St = 0.25-0.35. Its typical flow structure and evolution are described and the results prove that they are different from the viewpoints based on the investigation of 2-D cases. For precision of the dynamic force measurement, in this paper it was provided with the method and techniques by subtracting the inertial forces and the forces induced by buoyancy and gravity effect in water, etc. from original data measured. The evolution of the synchronized measuring forces directly matching with the flow structure was also described in this paper.
Influence of hydrodynamic slip on convective transport in flow past a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Nidhil M. A.; Kumar, Anuj; Shukla, Ratnesh K.
2017-02-01
The presence of a finite tangential velocity on a hydrodynamically slipping surface is known to reduce vorticity production in bluff body flows substantially while at the same time enhancing its convection downstream and into the wake. Here, we investigate the effect of hydrodynamic slippage on the convective heat transfer (scalar transport) from a heated isothermal circular cylinder placed in a uniform cross-flow of an incompressible fluid through analytical and simulation techniques. At low Reynolds (Re≪ 1 ) and high Péclet (Pe≫ 1 ) numbers, our theoretical analysis based on Oseen and thermal boundary layer equations allows for an explicit determination of the dependence of the thermal transport on the non-dimensional slip length l_s . In this case, the surface-averaged Nusselt number, Nu transitions gradually between the asymptotic limits of Nu ˜ Pe^{1/3} and Nu ˜ Pe^{1/2} for no-slip (l_s → 0 ) and shear-free (l_s → ∞) boundaries, respectively. Boundary layer analysis also shows that the scaling Nu ˜ Pe^{1/2} holds for a shear-free cylinder surface in the asymptotic limit of Re≫ 1 so that the corresponding heat transfer rate becomes independent of the fluid viscosity. At finite Re, results from our two-dimensional simulations confirm the scaling Nu ˜ Pe^{1/2} for a shear-free boundary over the range 0.1 ≤ Re≤ 10^3 and 0.1≤ Pr≤ 10 . A gradual transition from the lower asymptotic limit corresponding to a no-slip surface, to the upper limit for a shear-free boundary, with l_s , is observed in both the maximum slip velocity and the Nu. The local time-averaged Nusselt number Nu_{θ } for a shear-free surface exceeds the one for a no-slip surface all along the cylinder boundary except over the downstream portion where unsteady separation and flow reversal lead to an appreciable rise in the local heat transfer rates, especially at high Re and Pr. At a Reynolds number of 10^3 , the formation of secondary recirculating eddy pairs results in
Influence of hydrodynamic slip on convective transport in flow past a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Nidhil M. A.; Kumar, Anuj; Shukla, Ratnesh K.
2017-06-01
The presence of a finite tangential velocity on a hydrodynamically slipping surface is known to reduce vorticity production in bluff body flows substantially while at the same time enhancing its convection downstream and into the wake. Here, we investigate the effect of hydrodynamic slippage on the convective heat transfer (scalar transport) from a heated isothermal circular cylinder placed in a uniform cross-flow of an incompressible fluid through analytical and simulation techniques. At low Reynolds (Re≪ 1) and high Péclet (Pe≫ 1) numbers, our theoretical analysis based on Oseen and thermal boundary layer equations allows for an explicit determination of the dependence of the thermal transport on the non-dimensional slip length l_s. In this case, the surface-averaged Nusselt number, Nu transitions gradually between the asymptotic limits of Nu ˜ Pe^{1/3} and Nu ˜ Pe^{1/2} for no-slip (l_s → 0) and shear-free (l_s → ∞) boundaries, respectively. Boundary layer analysis also shows that the scaling Nu ˜ Pe^{1/2} holds for a shear-free cylinder surface in the asymptotic limit of Re≫ 1 so that the corresponding heat transfer rate becomes independent of the fluid viscosity. At finite Re, results from our two-dimensional simulations confirm the scaling Nu ˜ Pe^{1/2} for a shear-free boundary over the range 0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 10^3 and 0.1≤ Pr ≤ 10. A gradual transition from the lower asymptotic limit corresponding to a no-slip surface, to the upper limit for a shear-free boundary, with l_s, is observed in both the maximum slip velocity and the Nu. The local time-averaged Nusselt number Nu_{θ } for a shear-free surface exceeds the one for a no-slip surface all along the cylinder boundary except over the downstream portion where unsteady separation and flow reversal lead to an appreciable rise in the local heat transfer rates, especially at high Re and Pr. At a Reynolds number of 10^3, the formation of secondary recirculating eddy pairs results in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liou, William W.; Yang, Yang
2015-08-01
A helical flagellum filament can be modeled as a rigid helix. Numerical simulations of the unsteady flow around a rigid, finite length rotating helix are performed to examine the characteristics of the hydrodynamic force exerted on the helix by the fluid medium. Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models are used. The Reynolds numbers of the flows simulated range between {10}-6 and {10}2. Where appropriate, the calculated mean thrusts, obtained by using three different numerical solvers, are compared with that based on theoretical prediction. The simulated mean thrusts agree well with the theoretical predictions. Analyses show that hydrodynamic force variations, although of small amplitudes, are dominated by distinct discrete modes that are higher harmonics of the rotation frequency of the helix for the low-Reynolds number flows simulated. Simple correlations are developed for the dominant frequencies, where present, observed in the simulations of the helix with different sizes, rotation frequency, and fluid viscosity.
Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.
1995-03-01
We have developed TOUGH2 modules for strongly coupled flow and transport that include full hydrodynamic dispersion. T2DM models tow-dimensional flow and transport in systems with variable salinity, while T32DMR includes radionuclide transport with first-order decay of a parent-daughter chain of radionuclide components in variable salinity systems. T2DM has been applied to a variety of coupled flow problems including the pure solutal convection problem of Elder and the mixed free and forced convection salt-dome flow problem. In the Elder and salt-dome flow problems, density changes of up to 20% caused by brine concentration variations lead to strong coupling between the velocity and brine concentration fields. T2DM efficiently calculates flow and transport for these problems. We have applied T2DMR to the dispersive transport and decay of radionuclide tracers in flow fields with permeability heterogeneities and recirculating flows. Coupling in these problems occurs by velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion. Our results show that the maximum daughter species concentration may occur fully within a recirculating or low-velocity region. In all of the problems, we observe very efficient handling of the strongly coupled flow and transport processes.
Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K.
1995-03-01
We have developed TOUGH2 modules for strongly coupled flow and transport that include full hydrodynamic dispersion. T2DM models two-dimensional flow and transport in systems with variable salinity, while T2DMR includes radionuclide transport with firstorder decay of a parent-daughter chain of radionuclide components in variable salinity systems. T2DM has been applied to a variety of coupled flow problems including the pure solutal convection problem of Elder and the mixed free and forced convection salt-dome flow problem. In the Elder and salt-dome flow problems, density changes of up to 20% caused by brine concentration variations lead to strong coupling between the velocity and brine concentration fields. T2DM efficiently calculates flow and transport for these problems. We have applied T2DMR to the dispersive transport and decay of radionuclide tracers in flow fields with permeability heterogeneities and recirculating flows. Coupling in th ese problems occurs by velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion. Our results show that the maximum daughter species concentration may occur fully within a recirculating or low-velocity region. In all of the problems, we observe very efficient handling of the strongly coupled flow and transport processes.
Multi-resolution flow simulations by smoothed particle hydrodynamics via domain decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Xin; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-09-01
We present a methodology to concurrently couple particle-based methods via a domain decomposition (DD) technique for simulating viscous flows. In particular, we select two resolutions of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method as demonstration. Within the DD framework, a simulation domain is decomposed into two (or more) overlapping sub-domains, each of which has an individual particle scale determined by the local flow physics. Consistency of the two sub-domains is achieved in the overlap region by matching the two independent simulations based on Lagrangian interpolation of state variables and fluxes. The domain decomposition based SPH method (DD-SPH) employs different spatial and temporal resolutions, and hence, each sub-domain has its own smoothing length and time step. As a consequence, particle refinement and de-refinement are performed asynchronously according to individual time advancement of each sub-domain. The proposed strategy avoids SPH force interactions between different resolutions on purpose, so that coupling, in principle, can go beyond SPH-SPH, and may allow SPH to be coupled with other mesoscopic or microscopic particle methods. The DD-SPH method is validated first for a transient Couette flow, where simulation results based on proper coupling of spatial-temporal scales agree well with analytical solutions. In particular, we find that the size of the overlap region should be at least rc,1 + 2rc,2, where rc,1 and rc,2 are cut off radii in the two sub-domains with rc,1 ≤rc,2. Subsequently, a perturbation wave is considered traveling either parallel or perpendicular to the hybrid interface. Compressibility is significant if transient behavior at short sonic-time-scale is relevant, while the fluid can be treated as quasi-incompressible at sufficiently long time scale. To this end, we propose a coupling of density fields from the two sub-domains. Finally, a steady Wannier flow is simulated, where a rotating cylinder is placed next to a
Lee, Myung Gwon; Choi, Sungyoung; Park, Je-Kyun
2009-11-07
We report a contraction-expansion array (CEA) microchannel that allows three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing with a single sheath flow in a single-layer device. The CEA microchannel exploits centrifugal forces acting on fluids travelling along the contraction and expansion regions of the microchannel. Around an entrance of the contraction region, the centrifugal forces induce a secondary flow field where two counter-rotating vortices enable to envelop a sample flow with a sheath flow in three dimensions. We herein describe an underlying principle and a design of the CEA microchannel and demonstrate complete sheathing of a sample fluid (water and human red blood cells) in three dimensions. The focusing characteristics of the CEA microchannel are investigated in terms of the number of the rectangular structures, flow rate, and flow ratio between sample and sheath flows. This microfluidic channel for three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing is easy to fabricate in a single-layer fabrication process and simple to operate with a single sheath flow.
Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kuwana, Akemi; Shibata, Hiroko; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro
2016-06-01
To clarify the effects of pump pulsation and flow-through cell (FTC) dissolution system settings on the hydrodynamic properties and dissolution profiles of model formulations. Two FTC systems with different cell temperature control mechanisms were used. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to analyze the hydrodynamic properties of test solutions in the flow-through dissolution test cell. Two pulsation pumps (semi-sine, full-sine) and a non-pulsatile pump were used to study the effects of varied flows on the dissolution profiles of United States Pharmacopeia standard tablets. PIV analysis showed periodic changes in the aligned upward fluid flow throughout the dissolution cell that was designed to reduce the temperature gradient during pump pulsation (0.5 s/pulse). The maximum instantaneous flow from the semi-sine pump was higher than that of the full-sine pump under all conditions. The flow from the semi-sine wave pump showed faster dissolution of salicylic acid and prednisone tablets than those from other pumps. The semi-sine wave pump flow showed similar dissolution profiles in the two FTC systems. Variations in instantaneous fluid flow caused by pump pulsation that meets the requirements of pharmacopoeias are a factor that affects the dissolution profiles of tablets in FTC systems.
Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.
2016-05-01
The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model of non-aqueous phase liquid flow and dissolution
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Meakin, Paul; Ward, Anderson L.
2009-01-01
A smoothed particle hydrodynamics model was developed to simulate the flow of mixtures of aqueous and non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media and the dissolution of the non-aqueous phase in the aqueous phase. The model was used to study the effects of pore-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy on the steady state dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) saturation when gravity driven DNAPL displaces water from initially water saturated porous media. Pore-scale anisotropy was created by using co-oriented non overlapping elliptically shaped grains to represent the porous media. After a steady state DNAPL saturation was reached, water was injected until a new steady state DNAPL saturation was reached. The amount of trapped DNAPL was found to be greater when DNAPL is displaced in the direction of the major axes of the soil grains than when it is displaced in the direction of the minor axes of the soil grains. The amount of trapped DNAPL was also found to increase with decreasing initial saturation of the continuous DNAPL phase. For the conditions used in our simulations, the saturation of the trapped NAPL with a smaller initial DNAPL saturation was more than 3 times larger than the amount of trapped DNAPL with a larger initial saturation. These simulations were carried out assuming that the DNAPL did not dissolve in water. Simulations including the effect of dissolution of DNAPL in the aqueous phase were also performed, and effective (macroscopic) mass transfer coefficients were determined.
Galactic scale gas flows in colliding galaxies: 3-dimensional, N-body/hydrodynamics experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamb, Susan A.; Gerber, Richard A.; Balsara, Dinshaw S.
1994-01-01
We present some results from three dimensional computer simulations of collisions between models of equal mass galaxies, one of which is a rotating, disk galaxy containing both gas and stars and the other is an elliptical containing stars only. We use fully self consistent models in which the halo mass is 2.5 times that of the disk. In the experiments we have varied the impact parameter between zero (head on) and 0.9R (where R is the radius of the disk), for impacts perpendicular to the disk plane. The calculations were performed on a Cray 2 computer using a combined N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) program. The results show the development of complicated flows and shock structures in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the disk and the propagation outwards of a density wave in both the stars and the gas. The collisional nature of the gas results in a sharper ring than obtained for the star particles, and the development of high volume densities and shocks.
Hydrodynamic properties of DNA and DNA-lipid complex in an elongational flow field.
Sasaki, Naoki; Ashitaka, Hidetomo; Ohtomo, Kenji; Fukui, Akimasa
2007-03-10
The aim of this study was to determine the difference between hydrodynamic properties of DNA-cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) complex and those of DNA, which may be related to the difference in fibre-forming ability of DNA-CTA from that of DNA. Responses of DNA and DNA-CTA complex to an elongational flow field were investigated. In both solution systems, results suggesting a coil-stretch transition were obtained. From a critical strain rate value, the radius of gyration of DNA-CTA molecules in ethanol-glycerol solution was revealed to be 0.3-0.5 times of that of DNA in aqueous NaCl solution. Shear viscosity of DNA-CTA solution was much smaller than that of DNA solution, also suggesting a smaller size of DNA-CTA in ethanol-glycerol solution than that of DNA in aqueous NaCl solution. The plateau birefringence value of the DNA-CTA system, a parameter that indicates the local molecular conformation and the molecular arrangement, was only about 1/10 of that of the DNA system. There is an empirically determined molecular model of DNA-CTA complex in which a DNA molecule is sheathed by a cylindrical crust made of CTA chains. This structure reduces the DNA molecular density in a pure elongational flow field region but cannot explain the observed reduction of birefringence intensity. The small plateau birefringence value of DNA-CTA compared with that of DNA was attributed to the reduced molecular polarizability by the particular conformation of DNA molecules and CTA chains in the DNA-CTA system such as that expected by the conformational models.
Ranchon, Hubert; Malbec, Rémi; Picot, Vincent; Boutonnet, Audrey; Terrapanich, Pattamon; Joseph, Pierre; Leïchlé, Thierry; Bancaud, Aurélien
2016-04-07
DNA size separation followed by purification and enrichment constitute essential operations for genetic engineering. These processes are mostly carried out using DNA electrophoresis in gels or in polymer solutions, a well-established yet lengthy technique which has been notably improved using Lab-on-Chip technologies. So far, innovations for DNA separation or enrichment have been mostly undertaken separately, and we present an approach that allows us to perform these two processes simultaneously for DNA fragments spanning 0.2-50 kilo base pairs (kbp) in length. Our technology involves an electric field and a counter hydrodynamic flow in viscoelastic liquids, in which we show the occurrence of transverse forces oriented toward the walls. These forces increase with DNA molecular weight (MW) and hence induce a progressive reduction in DNA migration speed that triggers size separation in microfluidic channels as well as in capillaries. The separation of MW markers in the range 1-50 kbp is achieved in 15 minutes, thus outperforming gel electrophoresis that takes ∼3 hours for this sample. Furthermore, the use of a funnel, where electric and flow fields are modulated spatially, enables us to adjust the transverse forces so as to stall the motion of DNA molecules at a position where they accumulate at factors of up to 1000 per minute. In this configuration, we establish that the operations of DNA enrichment and separation can be carried out simultaneously for the bands of a DNA MW marker between 0.2-1.5 kbp diluted at 0.02 ng μL(-1) in 30 s. Altogether, our technology, which can readily be integrated as an in-line module in Lab-on-Chips, offers unique opportunities for sample preparation and analysis of minute genomic samples.
Numerical simulation of flow hydrodynamics of struvite pellets in a liquid-solid fluidized bed.
Ye, Xin; Chu, Dongyuan; Lou, Yaoyin; Ye, Zhi-Long; Wang, Ming Kuang; Chen, Shaohua
2017-07-01
Phosphorus recovery in the form of struvite has been aroused in recent decades for its dual advantages in eutrophication control and resource protection. The usage of the struvite products is normally determined by the size which is largely depended on the hydrodynamics. In this study, flow behavior of struvite pellets was simulated by means of Eulerian-Eulerian two-fluid model combining with kinetic theory of granular flow in a liquid-solid fluidized bed reactor (FBR). A parametric study including the mesh size, time step, discretization strategy, turbulent model and drag model was first developed, followed by the evaluations of crucial operational conditions, particle characteristics and reactor shapes. The results showed that a cold model with the mesh resolution of 16×240, default time step of 0.001sec and first order discretization scheme was accurate enough to describe the fluidization. The struvite holdup profile using Syamlal-O'Brien drag model was best fitted to the experimental data as compared with other drag models and the empirical Richardson-Zaki equation. Regarding the model evaluation, it showed that liquid velocity and particle size played important roles on both solid holdups and velocities. The reactor diameter only influenced the solid velocity while the static bed height almost took no effect. These results are direct and can be applied to guide the operation and process control of the struvite fluidization. Moreover, the model parameters can also be used as the basic settings in further crystallization simulations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, J.; Monismith, S. G.; Fringer, O. B.; Koweek, D.; Dunbar, R. B.
2016-12-01
We present a hydrodynamic analysis of an atoll system from modeling simulations using a coupled wave and three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COAWST) applied to Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific. This is the first time the vortex force formalism has been applied in a highly frictional reef environment. The model results agree well with field observations considering the model complexity in terms of bathymetry, bottom roughness, and forcing (waves, wind, metrological, tides, regional boundary conditions), and open boundary conditions. At the atoll scale, strong regional flows create flow separation and a well-defined wake, similar to 2D flow past a cylinder. Circulation within the atoll is typically forced by waves and tides, with strong waves from the north driving flow from north to south across the atoll, and from east to west through the lagoon system. Bottom stress is significant for depths less than about 60 m, and in addition to the model bathymetry, is important for correct representation of flow in the model. Connectivity within the atoll system shows that the general trends follow the mean flow paths. However, some connectivity exists between all regions of the atoll system due to nonlinear processes such as eddies and tidal phasing. While high mean flow and travel time less than 20 hours appears to differentiate very productive coral regions, low temperature and moderate wave stress appear to be the most ideal conditions for high coral cover on Palmyra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorodnitsyn, A.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan. G. S.; Kallman, T.
2011-01-01
We construct a radiation-hydrodynamics model for the obscuring toroidal structure in active galactic nuclei. In this model the obscuration is produced at parsec scale by a dense, dusty wind which is supported by infrared radiation pressure on dust grains. To find the distribution of radiation pressure, we numerically solve the 2D radiation transfer problem in a flux limited diffusion approximation. We iteratively couple the solution with calculations of stationary 1D models for the wind, and obtain the z-component of the velocity. Our results demonstrate that for AGN luminosities greater than 0.1 L(sub edd) external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via outflows driven by infrared radiation pressure. The terminal velocity of marginally Compton-thin models (0.2 < tau(sub T) < 0.6), is comparable to or greater than the escape velocity. In Compton thick models the maximum value of the vertical component of the velocity is lower than the escape velocity, suggesting that a significant part of our torus is in the form of failed wind. The results demonstrate that obscuration via normal or failed infrared-driven winds is a viable option for the AGN torus problem and AGN unification models. Such winds can also provide an important channel for AGN feedback.
Kerr, James R; Manes, Costantino; Kemp, Paul S
2016-11-01
It is commonly assumed that stream-dwelling fish should select positions where they can reduce energetic costs relative to benefits gained and enhance fitness. However, the selection of appropriate hydrodynamic metrics that predict space use is the subject of recent debate and a cause of controversy. This is for three reasons: (1) flow characteristics are often oversimplified, (2) confounding variables are not always controlled and (3) there is limited understanding of the explanatory mechanisms that underpin the biophysical interactions between fish and their hydrodynamic environment. This study investigated the space use of brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a complex hydrodynamic flow field created using an array of different sized vertically oriented cylinders in a large open-channel flume in which confounding variables were controlled. A hydrodynamic drag function (D) based on single-point time-averaged velocity statistics that incorporates the influence of turbulent fluctuations was used to infer the energetic cost of steady swimming. Novel hydrodynamic preference curves were developed and used to assess the appropriateness of D as a descriptor of space use compared with other commonly used metrics. Zones in which performance-enhancing swimming behaviours (e.g. Kármán gaiting, entraining and bow riding) that enable fish to hold position while reducing energetic costs (termed 'specialised behaviours') were identified and occupancy was recorded. We demonstrate that energy conservation strategies play a key role in space use in an energetically taxing environment with the majority of trout groups choosing to frequently occupy areas in which specialised behaviours may be adopted or by selecting low-drag regions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Planar shadow image velocimetry for the analysis of the hydrodynamics in bubbly flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bröder, D.; Sommerfeld, M.
2007-08-01
, detailed data on the hydrodynamics of bubble-driven flows are provided.
Luo, Hu-Ping; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H
2012-04-01
Photosynthetic microorganisms have been attracting world attention for their great potential as renewable energy sources in recent years. Cost effective production in large scale, however, remains a major challenge to overcome. It is known to the field that turbulence could help improving the performance of photobioreactors due to the so-called flashing light effects. Better understanding of the multiphase fluid dynamics and the irradiance distribution inside the reactor that cause the flashing light effects, as well as quantifying their impacts on the reactor performance, thus, are crucial for successful design and scale-up of photobioreactors. In this study, a species of red marine microalgae, Porphyridium sp., was grown in three airlift column photobioreactors (i.e., draft tube column, bubble column, and split column). The physical properties of the culture medium, the local fluid dynamics and the photobioreactor performances were investigated and are reported in this part of the manuscript. Results indicate that the presence of microalgae considerably affected the local multiphase flow dynamics in the studied draft tube column. Results also show that the split column reactor works slightly better than the draft tube and the bubble columns due to the spiral flow pattern inside the reactor. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Justin S.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Fringer, Oliver B.; Koweek, David A.; Dunbar, Robert B.
2017-02-01
We present a hydrodynamic analysis of an atoll system from modeling simulations using a coupled wave and three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COAWST) applied to Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific. This is the first time the vortex force formalism has been applied in a highly frictional reef environment. The model results agree well with field observations considering the model complexity in terms of bathymetry, bottom roughness, and forcing (waves, wind, metrological, tides, regional boundary conditions), and open boundary conditions. At the atoll scale, strong regional flows create flow separation and a well-defined wake, similar to 2D flow past a cylinder. Circulation within the atoll is typically forced by waves and tides, with strong waves from the north driving flow from north to south across the atoll, and from east to west through the lagoon system. Bottom stress is significant for depths less than about 60 m, and in addition to the model bathymetry, is important for correct representation of flow in the model. Connectivity within the atoll system shows that the general trends follow the mean flow paths. However, some connectivity exists between all regions of the atoll system due to nonlinear processes such as eddies and tidal phasing. Moderate wave stress, short travel time (days since entering the reef system), and low temperature appear to be the most ideal conditions for high coral cover at this site.
Critical review of membrane bioreactor models--part 2: hydrodynamic and integrated models.
Naessens, W; Maere, T; Ratkovich, N; Vedantam, S; Nopens, I
2012-10-01
Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated MBR modelling is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones including costs are leaning towards optimisation. Trends are discussed, knowledge gaps identified and interesting routes for further research suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahnama, Mani; Koch, Donald L.; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.
1995-03-01
A single, non-Brownian fiber suspended in a viscous, Newtonian fluid undergoing simple shear flow rotates in one of a set of closed orbits known as Jeffery orbits. In a fiber suspension, the hydrodynamic interactions among the fibers determine the distribution of fibers among these orbits. The hydrodynamic interactions in dilute and semidilute suspensions have been studied using slender-body theory. Hydrodynamic, orientational diffusivities were obtained from an ensemble average of the fiber-fiber interactions. The steady-state fiber orientation distribution is controlled by the anisotropy and orientation dependence of the diffusivities. The steady-state and transient fiber orientation distributions are derived using a perturbation analysis for weak hydrodynamic orientational diffusion that is an extension of the work of Leal and Hinch [J. Fluid Mech. 46, 685 (1972)] for weak, isotropic, rotary Brownian motion. In the dilute regime, the steady-state experimental distributions of Anczurowski and Mason [J. Colloid Interface Science 23, 522 (1967)] do not agree with the theoretical predictions. An explanation for these discrepancies accompanied with new experimental results is presented in this work. The theoretical predictions for the steady-state orientation distribution, and the temporal orbit constant correlation function in the semidilute regime are in good agreement with the experimental results of Stover et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 238, 277 (1992)]. The correlation time for the fiber orientation is approximately inversely proportional to fiber concentration in both the dilute and semidilute regimes.
Shapiro, A. )
1992-12-01
Vertically sheared airflow over semi-infinite barriers is investigated with a simple hydrodynamical model. The idealized flow is steady, two-dimensional, neutrally buoyant, and inviscid, bounded on the bottom by a semi-infinite impermeable barrier and on the top by a rigid tropopause lid. With attention further restricted to an exponentially decreasing wind shear, the equations of motion (Euler's equations) reduce, without approximation, to a modified Poisson equation for a pseudo streamfunction and a formula for the Exner function. The free parameters characterizing the model's environment are the tropopause height, the density scale height, the wind speed at ground level, and the wind speed at tropopause level. Additional parameters characterize the barrier geometry. Exact solutions of the equations of motion are obtained for semi-infinite plateau barriers and for a barrier qualitatively resembling the shallow density current associated with some thunderstorm outflows. These solutions are noteworthy in that the reduction of a certain nondimensional shear parameter (through negative values) results in greater vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite a corresponding reduction in the vertical velocity. This steepening tendency culminates in overturning motions associated with both upstream and down-stream steering levels. In this latter case the low-level inflow impinging on the barrier participates in a mixed jump and overturning updraft reminiscent of updrafts simulated in numerical convective models. Conversely, for large values of the nondimensional shear parameter, parcels undergo small vertical parcel displacements over the barrier despite large vertical velocities. This latter behavior may account for the finding that strong convergence along the leading edge of storm outflows does not always trigger deep convection even in unstable environments.
Sun, Yanhong; Guo, Chaohong; Jiang, Yuyan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei
2016-11-01
This paper demonstrates an online measurement technique which can measure both surface tension and viscosity for confined fluids in microfluidic systems. The surface tension and viscosity are determined by monitoring the liquid film thickness deposited in a microchannel based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow. Measurements were carried out for pure liquids and binary aqueous liquid mixtures. The results agreed well with reference data and theoretical models. This novel method has considerable potential for measuring dynamic interfacial tension of complex mixtures. Furthermore, it offers opportunity for integrating property measurement with two-phase flow in microchannel, opening new lines of applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yanhong; Guo, Chaohong; Jiang, Yuyan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Lei
2016-11-01
This paper demonstrates an online measurement technique which can measure both surface tension and viscosity for confined fluids in microfluidic systems. The surface tension and viscosity are determined by monitoring the liquid film thickness deposited in a microchannel based on the hydrodynamics of Taylor flow. Measurements were carried out for pure liquids and binary aqueous liquid mixtures. The results agreed well with reference data and theoretical models. This novel method has considerable potential for measuring dynamic interfacial tension of complex mixtures. Furthermore, it offers opportunity for integrating property measurement with two-phase flow in microchannel, opening new lines of applications.
Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Waddle, Terry J.
2013-01-01
We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the assessment of water diversion effects on benthic macroinvertebrates and associated habitat in a montane stream in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblage via Surber sampling, recorded detailed measurements of bed topography and flow, and coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indicators to assess habitat across a range of low flows in 2010 and representative past years. We also made zero flow approximations to assess response of fauna to extreme conditions. The fauna of this montane reach had a higher percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (%EPT) than might be expected given the relatively low faunal diversity of the study reach. The modeled responses of wetted area and area-weighted macroinvertebrate metrics to decreasing discharge indicated precipitous declines in metrics as flows approached zero. Changes in area-weighted metrics closely approximated patterns observed for wetted area, i.e., area-weighted invertebrate metrics contributed relatively little additional information above that yielded by wetted area alone. Loss of habitat area in this montane stream appears to be a greater threat than reductions in velocity and depth or changes in substrate, and the modeled patterns observed across years support this conclusion. Our models suggest that step function losses of wetted area may begin when discharge in the Merced falls to 0.02 m3/s; proportionally reducing diversions when this threshold is reached will likely reduce impacts in low flow years.
Jashnsaz, Hossein; Al Juboori, Mohammed; Weistuch, Corey; Miller, Nicholas; Nguyen, Tyler; Meyerhoff, Viktoria; McCoy, Bryan; Perkins, Stephanie; Wallgren, Ross; Ray, Bruce D; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Anderson, Gregory G; Pressé, Steve
2017-03-28
The Gram-negative Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (BV) is a model bacterial predator that hunts other bacteria and may serve as a living antibiotic. Despite over 50 years since its discovery, it is suggested that BV probably collides into its prey at random. It remains unclear to what degree, if any, BV uses chemical cues to target its prey. The targeted search problem by the predator for its prey in three dimensions is a difficult problem: it requires the predator to sensitively detect prey and forecast its mobile prey's future position on the basis of previously detected signal. Here instead we find that rather than chemically detecting prey, hydrodynamics forces BV into regions high in prey density, thereby improving its odds of a chance collision with prey and ultimately reducing BV's search space for prey. We do so by showing that BV's dynamics are strongly influenced by self-generated hydrodynamic flow fields forcing BV onto surfaces and, for large enough defects on surfaces, forcing BV in orbital motion around these defects. Key experimental controls and calculations recapitulate the hydrodynamic origin of these behaviors. While BV's prey (Escherichia coli) are too small to trap BV in hydrodynamic orbit, the prey are also susceptible to their own hydrodynamic fields, substantially confining them to surfaces and defects where mobile predator and prey density is now dramatically enhanced. Colocalization, driven by hydrodynamics, ultimately reduces BV's search space for prey from three to two dimensions (on surfaces) even down to a single dimension (around defects). We conclude that BV's search for individual prey remains random, as suggested in the literature, but confined, however-by generic hydrodynamic forces-to reduced dimensionality.
Comparison of Particle Flow Code and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Modelling of Landslide Run outs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preh, A.; Poisel, R.; Hungr, O.
2009-04-01
In most continuum mechanics methods modelling the run out of landslides the moving mass is divided into a number of elements, the velocities of which can be established by numerical integration of Newtońs second law (Lagrangian solution). The methods are based on fluid mechanics modelling the movements of an equivalent fluid. In 2004, McDougall and Hungr presented a three-dimensional numerical model for rapid landslides, e.g. debris flows and rock avalanches, called DAN3D.The method is based on the previous work of Hungr (1995) and is using an integrated two-dimensional Lagrangian solution and meshless Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) principle to maintain continuity. DAN3D has an open rheological kernel, allowing the use of frictional (with constant porepressure ratio) and Voellmy rheologies and gives the possibility to change material rheology along the path. Discontinuum (granular) mechanics methods model the run out mass as an assembly of particles moving down a surface. Each particle is followed exactly as it moves and interacts with the surface and with its neighbours. Every particle is checked on contacts with every other particle in every time step using a special cell-logic for contact detection in order to reduce the computational effort. The Discrete Element code PFC3D was adapted in order to make possible discontinuum mechanics models of run outs. Punta Thurwieser Rock Avalanche and Frank Slide were modelled by DAN as well as by PFC3D. The simulations showed correspondingly that the parameters necessary to get results coinciding with observations in nature are completely different. The maximum velocity distributions due to DAN3D reveal that areas of different maximum flow velocity are next to each other in Punta Thurwieser run out whereas the distribution of maximum flow velocity shows almost constant maximum flow velocity over the width of the run out regarding Frank Slide. Some 30 percent of total kinetic energy is rotational kinetic energy in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clearman, W. M.; Cha, J. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, C. S.
2008-03-01
The hydrodynamic parameters associated with steady longitudinal and lateral (radial) flow of helium in several widely-used pulse tube and Stirling cryocooler regenerator fillers were measured and correlated in this investigation. Pressure drops in test sections packed with regenerator fillers were experimentally measured. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the regenerator test sections and their vicinities were developed and simulations were performed in which the regenerator test sections were modeled as porous media. By iterative repetition of the simulations, the longitudinal and radial permeability and Forchheimer inertial coefficients were determined such that they would lead to agreement between experimental measurements and the simulations. The regenerator fillers included 325 and 400 mesh stainless steel screens, stainless steel metal foam, sintered 400 mesh stainless steel screens, and a stack of micromachined perforated plates. The hydrodynamic response of the regenerator fillers were also correlated as friction factors. The results confirm that the aforementioned regenerator fillers are anisotropic.
Flow between rotating disks. Part 1: Basic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneider, S. J.; Labbe, F.; Kaufman, H. N.; Szeri, A. Z.
Multiplicity of basic flows, when the fluid is bounded by two infinite disks, reported by several investigators is examined with emphasis on whether, and under what conditions infinite disk flows approximate to laboratory flows between two finite disks. Laser Doppler velocity measurements were obtained in water between finite rotating disks, with and without through flow. Angular velocity ratios were studied for: (1) one disk rotating and the other stationary; (2) co-rotating disks of equal angular velocity; and (3) counter rotating disks of equal but opposite angular velocity. It is concluded that limiting flows are unique and are independent of flow history. With one disk rotating and the other stationary, the mid-radius limiting flow is recognized as the Batchelor profile of infinite disk theory. Other profiles, predicted by this theory to coexist with the Batchelor profile were neither observed experimentally nor were they calculated numerically by the finite disk solution obtained with a Galerkin, b-spline formulation.
Marine Radioactivity Studies in the Suez Canal, Part I: Hydrodynamics and Transit Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abril, J. M.; Abdel-Aal, M. M.
2000-04-01
This paper describes work carried out under the IAEA Project EGY/07/002 to study the dispersion of radioactive material in the Suez Canal. This effort is linked with the increased public concern about radiation safety through this important trade route. To follow the fate of radioactive wastes along this waterway, we had to solve the hydrodynamics of the water, governed mainly by tides, atmospheric forcing and the drift currents produced by horizontal salinity gradients and by differences in mean sea level (MSL) at the two entrances of the Canal. The hydrodynamics has been studied using both 1-D and 2-D modelling approaches, and a reasonable calibration has been possible from the data set prepared with the collaboration of the Suez Canal Authority. Dispersion of conservative pollutants has been preliminarily studied by using a 1-D-Gaussian approach. Thus, we are computing the path of the plumes and the time evolution of concentrations for different scenarios of discharges and under different seasonal conditions. The transit times can vary enormously during the year, ranging from a few days to several months, depending on the differences in MSL at the two entrances of the Canal.
Hydrodynamic impeller stiffness, damping, and inertia in the rotordynamics of centrifugal flow pumps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jery, S.; Acosta, A. J.; Brennen, C. E.; Caughey, T. K.
1984-01-01
The lateral hydrodynamic forces experienced by a centrifugal pump impeller performing circular whirl motions within several volute geometries were measured. The lateral forces were decomposed into: (1) time averaged lateral forces and (2) hydrodynamic force matrices representing the variation of the lateral forces with position of the impeller center. It is found that these force matrices essentially consist of equal diagonal terms and skew symmetric off diagonal terms. One consequence of this is that during its whirl motion the impeller experiences forces acting normal and tangential to the locus of whirl. Data on these normal and tangential forces are presented; it is shown that there exists a region of positive reduced whirl frequencies, within which the hydrodynamic forces can be destablizing with respect to whirl.
Hydrodynamic forces on a wall-bound leukocyte due to interactions with flowing red cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Freund, Jonathan B.
2011-11-01
As part of both healthy and pathologically physiological mechanisms sphere-like white blood cells (leukocytes) adhere to the walls of small blood vessels. We use quantitative numerical simulations to compare the forces from flowing red blood cells on a wall-adhered leukocyte to a homogenized model of blood at the same flow conditions. We model the highly flexible red blood cells using a fast O (N log N) boundary integral formulation. These elastic membranes deform substantially but strongly resist surface dilatation. They enclose a higher than plasma viscosity hemoglobin solution. The no-slip condition is enforced on the stationary leukocyte as well as the vessel walls. Vessel diameters of 10 to 20 microns are studied. Different hematocrits, leukocyte shapes, and flow conditions are examined. In vessels comparable to the size of the cells, we show that the particulate character of blood significantly affects the magnitude of the forces that the leukocyte experiences, transiently increasing it well above the homogenized-blood prediction: for example, for a tube hematocrit of 25 % and a spherical protrusion with a diameter 0.75 that of the tube, the average forces are increased by about 40 % and the local forces by more than 100 % relative to those expected for a blood model homogenized by its effective viscosity.
Inlet flow field investigation. Part 1: Transonic flow field survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yetter, J. A.; Salemann, V.; Sussman, M. B.
1984-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the local inlet flow field characteristics of an advanced tactical supersonic cruise airplane. A data base for the development and validation of analytical codes directed at the analysis of inlet flow fields for advanced supersonic airplanes was established. Testing was conducted at the NASA-Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel at freestream Mach numbers of 0.6 to 1.20 and angles of attack from 0.0 to 10.0 degrees. Inlet flow field surveys were made at locations representative of wing (upper and lower surface) and forebody mounted inlet concepts. Results are presented in the form of local inlet flow field angle of attack, sideflow angle, and Mach number contours. Wing surface pressure distributions supplement the flow field data.
Fukuda, Ikuo; Fujimori, Shingo; Daitoku, Kazuyuki; Yanaoka, Hideki; Inamura, Takao
2009-06-01
The objective of this study was to visualize and characterize the effect of cannula tip direction on flow within transverse aortic arch. A hydrodynamic analysis of the Dispersion arterial cannula (Edwards Lifescience LLC, Irvine, CA) was performed using particle image velocimetry in glass perfusion models of healthy and aneurysmal aortic arches. Flow velocity, streamline, distribution of magnitude of the strain rate tensor (function of shear stress), and degree of flow turbulence were comparatively analyzed for cannula tip directed toward the aortic arch (standard direction) and toward the aortic root (root direction). Standard direction cannulation in the model of the healthy aorta showed the flow velocity in the transverse aortic arch was rapid, the streamlines were nonlinear, and the magnitude of the strain rate tensor was high along aortic curvatures. Conversely, directing the cannula tip toward the aortic root generated slower and less turbulent flow in the transverse aortic arch despite high velocity and turbulence and nonlinear streamlines in the ascending aorta. In the aneurysmal aortic arch model, the flow velocity was more rapid in the area where aortic arch vessels originated, and a reversely directed vortex was observed between the aneurysm and the origination of the arch vessels. In the root direction model, the flow velocity distribution was slower than that in the standard direction. Directing the cannula tip of the Dispersion cannula toward the aortic root generated slower and less turbulent flow in the transverse arch of the glass models of both healthy and aneurysmal aortic arches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Liping; Lu, Gang; Chen, Dachuan; Li, Wenjun; Lu, Chunsheng
2017-07-01
This paper investigates the three-dimensional (3D) injection molding flow of short fiber-reinforced polymer composites using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation method. The polymer melt was modeled as a power law fluid and the fibers were considered as rigid cylindrical bodies. The filling details and fiber orientation in the injection-molding process were studied. The results indicated that the SPH method could effectively predict the order of filling, fiber accumulation, and heterogeneous distribution of fibers. The SPH simulation also showed that fibers were mainly aligned to the flow direction in the skin layer and inclined to the flow direction in the core layer. Additionally, the fiber-orientation state in the simulation was quantitatively analyzed and found to be consistent with the results calculated by conventional tensor methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biancamaria, S.; Garambois, P. A.; Calmant, S.; Roux, H.; Paris, A.; Monnier, J.; Santos da Silva, J.
2015-12-01
Hydrodynamic laws predict that irregularities in a river bed geometry produce spatial and temporal variations in the water level, hence in its slope. Conversely, observation of these changes is a goal of the SWOT mission with the determination of the discharge as a final objective. In this study, we analyse the relationship between river bed undulations and water surface for an ungauged reach of the Xingu river, a first order tributary of the Amazon river. It is crosscut more than 10 times by a single ENVISAT track over a hundred of km. We have determined time series of water levelsat each of these crossings, called virtual stations (VS), hence slopes of the flow line. Using the discharge series computed by Paiva et al. (2013) between 1998 and 2009, Paris et al. (submitted) determined at each VS a rating curve relating these simulated discharge with the ENVISAT height series. One parameter of these rating curves is the zero-flow depth Z 0 . We show that it is possible to explain the spatial and temporal variations of the water surface slope in terms of hydrodynamical response of the longitudinal changes of the river bed geometry given by the successive values of Z 0 . Our experiment is based on an effective, single thread representation of a braided river, realistic values for the Manning coefficient and river widths picked up on JERS images. This study confirms that simulated flow lines are consistent with water surface elevations (WSE) and slopes gained by satellite altimetry. Hydrodynamical signatures are more visible where the river bed geometry varies significantly, and for reaches with a strong downstream control. Therefore, this study suggests that the longitudinal variations of the slope might be an interesting criteria for the question of river segmentation into elementary reaches for the SWOT mission which will provide continuous measurements of the water surface elevation, the slope and the reach width.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamb, Michael P.; Brun, Fanny; Fuller, Brian M.
2017-03-01
The hydraulics of steep mountain streams differ from lower gradient rivers due to shallow and rough flows, energetic subsurface flow, and macro-scale form drag from immobile boulders and channel and bed forms. Heightened flow resistance and reduced sediment transport rates in steep streams are commonly attributed to macro-scale form drag; however, little work has explored steep river hydrodynamics in the absence of complex bed geometries. Here we present theory for the vertical structure of flow velocity in steep streams with planar, rough beds that couples surface and subsurface flow. We test it against flume experiments using a bed of fixed cobbles over a wide range of bed slopes (0.4-30%). Experimental flows have a nearly logarithmic velocity profile far above the bed; flow velocity decreases less than logarithmically toward the bed and is nonzero at the bed surface. Velocity profiles match theory derived using a hybrid eddy viscosity model, in which the mixing length is a function of height above the bed and bed roughness. Subsurface flow velocities are large (>1 m/s) and follow a modified Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer relation that accounts for channel slope and shear from overlying surface flow. Near-bed turbulent fluctuations decrease for shallow, rough flows and scale with the depth-averaged flow velocity rather than bed shear velocity. Flow resistance for rough, planar beds closely matches observations in natural steep streams despite the lack of bed forms or channel forms in the experiments, suggesting that macro-scale form drag is smaller than commonly assumed in stress-partitioning models for sediment transport.
Hayat, Tasawar; Awais, Muhammad; Imtiaz, Amna
2016-01-01
This communication deals with the properties of heat source/sink in a magneto-hydrodynamic flow of a non-Newtonian fluid immersed in a porous medium. Shrinking phenomenon along with the permeability of the wall is considered. Mathematical modelling is performed to convert the considered physical process into set of coupled nonlinear mathematical equations. Suitable transformations are invoked to convert the set of partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are tackled numerically for the solution computations. It is noted that dual solutions for various physical parameters exist which are analyzed in detail. PMID:27598314
Hayat, Tasawar; Awais, Muhammad; Imtiaz, Amna
2016-01-01
This communication deals with the properties of heat source/sink in a magneto-hydrodynamic flow of a non-Newtonian fluid immersed in a porous medium. Shrinking phenomenon along with the permeability of the wall is considered. Mathematical modelling is performed to convert the considered physical process into set of coupled nonlinear mathematical equations. Suitable transformations are invoked to convert the set of partial differential equations into nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are tackled numerically for the solution computations. It is noted that dual solutions for various physical parameters exist which are analyzed in detail.
Numerical investigation of blood flow. Part II: In capillaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, A.; Zamankhan, P.; Mousavi, S. M.; Kolari, P.
2009-04-01
In order to understand the normal and pathologic behavior of the human vascular system, detailed knowledge of blood flow and the response of blood vessels is required. In fact the ability to predict the flow hydrodynamics at any site in the vessels can lead to a better understanding of the behavior of blood flow. Simulation can play an important role in understanding the hemodynamic forces. The objective of the present attempt was to simulate the behavior of blood flow in microvessels using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Numerical analysis is performed using a commercially available CFD package Fluent 6.2 which is based on the finite volume method. A continuum approach is proposed in which fluid structure interaction has been taken into account. Based on limitations imposed by computational resources, a more simplified model based on volume of fluid (VOF) approach is suggested to simulate movements of RBCs in capillaries and also to predict RBCs' deformation. Three-dimensional incompressible laminar flow fields are obtained by solving continuity and Navier-Stokes equations computationally. It was found that multiphase CFD simulations may give further insight into the dynamic characteristics of blood flow under complex flow conditions.
Yamada, Shinya; Goto, Tadateru
2010-11-01
Cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) hydrodynamics in normal and hydrocephalic brain was observed noninvasively using a time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (SLIP) technique. A time-SLIP technique applied label to CSF in the region of interest so that CSF became internal CSF tracer. CSF hydrodynamics even in normal brain appeared to be much different from it was imagine from conventional CSF physiology text books. Various amplitudes of pulsatile CSF flow were observed in the different regions of the brain. CSF hydrodynamics altered when hydrocephalus was developed. A time-SLIP CSF flow imaging is helpful to understand CSF hydrodynamics in the normal physiological and hydrocephalic brain. It may be useful to distinguish the hydrocephalus brain from the senile atrophic brain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Yun-Soo; Kim, Jung-Rack; Lin, Shih-Yuan; Tsai, Li-Yun; Yun, Hye-Won
2015-04-01
The changes of ice sheet in Greenland have been traced through various remote sensing observations. However, it was realized that not only the uncertainties in the observed change of ice sheet were not fully addressed, but also the tracking of correlation between outlet glacial movement and subglacial channel activities, which may be the key factor for the understanding of Greenland ice sheet change, is highly challenging. Therefore, in this study, we proposed an investigation method employing hydrodynamic simulation over the channels connected glacier and spaceborne remote sensing tracking the glacier migration. The test area was established in Russell glacier in western Greenland where the change of glacier has been obvious for the last century and significant fluvial flows occur over meltwater outflow channels, such as Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua and Qinnguata Kuussua. Firstly a scheme fusing multiple satellite data for spatially and temporally monitoring the migration of glacier with high accuracy was established. A 2D hydrodynamic analysis utilizing high resolution stereo DTM and bathymetry by multispectral radiometric analysis was then conducted. For the space borne tracking of glacial migration, differential interferometric SAR (D-InSAR) campaigns using ALOS PALSAR pairs were applied to monitor the glacial change. In terms of data fusion aspect, we employed pixel tracking method by co-registration of ALOS PALSAR/PALSAR2 and space borne optical images over target area to compensate for any line-of-sight glacial movement resulted from the D-InSAR analysis. In order to securely trace individual pixel, high accuracy sub-pixel co-registration algorithm was developed. At last, the outputs from analyses were incorporated to build an effective 3D movement tracing over the Russell glacier. Furthermore, for conducting the hydrodynamic analysis, optical stereo analysis using ALOS PRISM images was applied to extract DTM with 7.5 m spatial resolution over target glacial area
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi
2007-05-01
Millimeter-sized, spherical silicate grains abundant in chondritic meteorites, which are called as chondrules, are considered to be a strong evidence of the melting event of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disk. One of the most plausible scenarios is that the chondrule precursor dust particles are heated and melt in the high-velocity gas flow (shock-wave heating model). We developed the non-linear, time-dependent, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code for analyzing the dynamics of molten droplets exposed to the gas flow. We confirmed that our simulation results showed a good agreement in a linear regime with the linear solution analytically derived by Sekyia et al. [Sekyia, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728]. We found that the non-linear terms in the hydrodynamical equations neglected by Sekiya et al. [Sekiya, M., Uesugi, M., Nakamoto, T., 2003. Prog. Theor. Phys. 109, 717-728] can cause the cavitation by producing negative pressure in the droplets. We discussed that the fragmentation through the cavitation is a new mechanism to determine the upper limit of chondrule sizes. We also succeeded to reproduce the fragmentation of droplets when the gas ram pressure is stronger than the effect of the surface tension. Finally, we compared the deformation of droplets in the shock-wave heating with the measured data of chondrules and suggested the importance of other effects to deform droplets, for example, the rotation of droplets. We believe that our new code is a very powerful tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of molten droplets in the framework of the shock-wave heating model and has many potentials to be applied to various problems.
Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Fagerland, M; Hietala, S O; Johansson, B; Ekstedt, J; Karlsson, T
1996-03-01
OBJECTIVES--(1) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography and 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in patients with the idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS); (2) to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), gait, and psychometric functions before and after CSF removal (CSF tap test); (3) to assess abnormalities in subcortical white matter by MRI. METHODS--Thirty one patients fulfilling the criteria for IAHS (according to history and clinical and neuroradiological examination) were studied. Quantified gait measurements, psychometric testing, and rCBF before and after removal of CSF were obtained. Pressure of CSF and CSF outflow conductance were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method. Brain MRI was used to quantify the severity of white matter lesions and periventricular hyperintensities. In IAHS a widespread rCBF hypoperfusion pattern was depicted, with a caudal frontal and temporal grey matter and subcortical white matter reduction of rCBF as the dominant feature. Removal of CSF was not accompanied by a concomitant increase in rCBF. Significant white matter lesions were detected only in a minority of patients by MRI. An altered CSF hydrodynamic state with a higher CSF pressure and lower conductance was confirmed. IAHS is characterised by an abnormal CSF hydrodynamic state, associated with a widespread rCBF reduction with preference for subcortical white matter and frontal-temporal cortical regions. Furthermore in most patients MRI did not show white matter changes suggestive of a coexistent subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. At least in the idiopathic group of patients with AHS, measurements of rCBF before and after temporary relief of the CSF hydrodynamic disturbance will not provide additional information that would be helpful in the preoperative evaluation but is suggestive of a preserved autoregulation of rCBF.
Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Fagerland, M; Hietala, S O; Johansson, B; Ekstedt, J; Karlsson, T
1996-01-01
OBJECTIVES--(1) to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography and 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime in patients with the idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS); (2) to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), gait, and psychometric functions before and after CSF removal (CSF tap test); (3) to assess abnormalities in subcortical white matter by MRI. METHODS--Thirty one patients fulfilling the criteria for IAHS (according to history and clinical and neuroradiological examination) were studied. Quantified gait measurements, psychometric testing, and rCBF before and after removal of CSF were obtained. Pressure of CSF and CSF outflow conductance were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method. Brain MRI was used to quantify the severity of white matter lesions and periventricular hyperintensities. In IAHS a widespread rCBF hypoperfusion pattern was depicted, with a caudal frontal and temporal grey matter and subcortical white matter reduction of rCBF as the dominant feature. Removal of CSF was not accompanied by a concomitant increase in rCBF. Significant white matter lesions were detected only in a minority of patients by MRI. An altered CSF hydrodynamic state with a higher CSF pressure and lower conductance was confirmed. IAHS is characterised by an abnormal CSF hydrodynamic state, associated with a widespread rCBF reduction with preference for subcortical white matter and frontal-temporal cortical regions. Furthermore in most patients MRI did not show white matter changes suggestive of a coexistent subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. At least in the idiopathic group of patients with AHS, measurements of rCBF before and after temporary relief of the CSF hydrodynamic disturbance will not provide additional information that would be helpful in the preoperative evaluation but is suggestive of a preserved autoregulation of rCBF. PMID:8609504
Hou, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen
2009-07-01
This study presents a novel 3-D hydrodynamic focusing technique for micro-flow cytometers. In the proposed approach, the sample stream is compressed initially in the horizontal direction by a set of sheath flows such that it is constrained to the central region of the microchannel and is then focused in the vertical direction by a second pair of sheath flows. Thereafter, the focused sample stream passes over a micro-weir structure positioned directly beneath an optical detection system to capture polystyrene beads fluorescent signal. The microchannel configuration and operational parameters are optimized by performing a series of numerical simulations. An experimental investigation is then performed using a micro-flow cytometer fabricated using conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems techniques and an isotropic wet etching method. The results indicate that the two sets of sheath flows successfully constrain the sample stream within a narrow, well-defined region of the microchannel. Furthermore, the micro-weir structure prompts the separation of a mixed sample of 5 and 10 microm polystyrene beads in the vertical direction and ensures that the beads flow through the detection region of the microchannel in a sequential fashion and can therefore be reliably detected and counted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konchakovski, V. P.; Cassing, W.; Ivanov, Y. B.; Toneev, V. D.
2015-05-01
We analyze recent STAR data for the directed flow of protons, antiprotons and charged pions obtained within the beam energy scan program within the Parton-Hadron-String- Dynamics (PHSD) transport model and the 3-Fluid hydroDynamics (3FD) approach. We clarify the role of partonic degrees of freedom in the kinetic PHSD approach. The PHSD results, simulating a partonic phase and its coexistence with a hadronic one, are roughly consistent with data. The hydrodynamic results are obtained for two EoS, a pure hadronic EoS and an EoS with a crossover type transition. The latter case is favored by the STAR experimental data. Special attention is paid to the description of antiproton directed flow based on the balance of pp\\bar annihilation and the inverse processes for Np\\bar pair creation from multi-meson interactions. Generally, a semi-qualitative agreement between the measured data and model results supports the idea of a crossover type quark-hadron transition which softens the nuclear EoS.
Zhou, Yanguang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Hu, Ming
2017-02-08
By carefully and systematically performing Green-Kubo equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we report that the thermal conductivity (κ) of Si nanowires (NWs) does not diverge but converges and increases steeply when NW diameter (D) becomes extremely small (dκ/dD < 0), a long debate of one-dimensional heat conduction in history. The κ of the thinnest possible Si NWs reaches a superhigh level that is as large as more than 1 order of magnitude higher than its bulk counterpart. The abnormality is explained in terms of the dominant normal (N) process (energy and momentum conservation) of low frequency acoustic phonons that induces hydrodynamic phonon flow in the Si NWs without being scattered. With D increasing, the downward shift of optical phonons triggers strong Umklapp (U) scattering with acoustic phonons and attenuates the N process, leading to the regime of phonon boundary scattering (dκ/dD < 0). The two competing mechanisms result in nonmonotonic diameter dependence of κ with minima at critical diameter of 2-3 nm. Our results unambiguously demonstrate the converged κ and the clear trend of κ ∼ D for extremely thin Si NWs by fully elucidating the competition between the hydrodynamic phonon flow and phonon boundary scattering.
A novel multi-coaxial hollow fiber bioreactor for adherent cell types. Part 1: hydrodynamic studies.
Wolfe, Stephen P; Hsu, Edward; Reid, Lola M; Macdonald, Jeffrey M
2002-01-05
A novel multi-coaxial bioreactor for three-dimensional cultures of adherent cell types, such as liver, is described. It is composed of four tubes of increasing diameter placed one inside the other, creating four spatially isolated compartments. Liver acinar structure and physiological parameters are mimicked by sandwiching cells in the space between the two innermost semi-permeable tubes, or hollows fibers, and creating a radial flow of media from an outer compartment (ECC), through the cell mass compartment, and to an inner compartment (ICC). The outermost compartment is created by gas-permeable tubing, and the housing is used to oxygenate the perfusion media to periportal levels in the ECC. Experiments were performed using distilled water to correlate the radial flow rate (Q(r)) with (1) the pressure drop (DeltaP) between the media compartments that sandwich the cell compartment and (2) the pressure in the cell compartment (P(c)). These results were compared with the theoretical profile calculated based on the hydraulic permeability of the two innermost fibers. Phase-contrast velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging was used to visualize directly the axial velocities inside the bioreactor and confirm the assumptions of laminar flow and zero axial velocity at the boundaries of each compartment in the bioreactor. Axial flow rates were calculated from the magnetic resonance imaging results and were similar to the measured axial flow rates for the previously described experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.
2014-12-01
In part I of this two-part paper, a three-dimensional Lagrangian smooth particle hydrodynamics method has been used to model the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with or without short steel fibres in the slump cone test. The constitutive behaviour of this non-Newtonian viscous fluid is described by a Bingham-type model. The 3D simulation of SCC without fibres is focused on the distribution of large aggregates (larger than or equal to 8 mm) during the flow. The simulation of self-compacting high- and ultra-high- performance concrete containing short steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The simulation results show that the fibres and/or heavier aggregates do not precipitate but remain homogeneously distributed in the mix throughout the flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, James M.; Norman, Michael L.
1992-06-01
A detailed description of ZEUS-2D, a numerical code for the simulation of fluid dynamical flows including a self-consistent treatment of the effects of magnetic fields and radiation transfer is presented. Attention is given to the hydrodynamic (HD) algorithms which form the foundation for the more complex MHD and radiation HD algorithms. The effect of self-gravity on the flow dynamics is accounted for by an iterative solution of the sparse-banded matrix resulting from discretizing the Poisson equation in multidimensions. The results of an extensive series of HD test problems are presented. A detailed description of the MHD algorithms in ZEUS-2D is presented. A new method of computing the electromotive force is developed using the method of characteristics (MOC). It is demonstrated through the results of an extensive series of MHD test problems that the resulting hybrid MOC-constrained transport method provides for the accurate evolution of all modes of MHD wave families.
Mikhailenko, V. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Lee, Hae June; Koepke, M. E.
2014-07-15
The cross-magnetic-field (i.e., perpendicular) profile of ion temperature and the perpendicular profile of the magnetic-field-aligned (parallel) plasma flow are sometimes inhomogeneous for space and laboratory plasma. Instability caused either by a gradient in the ion-temperature profile or by shear in the parallel flow has been discussed extensively in the literature. In this paper, (1) hydrodynamic plasma stability is investigated, (2) real and imaginary frequency are quantified over a range of the shear parameter, the normalized wavenumber, and the ratio of density-gradient and ion-temperature-gradient scale lengths, and (3) the role of inverse Landau damping is illustrated for the case of combined ion-temperature gradient and parallel-flow shear. We find that increasing the ion-temperature gradient reduces the instability threshold for the hydrodynamic parallel-flow shear instability, also known as the parallel Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or the D'Angelo instability. We also find that a kinetic instability arises from the coupled, reinforcing action of both free-energy sources. For the case of comparable electron and ion temperature, we illustrate analytically the transition of the D'Angelo instability to the kinetic instability as (a) the shear parameter, (b) the normalized wavenumber, and (c) the ratio of density-gradient and ion-temperature-gradient scale lengths are varied and we attribute the changes in stability to changes in the amount of inverse ion Landau damping. We show that near a normalized wavenumber k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub i} of order unity (i) the real and imaginary values of frequency become comparable and (ii) the imaginary frequency, i.e., the growth rate, peaks.
Boundary Layer Theory. Part 1; Laminar Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
The purpose of this presentation is to give you a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. As you know, a great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the so-called ideal fluid, that is, the frictionless incompressible fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid (potential theory) has been made possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, M. G.; Helvensteijn, B. P.; Patel, V. C.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Mulcahey, T. I.; Kashani, A.; Feller, J. R.
2014-01-01
The regenerator, typically a microporous structure that is subject to periodic flow of a cryogenic fluid, is a critical component of pulse tube or Stirling cryocoolers, which are widely used for high-demand aerospace and defense applications. In this investigation, experiments were conducted in which steady and oscillatory flows of helium were imposed on ErPr rare-Earth regenerator filler material and mass flow and pressure drop data were recorded under ambient temperature conditions. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-assisted method was applied for the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data. The permeability and inertial coefficients that lead to agreement between the experimental data and computational simulations were iteratively obtained. The Darcy permeability and Forchheimer inertial coefficients were obtained and were found to be functions of the system charge pressure, operating frequency, and compressor piston stroke within the studied range of interest. The results also exhibit that the periodic flow hydrodynamic resistance parameters are in general different than steady flow parameters.
Akbarzadeh, Pooria
2016-04-01
In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amatore, Christian; Oleinick, Alexander; Klymenko, Oleksiy V; Svir, Irina
2005-08-12
Herein, we propose a method for reconstructing any plausible macroscopic hydrodynamic flow profile occurring locally within a rectangular microfluidic channel. The method is based on experimental currents measured at single or double microband electrodes embedded in one channel wall. A perfectly adequate quasiconformal mapping of spatial coordinates introduced in our previous work [Electrochem. Commun. 2004, 6, 1123] and an exponentially expanding time grid, initially proposed [J. Electroanal. Chem. 2003, 557, 75] in conjunction with the solution of the corresponding variational problem approached by the Ritz method are used for the numerical reconstruction of flow profiles. Herein, the concept of the method is presented and developed theoretically and its validity is tested on the basis of the use of pseudoexperimental currents emulated by simulation of the diffusion-convection problem in a channel flow cell, to which a random Gaussian current noise is added. The flow profiles reconstructed by our method compare successfully with those introduced a priori into the simulations, even when these include significant distortions compared with either classical Poiseuille or electro-osmotic flows.
Numerical Solution of Hydrodynamics Lubrications with Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osman, Kahar; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Bahak, Mohd. Zubil; Bahari, Adli; Asral
2010-06-01
This paper focuses on solution of numerical model for fluid film lubrication problem related to hydrodynamics with non-Newtonian fluid. A programming code is developed to investigate the effect of bearing design parameter such as pressure. A physical problem is modeled by a contact point of sphere on a disc with certain assumption. A finite difference method with staggered grid is used to improve the accuracy. The results show that the fluid characteristics as defined by power law fluid have led to a difference in the fluid pressure profile. Therefore a lubricant with special viscosity can reduced the pressure near the contact area of bearing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Dara W.
1993-01-01
The bulk-flow analysis results for this contract are incorporated in the following publications: 'Fluid-Structure Interaction Forces at Pump-Impeller Shroud Surfaces for Axial Vibration Analysis'; 'Centrifugal Acceleration Modes for Incompressible Fluid in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'; 'Influence of Impeller Shroud Forces on Pump Rotordynamics'; 'Pressure Oscillation in the Leakage Annulus Between a Shrouded Impeller and Its Housing Due to Impeller-Discharge-Pressure Disturbances'; and 'Compressibility Effects on Rotor Forces in the Leakage Path Between a Shrouded Pump Impeller and Its Housing'. These publications are summarized and included in this final report. Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) results developed by Dr. Erian Baskharone are reported separately.
Shahriari, S; Kadem, L; Rogers, B D; Hassan, I
2012-11-01
This paper aims to extend the application of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a meshfree particle method, to simulate flow inside a model of the heart's left ventricle (LV). This work is considered the first attempt to simulate flow inside a heart cavity using a meshfree particle method. Simulating this kind of flow, characterized by high pulsatility and moderate Reynolds number using SPH is challenging. As a consequence, validation of the computational code using benchmark cases is required prior to simulating the flow inside a model of the LV. In this work, this is accomplished by simulating an unsteady oscillating flow (pressure amplitude: A = 2500 N ∕ m(3) and Womersley number: W(o) = 16) and the steady lid-driven cavity flow (Re = 3200, 5000). The results are compared against analytical solutions and reference data to assess convergence. Then, both benchmark cases are combined and a pulsatile jet in a cavity is simulated and the results are compared with the finite volume method. Here, an approach to deal with inflow and outflow boundary conditions is introduced. Finally, pulsatile inlet flow in a rigid model of the LV is simulated. The results demonstrate the ability of SPH to model complex cardiovascular flows and to track the history of fluid properties. Some interesting features of SPH are also demonstrated in this study, including the relation between particle resolution and sound speed to control compressibility effects and also order of convergence in SPH simulations, which is consistently demonstrated to be between first-order and second-order at the moderate Reynolds numbers investigated.
2011-07-01
the entrance characteristics are asymmetric. In the in-line (A) and the dead head 90o (C) configurations, the manifold flow accelerates axially...flow to experience reverse flow in the downstream manifold, redirecting that portion of the flow to accelerate as it enters on the downstream side of...Reynolds number; and typically for high Re number (> 1x104) Cd is ~ constant for a given L/D. Depending on the orifice L/D and Reynolds number, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petihakis, G.; Triantafyllou, G.; Theodorou, A.
Numerical ecosystem models, as operational tools, may directly apply to problems of environmental management, predicting the response of natural systems to perturba- tions and modifications of various kinds. Since dynamics are described in some detail, the model may provide insight into the governing mechanisms influencing the func- tioning of the ecosystem. Pagasitikos is a semi-enclosed gulf situated on the western part of Aegean Sea north of the island of Evia connected at the south with the Aegean Sea through the 5.5 km wide, narrow channel of Trikeri. With a mean depth of 69m is characterized as a shallow water body while the deepest point is located at the east part (108m). The total area of the bay is 520 km2 with a total volume of 36 km3. The predominant weak winds of the area result in small to moderate water currents while renewal occurs mainly through the deep-water layer of the communication channel with Aegean Sea, inflowing across the east part and outflowing across the west part. This water movement is reversed at the surface layer. During winter months the water mass of Pagasitikos is fairly mixed, forming a two-layer thermocline for the rest of the year at approximately 20m depth, with the exception of August when three lay- ers are observed. The seasonal water temperature variability is quite significant with lowest temperatures (12.5 oC) during winter (February U March) reaching maximum values (27.4 oC) during summer. Salinity also exhibits wide fluctuations (32 U 38 L') with values increasing with depth due to the inflow of low salinity surface waters from the Aegean Sea. Inflows of fresh waters in the areas of Volos and Almiros are also observed during winter and spring adding to the complexity of the system. In this work the capability of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model based on Princeton Ocean Model (POM) to describe the phenomenology of Pagasitikos is investigated. Comparison with direct current measurements show good agreement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shabaga, Jason A.; Hill, Alan R.
2010-06-01
Although the ability of stream riparian buffers to reduce nitrate in groundwater has been promoted, the effectiveness of nitrate removal in riparian zones with upwelling springs and overland flows is not well understood. The relationship between groundwater-fed surface flow path hydrodynamics and nitrate removal was investigated in three riparian zones in southern Ontario, Canada. Spring-fed surface flow in white cedar forests at the upland perimeter of the riparian zones occurred as rivulets linked to shallow horizontal pipe systems in peat deposits. These rivulet-pipe systems transported water at rates that were up to 13× faster than in downslope portions of the riparian zones where diffuse flow paths occurred in marshes and areas of mixed cedar-grass vegetation. Bromide tracers indicated the exchange of water along surface flow paths between areas of faster flow and storage zones in soil pore-water or in slow moving and stagnant pools of surface water. High nitrate concentrations in upwelling groundwater showed little decline for distances of up to 100 m along rivulet-pipe networks suggesting that these flow paths were ineffective in nitrate removal. Nitrate concentrations declined by 50-95% during the summer in areas of diffuse surface flow in the three riparian zones. Analysis of the distribution of δ 15N-NO 3 values suggests that denitrification is an important mechanism of nitrate removal. Nitrate concentrations also declined by 25-80% along diffuse surface flow paths in the spring season when the riparian water table was at or above the ground surface. Cold water temperatures (1-6 °C) limited biological removal and most of this nitrate decline resulted from dilution by exfiltration of groundwater that had a low nitrate concentration as a result of denitrification during subsurface transport. Measurements in one of the riparian zones showed that, despite this nitrate dilution, the increase in runoff volume resulted in an 8× larger nitrate-N flux entering
Liao, James C
2006-10-01
The ability to detect water flow using the hair cells of the lateral line system is a unique feature found in anamniotic aquatic vertebrates. Fishes use their lateral line to locate prey, escape from predators and form cohesive schooling patterns. Despite the prevalence of complex flows in nature, almost nothing is known about the function of the lateral line and its relationship to other sensory modalities for freely swimming fishes in turbulent flows. Past studies indicate that under certain conditions the lateral line is not needed to swim steadily in uniform flow. This paper examines how the lateral line and vision affect body kinematics and hydrodynamic habitat selection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to vortices generated behind a cylinder. Trout Kármán gaiting (i.e. exploiting vortices to hold station in a vortex street) with a pharmacologically blocked lateral line display altered kinematics; body wavelength and wave speed increase compared to control animals. When visual cues are withheld by performing experiments in the dark, almost all Kármán gait kinematics measured for fish with and without a functional lateral line are the same. The lateral line, rather than vision, plays a larger role in affecting body kinematics when trout hold station in a vortex street. Trout show a preference to Kármán gait in the light but not in the dark, which may be attributed to physiological state rather than hydrodynamic or sensorimotor reasons. In the dark, trout both with and without a functional lateral line hold station near the downstream suction region of the cylinder wake (i.e. entraining) and avoid the vortex street. Vision therefore plays a larger role in the preference to associate with a turbulent vortex street. Trout in the light with a blocked lateral line show individual variation in their preference to Kármán gait or entrain. In the dark, entraining trout with an intact lateral line will alternate between right and left sides of the
Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies
Li, Tingwen
2012-04-01
With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.
Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies
Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Pannala, Sreekanth
2012-01-01
With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.
Single-layer microfluidic device to realize hydrodynamic 3D flow focusing.
Eluru, Gangadhar; Julius, Lourdes Albina Nirupa; Gorthi, Sai Siva
2016-10-18
The recent rapid growth of microfluidic applications has witnessed the emergence of several particle flow focusing techniques for analysis and/or further processing. The majority of flow focusing techniques employ an external sheath fluid to achieve sample flow focusing independent of the flow rate, in contrast to sheath-free techniques. However, the introduction of a sheath fluid to surround the sample fluid has complicated the device design and fabrication, generally involving multi-layer fabrication and bonding of multiple polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers. Several promising efforts have been made to reduce the complexity of fabrication. However, most of these methods involved the use of inertial/Dean effects, which in turn demanded the use of higher sample flow rates. In this paper, we report a method of flow focusing that uses a sheath fluid to enclose the sample in a single layer of PDMS, and that possesses applicability for a wide range of sample flow rates. This method of flow focusing uses abrupt channel depth variation and a shift of one of the sample-sheath junctions (termed as 'junction-shift') against the direction of the sample flow. This configuration serves to manipulate the sample fluid with respect to the sheath fluid and achieve the desired flow focusing. This design facilitates the attainment of 3D flow focusing in two sequential steps (depth-wise and then along the lateral direction) and in distinct regions, hence enabling the regions to be used in imaging and non-imaging flow cytometric applications, respectively. Simulations were performed to characterize and determine the optimum set of design parameters. Experimental demonstrations of this technique were carried out by focusing fluorescein dye and blood cells in flow.
Castor, J I
2003-10-16
hydrogen atoms from helium atoms, for instance. There are all just components of a mixed fluid in this case. So why do we have a special subject called ''radiation hydrodynamics'', when photons are just one of the many kinds of particles that comprise our fluid? The reason is that photons couple rather weakly to the atoms, ions and electrons, much more weakly than those particles couple with each other. Nor is the matter-radiation coupling negligible in many problems, since the star or nebula may be millions of mean free paths in extent. Radiation hydrodynamics exists as a discipline to treat those problems for which the energy and momentum coupling terms between matter and radiation are important, and for which, since the photon mean free path is neither extremely large nor extremely small compared with the size of the system, the radiation field is not very easy to calculate. In the theoretical development of this subject, many of the relations are presented in a form that is described as approximate, and perhaps accurate only to order of {nu}/c. This makes the discussion cumbersome. Why are we required to do this? It is because we are using Newtonian mechanics to treat our fluid, yet its photon component is intrinsically relativistic; the particles travel at the speed of light. There is a perfectly consistent relativistic kinetic theory, and a corresponding relativistic theory of fluid mechanics, which is perfectly suited to describing the photon gas. But it is cumbersome to use this for the fluid in general, and we prefer to avoid it for cases in which the flow velocity satisfies {nu} << c. The price we pay is to spend extra effort making sure that the source-sink terms relating to our relativistic gas component are included in the equations of motion in a form that preserves overall conservation of energy and momentum, something that would be automatic if the relativistic equations were used throughout.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorodnitsyn, Anton; Kallman, Tim; Bisno\\vatyiI-Kogan, Gennadyi
2011-01-01
We explore a detailed model in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration results from the extinction of AGN radiation in a global ow driven by the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains. We assume that external illumination by UV and soft X-rays of the dusty gas located at approximately 1pc away from the supermassive black hole is followed by a conversion of such radiation into IR. Using 2.5D, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations in a ux-limited di usion approximation we nd that the external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via out ows driven by infrared radiation pressure in AGN with luminosities greater than 0:05 L(sub edd) and Compton optical depth, Tau(sub T) approx > & 1.
Analysis of the Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Aspects of Microgravity Two-Phase Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rezkallah, Kamiel S.
1996-01-01
Experimental results for void fractions, flow regimes, and heat transfer rates in two-phase, liquid-gas flows are summarized in this paper. The data was collected on-board NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft in a 9.525 mm circular tube (i.d.), uniformly heated at the outer surface. Water and air flows were examined as well as three glycerol/water solutions and air. Results are reported for the water-air data.
Study of hydrodynamic characteristics of two-phase flow in closed thermosiphons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezrodnyi, M. K.; Volkov, S. S.
Typical regions of development of the process of heat carrier phases interaction are studied experimentally and their boundaries in the closed two-phase counter-current flow system are determined. The influence of the two-phase medium compressible effects on the stability of the wave flow of the liquid film in the counter-current flow with the vapor flow is established. It is shown that the heat transfer limits in two-phase thermosiphons are determined by the conditions of counteraction of the heat carrier phases along the axis of the apparatus.
Brandt, Erik G
2013-07-01
The stochastic Eulerian-Lagrangian method (SELM) is used to simulate coarse-grained lipid membrane models under steady-state conditions and in shear flow. SELM is an immersed boundary method which combines the efficiency of particle-based simulations with the realistic solvent dynamics provided by fluctuating hydrodynamics. Membrane simulations in SELM are shown to give structural properties in accordance with equilibrium statistical mechanics and dynamic properties in agreement with previous simulations of highly detailed membrane models in explicit solvent. Simulations of sheared membranes are used to calculate surface shear viscosities and inter-monolayer friction coefficients. The membrane models are shown to be shear thinning under a wide range of applied shear rates.
Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.
2010-10-15
Using a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model, the growth rate spectra of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability has been obtained analytically for a step shear profile in strongly coupled Yukawa liquids. The class of shear flows studied is assumed to be incompressible in nature. The growth rate spectra calculated exhibit viscous damping at high mode numbers, destabilization at stronger coupling, and in the limit {tau}{sub m} (viscoelastic relaxation time){yields}0, reduce to the regular Navier-Stokes growth rate spectra. A direct comparison is made with previous molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [Ashwin J. and R. Ganesh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 215003 (2010)] of KH instability. We find that for a given value of Reynolds number R and coupling parameter 1<{Gamma}<100, the GH and MD growth rates are in a qualitative agreement. The inclusion of the effect of shear heating as an effective coupling parameter {Gamma}{sub e} appears to improve the quantitative comparison as well.
Mbaye, S; Séchet, P; Pignon, F; Martins, J M F
2013-01-01
The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on the growth kinetics of surface-adhering Pseudomonas putida cells. The results showed in particular that under non substrate-limiting conditions, the early step of bacterial apparent growth rate is lower than those measured with suspended cells. Contrary to previously cited authors which explain this behavior to the different adhesive properties of the "daughter"-cells (which makes more probable the detachment of these daughter-cells), in our experimental conditions, that explanation does not hold and we show a clear dependence of growth kinetics with flow conditions, due to the formation of boundary layer concentration at low Reynolds number. These results revealed that using Monod law in the modeling of biofilm growth in fixed-biomass processes should be performed with care.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.
2005-01-01
An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.
The Hydrodynamic Stability of a Fluid-Particle Flow: Instabilities in Gas-Fluidized Beds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Xue; Howley, Maureen A.; Johri, Jayati; Glasser, Benjamin J.
2008-01-01
A simplified model of an industrially relevant fluid-particle flow system is analyzed using linear stability theory. Instabilities of the uniform state of a fluidized bed are investigated in response to small flow perturbations. Students are expected to perform each step of the computational analysis, and physical insight into key mechanistic…
Simulation of two-dimensional fully developed laminar flow for a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pump.
Wang, Pei-Jen; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Ming-Lang
2004-07-30
MHD micro-pumps circumvent the wear and fatigue caused by high pressure-drop across the check valves of mechanical micro-pumps in micro-fluidic systems. Early analyses of the fluid flow for MHD micro-pumps were mostly made possible by the Poiseuille flow theory; however, this conventional laminar approach cannot illustrate the effects of various channel sizes and shapes. This paper, therefore, presents a simplified MHD flow model based upon steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow theory to investigate the characteristics of a MHD pump. Inside the pump, flowing along the channel is the electrically conducting fluid flowing driven by the Lorentz forces in the direction perpendicular to both dc magnetic field and applied electric currents. The Lorentz forces were converted into a hydrostatic pressure gradient in the momentum equations of the MHD channel flow model. The numerical simulations conducted with the explicit finite difference method show that the channel dimensions and the induced Lorentz forces have significant influences on the flow velocity profile. Furthermore, the simulation results agree well with the experimental results published by other researchers.
Hydrodynamic characteristics of submerged vegetation flow with non-constant vertical porosity
Zhao, Mingdeng; Fan, Zilong
2017-01-01
In order to investigate the influence of the vertical variation of porosity on open-channel flow with submerged vegetation, vertical non-homogeneous stumps and stems in submerged vegetation flow are simulated with truncated cones in a laboratory flume. First, porosity is defined as a function of water depth. A new governing equation for vegetation flow is established on the basis of the poroelastic media flow theory, and its analytical solution is obtained with the finite analytic method. Then, the fitting expression of permeability is established with experimental data, which shows the variation in permeability with vertical porosity and vegetation density. Finally, the calculated velocity distribution is compared with the measured velocity distribution. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data, which indicates that the theoretical formula accurately and practically predicts vertical velocity distribution in complex open-channel flow with submerged vegetation. PMID:28448612
Electro-hydrodynamic force field and flow patterns generated by a DC corona discharge in the air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monrolin, Nicolas; Plouraboue, Franck; Praud, Olivier
2016-11-01
Ionic wind refers to the electro-convection of ionised air between high voltage electrodes. Microscopic ion-neutral collisions are responsible for momentum transfer from accelerated ions, subjected to the electric field, to the neutral gas molecules resulting in a macroscopic airflow acceleration. In the past decades it has been investigated for various purposes from food drying through aerodynamic flow control and eventually laptop cooling. One consequence of air acceleration between the electrodes is thrust generation, often referred to as the Biefeld-Brown effect or electro-hydrodynamic thrust. In this experimental study, the ionic wind velocity field is measured with the PIV method. From computing the acceleration of the air we work out the electrostatic force field for various electrodes configurations. This enables an original direct evaluation of the force distribution as well as the influence of electrodes shape and position. Thrust computation based on the flow acceleration are compared with digital scale measurements. Complex flow features are highlighted such as vortex shedding, indicating that aerodynamic effects may play a significant role. Furthermore, the aerodynamic drag force exerted on the electrodes is quantified by choosing an appropriate control volume. Authors thank Region Midi-Pyrenee and CNES Launcher Directorate for financial support.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Le Roux, J. A.; Ptuskin, V. S.
1995-01-01
Realistic models of the outer heliosphere should consider that the interstellar cosmic-ray pressure becomes comparable to pressures in the solar wind at distances more than 100 AU from the Sun. The cosmic-ray pressure dynamically affects solar wind flow through deceleration. This effect, which occurs over a scale length of the order of the effective diffusion length at large radial distances, has important implications for cosmic-ray modulation and acceleration. As a first step toward solution of this nonlinear problem, a steady state numerical model was developed for a relatively cold spherical solar wind flow which encounters the confining isotropic pressure of the surrounding Galactic medium. This pressure is assumed to be dominated by energetic particles (Galactic cosmic rays). The system of equations, which are solved self-consistently, includes the relevant hydrodynamical equations for the solar wind flow and the spherical cosmic-ray transport equation. To avoid the closure parameter problem of the two-fluid model, the latter equation is solved for the energy-dependent cosmic-ray distribution function.
Short, Mark; Aslam, Tariq D
2010-01-01
The detonation structure in many insensitive high explosives consists of two temporally disparate zones of heat release. In PBX 9502, there is a fast reaction zone ({approx} 25 ns) during which reactants are converted to gaseous products and small carbon clusters, followed by a slower regime ({approx} 250 ns) of carbon coagulation. A hybrid approach for determining the propagation of two-stage heat release detonations has been developed that utilizes a detonation shock dynamics (DSD) based strategy for the fast reaction zone with a direct hydrodynamic simulation of the flow in the slow zone. Unlike a standard DSD/programmed bum formulation, the evolution of the fast zone DSD-like surface is coupled to the flow in the slow reaction zone. We have termed this formulation flow integrated detonation shock dynamics (FIDSD). The purpose of the present paper is to show how the FIDSD formulation can be applied to detonation propagation on an Eulerian grid using an algorithm based on level set interface tracking and a ghost fluid approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firouznia, Mohammadhossein; Metzger, Bloen; Ovarlez, Guillaume; Hormozi, Sarah
2016-11-01
The flows of non-Newtonian slurries, often suspensions of noncolloidal particles in yield stress fluids, are ubiquitous in many natural phenomena and industrial processes. Investigating the microstructure is essential allowing the refinement of macroscopic equations for complex suspensions. One important constraint on the dynamics of a Stokesian suspension is reversibility, which is not necessarily valid for complex fluids. The interaction of two particles in a reversing shear flow of complex fluids is a guide to understand the behavior of complex suspensions. We study the hydrodynamic interaction of two small freely-moving spheres in a linear flow field of yield stress fluids. An important point is that non-Newtonian fluid effects can be varied and unusual. Depending on the shear rate, even a yield stress fluid might show hysteresis, shear banding and elasticity at the local scales that need to be taken into account. We study these effects with the aid of conventional rheometry, Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry in an original apparatus. We show our preliminary experimental results. NSF.
Fluid Transport in Porous Rocks. II. Hydrodynamic Model of Flow and Intervoxel Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, P.; Issa, B.
In a preceding paper [P. Mansfield and B. Issa, J. Magn. Reson. A122, 137-148 (1996)], a stochastic model of fluid flow in porous rocks based upon the experimental observation of water flow through a Bentheimer sandstone core was proposed. The flow maps were measured by NMR-imaging techniques. The stochastic theory led to a Gaussian velocity distribution with a mean value in accord with Darcy's law. Also predicted was a linear relationship between flow variance and mean fluid flow through rock, the Mansfield-Issa equation, originally proposed as an empirical relationship. In the present work a flow coupling mechanism between voxels is proposed. Examination of the flow coupling between isolated voxel pairs leads to a complementary explanation of the Gaussian velocity distribution, and also gives further details of the Mansfield-Issa equation. These details lead to a new expression for the connectivity, < C>, between voxels with an experimental value of < C> = 5.64 × 10 -9for Bentheimer sandstone.
PIV and LDV evidence of hydrodynamic instability over a liner in a duct with flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marx, David; Aurégan, Yves; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe
2010-08-01
The acoustical behavior and the flow in a rectangular lined channel with grazing flow have been investigated. The liner consists of a ceramic structure of parallel square channels and is locally reacting. In the absence of flow, the liner has a classical behavior: the acoustic transmission coefficient has a minimum at the resonance frequency of the resonators. When the Mach number of the grazing flow increases, the material behavior becomes unclassical in the sense that its acoustic transmission increases strongly around the resonance frequency. To connect this behavior with flow features, the flow itself in the vicinity of a liner has been measured by means of laser velocimetry. Periodic structures have been observed along the liner that are phase-locked with the incident sound wave. The axial and transverse velocity of these structures bear the typical features of an instability. In particular, the wavelength, convection speed, and growth rate are given. This is the first time that an aeroacoustic instability resulting from the interaction of flow and sound over a liner is measured.
Reconstructing Hydrodynamic Flow Parameters of the 1700 Tsunami at Ecola Creek, Cannon Beach, Oregon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witter, R. C.; Zhang, Y.; Priest, G. R.
2008-12-01
Coastal communities in the western U.S. face risks of inundation by distant tsunamis that travel across the Pacific Ocean as well as local tsunamis produced by great (M >8) earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone. In 1964 the M 9.2 Alaska earthquake generated a distant tsunami that flooded Cannon Beach, a small community (population 1640) in northwestern Oregon, causing over $230,000 in damages. However, in the wake of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, renewed concern about the potential impacts of a local Cascadia tsunami, has motivated a need for closer examination of the hazard. This study applies a simple sediment transport model, TsuSedMod (Jaffe and Gelfenbaum, 2007), to reconstruct the flow speed of the most recent Cascadia tsunami that flooded the region in 1700 using the thickness and grain size of sand layers deposited by the waves. Sand sheets recording the 1700 tsunami were sampled in the field and analyzed in the laboratory to produce model inputs. TsuSedMod calculates tsunami flow speed from the shear velocity required to suspend the quantity and grain size distribution of the observed sand layers. The model assumes a steady, spatially uniform tsunami flow and that sand deposits form from sediment falling out of suspension when the flow stops. Assuming sensitivity analyses test the appropriate parameter values found in nature, flow speeds estimated for the 1700 tsunami range from about 5 to 9 m/s. Using flow depths constrained by tsunami simulations for Cannon Beach, the sediment model calculated flow speeds of 6.5 to 7.6 m/s for sites within 0.3 km of the beach and higher flow speeds (7.4 to 8.8 m/s) for sites 0.6 to 1.2 km inland. The higher flow speeds calculated for the two sites furthest landward contrast with much lower maximum velocities (<3.8 m/s) predicted by the simulations. Grain size distributions of sand layers from the most distal sites are inconsistent with deposition from sediment falling out of suspension. We infer that rapid
Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S
2015-10-06
Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow 'vision' and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s(-1)) and 8.2 µm s(-1), respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. © 2015 The Author(s).
Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S.
2015-01-01
Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow ‘vision’ and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s−1) and 8.2 µm s−1, respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. PMID:26423435
Dutta, Debashis
2014-05-02
In this work, a method-of-moments formulation has been presented for estimating the dispersion of analyte streams as they migrate through a free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) channel under laminar flow conditions. The current analysis considers parallel-plate based FFZE systems with an applied pressure-gradient along the channel length for sample and carrier electrolyte transport, and an external electric field in the transverse direction for enabling the electrophoretic separation. A closed-form expression has been derived using this mathematical approach for describing the spatial variance of sample streams as a function of their position in the separation chamber at steady state. This expression predicts that the hydrodynamic dispersion component in an FFZE assay scales as Pex(2) where Pex denotes the Péclet number based on the analyte's transverse electrophoretic migration velocity rather than its longitudinal pressure-driven flow speed as expected in transport processes induced by a pressure-gradient. Interestingly however, the coefficient multiplying this dimensionless group, i.e., 1/210, is identically equal to the constant preceding the square of the relevant Péclet number in the latter case (i.e., Péclet number based on the longitudinal flow speed). It must be noted that while the mathematical analysis reported in this work is only valid for FFZE systems in the absence of any unwanted Joule heating, pressure-driven cross-flow and/or differences in the electrical conductivity between the sample and carrier electrolyte, it can also be applied to numerically estimate the effect of these factors on the separation resolution of the assay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddad, Bouchra; Palacios, David; Pastor, Manuel; Zamorano, José Juan
2016-09-01
Lahars are among the most catastrophic volcanic processes, and the ability to model them is central to mitigating their effects. Several lahars recently generated by the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico) moved downstream through the Huiloac Gorge towards the village of Santiago Xalitzintla. The most dangerous was the 2001 lahar, in which the destructive power of the debris flow was maintained throughout the extent of the flow. Identifying the zone of hazard can be based either on numerical or empirical models, but a calibration and validation process is required to ensure hazard map quality. The Geoflow-SPH depth integrated numerical model used in this study to reproduce the 2001 lahar was derived from the velocity-pressure version of the Biot-Zienkiewicz model, and was discretized using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The results of the calibrated SPH model were validated by comparing the simulated deposit depth with the field depth measured at 16 cross sections distributed strategically along the gorge channel. Moreover, the dependency of the results on topographic mesh resolution, initial lahar mass shape and dimensions is also investigated. The results indicate that to accurately reproduce the 2001 lahar flow dynamics the channel topography needed to be discretized using a mesh having a minimum 5 m resolution, and an initial lahar mass shape that adopted the source area morphology. Field validation of the calibrated model showed that there was a satisfactory relationship between the simulated and field depths, the error being less than 20% for 11 of the 16 cross sections. This study demonstrates that the Geoflow-SPH model was able to accurately reproduce the lahar path and the extent of the flow, but also reproduced other parameters including flow velocity and deposit depth.
Hydrodynamic directional control of liquid metal droplets within a microfluidic flow focusing system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gol, Berrak; Kurdzinski, Michael E.; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Petersen, Phred; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar
2016-04-01
Here, we investigate the directional control of Galinstan liquid metal droplets when transferring from the high-viscosity glycerol core into the parallel low-viscosity NaOH sheath streams within a flow focusing microfluidic system. In the presence of sufficient flow mismatch between the sheath streams, the droplets are driven toward the higher velocity interface and cross the interface under the influence of surface tension gradient. A minimum flow mismatch of 125 μl/min is required to enable the continuous transfer of droplets toward the desired sheath stream. The response time of droplets, the time required to change the direction of droplet transfer, is governed by the response time of the syringe pump driven microfluidic system and is found to be 3.3 and 8.8 s when increasing and decreasing the flow rate of sheath stream, respectively.
Formation of Microbial Streamers by Flow-Induced Shear and Their Hydrodynamic Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, J.; Olsen, K. A.; Nguyen, T.; Tice, M. M.; 2012; 2013, G. C.
2014-12-01
Microbial streamers are productive elements of surface-attached microbial communities that paradoxically seem to roughen mats under rapid, high shear flows, potentially exposing the mat to greater risk of erosion. They are common features found in modern hot-spring outflow channels, yet their formation mechanisms and effects on mat erosion are poorly understood. We test a hypothesis that streamers are produced by shear-induced viscoelastic deformation, and that streamers grow to heal detached turbulent boundary layers. Laboratory flume experiments were conducted using Particle Image/Tracking Velocimetry (PIV/PTV) to gain quantitative insights into the behavior of flows around small projections constructed from 3D-printed plastics or hydrated EPS gels, as well as artificial streamers. The combined use of fabricated hard and viscoelastic shapes, tracer particles, sheet lasers and high speed cameras allowed visualization of flows and quantitative measurements. Results show that primary and secondary flows (backflow behind projections) combine to produce deformations that drive the elongation of the top and ultimately initiate streamer formation. With insufficient secondary flows, streamers are not able to rise up from the basal mat. This implies that a combination of sufficient topographic relief and flow strength is required for streamers to form. In addition, flow measurements indicate that the presence of artificial streamers made the surface hydraulically smoother, and in effect reducing bed shear at the base. These results suggest a novel set of feedbacks that could reduce net mat erosion in energetic flows, and could help guide the evaluation of biosignatures in sedimentary rocks deposited in the presence of microbial mats.
2008-08-01
Tables Figures Figure 1. Minor erosion due to overtopping on the Citrus Back levee. ................................................. 1 Figure 2. Crown...probably not severe or the duration of overtopping was relatively short. Figure 1. Minor erosion due to overtopping on the Citrus Back levee. If the...were dry. Flow velocity A fiber -optic LDV was used to measure two orthogonal components of flow velocity at locations in the vicinity of the
Finite element and experimental analyses of unsteady hydrodynamic flows in lakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Masaji; Numaguchi, Satoshi
2005-01-01
We present a numerical result in finite element analysis of flows in the water environment. We also present a result that we obtained experimentally utilizing the global positioning system (GPS). We show how the numerical result can be incorporated in analysis to simulate the experimental result. We describe our technique with an example in which an unsteady flow generated in Kojima Lake was analyzed numerically and experimentally.
Simulation of film and droplet flow on wide aperture fractures using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Kordilla, Jannes; Geyer, Tobias; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2012-11-19
Simulation of flow in fractured porous media represents a challenge due to the highly non-linear dynamics of fluid-air interfaces. Here we present small-scale flow simulations on wide aperture fractures using a modified three-dimensional multiphase SPH model \\cite{Tartakovsky2005}. The model is modified to include the effects of random thermal noise. The model is able to reproduce a wide range of wetting conditions and Reynolds numbers encountered in laboratory experiments using pairwise fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interaction forces. Static and transient flow dynamics are compared to empirical and semianalytical solutions: (1) Droplets in a critical state are in agreement with laboratory experiments of \\cite{ElSherbini2004}. (2) Well-defined random thermal noise is introduced via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and its effect on dynamics of droplets in a critical state is investigated. (3) Transient flow dynamics on dry surfaces are validated using the dimensionless relationships established by \\cite{Podgorski2001} and compared to (4) dynamics on prewetted surfaces where flow velocities are shown to be nearly tripled. Finally we establish flow regimes and occurrence of trailing films on initially dry fracture surfaces based on dimensionless scaling parameters and Reynolds numbers.
Nonlinear flow affects hydrodynamic forces and neutrophil adhesion rates in cone-plate viscometers.
Shankaran, H; Neelamegham, S
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the effects of nonlinear flow in a cone-plate viscometer. The analysis predicts that flow in the viscometer is a function of two parameters, the Reynolds number and the cone angle. Nonlinear flow occurs at high shear rates and causes spatial variations in wall shear stress, collision frequency, interparticle forces and attachment times within the viscometer. We examined the effect of these features on cellular adhesion kinetics. Based on recent data (Taylor, A. D., S. Neelamegham, J. D. Hellums, et al. 1996. Biophys. J. 71:3488-3500), we modeled neutrophil homotypic aggregation as a process that is integrin-limited at low shear and selectin-limited at high shear. Our calculations suggest that selectin and integrin on-rates lie in the order of 10(-2)-10(-4)/s. They also indicate that secondary flow causes positional variations in adhesion efficiency in the viscometer, and that the overall efficiency is dependent not only on the shear rate, but also the sample volume and the cone angle. Experiments performed with isolated neutrophils confirmed these predictions. In these experiments, enhancing secondary flow by increasing the sample volume from 100 to 1000 microl at 1500/s for a 2 degrees cone caused up to an approximately 45% drop in adhesion efficiency. Our results suggest that secondary flow may significantly influence cellular aggregation, platelet activation, and endothelial cell mechanotransduction measurements made in the viscometer over the range of conditions applied in typical biological studies. PMID:11371440
Gemmell, Brad J.; Adhikari, Deepak; Longmire, Ellen K.
2014-01-01
In aquatic ecosystems, predation on zooplankton by fish provides a major pathway for the transfer of energy to higher trophic levels. Copepods are an abundant zooplankton group that sense hydromechanical disturbances produced by approaching predators and respond with rapid escapes. Despite this capability, fish capture copepods with high success. Previous studies have focused on the predatory strike to elucidate details of this interaction. However, these raptorial strikes and resulting suction are only effective at short range. Thus, small fish must closely approach highly sensitive prey without triggering an escape in order for a strike to be successful. We use a new method, high-speed, infrared, tomographic particle image velocimetry, to investigate three-dimensional fluid patterns around predator and prey during approaches. Our results show that at least one planktivorous fish (Danio rerio) can control the bow wave in front of the head during the approach and consumption of prey (copepod). This alters hydrodynamic profiles at the location of the copepod such that it is below the threshold required to elicit an escape response. We find this behaviour to be mediated by the generation of suction within the buccopharyngeal cavity, where the velocity into the mouth roughly matches the forward speed of the fish. These results provide insight into how animals modulate aspects of fluid motion around their bodies to overcome escape responses and enhance prey capture. PMID:24227312
Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.
Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek
2011-01-26
Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.
How to fake hydrodynamic signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romatschke, Paul
2016-12-01
Flow signatures in experimental data from relativistic ion collisions, are usually interpreted as a fingerprint of the presence of a hydrodynamic phase during the evolution of these systems. I review some theoretical ideas to 'fake' this hydrodynamic behavior in p+A and A+A collisions. I find that transverse flow and femtoscopic measurements can easily be forged through non-hydrodynamic evolution, while large elliptic flow requires some non-vanishing interactions in the hot phase.
Holtschlag, D.J.; Koschik, J.A.
2005-01-01
Upper St. Clair River, which receives outflow from Lake Huron, is characterized by flow velocities that exceed 7 feet per second and significant channel curvature that creates complex flow patterns downstream from the Blue Water Bridge in the Port Huron, Michigan, and Sarnia, Ontario, area. Discrepancies were detected between depth-averaged velocities previously simulated by a two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic model and surface velocities determined from drifting buoy deployments. A detailed ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler) survey was done on Upper St. Clair River during July 1–3, 2003, to help resolve these discrepancies. As part of this study, a refined finite-element mesh of the hydrodynamic model used to identify source areas to public water intakes was developed for Upper St. Clair River. In addition, a numerical procedure was used to account for radial accelerations, which cause secondary flow patterns near channel bends. The refined model was recalibrated to better reproduce local velocities measured in the ADCP survey. ADCP data also were used to help resolve the remaining discrepancies between simulated and measured velocities and to describe variations in velocity with depth. Velocity data from ADCP surveys have significant local variability, and statistical processing is needed to compute reliable point estimates. In this study, velocity innovations were computed for seven depth layers posited within the river as the differences between measured and simulated velocities. For each layer, the spatial correlation of velocity innovations was characterized by use of variogram analysis. Results were used with kriging to compute expected innovations within each layer at applicable model nodes. Expected innovations were added to simulated velocities to form integrated velocities, which were used with reverse particle tracking to identify the expected flow path near a sewage outfall as a function of flow depth. Expected particle paths generated by use
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Vicente, S.; Galiano, G.; Velasco, J.; Aróstegui, J. M.
Two-phase systems where a dense phase of small particles is fluidized with a gas flow appear in many industrial applications, among which the fluidized bed combustors are probably the most important. A homogenization technique allows us to formulate the mathematical model in form of the compressible Navier-Stokes system type with some particularities: 1) the volumetric fraction of the dense phase (analogous to the density in the Navier-Stokes equations) may vanish, 2) the constitutive viscosity law may depend in a nonlinear form on this density, 3) the source term is nonlinear and coupled with state equations involving drag forces and hydrodynamic pressure, and 4) the state equation for the collision pressure of dense phase blows up for finite values of the density. We develop a rigorous theory for a special kind of solutions we call stationary clouds. Such solutions exist only under restrictions on the geometry of combustor and on the boundary conditions that usually meet in engineering applications. In return, these solutions have a stationary one-dimensional structure very simple and, from them, it is possible to reconstruct much of the dynamics of the whole system, responding to most of the practical issues of interest. Finally, we study the linear stability for the trivial solutions corresponding to uniform fluidized states injecting plane wave perturbations in our equations. Depending on the parameters of the equations of state describing the collisions between solid particles, hydrodynamic pressure, and the values of blowing boundary condition, we can draw detailed abacus separating stable regions of unstable regions where bubbles appear. Then, we use the dispersion relations of this multidimensional linearized model, combined with the stationary phase theorem, to approach the profiles and the evolution of the bubbles appearing in unstable regimes, and verify that the obtained results adjust to the observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aziz, Abdul
2010-03-01
In this paper the boundary layer flow over a flat plat with slip flow and constant heat flux surface condition is studied. Because the plate surface temperature varies along the x direction, the momentum and energy equations are coupled due to the presence of the temperature gradient along the plate surface. This coupling, which is due to the presence of the thermal jump term in Maxwell slip condition, renders the momentum and energy equations non-similar. As a preliminary study, this paper ignores this coupling due to thermal jump condition so that the self-similar nature of the equations is preserved. Even this fundamental problem for the case of a constant heat flux boundary condition has remained unexplored in the literature. It was therefore chosen for study in this paper. For the hydrodynamic boundary layer, velocity and shear stress distributions are presented for a range of values of the parameter characterizing the slip flow. This slip parameter is a function of the local Reynolds number, the local Knudsen number, and the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient representing the fraction of the molecules reflected diffusively at the surface. As the slip parameter increases, the slip velocity increases and the wall shear stress decreases. These results confirm the conclusions reached in other recent studies. The energy equation is solved to determine the temperature distribution in the thermal boundary layer for a range of values for both the slip parameter as well as the fluid Prandtl number. The increase in Prandtl number and/or the slip parameter reduces the dimensionless surface temperature. The actual surface temperature at any location of x is a function of the local Knudsen number, the local Reynolds number, the momentum accommodation coefficient, Prandtl number, other flow properties, and the applied heat flux.
Lecture Series "Boundary Layer Theory". Part I - Laminar Flows. Part 1; Laminar Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlichting, H.
1949-01-01
In the lecture series starting today author want to give a survey of a field of aerodynamics which has for a number of years been attracting an ever growing interest. The subject is the theory of flows with friction, and, within that field, particularly the theory of friction layers, or boundary layers. A great many considerations of aerodynamics are based on the ideal fluid, that is the frictionless incompressibility and fluid. By neglect of compressibility and friction the extensive mathematical theory of the ideal fluid, (potential theory) has been made possible. Actual liquids and gases satisfy the condition of incomressibility rather well if the velocities are not extremely high or, more accurately, if they are small in comparison with sonic velocity. For air, for instance, the change in volume due to compressibility amounts to about 1 percent for a velocity of 60 meters per second. The hypothesis of absence of friction is not satisfied by any actual fluid; however, it is true that most technically important fluids, for instance air and water, have a very small friction coefficient and therefore behave in many cases almost like the ideal frictionless fluid. Many flow phenomena, in particular most cases of lift, can be treated satisfactorily, - that is, the calculations are in good agreement with the test results, -under the assumption of frictionless fluid. However, the calculations with frictionless flow show a very serious deficiency; namely, the fact, known as d'Alembert's paradox, that in frictionless flow each body has zero drag whereas in actual flow each body experiences a drag of greater or smaller magnitude. For a long time the theory has been unable to bridge this gap between the theory of frictionless flow and the experimental findings about actual flow. The cause of this fundamental discrepancy is the viscosity which is neglected in the theory of ideal fluid; however, in spite of its extraordinary smallness it is decisive for the course of the flow
Hydrodynamic performance and cavitation of an open propeller in a simulated ice-blocked flow
Walker, D.; Bose, N.; Yamaguchi, H. )
1994-08-01
Experiments were done on a 200-mm-dia open propeller behind a simulated ice blockage in a cavitation tunnel. The propeller performance in uniform flow and blocked flow is contrasted over a range of advance coefficients and at different cavitation numbers. Mean thrust and torque coefficients are presented. The types of cavitation, and its intermittent nature over a cycle of operation, are reported. The experiments indicate the likelihood of cavitation at full scale for blocked conditions and illustrate the effects of cavitation on mean values of thrust and torque.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Logothetis, D.; Papadopoulos, P. K.; Svarnas, P.; Vafeas, P.
2016-12-01
In this work, two simple phenomenological models of the electro-hydrodynamic force that arises in an atmospheric-pressure "plasma jet" are presented. The models are distinguished by the different boundary conditions applied for the consideration of the plasma propagation length. The comparison is based on numerical simulations, which are combined with experimental data, in order to determine the magnitude of the electro-hydrodynamic force and assess the ability of the two models to evaluate the visible plasma length. The results reveal that the gas flow characteristics depend on the spatial range of the force action and the force magnitude, and vice versa.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhipeng; Zhong, Chenjie; Chen, Lizhu; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing
2016-09-01
In this paper, the original lattice hydrodynamic model of traffic flow is extended to take into account the traffic current cooperation among three consecutive sites. The basic idea of the new consideration is that the cooperative traffic current of the considered site is determined by the traffic currents of the site itself, the immediately preceding site and the immediately following one. The stability criterion of the extended model is obtained by applying the linear stability analysis. The result reveals the traffic current cooperation of the immediately preceding site is positive correlation with the stability of traffic system, while negative correlation is found between the traffic stability and the traffic current cooperation of the nearest follow site. To describe the phase transition, the modified KdV equation near the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method, with obtaining the dependence of the propagation kink solution for traffic jams on the traffic current cooperation among three consecutive sites. The direct numerical are conducted to verify the results of theoretical analysis, and explore the effects of the traffic current cooperation on the traffic flux of the vehicle flow system.
Li, Tingwen; Dietiker, Jean -Francois; Rogers, William; Panday, Rupen; Gopalan, Balaji; Breault, Greggory
2016-07-29
Both experimental tests and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the fluidization behavior of a solid CO_{2} sorbent with a mean diameter of 100 μm and density of about 480 kg/m, which belongs to Geldart's Group A powder. A carefully designed fluidized bed facility was used to perform a series of experimental tests to study the flow hydrodynamics. Numerical simulations using the two-fluid model indicated that the grid resolution has a significant impact on the bed expansion and bubbling flow behavior. Due to the limited computational resource, no good grid independent results were achieved using the standard models as far as the bed expansion is concerned. In addition, all simulations tended to under-predict the bubble size substantially. Effects of various model settings including both numerical and physical parameters have been investigated with no significant improvement observed. The latest filtered sub-grid drag model was then tested in the numerical simulations. Compared to the standard drag model, the filtered drag model with two markers not only predicted reasonable bed expansion but also yielded realistic bubbling behavior. As a result, a grid sensitivity study was conducted for the filtered sub-grid model and its applicability and limitation were discussed.
Mirza, I A; Abdulhameed, M; Vieru, D; Shafie, S
2016-12-01
Therapies with magnetic/electromagnetic field are employed to relieve pains or, to accelerate flow of blood-particles, particularly during the surgery. In this paper, a theoretical study of the blood flow along with particles suspension through capillary was made by the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic approach. Analytical solutions to the non-dimensional blood velocity and non-dimensional particles velocity are obtained by means of the Laplace transform with respect to the time variable and the finite Hankel transform with respect to the radial coordinate. The study of thermally transfer characteristics is based on the energy equation for two-phase thermal transport of blood and particles suspension with viscous dissipation, the volumetric heat generation due to Joule heating effect and electromagnetic couple effect. The solution of the nonlinear heat transfer problem is derived by using the velocity field and the integral transform method. The influence of dimensionless system parameters like the electrokinetic width, the Hartman number, Prandtl number, the coefficient of heat generation due to Joule heating and Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields was studied using the Mathcad software. Results are presented by graphical illustrations.
Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Ducasse, O.; Marchal, F.; Sarrette, J. P.; Yousfi, M.
2013-04-21
The present paper is devoted to the 2D simulation of an Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) involving 10 pins powered by a DC high voltage and positioned 7 mm above a grounded metallic plane. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The simulation involves the electro-dynamic, chemical kinetic, and neutral gas hydrodynamic phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge stage (including the primary and the secondary streamers development and the resulting thermal shock) lasts about one hundred nanoseconds while the post-discharge stages occurring between two successive discharge phases last one hundred microseconds. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral air flow including 400 ppm of NO. During the considered time scale of 10 ms, one hundred discharge/post-discharge cycles are simulated. The simulation involves the radical formation and thermal exchange between the discharges and the background gas. The results show how the successive discharges activate the flow gas and how the induced turbulence phenomena affect the redistribution of the thermal energy and the chemical kinetics inside the ACDR.
Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Ozaki, Takashi; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2014-04-11
This study aims to clarify the mechanisms by which unsteady hydrodynamic forces act on the hand of a swimmer during a crawl stroke. Measurements were performed for a hand attached to a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom independently controlled by a computer. The computer was programmed so the hand and arm mimicked a human performing the stroke. We directly measured forces on the hand and pressure distributions around it at 200 Hz; flow fields underwater near the hand were obtained via 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). The data revealed two mechanisms that generate unsteady forces during a crawl stroke. One is the unsteady lift force generated when hand movement changes direction during the stroke, leading to vortex shedding and bound vortex created around it. This bound vortex circulation results in a lift that contributes to the thrust. The other occurs when the hand moves linearly with a large angle of attack, creating a Kármán vortex street. This street alternatively sheds clockwise and counterclockwise vortices, resulting in a quasi-steady drag contributing to the thrust. We presume that professional swimmers benefit from both mechanisms. Further studies are necessary in which 3D flow fields are measured using a 3D PIV system and a human swimmer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The flow and hydrodynamic stability of a liquid film on a rotating disc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Tae-Sung; Kim, Moon-Uhn
2009-06-01
The flow of a liquid film on a rotating disc is investigated in the case where a liquid is supplied at a constant flow rate. We propose thin film equations by the integral method with a simple approach to satisfy the boundary conditions on a disc and a free surface, and the results are compared with those of the Navier-Stokes equations. The radial film velocity is assumed to be a quartic profile in our analysis, whereas it was assumed to be a quadratic one, neglecting the inertia force so that the boundary conditions were not completely satisfied, in the analysis of Sisoev et al (2003 J. Fluid Mech. 229 531-54). The basic flow and its stability are analyzed using the thin film equations even in the region where the inertia force is not negligible. A local stability analysis of the flow is conducted using the linearized disturbance equations and correctly predicts Needham's simple instability criterion. The present thin film equations give a good approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations.
A hydrodynamic study of corner flow with leakage to orient dilute suspensions of ellipsoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Jonathan; Furst, Eric
2013-03-01
The macroscopic characteristics of thin films are related to the microscale arrangement of the underlying particles. Directing the assembly of anisotropic colloids through the use of external fields, such as flow fields, can lead to materials with novel catalytic, transport, and optical properties. Such fields are used to bias particle orientation in solution before deposition onto a solid substrate. Corner flow with leakage, akin to the doctor blade used in the pulp and paper industry, is a solution-based, processing technique that has been used to create nanostructured materials. We present an analysis that describes how dilute suspensions of ellipsoids couple to this field. A Lagrangian and Eulerian perspective is necessary to identify regions with not only a high straining component but also a sufficient time scale for alignment. Trajectories that lie completely within these ``hot spots'' result in a distribution in which greater than 80% of the particles have an angle less than 20° with respect to the flow direction. Our results can be used to describe previously reported trends of particle orientation in literature. Overall, our work gives a broader understanding of some of the difficulties associated with using flow fields to fully align ellipsoids in dilute suspensions DOE Basic Energy Sciences DE-FG02-09ER46626
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.
Takagi, Hideki; Shimada, Shohei; Miwa, Takahiro; Kudo, Shigetada; Sanders, Ross; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2014-12-01
The goal of this research is to clarify the mechanism by which unsteady forces are generated during sculling by a skilled swimmer and thereby to contribute to improving propulsive techniques. We used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to acquire data on the kinematics of the hand during sculling, such as fluid forces and flow field. By investigating the correlations between these data, we expected to find a new propulsion mechanism. The experiment was performed in a flow-controlled water channel. The participant executed sculling motions to remain at a fixed position despite constant water flow. PIV was used to visualize the flow-field cross-section in the plane of hand motion. Moreover, the fluid forces acting on the hand were estimated from pressure distribution measurements performed on the hand and simultaneous three-dimensional motion analysis. By executing the sculling motion, a skilled swimmer produces large unsteady fluid forces when the leading-edge vortex occurs on the dorsal side of the hand and wake capture occurs on the palm side. By using a new approach, we observed interesting unsteady fluid phenomena similar to those of flying insects. The study indicates that it is essential for swimmers to fully exploit vortices. A better understanding of these phenomena might lead to an improvement in sculling techniques.
Fluid flow and sperm guidance: a simulation study of hydrodynamic sperm rheotaxis
Ishimoto, Kenta; Gaffney, Eamonn A.
2015-01-01
How does a sperm find its way? The study of guidance cues has fascinated sperm biologists and in particular the prospect of rheotaxis, that is a fluid flow orienting the direction of sperm swimming, has been the subject of extensive recent study, as readily motivated by the prospect that such guidance may be active in the mammalian female reproductive tract. For instance, it has been hypothesized that helical sperm flagellar beating is necessary for such guidance, whereas there is an extensive diversity of flagellar beating patterns, with planar sperm beating readily observed in human cells for example. In particular, such cells will not be guided by fluid flow according to hypothesized mechanisms for rheotaxis presented thus far. Here, using simulation methods, we investigate rheotaxis for a wide range of flagellar beat patterns. Providing the virtual sperm firstly does not possess a tightly circling trajectory in the absence of a background flow and secondly, remains within a region of low shear to prevent being washed away by the background flow, rheotaxis is generally observed with the sperm swimming into the flow together with a possible transverse velocity. Tight circling sperm motility, as observed in select hyperactivated sperm and CatSper mutants, is predicted to disrupt the rheotactic response, whereas confinement to low shear regions generally requires boundary accumulation, thus introducing subtleties in the relationship between rheotactic behaviours and the flagellar waveform and sperm characteristics. Nonetheless, such predictions suggest such rheotactic guidance may be more common and robust than previously thought, and we document simple criteria for the presence of rheotaxis that are consistent with our simulations and understanding, as well as reported observations to date. PMID:25878133
Khan, Waqar A.; Uddin, Md Jashim; Ismail, A. I. Md.
2013-01-01
The effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions on the double-diffusive free convective flow of a nanofluid along a semi-infinite flat solid vertical plate are investigated numerically. It is assumed that free stream is moving. The governing boundary layer equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a system of nonlinear, coupled similarity equations. The effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, solute and nanofluid concentration as well as on the reduced Nusselt number, reduced Sherwood number and the reduced nanoparticle Sherwood number are investigated and presented graphically. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions have not been investigated yet. It is found that the reduced local Nusselt, local solute and the local nanofluid Sherwood numbers increase with hydrodynamic slip and decrease with thermal slip parameters. PMID:23533566
Khan, Waqar A; Uddin, Md Jashim; Ismail, A I Md
2013-01-01
The effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions on the double-diffusive free convective flow of a nanofluid along a semi-infinite flat solid vertical plate are investigated numerically. It is assumed that free stream is moving. The governing boundary layer equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into a system of nonlinear, coupled similarity equations. The effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, solute and nanofluid concentration as well as on the reduced Nusselt number, reduced Sherwood number and the reduced nanoparticle Sherwood number are investigated and presented graphically. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of hydrodynamic and thermal slip boundary conditions have not been investigated yet. It is found that the reduced local Nusselt, local solute and the local nanofluid Sherwood numbers increase with hydrodynamic slip and decrease with thermal slip parameters.
Physical hydrodynamic propulsion model study on creeping viscous flow through a ciliated porous tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, Noreen Sher; Butt, Adil Wahid; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Bég, O. Anwar
2017-03-01
The present investigation focusses on a mathematical study of creeping viscous flow induced by metachronal wave propagation in a horizontal ciliated tube containing porous media. Creeping flow limitations are imposed, i.e. inertial forces are small compared to viscous forces and therefore a very low Reynolds number (Re ≪ 1) is taken into account. The wavelength of metachronal wave is also considered to be very large for cilia movement. The physical problem is linearized and exact solutions are developed for the differential equation problem. Mathematica software is used to compute and illustrate numerical results. The influence of slip parameter and Darcy number on velocity profile, pressure gradient and trapping of bolus are discussed with the aid of graphs. It is found that with increasing magnitude of the slip parameter, the trapped bolus inside the streamlines increases in size. The study is relevant to biological propulsion of medical micromachines in drug delivery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, B.; Juanes, R.
2015-12-01
Coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation are important during production of hydrocarbons from oil and gas reservoirs. Effective design and implementation of enhanced recovery techniques such as miscible gas flooding and hydraulic fracturing requires modeling and simulation of these coupled proceses in geologic porous media. We develop a computational framework to model the coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation in heterogeneous fractured rock. We show that the hydrocarbon recovery efficiency during unstable displacement of a more viscous oil with a less viscous fluid in a fractured medium depends on the mechanical state of the medium, which evolves due to permeability alteration within and around fractures. We show that fully accounting for the coupling between the physical processes results in estimates of the recovery efficiency in agreement with observations in field and lab experiments.
Phan-Thien, Nhan; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Altobelli, S.A.; Mondy, L.A.
1995-07-01
We report on experimental measurements and numerical predictions of shear-induced migration of particles in concentrated suspensions subjected to flow in the wide gap between a rotating inner cylinder placed eccentrically within a fixed outer cylinder (a cylindrical bearing). The suspensions consists of large, noncolloidal spherical particles suspended in a viscous Newtonian liquid. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is used to measure the time evolution of concentration and velocity profiles as the flow induced particle migration from the initial, well-mixed state. A model originally proposed by Phillips et al. (1992) is generalized to two dimensions. The coupled equations of motion and particle migration are solved numerically using an explicit pseudo-transient finite volume formulation. While not all of the qualitative features observed in the experiments are reproduced by this general numerical implementation, the velocity predictions show moderately good agreement with the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temmerman, S.; Vandenbruwaene, W.; Dijkstra, J. T.; Van Duren, L. A.; De Vries, M. B.; Van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.; Bouma, T. J.
2012-12-01
Two-way interactions between biological and geomorphic processes, i.e. bio-geomorphic feedbacks, play a key role in the formation and evolution of intertidal landscapes, such as salt marshes, mangroves, and sea grass meadows. The establishment of vegetation on an initially bare tidal flat modifies the patterns of water flow and sedimentation-erosion within and around the vegetation, while the modified flow and sedimentation-erosion patterns further influence the vegetation growth or dieback. Here we study these bio-geomorphic feedbacks by a combination of (1) experiments at the scale of individual vegetation patches (a few m^2 large) and short term (~1 growing season) and (2) up-scaling by numerical modeling at the landscape scale (10^2-10^4 m^2) and long term (decades). At the scale of individual vegetation patches, experiments show that within vegetation patches, flow velocities are reduced and sedimentation takes place, leading there to a higher bottom elevation, less tidal inundation and hence stimulation of plant growth. In contrast, at bare locations in between vegetation patches, the flow is concentrated and scouring and channel erosion takes place around vegetation patches, leading there to inhibition of plant growth. Experiments further demonstrate that the strength of these bio-geomorphic feedbacks strongly depends on the structural properties of the intertidal vegetation, such as the density and stiffness of plant stems. In particular, stiff species that typically grow in salt marshes and mangroves have much stronger effects on flow and sedimentation-erosion patterns than highly flexible sea grass species. The bio-geomorphic feedbacks at the scale of individual vegetation patches were up-scaled to the landscape scale by numerical modeling, incorporating dynamic feedbacks between vegetation growth, hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The model shows that the bio-geomorphic feedbacks lead to the spatial self-organization of both vegetation and landform
Pasha Zanous, Sina; Shafaghat, Rouzbeh; Esmaili, Qadir
2015-07-01
In this study, the blood flow passing through a three-dimensional geometrically realistic stenosis is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Although the blood flow in stenotic arteries has been extensively studied in the past few decades, not much work has been focused on irregularity of stenosis. Thus, a model of an irregular stenotic descending aorta is used in this work. Due to the irregularity of stenosis model, the governing differential equations for continuity and momentum are solved numerically using finite-volume/finite-difference techniques in the generalized body-fitted coordinates. In order to verify the numerical results, the experimental measured pressure drops are compared with the numerical result. In addition, an improved method for nearly orthogonal grid generation is presented in numerical study. The grid generating system is based on the solution of a set of partial differential equations with finite difference discretization. Numerical calculations are performed to examine the effect of 55% (ratio between cross-sectional area at upstream and stenosis) irregular stenosis on the hemodynamic characteristics such as flow separation zone, wall shear stress and pressure drop. The maximum calculated wall shear stress is related to the maximum velocity gradient due to minimum cross-sectional area at the neck of stenosis. In addition, the pressure is shown as an important characteristic that is effecting on the resistance against the flow in the artery. Based on our results, the 55% irregular constriction is considered critical unlike the studies that have believed the reduction, which is greater than 75% become significant. © IMechE 2015.
Non-Newtonian hydrodynamics for a dilute granular suspension under uniform shear flow.
Chamorro, Moisés G; Reyes, Francisco Vega; Garzó, Vicente
2015-11-01
We study in this work a steady shearing laminar flow with null heat flux (usually called "uniform shear flow") in a gas-solid suspension at low density. The solid particles are modeled as a gas of smooth hard spheres with inelastic collisions while the influence of the surrounding interstitial fluid on the dynamics of grains is modeled by means of a volume drag force, in the context of a rheological model for suspensions. The model is solved by means of three different but complementary routes, two of them being theoretical (Grad's moment method applied to the corresponding Boltzmann equation and an exact solution of a kinetic model adapted to granular suspensions) and the other being computational (Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equation). Unlike in previous studies on granular sheared suspensions, the collisional moment associated with the momentum transfer is determined in Grad's solution by including all the quadratic terms in the stress tensor. This theoretical enhancement allows for the detection and evaluation of the normal stress differences in the plane normal to the laminar flow. In addition, the exact solution of the kinetic model gives the explicit form of the velocity moments of the velocity distribution function. Comparison between our theoretical and numerical results shows in general a good agreement for the non-Newtonian rheological properties, the kurtosis (fourth velocity moment of the distribution function), and the velocity distribution of the kinetic model for quite strong inelasticity and not too large values of the (scaled) friction coefficient characterizing the viscous drag force. This shows the accuracy of our analytical results that allows us to describe in detail the flow dynamics of the granular sheared suspension.
A hydrodynamic analysis of fluid flow between meshing spur gear teeth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittbrodt, M. J.; Pechersky, M. J.
1987-10-01
A one dimensional analysis of the fluid pumping action resulting from the meshing of spur gears was performed by writing a computer algorithm. Two separate analyses were conducted; one using incompressible and the other using compressible flow theory. The incompressible flow calculations correspond to heavily lubricated gears whereas the compressible flow calculations are representative of lightly lubricated gears. The analysis demonstrated that the velocity of the discharged fluid reached high velocities for both cases. The high meshing rate of the teeth along with the small discharge area is the cause for the high fluid velocities. Certain geometric design variables of the gears were seen to affect the peak velocities for each case. The variables most significantly affecting the peak velocity appear to be the drive ratio and the face width. The high velocities may contribute to the noise generated during meshing of gear teeth due to the jet noise as a result of the high velocity jets impinging on the enclosures surrounding the gears and the formation of shock waves at the exit plane of the teeth.
Stable and unstable physicochemical hydrodynamic flows in thin-layer cell electrodeposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Guillermo; Mocskos, Esteban; Molina, Fernando V.; Dengra, Silvina
2003-03-01
Electrodeposition in thin cells of different orientations relative to gravity leads to stable and unstable flows. A vertical cell with the cathode (and low density fluid) at the top of the cell and the anode (and high density fluid) at the bottom give rise to a stable flow as long as there is no dendrite growth, while a vertical cell with the cathode (and low density fluid) at the bottom of the cell and high density fluid at the top, leads to unstable flows in the form of plumes. As a consequence, growth pattern formation is strongly inhibited in the unstable case. In the stable case, when growth starts, the concentration in a zone adjacent to the downwards growing finger is lowered giving rise to a gravity driven convective vortex ring wrapped to the finger. In the unstable case, the cathodic and anodic gravity driven rolls break into tongues expanding toward one another and mixing. Consequently, concentration gradients are strongly attenuated, resulting in little or none dendrite growth. For both cases, when dendrites grow, an electrically driven vortex ring exists at the dendrite tip; it allows fluid to penetrate the dendrite tip and to be ejected from its side. The interaction among vortex roll, vortex rings and dendrite growth is a complex three-dimensional problem, its complexity further enhanced in the unstable case. Here we elucidate their behavior through three-dimensional computational modeling.
Numerical investigation of submarine hydrodynamics and flow field in steady turn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Liu-shuai; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Wen-bin
2016-03-01
This paper presents numerical simulations of viscous flow past a submarine model in steady turn by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE) for incompressible, steady flows. The rotating coordinate system was adopted to deal with the rotation problem. The Coriolis force and centrifugal force due to the computation in a bodyfixed rotating frame of reference were treated explicitly and added to momentum equations as source terms. Furthermore, velocities of entrances were coded to give the correct magnitude and direction needed. Two turbulence closure models (TCMs), the RNG κ - ɛ model with wall functions and curvature correction and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) κ - ω model without the use of wall functions, but with curvature correction and low- Re correction were introduced, respectively. Take DARPA SUBOFF model as the test case, a series of drift angle varying between 0° and 16° at a Reynolds number of 6.53×106 undergoing rotating arm test simulations were conducted. The computed forces and moment as a function of drift angle during the steady turn are mostly in close agreement with available experimental data. Though the difference between the pressure coefficients around the hull form was observed, they always show the same trend. It was demonstrated that using sufficiently fine grids and advanced turbulence models will lead to accurate prediction of the flow field as well as the forces and moments on the hull.
Ingber, M.S.; Womble, D.E.; Mondy, L.A.
1995-05-01
In this paper, a massively parallel implementation of the boundary element method to study particle transport in Stokes flow is discussed. The numerical algorithm couples the quasistatic Stokes equations for the fluid with kinematic and equilibrium equations for the particles. The formation and assembly of the discretized boundary element equations is based on the torus-wrap mapping as opposed to the more traditional row- or column-wrap mappings. The equation set is solved using a block Jacobi iteration method. Results are shown for an example application problem, which requires solving a dense system of 6240 equations more than 1200 times.
Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)
1987-01-01
Part 2 of the Symposium proceedings includes papers addressing various topics in basic wind tunnel research/techniques and computational transitional research. Specific topics include: advanced measurement techniques; laminar flow control; Tollmien-Schlichting wave characteristics; boundary layer transition; flow visualization; wind tunnel tests; flight tests; boundary layer equations; swept wings; and skin friction.
Continuous flow multi-stage microfluidic reactors via hydrodynamic microparticle railing.
Sochol, Ryan D; Li, Song; Lee, Luke P; Lin, Liwei
2012-10-21
"Multi-stage" fluidic reactions are integral to diverse biochemical assays; however, such processes typically require laborious and time-intensive fluidic mixing procedures in which distinct reagents and/or washes must be loaded sequentially and separately (i.e., one-at-a-time). Microfluidic processors that enable multi-stage fluidic reactions with suspended microparticles (e.g., microbeads and cells) to be performed autonomously could greatly extend the efficacy of lab-on-a-chip technologies. Here we present a single-layer microfluidic reactor that utilizes a microfluidic railing methodology to passively transport suspended microbeads and cells into distinct, adjacent laminar flow streams for rapid fluidic mixing and assaying. Four distinct molecular synthesis processes (i.e., consisting of 48 discrete fluidic mixing stages in total) were accomplished on polystyrene microbead substrates (15 μm in diameter) in parallel, without the need for external observation or regulation during device operation. Experimental results also revealed successful railing of suspended bovine aortic endothelial cells (approximately 13 to 17 μm in diameter). The presented railing system provides an effective continuous flow methodology to achieve bead-based and cell-based microfluidic reactors for applications including point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostics, pharmacological screening, and quantitative cell biology.
Hydrodynamic dispersion of a neutral non-reacting solute in electroosmotic flow
S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson
1999-06-01
Analytical methods are employed to determine the axial dispersion of a neutral non-reacting solute in an incompressible electroosmotic flow. In contrast to previous approaches, the dispersion is obtained here by solving the time-dependent diffusion-advection equation in transformed spatial and temporal coordinates to obtain the two-dimensional late-time concentration field. The coefficient of dispersion arises as a separation eigenvalue, and its value is obtained as a necessary condition for satisfying all of the required boundary conditions. Solutions based on the Debye-Huckel approximation are presented for both a circular tube and a channel of infinite width. These results recover the well-known solutions for dispersion in pressure-driven flows when the Debye length is very large. In this limit, the axial dispersion is proportional to the square of the Peclet number based on the characteristic transverse dimension of the tube or channel. In the tilt of very small Debye lengths, the authors find that the dispersion varies as the square of the Peclet number based on the Debye length. Simple approximations to the coefficient of dispersion as a function of the Debye length and Peclet number are also presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B; Ebert, John W , Jr; Valentine, E Floyd
1938-01-01
The present tests illustrate how the aerodynamic drag of a flying boat hull may be reduced by following closely the form of a low drag aerodynamic body and the manner in which the extent of the aerodynamic refinement is limited by poorer hydrodynamic performance. This limit is not sharply defined but is first evidenced by an abnormal flow of water over certain parts of the form accompanied by a sharp increase in resistance. In the case of models 74-A and 75, the resistance (sticking) occurs only at certain combinations of speed, load, and trim and can be avoided by proper control of the trim at high water speeds. Model 75 has higher water resistance at very high speeds than does model 74-A. With constant speed propellers and high takeoff speeds, it appears that the form of model 75 would give slightly better takeoff performance. Model 74-A, however, has lower aerodynamic drag than does model 75 for the same volume of hull.
Managing length of stay using patient flow--part 1.
Cesta, Toni
2013-02-01
This month we have discussed the fundamentals of patient flow and its related theories. We reviewed the concepts of demand and capacity management as they apply to the hospital setting. Patient flow requires daily diligence and attention. It should not be something focused on only on busy days, but should be managed each and every day. By taking a proactive approach to patient flow, the number of days your hospital will be bottlenecked can be reduced. Patient flow needs to be part of the daily activities of every case management department and should be factored in as a core role and function in a contemporary case management department. Patient flow needs to be addressed at the patient, departmental, and hospital level. In next month's issue we will continue our discussion on patient flow with a detailed review of specific examples that any case management department can use. We will also review all the departments and disciplines that contribute to patient flow and their role in it.
An Axisymmetric Hydrodynamical Model for the Torus Wind in AGN. 2; X-ray Excited Funnel Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.; Proga, D.
2008-01-01
We have calculated a series of models of outflows from the obscuring torus in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our modeling assumes that the inner face of a rotationally supported torus is illuminated and heated by the intense X-rays from the inner accretion disk and black hole. As a result of such heating a strong biconical outflow is observed in our simulations. We calculate 3-dimensional hydrodynamical models, assuming axial symmetry, and including the effects of X-ray heating, ionization, and radiation pressure. We discuss the behavior of a large family of these models, their velocity fields, mass fluxes and temperature, as functions of the torus properties and X-ray flux. Synthetic warm absorber spectra are calculated, assuming pure absorption, for sample models at various inclination angles and observing times. We show that these models have mass fluxes and flow speeds which are comparable to those which have been inferred from observations of Seyfert 1 warm absorbers, and that they can produce rich absorption line spectra.
Malec, Edward; Rembiasz, Tomasz
2010-12-15
We compare Newtonian and general relativistic descriptions of the stationary accretion of self-gravitating fluids onto compact bodies. Spherical symmetry and thin gas approximation are assumed. Luminosity depends, among other factors, on the temperature and the contribution of gas to the total mass, in both--general relativistic (L{sub GR}) and Newtonian (L{sub N})--models. We discover a remarkable universal behavior for transonic flows: the ratio of respective luminosities L{sub GR}/L{sub N} is independent of the fractional mass of the gas and depends on asymptotic temperature. It is close to 1 in the regime of low asymptotic temperatures and can grow several times at high temperatures. These conclusions are valid for a wide range of polytropic equations of state.
Free-surface tracking of submerged features to infer hydrodynamic flow characteristics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandel, Tracy; Rosenzweig, Itay; Koseff, Jeffrey
2016-11-01
As sea level rise and stronger storm events threaten our coastlines, increased attention has been focused on coastal vegetation as a potentially resilient, financially viable tool to mitigate flooding and erosion. However, the actual effect of this "green infrastructure" on near-shore wave fields and flow patterns is not fully understood. For example, how do wave setup, wave nonlinearity, and canopy-generated instabilities change due to complex bottom roughness? Answering this question requires detailed knowledge of the free surface. We develop easy-to-use laboratory techniques to remotely measure physical processes by imaging the apparent distortion of the fixed features of a submerged cylinder array. Measurements of surface turbulence from a canopy-generated Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are possible with a single camera. A stereoscopic approach similar to Morris (2004) and Gomit et al. (2013) allows for measurement of waveform evolution and the effect of vegetation on wave steepness and nonlinearity.
A formulation to compute mass-consistent models of hydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Núñez, M. A.; Sánchez-Sánchez, J. E.
2012-04-01
Standard interpolation methods of measured data of an incompressible fluid yield a non-solenoidal field v 0. A formulation to estimate a solenoidal field from v 0, is proposed. Variational calculus reduces the problem to the solution of an elliptic equation for a Lagrange multiplier. Examples illustrate how boundary conditions improve the mass-balance of velocity fields obtained in meteorology with similar approaches. The elliptic equation is separable in meteorological problems over a complex orography. This allows the use of fast-Poisson solvers. It is shown how the flow-rate can be used to define a low-pass filter which improves the results given by the Fast Fourier Algorithm.
Experimental simulation of hydrodynamic flow noises in an autonomous marine laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudashev, E. B.; Kolyshnitsyn, V. A.; Marshov, V. P.; Tkachenko, V. M.; Tsvetkov, A. M.
2013-03-01
The spectral characteristics of turbulent pressure pulsations arising from the flow around an autonomous marine laboratory have been measured. The autonomous marine laboratory is an upgraded Dolphin buoyant device, equipped with modern digital facilities for autonomous recording, which extends the frequency range of the signals under study up to 50-60 kHz. The power spectra and cross spectra of turbulent pressure pulsations have been measured at different points of the measuring section by point pressure transducers 1.3 or 20 mm in diameter at a speed of the autonomous marine laboratory of 8-22 m/s. The measurements have revealed unexpected behavioral features of the spectra (their inflection points) at high frequencies. An analysis is performed to explain these features. In particular, it is shown that the correction function based on the more complex cross spectrum model (in comparison with the Corcos cross spectrum model) developed by Smol'yakov in 2006 predicts a monotonic (without inflection points) decrease in the spectral levels at high frequencies for reconstructed (corrected) spectra.
Conjugate thermal creep flow with hydrodynamics and thermal slip conditions in a slit microchannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monsivais, Ian; Lizardi, José; Méndez, Federico
2015-11-01
In this work, we study the conjugate heat transfer between a gas flow and the walls of the microchannel, when the laminar motion of the fluid is caused uniquely by the thermal creep effect on the lower wall. Taking into account that this can represent a microchip or a similar device over which occurs a well defined heat dissipation rate; in our case, we have assumed that the bottom face of this lower wall with finite thermal conductivity, is exposed to a uniform heat flux. On the other hand, the upper wall of the microchannel is subject to a well-known prescribed thermal boundary condition. The heat conduction equation for the lower wall and the mass, momentum and energy equations for the phase gas together with the corresponding boundary conditions are written in dimensionless form, assuming that the Reynolds number associated with the characteristic velocity of the thermal creep and the aspect ratio of the microchannel are both very small. The velocity and temperature fields for the gas phase and the temperature profiles for the lower solid wall are predicted as functions of the involved dimensionless parameters and the main results confirm that the phenomenon of conjugate thermal creep exists whenever the temperature of the lower wall varies linearly or nonlinearly.
Improving variational mass-consistent models of hydrodynamic flows via boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Núñez, M. A.
2012-04-01
Variational mass-consistent models for the velocity field v have been used by mesoscale meteorological community to modeling the wind field from an observed field v 0 in a bounded region Ω with boundary Γ. Variational calculus reduces the problem to the solution of an elliptic equation for a Lagrange multiplier λ subject to Dirichlet Boundary Condition (DBC) on flow-through boundaries. In this work, it is shown that DBC decreases the regularity of λ and this in turn decreases the accuracy with which the velocity field satisfies the mass-balance. The boundary condition (BC) v · n = v T · ngiven by the true field v T on the whole boundary Γ, leads only to a Neumann boundary condition (NBC) for λ. Approximations of this BC are studied. Analytic and numerical results show that the velocity field U 0 obtained from v 0 by direct integration of the continuity equation, yields a NBC that improves significantly the fields obtained with DBC's.
Pang, Bo; Shao, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Geng, Jia-Zhen; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Hou, Jing-Li
2012-03-01
In this paper, a novel mode of free-flow affinity electrophoresis (FFAE) was developed to indirectly enhance the separation of free-flow electrophoresis (FFE). In the mode of FFAE, a Ni(II) with high electric charge density and histidine (His) is chosen as a model ligand and target solute, respectively. Through the controlling of experimental conditions (10 mM pH 6.0 Na(2)HPO(4)-NaH(2)PO(4) with 2.0 mM NiCl(2)·6H(2)O background buffer), Ni(II) can combine with His and the combination leads to the high electric charge density of affinity complex of His-Ni(II) in contrast to the low density of free His molecule. But the ligand has weak interaction with uninterested amino acids. Thus, the mobility of His existing as His-Ni(II) is greatly increased from 14.5×10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1) to 30.2 × 10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1), while those mobilities of uninterested amino acids are almost constant. By virtue of the mode, we developed the FFAE procedure and conducted the relevant experiments. The experiments demonstrated the following merits of the FFAE technique: (i) clear enhancement of separation between the target solute of His and uninterested amino acids; (ii) simplicity, and (iii) low cost. Furthermore, the technique was used for the continuous separation of His from its complex sample, and the purity of His was near to 100%. All of the results demonstrate the feasibility of affinity separation in FFE. The developed FFAE may be used in the separation and pretreatment of some biological molecules (e.g. peptides).
Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.
2011-11-01
We construct a radiation-hydrodynamics model for the obscuring toroidal structure in active galactic nuclei. In this model the obscuration is produced at parsec scales by a dense, dusty wind which is supported by infrared radiation pressure on dust grains. To find the distribution of radiation pressure, we numerically solve the two-dimensional radiation transfer problem in a flux-limited diffusion approximation. We iteratively couple the solution with calculations of stationary one-dimensional models for the wind and obtain the z-component of the velocity. Our results demonstrate that for active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities greater than 0.1 L{sub edd}, external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via outflows driven by infrared radiation pressure. The terminal velocity of marginally Compton-thin models (0.2 < {tau}{sub T} < 0.6) is comparable to or greater than the escape velocity. In Compton-thick models the maximum value of the vertical component of the velocity is lower than the escape velocity, suggesting that a significant part of our torus is in the form of failed wind. The results demonstrate that obscuration via normal or failed infrared-driven winds is a viable option for the AGN torus problem and AGN unification models. Such winds can also provide an important channel for AGN feedback.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stafne, Brice E.
The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that includes the main stem river channel, side channels, backwater floodplains and lakes, islands, wetlands, grasslands, and floodplain forests. The hydrology of this rich ecosystem is one of the key drivers for physical, chemical and biological processes. However, the hydrology and hydraulics of the UMRS has been drastically altered from its natural state as a result of the construction of the locks and dams in the 1930s. Beginning with the Water Resources Development Act of 1986, biologists, ecologists, and engineers have been working to restore the river to a more natural state within the current constraints imposed by the lock and dam system. In an effort to restore rivers to a more natural state, the determination of a hydraulic reference condition is essential to understanding the "why and how" of historical river system function. Understanding the fundamental processes of historical conditions will help prioritize resources and better quantify possible outcomes for riverine restoration. The main goal of this study was to construct a hydrodynamic reference condition for Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River System using hydrodynamic computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling. The CFD model will provide a better understanding of pre-impoundment flow conditions as compared to post-impoundment conditions today. The numerical model was constructed and developed primarily from a pre-impoundment 1890s topographic map with bathymetric cross-sections in the channels. The 1890s map and other sources from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers provided historic elevation and hydraulic reference data for model calibration. The calibrated historic model was then compared with a current model of similar scale representing post-impoundment conditions, allowing for quantitative analysis of the differences between the two conditions. Model results indicated large changes in average depth and average
Feedback Flow Control for a Pitching Turret (Part II) (POSTPRINT)
2010-01-01
imposes no penalty on the control input. VII. Closed-loop Control Run with an Advanced Controller Three compensators ( LQR regulators with Kalman...AFRL-RB-WP-TP-2010-3024 FEEDBACK FLOW CONTROL FOR A PITCHING TURRET (PART II) (POSTPRINT) T. Vaithianathan and H.A. Carlson Clear...display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3
Lakghomi, B; Lawryshyn, Y; Hofmann, R
2015-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of dissolved air flotation (DAF) have shown formation of stratified flow (back and forth horizontal flow layers at the top of the separation zone) and its impact on improved DAF efficiency. However, there has been a lack of experimental validation of CFD predictions, especially in the presence of solid particles. In this work, for the first time, both two-phase (air-water) and three-phase (air-water-solid particles) CFD models were evaluated at pilot scale using measurements of residence time distribution, bubble layer position and bubble-particle contact efficiency. The pilot-scale results confirmed the accuracy of the CFD model for both two-phase and three-phase flows, but showed that the accuracy of the three-phase CFD model would partly depend on the estimation of bubble-particle attachment efficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jinhai; Du, Qiang; Liu, Jun; Liu, Guang; Wang, Pei; Liu, Hongrui; Du, Meimei
2017-08-01
With the aid of numerical method, both flow field and its accompanied loss mechanism within the rotating cavity are investigated in detail in the 1st part of the two parts paper. For ease of comparison, rotating cavity is further classified as the rotor-stator cavity case and the rotor-rotor cavity case. Results indicate that flow within both kinds of the cavity act as the inviscid flow except that the flow near walls, neighboring the lower G region and in the vicinity of the rotating orifices. In the regions except such inviscid-flow-dominate domains, the theoretical core rotation factor can be safely used to predict the swirl ratio within the cavity. When detailed flow pattern is considered, Ekman-type flow exists near periphery of the surface's boundary layer where viscous effect is non-negligible. However, due to the complex profile of the simulated cavity case, vortices structure is varied within the cavity. By comparison, swirl ratio can be used to predict the magnitude of loss. Due to the relatively evident rotating effects of the rotor-rotor cavity, swirl ratio even increases to 1.4 in the current model, which means that flow is moving faster than the surrounding disc. Further investigation finds that this kind of highly rotating flow is accompanied with serious undesirable pressure loss. Parenthetically, unlike its counterpart, swirl ratio above 1.0 doesn't happen when fluid passes through the rotor-stator cavity. So it is suggested that rotor-rotor flow cavity with the superimposed inward throughflow should be avoided in the engine design or certain measurements should be provided when such structure design is unavoidable. Simulation done in the current paper is meaningful since these dimensional parameters are typical in the design of state-of-art. Relatively lower range of Re φ and C w is not considered in the current two parts paper.
S. Dartevelle
2005-09-05
The objective of this manuscript is to fully derive a geophysical multiphase model able to ''accommodate'' different multiphase turbulence approaches; viz., the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), or hybrid RANSLES. This manuscript is the first part of a larger geophysical multiphase project--lead by LANL--that aims to develop comprehensive modeling tools for large-scale, atmospheric, transient-buoyancy dusty jets and plume (e.g., plinian clouds, nuclear ''mushrooms'', ''supercell'' forest fire plumes) and for boundary-dominated geophysical multiphase gravity currents (e.g., dusty surges, diluted pyroclastic flows, dusty gravity currents in street canyons). LES is a partially deterministic approach constructed on either a spatial- or a temporal-separation between the large and small scales of the flow, whereas RANS is an entirely probabilistic approach constructed on a statistical separation between an ensemble-averaged mean and higher-order statistical moments (the so-called ''fluctuating parts''). Within this specific multiphase context, both turbulence approaches are built up upon the same phasic binary-valued ''function of presence''. This function of presence formally describes the occurrence--or not--of any phase at a given position and time and, therefore, allows to derive the same basic multiphase Navier-Stokes model for either the RANS or the LES frameworks. The only differences between these turbulence frameworks are the closures for the various ''turbulence'' terms involving the unknown variables from the fluctuating (RANS) or from the subgrid (LES) parts. Even though the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic models for RANS and LES have the same set of Partial Differential Equations, the physical interpretations of these PDEs cannot be the same, i.e., RANS models an averaged field, while LES simulates a filtered field. In this manuscript, we also demonstrate that this multiphase model fully fulfills the second law of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, H.; Sabo, J. L.
2016-12-01
Wetlands as the earth's kidneys provides various ecosystem services, such as absorbing pollutants, purifying freshwater, providing habitats for diverse ecosystems, sustaining species richness and biodiversity. From hydrologic perspective, wetlands can store storm-flood water in flooding seasons and release it afterwards, which will reduce flood peaks and reshape hydrograph. Therefore, as a green infrastructure and natural capital, wetlands provides a competent alternative to manage water resources in a green way, with potential to replace the widely criticized traditional gray infrastructure (i.e. dams and dikes) in certain cases. However, there are few systematic scientific tools to support our decision-making on site selection and allow us to quantitatively investigate the impacts of restored wetlands on hydrological process, not only in local scale but also in the view of entire catchment. In this study, we employed a topographic index, HAND (the Height Above the Nearest Drainage), to support our decision on potential site selection. Subsequently, a hydrological model (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity) was coupled with a macro-scale hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood, Catchment-Based Macro-scale Floodplain) to simulate the impact of wetland restoration on flood peaks and baseflow. The results demonstrated that topographic information is an essential factor to select wetland restoration location. Different reaches, wetlands area and the change of roughness coefficient should be taken into account while evaluating the impacts of wetland restoration. The simulated results also clearly illustrated that wetland restoration will increase the local storage and decrease the downstream peak flow which is beneficial for flood prevention. However, its impact on baseflow is ambiguous. Theoretically, restored wetlands will increase the baseflow due to the slower release of the stored flood water, but the increase of wetlands area may also increase the actual evaporation
Decker, Jeremy D.; Swain, Eric D.; Stith, Bradley M.; Langtimm, Catherine A.
2013-01-01
Everglades restoration activities may cause changes to temperature and salinity stratification at the Port of the Islands (POI) marina, which could affect its suitability as a cold weather refuge for manatees. To better understand how the Picayune Strand Restoration Project (PSRP) may alter this important resource in Collier County in southwestern Florida, the USGS has developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the marina and canal system at POI. Empirical data suggest that manatees aggregate at the site during winter because of thermal inversions that provide warmer water near the bottom that appears to only occur in the presence of salinity stratification. To study these phenomena, the environmental fluid dynamics code simulator was used to represent temperature and salinity transport within POI. Boundary inputs were generated using a larger two-dimensional model constructed with the flow and transport in a linked overland-aquifer density-dependent system simulator. Model results for a representative winter period match observed trends in salinity and temperature fluctuations and produce temperature inversions similar to observed values. Modified boundary conditions, representing proposed PSRP alterations, were also tested to examine the possible effect on the salinity stratification and temperature inversion within POI. Results show that during some periods, salinity stratification is reduced resulting in a subsequent reduction in temperature inversion compared with the existing conditions simulation. This may have an effect on POI’s suitability as a passive thermal refuge for manatees and other temperature-sensitive species. Additional testing was completed to determine the important physical relationships affecting POI’s suitability as a refuge.
Research in Natural Laminar Flow and Laminar-Flow Control, part 3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hefner, Jerry N. (Compiler); Sabo, Frances E. (Compiler)
1987-01-01
Part 3 of the Symposium proceedings contains papers addressing advanced airfoil development, flight research experiments, and supersonic transition/laminar flow control research. Specific topics include the design and testing of natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils, NLF wing gloves, and NLF nacelles; laminar boundary-layer stability over fuselage forebodies; the design of low noise supersonic/hypersonic wind tunnels; and boundary layer instability mechanisms on swept leading edges at supersonic speeds.
Hydrodynamical comparison test of solar models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bach, K.; Kim, Y.-C.
2012-12-01
We present three dimensional radiation-hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations for solar surface convection based on three most recent solar mixtures: Grevesse & Sauval (1998), Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval (2005), and Asplund, Grevesse, Sauval & Scott (2009). The outer convection zone of the Sun is an extremely turbulent region composed of partly ionized compressible gases at high temperature. The super-adiabatic layer (SAL) is the transition region where the transport of energy changes drastically from convection to radiation. In order to describe physical processes accurately, a realistic treatment of radiation should be considered as well as convection. However, newly updated solar mixtures that are established from radiation-hydrodynamics do not generate properly internal structures estimated by helioseismology. In order to address this fundamental problem, solar models are constructed consistently based on each mixture and used as initial configurations for radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. From our simulations, we find that the turbulent flows in each model are statistically similar in the SAL.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kudryashov, A. F.; Barsukov, V. V.
1980-01-01
The stream flowing round the slowly swimming squama free fish can be laminized with the aid of the external slime coat alone. The slime of the fish with well developed squamae can laminize the stream together with the squamatic integument. Adjustments preventing a loss of the slime during laminization are better developed in the fastest squama free fishes.
Geislinger, Thomas M; Franke, Thomas
2014-06-01
Hydrodynamic lift forces acting on cells and particles in fluid flow receive ongoing attention from medicine, mathematics, physics and engineering. The early findings of Fåhræus & Lindqvist on the viscosity change of blood with the diameter of capillaries motivated extensive studies both experimentally and theoretically to illuminate the underlying physics. We review this historical development that led to the discovery of the inertial and non-inertial lift forces and elucidate the origins of these forces that are still not entirely clear. Exploiting microfluidic techniques induced a tremendous amount of new insights especially into the more complex interactions between the flow field and deformable objects like vesicles or red blood cells. We trace the way from the investigation of single cell dynamics to the recent developments of microfluidic techniques for particle and cell sorting using hydrodynamic forces. Such continuous and label-free on-chip cell sorting devices promise to revolutionize medical analyses for personalized point-of-care diagnosis. We present the state-of-the-art of different hydrodynamic lift-based techniques and discuss their advantages and limitations.
Mager, R; Balzereit, C; Gust, K; Hüsch, T; Herrmann, T; Nagele, U; Haferkamp, A; Schilling, D
2016-05-01
Passive removal of stone fragments in the irrigation stream is one of the characteristics in continuous-flow PCNL instruments. So far the physical principle of this so-called vacuum cleaner effect has not been fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to empirically prove the existence of the vacuum cleaner effect and to develop a physical hypothesis and generate a mathematical model for this phenomenon. In an empiric approach, common low-pressure PCNL instruments and conventional PCNL sheaths were tested using an in vitro model. Flow characteristics were visualized by coloring of irrigation fluid. Influence of irrigation pressure, sheath diameter, sheath design, nephroscope design and position of the nephroscope was assessed. Experiments were digitally recorded for further slow-motion analysis to deduce a physical model. In each tested nephroscope design, we could observe the vacuum cleaner effect. Increase in irrigation pressure and reduction in cross section of sheath sustained the effect. Slow-motion analysis of colored flow revealed a synergism of two effects causing suction and transportation of the stone. For the first time, our model showed a flow reversal in the sheath as an integral part of the origin of the stone transportation during vacuum cleaner effect. The application of Bernoulli's equation provided the explanation of these effects and confirmed our experimental results. We widen the understanding of PCNL with a conclusive physical model, which explains fluid mechanics of the vacuum cleaner effect.
Study of transient flow and particle transport in continuous steel caster molds: Part I. Fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Quan; Thomas, Brian G.; Vanka, S. P.
2004-08-01
Unsteady three-dimensional flow in the mold region of the liquid pool during continuous casting of steel slabs has been computed using realistic geometries starting from the submerged inlet nozzle. Three large-eddy simulations (LES) have been validated with measurements and used to compare results between full-pool and symmetric half-pool domains and between a full-scale water model and actual behavior in a thin-slab steel caster. First, time-dependent turbulent flow in the submerged nozzle is computed. The time-dependent velocities exiting the nozzle ports are then used as inlet conditions for the flow in the liquid pool. Complex time-varying flow structures are observed in the simulation results, in spite of the nominally steady casting conditions. Flow in the mold region is seen to switch between a “double-roll” recirculation zone and a complex flow pattern with multiple vortices. The computed time-averaged flow pattern agrees well with measurements obtained by hot-wire anemometry and dye injection in full-scale water models. Full-pool simulations show asymmetries between the left and right sides of the flow, especially in the lower recirculation zone. These asymmetries, caused by interactions between two halves of the liquid pool, are not present in the half-pool simulation. This work also quantifies differences between flow in the water model and the corresponding steel caster. The top-surface liquid profile and fluctuations are predicted in both systems and agree favorably with measurements. The flow field in the water model is predicted to differ from that in the steel caster in having higher upward velocities in the lower-mold region and a more uniform top-surface liquid profile. A spectral analysis of the computed velocities shows characteristics similar to previous measurements. The flow results presented here are later used (in Part II of this article) to investigate the transport of inclusion particles.
Flow-induced wall shear stress in abdominal aortic aneurysms: Part II--pulsatile flow hemodynamics.
Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H
2002-08-01
In continuing the investigation of AAA hemodynamics, unsteady flow-induced stresses are presented for pulsatile blood flow through the double-aneurysm model described in Part I. Physiologically realistic aortic blood flow is simulated under pulsatile conditions for the range of time-average Reynolds numbers 50< or =Re(m) < or =300. Hemodynamic disturbance is evaluated for a modified set of indicator functions which include wall pressure (p(w)), wall shear stress (tau(w)), Wall Shear Stress Gradient (WSSG), time-average wall shear stress (tau(w)*), and time-average Wall Shear Stress Gradient WSSG*. At peak flow, the highest shear stress and WSSG levels are obtained at the distal end of both aneurysms, in a pattern similar to that of steady flow. The maximum values of wall shear stresses and wall shear stress gradients are evaluated as a function of the time-average Reynolds number resulting in a fourth order polynomial correlation. A comparison between numerical predictions for steady and pulsatile flow is presented, illustrating the importance of considering time-dependent flow for the evaluation of hemodynamic indicators.
Active flow control for a NACA-0012 Profile: Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oualli, H.; Makadem, M.; Ouchene, H.; Ferfouri, A.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.
2016-11-01
Active flow control is applied to a NACA-0012 profile. The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel. Using a high-resolution visible-light camera and tomography, flow visualizations are carried out. LES finite-volume 3D code is used to complement the physical experiments. The symmetric wing is clipped into two parts, and those parts extend and retract along the chord according to the same sinusoidal law we optimized last year for the same profile but clipped at an angle of 60 deg, instead of the original 90 deg. The Reynolds number range is extended to 500,000, thus covering the flying regimes of micro-UAVs, UAVs, as well as small aircraft. When the nascent cavity is open and the attack angle is 30 deg, the drag coefficient is increased by 1,300%, as compared to the uncontrolled case. However, when the cavity is covered and Re <=105 , a relatively small frequency, f <= 30 Hz, is required for the drag coefficient to drop to negative values. At the maximum Reynolds number, thrust is generated but only at much higher frequencies, 12 <= f <= 16 kHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordilla, Jannes; Noffz, Torsten; Dentz, Marco; Tartakovsky, Alexandre
2017-04-01
Fractures and fracture networks have a high potential to contribute to the formation of preferential flow paths, and thus control important catchment-scale parameters, such as aquifer vulnerability, mass arrival times and dispersion dynamics. Particularly, the unsaturated zone of fractured porous aquifers exhibits highly space- and time-variant coupling of phase saturation and flow (transport) dynamics and remains an extremely challenging aspect of vadose zone research. Non-Darcian and highly non-linear unsaturated flow modes, strongly deviate from the classical laminar and low Capillary number flow regimes and therefore most volume-effective approaches fails to capture important flow and transport characteristics. Here we study unsaturated gravity-driven free-surface flows on a synthetic surface intersected by a horizontal fracture and demonstrate the importance of flow modes (droplet; rivulet) on the partitioning behavior at the fracture intersection. We present (1) laboratory experiments, (2) three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations using a heavily parallelized code, and (3) an analytical solution. The flow-rate-dependent mode switching from droplets to rivulets is reproduced by the SPH model, and the transition ranges agree with the laboratory experiments. We show that flow modes heavily influence the bypass behavior. Flows favoring the formation of droplets exhibit a much stronger bypass capacity compared to rivulet flows, where nearly the whole fluid mass is initially stored within the horizontal fracture. This behavior is demonstrated for a multi-inlet laboratory setup where the inlet-specific flow rate is chosen so that either a droplet or rivulet flow persists. The effect of fluid buffering within the horizontal fracture is presented in terms of dimensionless fracture inflow so that characteristic scaling regimes can be recovered. For both cases (rivulets and droplets), the flow within the horizontal fracture transitions into a
Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.
2010-01-01
The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.
Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra
2014-05-06
Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory-the two-fluid model-in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model-the Maxwell fluid-for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulikov, Igor; Vorobyov, Eduard
2016-07-01
An approach for constructing a low-dissipation numerical method is described. The method is based on a combination of the operator-splitting method, Godunov method, and piecewise-parabolic method on the local stencil. Numerical method was tested on a standard suite of hydrodynamic test problems. In addition, the performance of the method is demonstrated on a global test problem showing the development of a spiral structure in a gravitationally unstable gaseous galactic disk.
González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G
2014-01-01
Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit
González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.
2014-01-01
Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit
Sensitivity analysis of hydrodynamic stability operators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmid, Peter J.; Henningson, Dan S.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Malik, Mujeeb R.
1992-01-01
The eigenvalue sensitivity for hydrodynamic stability operators is investigated. Classical matrix perturbation techniques as well as the concept of epsilon-pseudoeigenvalues are applied to show that parts of the spectrum are highly sensitive to small perturbations. Applications are drawn from incompressible plane Couette, trailing line vortex flow and compressible Blasius boundary layer flow. Parametric studies indicate a monotonically increasing effect of the Reynolds number on the sensitivity. The phenomenon of eigenvalue sensitivity is due to the non-normality of the operators and their discrete matrix analogs and may be associated with large transient growth of the corresponding initial value problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourtakas, G.; Rogers, B. D.
2016-06-01
A two-phase numerical model using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is applied to two-phase liquid-sediments flows. The absence of a mesh in SPH is ideal for interfacial and highly non-linear flows with changing fragmentation of the interface, mixing and resuspension. The rheology of sediment induced under rapid flows undergoes several states which are only partially described by previous research in SPH. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the geotechnics, non-Newtonian and Newtonian flows by proposing a model that combines the yielding, shear and suspension layer which are needed to predict accurately the global erosion phenomena, from a hydrodynamics prospective. The numerical SPH scheme is based on the explicit treatment of both phases using Newtonian and the non-Newtonian Bingham-type Herschel-Bulkley-Papanastasiou constitutive model. This is supplemented by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion to predict the onset of yielding of the sediment surface and a concentration suspension model. The multi-phase model has been compared with experimental and 2-D reference numerical models for scour following a dry-bed dam break yielding satisfactory results and improvements over well-known SPH multi-phase models. With 3-D simulations requiring a large number of particles, the code is accelerated with a graphics processing unit (GPU) in the open-source DualSPHysics code. The implementation and optimisation of the code achieved a speed up of x58 over an optimised single thread serial code. A 3-D dam break over a non-cohesive erodible bed simulation with over 4 million particles yields close agreement with experimental scour and water surface profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, Vladimir B.
2009-02-01
At present there is no doubt that the local interstellar medium (LISM) is mainly partially ionized hydrogen gas moving with a supersonic flow relative to the solar system. The bulk velocity of this flow is approximately equal ˜26 km/s. Although the interaction of the solar wind with the charged component (below plasma component) of the LISM can be described in the framework of hydrodynamic approach, the interaction of H atoms with the plasma component can be correctly described only in the framework of kinetic theory because the mean free path of H atoms in the main process of the resonance charge exchange is comparable with a characteristic length of the problem considered. Results of self-consistent, kinetic-hydrodynamic models are considered in this review paper. First, such the model was constructed by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 98(A9):15,157-15,163, 1993). Up to now it is mainly developed by Moscow group taking into account new experimental data obtained onboard spacecraft studying outer regions of the solar system (Voyager 1 and 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, Hubble Space Telescope, Ulysses, SOHO and so on). Predictions and interpretations of experimental data obtained on the basis of these models are presented. Kinetic models for describing H atom motion were later suggested by Fahr et al. (Astron. Astrophys 298:587-600, 1995) and Lipatov et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 103(A9):20,631-20,642, 1998). However they were not self-consistent and did not incorporate sources to the plasma component. A self-consistent kinetic-hydrodynamic model suggested by Heerikhuisen et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 2006, Astrophys. J. 655:L53-L56, 2007) was not tested on the results by Baranov and Malama (J. Geophys. Res. 111:A06110, 1993) although it was suggested much later. Besides authors did not describe in details their Monte Carlo method for a solution of the H atom Boltzmann equation and did not inform about an accuracy of this method. Therefore the results of
Iliescu, Ciprian; Mărculescu, Cătălin; Venkataraman, Shrinivas; Languille, Baptiste; Yu, Hanry; Tresset, Guillaume
2014-11-11
This paper presents a microfluidic method for precise control of the size and polydispersity of surfactant-DNA nanoparticles. A mixture of surfactant and DNA dispersed in 35% ethanol is focused between two streams of pure water in a microfluidic channel. As a result, a rapid change of solvent quality takes place in the central stream, and the surfactant-bound DNA molecules undergo a fast coil-globule transition. By adjusting the concentrations of DNA and surfactant, fine-tuning of the nanoparticle size, down to a hydrodynamic diameter of 70 nm with a polydispersity index below 0.2, can be achieved with a good reproducibility.
Aspects of causal viscous hydrodynamics
Bhalerao, R. S.; Gupta, Sourendu
2008-01-15
We investigate the phenomenology of freely expanding fluids, with different material properties, evolving through the Israel-Stewart (IS) causal viscous hydrodynamics, and compare our results with those obtained in the relativistic Eckart-Landau-Navier-Stokes (ELNS) acausal viscous hydrodynamics. Through the analysis of scaling invariants we give a definition of thermalization time that can be self-consistently determined in viscous hydrodynamics. Next we construct the solutions for one-dimensional boost-invariant flows. Expansion of viscous fluids is slower than that of one-dimensional ideal fluids, resulting in entropy production. At late times, these flows are reasonably well approximated by solutions obtained in ELNS hydrodynamics. Estimates of initial energy densities from observed final values are strongly dependent on the dynamics one chooses. For the same material, and the same final state, IS hydrodynamics gives the smallest initial energy density. We also study fluctuations about these one-dimensional boost-invariant backgrounds; they are damped in ELNS hydrodynamics but can become sound waves in IS hydrodynamics. The difference is obvious in power spectra due to clear signals of wave-interference in IS hydrodynamics, which is completely absent in ELNS dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massari, F.
2017-10-01
Inferred supercritical structures and bedforms, including sediment waves and backset-bedded sets, are identified as components of coarse-grained siliciclastic and bioclastic, high-gradient clinoform wedges (Plio-Pleistocene of southern Italy) and canyon head infills (Tortonian of Venetian pre-Alps), showing evidence of having been built out in a setting influenced by shallow-marine hydrodynamics. The facies identified are dominated by a range of traction carpets, formed after segregation of coarser particles in the lower part of bipartite density underflows. The generation of backset-bedded sets is thought to imply scouring due to impact of a submerged hydraulic jump on the bed, and upstream migration of the jump, concomitant with the deposition of backset beds on the stoss side of the developing bedform. Submerged hydraulic jumps apparently formed spontaneously and in any position on the foreset and toeset, without requiring any precursor bed defect. The mostly solitary, non-cyclical character of the bedforms prevents their attribution to cyclic steps. The sets of backset beds are locally underlain by chaotic infills of deep, steep-sided scours attributed to vigorous erosion at the hydraulic jump, accompanied by instantaneous loss in transport capacity which results in rapid plugging of the scour (hydraulic jump facies of Postma et al., 2014). Gravel waves have a distinct internal stratigraphy, and their length to amplitude ratios show lower mean values and higher variability when compared to sediment waves consisting of sand. The presence of supercritical bedforms on steep foreset slopes of the studied clinoform systems, even in proximity to the topset-foreset rollover, is believed to reflect high inefficiency of mud-poor and short run-out bipartite underflows episodically transporting relatively small volumes of coarse-grained sediment. This may also account for common solitary, non-cyclical bedforms. It is proposed that during intense oceanographic events, such
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic Simulator
2016-10-05
This code is a highly modular framework for developing smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations running on parallel platforms. The compartmentalization of the code allows for rapid development of new SPH applications and modifications of existing algorithms. The compartmentalization also allows changes in one part of the code used by many applications to instantly be made available to all applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi, S. M.; Jafari, A.; Yaghmaei, S.; Vossoughi, M.; Turunen, I.
2008-05-01
In the present attempt a set of experiments and a 3D simulation using a commercially available computational fluid dynamics package (FLUENT) were adopted to investigate complex behavior involving hydrodynamics and ferrous biological oxidation in a gas-liquid bubble column reactor. By combining the hydrodynamics and chemical species transport equations, the velocity field, air volume fraction and ferrous biooxidation rate in the column were simulated. The kinetic model proposed by Nemati and Webb (1998) was used to simulate the biooxidation rate in the column. Gas-liquid interactions were modeled using an Eulerian model in three dimensions. The effects of inlet air velocity and initial substrate (Fe+2) concentration on the velocity field, air volume fraction and biooxidation rate of ferrous iron in the column were investigated. To validate the model, simulation was compared with the experimental data in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in an aerated column where the superficial gas velocity was adjusted between 0 and 0.5 m/s. It was found that the initial ferrous concentration and the inlet air velocity had a pronounced effect on the ferrous biooxidation rate. The results indicated that the maximum biooxidation rate can be obtained at superficial air velocity of 0.1 m/s and initial ferrous concentration of 6.7 g/L.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
..., Installation and Operation of a Part Flow System for Control of Overboard Discharges E Appendix E to Part 157... Appendix E to Part 157—Specifications for the Design, Installation and Operation of a Part Flow System for... criteria and installation and operational requirements for the part flow system referred to in Regulation...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salari, Mahmoud; Rava, Amin
2017-09-01
Nowadays, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are frequently used for exploring the oceans. The hydrodynamics of AUVs moving in the vicinity of the water surface are significantly different at higher depths. In this paper, the hydrodynamic coefficients of an AUV in non-dimensional depths of 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4D are obtained for movement close to the free-surface. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Equations (RANS) are discretized using the finite volume approach and the water-surface effects modeled using the Volume of Fraction (VOF) method. As the operating speeds of AUVs are usually low, the boundary layer over them is not fully laminar or fully turbulent, so the effect of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow was considered in the simulations. Two different turbulence/transition models were used: 1) a full-turbulence model, the k-ɛ model, and 2) a turbulence/transition model, Menter's Transition-SST model. The results show that the Menter's Transition-SST model has a better consistency with experimental results. In addition, the wave-making effects of these bodies are studied at different immersion depths in the sea-surface vicinity or at finite depths. It is observed that the relevant pitch moments and lift coefficients are non-zero for these axi-symmetric bodies when they move close to the sea-surface. This is not expected for greater depths.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lafrance, Pierre
1978-01-01
Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lafrance, Pierre
1978-01-01
Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)
Effects of bioreactor hydrodynamics on the physiology of Streptomyces.
Olmos, E; Mehmood, N; Haj Husein, L; Goergen, J-L; Fick, M; Delaunay, S
2013-03-01
Streptomyces are filamentous bacteria which are widely used industrially for the production of therapeutic biomolecules, especially antibiotics. Bioreactor operating conditions may impact the physiological response of Streptomyces especially agitation and aeration as they influence hydromechanical stress, oxygen and nutrient transfer. The understanding of the coupling between physiological response and bioreactor hydrodynamics lies on a simultaneous description of the flow and transfers encountered by the bacteria and of the microbial response in terms of growth, consumption, morphology, production or intracellular signals. This article reviews the experimental and numerical works dedicated to the study of the coupling between bioreactor hydrodynamics and antibiotics producing Streptomyces. In a first part, the description of hydrodynamics used in these works is presented and then the main relations used. In a second part, the assumptions made in these works are discussed and put into emphasize. Lastly, the various Streptomyces physiological responses observed are detailed and compared.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ionita, Ciprian N.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen
2012-03-01
Intracranial aneurysm treatment with flow diverters (FD) is a new minimally invasive approach, recently approved for use in human patients. Attempts to correlate the flow reduction observed in angiograms with a parameter related to the FD structure have not been totally successful. To find the proper parameter, we investigated four porous-media flow models. The models describing the relation between the pressure drop and flow velocity that are investigated include the capillary theory linear model (CTLM), the drag force linear model (DFLM), the simple quadratic model (SQM) and the modified quadratic model (MQM). Proportionality parameters are referred to as permeability for the linear models and resistance for the quadratic ones. A two stage experiment was performed. First, we verified flow model validity by placing six different stainless-steel meshes, resembling FD structures, in known flow conditions. The best flow model was used for the second stage, where six different FD's were inserted in aneurysm phantoms and flow modification was estimated using angiographically derived time density curves (TDC). Finally, TDC peak variation was compared with the FD parameter. Model validity experiments indicated errors of: 70% for the linear models, 26% for the SQM and 7% for the MQM. The resistance calculated according to the MQM model correlated well with the contrast flow reduction. Results indicate that resistance calculated according to MQM is appropriate to characterize the FD and could explain the flow modification observed in angiograms.
Cojocaru, Corneliu; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, Grazyna; Miskiewicz, Agnieszka
2009-09-30
Application of shear-enhanced crossflow ultrafiltration for separation of cobalt ions from synthetic wastewaters by prior complexation with polyethyleneimine has been investigated via experimental design approach. The hydrodynamic conditions in the module with tubular metallic membrane have been planned according to full factorial design in order to figure out the main and interaction effects of process factors upon permeate flux and cumulative flux decline. It has been noticed that the turbulent flow induced by rotation of inner cylinder in the module conducts to growth of permeate flux, normalized flux and membrane permeability as well as to decreasing of permeate flux decline. In addition, the rotation has led to self-cleaning effect as a result of the reduction of estimated polymer layer thickness on the membrane surface. The optimal hydrodynamic conditions in the module have been figured out by response surface methodology and overlap contour plot, being as follows: DeltaP=70 kPa, Q(R)=108 L/h and W=2800 rpm. In such conditions the maximal permeate flux and the minimal flux decline has been observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordilla, J.; Shigorina, E.; Tartakovsky, A. M.; Pan, W.; Geyer, T.
2015-12-01
Under idealized conditions (smooth surfaces, linear relationship between Bond number and Capillary number of droplets) steady-state flow modes on fracture surfaces have been shown to develop from sliding droplets to rivulets and finally (wavy) film flow, depending on the specified flux. In a recent study we demonstrated the effect of surface roughness on droplet flow in unsaturated wide aperture fractures, however, its effect on other prevailing flow modes is still an open question. The objective of this work is to investigate the formation of complex flow modes on fracture surfaces employing an efficient three-dimensional parallelized SPH model. The model is able to simulate highly intermittent, gravity-driven free-surface flows under dynamic wetting conditions. The effect of surface tension is included via efficient pairwise interaction forces. We validate the model using various analytical and semi-analytical relationships for droplet and complex flow dynamics. To investigate the effect of surface roughness on flow dynamics we construct surfaces with a self-affine fractal geometry and roughness characterized by the Hurst exponent. We demonstrate the effect of surface roughness (on macroscopic scales this can be understood as a tortuosity) on the steady-state distribution of flow modes. Furthermore we show the influence of a wide range of natural wetting conditions (defined by static contact angles) on the final distribution of surface coverage, which is of high importance for matrix-fracture interaction processes.
Stability analysis for laminar flow control, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benney, D. J.; Orszag, S. A.
1977-01-01
The basic equations for the stability analysis of flow over three dimensional swept wings are developed and numerical methods for their solution are surveyed. The equations for nonlinear stability analysis of three dimensional disturbances in compressible, three dimensional, nonparallel flows are given. Efficient and accurate numerical methods for the solution of the equations of stability theory were surveyed and analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deeb, R.; Kulasegaram, S.; Karihaloo, B. L.
2014-12-01
The three-dimensional Lagrangian particle-based smooth particle hydrodynamics method described in Part I of this two-part paper is used to simulate the flow of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with and without steel fibres in the L-box configuration. As in Part I, the simulation of the SCC mixes without fibres emphasises the distribution of large aggregate particles of different sizes throughout the flow, whereas the simulation of high strength SCC mixes which contain steel fibres is focused on the distribution of fibres and their orientation during the flow. The capabilities of this methodology are validated by comparing the simulation results with the L-box test carried out in the laboratory. A simple method is developed to assess the reorientation and distribution of short steel fibres in self-compacting concrete mixes during the flow. The reorientation of the fibres during the flow is used to estimate the fibre orientation factor (FOF) in a cross section perpendicular to the principal direction of flow. This estimation procedure involves the number of fibres cut by the section and their inclination to the cutting plane. This is useful to determine the FOF in practical image analysis on cut sections.
Flow in geothermal wells. Part IV. Transition criteria for two-phase flow patterns
Bilicki, Z.; Kestin, J.
1980-12-01
Detailed considerations justifying the criteria for transitions between flow patterns are presented. The following are covered: transition from bubble to plug (or slug) flow, transition from plug flow to froth flow, transition from froth to annular mist flow, and model comparisons. (MHR)
Shi, Xing; Lin, Guang; Zou, Jianfeng; Fedosov, Dmitry A.
2013-07-20
To model red blood cell (RBC) deformation in flow, the recently developed LBM-DLM/FD method ([Shi and Lim, 2007)29], derived from the lattice Boltzmann method and the distributed Lagrange multiplier/fictitious domain methodthe fictitious domain method, is extended to employ the mesoscopic network model for simulations of red blood cell deformation. The flow is simulated by the lattice Boltzmann method with an external force, while the network model is used for modeling red blood cell deformation and the fluid-RBC interaction is enforced by the Lagrange multiplier. To validate parameters of the RBC network model, sThe stretching numerical tests on both coarse and fine meshes are performed and compared with the corresponding experimental data to validate the parameters of the RBC network model. In addition, RBC deformation in pipe flow and in shear flow is simulated, revealing the capacity of the current method for modeling RBC deformation in various flows.
Synthetic Jets in Cross-flow. Part 1; Round Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Milanovic, Ivana M.
2003-01-01
Results of an experimental investigation on synthetic jets from round orifices with and without cross-flow are presented. Jet Reynolds number up to 46,000 with a fully turbulent approach boundary layer, and Stokes number up to 400. are covered. The threshold of stroke length for synthetic jet formation. in the absence of the cross-flow, is found to be Lo /D approximately 0.5. Above Lo /D is approximately 10, the profiles of normalized centerline mean velocity appear to become invariant. It is reasoned that the latter threshold may be related to the phenomenon of saturation of impulsively generated vortices. In the presence of the cross-flow, the penetration height of a synthetic jet is found to depend on the momentum- flux ratio . When this ratio is defined in terms of the maximum jet velocity and the cross-flow velocity. not only all data collapse but also the jet trajectory is predicted well by correlation equation available for steady jets-in-cross-flow. Distributions of mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as turbulence intensity for a synthetic jet in cross-flow are found to be similar to those of a steady jet-in-cross-flow. A pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, corresponding to the bound vortex pair of the steady case, is clearly observed. Mean velocity distribution exhibits a dome of low momentum fluid pulled up from the boundary layer, and the entire domain is characterized by high turbulence.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-02-23
..., Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part Numbers 174006-(), 174080-(), 174085-(), 174095... manufacturer and part number of the oxygen mask assemblies installed, an inspection to determine the manufacturing date and modification status if certain oxygen mask assemblies are installed, and...
Anomalous hydrodynamics of fractional quantum Hall states
Wiegmann, P.
2013-09-15
We propose a comprehensive framework for quantum hydrodynamics of the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. We suggest that the electronic fluid in the FQH regime can be phenomenologically described by the quantized hydrodynamics of vortices in an incompressible rotating liquid. We demonstrate that such hydrodynamics captures all major features of FQH states, including the subtle effect of the Lorentz shear stress. We present a consistent quantization of the hydrodynamics of an incompressible fluid, providing a powerful framework to study the FQH effect and superfluids. We obtain the quantum hydrodynamics of the vortex flow by quantizing the Kirchhoff equations for vortex dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauga, Eric
2016-01-01
Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells, yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micrometer scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, I review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birjukova Canelas, Olga; Lage Ferreira, Rui Miguel; Heleno Cardoso, António
2017-04-01
Under steady water and sediment feeding in laboratory conditions, sediment fluxes tend to reach a steady state and bed morphology tends to equilibrium. This laboratory study states two objectives: i) to provide a detailed three-dimensional characterization of the flow field at a movable bed confluence and ii) to contribute to the characterization of the effect of the flow discharge ratio (Qr = Qt/Qm, Qt - tributary flow discharge and Qm - main channel flow discharge) on the flow field. While the junction angle between the main channel and the tributary as well as the sediment discharge ratio were kept constant, two scenarios corresponding to two different flow discharge ratios with dominant main channel flow discharge (Qm > Qt) were analyzed. Prior to the flow velocity measurements, both channels were fed with water and sand mixtures and tests were run until the equilibrium condition was reached, i.e. until the moment where the difference between the total supplied sand discharge and the total outgoing sand discharge was smaller than ± 5%. During the experiments, bed topography was systematically recorded. Then, the flow was stopped, the water was slowly drained and the bed was carefully fixed with a cement and vernix coat and allowed to dry to guarantee that it remained stable from there on, while the clear water (free of sand) discharges were fed again to the fixed bed converging channels. A 3D side looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), installed on a remotely controlled and precisely positioned (± 0.1 mm) robotic arm, was used to measure the instantaneous velocities at a very dense mesh. Once the velocities measured and recorded, the water surface levels were surveyed. For the case with more dominant tributary flow (Qr = 0.17), as expected, the scour hole formed at the tributary mouth is much deeper and larger and extends towards the outer bank of the post-confluence channel, as well as upstream the junction corner. The avalanche slopes are, consequently
The Cash Flow Budget. Part I--Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gehm, Rudy
1978-01-01
With the cash flow budget a college store manager can prepare himself and the business office to meet current obligations during periods of cash shortfall. Its development is described and guidelines are offered. (LBH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shigorina, Elena; Kordilla, Jannes; Tartakovsky, Alexandre
2017-04-01
Flow in unsaturated fractures still remains a challenging aspect of vadose zone research. Fracture may create highly efficient preferential flow paths, which trigger the formation of highly complex and non-linear flow modes, such as droplets, rivulets and films. The understanding of these flow types requires adequate numerical techniques. Here we employ a pairwise-force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) model to simulate sessile and transient droplets as well as flow mode distributions on rough hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The wettability of solid surfaces depends on their geometrical structure, i.e., the roughness, as well as the fluid properties. Droplets on rough surfaces may exist in a Cassie, Wenzel or Cassie-Wenzel state. Cassie droplets touch the surface only at few points and stay on the top of the rough surface, Wenzel droplets "fill" the surface roughness, and Cassie-Wenzel droplets partially penetrate small surface depressions and/or partially touch only elevated points of the surface. We employ four types of rough surfaces: (1) with a shape of a sinusoidal function along one direction; (2) with a shape of a sinusoidal function in both horizontal directions; (3) with longitudinal rectangular grooves placed on top of a flat surface and (4) with rectangular bars placed on top of a flat surface. It is demonstrated that the static contact angles of Cassie and Wenzel droplets on rough surfaces is greater than the static contact angle on a smooth surface with the same chemical composition, however, Wenzel droplets exhibit a much stronger dependence on the surface geometry. Furthermore, we study the impact of the roughness orientation (i.e., an anisotropic roughness) and surface inclination on droplet flow velocities. Simulations show that the droplet flow velocities are lower if the surface roughness is oriented perpendicular to the direction of flow. If the predominant elements of surface roughness are in alignment with the flow direction, the
Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 1; Mean Flow Predictions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.
1997-01-01
Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used an instability wave noise generation model to predict radiated noise. This model requires a known mean flow that has typically been described by simple analytic functions for single jet mean flows. The mean flow of supersonic coaxial jets is not described easily in terms of analytic functions. To provide these profiles at all axial locations, a numerical scheme is developed to calculate the mean flow properties of a coaxial jet. The Reynolds-averaged, compressible, parabolic boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed to account for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number on the shear layer spreading. Both normal velocity profile and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. The mixing length model is modified in each case to obtain reasonable results when the two stream jet merges into a single fully developed jet. The mean flow calculations show both good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measurements in single and coaxial jet flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsubota, Makoto; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Takeuchi, Hiromitsu
2013-01-01
Quantum hydrodynamics in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) has been recently one of the most important topics in low temperature physics. In these systems, a macroscopic wave function (order parameter) appears because of Bose-Einstein condensation, which creates quantized vortices. Turbulence consisting of quantized vortices is called quantum turbulence (QT). The study of quantized vortices and QT has increased in intensity for two reasons. The first is that recent studies of QT are considerably advanced over older studies, which were chiefly limited to thermal counterflow in 4He, which has no analog with classical traditional turbulence, whereas new studies on QT are focused on a comparison between QT and classical turbulence. The second reason is the realization of atomic BECs in 1995, for which modern optical techniques enable the direct control and visualization of the condensate and can even change the interaction; such direct control is impossible in other quantum condensates like superfluid helium and superconductors. Our group has made many important theoretical and numerical contributions to the field of quantum hydrodynamics of both superfluid helium and atomic BECs. In this article, we review some of the important topics in detail. The topics of quantum hydrodynamics are diverse, so we have not attempted to cover all these topics in this article. We also ensure that the scope of this article does not overlap with our recent review article (arXiv:1004.5458), “Quantized vortices in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates”, and other review articles.
Hydrodynamic effects on coalescence.
Dimiduk, Thomas G.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Baer, Thomas A.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Loewenberg, Michael; Gorby, Allen D.; Brooks, Carlton, F.
2006-10-01
The goal of this project was to design, build and test novel diagnostics to probe the effect of hydrodynamic forces on coalescence dynamics. Our investigation focused on how a drop coalesces onto a flat surface which is analogous to two drops coalescing, but more amenable to precise experimental measurements. We designed and built a flow cell to create an axisymmetric compression flow which brings a drop onto a flat surface. A computer-controlled system manipulates the flow to steer the drop and maintain a symmetric flow. Particle image velocimetry was performed to confirm that the control system was delivering a well conditioned flow. To examine the dynamics of the coalescence, we implemented an interferometry capability to measure the drainage of the thin film between the drop and the surface during the coalescence process. A semi-automated analysis routine was developed which converts the dynamic interferogram series into drop shape evolution data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, Ian; Lopez, Aaron; Macias, Phil
2016-01-01
WASP-12b is a hot Jupiter orbiting dangerously close to its parent star WASP-12 at a radius 1/44th the distance between the Earth and the Sun, or roughly 16 times closer than Mercury. WASP-12's gravitational influence at this incredibly close proximity generates tidal forces on WASP-12b that distort the planet into an egg-like shape. As a result, the planet's surface overflows its Roche lobe through L1, transferring mass to the host star at a rate of 270 million metric tonnes per second. This mass transferring stream forms an accretion disk that transits the parent star, which aids sensitive instruments, such as the Kepler spacecraft, whose role is to examine the periodic dimming of main sequence stars in order to detect ones with orbiting planets. The quasi-ballistic stream trajectory is approximated by that of a massless point particle released from analogous initial conditions in 2D. The particle dynamics are shown to deviate negligibly across a broad range of initial conditions, indicating applicability of our model to "WASP-like" systems in general. We then apply a comprehensive fluid treatment by way of hydrodynamical code FLASH in order to directly model the behavior of mass transfer in a non-inertial reference frame and subsequent disk formation. We hope to employ this model to generate virtual spectroscopic signatures and compare them against collected light curve data from the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bluhm, Marcus; Hou, Jiaxun; Schäfer, Thomas
2017-08-01
We determine the shear viscosity of the ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity in the normal phase using hydrodynamic expansion data. The analysis is based on a generalized fluid dynamic framework which ensures a smooth transition between the fluid dynamic core of the cloud and the ballistic corona. We use expansion data taken by Joseph, Elliott, and Thomas [Shear Viscosity of a Universal Fermi Gas Near the Superfluid Phase Transition, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 020401 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.020401] and measurements of the equation of state by Ku et al. [Revealing the superfluid lambda transition in the universal thermodynamics of a unitary Fermi gas, Science 335, 563 (2012)., 10.1126/science.1214987]. We find that the shear viscosity to particle density ratio just above the critical temperature is η /n |Tc=0.41 ±0.11 . We also obtain evidence that the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio has a minimum slightly above Tc with η /s| min=0.50 ±0.10 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soltz, R. A.; Garishvili, I.; Cheng, M.; Abelev, B.; Glenn, A.; Newby, J.; Levy, L. A. Linden; Pratt, S.
2013-04-01
A new framework for evaluating hydrodynamic models of relativistic heavy ion collisions has been developed. This framework, a comprehensive heavy ion model evaluation and reporting algorithm (CHIMERA) has been implemented by augmenting UVH 2+1D viscous hydrodynamic model with eccentricity fluctuations, pre-equilibrium flow, and the ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamic (UrQMD) hadronic cascade. A range of initial temperatures and shear viscosity to entropy ratios were evaluated for four initial profiles, Npart and Ncoll scaling with and without pre-equilibrium flow. The model results were compared to pion spectra, elliptic flow, and femtoscopic radii from 200 GeV Au+Au collisions for the 0-20% centrality range. Two sets of initial density profiles, Npart scaling with pre-equilibrium flow and Ncoll scaling without were shown to provide a consistent description of all three measurements.
Turbulent water flow over rough bed - part I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Książek, Leszek; Bartnik, Wojciech; Rumian, Jacek; Zagórowski, Paweł
2011-12-01
Restitution of diadromic fish requires restoration of ecological continuity of watercourses, e.g. by building fish ladders. Directions for fish ladders require that ichthyofauna is granted accurate conditions of water flow. To describe them, average values are used, that do not convey e.g. turbulence intensity or its spatial differentiation. The paper presents results of research on the turbulent water flow over the rough bed. The measurements were carried out with high sampling frequency probe for three velocity components. Bed configuration, distribution of average velocities and turbulence intensity were defined. The range of bed influence for the discussed water flow conditions was ascertained to reach the maximum of about 0.25 of height and decline at 0.35. The lowest turbulence and relatively lowest velocities near the bed may promote successive stages of ichthyofauna development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Xilin; Liang, Qiuhua; Ming, Xiaodong; Hou, Jingming
2017-05-01
Numerical models solving the full 2-D shallow water equations (SWEs) have been increasingly used to simulate overland flows and better understand the transient flow dynamics of flash floods in a catchment. However, there still exist key challenges that have not yet been resolved for the development of fully dynamic overland flow models, related to (1) the difficulty of maintaining numerical stability and accuracy in the limit of disappearing water depth and (2) inaccurate estimation of velocities and discharges on slopes as a result of strong nonlinearity of friction terms. This paper aims to tackle these key research challenges and present a new numerical scheme for accurately and efficiently modeling large-scale transient overland flows over complex terrains. The proposed scheme features a novel surface reconstruction method (SRM) to correctly compute slope source terms and maintain numerical stability at small water depth, and a new implicit discretization method to handle the highly nonlinear friction terms. The resulting shallow water overland flow model is first validated against analytical and experimental test cases and then applied to simulate a hypothetic rainfall event in the 42 km2 Haltwhistle Burn, UK.
10 CFR Appendix B to Part 603 - Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods and Services
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods and Services... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 603, App. B Appendix B to Part 603—Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods... requirements that flow down to their purchases of goods or services (e.g., supplies or equipment) under...
10 CFR Appendix B to Part 603 - Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods and Services
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods and Services... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 603, App. B Appendix B to Part 603—Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods... requirements that flow down to their purchases of goods or services (e.g., supplies or equipment) under...
Numerical modeling of hydrodynamic in southwestern Johor, Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jusoh, Wan Hasliza Wan; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Hamid, Mohd. Radzi Abdul
2014-09-01
Tanjung Piai located at the southwest of Johor, Malaysia faces severe erosion since a few decades ago. Considering the condition in this particular area, understanding of its hydrodynamic behaviour should be clearly explained. Thus, a numerical modelling has been applied in this study in order to investigate the hydrodynamic of current flow along the study area. Hydrodynamic study was carried out by applying a numerical modelling of MIKE 21 software based on flexible mesh grids. The model generally described the current flow pattern in the study area corresponding to the several flows from surrounding water regime which are Malacca Strait, Singapore Strait and Java Sea. The interaction of various water flows in the area of Tanjung Piai which is located in the middle part of the meeting of the currents to have a very complicated hydrodynamic conditions. The study area generally experienced two tidal phase in a day as the water flows is greatly influenced by the adjacent water flow from Malacca and Singapore Straits. During first tidal cycle, the most dominant flow is influenced by a single water flow which is Malacca Strait for both ebbing and flooding event. The current velocity was generally higher during this first tidal phase particularly at the tips of Tanjung Piai where severe erosion is spotted. However, the second tidal phase gives different stress to the study area as the flow is relatively dominated by both Malacca and Singapore Straits. During this phase, the meeting of current from both straits can be discovered near to the Tanjung Piai as this occurrence makes relatively slower current velocity around the study area. Basically, the numerical modelling result in this study can be considered as basic information in describing the condition of study area as it would be very useful for extensive study especially the study of sediment transport and morphological processes in the coastal area.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gestrin, S. G.; Gorbatenko, B. B.; Mezhonnova, A. S.
2017-07-01
A system of equations describing resonant interaction of bending waves of a thin plate with a liquid or gas flow around it leading to the evolution of wind instability is derived in a quasilinear approximation. It is demonstrated that as a result of the reverse effect of waves on the flow, a quasilinear relaxation of liquid particle distribution function occurs to the state with a plateau that leads to a slow smoothing of the velocity profile in the liquid in the resonant region and thereby to elimination of the reason causing the growth of waves in the linear stage of instability evolution. The resultant energy transferred from the flow to the waves in the course of quasilinear relaxation is calculated. The wavelength of the instability that most quickly grows due to evolution of the wind instability is obtained.
Holtschlag, David J.; Hoard, C.J.
2009-01-01
St. Clair River is a connecting channel that transports water from Lake Huron to the St. Clair River Delta and Lake St. Clair. A negative trend has been detected in differences between water levels on Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair. This trend may indicate a combination of flow and conveyance changes within St. Clair River. To identify where conveyance change may be taking place, eight water-level gaging stations along St. Clair River were selected to delimit seven reaches. Positive trends in water-level fall were detected in two reaches, and negative trends were detected in two other reaches. The presence of both positive and negative trends in water-level fall indicates that changes in conveyance are likely occurring among some reaches because all reaches transmit essentially the same flow. Annual water-level fall in reaches and reach lengths was used to compute conveyance ratios for all pairs of reaches by use of water-level data from 1962 to 2007. Positive and negative trends in conveyance ratios indicate that relative conveyance is changing among some reaches. Inverse one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamic modeling was used to estimate a partial annual series of effective channel-roughness parameters in reaches forming the St. Clair River for 21 years when flow measurements were sufficient to support parameter estimation. Monotonic, persistent but non-monotonic, and irregular changes in estimated effective channel roughness with time were interpreted as systematic changes in conveyances in five reaches. Time-varying parameter estimates were used to simulate flow throughout the St. Clair River and compute changes in conveyance with time. Based on the partial annual series of parameters, conveyance in the St. Clair River increased about 10 percent from 1962 to 2002. Conveyance decreased, however, about 4.1 percent from 2003 to 2007, so that conveyance was about 5.9 percent higher in 2007 than in 1962.
The Cash Flow Budget. Part II--Implementation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gehm, Rudy
1978-01-01
An "aged accounts payable" (A/P) summary and a cash disbursements journal are advocated as management measures useful in monitoring the cash flow in a college store. Methods for maintaining the A/P summary and for updating the journal are illustrated. (LBH)
The Cash Flow Budget. Part II--Implementation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gehm, Rudy
1978-01-01
An "aged accounts payable" (A/P) summary and a cash disbursements journal are advocated as management measures useful in monitoring the cash flow in a college store. Methods for maintaining the A/P summary and for updating the journal are illustrated. (LBH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghbelagh, Yousef Beiraghdar; Yang, Jianwen
2017-03-01
The role of hydrodynamic factors in controlling the formation and location of unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits in sedimentary basins during tectonically quiet periods is investigated. A number of reactive-flow modeling experiments at the deposit scale were carried out by assigning different dip angles and directions to a fault and various permeabilities to hydrostratigraphic units). The results show that the fault dip angle and direction, and permeability of the hydrostratigraphic units govern the convection pattern, temperature distribution, and uranium mineralization. A vertical fault results in uranium mineralization at the bottom of the fault within the basement, while a dipping fault leads to precipitation of uraninite below the unconformity either away from or along the plane of the fault, depending on the fault permeability. A more permeable fault causes uraninite precipitates along the fault plane, whereas a less permeable one gives rise to the precipitation of uraninite away from it. No economic ore mineralization can form when either very low or very high permeabilities are assigned to the sandstone or basement suggesting that these units seem to have an optimal window of permeability for the formation of uranium deposits. Physicochemical parameters also exert an additional control in both the location and grade of URU deposits. These results indicate that the difference in size and grade of different URU deposits may result from variation in fluid flow pattern and physicochemical conditions, caused by the change in structural features and hydraulic properties of the stratigraphic units involved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aghbelagh, Yousef Beiraghdar; Yang, Jianwen
2016-11-01
The role of hydrodynamic factors in controlling the formation and location of unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits in sedimentary basins during tectonically quiet periods is investigated. A number of reactive-flow modeling experiments at the deposit scale were carried out by assigning different dip angles and directions to a fault and various permeabilities to hydrostratigraphic units). The results show that the fault dip angle and direction, and permeability of the hydrostratigraphic units govern the convection pattern, temperature distribution, and uranium mineralization. A vertical fault results in uranium mineralization at the bottom of the fault within the basement, while a dipping fault leads to precipitation of uraninite below the unconformity either away from or along the plane of the fault, depending on the fault permeability. A more permeable fault causes uraninite precipitates along the fault plane, whereas a less permeable one gives rise to the precipitation of uraninite away from it. No economic ore mineralization can form when either very low or very high permeabilities are assigned to the sandstone or basement suggesting that these units seem to have an optimal window of permeability for the formation of uranium deposits. Physicochemical parameters also exert an additional control in both the location and grade of URU deposits. These results indicate that the difference in size and grade of different URU deposits may result from variation in fluid flow pattern and physicochemical conditions, caused by the change in structural features and hydraulic properties of the stratigraphic units involved.
Deshpande, S.D.
1985-01-01
Non-Newtonian liquid-gas stratified flow data in 0.026- and 0.052-m-diameter pipes were obtained. Interfacial level gradients between the two phases were observed. The Heywood-Charles model is found to be valid for pseudoplastic liquid-gas uniform stratified flow. Two-phase drag reduction in non-Newtonian systems was not achieved as the transition to semi-slug flow occurred before the model criteria were reached. Interfacial liquid and gas shear stresses were compared. A new parameter ..sigma../sup 2/ is introduced which is a numerical indication of the interfacial level gradient. Two-phase drag reduction was experimentally observed in polymer solution-air plug-slug flow in 0.026- and 0.052-m-diameter pipes. The Hubbard-Dukler pressure drop model was extended to non-Newtonian systems. Reasonable agreement between the experiment and the model predictions is obtained. However, more work needs to be done in order to better understand the two-phase drag reduction phenomena. Liquid holdup correlations were developed for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian systems which successfully correlate the holdup over a wide range of parameters. The Petukhov correlation is found to be better than the Dittus-Boelter correlation in predicting the single-phase water heat-transfer coefficients.
Mattea, Carlos; Tiraboschi, Hernan; Kimmich, Rainer
2005-08-01
It is shown that slow hydrodynamic flow with velocities of a few millimeters per second reduces the spin-lattice relaxation rate of fluids confined to pores of a diamagnetic, polar, solid material. The effect is predicted by an analytical theory and Monte Carlo simulations of model pore spaces. Adsorbate molecules diffusing in the vicinity of pore surfaces can perform adsorption, desorption, and readsorption cycles, effectively leading to displacements along the surface (also termed "bulk mediated surface diffusion" or BMSD). Since the surface determines the orientation of the adsorbed molecule relative to the external magnetic field, desorption at one site and readsorption at another site of a nonplanar surface will cause molecular reorientation. This is the basis of the "reorientation mediated by translational displacements" (RMTD) relaxation mechanism. If hydrodynamic flow is superimposed on diffusion, the RMTD process will be accelerated in a sort of rotational analog to translational hydrodynamic (or Taylor-Aris) dispersion. This reveals itself by a prolongation of spin-lattice relaxation times at low frequencies. The flow-relaxation effect takes place in the vicinity of the pore surfaces on the order of nanometers. The conclusions are (i) the BMSD and RMTD relaxation mechanism of fluids in porous materials is corroborated, (ii) hydrodynamic dispersion affects molecular displacements at surfaces, and (iii) interfacial slip in the sense of a molecular hopping, i.e., a desorption-readsorption process takes place.
Nonlinear hydrodynamics. Lecture 9
Cox, A.N.
1983-03-14
A very sophisticated method for calculating the stability and pulsations of stars which make contact with actual observations of the stellar behavior, hydrodynamic calculations are very simple in principle. Conservation of mass can be accounted for by having mass shells that are fixed with their mass for all time. Motions of these shells can be calculated by taking the difference between the external force of gravity and that from the local pressure gradient. The conservation of energy can be coupled to this momentum conservation equation to give the current temperatures, densities, pressures, and opacities at the shell centers, as well as the positions, velocities, and accelerations of the mass shell interfaces. Energy flow across these interfaces can be calculated from the current conditions, and this energy is partitioned between internal energy and the work done on or by the mass shell. We discuss here only the purely radial case for hydrodynamics because it is very useful for stellar pulsation studies.
Droplet breakup in accelerating gas flows. Part 1: Primary atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zajac, L. J.
1973-01-01
An experimental study of the effects of an accelerating gas flow on the atomization characteristics of liquid sprays was conducted. The sprays were produced by impinging two liquid jets. The liquid was molten wax, while the gas was nitrogen. The use of molten wax allowed for a quantitative measure of the resulting dropsize distribution. The effects of the accelerating gas flow on the formation of the spray were examined. The results of this study indicate that the parameters that most affect the resulting dropsize are the injector parameters of orifice diameter and injection velocity, the maximum gas velocity, and the distance from the injector face at which the maximum gas velocity is attained. Empirical correlations for both the mass median dropsize and the dropsize distribution are presented. These correlations can be readily incorporated into existing computer codes for the purpose of calculating rocket engine combustion performance.
Part-load flow and hydraulic stability of centrifugal pumps
Guelich, J.F.; Egger, R. )
1992-03-01
Unscheduled outages and deratings caused by problems with feed pumps cost utilities an estimated $460 million in replacement power costs 1985. Vibrations and pressure pulsations caused by the flow separation at partload operation are among the leading causes of feed pump failures. To reduce or avoid such failures, the flow mechanisms responsible for hydraulic instabilities must be understood. To increase this understanding was one of the main objectives of the hydraulic investigations carried out under the present research project and described in this report. A large number of parameters influencing the hydraulic performance and the stability of the head capacity characteristics have been investigated and guidelines have been derived for the selection of design parameters for impellers, diffusers, and volutes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, William Evan
2015-06-01
The centre of the Milky Way, commonly referred to as the Galactic Centre, is roughly that region within 500 pc of the central black hole, Sagittarius A*. Within the innermost parsec around the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* are more than a hundred massive young stars whose orbits align to form one or possibly two discs. At about 100 pc is a ring containing more than ten million solar masses of molecular gas which could be the origin of some of the most massive star clusters in the Galaxy. I have performed a number of numerical simulations to help us understand how it is that these structures may have been formed. I firstly describe and test an improvement to the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code I used. This improves conservation of energy and momentum in certain situations such as in strong shocks from supernovae, which were to be included in a later chapter. The discs of massive stars around Sagittarius A* are believed to have been born there within fragmenting gaseous discs. This is problematic, as the formation of two stellar discs would require two gaseous counterparts. A method is described of forming multiple discs around a black hole from a single cloud's infall and subsequent tidal destruction. This is due to its prolate shape providing a naturally large distribution in the direction of the angular momentum vectors within the cloud. The resulting discs may then go on to form stars. Energetically, it would appear that a sequence of supernovae could potentially cause a giant molecular cloud to fall inwards towards the central black hole from an originally large orbit around the Galactic Centre. I simulate the impact on a giant molecular cloud of supernovae originating from a massive stellar cluster located a parsec away. Ultimately, the supernovae are found to have little effect. Finally, I simulate the formation of the dense ring of clouds observed in the Central Molecular Zone at a distance of about 100 pc from Sgr A*. Infalling gas is shown to
Hydrodynamic interaction between rigid surfaces planing on water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bari, Ghazi; Matveev, Konstantin
2016-11-01
This study addresses hydrodynamic interaction of multi-surface planing hulls in the linearized, inviscid, steady flow approximation. A potential-flow-based hydrodynamic sources are distributed on the water surface to model water flow around three-dimensional hulls at finite Froude numbers. The pressure distribution on the hull surfaces are calculated as a part of the solution, and then the lift force and center of pressure are determined. For validation, numerical results are compared with an available analytical solution, experimental results, and empirical correlation equations. Parametric calculations are carried out for different hull designs in variable speed regimes, hull aspect ratios, deadrise angles and hull spacings. Results are presented for the lift coefficient, drag components, lift-drag ratio, center of pressure, and some illustrations are given for the water surface elevations. Obtained results can assist naval architects in improving design of high speed marine vehicles.
Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.
2004-01-01
Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly
Chabchoub, A; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Genty, G; Dudley, J M; Akhmediev, N
2013-08-02
We report the experimental observation of multi-bound-soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) in the context of hydrodynamic surface gravity waves. Higher-order N-soliton solutions with N=2, 3 are studied in detail and shown to be associated with self-focusing in the wave group dynamics and the generation of a steep localized carrier wave underneath the group envelope. We also show that for larger input soliton numbers, the wave group experiences irreversible spectral broadening, which we refer to as a hydrodynamic supercontinuum by analogy with optics. This process is shown to be associated with the fission of the initial multisoliton into individual fundamental solitons due to higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS. Numerical simulations using an extended NLS model described by the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation, show excellent agreement with experiment and highlight the universal role that higher-order nonlinear perturbations to the NLS play in supercontinuum generation.
Koebernick, Nicolai; Huber, Katrin; Kerkhofs, Elien; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu; Vereecken, Harry; Vetterlein, Doris
2015-01-01
Split root experiments have the potential to disentangle water transport in roots and soil, enabling the investigation of the water uptake pattern of a root system. Interpretation of the experimental data assumes that water flow between the split soil compartments does not occur. Another approach to investigate root water uptake is by numerical simulations combining soil and root water flow depending on the parameterization and description of the root system. Our aim is to demonstrate the synergisms that emerge from combining split root experiments with simulations. We show how growing root architectures derived from temporally repeated X-ray CT scanning can be implemented in numerical soil-plant models. Faba beans were grown with and without split layers and exposed to a single drought period during which plant and soil water status were measured. Root architectures were reconstructed from CT scans and used in the model R-SWMS (root-soil water movement and solute transport) to simulate water potentials in soil and roots in 3D as well as water uptake by growing roots in different depths. CT scans revealed that root development was considerably lower with split layers compared to without. This coincided with a reduction of transpiration, stomatal conductance and shoot growth. Simulated predawn water potentials were lower in the presence of split layers. Simulations showed that this was related to an increased resistance to vertical water flow in the soil by the split layers. Comparison between measured and simulated soil water potentials proved that the split layers were not perfectly isolating and that redistribution of water from the lower, wetter compartments to the drier upper compartments took place, thus water losses were not equal to the root water uptake from those compartments. Still, the layers increased the resistance to vertical flow which resulted in lower simulated collar water potentials that led to reduced stomatal conductance and growth. PMID
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lappa, Marcello; Ferialdi, Hermes
2017-06-01
Natural convective flows of liquid metals in open or closed ducts and containers play a relevant role in a variety of applications in mechanical, materials, and nuclear engineering. This analysis follows and integrates the line of inquiry started in past authors' work about the typical properties of these flows and associated hierarchy of bifurcations in rectangular geometries. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved in their time-dependent and non-linear formulation to investigate the onset and evolution of oscillatory disturbances and other effects breaking the initially unicellular structure of the flow. It is shown that a kaleidoscope of oscillatory patterns is made possible by the new degree of freedom represented by the opposite inclination of the walls with respect to the horizontal direction. Even minute variations in the geometry and/or initial conditions can cause significant changes. Multiple states exist which can replace each other in given sub-regions of the space of parameters. Observed regimes include stationary convection, weakly oscillating rolls, coalescing rolls, traveling waves, and modulated (pulso-traveling) disturbances. Most interestingly, traveling waves can propagate either in the downstream or in the upstream direction according to whether the walls are converging or diverging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Alicia; Aliseda, Alberto
2016-11-01
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are micron-sized bubbles that are used in conjunction with ultrasound (US) in medical applications such as thrombolysis and targeted intravenous drug delivery. Previous work has shown that the Bjerknes force, due to the phase difference between the incoming US pressure wave and the bubble volume oscillations, can be used to manipulate the trajectories of microbubbles. Our work explores the behavior of microbubbles in medium sized blood vessels under both uniform and pulsatile flows at a range of physiologically relevant Reynolds and Womersley numbers. High speed images were taken of the microbubbles in an in-vitro flow loop that replicates physiological flow conditions. During the imaging, the microbubbles were insonified at different diagnostic ultrasound settings (varying center frequency, PRF, etc.). An in-house Lagrangian particle tracking code was then used to determine the trajectories of the microbubbles and, thus, a dynamic model for the microbubbles including the Bjerknes forces acting on them, as well as drag, lift, and added mass. Preliminary work has also explored the behavior of the microbubbles in a patient-specific model of a carotid artery bifurcation to demonstrate the feasibility of preferential steering of microbubbles towards the intracranial circulation with US.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi; Doi, Masao
2008-09-01
The origin of three-dimensional shapes of chondrules is an important information to identify their formation mechanism in the early solar nebula. The measurement of their shapes by using X-ray computed topography suggested that they are usually close to perfect spheres, however, some of them have rugby-ball-like (prolate) shapes [Tsuchiyama, A., Shigeyoshi, R., Kawabata, T., Nakano, T., Uesugi, K., Shirono, S., 2003. Lunar Planet. Sci. 34, 1271-1272]. We considered that the prolate shapes reflect the deformations of chondrule precursor dust particles when they are heated and melted in the high velocity gas flow. In order to reveal the origin of chondrule shapes, we carried out the three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of a rotating molten chondrule exposed to the gas flow in the framework of the shock-wave heating model for chondrule formation. We adopted the gas ram pressure acting on the chondrule surface of p=10 dyncm in a typical shock wave. Considering that the chondrule precursor dust particle has an irregular shape before melting, the ram pressure causes a net torque to rotate the particle. The estimated angular velocity is ω=140 rads for the precursor radius of r=1 mm, though it has a different value depending on the irregularity of the shape. In addition, the rotation axis is likely to be perpendicular to the direction of the gas flow. Our calculations showed that the rotating molten chondrule elongates along the rotation axis, in contrast, shrinks perpendicularly to it. It is a prolate shape. The reason why the molten chondrule is deformed to a prolate shape was clearly discussed. Our study gives a complementary constraint for chondrule formation mechanisms, comparing with conventional chemical analyses and dynamic crystallization experiments that have mainly constrained the thermal evolutions of chondrules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Quan; Kou, Yu-feng; Zhu, Ren-qing; Chen, Hong
2017-08-01
Vortex-shedding flow induced by the vertical oscillation of a cylinder with bottom-attached disks of different diameter ratio D d/ D c and thickness ratio t d/ D c is studied by a 3D (three-dimensional) numerical model developed in this paper, and compared with the results obtained through 2D (two-dimensional) numerical model. The high-order upwind scheme is applied to stabilize the computation, and convergence is accelerated by the multi-grid method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the differences between the 2D and 3D simulation results reveal the 3D effect on the flow field characteristics and hydrodynamic coefficients of the vertically oscillating cylinder with a bottom-attached disk. The 3D effect on the fluid field is mainly reflected in the significance of three vortex-shedding patterns: ω x has a greater effect on the flow fields around the sharp edges relative to the vortices generated in the 2D simulation. In the slice along the axial orientation, the vortex effect of ω y along the radial axis is smaller than that of ω x along the circumferential direction, indicating the radial effect on the velocity more pronounced than the circumferential effect around the sharp edges of the disk. The rotational interaction ω z of the fluid in the horizontal plane during the heave motion is insignificant. Based on the 2D and 3D simulation results, the turning points that separate the increasing regimes of the added mass coefficient and damping ratio are identified. The dependence of the turning point on the diameter ratio D d/ D c and thickness ratio t d/ D c are discussed in detail.
Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena
Neuzil, C.E.
1995-01-01
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Nickel and chromium cycles: Stocks and flows project part IV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reck, Barbara K.; Gordon, Robert B.
2008-07-01
Nickel and chromium are essential ingredients in alloys increasingly important for energy-efficient, environmentally friendly modern technology. Quantitative assessment of the flows of these metals through the world economy from resource extraction to final disposal informs resource policy, energy planning, environmental science, and waste management. This article summarizes the worldwide technological cycles of nickel and chromium in 2000. Stainless steel is the major use of these metals, but they serve numerous other special needs, as in superalloys for high-temperature service, as plating materials, and in coinage. Because they are used primarily in alloys, novel recycling issues arise as their use becomes more widespread.
Silver cycles: The stocks and flows project, part 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Jeremiah; Gordon, Robert; Graedel, Thomas
2006-02-01
The quantitative assessment of the flows of materials from resource extraction to final disposal informs resource policy, energy planning, environmental science, and waste management. This article reports the technological cycles of silver worldwide and in representative countries for 1997. Most silver is produced in conjunction with other metals; only a quarter of world production is from silver ore. Industrial applications account for 40% of silver use. While about a third of world use goes into jewelry, tableware, and the arts, silver cycles through the world economy to recycling faster than metals such as copper and zinc. Despite decreasing use in photography, demand for silver continues to increase.
Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirano, Tetsufumi
2014-09-01
In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions
10 CFR Appendix B to Part 603 - Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods and Services
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... B Appendix B to Part 603 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 603, App. B Appendix B to Part 603—Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods... program performance. B. Appendix A to 10 CFR part 600, subpart D lists eight requirements that...
10 CFR Appendix B to Part 603 - Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods and Services
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... B Appendix B to Part 603 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Pt. 603, App. B Appendix B to Part 603—Flow Down Requirements for Purchases of Goods... program performance. B. Appendix A to 10 CFR part 600, subpart D lists eight requirements that commonly...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reshadi, Milad; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan; Ebrahimi, Abbas
2017-04-01
This paper presents an analysis of the combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven axial flows of viscoelastic fluids in a rectangular microchannel with arbitrary aspect ratios. The rheological behavior of the fluid is described by the complete form of Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) model with the Gordon-Schowalter convected derivative which covers the upper convected Maxwell, Johnson-Segalman and FENE-P models. Our numerical simulation is based on the computation of 2D Poisson-Boltzmann, Cauchy momentum and PTT constitutive equations. The solution of these governing nonlinear coupled set of equations is obtained by using the second-order central finite difference method in a non-uniform grid system and is verified against 1D analytical solution of the velocity profile with less than 0.06% relative error. Also, a parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of channel aspect ratio (width to height), wall zeta potential and the Debye-Hückel parameter on 2D velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and the Poiseuille number in the mixed EO/PD flows of viscoelastic fluids with different Weissenberg numbers. Our results show that, for low channel aspect ratios, the previous 1D analytical models underestimate the velocity profile at the channel half-width centerline in the case of favorable pressure gradients and overestimate it in the case of adverse pressure gradients. The results reveal that the inapplicability of the Debye-Hückel approximation at high zeta potentials is more significant for higher Weissenberg number fluids. Also, it is found that, under the specified values of electrokinetic parameters, there is a threshold for velocity scale ratio in which the Poiseuille number is approximately independent of channel aspect ratio.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groth, Clinton P. T.; Roe, Philip L.
1998-01-01
Six months of funding was received for the proposed three year research program (funding for the period from March 1, 1997 to August 31, 1997). Although the official starting date for the project was March 1, 1997, no funding for the project was received until July 1997. In the funded research period, considerable progress was made on Phase I of the proposed research program. The initial research efforts concentrated on applying the 10-, 20-, and 35-moment Gaussian-based closures to a series of standard two-dimensional non-reacting single species test flow problems, such as the flat plate, couette, channel, and rearward facing step flows, and to some other two-dimensional flows having geometries similar to those encountered in chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. Eigensystem analyses for these systems for the case of two spatial dimensions was carried out and efficient formulations of approximate Riemann solvers have been formulated using these eigenstructures. Formulations to include rotational non-equilibrium effects into the moment closure models for the treatment of polyatomic gases were explored, as the original formulations of the closure models were developed strictly for gases composed of monatomic molecules. The development of a software library and computer code for solving relaxing hyperbolic systems in two spatial dimensions of the type arising from the closure models was also initiated. The software makes use of high-resolution upwind finite-volumes schemes, multi-stage point implicit time stepping, and automatic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to solve the governing conservation equations for the moment closures. The initial phase of the code development was completed and a numerical investigation of the solutions of the 10-moment closure model for the simple two-dimensional test cases mentioned above was initiated. Predictions of the 10-moment model were compared to available theoretical solutions and the results of direct-simulation Monte Carlo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groth, Clinton P. T.; Roe, Philip L.
1998-01-01
Six months of funding was received for the proposed three year research program (funding for the period from March 1, 1997 to August 31, 1997). Although the official starting date for the project was March 1, 1997, no funding for the project was received until July 1997. In the funded research period, considerable progress was made on Phase I of the proposed research program. The initial research efforts concentrated on applying the 10-, 20-, and 35-moment Gaussian-based closures to a series of standard two-dimensional non-reacting single species test flow problems, such as the flat plate, couette, channel, and rearward facing step flows, and to some other two-dimensional flows having geometries similar to those encountered in chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. Eigensystem analyses for these systems for the case of two spatial dimensions was carried out and efficient formulations of approximate Riemann solvers have been formulated using these eigenstructures. Formulations to include rotational non-equilibrium effects into the moment closure models for the treatment of polyatomic gases were explored, as the original formulations of the closure models were developed strictly for gases composed of monatomic molecules. The development of a software library and computer code for solving relaxing hyperbolic systems in two spatial dimensions of the type arising from the closure models was also initiated. The software makes use of high-resolution upwind finite-volumes schemes, multi-stage point implicit time stepping, and automatic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to solve the governing conservation equations for the moment closures. The initial phase of the code development was completed and a numerical investigation of the solutions of the 10-moment closure model for the simple two-dimensional test cases mentioned above was initiated. Predictions of the 10-moment model were compared to available theoretical solutions and the results of direct-simulation Monte Carlo
Feedback Flow Control for a Pitching Turret (Part I) (POSTPRINT)
2010-01-01
PITCHING TURRET (PART I) (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-C-3827 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0605502 6. AUTHOR( S ...5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 0C 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Clear Science Corp...REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING
Ounnar, Amel; Bouzaza, Abdelkrim; Favier, Lidia; Bentahar, Fatiha
2016-01-01
The present work investigates the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of biorecalcitrant macrolide antibiotics in a circulating tubular photoreactor. As target pollutants, spiramycin (SPM) and tylosin (TYL) were considered in this study. The photoreactor leads to the use of an immobilized titanium dioxide on non-woven paper under artificial UV-lamp irradiation. Maximum removal efficiency was achieved at the optimum conditions of natural pH, low pollutant concentration and a 0.35 L min(-1) flow rate. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was used to fit experimental results and the model constants were determined. Moreover, the total organic carbon analysis reveals that SPM and TYL mineralization is not complete. In addition, the study of the residence time distribution allowed us to investigate the flow regime of the reactor. Electrical energy consumption for photocatalytic degradation of macrolides using circulating TiO2-coated paper photoreactor was lower compared with some reported photoreactors used for the elimination of pharmaceutic compounds. A repetitive reuse of the immobilized catalyst was also studied in order to check its photoactivity performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mittal, Nitesh; Lundell, Fredrik; Soderberg, Daniel
2015-11-01
There are several fiber production technologies that are based on wet-spinning processes. Many such processes rely on the transformation of a liquid solution into a solid filament. The kinetics of solidification depends largely on the diffusion of the solvents, additives and polymer molecules, which make such systems quite complex and differ from a system to another as a function of the specific chemical, physical and structural features of the used material components. Moreover, tuning the orientation of the polymers in the liquid suspensions makes it further possible to control their structure, which in turn can lead to materials having improved properties. By keeping in mind the facts mentioned above, the aim of the current study is to utilize benefits of a flow focusing approach to align carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), as a colloidal dispersion, with the help of a laminar elongational flow-field followed by the solidification using different solidifying agents or molecules (with dissimilar diffusion behavior based on their size and charges) to synthesize fibers with enhanced mechanical properties. CNF are charged elongated particles obtained from woods with diameter of 4-10 nm and length of 1-1.5 μm, and they are completely biodegradable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Fautrelle, Yves; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Baltaretu, Florin
2016-12-01
The present study considers the transient and modulated flow behaviors of liquid metal driven by a helical permanent magnetic field. The transient process, in which the fluid at rest experiences an increase in the angular velocity, is observed both in secondary and global axial flow with duration time less than 1 second. The flow fields are measured quantitatively to reveal the evolution of the transient flow, and the transient process is due to the variation of the electromagnetic force. Besides, the modulated flow behaviors of global axial flow, which is significantly different from that of secondary flow, is expected to avoid flow-induced macrosegregation in solidification process if the modulated time is suitable because its direction reversed periodically with the modulated helical stirrer. In addition, an optimal modulation frequency, under which the magnetic field could efficiently stir the solute at the solidification front, exists both in secondary and global axial flow (0.1 Hz and 0.625 Hz, respectively). Future investigations will focus on additional metallic alloy solidification experiments.
Droplet breakup in accelerating gas flows. Part 2: Secondary atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zajac, L. J.
1973-01-01
An experimental investigation to determine the effects of an accelerating gas flow on the atomization characteristics of liquid sprays was conducted. The sprays were produced by impinging two liquid jets. The liquid was molten wax and the gas was nitrogen. The use of molten wax allowed for a quantitative measure of the resulting dropsize distribution. The results of this study, indicate that a significant amount of droplet breakup will occur as a result of the action of the gas on the liquid droplets. Empirical correlations are presented in terms of parameters that were found to affect the mass median dropsize most significantly, the orifice diameter, the liquid injection velocity, and the maximum gas velocity. An empirical correlation for the normalized dropsize distribution is also presented. These correlations are in a form that may be incorporated readily into existing combustion model computer codes for the purpose of calculating rocket engine combustion performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grišins, Pjotrs; Nguyen, Hai Son; Bloch, Jacqueline; Amo, Alberto; Carusotto, Iacopo
2016-10-01
We propose an experiment to detect and characterize the analog Hawking radiation in an analog model of gravity consisting of a flowing exciton-polariton condensate. Under a suitably designed coherent pump configuration, the condensate features an acoustic event horizon for sound waves that at the semiclassical level is equivalent to an astrophysical black-hole horizon. We show that a continuous-wave pump-and-probe spectroscopy experiment allows to measure the analog Hawking temperature from the dependence of the stimulated Hawking effect on the pump-probe detuning. We anticipate the appearance of an emergent resonant cavity for sound waves between the pump beam and the horizon, which results in marked oscillations on top of an overall exponential frequency dependence. We finally analyze the spatial correlation function of density fluctuations and identify the hallmark features of the correlated pairs of Bogoliubov excitations created by the spontaneous Hawking process, as well as novel signatures characterizing the emergent cavity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yapici, Kerim; Uludag, Yusuf
2013-11-01
Computational results for steady laminar flow of three different shear thinning fluids lid-driven square cavity are presented. The viscoelastic nature of the fluids is represented by linear and exponential Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) and Giesekus constitutive models. Computations are based on finite volume technique incorporating non-uniform collocated grids. The stress terms in the constitutive equations are approximated by higher-order and bounded scheme of Convergent and Universally Bounded Interpolation Scheme for the Treatment of Advection (CUBISTA). Effects of the elasticity, inertia as well as constitutive model parameters on the stress and velocity fields, size and intensity of the primary and secondary vortexes are investigated and discussed in detail. Moreover highly accurate benchmark numerical solutions are provided for each considered constitutive model.
Ren, Ziyu; Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Wen, Li
2016-02-08
Recent advances in understanding fish locomotion with robotic devices have included the use of biomimetic flapping based and fin undulatory locomotion based robots, treating two locomotions separately from each other. However, in most fish species, patterns of active movements of fins occur in concert with the body undulatory deformation during swimming. In this paper, we describe a biomimetic robotic caudal fin programmed with individually actuated fin rays to mimic the fin motion of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) and coupled with heave and pitch oscillatory motions adding to the robot to mimic the peduncle motion which is derived from the undulatory fish body. Multiple-axis force and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experiments from both the vertical and horizontal planes behind the robotic model were conducted under different motion programs and flow speeds. We found that both mean thrust and lift could be altered by changing the phase difference (φ) from 0° to 360° between the robotic caudal peduncle and the fin ray motion (spanning from 3 mN to 124 mN). Notably, DPIV results demonstrated that the caudal fin generated multiple wake flow patterns in both the vertical and horizontal planes by varying φ. Vortex jet angle and thrust impulse also varied significantly both in these two planes. In addition, the vortex shedding position along the spanwise tail direction could be shifted around the mid-sagittal position between the upper and lower lobes by changing the phase difference. We hypothesize that the fish caudal fin may serve as a flexible vectoring propeller during swimming and may be critical for the high maneuverability of fish.
Hydrodynamics from Landau initial conditions
Sen, Abhisek; Gerhard, Jochen; Torrieri, Giorgio; Read jr, Kenneth F.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2015-01-01
We investigate ideal hydrodynamic evolution, with Landau initial conditions, both in a semi-analytical 1+1D approach and in a numerical code incorporating event-by-event variation with many events and transverse density inhomogeneities. The object of the calculation is to test how fast would a Landau initial condition transition to a commonly used boost-invariant expansion. We show that the transition to boost-invariant flow occurs too late for realistic setups, with corrections of O (20 - 30%) expected at freezeout for most scenarios. Moreover, the deviation from boost-invariance is correlated with both transverse flow and elliptic flow, with the more highly transversely flowing regions also showing the most violation of boost invariance. Therefore, if longitudinal flow is not fully developed at the early stages of heavy ion collisions, 2+1 dimensional hydrodynamics is inadequate to extract transport coefficients of the quark-gluon plasma. Based on [1, 2
Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 1: Flow separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmucker, R. H.
1973-01-01
An investigation was made of published nozzle flow separation data in order to determine the parameters which affect the separation condition. A comparison of experimental data with empirical and theoretical separation prediction methods leads to the selection of suitable equations for the separation criterion. The results were used to predict flow separation of the main space shuttle engine.
Observations of pockmark flow structure in Belfast Bay, Maine, Part 2: evidence for cavity flow
Fandel, Christina L.; Lippmann, Thomas C.; Foster, Diane L.; Brothers, Laura L.
2017-01-01
Pockmark flow circulation patterns were investigated through current measurements along the rim and center of two pockmarks in Belfast Bay, Maine. Observed time-varying current profiles have a complex vertical and directional structure that rotates significantly with depth and is strongly dependent on the phase of the tide. Observations of the vertical profiles of horizontal velocities in relation to relative geometric parameters of the pockmark are consistent with circulation patterns described qualitatively by cavity flow models (Ashcroft and Zhang 2005). The time-mean behavior of the shear layer is typically used to characterize cavity flow, and was estimated using vorticity thickness to quantify the growth rate of the shear layer horizontally across the pockmark. Estimated positive vorticity thickness spreading rates are consistent with cavity flow predictions, and occur at largely different rates between the two pockmarks. Previously modeled flow (Brothers et al. 2011) and laboratory measurements (Pau et al. 2014) over pockmarks of similar geometry to those examined herein are also qualitatively consistent with cavity flow circulation, suggesting that cavity flow may be a good first-order flow model for pockmarks in general.
Observations of pockmark flow structure in Belfast Bay, Maine, Part 2: evidence for cavity flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fandel, Christina L.; Lippmann, Thomas C.; Foster, Diane L.; Brothers, Laura L.
2017-02-01
Pockmark flow circulation patterns were investigated through current measurements along the rim and center of two pockmarks in Belfast Bay, Maine. Observed time-varying current profiles have a complex vertical and directional structure that rotates significantly with depth and is strongly dependent on the phase of the tide. Observations of the vertical profiles of horizontal velocities in relation to relative geometric parameters of the pockmark are consistent with circulation patterns described qualitatively by cavity flow models (Ashcroft and Zhang 2005). The time-mean behavior of the shear layer is typically used to characterize cavity flow, and was estimated using vorticity thickness to quantify the growth rate of the shear layer horizontally across the pockmark. Estimated positive vorticity thickness spreading rates are consistent with cavity flow predictions, and occur at largely different rates between the two pockmarks. Previously modeled flow (Brothers et al. 2011) and laboratory measurements (Pau et al. 2014) over pockmarks of similar geometry to those examined herein are also qualitatively consistent with cavity