Science.gov

Sample records for hydrogen control owners

  1. Safety Evaluation Report related to Hydrogen Control Owners Group assessment of Mark 3 containments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.Y.; Kudrick, J.A.

    1990-10-01

    Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Section 50.44 Standards for Combustible Gas Control System in Light-Water-Cooled Power Reactors,'' requires that systems be provided to control hydrogen concentration in the containment atmosphere following an accident to ensure that containment integrity is maintained. The purpose of this report is to provide regulatory guidance to licensees with Mark III containments with regard to demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 50.44, Section (c)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(vii). In this report, the staff provides its evaluation of the generic methodology proposed by the Hydrogen Control Owners Group. This generic methodology is documented in Topical Report HGN-112-NP, Generic Hydrogen Control Information for BWR/6 Mark III Containments.'' In addition, the staff has recommended that the vulnerability to interruption of power to the hydrogen igniters be evaluated further on a plant-specific basis as part of the individual plant examination of the plants with Mark III containments. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Owner-controlled insurance programs: Reducing O&M costs

    SciTech Connect

    Charette, M.; Brady, N.

    1994-02-01

    The economic recession, increased competition from nonutility generators, and escalating Workers` Compensation costs are forcing electric utilities to reexamine how they finance the cost of risk. In addition to managed care programs, larger deductibles, and aggressive safety campaigns, utility risk and insurance executives are turning more than ever to Owner-Controlled Insurance Programs (OCIPs) to lower operation and maintenance (O&M) expenses. While electric utilities long have used OCIPs to control insurance costs during generating station and office building construction, this approach is now being employed for other projects. In the last few years, utilities have expanded the use of OCIPs to include scrubber installation, plant retrofit, and, more recently, for ongoing contract and maintenance work at operating fossil and nuclear plants. These OCIPs are also known as {open_quotes}gate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}maintenance{close_quotes} wrap-ups.

  3. N Reactor hydrogen control

    SciTech Connect

    Shuford, D.H.; Kripps, L.J.

    1988-08-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union, a number of reviews were conducted of the N Reactor. Hydrogen generation during postulates severe accidents and the possibility of resulting hydrogen deflagrations/detonations that could affect confinement integrity were issues raised in several reviews, along with recommendations for adding hydrogen mitigation features. To respond to these reviews, an N Reactor Safety Enhancement Program and a subsequent Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program were initiated to address all post-Chernobyl N Reactor review findings. The Safety Enhancement Program and Accelerated Safety Enhancement Program efforts involving hydrogen control included the following: Calculate the potential hydrogen source for a range of severe accidents at the N Reactor to establish an acceptable design basis for the hydrogen mitigation system; Analyze the N Reactor confinement hydrogen mixing capability to identify areas of concern and to the verify effectiveness of the hydrogen mitigation system; Select, design, and construct a hydrogen mitigation system to enhance the N Reactor capability to accommodate possible hydrogen generation from postulated severe accidents; Provide post-accident hydrogen monitoring as an operator aid in assessing confinement conditions. In additions, it was necessary to verify that incorporation of the hydrogen mitigation system had no adverse impact N Reactor safety (e.g., radiological consequence analyses). 77 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Application of owner technical management in hydraulic machinery and electrical equipment investment target control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.

    2012-11-01

    Using technical means in investment target control is an effective method to improve investment benefit of a construction project. Take the practice of construction and management in hydropower station as an example, the investment and management need of the owner is put forward through the investment target decision-making process of electromechanical equipment. Owner technical management in the specific application measures and effects of investment target control was discussed in the paper, and the revelation in investment target control application of owner technical management was also summarized. The paper is aimed to provide a useful reference for the investment target control work in the construction of electromechanical equipment.

  5. Uptake of rabies control measures by dog owners in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-03-01

    Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with the uptake of rabies control measures by individual dog owners in Flores Island. A total of 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the Sikka and Manggarai regencies were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic factors, knowledge of rabies, and their uptake of rabies control measures. The majority of dog owners surveyed (>90%) knew that rabies is a fatal disease and that it can be prevented. Moreover, 68% of the dog owners had a high level of knowledge about available rabies control measures. Fifty-two percent of the dog owners had had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had an income of more than one million Rupiah, and had easy access to their village. The most important reasons not to join the vaccination campaign were lack of information about the vaccination campaign schedule (40%) and difficulty to catch the dog during the vaccination campaign (37%). Dog owners in Flores Island had a high level of knowledge of rabies and its control, but this was not associated with uptake of the 2012 vaccination campaign. Geographical accessibility was one of the important factors influencing the vaccination uptake among dog owners. Targeted distribution of information on vaccination schedules and methods to catch and restrain dogs in those villages with poor accessibility may increase vaccination uptake in the future.

  6. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C. M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with the uptake of rabies control measures by individual dog owners in Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings A total of 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the Sikka and Manggarai regencies were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic factors, knowledge of rabies, and their uptake of rabies control measures. The majority of dog owners surveyed (>90%) knew that rabies is a fatal disease and that it can be prevented. Moreover, 68% of the dog owners had a high level of knowledge about available rabies control measures. Fifty-two percent of the dog owners had had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had an income of more than one million Rupiah, and had easy access to their village. The most important reasons not to join the vaccination campaign were lack of information about the vaccination campaign schedule (40%) and difficulty to catch the dog during the vaccination campaign (37%). Conclusions/significance Dog owners in Flores Island had a high level of knowledge of rabies and its control, but this was not associated with uptake of the 2012 vaccination campaign. Geographical accessibility was one of the important factors influencing the vaccination uptake among dog owners. Targeted distribution of information on vaccination schedules and methods to catch and restrain dogs in those villages with poor accessibility may increase vaccination uptake in the future. PMID:25782019

  7. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of cattle owners regarding trypanosomosis control in tsetse-infested areas of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Magona, J W; Walubengo, J; Olaho-Mukani, W

    2004-12-01

    A pilot survey using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Tororo and Busia districts of Uganda on the knowledge and attitudes of cattle owners regarding tsetse fly and trypanosomosis control, in order to understand factors that hindered their full participation. A total of 81 cattle owners was randomly selected and interviewed, of which 92.5% were aware of tsetse flies and trypanosomosis and 87.6% recognised animal trypanosomosis as a problem in the area. Most cattle owners were aware of tsetse fly trapping (76.5%), isometamidium chloride use (55.5%), diminazene aceturate use (48%) and pour-on applications (18.5%). However, knowledge did not coincide with the application of control measures. Despite the widespread awareness, tsetse fly trapping and pour-on applications were used by only a small percentage of cattle owners (7.5% applied tsetse fly trapping while 76.5% were aware of it; 1.2% applied pour-on insecticides while 18.5% were aware of them). Differences between awareness and application were highly significant for tsetse fly trapping (chi2 = 67.8, d.f. = 1, P < 0.001) and pour-on applications (chi2 = 10.8, d.f. = 1, P < 0.05), but not for isometamidium chloride use (chi2 = 0.08, d.f. = 1, P = 0.77) and diminazene aceturate use (chi2 = 0.00, d.f. = 1, P = 1.00). Most cattle owners (97.5%) were willing to participate in future control programmes, but preferred participating on a group basis (85.2%) rather than individually (14.8%). The 4 most favoured control options in order of importance were: fly traps supplied by the government and maintained by cattle owners; contribution of labour by cattle owners for trap deployment; self-financing of trypanocidal drugs and self-financing of pour-on insecticide. The control options that should be selected in order to elicit full participation by cattle owners are discussed.

  9. Understanding action control of daily walking behavior among dog owners: a community survey.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Lim, Clarise

    2016-11-16

    Walking among dog owners may be a means to achieve health benefits, yet almost half of owners (approximately 30% of households) are not regularly walking their dogs. Current research on the correlates of dog walking has generally considered intention as the primary determinant of behavior, yet the intention-behavior relationship is modest. The purpose of this paper was to apply a framework designed to evaluate the intention-behavior gap, known as multi-process action control (M-PAC), to understand daily walking among dog owners. A community sample of adult dog owners (N = 227) in Victoria, Canada completed M-PAC measures of motivational (dog and human outcome expectations, affective judgments, perceived capability and opportunity), regulatory (planning), and reflexive (automaticity, identity) processes as well as intention to walk and behavior. Three intention-behavior profiles emerged: a) non-intenders who were not active (26%; n = 59), b) unsuccessful intenders who failed to enact their positive intentions (33%; n = 75), and c) successful intenders who were active (40%; n = 91). Congruent with M-PAC, a discriminant function analysis showed that affective judgements (r = 0.33), automaticity (r = 0.38), and planning (r = 0.33) distinguished between all three intention-behavior profiles, while identity (r = 0.22) and dog breed size (r = 0.28) differentiated between successful and unsuccessful intenders. The majority of dog owners have positive intentions to walk, yet almost half fail to meet these intentions. Interventions focused on affective judgments (e.g., more enjoyable places to walk), behavioral regulation (e.g., setting a concrete plan), habit (e.g., making routines and cues) and identity formation (e.g., affirmations of commitment) may help overcome difficulties with translating these intentions into action, thus increasing overall levels of walking.

  10. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  11. Methods of fertility control in cats: Owner, breeder and veterinarian behavior and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Murray, Jane K; Mosteller, Jill R; Loberg, Jenny M; Andersson, Maria; Benka, Valerie A W

    2015-09-01

    Fertility control is important for population management of owned and unowned cats, provides health benefits at the individual level and can reduce unwanted sexually dimorphic behaviors such as roaming, aggression, spraying and calling. This article reviews the available evidence regarding European and American veterinarian, owner and pedigree cat breeder attitudes toward both surgical sterilization and non-surgical fertility control. It additionally presents new data on veterinarians' and pedigree cat breeders' use of, and attitudes toward, alternative modalities of fertility control. Within the United States and Europe, the proportion of cats reported to be sterilized varies widely. Published estimates range from 27-93% for owned cats and 2-5% for cats trapped as part of a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program. In some regions and populations of cats, non-surgical fertility control is also used. Social context, cultural norms, individual preferences, economic considerations, legislation and professional organizations may all influence fertility control decisions for cats. Particularly in Europe, a limited number of non-surgical temporary contraceptives are available for cats; these include products with regulatory approval for cats as well as some used 'off label'. Non-surgical methods remove the risk of complications related to surgery and offer potential to treat more animals in less time and at lower cost; they may also appeal to pedigree cat breeders seeking temporary contraception. However, concerns over efficacy, delivery methods, target species safety, duration and side effects exist with current non-surgical options. Research is under way to develop new methods to control fertility in cats without surgery. US and European veterinarians place high value on three perceived benefits of surgical sterilization: permanence, behavioral benefits and health benefits. Non-surgical options will likely need to share these benefits to be widely accepted by the veterinary

  12. Assessing the impact of different persuasive messages on the intentions and behaviour of cat owners: A randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J; Driver, Aaron B

    2017-10-01

    Owners of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) are under increasing pressure to keep their pet contained within their house or yard, in an effort to reduce adverse impacts on cat welfare, ecosystem biodiversity and neighbourhoods. We conducted a randomised online experiment to assess the effectiveness of two persuasive messages to encourage cat owners to contain their pets. A total of 512 Australian cat owners, who currently do not contain their cats, were randomly assigned to view one of three short video messages: one framed to highlight the negative impact of cats' on wildlife and biodiversity ('wildlife protection' frame), one framed to highlight the health and safety benefits of keeping cats contained ('cat benefit' frame), and a control message focused on general information about cats ('neutral' frame). We assessed the impact of these video messages on two post-treatment outcome variables: (1) the intention of owners to contain their cat; and (2) the adoption of containment practices, based on a 4-week follow-up survey. Mediation analysis revealed both the 'wildlife protection' and 'cat benefit' messages increased owners' motivation to contain their cat and their beliefs that they could effectively contain their cat to achieve the desired outcomes (response efficacy). In turn, higher levels of motivation and response efficacy predicted increased cat containment intentions and increased adoption of cat containment. In addition, the response efficacy effects of the 'cat benefit' message were strengthened by the cat owner's bond to their pet, suggesting audience segmentation may improve the effectiveness of interventions. Implications for future intervention development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. America's family forest owners

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Earl C. Leatherberry

    2004-01-01

    The number of family forest owners in the conterminous United States increased from 9.3 million in 1993 to 10.3 million in 2003, and these owners now control 42% of the nation's forestland. The reasons why people own forestland are diverse. Some of the more common ones are aesthetic enjoyment, the tract is part of a farm or homesite, and to pass the land on to...

  14. Tailoring NIST Security Controls for the Ground System: Selection and Implementation -- Recommendations for Information System Owners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Mangum, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    . Certain protective measures for the general enterprise may not be as efficient within the ground segment. This is what the authors have concluded through observations and analysis of patterns identified from the various security assessments performed on NASA missions such as MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, New Horizons and TESS, to name a few. The security audits confirmed that the framework for managing information system security developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the federal government, and adopted by NASA, is indeed effective. However, the selection of the technical, operational and management security controls offered by the NIST model - and how they are implemented - does not always fit the nature and the environment where the ground system operates in even though there is no apparent impact on mission success. The authors observed that unfit controls, that is, controls that are not necessarily applicable or sufficiently effective in protecting the mission systems, are often selected to facilitate compliance with security requirements and organizational expectations even if the selected controls offer minimum or non-existent protection. This paper identifies some of the standard security controls that can in fact protect the ground system, and which of them offer little or no benefit at all. It offers multiple scenarios from real security audits in which the controls are not effective without, of course, disclosing any sensitive information about the missions assessed. In addition to selection and implementation of controls, the paper also discusses potential impact of recent legislation such as the Federal Information Security Modernization Act (FISMA) of 2014 - aimed at the enterprise - on the ground system, and offers other recommendations to Information System Owners (ISOs).

  15. Best Management Practices to Prevent and Control Hydrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can be emitted from both construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. H2S emissions may be problematic at a landfill as they can cause odor, impact surrounding communities, cause wear or damage to landfill gas (LFG) collection and energy utilization components, or contribute to the formation of explosive conditions. H2S emissions at landfills have often been attributed to the disposal of gypsum drywall, though other sources such as sulfur-containing industrial wastes and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment facilities can also contribute to H2S production. Addressing problems from H2S emissions at landfills can be costly and time consuming for landfill owners and operators. Several years of operational experience and research efforts have identified several key pieces of information regarding the conditions that can cause H2S production, factors that result in H2S production at landfills, and strategies to prevent these conditions from occurring and to minimize the release of H2S to the surrounding environment when it is produced. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Office of Research and Development, in coordination with U.S. EPA Region 5, commissioned the development of a document designed to provide landfill owners and operators with guidance on pertinent subject matter associated with H2S production, emissions, prevention, and control at landfill sites. A previous

  16. Best Management Practices to Prevent and Control Hydrogen ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas can be emitted from both construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. H2S emissions may be problematic at a landfill as they can cause odor, impact surrounding communities, cause wear or damage to landfill gas (LFG) collection and energy utilization components, or contribute to the formation of explosive conditions. H2S emissions at landfills have often been attributed to the disposal of gypsum drywall, though other sources such as sulfur-containing industrial wastes and biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment facilities can also contribute to H2S production. Addressing problems from H2S emissions at landfills can be costly and time consuming for landfill owners and operators. Several years of operational experience and research efforts have identified several key pieces of information regarding the conditions that can cause H2S production, factors that result in H2S production at landfills, and strategies to prevent these conditions from occurring and to minimize the release of H2S to the surrounding environment when it is produced. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Office of Research and Development, in coordination with U.S. EPA Region 5, commissioned the development of a document designed to provide landfill owners and operators with guidance on pertinent subject matter associated with H2S production, emissions, prevention, and control at landfill sites. A previous

  17. Method for controlled hydrogen charging of metals

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Bo-Ching; Adamson, Ronald B.

    1984-05-29

    A method for controlling hydrogen charging of hydride forming metals through a window of a superimposed layer of a non-hydriding metal overlying the portion of the hydride forming metals to be charged.

  18. Flight investigation of the effect of control centering springs on the apparent spiral stability of a personal-owner airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Hunter, Paul A; Hewes, Donald E; Whitten, James B

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of a flight investigation conducted on a typical high-wing personal-owner airplane to determine the effect of control centering springs on apparent spiral stability. Apparent spiral stability is the term used to describe the spiraling tendencies of an airplane in uncontrolled flight as affected both by the true spiral stability of the perfectly trimmed airplane and by out-of-trim control settings. Centering springs were used in both the aileron and rudder control systems to provide both a positive centering action and a means of trimming the airplane. The springs were preloaded so that when they were moved through neutral they produced a nonlinear force gradient sufficient to overcome the friction in the control surface at the proper setting for trim. The ailerons and rudder control surfaces did not have trim tabs that could be adjusted in flight.

  19. Laser controlled magnetism in hydrogenated fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Makarova, Tatiana L.; Shelankov, Andrei L.; Kvyatkovskii, Oleg E.; Zakharova, Irina B.; Buga, Sergei G.; Volkov, Aleksandr P.

    2011-04-15

    Room temperature ferromagnetic-like behavior in fullerene photopolymerized films treated with monatomic hydrogen is reported. The hydrogen treatment controllably varies the paramagnetic spin concentration and laser induced polymerization transforms the paramagnetic phase to a ferromagnetic-like one. Excess laser irradiation destroys magnetic ordering, presumably due to structural changes, which was continuously monitored by Raman spectroscopy. We suggest an interpretation of the data based on first-principles density-functional spin-unrestricted calculations which show that the excess spin from mono-atomic hydrogen is delocalized within the host fullerene and the laser-induced polymerization promotes spin exchange interaction and spin alignment in the polymerized phase.

  20. Temperature-Control Apparatus For Hydrogen Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.; Mattison, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-control apparatus maintains hydrogen maser at nearly constant temperature during long-term operational test. Designed to maintain, in small cylindrical vacuum tank containing maser, nearly isothermal condition when test conducted in air. Provides approximation of more nearly isothermal condition expected to be maintained in intended application, in which maser operated in vacuum environment and losses of heat reduced further by multilayer reflective insulation.

  1. "Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog–human affectional bond can be characterized as an “attachment”. The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's “strange situation”. The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations. PMID:24205235

  2. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  3. Hydrogen-water vapor mixtures: Control of hydrothermal atmospheres by hydrogen osmosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, H.R.

    1963-01-01

    Experiments at 700??C and 800 bars total pressure demonstrate positive deviations from ideality for mixtures of hydrogen and H2O gases. The deviations are greater than predicted with Stockmayer's method. The composition of the mixture and the fugacity of hydrogen are controlled by diffusing hydrogen through metallic membranes. The results give the fugacities of both H 2O and oxygen.

  4. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon formation by flux control and hydrogen effects on the growth mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, H.; Sugai, H.; Kato, K.; Yoshida, A.; Okuda, T.

    1986-06-01

    The composition of particle flux to deposit hydrogenated amorphous silicon films in a glow discharge is controlled by a combined electrostatic-magnetic deflection technique. As a result, the films are formed firstly without hydrogen ion flux, secondly by neutral flux only, and thirdly by all species fluxes. Comparison of these films reveals the significant role of hydrogen in the surface reactions. Hydrogen breaks the Si-Si bond, decreases the sticking probability of the Si atom, and replaces the SiH bond by a SiH2 bond to increase the hydrogen content of the films.

  5. Can an Internal Locus of Control and Social Support Reduce Work-Related Levels of Stress and Strain?: A Comparative Study Between Spanish Owners and Managers.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Leal-Rodríguez, Antonio L; Rodríguez-Félix, Lucía; Albort-Morant, Gema

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the role played by both individual and contextual factors in reducing the manager's levels of stress and strain within the workplace setting. This article also highlights the manager's locus of control (LOC) as an internal factor and emphasizes the social support variable as a contextual factor. We use a sample of 332 respondents belonging to Spanish manufacturing and services firms and a structural equation modeling technique (partial least squares path modeling). The results reveal that there are significant differences between managers and owners about stress-strain relationship. The study provides support for the literature on stress management, which emphasizes the importance of a LOC and social support in influencing stress and strain between managers and owners.

  6. Selectivity control in Pt-catalyzed cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Durndell, Lee J.; Parlett, Christopher M. A.; Hondow, Nicole S.; Isaacs, Mark A.; Wilson, Karen; Lee, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemoselectivity is a cornerstone of catalysis, permitting the targeted modification of specific functional groups within complex starting materials. Here we elucidate key structural and electronic factors controlling the liquid phase hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde and related benzylic aldehydes over Pt nanoparticles. Mechanistic insight from kinetic mapping reveals cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation is structure-insensitive over metallic platinum, proceeding with a common Turnover Frequency independent of precursor, particle size or support architecture. In contrast, selectivity to the desired cinnamyl alcohol product is highly structure sensitive, with large nanoparticles and high hydrogen pressures favoring C = O over C = C hydrogenation, attributed to molecular surface crowding and suppression of sterically-demanding adsorption modes. In situ vibrational spectroscopies highlight the role of support polarity in enhancing C = O hydrogenation (through cinnamaldehyde reorientation), a general phenomenon extending to alkyl-substituted benzaldehydes. Tuning nanoparticle size and support polarity affords a flexible means to control the chemoselective hydrogenation of aromatic aldehydes. PMID:25800551

  7. Selectivity control in Pt-catalyzed cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durndell, Lee J.; Parlett, Christopher M. A.; Hondow, Nicole S.; Isaacs, Mark A.; Wilson, Karen; Lee, Adam F.

    2015-03-01

    Chemoselectivity is a cornerstone of catalysis, permitting the targeted modification of specific functional groups within complex starting materials. Here we elucidate key structural and electronic factors controlling the liquid phase hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde and related benzylic aldehydes over Pt nanoparticles. Mechanistic insight from kinetic mapping reveals cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation is structure-insensitive over metallic platinum, proceeding with a common Turnover Frequency independent of precursor, particle size or support architecture. In contrast, selectivity to the desired cinnamyl alcohol product is highly structure sensitive, with large nanoparticles and high hydrogen pressures favoring C = O over C = C hydrogenation, attributed to molecular surface crowding and suppression of sterically-demanding adsorption modes. In situ vibrational spectroscopies highlight the role of support polarity in enhancing C = O hydrogenation (through cinnamaldehyde reorientation), a general phenomenon extending to alkyl-substituted benzaldehydes. Tuning nanoparticle size and support polarity affords a flexible means to control the chemoselective hydrogenation of aromatic aldehydes.

  8. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while

  9. Hydrogen and nitrogen control in ladle and casting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R. J.; Misra, Siddhartha

    2005-01-15

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly.

  10. Wisconsin private timberland owners: 1997.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    2001-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Wisconsin's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership; management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating owner and property characteristics for the State and its five survey units.

  11. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: Their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat.

    PubMed

    Cimarelli, Giulia; Turcsán, Borbála; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2016-01-01

    The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to "Owner Warmth," "Owner Social Support," and "Owner Control." Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in "Owner Warmth" and in "Owner Social Support" and higher in "Owner Control" than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in "Owner Control" scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in "Owner Social Support" scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar woman's threatening approach was associated with the owners' interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in "Owner Warmth," as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety.

  12. Vicious dogs: the antisocial behaviors and psychological characteristics of owners.

    PubMed

    Ragatz, Laurie; Fremouw, William; Thomas, Tracy; McCoy, Katrina

    2009-05-01

    Each year, 4.7 million people are bitten by dogs. Of those bitten each year, 386,000 are seriously injured and some killed. Consequently, many insurance companies refuse to issue homeowners insurance to owners of specific breeds of dogs considered "vicious" or high risk of causing injury. This study examined whether vicious dog owners were different on antisocial behaviors and personality dimensions. A total of 869 college students completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing type of dog owned, criminal behaviors, attitudes towards animal abuse, psychopathy, and personality. The sample was divided into four groups: vicious dog owners, large dog owners, small dog owners, and controls. Findings revealed vicious dog owners reported significantly more criminal behaviors than other dog owners. Vicious dog owners were higher in sensation seeking and primary psychopathy. Study results suggest that vicious dog ownership may be a simple marker of broader social deviance.

  13. Hydrogen-methane fuel control systems for turbojet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, J. S.; Bennett, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Design, development, and test of a fuel conditioning and control system utilizing liquid methane (natural gas) and liquid hydrogen fuels for operation of a J85 jet engine were performed. The experimental program evaluated the stability and response of an engine fuel control employing liquid pumping of cryogenic fuels, gasification of the fuels at supercritical pressure, and gaseous metering and control. Acceptably stable and responsive control of the engine was demonstrated throughout the sea level power range for liquid gas fuel and up to 88 percent engine speed using liquid hydrogen fuel.

  14. Shuttle Gaseous Hydrogen Venting Risk from Flow Control Valve Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Baurle, Robert A.; Gafney, Richard L.; Norris, Andrew T.; Pellett, Gerald L.; Rock, Kenneth E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a series of studies to assess the potential risk associated with the failure of one of three gaseous hydrogen flow control valves in the orbiter's main propulsion system during the launch of Shuttle Endeavour (STS-126) in November 2008. The studies focused on critical issues associated with the possibility of combustion resulting from release of gaseous hydrogen from the external tank into the atmosphere during assent. The Shuttle Program currently assumes hydrogen venting from the external tank will result in a critical failure. The current effort was conducted to increase understanding of the risk associated with venting hydrogen given the flow control valve failure scenarios being considered in the Integrated In-Flight Anomaly Investigation being conducted by NASA.

  15. Surface Magnetism of Cobalt Nanoislands Controlled by Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jewook; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Li, An-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the spin states of the surface and interface is key to spintronic applications of magnetic materials. We report the evolution of surface magnetism of Co nanoislands on Cu(111) upon hydrogen adsorption and desorption with the hope of realizing reversible control of spin-dependent tunneling. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy reveals three types of hydrogen-induced surface superstructures, 1H-(2 × 2), 2H-(2 × 2), and 6H-(3 × 3), with increasing H coverage. The prominent magnetic surface states of Co, while being preserved at low H coverage, become suppressed as the H coverage level increases, which can then be recovered by H desorption. First-principles calculations reveal the origin of the observed magnetic surface states by capturing the asymmetry between the spin-polarized surface states and identify the role of hydrogen in controlling the magnetic states. This study offers new insights into the chemical control of magnetism in low-dimensional systems.

  16. Controlling hydrogenation activity and selectivity of bimetallic surfaces and catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Luis E.

    Studies of bimetallic systems are of great interest in catalysis due to the novel properties that they often show in comparison with the parent metals. The goals of this dissertation are: (1) to expand the studies of self-hydrogenation and hydrogenation reactions on bimetallic surfaces under ultra high vacuum conditions (UHV) using different hydrocarbon as probe molecules; (2) to attempt to correlate the surface science findings with supported catalyst studies under more realistic conditions; and (3) to investigate the competitive hydrogenation of C=C versus C=O bonds on Pt(111) modified by different 3d transition metals. Hydrogenation studies using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) on Ni/Pt(111) bimetallic surfaces have demonstrated an enhancement in the low temperature hydrogenation activity relative to that of clean Pt(111). This novel hydrogenation pathway can be achieved under UHV conditions by controlling the structures of the bimetallic surfaces. A low temperature hydrogenation activity of 1-hexene and 1-butene has been observed on a Pt-Ni-Pt(111) subsurface structure, where Ni atoms are mainly present on the second layer of the Pt(111) single crystal. These results are in agreement with previous studies of self-hydrogenation and hydrogenation of cyclohexene. However, a much higher dehydrogenation activity is observed in the reaction of cyclohexene to produce benzene, demonstrating that the hydrocarbon structure has an effect on the reaction pathways. On the other hand, self-hydrogenation of 1-butene is not observed on the Pt-Ni-Pt(111) surface, indicating that the chain length (or molecular weight) has a significant effect on the selfhydrogenation activity. The gas phase reaction of cyclohexene on Ni/Pt supported on alumina catalysts has also shown a higher self-hydrogenation activity in comparison with the same reaction performed on supported monometallic catalysts. The effects of metal loading and impregnation sequence of the metal precursors are

  17. Hydrogen Embrittlement and Its Control in Hydrogen-Fueled Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The nature of hydrogen embrittlement by high pressure gaseous hydrogen is described and methods of designing SSME gaseous hydrogen systems, including techniques of hydrogen embrittlement prevention, are discussed. The effects of gaseous hydrogen environments are emphasized. Results of extensive investigations of gaseous hydrogen environments on metals conducted under the SSME program are presented.

  18. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  19. Flow-Control Unit For Nitrogen And Hydrogen Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, B. J.; Novak, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-flow-control unit installed and removed as one piece replaces system that included nine separately serviced components. Unit controls and monitors flows of nitrogen and hydrogen gases. Designed for connection via fluid-interface manifold plate, reducing number of mechanical fluid-interface connections from 18 to 1. Unit provides increasing reliability, safety, and ease of maintenance, and for reducing weight, volume, and power consumption.

  20. Resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-48, Hydrogen control measures and effects of hydrogen burns on safety equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.M.; Soffer, L.

    1989-09-01

    Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-48 arose as a result of the large amount of hydrogen generated and burned within containment during the Three Mile Island accident. This issue covers hydrogen control measures for recoverable degraded-core accidents for all boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and those pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) with ice-condenser containments. The Commission and the nuclear industry have sponsored extensive research in this area, which has led to significant revision of the Commission's hydrogen control regulations, given in Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50 (10 CFR 50), Section 50.44. BWRs having Mark I and II containments are presently required to operate with inerted containment atmospheres that effectively prevent hydrogen combustion. BWRs with Mark III containments and PWRs with ice-condenser containments are now required to be equipped with hydrogen control systems to protect containment integrity and safety systems inside containment. Industry has chosen to use hydrogen igniter systems to burn hydrogen produced in a controlled fashion to prevent damage. An independent review by a Committee of the National Research Council concluded that, for most accident scenarios, current regulatory requirements make it highly unlikely that hydrogen detonation would be the cause of containment failure. On the basis of the extensive research effort conducted and current regulatory requirements, including their implementation, the staff concludes that no new regulatory guidance on hydrogen control for recoverable degraded-core accidents for these types of plants is necessary and that USI A-48 is resolved.

  1. Surface Magnetism of Cobalt Nanoislands Controlled by Atomic Hydrogen

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Jewook; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; ...

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the spin states of the surface and interface is key to spintronic applications of magnetic materials. We report the evolution of surface magnetism of Co nanoislands on Cu(111) upon hydrogen adsorption and desorption with the hope of realizing reversible control of spin-dependent tunneling. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy reveals three types of hydrogen-induced surface superstructures, 1H-(2 × 2), 2H-(2 × 2), and 6H-(3 × 3), with increasing H coverage. The prominent magnetic surface states of Co, while being preserved at low H coverage, become suppressed as the H coverage level increases, which can then be recovered by H desorption. First-principlesmore » calculations reveal the origin of the observed magnetic surface states by capturing the asymmetry between the spin-polarized surface states and identify the role of hydrogen in controlling the magnetic states. This study offers new insights into the chemical control of magnetism in low-dimensional systems.« less

  2. Surface Magnetism of Cobalt Nanoislands Controlled by Atomic Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Park, Jewook; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Li, An-Ping

    2017-01-11

    Controlling the spin states of the surface and interface is key to spintronic applications of magnetic materials. Here, we report the evolution of surface magnetism of Co nanoislands on Cu(111) upon hydrogen adsorption and desorption with the hope of realizing reversible control of spin-dependent tunneling. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy reveals three types of hydrogen-induced surface superstructures, 1H-(2 × 2), 2H-(2 × 2), and 6H-(3 × 3), with increasing H coverage. The prominent magnetic surface states of Co, while being preserved at low H coverage, become suppressed as the H coverage level increases, which can then be recovered by H desorption. First-principles calculations reveal the origin of the observed magnetic surface states by capturing the asymmetry between the spin-polarized surface states and identify the role of hydrogen in controlling the magnetic states. Our study offers new insights into the chemical control of magnetism in low-dimensional systems.

  3. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Fruehan; Siddhartha Misra

    2005-01-15

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly. Several steelmaking additions have been investigated in this research for their effect on the hydrogen and nitrogen content of steels. It has been established that calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) acts as a source of hydrogen. Carburizers, such as metallurgical coke, were found to result in no hydrogen pickup when added to liquid steel. Addition of petroleum coke, on the other hand, increased the hydrogen content of liquid steel. Ferroalloy such as medium carbon ferromanganese when added to the liquid iron was found to increase its nitrogen content, the increase being proportional to the amount of ferroalloy added. Similarly, addition of pitch coke, which had a significant nitrogen impurity, increased the nitrogen content of liquid iron. A mathematical model was developed to quantify the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen from the air bubbles entrained during tapping of liquid steel. During the bottom stirring of liquid metal in a ladle, the inert gas escaping from the top displaces the slag layer and often forms an open eye. The absorption of atmospheric nitrogen through the spout eye was estimated for different slag thickness and gas flow rate. The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive set of equations which could predict the nitrogen and hydrogen pickup from their various sources. Estimates of hydrogen and nitrogen pickup during the steel transfer operations such as tapping and ladle stirring and the predicted pickup from steelmaking additions were integrated into empirical equations. The comprehensive model is designed to predict the gas pickup under varying operating conditions such as the metal oxygen and sulfur content, the total tapping or stirring time, the stirring gas flow rate and the

  4. Controllable nonlinear refraction characteristics in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, D. Q.; Ye, Q. H.; Shen, W. Z.; Su, W. A.

    2014-02-07

    Nonlinear refraction (NLR) of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) has been investigated through the close aperture Z-scan method. We demonstrate a significant NLR and a unique feature of controllable NLR characteristics between saturable and Kerr NLR with the incident photon energy. We numerically evaluate the proportion of these two mechanisms in different wavelengths by a modified NLR equation. The band tail of nc-Si:H appears to play a crucial role in such NLR responses.

  5. Hydrogen-environment embrittlement of metals and its control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, W. T.; Walter, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Types of hydrogen embrittlement are discussed together with characteristics of hydrogen-environment embrittlement, the degree of hydrogen-environment embrittlement of a wide variety of alloys, the effect of hydrogen environments on various properties, (tension, fatigue, creep and fracture mechanics), and the influence of hydrogen exposure parameters on the degree of embrittlement. Design methods for high-pressure hydrogen service and for prevention of hydrogen-environment embrittlement are also covered.

  6. Control method for high-pressure hydrogen vehicle fueling station dispensers

    DOEpatents

    Kountz, Kenneth John; Kriha, Kenneth Robert; Liss, William E.

    2006-06-13

    A method for quick filling a vehicle hydrogen storage vessel with hydrogen, the key component of which is an algorithm used to control the fill process, which interacts with the hydrogen dispensing apparatus to determine the vehicle hydrogen storage vessel capacity.

  7. Control of malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds using microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Eaktasang, Numfon; Min, Hyeong-Sik; Kang, Christina; Kim, Han S

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to control malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from domestic wastewaters. The electricity production demonstrated a distinct pattern of a two-step increase during 170 h of system run: the first maximum current density was 118.6 ± 7.2 mA m⁻² followed by a rebound of current density increase, reaching the second maximum of 176.8 ± 9.4 mA m⁻². The behaviors of the redox potential and the sulfate level in the anode compartment indicated that the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide compounds was suppressed in the first stage, and the hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from the system were removed effectively as a result of their electrochemical oxidation, which contributed to the additional electricity production in the second stage. This was also directly supported by sulfur deposits formed on the anode surface, which was confirmed by analyses on those solids using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as an elemental analyzer. To this end, the overall reduction efficiencies for HS⁻ and H₂S(g) were as high as 67.5 and 96.4 %, respectively. The correlations among current density, redox potential, and sulfate level supported the idea that the electricity signal generated in the MFC can be utilized as a potential indicator of malodor control for the domestic wastewater system.

  8. Dogs recall their owner's face upon hearing the owner's voice.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Ikuma; Kuwahata, Hiroko; Fujita, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether dogs have a cross-modal representation of human individuals. We presented domestic dogs with a photo of either the owner's or a stranger's face on the LCD monitor after playing back a voice of one of those persons. A voice and a face matched in half of the trials (Congruent condition) and mismatched in the other half (Incongruent condition). If our subjects activate visual images of the voice, their expectation would be contradicted in Incongruent condition. It would result in the subjects' longer looking times in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. Our subject dogs looked longer at the visual stimulus in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This suggests that dogs actively generate their internal representation of the owner's face when they hear the owner calling them. This is the first demonstration that nonhuman animals do not merely associate auditory and visual stimuli but also actively generate a visual image from auditory information. Furthermore, our subject also looked at the visual stimulus longer in Incongruent condition in which the owner's face followed an unfamiliar person's voice than in Congruent condition in which the owner's face followed the owner's voice. Generating a particular visual image in response to an unfamiliar voice should be difficult, and any expected images from the voice ought to be more obscure or less well defined than that of the owners. However, our subjects looked longer at the owner's face in Incongruent condition than in Congruent condition. This may indicate that dogs may have predicted that it should not be the owner when they heard the unfamiliar person's voice.

  9. [Teeth whitening with 6% hydrogen peroxide vs. 35% hydrogen peroxide, a comparative controlled study].

    PubMed

    Zuabi, O

    2015-01-01

    In light of the lately changes in regulations regarding teeth whitening in Europe, the use of 6% hydrogen peroxide using a dedicated device becomes the first choice treatment option. The purpose of this controlled, randomized, parallel, blinded six months prospective study was to compare this method of teeth whitening treatment with that of in-office method using 35% hydrogen peroxide. 75 healthy american individuals, ages 18-62, participated in this study. The participants were divided into 3 groups: a 6% hydrogenperoxide group, a 35% hydrogen peroxide group and a placebo control group. Whitening procedures were performed on intact frontal teeth with color shade of A3 or higher. A controlled color measurement was performed before, immediately after, three and six months post treatment. Clinical periodontal indices, oral mucosa changes, side effects and participant satisfaction, were recorded. In the 6% group, the change in color shades immediately after treatment, three and six months after treatment were 2.37, 2.17 and 1.95, respectively. Tooth color changes in 35% group immediately after completion of treatment, three and six months after treatment were 3.68, 2.60 and 1.70, respectively. Statistical significant differences were found in both treatment groups between the baseline color shade and the post treatment color shade. The results were stable three and six months after treatment. Statistically significant difference between the groups immediately after treatment (p < 0.0001). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups three and six months after treatment (p > 0.5000). Side effects such as oral mucosa irritation, burns or sensitive teeth were mild and resolved without intervention. A high satisfaction level was recorded. Tooth color shade can be substantially improved using a dedicated device with 6% hydrogen peroxide only. This whitening method can be helpful for the dentist in: home continuing treatment post in- office

  10. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: Their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat

    PubMed Central

    Cimarelli, Giulia; Turcsán, Borbála; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2016-01-01

    The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to “Owner Warmth,” “Owner Social Support,” and “Owner Control.” Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in “Owner Warmth” and in “Owner Social Support” and higher in “Owner Control” than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in “Owner Control” scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in “Owner Social Support” scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar woman's threatening approach was associated with the owners' interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in “Owner Warmth,” as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety. PMID:28066298

  11. Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge thermal drying

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Dai, Zhixin; Ji, Zhongqiang; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-04-15

    The release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during sludge drying is a major environmental problem because of its toxicity to human health. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms and factors controlling the H2S release. Results of this study show that: 1) the biomass and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sludge were the major factors controlling the amount of H2S release, 2) the sludge drying temperature had an important effect on both the extent and the timing of H2S release from the sludge, and 3) decreasing sludge pH increased the H2S release. Based on the findings from this study, a new system that integrates sludge drying and H2S gas treatment was developed to reduce the amount of H2S released from sludge treatments.

  12. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  13. Female forestland owners: Characterization of assistance needs

    Treesearch

    Sarah Day Crim; Mark Dubois; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas

    2003-01-01

    There is a limited amount of research focusing on female forestland owners. In looking at female forestland owners as a group researchers are often left with more questions than answers. What is the role of these landowners in the forestry sector? How do female forestland owners manage their lands? Do female forestland owners possess unique characteristics, needs, and...

  14. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.

  15. Hydrogen detection study. [for environmental control/life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumar, J. W.; Powell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effectiveness was assessed of a hydrogen (H2) detection concept for regenerative environmental control life support systems (EC/LSS). The concept evaluated was that utilized for the electrochemical depolarized concentrator (EDC) design, constructed, and tested for the EC/LSS space station prototype program. The EDC contains combustible gas detectors (CGDs) which were evaluated with H2. The CGDs were evaluated for linearity, position sensitivity, reproducibility, ambient effects, repeatability, speed of response, recovery time, and interchangeability. The effectiveness of CGDs located within the EDC for sensing H2 leaks at various line replaceable units in the subsystem was determined. The effects of H2 leak rate, H2 concentration of leaking gas and air currents in the vicinity of the EDC were determined. Proposed improvements for the H2 detection concept were documented and alternative H2 detection approaches were identified and analyzed.

  16. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  17. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  18. Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Bockris, John O’M.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech. PMID:28824125

  19. Control of redox reactivity of flavin and pterin coenzymes by metal ion coordination and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kojima, Takahiko

    2008-03-01

    The electron-transfer activities of flavin and pterin coenzymes can be fine-tuned by coordination of metal ions, protonation and hydrogen bonding. Formation of hydrogen bonds with a hydrogen-bond receptor in metal-flavin complexes is made possible depending on the type of coordination bond that can leave the hydrogen-bonding sites. The electron-transfer catalytic functions of flavin and pterin coenzymes are described by showing a number of examples of both thermal and photochemical redox reactions, which proceed by controlling the electron-transfer reactivity of coenzymes with metal ion binding, protonation and hydrogen bonding.

  20. Nanostructuring of Aluminum Alloy Powders by Cryogenic Attrition with Hydrogen-Free Process Control Agent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Nanostructuring of Aluminum Alloy Powders by Cryogenic Attrition with Hydrogen-Free Process Control Agent by Frank Kellogg, Clara Hofmeister...Ground, MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-7208 February 2015 Nanostructuring of Aluminum Alloy Powders by Cryogenic Attrition with Hydrogen-Free...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanostructuring of Aluminum Alloy Powders by Cryogenic Attrition with Hydrogen-Free Process Control Agent 5a. CONTRACT

  1. Hispanic Women Small Business Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Yolanda; Koberg, Christine

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 22 Hispanic women who owned small businesses in a western state found that most were located in metropolitan areas, were new to business ownership, had started the business themselves, engaged in "miscellaneous services," and generated lower than average revenues. Respondents were similar to nonminority owners in educational…

  2. Owner Involvement in Construction at a National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lipka, G.

    1999-03-08

    In a construction project, the contractor and the owner each have a responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of personnel on a project site. The contractor has the responsibility for ensuring that the provisions of OSHA'S safety and health regulations are followed and that the work is conducted in a safe and well thought out manner (Kohn 1996). The owner has a responsibility for disclosing to the contractor those owner-controlled hazards that are present in the work area due to ongoing and past operations (OSHA 1997). With the owner taking an active role in disclosing the potential hazards, the contractor is able to account for, plan, and mitigate potential health and safety issues during the performance phase of the project. At Sandia National Laboratories, this disclosure is made early in the project through the use of processes developed specifically for this purpose.

  3. Controlled permeation of hydrogen through glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorson, T.; Shelby, J.E. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Storing hydrogen inside of hollow glass spheres requires that the gas permeate through the glass walls. Hydrogen permeation through glass is relatively slow and the time to charge a sphere or bed of spheres is dependent on many factors. Permeation processes are strongly temperature dependent with behavior that follows an Arrhenius function., Rate is also dependent on the pressure drop driving force across a membrane wall and inversely proportional to thickness. Once filled, glass spheres will immediately begin to leak once the pressure driving force is reversed. Practical systems would take advantage of the fact that keeping the glass at ambient temperatures can minimize outboard leakage even with significant internal pressures. If hydrogen could be loaded and unloaded from glass microspheres with significantly less energy and particularly at near ambient temperature, some of the key barriers to commercializing this storage concept would be broken and further system engineering efforts may make this approach cost-effective. There were two key objectives for this effort. The first was to evaluate the application of hollow glass microspheres for merchant hydrogen storage and distribution and then determine the hydrogen permeation performance required for practical commercial use. The second objective was to identify, through a series of fundamental experiments, a low energy, low temperature field effect that could significantly enhance hydrogen permeation through glass without application of heat. If such an effect could be found, hollow glass microspheres could be much more attractive for hydrogen storage or possibly gas separation applications.

  4. Compositional controls on hydrogen generation during serpentinization of ultramafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Frieder; Bach, Wolfgang; McCollom, Thomas M.

    2013-09-01

    Where ultramafic rocks are exposed to water at temperatures < 400 °C, they inevitably undergo serpentinization reactions to form serpentine ± brucite ± talc ± magnetite (in addition to minor or trace phase like chlorite, tremolite, secondary diopside, garnet, Ni-Fe sulfides, alloys). In many circumstances, this process releases substantial amounts of hydrogen. Since the compositional controls of the primary lithology on the secondary mineralogy, fluid composition, Fe-distribution, and H2 formation are not well established, we used thermodynamic computations to examine the equilibrium mineral assemblages, mineral compositions and the chemistry of fluids during serpentinization of 21 different ultramafic rock compositions and 10 distinct compositions of olivine between 25 °C and 400 °C at 50 MPa. Our models predict some systematic differences between serpentinization of olivine-dominated lithologies (i.e. peridotite) and of orthopyroxene-dominated lithologies (i.e. pyroxenite). Most notably, it is predicted that serpentinization of peridotite causes the formation of serpentine having elevated Fe+ 3/(Fe+ 3 + Fe+ 2) values, Fe-bearing brucite (at temperatures ≤ ca. 320 °C), and magnetite (at temperatures > ca. 200 °C), while serpentinization of pyroxenite does not produce magnetite, but instead forms Fe-rich serpentine with relative low Fe+ 3/(Fe+ 3 + Fe+ 2) values and Fe-poor talc. The predicted activities of dissolved hydrogen (aH2(aq)), dissolved silica (aSiO2(aq)), as well as the pH vary accordingly. At temperatures ≤ ca. 350 °C, fluids interacting with peridotite are more reducing, have lower aSiO2(aq) and higher pH than fluids interacting with pyroxenite. A direct correlation between the iron content of olivine, its stability relative to water, temperature and aH2(aq) is apparent from our calculations. In contrast to forsterite-rich olivine, fayalite-rich olivine can be stable to temperatures as low as 180 °C in the presence of water. As a

  5. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. D.; Otto, J. M.; Cody, J. C.; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Gautney, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cryogenic propellant is an essential element in future space exploration programs. Therefore, NASA and its industrial partners are committed to an advanced development/technology program that will broaden the experience base for the entire cryogenic fluid management community. Furthermore, the high cost of microgravity experiments has motivated NASA to establish government/aerospace industry teams to aggressively explore combinations of ground testing and analytical modeling to the greatest extent possible, thereby benefitting both industry and government entities. One such team consisting of ManTech SRS, Inc., Edwards Air Force Base, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was formed to pursue a technology project designed to demonstrate technology readiness for an SRS liquid hydrogen (LH2) in-space propellant management concept. The subject testing was cooperatively performed June 21-30, 2000, through a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement between SRS, MSFC, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. The joint statement of work used to guide the technical activity is presented in appendix A. The key elements of the SRS concept consisted of an LH2 storage and supply system that used all of the vented H2 for solar engine thrusting, accommodated pressure control without a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), and minimized or eliminated the need for a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD). The strategy was to balance the LH2 storage tank pressure control requirements with the engine thrusting requirements to selectively provide either liquid or vapor H2 at a controlled rate to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity environment of space operations. The overall test objective was to verify that the proposed concept could enable simultaneous control of LH2 tank pressure and feed system flow to the thruster without necessitating a TVS and a capillary LAD. The primary program objectives were designed to demonstrate technology readiness of the SRS concept

  6. Control of one-dimensional magnetism in graphene via spontaneous hydrogenation of the grain boundary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Wei, Su-Huai; Yan, Yanfa

    2013-06-07

    We propose that control of one-dimensional (1D) magnetism in graphene could be made easier by spontaneous hydrogenation of chemically reactive grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline graphenes. Unlike pristine graphene, where hydrogen adsorption favors the formation of zero-dimensional (0D) clusters, the defect cores (pentagon, heptagon and octagon) at the GBs in polycrystalline graphene promote hydrogenation along the GBs. The hydrogenation in polycrystalline graphene starts at the GBs, proceeds gradually towards the grain interior (GI) and results in smooth 1D graphane-graphene interfaces. Our calculations show that the type (ferro- or antiferro-magnetism) and strength of the magnetism can be controlled by controlling the orientation of GBs. Since GBs in single-layer graphenes can be fabricated in a controllable way in experiments, the hydrogenation of GBs could be a unique method to realize large-area magnetic graphenes for future spintronic applications.

  7. Personality correlates of the Five-Factor Model for a sample of business owners/managers: associations with scores on Self-Monitoring, Type A Behavior, Locus of Control, and Subjective Well-being.

    PubMed

    Morrison, K A

    1997-02-01

    Bivariate relationships were examined between scores on the Five-Factor Model of personality and four personality dimensions including Self-monitoring, Locus of Control, Type A Behavior, and Subjective Well-being. Data were collected from 307 franchise business owner/managers from four different industries. Scores for Self-monitoring were positively related to those on Extraversion; Self-monitoring was the only personality measure significantly correlated with scores on Openness to Experience. Scores for Type A Behavior, measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey, were negatively correlated with Agreeableness and positively correlated with those for Extraversion. Somewhat surprisingly, the score for Type A Behavior had a relatively low correlation with the score for Conscientiousness. Scores for Subjective Well-being and Locus of Control were most strongly correlated with the positive pole of Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Possible explanations for the observed relationships are discussed.

  8. 40 CFR 144.64 - Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors, or financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.64 Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors...

  9. 40 CFR 144.64 - Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors, or financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.64 Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors...

  10. 40 CFR 144.64 - Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors, or financial institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.64 Incapacity of owners or operators, guarantors...

  11. The forest-land owners of Maryland

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1980-01-01

    Ninety perrent of the commercial forest land in Maryland--2,280,000 acres-is in the hands of some 95,800 owners. Eighty-seven percent of these owners are individuals. The average individual owner is middle aged, well educated, relatively affluent, and from a rural or farm background. Twenty-two percent of the private owners have harvested timber from their land. These...

  12. Family forest owners and federal taxes

    Treesearch

    John L. Greene; Brett J. Butler; Paul F. Catanzaro; Jaketon H. Hewes; Michael A. Kilgore; David B. Kittredge; Zhao Ma; Mary L. Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with family forest owners to investigate the effect of government tax policies on their decisions regarding their land. Two groups each were held in New Hampshire, South Carolina, Alabama, Wisconsin, and Washington, USA, one with owners enrolled in the state preferential property tax program for forested land and one with owners who were not...

  13. The forest-land owners of Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Donald F. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-eight percent of Pennsylvania's 15.9 million acres of commercial forest land is in the hands of 490,100 private owners. Landowner information is, therefore, an essential component in obtaining a thorough understanding of Pennsylvania's forest resources. Eighty-six percent of these owners are individuals. A large majority, 63 percent of these owners,...

  14. Control of Hydrogen Generation from Water Molecules Dissociated by Activated Aluminum Particles Based on Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, Koji; Takahara, Kenji; Kajiwara, Toshinori; Watanabe, Masao

    This paper proposes a control system to keep hydrogen generation by a reaction between water and activated aluminum particles at desired level. Because the activated aluminum particles are produced shredded aluminum sawdust, the characteristics of hydrogen generation vary depending on its samples. Therefore, the fuzzy control system to determine the quantum of the activated aluminum particles is designed based on the measured characteristics of hydrogen generation. Error form a desired value, error rate and dead time of the reaction are chosen as the labels of the proposed fuzzy membership functions. The reactor vessel that the activated aluminum particles are put into is developed to generate hydrogen continuously. Three types of aluminum particles of the characteristic are used for the experiments. The proposed system is confirmed to be useful for the control of hydrogen generation, coping with the effect of reacting characteristic changes according to the activated aluminum samples.

  15. Controlled Hydrogen Release From Ammonia Borane Using Mesoporous Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autrey, Tom

    2005-03-01

    Hydrogen storage on chemical hydrogen storage materials may provide an attractive new opportunity to meet and exceed the goals of the recent DOE Grand Challenge in Hydrogen Storage for on-board fuel cell applications. We have been investigating the feasibility of using ammonia borane (NH3BH3), and polyammonia borane (-NH2BH2-)n as reversible hydrogen storage materials. This family of molecules is promising given capacity for high volumetric storage densities, ca. >12 wt % hydrogen, and recent computational results that suggest hydrogen uptake and release is near thermoneutral. Ammonia borane (AB) is a stable solid at room temperature that requires heating to release the H2. AB decomposes upon melting at 114 ^oC with the vigorous bubbling of H2 gas. Alternatively the hydrogen from AB can be released from the solid material at temperatures below 100 ^oC, albeit at significantly lower rates. Thermal decomposition of NH3BH3 at temperatures below 100 ^oC yields H2 and a complex polyaminoborane-like --(NH2BH2)n-- material (PAB). The solid phase thermal reaction involves a bimolecular dehydrocoupling reaction to yield a new B-N bond, i.e., HNB-H --- HNBH to yield HNB-NBH in contrast to our observations of the catalytic pathway involves the intramolecular abstraction of H-H from a single H-NB-H molecule to yield N=B intermediate. At temperatures above 150 ^oC the PAB decomposes to yield a second equivalent of H2, concurrent with formation of a polyiminoborane-like --(NHBH)n-- material (PIB) and borazine c-(NHBH)3. The latter is a volatile inorganic analog of benzene, which is highly undesirable in the H2 feed. While AB exceeds volumetric and gravimetric density targets for a hydrogen storage material, three additional physical obstacles must be overcome: (i) increasing the rates of H2 release at temperatures below 80 ^oC, (ii) preventing borazine formation and (iii) demonstrating the potential for reversibility. There are reports that nano-phase metal hydrides show

  16. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliard, R K; Postma, A K; Jeppson, D W

    1983-03-01

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues.

  17. Methods of controlling hydrogen fluoride pressure during chemical fabrication processes

    DOEpatents

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav [Rocky Point, NY; Wiesmann, Harold [Stony Brook, NY

    2009-11-24

    The present invention is a method for producing a crystalline end-product. The method comprising exposing a fluoride-containing precursor to a hydrogen fluoride absorber under conditions suitable for the conversion of the precursor into the crystalline end-product.

  18. Surface owner's estate becomes dominant: Wyoming's surface owner consent statute

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, T.

    1981-01-01

    This comment discusses the constitutionality of Wyoming's surface owner consent law in three areas. The first is whether Wyoming's statute is an unconstitutional taking without compensation of the dominant position of the mineral estate holder. The second theory will be that the federal government has preempted the area of mineral lands regulation and therefore Wyoming's statute is void. The third theory is that Wyoming's statute is unconstitutional because it denies equal protection of the law under the fourteenth amendment to the US Constitution. This comment will deal primarily with the reservations of mineral rights under lands the federal government disposed of to private interests. It will not deal with reservations of mineral estates by private parties.

  19. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control saprolegniasis on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Valentine, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Crawford, T.G.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide to control mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs was evaluated at the Lost Valley State Fish Hatchery (Warsaw, MO). Two efficacy trials were conducted. In Trial 1, channel catfish eggs in their natural gelatinous matrix were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0, 500, and 750 mg l(-1). Channel catfish eggs in Trial 2 had the gelatinous matrix removed before treatment with hydrogen peroxide at 0 and 500 mg l(-1). Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate and each egg jar contained similar to 17,400 eggs. Hydrogen peroxide was administered as a 15-min flow-through treatment applied once daily for a total of six applications. Control jars were similarly treated with culture water. Samples of exposure water were collected during each treatment and analyzed to verify actual treatment concentrations. Hydrogen peroxide treatment efficacy was assessed by comparing the percent egg hatch in the treatment group to the untreated control group in each trial. Mean percent hatch in Trial I was 44% (control), 54% (500 mg l(-1)), and 69% (750 mg l(-1)). Hydrogen peroxide treatment at either 500 or 750 mg l(-1) significantly (P<0.01) increased the percent hatch compared to the untreated control group. In Trial 2, hydrogen peroxide treatment at 500 mg l(-1) significantly (P<0.01) increased the percent egg hatch (67%) relative to the untreated controls (57%). Hydrogen peroxide treatment reduced egg mortality and increased the percent hatch of channel catfish eggs regardless of whether eggs were incubated in the gelatinous matrix or without the matrix in comparison to the untreated control. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jieun; Choun, Myounghoon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-19

    Ammonia is beginning to attract a great deal of attention as an alternative energy source carrier, because clean hydrogen can be produced through electrolytic processes without the emission of COx . In this study, we deposited various shapes of Pt catalysts under potentiostatic mode; the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using these catalysts was studied in alkaline media. The electrodeposited Pt was characterized by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. To discover the optimal structure and the effect of ammonia concentration, the bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current of ammonia oxidation were investigated using potential sweep and galvanostatic methods. Finally, ammonia electrolysis was conducted using a zero-gap cell, producing highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Control of graphene's properties by reversible hydrogenation: evidence for graphane.

    PubMed

    Elias, D C; Nair, R R; Mohiuddin, T M G; Morozov, S V; Blake, P; Halsall, M P; Ferrari, A C; Boukhvalov, D W; Katsnelson, M I; Geim, A K; Novoselov, K S

    2009-01-30

    Although graphite is known as one of the most chemically inert materials, we have found that graphene, a single atomic plane of graphite, can react with atomic hydrogen, which transforms this highly conductive zero-overlap semimetal into an insulator. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the obtained graphene derivative (graphane) is crystalline and retains the hexagonal lattice, but its period becomes markedly shorter than that of graphene. The reaction with hydrogen is reversible, so that the original metallic state, the lattice spacing, and even the quantum Hall effect can be restored by annealing. Our work illustrates the concept of graphene as a robust atomic-scale scaffold on the basis of which new two-dimensional crystals with designed electronic and other properties can be created by attaching other atoms and molecules.

  2. Effects of preadoption counseling for owners on house-training success among dogs acquired from shelters.

    PubMed

    Herron, Meghan E; Lord, Linda K; Hill, Lawrence N; Reisner, Ilana R

    2007-08-15

    To determine the effect of preadoption counseling for owners on house-training success among dogs acquired from shelters. Prospective study. 113 dog owners. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 54) or a control (59) group. Dog owners in the treatment group received counseling (5 minutes' duration) regarding house-training. Owners in the control group did not receive counseling, but all other adoption procedures were otherwise identical to those applied to the treatment group. All participants were contacted by telephone 1 month after adoption of a dog for assessment of house-training status and related issues by use of a standardized survey method; data were compared between groups. Most shelter dogs were considered successfully house-trained by their owners 1 month after adoption. Furthermore, dogs were considered house-trained by significantly more owners who received preadoption counseling than control group owners (98.1% vs 86.4%). Owners who received counseling used verbal punishment on their dogs during house-training less frequently and applied enzymatic cleaners to urine- or feces-soiled areas more frequently than owners in the control group. Results have suggested that brief preadoption counseling for owners enhances successful house-training of dogs adopted from shelters. Counseling owners at the time of pet acquisition may thus have beneficial effects in the prevention of inappropriate elimination behaviors. Veterinarians and animal care staff should be encouraged to devote time to counsel new pet owners on successful house-training, as well as other healthcare and behavioral needs.

  3. Controlling Hydrogen Embrittlement in Ultra-High Strength Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    H) can be co-deposited during plating and may enter the steel substrate .𔃽, 4 A post-plating baking process is frequently required to remove this...bias the results presented here. Determination of diffusible hydrogen concentration The Barnacle Electrode method was used to measure diffusible...extraction solution in the Barnacle cell. One hour prior to and during extraction, Ca(OH) 2 solution was deaerated continuously using N2. During

  4. Efficient Conjugated Polymer-Methyl Viologen Electron Transfer System for Controlled Photo-Driven Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huan; Hu, Rong; Bai, Haotian; Chen, Hui; Lv, Fengting; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu; Tian, He

    2017-03-13

    Photo-driven hydrogen production has been a good strategy in solar energy utilization. In this work, we use a water-soluble negatively charged polythiophene derivative as photosensitizer to produce hydrogen from aqueous solution containing methyl viologen (MV2+), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA) and a colloidal platinum catalyst upon exposure to Xenon lamp (> 420 nm) or natural sunlight. The supramolecular assembly and dis-assembly processes of MV2+ and cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) was further used to reversibly "turn-on" and "turn-off" hydrogen generation of the polymer system. This research offers a proof-of-concept to control hydrogen generation in demand, which is an advantage for hydrogen utilization and storage.

  5. Optimal control strategies for hydrogen production when coupling solid oxide electrolysers with intermittent renewable energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qiong; Adjiman, Claire S.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2014-12-01

    The penetration of intermittent renewable energies requires the development of energy storage technologies. High temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs) as a potential energy storage technology, provides the prospect of a cost-effective and energy efficient route to clean hydrogen production. The development of optimal control strategies when SOEC systems are coupled with intermittent renewable energies is discussed. Hydrogen production is examined in relation to energy consumption. Control strategies considered include maximizing hydrogen production, minimizing SOEC energy consumption and minimizing compressor energy consumption. Optimal control trajectories of the operating variables over a given period of time show feasible control for the chosen situations. Temperature control of the SOEC stack is ensured via constraints on the overall temperature difference across the cell and the local temperature gradient within the SOEC stack, to link materials properties with system performance; these constraints are successfully managed. The relative merits of the optimal control strategies are analyzed.

  6. America’s female family forest owners

    Treesearch

    Emily Silver; Sarah M. Butler; Brett J. Butler

    2015-01-01

    According to the latest data from the US Forest Service National Woodland Owner Survey, there are an estimated 4 million family forest ownerships (with 10+ acres) across the U.S. Approximately 20% of these ownerships have a woman as the primary owner. A great percentage of the other ownerships are owned by a couple where the second owner is a woman and, given normal...

  7. The forest-land owners of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas S. Powell

    1978-01-01

    Ninety-two percent of the commercial forest land in Kentucky--11 million acres--is in the hands of some 455,600 private owners. Ninety-four percent of these owners are individuals. The "average" individual owner is in late middle age, has little formal education, receives a modest income, has a farm or rural background, has owned his woodland more than 10...

  8. Family Forest Owner Trends in the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Zhao. Ma

    2011-01-01

    Understanding forest ownership trends is critical for understanding forest trends. In the northern United States, where 55% of the forestland is controlled by families and individuals, it is imperative that we understand the trends within this complex and dynamic group of owners. The US Forest Service conducted forest landowner surveys across this region, and the rest...

  9. How do guide dogs of blind owners and pet dogs of sighted owners (Canis familiaris) ask their owners for food?

    PubMed

    Gaunet, Florence

    2008-07-01

    Although there are some indications that dogs (Canis familiaris) use the eyes of humans as a cue during human-dog interactions, the exact conditions under which this holds true are unclear. Analysing whether the interactive modalities of guide dogs and pet dogs differ when they interact with their blind, and sighted owners, respectively, is one way to tackle this problem; more specifically, it allows examining the effect of the visual status of the owner. The interactive behaviours of dogs were recorded when the dogs were prevented from accessing food that they had previously learned to access. A novel audible behaviour was observed: dogs licked their mouths sonorously. Data analyses showed that the guide dogs performed this behaviour longer and more frequently than the pet dogs; seven of the nine guide dogs and two of the nine pet dogs displayed this behaviour. However, gazing at the container where the food was and gazing at the owner (with or without sonorous mouth licking), gaze alternation between the container and the owner, vocalisation and contact with the owner did not differ between groups. Together, the results suggest that there is no overall distinction between guide and pet dogs in exploratory, learning and motivational behaviours and in their understanding of their owner's attentional state, i.e. guide dogs do not understand that their owner cannot see (them). However, results show that guide dogs are subject to incidental learning and suggest that they supplemented their way to trigger their owners' attention with a new distal cue.

  10. Forest owner incentives to protect riparian habitat.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig; Rebecca L. Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Private landowners increasingly are asked to cooperate with landscape-level management to protect or enhance ecological resources. We examine the willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in the Pacific Northwest (USA) to forego harvesting within riparian areas to improve riparian habitat. An empirical model is developed describing owners' willingness to...

  11. The forest-land owners of Delaware

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; James C. Finley

    1975-01-01

    A statistical-analytical report on a mail canvass of the owners of privately owned forest land in Delaware, based on a study made in conjunction with the second forest survey of Delaware by the USDA Forest Service. Statistical findings are based on responses supplied by owners to a questionnaire. Trends in forest-land ownership and the attitudes and intentions of...

  12. Forest-land owners of Vermont--1983

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1988-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on a mail canvass of private timberland owners in Vermont. The study was conducted in conjunction with the third forest survey of Vermont by the USDA Forest Service. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, and intentions of owners regarding reasons for owning, recreational use, timber management, and harvesting.

  13. 29 CFR 541.101 - Business owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business owner. 541.101 Section 541.101 Labor Regulations... Executive Employees § 541.101 Business owner. The term “employee employed in a bona fide executive capacity... equity interest in the enterprise in which the employee is employed, regardless of whether the business...

  14. 29 CFR 541.101 - Business owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Business owner. 541.101 Section 541.101 Labor Regulations... Executive Employees § 541.101 Business owner. The term “employee employed in a bona fide executive capacity... equity interest in the enterprise in which the employee is employed, regardless of whether the business...

  15. 29 CFR 541.101 - Business owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Business owner. 541.101 Section 541.101 Labor Regulations... Executive Employees § 541.101 Business owner. The term “employee employed in a bona fide executive capacity... equity interest in the enterprise in which the employee is employed, regardless of whether the business...

  16. 29 CFR 541.101 - Business owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Business owner. 541.101 Section 541.101 Labor Regulations... Executive Employees § 541.101 Business owner. The term “employee employed in a bona fide executive capacity... equity interest in the enterprise in which the employee is employed, regardless of whether the business...

  17. 29 CFR 541.101 - Business owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Business owner. 541.101 Section 541.101 Labor Regulations... Executive Employees § 541.101 Business owner. The term “employee employed in a bona fide executive capacity... equity interest in the enterprise in which the employee is employed, regardless of whether the business...

  18. Forest-land owners of Maine, 1982

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch

    1986-01-01

    Information about the attitudes and objectives of the private forest-land owners is essential to understanding Maine's forest resources. Ninety-six percent of Maine's 17 million acres of timberland is in 180,900 private ownerships. Ninety-two percent of these ownerships are individual and joint ownerships. A majority, 66 percent of the owners, live within a...

  19. A Matlab-Based Graphical User Interface for Simulation and Control Design of a Hydrogen Mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Hanz; Figueroa, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    A Graphical User Interface (GUI) that facilitates prediction and control design tasks for a propellant mixer is described. The Hydrogen mixer is used in rocket test stand operations at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. The mixer injects gaseous hydrogen (GH2) into a stream of liquid hydrogen (LH2) to obtain a combined flow with desired thermodynamic properties. The flows of GH2 and LH2 into the mixer are regulated by two control valves, and a third control valve is installed at the exit of the mixer to regulate the combined flow. The three valves may be simultaneously operated in order to achieve any desired combination of total flow, exit temperature and mixer pressure within the range of operation. The mixer, thus, constitutes a three-input, three-output system. A mathematical model of the mixer has been obtained and validated with experimental data. The GUI presented here uses the model to predict mixer response under diverse conditions.

  20. A Matlab-Based Graphical User Interface for Simulation and Control Design of a Hydrogen Mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, Hanz; Figueroa, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    A Graphical User Interface (GUI) that facilitates prediction and control design tasks for a propellant mixer is described. The Hydrogen mixer is used in rocket test stand operations at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. The mixer injects gaseous hydrogen (GH2) into a stream of liquid hydrogen (LH2) to obtain a combined flow with desired thermodynamic properties. The flows of GH2 and LH2 into the mixer are regulated by two control valves, and a third control valve is installed at the exit of the mixer to regulate the combined flow. The three valves may be simultaneously operated in order to achieve any desired combination of total flow, exit temperature and mixer pressure within the range of operation. The mixer, thus, constitutes a three-input, three-output system. A mathematical model of the mixer has been obtained and validated with experimental data. The GUI presented here uses the model to predict mixer response under diverse conditions.

  1. Postadsorption Work Function Tuning via Hydrogen Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The work function of metal substrates can be easily tuned, for instance, by adsorbing layers of molecular electron donors and acceptors. In this work, we discuss the possibility of changing the donor/acceptor mixing ratio reversibly after adsorption by choosing a donor/acceptor pair that is coupled via a redox reaction and that is in equilibrium with a surrounding gas phase. We discuss such a situation for the example of tetrafluoro-1,4-benzenediol (TFBD)/tetrafluoro-1,4-benzoquinone (TFBQ), adsorbed on Cu(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. We use density functional theory and ab initio thermodynamics to show that arbitrary TFBD/TFBQ mixing ratios can be set using hydrogen pressures attainable in low to ultrahigh vacuum. Adjusting the mixing ratio allows modifying the work function over a range of about 1 eV. Finally, we contrast single-species submonolayers with mixed layers to discuss why the resulting inhomogeneities in the electrostatic energy above the surface have different impacts on the interfacial level alignment and the work function. PMID:26692915

  2. Hydrogen-bond-driven controlled molecular marriage in covalent cages.

    PubMed

    Acharyya, Koushik; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2014-02-03

    A supramolecular approach that uses hydrogen-bonding interaction as a driving force to accomplish exceptional self-sorting in the formation of imine-based covalent organic cages is discussed. Utilizing the dynamic covalent chemistry approach from three geometrically similar dialdehydes (A, B, and D) and the flexible triamine tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (X), three new [3+2] self-assembled nanoscopic organic cages have been synthesized and fully characterized by various techniques. When a complex mixture of the dialdehydes and triamine X was subjected to reaction, it was found that only dialdehyde B (which has OH groups for H-bonding) reacted to form the corresponding cage B3X2 selectively. Surprisingly, the same reaction in the absence of aldehyde B yielded a mixture of products. Theoretical and experimental investigations are in complete agreement that the presence of the hydroxyl moiety adjacent to the aldehyde functionality in B is responsible for the selective formation of cage B3X2 from a complex reaction mixture. This spectacular selection was further analyzed by transforming a nonpreferred (non-hydroxy) cage into a preferred (hydroxy) cage B3X2 by treating the former with aldehyde B. The role of the H-bond in partner selection in a mixture of two dialdehydes and two amines has also been established. Moreover, an example of unconventional imine bond metathesis in organic cage-to-cage transformation is reported. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  4. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning.

  5. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    PubMed Central

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  6. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  7. Small Signal Modelling and Control of the Hydrogen Mixer for Facility E1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    We have undertaken the theoretical modelling of an existing liquid hydrogen (LH2) and gas hydrogen (GH2) mixer subsystem of the E1 Ground Test Facility at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. The E1 test facility carries out comprehensive ground-based testing and certification of various liquid rocket engines and their components. The mixer described in this work is responsible for combining high pressure LH2 and GH2 to produce a hydrogen flow that meets certain thermodynamic properties before it is fed into a test article. The desired properties are maintained by precise control of the mixture of LH2 and GH2 flows. The mixer is modelled as a general multi-flow lumped volume for single constituent fluids using density and internal energy as states. The set of nonlinear differential equations is linearized about an equilibrium point and the resulting two-state, 3-input linear model is analyzed as a possible candidate for control design.

  8. Multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam for highly efficient hydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Haobo; Wang, Suheng; Ding, Ding; Chen, Mingshu; Liu, Chuan; Tian, Zhongqun; Novoselov, K. S.; Ma, Chao; Deng, Dehui; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen production through water splitting has been considered as a green, pure and high-efficient technique. As an important half-reaction involved, hydrogen evolution reaction is a complex electrochemical process involving liquid-solid-gas three-phase interface behaviour. Therefore, new concepts and strategies of material design are needed to smooth each pivotal step. Here we report a multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam to synergistically promote the hydrogen evolution process. The optimized three-dimensional molybdenum disulfide foam with uniform mesopores, vertically aligned two-dimensional layers and cobalt atoms doping demonstrated a high hydrogen evolution activity and stability. In addition, density functional theory calculations indicate that molybdenum disulfide with moderate cobalt doping content possesses the optimal activity. This study demonstrates the validity of multiscale control in molybdenum disulfide via overall consideration of the mass transport, and the accessibility, quantity and capability of active sites towards electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution, which may also be extended to other energy-related processes. PMID:28401882

  9. Multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam for highly efficient hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiao; Li, Haobo; Wang, Suheng; Ding, Ding; Chen, Mingshu; Liu, Chuan; Tian, Zhongqun; Novoselov, K. S.; Ma, Chao; Deng, Dehui; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen production through water splitting has been considered as a green, pure and high-efficient technique. As an important half-reaction involved, hydrogen evolution reaction is a complex electrochemical process involving liquid-solid-gas three-phase interface behaviour. Therefore, new concepts and strategies of material design are needed to smooth each pivotal step. Here we report a multiscale structural and electronic control of molybdenum disulfide foam to synergistically promote the hydrogen evolution process. The optimized three-dimensional molybdenum disulfide foam with uniform mesopores, vertically aligned two-dimensional layers and cobalt atoms doping demonstrated a high hydrogen evolution activity and stability. In addition, density functional theory calculations indicate that molybdenum disulfide with moderate cobalt doping content possesses the optimal activity. This study demonstrates the validity of multiscale control in molybdenum disulfide via overall consideration of the mass transport, and the accessibility, quantity and capability of active sites towards electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution, which may also be extended to other energy-related processes.

  10. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Susan; Shepherd, Megan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP) to pets (dogs and cats) is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition. PMID:28265510

  11. Survey of owner motivations and veterinary input of owners feeding diets containing raw animal products.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Stewart K; Willis, Susan; Shepherd, Megan L

    2017-01-01

    The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP) to pets (dogs and cats) is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet's diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both 'in general' and 'with respect to nutrition' than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet's nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition.

  12. A survey of owners' perceptions and experiences of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism in the UK.

    PubMed

    Boland, Lara A; Murray, Jane K; Bovens, Catherine Pv; Hibbert, Angie

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of radioiodine treatment of feline hyperthyroidism is well established; however, limited information is known about owners' perceptions or experiences of radioiodine. This study aimed to examine factors that influence owner treatment choices and their opinions following radioiodine. Surveys were sent to owners of cats referred for radioiodine treatment between 2002 and 2011 (radioiodine group; 264 cats) and owners of non-radioiodine-treated hyperthyroid cats seen at first-opinion practices (control group; 199 cats). The response rate was 67.0% (310 returned: 175 radioiodine, 135 control). Of 135 controls, 72 (53.3%) were unaware of radioiodine as a treatment option. Owners of cats ⩾15 years old and uninsured cats were less likely to pursue radioiodine. Cost of treatment, travel distance, potential human or animal health risks and waiting periods for radioiodine had a low impact on owners' treatment choice. Owners reported a moderate level of concern about treatment hospitalisation length, which included (158 respondents) the possibility of the cat being unhappy 130 (82.3%), owner missing the cat 102 (64.6%), inappetence 50 (31.6%), other pets missing the cat 32 (20.3%), development of co-morbid disease 28 (17.7%) and side effects 25 (15.8%). Owners assessed their cat's quality of life on a scale of 1 (very poor) to 10 (excellent), as 4 (4) (median [interquartile range]) pre-radioiodine (134 respondents) and 9 (2) post-radioiodine (131 respondents). Of 132 respondents, 121 (91.7%) were happy with their decision to choose radioiodine. The results of this questionnaire may assist veterinarians in addressing common owner concerns when discussing radioiodine as a treatment option for hyperthyroidism.

  13. Butterfly valve with metal seals controls flow of hydrogen from cryogenic through high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. D.

    1967-01-01

    Butterfly valve with metal seals operates over a temperature range of minus 423 degrees to plus 440 degrees F with hydrogen as a medium and in a radiation environment. Media flow is controlled by an internal butterfly disk which is rotated by an actuation shaft.

  14. Recent Development Affect Woodland Owner Tax Issues

    Treesearch

    William C. Siegel

    2002-01-01

    This article will begin with discussion of several recent income and gift tax developments of interest to woodland owners. It will be followed by a question recently brought to my attention and the answer provided.

  15. Small Business Development and Gender of Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catley, Suzanne; Hamilton, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    A literature review shows that few fundamental differences between men and women business owners have been substantiated. Primary reasons for self-employment are not gender specific, and research on psychological differences is inconclusive. (SK)

  16. Pressure control and analysis report: Hydrogen Thermal Test Article (HTTA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Tasks accomplished during the HTTA Program study period included: (1) performance of a literature review to provide system guidelines; (2) development of analytical procedures needed to predict system performance; (3) design and analysis of the HTTA pressurization system considering (a) future utilization of results in the design of a spacecraft maneuvering system propellant package, (b) ease of control and operation, (c) system safety, and (d) hardware cost; and (4) making conclusions and recommendations for systems design.

  17. Owner experiences in treating dogs and cats diagnosed with diabetes mellitus in the United States.

    PubMed

    Aptekmann, Karina P; Armstrong, Jane; Coradini, Marcia; Rand, Jacquie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report owner experiences and satisfaction in treating a pet with diabetes mellitus using a descriptive report from an Internet-based survey. Descriptive analysis of results was performed, χ(2) tests were used to detect differences in responses between dog and cat owners, and correlations were assessed using the nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. A total of 834 owners participated in the survey. More diabetic dogs (97%) than cats (82%) were treated with insulin injections. Insulin was administered twice daily in 87% of dogs and 73% of cats. Porcine lente and neutral protamine Hagedorn were the most commonly administered insulins in dogs. In cats, glargine and protamine zinc insulin were the most commonly used insulins. Most pets were not fed a prescribed diabetes diet. More cat (66%) than dog (50%) owners were satisfied with the diabetic control achieved. Cat owners were more likely to use home blood glucose monitoring. Treatment was considered expensive by the majority of owners. Few published reports follow diabetic pets after diagnosis or report owner satisfaction. The results of this study provide useful information that may help veterinarians better educate owners and set expectations regarding diabetes treatment and quality of life for diabetic pets.

  18. Optimizing the Binding Energy of Hydrogen on Nanostructured Carbon Materials through Structure Control and Chemical Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Liu

    2011-02-01

    The DOE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) was formed in 2005 to develop materials for hydrogen storage systems to be used in light-duty vehicles. The HSCoE and two related centers of excellence were created as follow-on activities to the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) Hydrogen Storage Grand Challenge Solicitation issued in FY 2003. The Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE) focuses on developing high-capacity sorbents with the goal to operate at temperatures and pressures approaching ambient and be efficiently and quickly charged in the tank with minimal energy requirements and penalties to the hydrogen fuel infrastructure. The work was directed at overcoming barriers to achieving DOE system goals and identifying pathways to meet the hydrogen storage system targets. To ensure that the development activities were performed as efficiently as possible, the HSCoE formed complementary, focused development clusters based on the following four sorption-based hydrogen storage mechanisms: 1. Physisorption on high specific surface area and nominally single element materials 2. Enhanced H2 binding in Substituted/heterogeneous materials 3. Strong and/or multiple H2 binding from coordinated but electronically unsatruated metal centers 4. Weak Chemisorption/Spillover. As a member of the team, our group at Duke studied the synthesis of various carbon-based materials, including carbon nanotubes and microporous carbon materials with controlled porosity. We worked closely with other team members to study the effect of pore size on the binding energy of hydrogen to the carbon –based materials. Our initial project focus was on the synthesis and purification of small diameter, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with well-controlled diameters for the study of their hydrogen storage properties as a function of diameters. We developed a chemical vapor deposition method that synthesized gram quantities of carbon nanotubes with

  19. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    PubMed

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  20. Reversible single spin control of individual magnetic molecule by hydrogen atom adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liwei; Yang, Kai; Jiang, Yuhang; Song, Boqun; Xiao, Wende; Li, Linfei; Zhou, Haitao; Wang, Yeliang; Du, Shixuan; Ouyang, Min; Hofer, Werner A; Castro Neto, Antonio H; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The reversible control of a single spin of an atom or a molecule is of great interest in Kondo physics and a potential application in spin based electronics. Here we demonstrate that the Kondo resonance of manganese phthalocyanine molecules on a Au(111) substrate have been reversibly switched off and on via a robust route through attachment and detachment of single hydrogen atom to the magnetic core of the molecule. As further revealed by density functional theory calculations, even though the total number of electrons of the Mn ion remains almost the same in the process, gaining one single hydrogen atom leads to redistribution of charges within 3d orbitals with a reduction of the molecular spin state from S = 3/2 to S = 1 that directly contributes to the Kondo resonance disappearance. This process is reversed by a local voltage pulse or thermal annealing to desorb the hydrogen atom.

  1. Implementation and analysis of temperature control strategies for outdoor photobiological hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Androga, Dominic Deo; Uyar, Basar; Koku, Harun; Eroglu, Inci

    2016-12-01

    For outdoor photobiological hydrogen production, the effective control of temperature in photobioreactors is a challenge. In this work, an internal cooling system for outdoor tubular photobioreactors was designed, built, and tested. The temperatures in the reactors with bacteria were consistently higher than those without bacteria, and were also strongly influenced by solar irradiation and ambient air temperature. The cooling protocol applied successfully kept the reactor temperatures below the threshold limit (38 °C) required for the bioprocess and provided a uniform distribution of temperature along the reactor tube length. The biomass growth and hydrogen production were similar in the reactors cooled co-currently and counter-currently. The biomass growth rate was 0.1 l/h, the maximum hydrogen production rate was 1.28 mol/m(3)/h, and the overall hydrogen yield obtained was 20 %. The change in the biomass was fitted using the logistic model while cumulative hydrogen production was fitted using the modified Gompertz equation.

  2. Effect of pH control strategies and substrate concentration on the hydrogen yield from fermentative hydrogen production in large laboratory-scale.

    PubMed

    Mariakakis, I; Krampe, J; Steinmetz, H

    2012-01-01

    A series of batch experiments investigating two different pH control strategies, initial pH adjustment and continuous pH control, have been carried out in large laboratory-scale reactors with working volumes of 30 L. In both cases, pH was varied between 5 and 7.5. Sucrose concentrations were also varied starting from 0 up to 30 g/L. Higher hydrogen production yields can be achieved by batch experiments through continuous pH control than by simple initial pH adjustment. In the case of continuous pH control, maximization of hydrogen yield was acquired for slightly acidic pH of 6.5. Continuous pH control in the neutral pH range of 7.0 and in pH lower than 6.5, induced a reduction in the hydrogen production yield. Sucrose can be completely degraded only for a pH higher than 6. Lower pH values seem to inhibit the hydrogen-producing bacteria. Under the conditions of continuous pH adjustment at pH 6.5 and a sucrose concentration of 25 g/L the maximum hydrogen yield of 1.79 mol H(2)/mol hexose was obtained. These conditions could be applied for the batch start-up of large fermentors.

  3. Attitudes of dog owners to neutering pets: demographic data and effects of owner attitudes.

    PubMed

    Blackshaw, J K; Day, C

    1994-04-01

    A survey of the attitudes of dog owners to desexing male and female dogs was conducted in the Brisbane area. Over 15,800 replies (35% response) were returned for analyses and included both demographic and attitude data. The most common reasons given by owners for not having the dog desexed were that it was unnecessary or they wanted to breed from it or could not afford it or did not agree with it or that the dog was too old or it might get fat. Nearly twice as many male owners agreed that desexing male dogs removed maleness and also more males agreed with the question "Do you equate dog sexuality with human sexuality?" Female owners were more aware than males that their female dogs did not need to have a season (oestrus) or a litter before being desexed. More male owners thought that desexing changed a male or female dog's personality. A disturbing fact was that 61.1% of male owners and 47.3% of female owners would now not have their dog desexed if it had not already been done. More male than female dog owners were ignorant about whether desexing changed personality, made dogs frustrated, or if female dogs should have a season or a litter before desexing. The study showed a gender bias in owner attitudes to all the attitude questions.

  4. Investigating interactions between UK horse owners and prescribers of anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Easton, Stephanie; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Tzelos, Thomas; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-12-01

    Helminths are common pathogens of equids and anthelmintic resistance is a major issue in cyathostomin species and Parascaris equorum. At the heart of mitigating the impact of increasing anthelmintic resistance levels, is the responsible dissemination and use of these medicines following best practice principles. There is a paucity of information on interactions between horse owners and anthelmintic prescribers and how this shapes control. Here, a study was undertaken to determine opinions and experiences of horse owners as they relate to anthelmintics purchase and implementation of best practice control. An online survey was distributed via email and social media to explore owners' experiences of purchasing anthelmintics from United Kingdom prescribers, these being veterinarians, suitably qualified persons (SQPs) and pharmacists. Owner responses (n=494) were analysed statistically to compare answers of respondents grouped according to: (i) from whom they bought anthelmintics (Veterinarians n=60; SQPs n=256; Pharmacists n=42; More than one channel n=136), and (ii) by which route (Face-to-face n=234; Telephone n=31; Online n=226) they purchased. Owners who purchased from veterinarians predominantly did so face-to-face (81.3%), whilst those that bought from SQPs purchased via face-to-face (48.8%) and online (46.0%) interactions. Those who purchased from pharmacists predominantly bought anthelmintics online (76.2%). Participants who bought from veterinarians were more likely to view certain factors (i.e. time to talk to the supplier, supplier knowledge) as more important than those who purchased from other prescribers. Those who purchased from veterinarians were more likely to be recommended faecal egg count (FEC) test analysis; however, there was high uptake of FEC testing across all groups. There was a low uptake of anthelmintic efficacy testing; regardless of the prescriber type from whom anthelmintics were purchased. Those who purchased from veterinarians were more

  5. Hydrogen Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  6. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of a...

  7. 24 CFR 983.302 - Redetermination of rent to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... redetermination. Rent to owner is redetermined by written notice by the PHA to the owner specifying the amount of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Redetermination of rent to owner... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.302 Redetermination of rent to...

  8. The Paradox of the Contented Female Business Owner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Eddleston, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    According to survey responses from 201 business owners, although the firms of male business owners were more successful than those of female business owners on frequently used measures of business success (business performance compared to competitors and sales), business owner sex did not predict satisfaction with business success, supporting the…

  9. 7 CFR 1780.70 - Owner's procurement regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Owner's procurement regulations. 1780.70 Section 1780..., Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.70 Owner's procurement regulations. Owner's procurement... other interest in the firm selected for the award. (1) The owner's officers, employees or agents shall...

  10. 46 CFR 160.076-37 - Owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Owner's manual. 160.076-37 Section 160.076-37 Shipping... Owner's manual. (a) General. The manufacturer must provide an owner's manual with each inflatable PFD... accordance with § 160.076-13. (b) Manual contents. Each owner's manual must contain the information specified...

  11. 46 CFR 160.076-37 - Owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Owner's manual. 160.076-37 Section 160.076-37 Shipping... Owner's manual. (a) General. The manufacturer must provide an owner's manual with each inflatable PFD... accordance with § 160.076-13. (b) Manual contents. Each owner's manual must contain the information specified...

  12. 46 CFR 160.076-37 - Owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Owner's manual. 160.076-37 Section 160.076-37 Shipping... Owner's manual. (a) General. The manufacturer must provide an owner's manual with each inflatable PFD... accordance with § 160.076-13. (b) Manual contents. Each owner's manual must contain the information specified...

  13. 43 CFR 3427.5 - Unqualified surface owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unqualified surface owners. 3427.5 Section... § 3427.5 Unqualified surface owners. (a) Lease tracts involving surface owners who are not qualified (see § 3400.0-5(gg)) shall be leased subject to the protections afforded the surface owner by the statute(s...

  14. 43 CFR 3427.5 - Unqualified surface owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unqualified surface owners. 3427.5 Section... § 3427.5 Unqualified surface owners. (a) Lease tracts involving surface owners who are not qualified (see § 3400.0-5(gg)) shall be leased subject to the protections afforded the surface owner by the statute(s...

  15. 43 CFR 3427.5 - Unqualified surface owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unqualified surface owners. 3427.5 Section... § 3427.5 Unqualified surface owners. (a) Lease tracts involving surface owners who are not qualified (see § 3400.0-5(gg)) shall be leased subject to the protections afforded the surface owner by the statute(s...

  16. 43 CFR 3427.5 - Unqualified surface owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unqualified surface owners. 3427.5 Section... § 3427.5 Unqualified surface owners. (a) Lease tracts involving surface owners who are not qualified (see § 3400.0-5(gg)) shall be leased subject to the protections afforded the surface owner by the statute(s...

  17. 24 CFR 982.453 - Owner breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner breach of contract. 982.453... Contract and Owner Responsibility § 982.453 Owner breach of contract. (a) Any of the following actions by the owner (including a principal or other interested party) is a breach of the HAP contract by...

  18. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  19. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  20. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  1. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  2. The Paradox of the Contented Female Business Owner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary N.; Eddleston, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    According to survey responses from 201 business owners, although the firms of male business owners were more successful than those of female business owners on frequently used measures of business success (business performance compared to competitors and sales), business owner sex did not predict satisfaction with business success, supporting the…

  3. Private forest owners of the Central Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A recently completed survey of woodland owners provides insight into the owners of private forest lands in the Central Hardwood Region. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the numbers of nonindustrial private forest-land owners. Over half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some time in the past, they...

  4. Personality correlates of self-employed small business owners' success.

    PubMed

    Owens, Kimberly S; Kirwan, Jeral R; Lounsbury, John W; Levy, Jacob J; Gibson, Lucy W

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on prior occupational choice research on entrepreneurs and self-employed business owners, we examined personality predictors of their occupational business success and work satisfaction. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURES: A sample of 147 small business owners completed a web-based assessment of 14 work-related personality traits--adaptability, autonomy, competitiveness, dependability, emotional resilience, goal-setting, optimism, persistence, risk tolerance, self-promotion, networking, and tolerance for financial insecurity, work-based locus of control, and work drive--and three self-reported indices of business success--revenue growth, profit growth, and income growth--as well as multiple facets of individual satisfaction. Criterion variables included composite business success and overall satisfaction. Ten traits correlated with business success. The top four personality predictors of success--goal-setting, social networking, emotional resilience, and work drive--together accounted for 16% of the variance. Similarly, 12 of 14 personality traits were positively related to overall satisfaction. The top three personality predictors of satisfaction--optimism, work-based locus of control, and work drive--accounted for 29% of the variability in satisfaction. An expectancy analysis revealed that the percent of participants who reported at least a 20% increase in sales and profits the preceding year was 26% versus 54% for individual scoring in the lower and upper third of a personality composite measure. Results carry implications for future research, and have direct, practical applications for prospective and current entrepreneurs and self-employed owners of small businesses.

  5. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners' self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pet owners in total, were conducted. Pet owners often reported a perceived a low level of control over feeding; often undermined by other people feeding of their pet, their pets begging for food, and their pets attitude towards food. Treats were used in the absence of owner control over pet begging and emotional attachment, and to influence pet behaviour. The majority of participants had positive attitudes to pet exercise, which could be related to pet specific requirements, especially differences in cats and dogs. There were some negative experiences of stress associated with dog walking and fears over aggressive confrontations with other dogs. Feeding one's pet is influenced by beliefs about pet specific needs, pet food and pet health, pet owners' perceived control over feeding, and the implications for the pet owner. Pet exercise is influenced by beliefs about pet specific exercise needs, and the implications of exercising one's pet for the pet owner. Understanding owner behaviours on feeding and exercise allows for a more targeted approach to preventing and treating pet obesity.

  6. Comparison of field olfactometers in a controlled chamber using hydrogen sulfide as the test odorant.

    PubMed

    McGinley, M A; McGinley, C M

    2004-01-01

    A standard method for measuring and quantifying odour in the ambient air utilizes a portable odour detecting and measuring device known as a field olfactometer (US Public Health Service Project Grant A-58-541). The field olfactometer dynamically dilutes the ambient air with carbon-filtered air in distinct ratios known as "Dilutions-to-Threshold" dilution factors (D/Ts), i.e. 2, 4, 7, 15, etc. Thirteen US states and several cities in North America currently utilize field olfactometry as a key component of determining compliance to odour regulations and ordinances. A controlled environmental chamber was utilized, with hydrogen sulfide as the known test odorant. A hydrogen sulfide environment was created in this controlled chamber using an Advanced Calibration Designs, Inc. Cal2000 Hydrogen Sulfide Generator. The hydrogen sulfide concentration inside the chamber was monitored using an Arizona Instruments, Inc. Jerome Model 631 H2S Analyzer. When the environmental chamber reached a desired test concentration, test operators entered the chamber. The dilution-to-threshold odour concentration was measured using a Nasal Ranger Field Olfactometer (St Croix Sensory, Inc.) and a Barnebey Sutcliffe Corp. Scentometer. The actual hydrogen sulfide concentration was also measured at the location in the room where the operators were standing while using the two types of field olfactometers. This paper presents a correlation between dilution-to-threshold values (D/T) and hydrogen sulfide ambient concentration. For example, a D/T of 7 corresponds to ambient H2S concentrations of 5.7-15.6 microg/m3 (4-11 ppbv). During this study, no significant difference was found between results obtained using the Scentometer or the Nasal Ranger (r = 0.82). Also, no significant difference was found between results of multiple Nasal Ranger users (p = 0.309). The field olfactometers yielded hydrogen sulfide thresholds of 0.7-3.0 microg/m3 (0.5-2.0 ppbv). Laboratory olfactometry yielded comparable

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  8. Nanometer-scale hydrogen 'portals' for the control of magnesium hydride formation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chia-Jung; Nivargi, Chinmay; Clemens, Bruce

    2015-11-21

    Magnesium and Mg-based material systems are attractive candidates for hydrogen storage but limited by unsuitable thermodynamic and kinetic properties. In particular, the kinetics are too slow at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. To study the hydride formation kinetics in a controlled way, we have designed a unique 'nanoportal' structure of Pd nanoparticles deposited on epitaxial Mg thin films, through which the hydride will nucleate only under Pd nanoparticles. We propose a growth mechanism for the hydrogenation reaction in the nanoportal structure, which is supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of hydrogenated samples exhibiting consistent results. Interestingly, the grain boundaries of Mg films play an important role in hydride nucleation and growth processes. Kinetic modeling based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) formalism seems to agree with the two-dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism hypothesized and the overall reaction rate is limited by hydrogen flux through the interface between the Pd nanoparticle and the underlying Mg film. The fact that in our structure Mg can be transformed completely into MgH2 with only a small percentage of Pd nanoparticles offers possibilities for future on-board storage applications.

  9. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  10. 24 CFR 880.506 - Default by owner (private-owner/HUD and PHA-owner/HUD projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM FOR... and PHA-owner/HUD projects). 880.506 Section 880.506 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  11. 24 CFR 880.506 - Default by owner (private-owner/HUD and PHA-owner/HUD projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM FOR... and PHA-owner/HUD projects). 880.506 Section 880.506 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS...

  12. 24 CFR 880.506 - Default by owner (private-owner/HUD and PHA-owner/HUD projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM FOR... and PHA-owner/HUD projects). 880.506 Section 880.506 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS...

  13. 24 CFR 880.506 - Default by owner (private-owner/HUD and PHA-owner/HUD projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM FOR... and PHA-owner/HUD projects). 880.506 Section 880.506 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS...

  14. 24 CFR 880.506 - Default by owner (private-owner/HUD and PHA-owner/HUD projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM FOR... and PHA-owner/HUD projects). 880.506 Section 880.506 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS...

  15. Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Engine Hydrogen Flow Control Valve Poppet Breakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Hugo E.; Damico, Stephen; Brewer, John

    2011-01-01

    The Main Propulsion System (MPS) uses three Flow Control Valves (FCV) to modulate the flow of pressurant hydrogen gas from the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) to the hydrogen External Tank (ET). This maintains pressure in the ullage volume as the liquid level drops, preserving ET structural integrity and assuring the engines receive a sufficient amount of head pressure. On Space Transportation System (STS)-126 (2009), with only a handful of International Space Station (ISS) assembly flights from the end of the Shuttle program, a portion of a single FCV?s poppet head broke off at about a minute and a half after liftoff. The risk of the poppet head failure is that the increased flow area through the FCV could result in excessive gaseous hydrogen flow back to the external tank, which could result in overboard venting of hydrogen ullage pressure. If the hydrogen venting were to occur in first stage (i.e., lower atmosphere), a flammability hazard exists that could lead to catastrophic loss of crew and vehicle. Other failure risks included particle impact damage to MPS downstream hardware. Although the FCV design had been plagued by contamination-related sluggish valve response problems prior to a redesign at STS-80 (1996), contamination was ruled out as the cause of the STS-126 failure. Employing a combination of enhanced hardware inspection and a better understanding of the consequences of a poppet failure, safe flight rationale for subsequent flights (STS-119 and later) was achieved. This paper deals with the technical lessons learned during the investigation and mitigation of this problem at a time when assembly flights were each in the critical path to Space Station success.

  16. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  17. Distance Education of Pennsylvania Pond Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Katherine L.; Swistock, Bryan R.; Sharpe, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluations by 175 of 557 Pennsylvania pond owners who attended an Extension program via satellite revealed that most were interested in aesthetic/recreational pond use and pond management. They wanted more in-depth information over a shorter time frame. Only 10% did not favor satellite delivery. Shorter, more focused satellite programs and…

  18. Controlling hydrogen scrambling in multiply charged protein ions during collisional activation: implications for top-down hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS utilizing collisional activation in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Abzalimov, Rinat R; Kaltashov, Igor A

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogen exchange in solution combined with ion fragmentation in the gas phase followed by MS detection emerged in recent years as a powerful tool to study higher order protein structure and dynamics. However, a certain type of ion chemistry in the gas phase, namely, internal rearrangement of labile hydrogen atoms (the so-called hydrogen scrambling), is often cited as a factor limiting the utility of this experimental technique. Although several studies have been carried out to elucidate the roles played by various factors in the occurrence and the extent of hydrogen scrambling, there is still no consensus as to what experimental protocol should be followed to avoid or minimize it. In this study we employ fragmentation of mass-selected subpopulations of protein ions to assess the extent of internal proton mobility prior to dissociation. A unique advantage of tandem MS is that it not only provides a means to map the deuterium content of protein ions whose overall levels of isotope incorporation can be precisely defined by controlling the mass selection window, but also correlates this spatial isotope distribution with such global characteristic as the protein ion charge state. Hydrogen scrambling does not occur when the charge state of the precursor protein ions selected for fragmentation is high. Fragment ions derived from both N- and C-terminal parts of the protein are equally unaffected by scrambling. However, spatial distribution of deuterium atoms obtained by fragmenting low-charge-density protein ions is consistent with a very high degree of scrambling prior to the dissociation events. The extent of hydrogen scrambling is also high when multistage fragmentation is used to probe deuterium incorporation locally. Taken together, the experimental results provide a coherent picture of intramolecular processes occurring prior to the dissociation event and provide guidance for the design of experiments whose outcome is unaffected by hydrogen scrambling.

  19. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  20. Dog obesity: owner attitudes and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bland, I M; Guthrie-Jones, A; Taylor, R D; Hill, J

    2009-12-01

    Animal (dog) factors that contribute to obesity are classified into three broad categories: genetic pre-disposition, reproductive management and dietary/exercise (human) management. This paper examined the latter-dietary/exercise (human) management. A quantitative analysis of questionnaire responses from dog owners and veterinarians was used to determine the routine care and obesity management strategies for dogs. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to dog owners in Victoria, Australia. Owners were asked to score the body condition of their animal by comparison with photographic images of animals with condition score ranging from 2 to 5. The management routines of 219 dog owners were received, including data on 302 dogs. There were 168 households with normal weight animals (BCS 2 and 3) and 51 with obese animals (BCS 4 and 5). The mean number of people per household (normally involved with caring for the animal(s)) with normal weight dogs was significantly lower than that of households with dogs categorised as overweight or obese (Kruskal-Wallis, Chi; chi(2)=6.28; 2.2 (s=0.79) vs. 2.5 (s=1.66); d.f.=2, P<0.05). Dog owners identified a preference for main meal feeding of 'twice a day' (60%), followed by 'once daily' (33%), 'greater than or equal to three times daily' (2%), and 'always feed available' (5%). There was a significant difference (Chi; chi(2)=6.30; d.f.=1; P<0.05) in the frequency of main meal feeding between households. Normal weight animals had food divided into two portions, whereas obese animals or animals from mixed households were more often fed their meal in either one or three-plus portions. Almost all owners fed treats (99%) in the daily feed. Households with normal weight dogs gave treats significantly less frequently than households with obese or mixed weight dogs (Chi; chi(2)=31.81; d.f.=6; P<0.001). The frequency of exercise differed between households (Chi; chi(2)=9.9; d.f.=1; P<0.01), with normal weight dogs being exercised daily

  1. Owners' direct gazes increase dogs' attention-getting behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ohkita, Midori; Nagasawa, Miho; Kazutaka, Mogi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether dogs gain information about human's attention via their gazes and whether they change their attention-getting behaviors (i.e., whining and whimpering, looking at their owners' faces, pawing, and approaching their owners) in response to their owners' direct gazes. The results showed that when the owners gazed at their dogs, the durations of whining and whimpering and looking at the owners' faces were longer than when the owners averted their gazes. In contrast, there were no differences in duration of pawing and likelihood of approaching the owners between the direct and averted gaze conditions. Therefore, owners' direct gazes increased the behaviors that acted as distant signals and did not necessarily involve touching the owners. We suggest that dogs are sensitive to human gazes, and this sensitivity may act as attachment signals to humans, and may contribute to close relationships between humans and dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solvent-controlled assembling by hydrogen bridges and halogen-halogen interactions of novel organotin oxo clusters.

    PubMed

    Mehring, Michael; Gabriele, Giuseppina; Hadjikakou, Sotiris; Schürmann, Markus; Dakternieks, Dainis; Jurkschat, Klaus

    2002-04-21

    The crystal structure of the novel methylene-bridged tetraorganodistannoxane ([Ph(HO)SnCH2Sn(I)Ph]O)4 (1) depends on the solvent it is crystallised from and is controlled by hydrogen bridges and interhalogen interactions.

  3. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene in nanosized membrane reactors with accumulated hydrogen and controlled adjustment of their reaction zone volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    As part of ongoing studies aimed at designing the next generation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) with accumulated hydrogen, the noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene in pores of ceramic membranes (TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm) is performed for the first time, using hydrogen preadsorbed in a hybrid carbon nanostructure: mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) that form on inner pore surfaces. In this technique, the reaction proceeds in the temperature range of 330-390°C at contact times of 10-16 h. The feedstock is an 8% naphthalene solution in decane. The products are analyzed via chromatography on a quartz capillary column coated with polydimethylsiloxane (SE-30). It is established for the first time that in NMRs, the noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene occurs at 370-390°C, forming 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene in amounts of up to 0.61%. The rate constants and activation energy (123.5 kJ/mol) of the noncatalytic hydrogenation reaction are determined for the first time. The possibility of designing an NMR with an adjustable reaction zone volume is explored. Changes in the pore structure of the membranes after their modification with pyrocarbon nanosized crystallites (PNCs) are therefore studied as well. It is shown that lengthening the process time reduces pore size: within 23 h after the deposition of PNCs, the average pore radius ( r av) falls from 25 to 3.1 nm. The proposed approach would allow us to design nanoreactors of molecular size and conduct hydrogenation reactions within certain guidelines to synthesize new chemical compounds.

  4. 9 CFR 73.9 - Owners assume responsibility; must execute agreement prior to dipping or treatment waiving all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.9 Owners... United States. When the cattle are to be dipped under APHIS supervision or control, the owner of the cattle offered for shipment, or his agent duly authorized thereto, shall first execute and deliver to an...

  5. 9 CFR 73.9 - Owners assume responsibility; must execute agreement prior to dipping or treatment waiving all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.9 Owners... United States. When the cattle are to be dipped under APHIS supervision or control, the owner of the cattle offered for shipment, or his agent duly authorized thereto, shall first execute and deliver to an...

  6. 9 CFR 73.9 - Owners assume responsibility; must execute agreement prior to dipping or treatment waiving all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.9 Owners... United States. When the cattle are to be dipped under APHIS supervision or control, the owner of the cattle offered for shipment, or his agent duly authorized thereto, shall first execute and deliver to an...

  7. 9 CFR 73.9 - Owners assume responsibility; must execute agreement prior to dipping or treatment waiving all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.9 Owners... United States. When the cattle are to be dipped under APHIS supervision or control, the owner of the cattle offered for shipment, or his agent duly authorized thereto, shall first execute and deliver to an...

  8. 9 CFR 73.9 - Owners assume responsibility; must execute agreement prior to dipping or treatment waiving all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.9 Owners... United States. When the cattle are to be dipped under APHIS supervision or control, the owner of the cattle offered for shipment, or his agent duly authorized thereto, shall first execute and deliver to an...

  9. Business owners' action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries.

    PubMed

    Frese, Michael; Krauss, Stefanie I; Keith, Nina; Escher, Susanne; Grabarkiewicz, Rafal; Luneng, Siv Tonje; Heers, Constanze; Unger, Jens; Friedrich, Christian

    2007-11-01

    A model of business success was developed with motivational resources (locus of control, self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-reported personal initiative) and cognitive resources (cognitive ability and human capital) as independent variables, business owners' elaborate and proactive planning as a mediator, and business size and growth as dependent variables. Three studies with a total of 408 African micro and small-scale business owners were conducted in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Structural equation analyses partially supported the hypotheses on the importance of psychological planning by the business owners. Elaborate and proactive planning was substantially related to business size and to an external evaluation of business success and was a (partial) mediator for the relationship between cognitive resources and business success. The model carries important implications for selection, training, and coaching of business owners.

  10. On the comparison of stochastic model predictive control strategies applied to a hydrogen-based microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, P.; Valverde, L.; Maestre, J. M.; Ocampo-Martinez, C.; Bordons, C.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a performance comparison among three well-known stochastic model predictive control approaches, namely, multi-scenario, tree-based, and chance-constrained model predictive control is presented. To this end, three predictive controllers have been designed and implemented in a real renewable-hydrogen-based microgrid. The experimental set-up includes a PEM electrolyzer, lead-acid batteries, and a PEM fuel cell as main equipment. The real experimental results show significant differences from the plant components, mainly in terms of use of energy, for each implemented technique. Effectiveness, performance, advantages, and disadvantages of these techniques are extensively discussed and analyzed to give some valid criteria when selecting an appropriate stochastic predictive controller.

  11. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  12. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  13. Controllable pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung-Rok; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soohyun

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel compact and controllable pneumatic generator that uses hydrogen peroxide decomposition. A fuel micro-injector using a piston-pump mechanism is devised and tested to control the chemical decomposition rate. By controlling the injection rate, the feedback controller maintains the pressure of the gas reservoir at a desired pressure level. Thermodynamic analysis and experiments are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed pneumatic generator. Using a prototype of the pneumatic generator, it takes 6 s to reach 3.5 bars with a reservoir volume of 200 ml at the room temperature, which is sufficiently rapid and effective to maintain the repetitive lifting of a 1 kg mass.

  14. Capacitively coupled hydrogen plasmas sustained by tailored voltage waveforms: vibrational kinetics and negative ions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomede, P.; Bruneau, B.; Longo, S.; Johnson, E.; Booth, J.-P.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive hybrid model of a hydrogen capacitively coupled plasma, including a detailed description of the molecular vibrational kinetics, has been applied to the study of the effect of tailored voltage waveforms (TVWs) on the production kinetics and transport of negative ions in these discharges. Two kinds of TVWs are considered, valleys-to-peaks and saw-tooth, with amplitude and slope asymmetry respectively. By tailoring the voltage waveform only, it is possible to exert substantial control over the peak density and position of negative ions inside the discharge volume. This control is particularly effective for saw-tooth waveforms. Insight into the mechanisms allowing this control is provided by an analysis of the model results. This reveals the roles of the vibrational distribution function and of the electron energy distribution and their correlations, as well as changes in the negative ion transport in the electric field when using different TVWs. Considering the chemical reactivity of H- ions, the possibility of a purely electrical control of the negative ion cloud in a reactor operating with a feedstock gas diluted by hydrogen may find interesting applications. This is the first study of vibrational kinetics in the context of TVWs in molecular gases.

  15. Optimised photocatalytic hydrogen production using core-shell AuPd promoters with controlled shell thickness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Wilm; Su, Ren; Wells, Peter P; Shen, Yanbin; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Bowker, Michael; Morgan, David; Iversen, Bo B; Chutia, Arunabhiram; Besenbacher, Flemming; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-12-28

    The development of efficient photocatalytic routines for producing hydrogen is of great importance as society moves away from energy sources derived from fossil fuels. Recent studies have identified that the addition of metal nanoparticles to TiO2 greatly enhances the photocatalytic performance of these materials towards the reforming of alcohols for hydrogen production. The core-shell structured Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle supported on TiO2 has being of interest as it exhibited extremely high quantum efficiencies for hydrogen production. However, the effect of shell composition and thickness on photocatalytic performance remains unclear. Here we report the synthesis of core-shell structured AuPd NPs with the controlled deposition of one and two monolayers (ML) equivalent of Pd onto Au NPs by colloidal and photodeposition methods. We have determined the shell composition and thickness of the nanoparticles by a combination of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photocatalytic ethanol reforming showed that the core-shell structured Au-Pd promoters supported on TiO2 exhibit enhanced activity compared to that of monometallic Au and Pd as promoters, whilst the core-shell Au-Pd promoters containing one ML equivalent Pd provide the optimum reactivity.

  16. Inner reorganization limiting electron transfer controlled hydrogen bonding: intra- vs. intermolecular effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Eduardo; Frontana, Carlos

    2014-05-07

    In this work, experimental evidence of the influence of the electron transfer kinetics during electron transfer controlled hydrogen bonding between anion radicals of metronidazole and ornidazole, derivatives of 5-nitro-imidazole, and 1,3-diethylurea as the hydrogen bond donor, is presented. Analysis of the variations of voltammetric EpIcvs. log KB[DH], where KB is the binding constant, allowed us to determine the values of the binding constant and also the electron transfer rate k, confirmed by experiments obtained at different scan rates. Electronic structure calculations at the BHandHLYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level for metronidazole, including the solvent effect by the Cramer/Truhlar model, suggested that the minimum energy conformer is stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. In this structure, the inner reorganization energy, λi,j, contributes significantly (0.5 eV) to the total reorganization energy of electron transfer, thus leading to a diminishment of the experimental k.

  17. Tooth whitening with hydrogen peroxide in adolescents: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo Mendes; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Olivan, Silvia Regina Garcia; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Altavista, Olga Maria; Lumi, Katia; Sobral, Ana Paula Taboada; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-10-14

    Technological innovations in dental materials have been fueled by the desire of patients to improve the esthetics of their teeth. This emphasis on esthetics has led dentists to seek resources that respect the standards established by society, but without compromising the integrity of the teeth. The aim of the proposed controlled clinical trial will be to assess colorimetric changes and increased dental sensitivity in adolescent patients submitted to tooth whitening with 6% and 7.5% hydrogen peroxide using home kits with whitening strips. Adolescents aged 12 to 20 years will be allocated to different groups based on treatment (n = 16 per group): (1) placebo; (2) 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with Calcium, FGM); (3) 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with Calcium, FGM); and (4) 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Oral B 3D White, Oral-B). After the whitening procedures, the participants will be evaluated using a visual analog scale for tooth sensitivity and digital spectrophotometry to measure changes in color. Descriptive analysis of the data will be performed. Either the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test will be used for the determination of associations among the categorical variables. Student's t-test and analysis of variance will be used to compare mean colorimetric data. Pearson's correlation coefficients will be calculated to determine the strength of correlations among the continuous variables. This randomized trial will provide an opportunity to evaluate products such as whitening strips in comparison to other self-administered methods, especially in adolescents. The protocol for this study was submitted to Clinical Trials in November 2013 with registration number NCT01998386.

  18. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis on walleye, white sucker, and paddlefish eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaikowski, M.P.; Rach, J.J.; Drobish, M.; Hamilton, J.; Harder, T.; Lee, L.A.; Moen, C.; Moore, A.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling saprolegniasis on eggs of walleye Stizostedion vitreum, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, and paddlefish Polyodon spathula was evaluated at four private, state, and federal production hatcheries participating in an Investigational New Animal Drug efficacy study (experiment 1; walleyes) and in a laboratory-based miniature egg jar incubation system (experiment 2; walleyes, white suckers, and paddlefish). Naturally occurring fungal infestations (saprolegniasis) were observed on eggs in both experiments. Confirmatory diagnosis of infested eggs from one hatchery in experiment 1 identified the pathogen as Saprolegnia parasitica. During experiment 1, eggs were treated daily for 15 min with either 0, 500, or 750 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide, and one trial compared a 500-mg/L hydrogen peroxide treatment with a formalin treatment at 1,667 mg/L. Saprolegniasis infestation was observed in control egg jars, whereas treatment with either formalin or hydrogen peroxide virtually eliminated the infestation. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 mg/L either increased egg hatch or were as effective as physical removal of infested eggs in controlling mortality. Although treatment with formalin at 1,667 mg/L significantly increased the percent eye-up of walleye eggs compared with that of those treated with hydrogen peroxide at 500 mg/L, the difference was only 1.9-2.6%. In experiment 2, noneyed eggs were treated for 15 min every other day with 0, 283, 565, or 1,130 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide until the viable eggs hatched. Saprolegniasis infestation engulfed most control eggs, whereas infestation of treated eggs was either reduced or not visible. Hydrogen peroxide significantly increased egg hatch for all three species tested in experiment 2. Although hydrogen peroxide treatments as low as 283 mg/L significantly increased walleye and white sucker hatch, treatments between 500 and 1,000 mg/L are more likely to be effective in production egg

  19. Transport Properties of Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surface Controlled by Ionic-Liquid Gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    We fabricated electric double-layer transistors on the hydrogen-terminated (111)-oriented surface of non-doped silicon using ionic liquid as a gate dielectric. We introduced hole carriers into silicon with the application of a negative gate voltage. The sheet resistance of silicon was controlled by more than three orders of magnitude at 220 K by changing the gate voltage. The temperature dependence of sheet resistance became weak as the gate voltage was increased, suggesting the approach to an insulator-metal transition.

  20. Achievement of controlled resistive response of nanogapped palladium film to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M.; Wong, M. H.; Ong, C. W.

    2015-07-20

    Palladium (Pd) film containing nanogaps of well controlled dimension was fabricated on a Si wafer having a high-aspect-ratio micropillar. The Pd film was arranged to experience hydrogen (H{sub 2})-induced volume expansion. (i) If the nanogap is kept open, its width is narrowed down. A discharge current was generated to give a strong, fast, and repeatable on-off type resistive switching response. (ii) If the nanogap is closed, the cross section of the conduction path varies to give continuous H{sub 2}-concentration dependent resistive response. The influence of stresses and related physical mechanisms are discussed.

  1. 37 CFR 42.120 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Review After Institution of Inter Partes Review § 42.120 Patent owner response. (a) Scope. A patent owner may file a...

  2. 37 CFR 42.220 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review After Institution of Post-Grant Review § 42.220 Patent owner response. (a) Scope. A patent owner may file a response...

  3. 37 CFR 42.220 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Post-Grant Review After Institution of Post-Grant Review § 42.220 Patent owner response. (a) Scope. A patent owner may file a response...

  4. 37 CFR 41.9 - Action by owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... proceeding may petition to act in the proceeding to the exclusion of an inventor or a co-owner. The petition must show the inability or refusal of an inventor or co-owner to prosecute the proceeding or...

  5. 31 CFR 210.13 - Notice to account owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE Reclamation of Benefit Payments § 210.13 Notice to account owners. Provision of... any notice required by the Service to be provided to account owners as specified in the Green...

  6. 31 CFR 210.13 - Notice to account owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE Reclamation of Benefit Payments § 210.13 Notice to account owners. Provision of... any notice required by the Service to be provided to account owners as specified in the Green...

  7. 31 CFR 210.13 - Notice to account owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE Reclamation of Benefit Payments § 210.13 Notice to account owners. Provision of... any notice required by the Service to be provided to account owners as specified in the Green...

  8. 31 CFR 210.13 - Notice to account owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE Reclamation of Benefit Payments § 210.13 Notice to account owners. Provision of... any notice required by the Service to be provided to account owners as specified in the Green...

  9. 31 CFR 210.13 - Notice to account owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AUTOMATED CLEARING HOUSE Reclamation of Benefit Payments § 210.13 Notice to account owners. Provision of... any notice required by the Service to be provided to account owners as specified in the Green...

  10. [RAD18 gene product of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide].

    PubMed

    Kozhina, T N; Korolev, V G

    2012-04-01

    Within eukaryotes, tolerance to DNA damage is determined primarily by the repair pathway controlled by the members of the RAD6 epistasis group. Genetic studies on a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model showed that the initial stage of postreplication repair (PRR), i.e., initiation of replication through DNA damage, is controlled by Rad6-Rad18 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex. Mutants of these genes are highly sensitive to various genotoxic agents and reduce the level of induced mutagenesis. In this case, the efficiency of mutagenesis suppression depends on the type of damage. In this study we showed that DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide at the same mutagen doses causes significantly more mutations and lethal events in the rad18 mutant cells compared to control wild-type cells.

  11. Effect of different types of classical music played at a veterinary hospital on dog behavior and owner satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Engler, Whitney J; Bain, Melissa

    2017-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of different types of classical music played during a veterinary visit on dog behavior and owner satisfaction. DESIGN Prospective randomized controlled study. ANIMALS 74 dogs examined at a veterinary teaching hospital. PROCEDURES Dogs examined for a wellness visit, presurgical health evaluation, or nonurgent illness were exposed to 1 of 3 treatments (modified classical music, the same music in its original format, and no music [control]) while in the examination room. Owners completed a standardized survey regarding the dog's behavior and their satisfaction with the visit. Clinicians completed a separate standardized survey regarding the dog's behavior. Information regarding monetary charges, procedures performed, diagnoses, and physiologic variables was obtained from the electronic medical record after the appointment. RESULTS Owners rated their dog's anxiety level in the waiting room greater than that in the examination room regardless of treatment. Mean anxiety and aggression scores of dogs during the physical examination as rated by owners were significantly greater than those assigned by clinicians. Visit satisfaction for owners exposed to original classical music was significantly greater than that for owners not exposed to music. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested placing a pet and its owner into an examination room instead of a waiting room immediately after clinic arrival may ameliorate pet anxiety during the veterinary visit. Playing classical music at a low volume can be a simple and cost-effective way to improve owner satisfaction with the veterinary visit. Further research is necessary to determine the effects of music on pet anxiety.

  12. Automatic dosage of hydrogen peroxide in solar photo-Fenton plants: development of a control strategy for efficiency enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Gómez, E; Moreno Úbeda, J C; Alvarez Hervás, J D; Casas López, J L; Santos-Juanes Jordá, L; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2012-10-30

    The solar photo-Fenton process is widely used for the elimination of pollutants in aqueous effluent and, as such, is amply cited in the literature. In this process, hydrogen peroxide represents the highest operational cost. Up until now, manual dosing of H(2)O(2) has led to low process performance. Consequently, there is a need to automate the hydrogen peroxide dosage for use in industrial applications. As it has been demonstrated that a relationship exists between dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and hydrogen peroxide consumption, DO can be used as a variable in optimising the hydrogen peroxide dosage. For this purpose, a model was experimentally obtained linking the dynamic behaviour of DO to hydrogen peroxide consumption. Following this, a control system was developed based on this model. This control system - a proportional and integral controller (PI) with an anti-windup mechanism - has been tested experimentally. The assays were carried out in a pilot plant under sunlight conditions and with paracetamol used as the model pollutant. In comparison with non-assisted addition methods (a sole initial or continuous addition), a decrease of 50% in hydrogen peroxide consumption was achieved when the automatic controller was used, driving an economic saving and an improvement in process efficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Companion Animal Owner Perceptions, Knowledge, and Beliefs Regarding Pain Management in End-of-Life Care.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Roschelle; Petty, Michael; Huntingford, Janice

    2016-12-01

    The senior companion animal is the fastest growing segment of the pet population. End-of-life care, quality of life, and pain management (PM) are extremely important to pet owners. Research into PM and end-of-life care is essential due to lack of information on owner knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. A survey was developed to gather information from owners. Surveys were developed using expert focus groups, and participants were recruited through social media. Survey validation employed emergent themes and grounded theory. Data from respondents (n = 986) were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis, Jonckheere-Terpstra, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, with post hoc adjustment. Approximately 87% of respondents felt that euthanizing for unmitigated pain was appropriate. Households where there were multiple pets, both cats and dogs, and owners who were not first-time pet owners showed even greater preferences (P < .05) for euthanasia with unmitigated pain. Pain control was important to respondents, but owners lacked knowledge and had unrealistic attitudes and beliefs about treatment options, costs, and long-term feasibility. Limitations of this research included homogeneity of online survey respondents and convenience sampling. Translational research should be fostered to increase the availability and affordability of PM techniques in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fetching what the owner prefers? Dogs recognize disgust and happiness in human behaviour.

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Borbála; Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2015-01-01

    Research using the two-object choice paradigm showed that dogs prefer the object associated with the happy human emotion. However, they provided rather ambiguous results regarding the negative emotions. We assumed that differences between the dogs' and owners' interest towards the 'negative' object might be responsible for this. In our experiment, dogs observed their owner expressing different emotions towards two uniform plastic bottles. Five dog groups were tested based on the condition they received: (1) happy versus neutral, (2) happy versus disgust, (3) neutral versus disgust and (4-5) neutral vs neutral, as control groups. Contrary to previous studies using free choice paradigm, we used a task-driven approach. After the demonstration, the dogs had to retrieve one object to the owner. The dogs' performance in the two neutral-neutral groups did not differ from the chance level. In contrast, subjects were able to distinguish between the happy and neutral expression of the owner: they both approached and fetched the 'happy' object. In the happy-disgusted and neutral-disgusted groups, the dogs approached the bottles randomly, suggesting that they found the 'disgusting' and 'neutral' objects equally attractive. Nevertheless, the dogs preferentially retrieved the object marked with the relatively more positive emotion (happy or neutral) to the owner in both conditions. Our results demonstrate that dogs are able to recognize which is the more positive among two emotions, and in a fetching task situation, they override their own interest in the 'disgusting' object and retrieve what the owner prefers.

  15. A comparison of noxious facilities` impacts for home owners versus renters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The siting of noxious facilities, such as hazardous waste facilities, is often vigorously opposed by local residents, and thus it is now common for local residents to be compensated for the presence of the facility. One technique that has been employed to implicitly value noxious facilities is the intercity hedonic approach, which examines the wage and land rent premia between cities that result from the presence of the facility. However, most of the focus has been on the behavior of home owners as opposed to renters. Since these two groups of residents vary on numerous dimensions such as marital status, age, sex, and personal mobility, it would not be surprising to find different marginal valuations of local site characteristics. The authors use 1980 Census data to derive separate estimates for owners and renters of the implicit value placed on eight different types of noxious facilities. They find that renters and owners differ in their response to noxious facilities, although the differences are not systematic. Furthermore, the differences between owners and renters are not primarily due to differential mobility or socio-demographic factors. Controlling those factors decreases the differences between renters` and owners` implicit valuations of noxious facilities by less than 10%. Unmeasured differences between the two groups, such as tastes, risk aversion, or commitment to the community, must account for the remaining difference in valuations. These findings suggest that policymakers should separately consider the responses of owners and renters when estimating noxious facility impacts.

  16. 46 CFR 28.505 - Vessel owner's responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel owner's responsibility. 28.505 Section 28.505... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.505 Vessel owner's responsibility. (a) Where a test or calculations are necessary to evaluate stability, it is the owner's responsibility to select a...

  17. Can Academia Truly Help Small-Business Owners? Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven small business owners, professors, and leaders answered the question of whether academia can help small business owners. In the opinion of a small business owner, academia offers too much theory and too few real skills. According to the president of the National Federation of Independent Business, academia can play a role in the development…

  18. Characterizing Virginia's private forest owners and their forest lands.

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Sandra S. Hodge; Michael T. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed forest inventory and two woodland owner surveys have given us insight about the owners of private forest lands in Virginia. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the number of nonindustrial private (NIPF) landowners in Virginia. More than half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some...

  19. Characterizing Virginia's Private Forest Owners and Their Forest Lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Sandra S. Hodge; Michael T. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed forest inventory and two woodland owner surveys have given us insight about the owners of private forest lands in Virginia. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the number of nonindustrial private (NIPF) landowners in Virginia. More than half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some...

  20. 24 CFR 401.450 - Owner evaluation of physical condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner evaluation of physical... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.450 Owner evaluation of physical condition. (a) Initial evaluation. The owner must evaluate the physical condition of the project and provide the following...

  1. Forest-land owners of New Hampshire, 1983

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1989-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on a mail canvass of private timberland owners in New Hampshire. The study was conducted in conjunction with the forest survey of New Hampshire by the USDA Forest Service. It discusses forest-land owner characteristics, attitudes, and intentions of owners regarding reasons for owning, recreational use, timber management, and timber...

  2. 46 CFR 160.076-37 - Owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Owner's manual. 160.076-37 Section 160.076-37 Shipping... Owner's manual. (a) General. The manufacturer must provide an owner's manual with each inflatable PFD sold or offered for sale. A draft of the manual for each model must be submitted for approval...

  3. 49 CFR 563.11 - Information in owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information in owner's manual. 563.11 Section 563... manual. (a) The owner's manual in each vehicle covered under this regulation must provide the following... the vehicle or the EDR. (b) The owner's manual may include additional information about the...

  4. A method for controlling hydrogen sulfide in water by adding solid phase oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Jien

    2007-01-01

    This work evaluates the addition of solid phase oxygen, a magnesium peroxide (MgO(2)) formulation manufactured by Regenesis (oxygen-releasing compounds, ORC), to inhibit the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in an SRB-enriched environment. The initial rate of release of oxygen by the ORC was determined over a short period by adding sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), which was a novel approach developed for this study. The ability of ORCs to control H(2)S by releasing oxygen was evaluated in a bench-scale column containing cultured sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). After a series of batch tests, 0.4% ORC was found to be able to inhibit the formation of H(2)S for more than 40 days. In comparison, the concentration of H(2)S dropped from 20 mg S/L to 0.05 mg S/L immediately after 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was added, but began to recover just four days later. Thus, H(2)O(2) does not seem to be able to inhibit the production of sulfide for an extended period of time. By providing long-term inhibition of the SRB population, ORC provides a good alternative means of controlling the production of H(2)S in water.

  5. Optimal control of fuel overpressure in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with hydrogen transfer leak during load change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadighajari, Alireza; DeVaal, Jake; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2017-02-01

    Formation of membrane pinholes is a common defect in fuel cells, inflicting more cost and making less durable cells. This work focuses on mitigating this issue, and offers a continuous online treatment instead of attempting to dynamically model the hydrogen transfer leak rate. This is achieved by controlling the differential pressure between the anode and cathode compartments at the inlet side of the fuel cell stack, known as the fuel overpressure. The model predictive control approach is used to attain the objectives in a Ballard 9-cell Mk1100 polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with inclusion of hydrogen transfer leak. Furthermore, the pneumatic modeling technique is used to model the entire anode side of a fuel cell station. The hydrogen transfer leak is embedded in the model in a novel way, and is considered as a disturbance during the controller design. Experimental results for different sizes of hydrogen transfer leaks are provided to show the benefits of fuel overpressure control system in alleviating the effects of membrane pinholes, which in turn increases membrane longevity, and reduces hydrogen emissions in the eventual presence of transfer leaks. Moreover, the model predictive controller provides an optimal control input while satisfying the problem constraints.

  6. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis in the Owners of Domestic Cats and Dogs in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    BERENJI, Fariba; POURYOUSEF, Ali; FATA, Abdolmajid; MAHMOUDI, Mahmoud; SALEHI, Maryam; KHOSHNEGAH, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Toxocariasis is the clinical terms applied to infection of human with Ascarid nematodes in the order Ascaridida, named Toxocara canis and T. cati. Because in recent years in Iran many people desire to keep pets (cats and dogs), and lacking of seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis in Mashhad, we decided to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among people who own cats and dogs in comparison with control group. Methods: A serological study for detection antibodies to Toxocara in two groups (93 cat and dog owners and 93 healthy people as control group) was conducted from Feb 2013 to Dec 2013. An ELISA method was employed using determination of IgG antibodies against Toxocara. The serum samples were evaluated for anti-Toxocara antibody, using ELISA technique at Parasitology and Immunology Lab of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad. Using a questionnaire, epidemiological factors associated with infection were examined. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies in the pet owners and control group was respectively 20.43% and 1.07%. 47.3% of pet owners were female. Conclusion: Presented data showed the significant difference between seroprevalence of toxocariasis among pet owners and control group. Education of society and in particular pet owners consisting of preventing contamination of the environment with Toxocara eggs is advised. PMID:28096863

  7. Design and Control of Integrated Systems for Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgis, Dimitrios

    Growing concerns on CO2 emissions have led to the development of highly efficient power plants. Options for increased energy efficiencies include alternative energy conversion pathways, energy integration and process intensification. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) constitute a promising alternative for power generation since they convert the chemical energy electrochemically directly to electricity. Their high operating temperature shows potential for energy integration with energy intensive units (e.g. steam reforming reactors). Although energy integration is an essential tool for increased efficiencies, it leads to highly complex process schemes with rich dynamic behavior, which are challenging to control. Furthermore, the use of process intensification for increased energy efficiency imposes an additional control challenge. This dissertation identifies and proposes solutions on design, operational and control challenges of integrated systems for hydrogen production and power generation. Initially, a study on energy integrated SOFC systems is presented. Design alternatives are identified, control strategies are proposed for each alternative and their validity is evaluated under different operational scenarios. The operational range of the proposed control strategies is also analyzed. Next, thermal management of water gas shift membrane reactors, which are a typical application of process intensification, is considered. Design and operational objectives are identified and a control strategy is proposed employing advanced control algorithms. The performance of the proposed control strategy is evaluated and compared with classical control strategies. Finally SOFC systems for combined heat and power applications are considered. Multiple recycle loops are placed to increase design flexibility. Different operational objectives are identified and a nonlinear optimization problem is formulated. Optimal designs are obtained and their features are discussed and compared

  8. Control of a Uranium-Hydride Reactor with Deuterium-Hydrogen Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, David I.

    2013-12-24

    A 70 MWt reactor is evaluated that utilizes uranium-hydride fuel and is cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The concept utilizes a high-density, high-density-fuel outer annulus which surrounds a lowdensity, powder-fuel central core. Prior to reactor startup, the entire core is initially saturated with deuterium (UD3). To start the reactor, hydrogen flows through the central, low density powder (with protons gradually replacing deuterons) until criticality is reached. Over the remaining lifetime of the reactor, with the goal of 10 years, hydrogen is continually added to the outer, high-density core to compensate for burnup reactivity loss. Throughout lifetime, the inner region serves as a standard control/shutdown rod, with the ability to replace the H with D relatively quickly (because of the low density, high surface area of the fuel). The scope of this work is to determine if a reactor could be designed to meet the above guidelines and if possible estimate the size of the smallest reactor that could meet the guidelines.

  9. Controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    King, T.L.; Zhang, J.; Haywood, R.G.; Manns, W.C.; Kim, K. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    A two-stage railgun system has been built incorporating several controls and diagnostics, some including unique features to account for the fact that the projectile is a frozen hydrogen pellet for fusion reactor refueling. A timing circuit has been developed to monitor projectile breech and muzzle velocities and to automatically trigger a sequence of events critical for effective plasma armature railgun operation. This circuit can initiate electrical breakdown of the propellant gas directly behind an incoming projectile, thus enabling fuseless operation. It also triggers a streak camera and a flashlamp for photographing the arc and the outgoing projectile, respectively. The automatic timing circuit is expandable and has been extended to incorporate a trigger for transaugmentation. The timing circuit is immune to mistriggering due to electromagnetic interference or fragmentation of the fragile hydrogen pellets. Railgun diagnostics also include Pearson coils and B-dot probes for monitoring rail and armature currents, respectively. Laser interferometry and optical spectroscopy are also employed to measure plasma density and temperature. Digitizing oscilloscopes are used to acquire data. The data is transferred to a computer via GPIB.

  10. Controllable synthesis of VSB-5 microspheres and microrods: growth mechanism and selective hydrogenation catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Juan; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Feng-Yu; Gong, Jun-Yan; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous VSB-5 nickel phosphate molecular sieves with relatively well controllable sizes and morphology of microspheres assembled from nanorods were synthesized at 140 degrees C over a short time in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) by a facile hydrothermal method. The pH value, reaction time, and ratio of HMT to NaHPO2.H2O crucially influence the morphology and quality of the final products. By adjusting the pH value of the initial reaction solution, the morphology changes from disperse rods to microspheres assembled from rods and finally to a large quantity of fibers, and the diameters of the VSB-5 rods can be varied. The catalytic activity of VSB-5 in selective hydrogenation of several unsaturated organic compounds was tested. Nickel(II) in VSB-5 can selectively catalyze hydrogenation of C=C in trans-cinnamaldehyde and 3-methylcrotonaldehyde. In addition, since nitrobenzene (NB) and 2-chloronitrobenzene could be reduced to aniline (AN) and 2-chloroaniline with high selectivity, VSB-5 could have potential applications in synthesizing dyes, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

  11. Unmodified versus caustics-impregnated carbons for control of hydrogen sulfide emissions from sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bandosz, T.J.; Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Turk, A.

    2000-03-15

    Unmodified and caustic-impregnated carbons were compared as adsorbents for hydrogen sulfide in the North River Water Pollution Control Plant in New York City over a period of 2 years. The carbons were characterized using accelerated H{sub 2}S breakthrough capacity tests, sorption of nitrogen, potentiometric titration, and thermal analysis. The accelerated laboratory tests indicate that the initial capacity of caustic-impregnated carbons exceeds that of unmodified carbon, but the nature of real-life challenge streams, particularly their lower H{sub 2}S concentrations, nullifies this advantage. As the caustic content of the impregnated carbon is consumed, the situation reverses, and the unmodified carbon becomes more effective. When the concentration of H{sub 2}S is low, the developed surface area and pore volume along with the affinity to retain water create a favorable environment for dissociative adsorption of hydrogen sulfide and its oxidation to elemental sulfur, S{sup 4+}, and S{sup 6+}. In the case of the caustic carbon, the catalytic impact of the carbon surface is limited, and its good performance lasts only while active base is present. The results also show the significant differences in performance of unmodified carbons due to combined effects of their porosity and surface chemistry.

  12. Synthesis and thermal decomposition behaviors of magnesium borohydride ammoniates with controllable composition as hydrogen storage materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjing; Liu, Yongfeng; Li, You; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge

    2013-02-01

    An ammonia-redistribution strategy for synthesizing metal borohydride ammoniates with controllable coordination number of NH(3) was proposed, and a series of magnesium borohydride ammoniates were easily synthesized by a mechanochemical reaction between Mg(BH(4))(2) and its hexaammoniate. A strong dependence of the dehydrogenation temperature and purity of the released hydrogen upon heating on the coordination number of NH(3) was elaborated for Mg(BH(4))(2)·xNH(3) owing to the change in the molar ratio of H(δ+) and H(δ-), the charge distribution on H(δ+) and H(δ-), and the strength of the coordinate bond N:→Mg(2+). The monoammoniate of magnesium borohydride (Mg(BH(4))(2)·NH(3)) was obtained for the first time. It can release 6.5% pure hydrogen within 50 minutes at 180 °C. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Agraz, Jose Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-15

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ({sup 13}C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (B{sub o}), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of {sup 13}C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  14. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 ((13)C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of (13)C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  15. LabVIEW-based control software for para-hydrogen induced polarization instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Li, Debiao; Cunningham, Karl; Willey, Cindy; Pozos, Robert; Wagner, Shawn

    2014-04-01

    The elucidation of cell metabolic mechanisms is the modern underpinning of the diagnosis, treatment, and in some cases the prevention of disease. Para-Hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) enhances magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10 000 fold, allowing for the MRI of cell metabolic mechanisms. This signal enhancement is the result of hyperpolarizing endogenous substances used as contrast agents during imaging. PHIP instrumentation hyperpolarizes Carbon-13 (13C) based substances using a process requiring control of a number of factors: chemical reaction timing, gas flow, monitoring of a static magnetic field (Bo), radio frequency (RF) irradiation timing, reaction temperature, and gas pressures. Current PHIP instruments manually control the hyperpolarization process resulting in the lack of the precise control of factors listed above, resulting in non-reproducible results. We discuss the design and implementation of a LabVIEW based computer program that automatically and precisely controls the delivery and manipulation of gases and samples, monitoring gas pressures, environmental temperature, and RF sample irradiation. We show that the automated control over the hyperpolarization process results in the hyperpolarization of hydroxyethylpropionate. The implementation of this software provides the fast prototyping of PHIP instrumentation for the evaluation of a myriad of 13C based endogenous contrast agents used in molecular imaging.

  16. Handling alternative dietary requests from pet owners.

    PubMed

    Parr, Jacqueline M; Remillard, Rebecca L

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this article was to provide veterinary practitioners with an overview of the types of alternative dietary options available to pet owners and a practical method by which to evaluate the nutritional adequacy of these various options. Our approach to categorizing the alternative dietary options is based on the nutritional adequacy of these dietary options, because patients will be at risk for nutrition-related diseases if fed a nutritionally incomplete or improperly balanced diet long term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 9 CFR 72.15 - Owners assume responsibility; must execute agreement prior to dipping or treatment waiving all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shipment, or resulting from the fact that they are later found to be still tick infested, and also for all subsequent loss or damage to any other cattle in the possession or control of such owner which may come into...

  18. Controlling the spin of co atoms on pt(111) by hydrogen adsorption.

    PubMed

    Dubout, Q; Donati, F; Wäckerlin, C; Calleja, F; Etzkorn, M; Lehnert, A; Claude, L; Gambardella, P; Brune, H

    2015-03-13

    We investigate the effect of H adsorption on the magnetic properties of individual Co atoms on Pt(111) with scanning tunneling microscopy. For pristine Co atoms, we detect no inelastic features in the tunnel spectra. Conversely, CoH and CoH2 show a number of low-energy vibrational features in their differential conductance identified by isotope substitution. Only the fcc-adsorbed species present conductance steps of magnetic origin, with a field splitting identifying their effective spin as Seff=2 for CoH and 3/2 for CoH2. The exposure to H2 and desorption through tunnel electrons allow the reversible control of the spin in half-integer steps. Because of the presence of the surface, the hydrogen-induced spin increase is opposite to the spin sequence of CoHn molecules in the gas phase.

  19. Evaluation of a fracture failure mode in the Space Shuttle hydrogen pressurization system flow control valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauver, S. E.; Sueme, D. R.

    1992-07-01

    During acceptance testing of the Space Shuttle Endeavor hydrogen flow control valves, which are used in the Orbiter's fuel tank pressurization system, two of the valves experienced fracture of the poppet flange. The poppets are made of 440 C, a high strength, wear-resistant, low ductility, martensitic stainless steel. The investigation which was initiated to determine the cause of these failures is traced. All aspects of the poppet processing that may have introduced a defect were assessed. This included machining, heat treating, passivation, assembly, and test. In addition, several potential failure modes were investigated. The extensive investigation revealed no obvious cause of the failures, but did result in a recommendation for a different material application.

  20. Applicability of Hydrogen Peroxide in Brown Tide Control – Culture and Microcosm Studies

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Varunpreet; Thakkar, Megha; Wei, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Brown tide algal blooms, caused by the excessive growth of Aureococcus anophagefferens, recur in several northeastern US coastal bays. Direct bloom control could alleviate the ecological and economic damage associated with bloom outbreak. This paper explored the effectiveness and safety of natural chemical biocide hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for brown tide bloom control. Culture studies showed that H2O2 at 1.6 mg L−1 effectively eradicated high density A. anophagefferens within 24-hr, but caused no significant growth inhibition in the diatoms, prymnesiophytes, green algae and dinoflagellates of >2–3 μm cell sizes among 12 phytoplankton species tested over 1-week observation. When applied to brown tide bloom prone natural seawater in a microcosm study, this treatment effectively removed the developing brown tide bloom, while the rest of phytoplankton assemblage (quantified via HPLC based marker pigment analyses), particularly the diatoms and green algae, experienced only transient suppression then recovered with total chlorophyll a exceeding that in the controls within 72-hr; cyanobacteria was not eradicated but was still reduced about 50% at 72-hr, as compared to the controls. The action of H2O2 against phytoplankton as a function of cell size and cell wall structure, and a realistic scenario of H2O2 application were discussed. PMID:23082223

  1. Applicability of hydrogen peroxide in brown tide control - culture and microcosm studies.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Varunpreet; Thakkar, Megha; Wei, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Brown tide algal blooms, caused by the excessive growth of Aureococcus anophagefferens, recur in several northeastern US coastal bays. Direct bloom control could alleviate the ecological and economic damage associated with bloom outbreak. This paper explored the effectiveness and safety of natural chemical biocide hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) for brown tide bloom control. Culture studies showed that H(2)O(2) at 1.6 mg L(-1) effectively eradicated high density A. anophagefferens within 24-hr, but caused no significant growth inhibition in the diatoms, prymnesiophytes, green algae and dinoflagellates of >2-3 μm cell sizes among 12 phytoplankton species tested over 1-week observation. When applied to brown tide bloom prone natural seawater in a microcosm study, this treatment effectively removed the developing brown tide bloom, while the rest of phytoplankton assemblage (quantified via HPLC based marker pigment analyses), particularly the diatoms and green algae, experienced only transient suppression then recovered with total chlorophyll a exceeding that in the controls within 72-hr; cyanobacteria was not eradicated but was still reduced about 50% at 72-hr, as compared to the controls. The action of H(2)O(2) against phytoplankton as a function of cell size and cell wall structure, and a realistic scenario of H(2)O(2) application were discussed.

  2. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  3. Dogs' Social Referencing towards Owners and Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

  4. Kinetic solvent effects on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with tertiary amides. Control over the hydrogen atom transfer reactivity and selectivity through solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; Bietti, Massimo

    2015-01-16

    A laser flash photolysis study on the role of solvent effects on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) from the C-H bonds of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N-formylpyrrolidine (FPRD), and N-acetylpyrrolidine (APRD) to the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out. From large to very large increases in the HAT rate constant (kH) were measured on going from MeOH and TFE to isooctane (kH(isooctane)/kH(MeOH) = 5-12; kH(isooctane)/kH(TFE) > 80). This behavior was explained in terms of the increase in the extent of charge separation in the amides determined by polar solvents through solvent-amide dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding, where the latter interactions appear to play a major role with strong HBD solvents such as TFE. These interactions increase the electron deficiency of the amide C-H bonds, deactivating these bonds toward HAT to an electrophilic radical such as CumO(•), indicating that changes in solvent polarity and hydrogen bonding can provide a convenient method for deactivation of the C-H bond of amides toward HAT. With DMF, a solvent-induced change in HAT selectivity was observed, suggesting that solvent effects can be successfully employed to control the reaction selectivity in HAT-based procedures for the functionalization of C-H bonds.

  5. Efficacy of Hydrogen Peroxide in Controlling Mortality Associated with External Columnaris on Walleye and Channel Catfish Fingerlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schleis, S.M.; Gaikowski, M.; Johnson, Aaron H.

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in controlling mortality associated with external columnaris infections on walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerlings was evaluated in two on-site trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapes before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria indicative of columnaris disease. In separate trials, walleyes (12 g) and channel catfish (2.3 g) were exposed to a total of three every-other-day hydrogen peroxide treatments of 0, 50, 75, or 100 mg/L for 60 min. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained 13 walleyes or 26 channel catfish. Hydrogen peroxide exposures of 50 mg/L for 60 min significantly increased walleye survival relative to that at other treatment concentrations, including the controls. Exposures of 50, 75, or 100 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide for 60 min significantly increased channel catfish survival in comparison with that of controls. These trials indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatments effectively reduce mortality in walleyes and channel catfish infected with external columnaris.

  6. Neutering of cats and dogs in Ireland; pet owner self-reported perceptions of enabling and disabling factors in the decision to neuter

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T.; More, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Failure among pet owners to neuter their pets results in increased straying and overpopulation problems. Variations in neutering levels can be explained by cultural differences, differences in economic status in rural and urban locations, and owner perceptions about their pet. There are also differences between male and female pet owners. There is no research pertaining to Irish pet owner attitudes towards neutering their pets. This paper identified the perceptions of a sample of Irish cat and dog owners that influenced their decisions on pet neutering. Methods. This study was conducted using social science (qualitative) methods, including an interview-administered survey questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data was coded and managed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Results. Focus groups were conducted with 43 pet (cats and dogs) owners. Two major categories relating to the decision to neuter were identified: (1) enabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: controlling unwanted pet behaviour; positive perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes; perceived owner responsibility; pet function; and the influence of veterinary advice), and (2) disabling perceptions in the decision to neuter (subcategories were: perceived financial cost of neutering; perceived adequacy of existing controls; and negative perceptions regarding pet health and welfare outcomes). Discussion. Pet owner sense of responsibility and control are two central issues to the decision to neuter their pets. Understanding how pet owners feel about topics such as pet neutering, can help improve initiatives aimed at emphasising the responsibility of population control of cats and dogs. PMID:26312187

  7. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Behavior of H-TiO2 Nanorods Hydrogenated by Controlled and Local Rapid Thermal Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodan; Estradé, Sonia; Lin, Yuanjing; Yu, Feng; Lopez-Conesa, Lluis; Zhou, Hao; Gurram, Sanjeev Kumar; Peiró, Francesca; Fan, Zhiyong; Shen, Hao; Schaefer, Lothar; Braeuer, Guenter; Waag, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Recently, colored H-doped TiO2 (H-TiO2) has demonstrated enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance due to its unique crystalline core—disordered shell nanostructures and consequent enhanced conduction behaviors between the core-shell homo-interfaces. Although various hydrogenation approaches to obtain H-TiO2 have been developed, such as high temperature hydrogen furnace tube annealing, high pressure hydrogen annealing, hydrogen-plasma assisted reaction, aluminum reduction and electrochemical reduction etc., there is still a lack of a hydrogenation approach in a controlled manner where all processing parameters (temperature, time and hydrogen flux) were precisely controlled in order to improve the PEC performance of H-TiO2 and understand the physical insight of enhanced PEC performance. Here, we report for the first time a controlled and local rapid thermal annealing (RTA) approach to prepare hydrogenated core-shell H-TiO2 nanorods grown on F:SnO2 (FTO) substrate in order to address the degradation issue of FTO in the typical TiO2 nanorods/FTO system observed in the conventional non-RTA treated approaches. Without the FTO degradation in the RTA approach, we systematically studied the intrinsic relationship between the annealing temperature, structural, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties in order to understand the role of the disordered shell on the improved photoelectrochemical behavior of H-TiO2 nanorods. Our investigation shows that the improvement of PEC performance could be attributed to (i) band gap narrowing from 3.0 to 2.9 eV; (ii) improved optical absorption in the visible range induced by the three-dimensional (3D) morphology and rough surface of the disordered shell; (iii) increased proper donor density; (iv) enhanced electron-hole separation and injection efficiency due to the formation of disordered shell after hydrogenation. The RTA approach developed here can be used as a suitable hydrogenation process for TiO2 nanorods/FTO system for

  8. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Behavior of H-TiO2 Nanorods Hydrogenated by Controlled and Local Rapid Thermal Annealing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodan; Estradé, Sonia; Lin, Yuanjing; Yu, Feng; Lopez-Conesa, Lluis; Zhou, Hao; Gurram, Sanjeev Kumar; Peiró, Francesca; Fan, Zhiyong; Shen, Hao; Schaefer, Lothar; Braeuer, Guenter; Waag, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Recently, colored H-doped TiO2 (H-TiO2) has demonstrated enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance due to its unique crystalline core-disordered shell nanostructures and consequent enhanced conduction behaviors between the core-shell homo-interfaces. Although various hydrogenation approaches to obtain H-TiO2 have been developed, such as high temperature hydrogen furnace tube annealing, high pressure hydrogen annealing, hydrogen-plasma assisted reaction, aluminum reduction and electrochemical reduction etc., there is still a lack of a hydrogenation approach in a controlled manner where all processing parameters (temperature, time and hydrogen flux) were precisely controlled in order to improve the PEC performance of H-TiO2 and understand the physical insight of enhanced PEC performance. Here, we report for the first time a controlled and local rapid thermal annealing (RTA) approach to prepare hydrogenated core-shell H-TiO2 nanorods grown on F:SnO2 (FTO) substrate in order to address the degradation issue of FTO in the typical TiO2 nanorods/FTO system observed in the conventional non-RTA treated approaches. Without the FTO degradation in the RTA approach, we systematically studied the intrinsic relationship between the annealing temperature, structural, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties in order to understand the role of the disordered shell on the improved photoelectrochemical behavior of H-TiO2 nanorods. Our investigation shows that the improvement of PEC performance could be attributed to (i) band gap narrowing from 3.0 to 2.9 eV; (ii) improved optical absorption in the visible range induced by the three-dimensional (3D) morphology and rough surface of the disordered shell; (iii) increased proper donor density; (iv) enhanced electron-hole separation and injection efficiency due to the formation of disordered shell after hydrogenation. The RTA approach developed here can be used as a suitable hydrogenation process for TiO2 nanorods/FTO system for

  9. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    PubMed

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-08-01

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis and control of an in situ hydrogen generation and fuel cell power system for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolavennu, Panini K.

    A new future in automotive transportation is approaching where vehicles are powered by new, clean and efficient energy sources. While different technologies will contribute to this future, many see fuel cells as the leading long term candidate for becoming the power source for emissions-free, mass produced light vehicles. The development of emissions-free vehicles, which run directly on hydrogen, is the true long term goal. However significant difficulties exist in developing these vehicles, due to hydrogen storage problems. For automotive applications, it is desirable to use a carbon-based hydrogenous fuel. The focus of this research was to analyze a fuel cell system for automotive applications, which generated hydrogen in situ using methane as a fuel source. This system consists of four parts: (1) an in situ hydrogen generation subsystem, (2) a power generation subsystem, (3) a thermal management subsystem and (4) a switching control subsystem. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the entire system was considered from a systems engineering viewpoint with realistic constraints. A fuel processor subsystem was designed and its volume optimized to less than 100 liters. A relationship between the fuel fed into the fuel processor and the hydrogen coming out of it was developed. Using a fuel cell model an overall relationship between the fuel feed rate and the power output was established. The fuel cell car must be fully operational within a minute or so of a cold-start and must respond to rapidly varying loads. Significant load transitions occur frequently as a result of changes in driving conditions. These engineering constraints were addressed by coupling a battery to the fuel cell. A switching controller was designed and it was validated using realistic power profiles. Finally, a model reference adaptive controller was designed to handle nonlinearities and load transitions. The adaptive controller performance was enhanced by adding dead zone

  11. Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kang, Su Ran; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Dong June; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Sung, Chang Hyun; Kang, Han Sol; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O2−) and H2O2 was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H2O2and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H2O2and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 106 and 107 cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H2O2- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC)’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H2O2 and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H2O2 nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H2O2+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H2O2 and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents. PMID:25288967

  12. Assessment of dog owner adherence to veterinarians' flea and tick prevention recommendations in the United States using a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Lavan, Robert P; Tunceli, Kaan; Zhang, Dongmu; Normile, Dorothy; Armstrong, Rob

    2017-06-06

    Adherence to a prescribed therapeutic regimen is a critical factor for achieving medication effectiveness and therefore treatment success. In the case of companion animal ectoparasite control, suboptimal owner adherence to medication recommendations is thought to be a common cause of treatment failure, and previous reports have found pet owners applying an average of 4.0-4.6 monthly flea and tick treatments per year to their dogs. This study investigated: US veterinary hospital self-reported flea and tick prevention recommendations; dog owner recollection of these recommendations; dog owner opinion on flea/tick recommendations and estimated owner flea and tick medication adherence based on veterinary hospital purchase records. Veterinarians at 24 veterinary hospitals in 4 United States regions provided their flea and tick prevention recommendations. Five hundred fifty-nine dog owners, clients of the 24 hospitals, completed a survey evaluating their recollection of the hospitals' recommendations and their opinions regarding required treatment frequency. Almost all veterinary hospitals in this study recommended 12 months of flea and tick prevention but only 62% of participating dog owners recalled this recommendation. The average owner response was that their dogs require 10.5 months of flea and tick prevention annually. Owner opinions were significantly different among U.S. regions with pet owners in the northeast U.S. believing that they needed significantly less canine flea and tick protection than pet owners in other parts of the United States. The estimated actual flea and tick prevention coverage was 6.1 months based on owner medication purchases over a 12-month period. In the United States, dog owner opinions and actions show that their flea and tick treatment adherence falls short of veterinarians' recommendations.

  13. The forest-land owners of New Jersey

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1975-01-01

    Results of a mail canvass of forest-land owners in New Jersey, conducted in conjunction with the second forest survey of the State, show that there are 63,600 owners of the 1,537,900 acres of privately owned commercial forest land in the State. These owners hold an average of 24.2 acres each. However, more than half of the ownerships are of less than 10 acres, so the...

  14. The forest-land owners of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Neal P. Kingsley

    1978-01-01

    There are an estimated 207,500 owners of private commercial forest land in West Virginia. They own an average of 49.8 acres each. However, fewer than 500 owners own 30 percent of the private commercial forest land. Corporations hold 25 percent of the privately owned commercial forest land in the State. Seventy-seven percent of the owners intend to harvest timber from...

  15. 40 CFR 280.110 - Reporting by owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND... mechanism, (iii) Failure of a guarantor to meet the requirements of the financial test, (iv)...

  16. Private forest-land owners of the United States, 1994

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the United States. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning.

  17. Owner-reported lower urinary tract signs in a cohort of young cats.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Louise; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Buffington, Ca Tony; Casey, Rachel A; Murray, Jane K

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The most common cause of lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) in cats under the age of 10 years is feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC). The prevalence of LUTS in the UK pet cat population is difficult to assess. This study used data collected prospectively to investigate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, owner-reported LUTS in a cohort of young pet cats. Methods Cat owners were recruited into a long-term longitudinal study and asked to complete questionnaires at specified age points for their cats. All cats were at least 18 months of age at the time of analysis. The prevalence of owner-reported LUTS at 18, 30 and 48 months of age was calculated, based on whether the owner had seen the cat urinating, and whether the cat had displayed one or more of the following clinical signs: dysuria, haematuria or vocalising during urination. A case-control study to investigate the risk factors for owner-reported LUTS in study cats at age 18 months was also conducted, using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of owner-reported LUTS in cats seen urinating by the owner was 4.3%, 3.8% and 6.0%, with 95% confidence intervals of 3.2-5.7%, 2.5-5.7% and 3.4-10.5% at ages 18, 30 and 48 months, respectively. An indoor-only lifestyle at the age of 18 months and a change in diet between the ages of 12 and 18 months were identified as risk factors for owner-reported LUTS at the age of 18 months from the multivariable model. No clear type of change in diet was identified in our sample of cats with LUTS. Conclusions and relevance The prevalence of owner-reported LUTS in a cohort of young pet cats was higher than the previously reported prevalence of LUTS in cats presenting to veterinary hospitals for LUTS or other reasons. A novel risk factor of change in diet between 12 and 18 months of age warrants further investigation.

  18. Selective carboxylate production by controlling hydrogen, carbon dioxide and substrate concentrations in mixed culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Arslan, D; Steinbusch, K J J; Diels, L; De Wever, H; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

    2013-05-01

    This research demonstrated the selective production of n-butyrate from mixed culture by applying 2 bar carbon dioxide into the headspace of batch fermenters or by increasing the initial substrate concentration. The effect of increasing initial substrate concentration was investigated at 8, 13.5 and 23 g COD/L with potato processing waste stream. Within 1 week of incubation, n-butyrate fraction selectively increased up to 83% by applying 2 bar hydrogen or 78% by applying carbon dioxide into the headspace whereas it was only 59% in the control reactor. Although the fraction of n-butyrate was elevated, the concentration remained lower than in the control. Both the highest concentration and fraction of n-butyrate were observed under the highest initial substrate concentration without headspace addition. The concentration was 10 g COD/L with 73% fraction. The operational conditions obtained from batch experiments for selective n-butyrate production were validated in a continuous process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  20. Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

    2006-05-01

    Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

  1. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5-1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  2. Compound Passport Service: supporting corporate collection owners in open innovation.

    PubMed

    Andrews, David M; Degorce, Sébastien L; Drake, David J; Gustafsson, Magnus; Higgins, Kevin M; Winter, Jon J

    2015-10-01

    A growing number of early discovery collaborative agreements are being put in place between large pharma companies and partners in which the rights for assets can reside with a partner, exclusively or jointly. Our corporate screening collection, like many others, was built on the premise that compounds generated in-house and not the subject of paper or patent disclosure were proprietary to the company. Collaborative screening arrangements and medicinal chemistry now make the origin, ownership rights and usage of compounds difficult to determine and manage. The Compound Passport Service is a dynamic database, managed and accessed through a set of reusable services that borrows from social media concepts to allow sample owners to take control of their samples in a much more active way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of federal, state, and local tax policies on family forest owners

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Jaketon H. Hewes; Paul Catanzaro; John L. Greene; Michael A. Kilgore; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    There are over 10 million family forest owners1 across the U.S. (Butler 2008). Collectively they control 264 million acres or 35% of the nation�fs forest land (Butler 2008; Figure 1); in some states, the percentage of family forest ownership can be over 75% (Figure 2). If the forestry and conservation community is interested in keeping forests as forests and...

  4. Experiences of model year 2011 Dodge and Jeep owners with collision avoidance and related technologies.

    PubMed

    Cicchino, Jessica B; McCartt, Anne T

    2015-01-01

    Crash avoidance technologies have the potential to prevent or mitigate many crashes, but their effectiveness depends on drivers' acceptance and proper use. Owners of 2011 Dodge Charger, Dodge Durango, and Jeep Grand Cherokee vehicles were interviewed about their experiences with their vehicles' technologies. Interviews were conducted in April 2013 with 215 owners of Dodge and Jeep vehicles with adaptive cruise control and forward collision warning and 215 owners with blind spot monitoring and rear cross-path detection. Most owners said that they always keep each collision avoidance technology turned on, and more than 90% of owners with each system would want the technology again on their next vehicle. The majority believed that the systems had helped prevent a collision; this ranged from 54% of drivers with forward collision warning to more than three-quarters with blind spot monitoring and rear cross-path detection. Some owners reported behavioral changes with the systems, but over-reliance on them is not prevalent. Reported use of the systems varied by the age and gender of the driver and duration of vehicle ownership to a greater degree than in previous surveys of luxury Volvo and Infiniti vehicles with collision avoidance technologies. Notably, drivers aged 40 and younger were most likely to report that forward collision warning had alerted them multiple times and that it had prevented a collision and that they follow the vehicle ahead less closely with adaptive cruise control. Reports of waiting for the alert from forward collision warning before braking were infrequent but increased with duration of ownership. However, these reports could reflect confusion of the system with adaptive cruise control, which alerts drivers when braking is necessary to maintain a preset speed or following distance but a crash is not imminent. Consistent with previous surveys of luxury vehicle owners with collision avoidance technologies, acceptance and use remains high among

  5. Hydrogen control approach in the S-PRIME moderated thermionic reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampaya, Jaime P.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was carried out to estimate they hydrogen partial pressure in a NaK cooled 40 kWe thermionic reactor using zirconium hydride moderator elements. This analysis evaluated the potential problem of hydrogen pressure build-up within the Cs cavity of the thermionic fuel elements. To avoid a significant degradation in the performance of the TFEs, a maximum limit of 1.33 PA (0.01 torr) of hydrogen pressure was selected. Hydrogen permeation through the heat rejection walls of the NaK loop was not sufficient to keep the hydrogen pressure down to this desired level if stainless steel or another material with similar permeation properties was used in the NaK containment boundary. The use of a niobium diffusion window or a yttrium H2 getter bed offers two possible solutions to this problem

  6. Hydrogen control approach in the S-PRIME moderated thermionic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ampaya, J.P. )

    1993-01-20

    A preliminary analysis was carried out to estimate they hydrogen partial pressure in a NaK cooled 40 kWe thermionic reactor using zirconium hydride moderator elements. This analysis evaluated the potential problem of hydrogen pressure build-up within the Cs cavity of the thermionic fuel elements. To avoid a significant degradation in the performance of the TFEs, a maximum limit of 1.33 PA (0.01 torr) of hydrogen pressure was selected. Hydrogen permeation through the heat rejection walls of the NaK loop was not sufficient to keep the hydrogen pressure down to this desired level if stainless steel or another material with similar permeation properties was used in the NaK containment boundary. The use of a niobium diffusion window or a yttrium H[sub 2] getter bed offers two possible solutions to this problem

  7. "She's a dog at the end of the day": Guide dog owners' perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog.

    PubMed

    Craigon, Peter J; Hobson-West, Pru; England, Gary C W; Whelan, Chantelle; Lethbridge, Emma; Asher, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners) obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles of the guide dog

  8. A respiratory chain controlled signal transduction cascade in the mitochondrial intermembrane space mediates hydrogen peroxide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Heide Christine; Gerbeth, Carolin; Thiru, Prathapan; Vögtle, Nora F.; Knoll, Marko; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Huang, Cher X.; Harden, Mark Michael; Song, Rui; Chen, Cynthia; Kao, Jennifer; Shi, Jiahai; Salmon, Wendy; Shaul, Yoav D.; Stokes, Matthew P.; Silva, Jeffrey C.; Bell, George W.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Ruland, Jürgen; Meisinger, Chris; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) govern cellular homeostasis by inducing signaling. H2O2 modulates the activity of phosphatases and many other signaling molecules through oxidation of critical cysteine residues, which led to the notion that initiation of ROS signaling is broad and nonspecific, and thus fundamentally distinct from other signaling pathways. Here, we report that H2O2 signaling bears hallmarks of a regular signal transduction cascade. It is controlled by hierarchical signaling events resulting in a focused response as the results place the mitochondrial respiratory chain upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn, Lyn upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase SYK (Syk), and Syk upstream of numerous targets involved in signaling, transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation. The active mediators of H2O2 signaling colocalize as H2O2 induces mitochondria-associated Lyn and Syk phosphorylation, and a pool of Lyn and Syk reside in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Finally, the same intermediaries control the signaling response in tissues and species responsive to H2O2 as the respiratory chain, Lyn, and Syk were similarly required for H2O2 signaling in mouse B cells, fibroblasts, and chicken DT40 B cells. Consistent with a broad role, the Syk pathway is coexpressed across tissues, is of early metazoan origin, and displays evidence of evolutionary constraint in the human. These results suggest that H2O2 signaling is under control of a signal transduction pathway that links the respiratory chain to the mitochondrial intermembrane space-localized, ubiquitous, and ancient Syk pathway in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. PMID:26438848

  9. A respiratory chain controlled signal transduction cascade in the mitochondrial intermembrane space mediates hydrogen peroxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Heide Christine; Gerbeth, Carolin; Thiru, Prathapan; Vögtle, Nora F; Knoll, Marko; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Samocha, Kaitlin E; Huang, Cher X; Harden, Mark Michael; Song, Rui; Chen, Cynthia; Kao, Jennifer; Shi, Jiahai; Salmon, Wendy; Shaul, Yoav D; Stokes, Matthew P; Silva, Jeffrey C; Bell, George W; MacArthur, Daniel G; Ruland, Jürgen; Meisinger, Chris; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-10-20

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) govern cellular homeostasis by inducing signaling. H2O2 modulates the activity of phosphatases and many other signaling molecules through oxidation of critical cysteine residues, which led to the notion that initiation of ROS signaling is broad and nonspecific, and thus fundamentally distinct from other signaling pathways. Here, we report that H2O2 signaling bears hallmarks of a regular signal transduction cascade. It is controlled by hierarchical signaling events resulting in a focused response as the results place the mitochondrial respiratory chain upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn, Lyn upstream of tyrosine-protein kinase SYK (Syk), and Syk upstream of numerous targets involved in signaling, transcription, translation, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation. The active mediators of H2O2 signaling colocalize as H2O2 induces mitochondria-associated Lyn and Syk phosphorylation, and a pool of Lyn and Syk reside in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Finally, the same intermediaries control the signaling response in tissues and species responsive to H2O2 as the respiratory chain, Lyn, and Syk were similarly required for H2O2 signaling in mouse B cells, fibroblasts, and chicken DT40 B cells. Consistent with a broad role, the Syk pathway is coexpressed across tissues, is of early metazoan origin, and displays evidence of evolutionary constraint in the human. These results suggest that H2O2 signaling is under control of a signal transduction pathway that links the respiratory chain to the mitochondrial intermembrane space-localized, ubiquitous, and ancient Syk pathway in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells.

  10. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A C; Barbosa, A V; Arais, L R; Ribeiro, P F; Carneiro, V C; Cerqueira, A M F

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n=134), their owners (n=134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n=44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains.

  11. Resistance patterns, ESBL genes, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli from dogs and owners

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, A.C.; Barbosa, A.V.; Arais, L.R.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Carneiro, V.C.; Cerqueira, A.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from pet dogs can be considered a potential threat of infection for the human population. Our objective was to characterize the resistance pattern, extended spectrum beta-lactamase production and genetic relatedness of multiresistant E. coli strains isolated from dogs (n = 134), their owners (n = 134), and humans who claim to have no contact with dogs (n = 44, control), searching for sharing of strains. The strains were assessed for their genetic relatedness by phylogenetic grouping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Multiresistant E. coli strains were isolated from 42 (31.3%) fecal samples from pairs of dogs and owners, totaling 84 isolates, and from 19 (43.1%) control group subjects. The strains showed high levels of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole regardless of host species or group of origin. The blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV genes were detected in similar proportions in all groups. All isolates positive for bla genes were ESBL producers. The phylogenetic group A was the most prevalent, irrespective of the host species. None of the strains belonging to the B2 group contained bla genes. Similar resistance patterns were found for strains from dogs, owners and controls; furthermore, identical PFGE profiles were detected in four (9.5%) isolate pairs from dogs and owners, denoting the sharing of strains. Pet dogs were shown to be a potential household source of multiresistant E. coli strains. PMID:26887238

  12. Production of bacterial cellulose with controlled deuterium-hydrogen substitution for neutron scattering studies.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Hugh; Shah, Riddhi; Evans, Barbara R; He, Junhong; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Jones, A Daniel; Langan, Paul; Davison, Brian H; Urban, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic enrichment of biomacromolecules is a widely used technique that enables the investigation of the structural and dynamic properties to provide information not accessible with natural abundance isotopic composition. This study reports an approach for deuterium incorporation into bacterial cellulose. A media formulation for growth of Acetobacter xylinus subsp. sucrofermentans and Gluconacetobacter hansenii was formulated that supports cellulose production in deuterium (D) oxide. The level of D incorporation can be varied by altering the ratio of deuterated and protiated glycerol used during cell growth in the D2O-based growth medium. Spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry show that the level of deuterium incorporation is high (>90%) for the perdeuterated form of bacterial cellulose. The small-angle neutron scattering profiles of the cellulose with different amounts of D incorporation are all similar indicating that there are no structural changes in the cellulose due to substitution of deuterium for hydrogen. In addition, by varying the amount of deuterated glycerol in the media it was possible to vary the scattering length density of the deuterated cellulose. The ability to control deuterium content of cellulose extends the range of experiments using techniques such as neutron scattering to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of cellulose, and its interactions with other biomacromolecules as well as synthetic polymers used for development of composite materials. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. and UT-Battelle, LLC, Contract no. DE-AC05-00OR22725. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide generation and photocatalytic degradation of estrone by microstructural controlled ZnO nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangsi; Han, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Gao, Wei

    2012-12-01

    The strong oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated by ZnO nanorod arrays under UV light irradiation was monitored by fluorescence analysis. The ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via a low temperature hydrothermal method and their dimensions, i.e., diameter and height, can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). The morphology, nanostructure, surface roughness and optical property were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmittance spectra, respectively. The ZnO nanorod arrays were applied in the degradation of estrone, which is an emerging steroid estrogen contaminant. The results revealed that the ZnO nanorod array produced from 25 mM Zn2+ and HMT had the highest aspect ratio, the largest surface roughness and the lowest band gap energy, which was beneficial to the efficiency of UV light utilization, photocatalytic degradation of estrone and H2O2 generation.

  14. Effect of metal ions on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with hydrogen atom donors. Fine control on hydrogen abstraction reactivity determined by Lewis acid-base interactions.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; Mangiacapra, Livia; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2013-01-09

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the effect of metal ions (M(n+)) on hydrogen abstraction reactions from C-H donor substrates by the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) was carried out in acetonitrile. Metal salt addition was observed to increase the CumO(•) β-scission rate constant in the order Li(+) > Mg(2+) > Na(+). These effects were explained in terms of the stabilization of the β-scission transition state determined by Lewis acid-base interactions between M(n+) and the radical. When hydrogen abstraction from 1,4-cyclohexadiene was studied in the presence of LiClO(4) and Mg(ClO(4))(2), a slight increase in rate constant (k(H)) was observed indicating that interaction between M(n+) and CumO(•) can also influence, although to a limited extent, the hydrogen abstraction reactivity of alkoxyl radicals. With Lewis basic C-H donors such as THF and tertiary amines, a decrease in k(H) with increasing Lewis acidity of M(n+) was observed (k(H)(MeCN) > k(H)(Li(+)) > k(H)(Mg(2+))). This behavior was explained in terms of the stronger Lewis acid-base interaction of M(n+) with the substrate as compared to the radical. This interaction reduces the degree of overlap between the α-C-H σ* orbital and a heteroatom lone-pair, increasing the C-H BDE and destabilizing the carbon centered radical formed after abstraction. With tertiary amines, a >2-order of magnitude decrease in k(H) was measured after Mg(ClO(4))(2) addition up to a 1.5:1 amine/Mg(ClO(4))(2) ratio. At higher amine concentrations, very similar k(H) values were measured with and without Mg(ClO(4))(2). These results clearly show that with strong Lewis basic substrates variations in the nature and concentration of M(n+) can dramatically influence k(H), allowing for a fine control of the substrate hydrogen atom donor ability, thus providing a convenient method for C-H deactivation. The implications and generality of these findings are discussed.

  15. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  16. 24 CFR 982.310 - Owner termination of tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PHA: Not grounds for termination of tenancy. (1) The family is not responsible for payment of the... terminate the tenancy of the family for nonpayment of the PHA housing assistance payment. (c) Criminal... family when the owner determines that a household member is illegally using a drug or when the owner...

  17. Tree Owner's Manual for the Northeastern Midwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Jill Johnson; Gary Johnson; Maureen McDonough; Lisa Burban; Janette Monear

    2008-01-01

    One common issue facing our urban forests is the fact that trees are dying prematurely. Many are planted improperly, setting them up for failure. Many do not receive regular maintenance. And few are adequately protected during construction projects. To help remedy this issue, the Forest Service has created this Tree Owner's Manual. Just like the owner...

  18. 46 CFR 28.505 - Vessel owner's responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.505 Vessel owner's responsibility. (a) Where a test or calculations are necessary to evaluate stability, it is the owner's responsibility to select a qualified individual to perform the test or calculations. (b) Test results and calculations developed in...

  19. 7 CFR 760.403 - Eligible owners and contract growers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 760.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... eligible as a: (1) Livestock owner for benefits with respect to the death of an animal under this subpart... the animal. Eligible types of animal categories for which losses can be calculated for an owner...

  20. The private forest-land owners of the United States

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas G. Lewis; H. Fred Kaiser

    1982-01-01

    A report on a 1978 survey of private forest-land owners, based on 11,076 questionnaires. About 7.8 million ownership units hold 333 million acres of privately owned forest land in the United States. Regional and subregional breakdowns are included for such important variables as form of ownership; owner's occupation, age, sex, race, residence, and education; size...

  1. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Definitions—(1) Compensation. Compensation means the total benefit received by the owner for the services he... disadvantage such owners in comparison with corporate providers or providers employing persons to perform... reference to, or in comparison with, compensation paid for comparable services and responsibilities...

  2. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Definitions—(1) Compensation. Compensation means the total benefit received by the owner for the services he... disadvantage such owners in comparison with corporate providers or providers employing persons to perform... reference to, or in comparison with, compensation paid for comparable services and responsibilities...

  3. 24 CFR 982.306 - PHA disapproval of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The owner has engaged in any drug-related criminal activity or any violent criminal activity; (4) The... residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises; or (iv) Is drug-related criminal activity or violent... assessments. (d) The PHA must not approve a unit if the owner is the parent, child, grandparent,...

  4. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Majority of land owners. 9185.3-3 Section 9185.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join...

  5. Family forest owner preferences for biomass harvesting in Massachusetts

    Treesearch

    Marla Markowski-Lindsay; Thomas Stevens; David B. Kittredge; Brett J. Butler; Paul Catanzaro; David Damery

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests, including family-owned forests, are a potential source of biomass for renewable energy. Family forest owners constitute a significant portion of the overall forestland in the U.S., yet little is known about family forest owners' preferences for supplying wood-based biomass. The goal of this study is to understand how Massachusetts family forest...

  6. 7 CFR 1780.68 - Owner's contractual responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Owner's contractual responsibility. 1780.68 Section 1780.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE..., Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.68 Owner's contractual responsibility. This part does not...

  7. 24 CFR 850.155 - Securing owner's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Securing owner's responsibilities. 850.155 Section 850.155 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN...'s responsibilities. Assistance provided under this part shall constitute a debt of the owner...

  8. 24 CFR 983.301 - Determining the rent to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining the rent to owner. 983.301 Section 983.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.301 Determining the rent...

  9. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal owners. 107.1 Section 107.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... animal owners. Products prepared as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and establishments...

  10. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal owners. 107.1 Section 107.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... animal owners. Products prepared as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and establishments...

  11. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal owners. 107.1 Section 107.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... animal owners. Products prepared as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section and establishments...

  12. 33 CFR 104.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 104.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.200 Owner or operator. (a) Each vessel owner or operator must ensure that the vessel operates in compliance with the requirements of...

  13. 33 CFR 104.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 104.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.200 Owner or operator. (a) Each vessel owner or operator must ensure that the vessel operates in compliance with the requirements of...

  14. 24 CFR 982.306 - PHA disapproval of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PHA disapproval of owner. 982.306... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.306 PHA disapproval of owner. (a) The PHA must not approve an assisted tenancy if the PHA has been informed (by HUD or...

  15. 24 CFR 982.306 - PHA disapproval of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PHA disapproval of owner. 982.306... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.306 PHA disapproval of owner. (a) The PHA must not approve an assisted tenancy if the PHA has been informed (by HUD or...

  16. 24 CFR 982.306 - PHA disapproval of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false PHA disapproval of owner. 982.306... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.306 PHA disapproval of owner. (a) The PHA must not approve an assisted tenancy if the PHA has been informed (by HUD or...

  17. 7 CFR 760.403 - Eligible owners and contract growers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 760.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... eligible as a: (1) Livestock owner for benefits with respect to the death of an animal under this subpart... the animal. Eligible types of animal categories for which losses can be calculated for an owner are...

  18. 7 CFR 760.403 - Eligible owners and contract growers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 760.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... eligible as a: (1) Livestock owner for benefits with respect to the death of an animal under this subpart... the animal. Eligible types of animal categories for which losses can be calculated for an owner are...

  19. The forest-land owners of Ohio -- 1979

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1982-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on a mail canvass of private commercial forest-land owners in Ohio. The study was conducted in conjunction with the third forest survey of Ohio by the USDA Forest Service. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, and intentions of owners regarding reasons for owning, recreational use, timber management, and harvesting.

  20. 46 CFR 67.30 - Requirement for citizen owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement for citizen owner. 67.30 Section 67.30... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.30 Requirement for citizen owner... States citizens. Pursuant to extraordinary legislation at 46 U.S.C. app. 883-1 (Bowater Amendment) and 46...

  1. 24 CFR 886.318 - Responsibilities of the owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maintenance of the project at any time. (d) Submission of financial and operating statements. After execution... Section 8 Housing Assistance Program for the Disposition of HUD-Owned Projects § 886.318 Responsibilities of the owner. (a) Management and maintenance. The owner shall be responsible for the management and...

  2. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  3. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  4. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  5. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  6. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  7. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  8. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  9. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  10. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  11. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  12. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  13. 24 CFR 886.119 - Responsibilities of the owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of the owner. (a) The Owner shall be responsible for management and maintenance of the project in... taxes; (2) Performance of all ordinary and extraordinary maintenance; (3) Performance of all management functions, including the taking of applications; determining eligibility of applicants in accordance with...

  14. 24 CFR 983.301 - Determining the rent to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determining the rent to owner. 983... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.301 Determining the rent to... is determined in accordance with this section and § 983.302. (2) The amount of the initial rent to...

  15. 24 CFR 982.306 - PHA disapproval of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) The owner has engaged in any drug-related criminal activity or any violent criminal activity; (4) The... residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises; or (iv) Is drug-related criminal activity or violent... assessments. (d) The PHA must not approve a unit if the owner is the parent, child, grandparent, grandchild...

  16. West Virginia Women Business Owners: Current Study and Trends Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holup, Linda L.; FitzGerald, Kathleen M.

    This report profiles current West Virginia women business owners and notes significant trends in the last eight years. It highlights a subgroup of women business owners, specifically low income, single women with children. These survey areas are discussed: industry sector, type of ownership, reasons for going/not going into business, planning…

  17. Control of changes in the defect structure of titanium saturated with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. V.; Lider, A. M.; Laptev, R. S.

    2016-06-01

    The hydrogenated samples of technical titanium were investigated using the EPA method and the measurements of the thermal electromotive force for these samples saturated with a different amount of hydrogen. The structure of the hydrogenated samples was studied by the X-ray diffraction method. The results have shown that the hydrogenated titanium structure starts changing at the same time, depending on the amount of added hydrogen. The intensity of the annihilation process increases with the increase in the hydrogen concentration in a-titanium up to the values of 4% wt and does not change up to the values of 5% wt (α + δ) - titanium. At the same time, the value of the thermal electromotive force decreases in this range of values. The annihilation intensity is stabilized for the values of 5% wt, and the value of the thermal electromotive force is increased. The inflection point for the thermal electromotive force versus the hydrogen concentration corresponds to the formation of δ - hydrides. The increase in the positron lifetime starts in the concentration range of 6-8% and moves to the stable level up to the concentrations of 21-22%. In this range, there is a transition from the (α + β) to the (α + δ) phase. The lifetime of positrons and the number of defects are increased, the value of the thermal electromotive force is reduced (up to the concentration of 24%), then there is a stabilization mode for all these parameters up to the values 32% wt.

  18. A comparison of noxious facilities` impacts for home owners versus renters

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E. |; Nieves, L.A.

    1996-09-01

    The siting of noxious facilities, such as hazardous waste facilities, is often vigorously opposed by local residents. As a result, one would expect people`s residential and employment choices to reflect a desire to avoid proximity to such facilities. Ibis behavior would in turn affect labor and housing prices. One technique that has been employed to implicitly value impacts of noxious facilities is the intercity hedonic approach, which examines the wage and land rent differentials among cities that result from environmental amenities and disamenities. However, most of the research focus has been on the behavioral response of home owners as opposed to renters. Since these two groups of residents vary on numerous dimensions such as marital status, age, sex, and personal mobility, it would not be surprising to find different marginal valuations of local site characteristics. We use 1980 Census data to derive separate estimates for owners and renters of the implicit value placed on eight different types of noxious facilities. Although the magnitude of the responses of renters and owners to noxious facilities and other environmental characteristics varies, the signs are generally consistent. The differences in values between owners and renters are not primarily due to differential mobility or sociodemographic factors. Controlling those factors decreases the differences between renters` and owners` implicit valuations by less than 10%. Unmeasured differences in characteristics between the two groups, such as tastes, risk aversion, or commitment to the community, must account for the remaining difference in valuations. These findings suggest that policymakers should separately consider the responses of owners and renters when estimating noxious facility impacts.

  19. 40 CFR 60.4211 - What are my compliance requirements if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4211 Section 60.4211... operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? (a) If you are an owner or operator and must comply... internal combustion engine and control device according to the manufacturer's written instructions...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4211 - What are my compliance requirements if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? 60.4211 Section 60.4211... operator of a stationary CI internal combustion engine? (a) If you are an owner or operator and must comply... internal combustion engine and control device according to the manufacturer's written instructions...

  1. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  2. Sub-10-fs control of dissociation pathways in the hydrogen molecular ion with a few-pulse attosecond pulse train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabekawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yusuke; Okino, Tomoya; Amani Eilanlou, A.; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2016-09-01

    The control of the electronic states of a hydrogen molecular ion by photoexcitation is considerably difficult because it requires multiple sub-10 fs light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength region with a sufficiently high intensity. Here, we demonstrate the control of the dissociation pathway originating from the 2pσu electronic state against that originating from the 2pπu electronic state in a hydrogen molecular ion by using a pair of attosecond pulse trains in the XUV wavelength region with a train-envelope duration of ~4 fs. The switching time from the peak to the valley in the oscillation caused by the vibrational wavepacket motion in the 1sσg ground electronic state is only 8 fs. This result can be classified as the fastest control, to the best of our knowledge, of a molecular reaction in the simplest molecule on the basis of the XUV-pump and XUV-probe scheme.

  3. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-10-12

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers.

  4. Advanced multimedia security solutions for data and owner authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Steinebach, Martin; Croce Ferri, Lucilla; Mayerhoefer, Astrid; Vielhauer, Claus

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we introduce a new content-fragile watermarking concept for multimedia data authentication, especially for a/v data. While previous data authentication watermarking schemes address single media stream only, we discuss the requirements of multimedia protection techniques. Furthermore we introduce our new approach called 3D thumbnail cube. The main idea is based on a 3D hologram over continuing video and audio frames. Beside the data authentication, we face the owner authentication problem as second requirement for manipulation recognition. The watermark for manipulation recognition has to be created by the owner itself. The goal of owner authentication is to ensure that an entity is the one it claims to be. Therefore we introduce a key server and a biometric hash approach. We discuss several strategies and introduce a biometric based framework for owner authentication. With our presented data and owner authentication solutions we can realize an advanced security level.

  5. Microscale packed bed reactor for controlled hydrogen peroxide decomposition as a fuel cell oxidant aboard unmanned undersea vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, E.; Burke, A. A.; Ocampo, M.; Besser, R. S.

    The multiphase catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen is notoriously susceptible to thermal runaway (heat of reaction: -98 kJ mol -1). The high surface area to volume ratio (S/ V) in a microscale packed bed (MPB) reactor (radius 0.5 mm) was investigated for reducing the risk of thermal runaway during hydrogen peroxide decomposition to oxygen intended as a fuel cell oxidant aboard an unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV). A microscale reactor channel with a S/ V of ∼2 × 10 3 m 2 m -3 simulated under convective cooling generated a significant heat rise (T rise ∼ 100 K), whereas a microreactor with a higher S/ V (∼200 × 10 3 m 2 m -3) achieved thermal control (T rise < 10 K) over the simulated reaction zone. Although thermal management was successfully accomplished using the higher S/ V, experimental conversions of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen (5-18%) measured from the outlet were lower than simulated conversions (38-63%). Simulation assumptions, such as homogeneously dispersed flow and perfect catalyst interaction among other factors, contributed to the discrepancies between the simulated and experimental degrees of peroxide conversion to oxygen. Even though thermal control of the MPB was achieved, this work indicates that mass transfer limitations are a factor in the MPB reactor during a multiphase reaction, like decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water, and suggests means to overcome them even on the microscale level.

  6. Approaches to biometric watermarks for owner authentification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2001-08-01

    One major application domain for digital watermarks is copyright protection. Besides the design of watermarking algorithms, technologies for copyright holder identification have to be investigated. To ensure authenticity of an individual person, a wide number of biometric procedures exist. We define and describe new biometric watermarks, which denote the application of biometric reference data of individuals within digital watermarks to identify and verify ownership. Amongst the two classes of physiological and senso-motoric biometric schemes, the later appears more appropriate for biometric watermarks, as only these provide implicit expressions of intention. As such, we choose on-line handwriting as an appropriate base technology for our three new scenarios in biometric watermarking. In the first approach, embedding keys are being generated from biometric reference data, which requires stable and robust features and leads to rather complex keys. To overcome the complexity boundaries, the second approach develops a biometric reference hash, allowing key look-ups in key certifying servers. Although this proceeding leads to less complex keys, it still requires stable features. The third approach describes the embedding of biometric reference data within a watermark, allowing owner verification by more variant features, but limitations apply due to capacity of watermarking systems and also protection of the reference data is required. While most handwriting-based verification systems are limited to signature contexts, we discuss two additional context types for user authentication: passphrases and sketches.

  7. Controlling the equilibrium of formic acid with hydrogen and carbon dioxide using ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Yasaka, Yoshiro; Wakai, Chihiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Nakahara, Masaru

    2010-03-18

    The equilibrium for the reversible decomposition of formic acid into carbon dioxide and hydrogen is studied in the ionic liquid (IL) 1,3-dipropyl-2-methylimidazolium formate. The equilibrium is strongly favored to the formic acid side because of the strong solvation of formic acid in the IL through the strong Coulombic solute-solvent interactions. The comparison of the equilibrium constants in the IL and water has shown that the pressures required to transform hydrogen and carbon dioxide into formic acid can be reduced by a factor of approximately 100 by using the IL instead of water. The hydrogen transformation in such mild conditions can be a chemical basis for the hydrogen storage and transportation using formic acid.

  8. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  9. 24 CFR 884.119 - Responsibility for contract administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8... administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects). 884.119 Section 884.119 Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 884.119 - Responsibility for contract administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8... administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects). 884.119 Section 884.119 Housing and Urban...

  11. 24 CFR 884.119 - Responsibility for contract administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8... ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8... administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects). 884.119 Section 884.119 Housing and Urban...

  12. 24 CFR 884.119 - Responsibility for contract administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM, NEW CONSTRUCTION SET-ASIDE FOR SECTION 515 RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.119 Responsibility for contract administration and... administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects). 884.119 Section 884.119 Housing and Urban...

  13. 24 CFR 884.119 - Responsibility for contract administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM, NEW CONSTRUCTION SET-ASIDE FOR SECTION 515 RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.119 Responsibility for contract administration and... administration and defaults (private-owner and PHA-owner projects). 884.119 Section 884.119 Housing and Urban...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence profiles, and phylogenetic groups of fecal Escherichia coli isolates: a comparative analysis between dogs and their owners in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Okada, Erika; Shimizu, Takae; Kataoka, Yasushi; Sawada, Takuo; Takahashi, Toshio

    2012-03-01

    In this study, fecal Escherichia coli isolates (n=188) from 34 dog-owner pairs and 26 healthy control humans (2 isolates per individual) were tested for susceptibility to 6 antimicrobials and screened for virulence genes. Genetic diversity between canine and owner isolates was evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Canine isolates exhibited significantly different rates of resistance to four and two antimicrobials, compared to control and owner isolates, respectively. Of the genes examined, the prevalence of sfa, hly, and cnf genes in canine isolates were higher than in control isolates, but not than in owner isolates. These results suggest that characteristics of owner isolates are somewhat similar to canine isolates, compared to isolates from non-dog owners. In addition, PFGE analysis revealed that transfer of E. coli between owners and their dogs had occurred within 3/34 (8.8%) households. Considering the effects of dog ownership on the population of E. coli isolates from owners, further epidemiological studies are required.

  15. 24 CFR 982.404 - Maintenance: Owner and family responsibility; PHA remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance: Owner and family... Maintenance: Owner and family responsibility; PHA remedies. (a) Owner obligation. (1) The owner must maintain... for a breach of the HQS that is not caused by the owner, and for which the family is responsible (as...

  16. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application for...) Whenever the address of the managing owner changes, the managing owner shall notify the Director, National... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to...

  17. Mechanistic study of microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

    2001-09-05

    Microbial control of biogenic production of hydrogen sulfide in oil fields was studied in a model system consisting of pure cultures of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacterium (NR-SOB) Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO and the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac6, as well as in microbial cultures enriched from produced water of a Canadian oil reservoir. The presence of nitrate at concentrations up to 20 mM had little effect on the rate of sulfate reduction by a pure culture of Lac6. Addition of CVO imposed a strong inhibition effect on production of sulfide. In the absence of added nitrate SRB we were able to overcome this effect after an extended lag phase. Simultaneous addition of CVO and nitrate stopped the production of H2S immediately. The concentration of sulfide decreased to a negligible level due to nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation activity of CVO. This was not prevented by raising the concentration of Na-lactate, the electron donor for sulfate reduction. Similar results were obtained with enrichment cultures. Enrichments of produced water with sulfide and nitrate were dominated by CVO, whereas enrichments with sulfate and Na-lactate were dominated by SRB. Addition of an NR-SOB enrichment to an SRB enrichment inhibited the production of sulfide. Subsequent addition of sufficient nitrate caused the sulfide concentration to drop to zero. A similar response was seen in the presence of nitrate alone, although after a pronounced lag time, it was needed for emergence of a sizable CVO population. The results of the present study show that two mechanisms are involved in microbial control of biogenic sulfide production. First, addition of NR-SOB imposes an inhibition effect, possibly by increasing the environmental redox potential to levels which are inhibitory for SRB. Second, in the presence of sufficient nitrate, NR-SOB oxidize sulfide, leading to its complete removal from the environment. Successful microbial control of H2S in

  18. The diverse values and motivations of family forest owners in the United States: An analysis of an open-ended question in the National Woodland Owner Survey

    Treesearch

    David N. Bengston; Stanley T. Asah; Brett J. Butler

    2011-01-01

    The number of family forest owners in the USA has increased continuously in recent decades, and the fate of much of US forests lies in the hands of this diverse and dynamic group of people. The National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is a recurring and comprehensive national survey of US private forest owners, including family forest owners. The NWOS includes an open-...

  19. 24 CFR 884.104 - Maximum total annual contract commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects). 884.104 Section 884.104 Housing and... HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.104 Maximum total annual contract commitment and project account (private-owner or PHA-owner projects). (a) Maximum total annual contract...

  20. Controllable synthesis and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Sb2Se3 ultralong nanobelts with urchin-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Rencheng; Chen, Gang; Pei, Jian; Sun, Jingxue; Wang, Yang

    2011-09-01

    The controlled synthesis of one-dimensional and three-dimensional Sb2Se3 nanostructures has been achieved by a facile solvothermal process in the presence of citric acid. By simply controlling the concentration of citric acid, the nucleation, growth direction and exposed facet can be readily tuned, which brings the different morphologies and nanostructures to the final products. The as-prepared products have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and selected area electron diffraction. Based on the electron microscope observations, a possible growth mechanism of Sb2Se3 with distinctive morphologies including ultralong nanobelts, hierarchical urchin-like nanostructures is proposed and discussed in detail. The electrochemical hydrogen storage measurements reveal that the morphology plays a key role on the hydrogen storage capacity of Sb2Se3 nanostructures. The Sb2Se3 ultralong nanobelts with high percentage of {-111} facets exhibit higher hydrogen storage capacity (228.5 mA h g-1) and better cycle stability at room temperature.The controlled synthesis of one-dimensional and three-dimensional Sb2Se3 nanostructures has been achieved by a facile solvothermal process in the presence of citric acid. By simply controlling the concentration of citric acid, the nucleation, growth direction and exposed facet can be readily tuned, which brings the different morphologies and nanostructures to the final products. The as-prepared products have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and selected area electron diffraction. Based on the electron microscope observations, a possible growth mechanism of Sb2Se3 with distinctive morphologies including ultralong nanobelts, hierarchical urchin-like nanostructures is proposed and discussed in detail. The

  1. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide versus formalin treatments to control mortality associated with saprolegniasis on lake trout eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Redman, S.; Bast, D.; Gaikowski, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide versus formalin treatments to control fungal infections on eggs of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush incubated at a hatchery in Wisconsin. Four strains of lake trout eggs were incubated in six vertical-flow Heath incubators; three replicate incubators for each chemical. Each incubator had 13 trays containing approximately 25,000-30,000 eggs/tray. Formalin (1,667 mg/L) or hydrogen peroxide (1,000 mg/L) treatments were administered once daily for 15 min up to the development of visible eye spots in the eggs (eyed egg stage). Eyed and dead eggs were separated using a photoelectric egg sorter, and the number of live and dead eggs was determined volumetrically. In the hydrogen peroxide test group, the bottom trays of each incubator had fungus present on the eggs, whereas no fungus was observed on eggs treated with formalin. The mean percentage of eyed eggs for an incubator treated with formalin (75%) was significantly greater than an incubator treated with hydrogen peroxide (70%). Formalin was the most efficacious therapeutant; however, both therapeutants were effective in increasing lake trout egg survival up to the eyed egg stage. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. Hydrogen Isotope Fractation Between Water and Algal Lipids of Three Strains of Botryococcus braunii Under Controlled Conidtions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sachs, J. P.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding of precipitation anomaly variations is essential to the reconstruction of paleo-El Nino at the low latitudes. In enclosed lakes, where lake level is affected by the balance between precipitation and evaporation only, water δ D reflects precipitation patterns. Freshwater algae, which utilize lake water for photosynthesis, should incorporate such signal in the hydrogen isotopes of their tissues. However, a fundamental question still exits: do algal lipid biomarkers truly record lake water hydrogen isotopic ratios? We have measured hydrogen isotope fractionation by freshwater algae Botryococcus braunii (3 strains) grown under controlled conditions in the lab. In order to establish a good relationship between lipid δ D and water δ D, for each strain we set up cultures in five waters with different δ D. δ D of alkadienes and botryococcenes of Botryococcus brauni measured on GCIRMS showed strong positive linear relation with water δ D (R2=0.99). Hydrogen isotopic ratios in the algal hydrocarbons are about 165 ‰ more negative compared to the water at the start while they are 270 ‰ more negative compared to water δ D at harvest. Such linear relationships establish a foundation for reconstructing lake water level and thus precipitation anomaly by analyzing δ D of algal lipids preserved in lake sediments.

  3. Comparison of periodontal pathogens between cats and their owners.

    PubMed

    Booij-Vrieling, H E; van der Reijden, W A; Houwers, D J; de Wit, W E A J; Bosch-Tijhof, C J; Penning, L C; van Winkelhoff, A J; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2010-07-29

    The periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are strongly associated with periodontal disease and are highly prevalent in humans with periodontitis. Porphyromonas and Tannerella spp. have also been isolated from the oral cavity of cats. The oral microflora in animals was compared with those in humans in earlier studies, but no studies are available on the comparison of the oral microflora from pets and their respective owners. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of these bacteria in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, since animal to human transmission, or vice versa, of oral pathogens could have public health implications. This study investigated the prevalence of Porphyromonas gulae, P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia in the oral microflora of cats and their owners, using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All Porphyromonas isolates from cats (n=64) were catalase positive, whereas the Porphyromonas isolates from owners (n=7) were catalase negative, suggesting that the isolates from cats were P. gulae whereas those from the owners were P. gingivalis. T. forsythia was recovered from both cats (n=63) and owners (n=31); the proportion of T. forsythia relative to the total CFU was higher in cats with periodontitis than in cats without periodontal disease. Genotyping of T. forsythia isolates (n=54) in six cat/owner couples showed that in one cat/owner couple the T. forsythia isolates (n=6) were identical. These T. forsythia isolates were all catalase positive, which led us to hypothesize that transmission from cats to owners had occurred and that cats may be a reservoir of T. forsythia.

  4. Redox Control and Hydrogen Production in Sediment Caps Using Carbon Cloth Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mei; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ruiling; Reible, Danny D.; Lowry, Gregory V.; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment caps that degrade contaminants can improve their ability to contain contaminants relative to sand and sorbent-amended caps, but few methods to enhance contaminant degradation in sediment caps are available. The objective of this study was to determine if, carbon electrodes emplaced within a sediment cap at poised potential could create a redox gradient and provide electron donor for the potential degradation of contaminants. In a simulated sediment cap overlying sediment from the Anacostia River (Washington, DC), electrochemically induced redox gradients were developed within 3 days and maintained over the period of the test (~100 days). Hydrogen and oxygen were produced by water electrolysis at the electrode surfaces and may serve as electron donor and acceptor for contaminant degradation. Electrochemical and geochemical factors that may influence hydrogen production were studied. Hydrogen production displayed zero order kinetics with ~75% coulombic efficiency and rates were proportional to the applied potential between 2.5V to 5V and not greatly affected by pH. Hydrogen production was promoted by increasing ionic strength and in the presence of natural organic matter. Graphite electrode-stimulated degradation of tetrachlorobenzene in a batch reactor was dependent on applied voltage and production of hydrogen to a concentration above the threshold for biological dechlorination. These findings suggest that electrochemical reactive capping can potentially be used to create “reactive” sediments caps capable of promoting chemical or biological transformations of contaminants within the cap. PMID:20879761

  5. Redox control and hydrogen production in sediment caps using carbon cloth electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ruiling; Reible, Danny D; Lowry, Gregory V; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2010-11-01

    Sediment caps that degrade contaminants can improve their ability to contain contaminants relative to sand and sorbent-amended caps, but few methods to enhance contaminant degradation in sediment caps are available. The objective of this study was to determine if, carbon electrodes emplaced within a sediment cap at poised potential could create a redox gradient and provide electron donor for the potential degradation of contaminants. In a simulated sediment cap overlying sediment from the Anacostia River (Washington, DC), electrochemically induced redox gradients were developed within 3 days and maintained over the period of the test (∼100 days). Hydrogen and oxygen were produced by water electrolysis at the electrode surfaces and may serve as electron donor and acceptor for contaminant degradation. Electrochemical and geochemical factors that may influence hydrogen production were studied. Hydrogen production displayed zero order kinetics with ∼75% Coulombic efficiency. Rates were proportional to the applied potential between 2.5 and 5 V and not greatly affected by pH. Hydrogen production was promoted by increasing ionic strength and in the presence of natural organic matter. Carbon electrode-stimulated degradation of tetrachlorobenzene in a batch reactor was dependent on applied voltage and production of hydrogen to a concentration above the threshold for biological dechlorination. These findings suggest that electrochemical reactive capping can potentially be used to create "reactive" sediments caps capable of promoting chemical or biological transformations of contaminants within the cap.

  6. Owner survey of tarsocrural effusion (bog spavin) in Clydesdale horses.

    PubMed

    Weaver, M P; Wilant, L

    2012-03-01

    A postal survey of the owners of Clydesdale horses in the UK and USA was conducted to obtain information on tarsocrural effusion ('bog spavin') as an indicator of osteochondrosis from 935 horses. Additional information requested included details of how this condition was investigated and treated. The reported tarsocrural effusion incidence was 10 per cent. The majority of respondents believed the condition to be of concern to Clydesdale owners, but only a minority were aware of the implications of tarsocrural effusion, suggesting that owner education would be of benefit.

  7. Evaluation of the owner's perception in the use of homemade diets for the nutritional management of dogs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Michele C C; Brunetto, Márcio A; da Silva, Flávio L; Jeremias, Juliana T; Tortola, Letícia; Gomes, Marcia O S; Carciofi, Aulus C

    2014-01-01

    Many dog owners see homemade diets as a way of increasing the bond with their pets, even though they may not have the convenience of commercial diets. Modifications of ingredients, quality and proportion might change the nutritional composition of the diet, generating nutritional imbalances. The present study evaluated how dog owners use and adhere to homemade diets prescribed by veterinary nutritionists over an extended period of time. Forty-six owners of dogs fed a homemade diet for at least 6 months were selected for the present study. Owners were invited to answer questions by first reading all possible answers and then selecting the one that best indicated their opinion. The results were evaluated through descriptive statistics. Thirty-five owners (76·1 %) found that the diets are easy to prepare. Fourteen owners (30·4 %) admitted to modifying the diets, 40 % did not adequately control the amount of provided ingredients, 73·9 % did not use the recommended amounts of soyabean oil and salt, and 34·8 % did not correctly use the vitamin, mineral or amino acid supplements. Twenty-six owners (56·5 %) reported that their dogs refused to eat at least one food item. All of these alterations make the nutritional composition of the diets unpredictable and likely nutritionally imbalanced. Although homemade diets could be a useful tool for the nutritional management of dogs with certain diseases, not all owners are able to appropriately use this type of diet and adhere to it for an extended period of time and this limitation needs to be considered when recommending the use of homemade diets.

  8. "Don't lock me out": life-story interviews of family business owners facing succession.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Alexandra; Breunlin, Douglas; Panattoni, Katherine; Gustafson, Mara; Ransburg, David; Ryan, Carol; Hammerman, Thomas; Terrien, Jean

    2011-06-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to analyze life-story interviews obtained from 10 family business owners regarding their experiences in their businesses with the goal of understanding the complexities of family business succession. The grounded theory that emerged from this study is best understood as a potential web of constraints that can bear on the succession process. Coding of these interviews revealed four key influences, which seem to have the potential to facilitate or constrain the family business owner's approach to succession. Influence 1, "The business within," captures intrapsychic dynamics of differentiation and control. Influence 2, "The marriage," addresses how traditional gender roles shape succession. Influence 3, "The adult children," examines the role of having a natural (accidental, organic, passively groomed) successor. Influence 4, "The vision of retirement," captures the impact of owners' notions of life post-succession. Family therapists frequently encounter family systems in which the family business is facing succession. Even if succession is not the presenting problem, and even if the business owner is in the indirect (rather than direct) system, this research reminds clinicians of the importance of the family's story about the family business. Therefore, clinical implications and recommendations are included.

  9. Small business owners' health and safety intentions: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lisa M; Li, Shelby Yahui

    2005-10-21

    Little is known about the variables underlying small business owners' behavioural intentions toward workplace health and safety. This project explores the relationship between three mediating variables (Attitude Toward Safety, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control) and owners' Intentions Toward Safety, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We also investigate the role of beliefs underlying each mediating variable. Seven hundred businesses (5-50 employees) were randomly selected from 4084 eligible companies in a manufacturing business database (SIC codes 24 to 39). The 348 respondents are on average 51 yrs of age, 86% male, 96% white and have 2 to 4 years of post-secondary school. All three mediator variables are significantly correlated with Intentions Toward Safety; Attitude Toward Safety shows the strongest correlation, which is confirmed by path analysis. Owners with higher attitudes toward safety have a higher probability of believing that improving workplace health and safety will make employees' healthier and happier, show that they care, increase employee productivity, lower workers' compensation costs, increase product quality and lower costs. These results suggest that interventions aimed at increasing owners' health and safety intentions (and thus, behaviours) should focus on demonstrating positive employee health and product quality outcomes.

  10. Small business owners' health and safety intentions: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Brosseau, Lisa M; Li, Shelby Yahui

    2005-01-01

    Background Little is known about the variables underlying small business owners' behavioural intentions toward workplace health and safety. This project explores the relationship between three mediating variables (Attitude Toward Safety, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control) and owners' Intentions Toward Safety, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We also investigate the role of beliefs underlying each mediating variable. Methods Seven hundred businesses (5–50 employees) were randomly selected from 4084 eligible companies in a manufacturing business database (SIC codes 24 to 39). The 348 respondents are on average 51 yrs of age, 86% male, 96% white and have 2 to 4 years of post-secondary school. Results All three mediator variables are significantly correlated with Intentions Toward Safety; Attitude Toward Safety shows the strongest correlation, which is confirmed by path analysis. Owners with higher attitudes toward safety have a higher probability of believing that improving workplace health and safety will make employees' healthier and happier, show that they care, increase employee productivity, lower workers' compensation costs, increase product quality and lower costs. Conclusion These results suggest that interventions aimed at increasing owners' health and safety intentions (and thus, behaviours) should focus on demonstrating positive employee health and product quality outcomes. PMID:16242041

  11. Proximal Association of Land Management Preferences: Evidence from Family Forest Owners

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Francisco X.; Cai, Zhen; Butler, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Individual behavior is influenced by factors intrinsic to the decision-maker but also associated with other individuals and their ownerships with such relationship intensified by geographic proximity. The land management literature is scarce in the spatially integrated analysis of biophysical and socio-economic data. Localized land management decisions are likely driven by spatially-explicit but often unobserved resource conditions, influenced by an individual’s own characteristics, proximal lands and fellow owners. This study examined stated choices over the management of family-owned forests as an example of a resource that captures strong pecuniary and non-pecuniary values with identifiable decision makers. An autoregressive model controlled for spatially autocorrelated willingness-to-harvest (WTH) responses using a sample of residential and absentee family forest owners from the U.S. State of Missouri. WTH responses were largely explained by affective, cognitive and experience variables including timber production objectives and past harvest experience. Demographic variables, including income and age, were associated with WTH and helped define socially-proximal groups. The group of closest identity was comprised of resident males over 55 years of age with annual income of at least $50,000. Spatially-explicit models showed that indirect impacts, capturing spillover associations, on average accounted for 14% of total marginal impacts among statistically significant explanatory variables. We argue that not all proximal family forest owners are equal and owners-in-absentia have discernible differences in WTH preferences with important implications for public policy and future research. PMID:28060960

  12. Proximal Association of Land Management Preferences: Evidence from Family Forest Owners.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Francisco X; Cai, Zhen; Butler, Brett

    2017-01-01

    Individual behavior is influenced by factors intrinsic to the decision-maker but also associated with other individuals and their ownerships with such relationship intensified by geographic proximity. The land management literature is scarce in the spatially integrated analysis of biophysical and socio-economic data. Localized land management decisions are likely driven by spatially-explicit but often unobserved resource conditions, influenced by an individual's own characteristics, proximal lands and fellow owners. This study examined stated choices over the management of family-owned forests as an example of a resource that captures strong pecuniary and non-pecuniary values with identifiable decision makers. An autoregressive model controlled for spatially autocorrelated willingness-to-harvest (WTH) responses using a sample of residential and absentee family forest owners from the U.S. State of Missouri. WTH responses were largely explained by affective, cognitive and experience variables including timber production objectives and past harvest experience. Demographic variables, including income and age, were associated with WTH and helped define socially-proximal groups. The group of closest identity was comprised of resident males over 55 years of age with annual income of at least $50,000. Spatially-explicit models showed that indirect impacts, capturing spillover associations, on average accounted for 14% of total marginal impacts among statistically significant explanatory variables. We argue that not all proximal family forest owners are equal and owners-in-absentia have discernible differences in WTH preferences with important implications for public policy and future research.

  13. Control of Electrons’ Spin Eliminates Hydrogen Peroxide Formation During Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The production of hydrogen through water splitting in a photoelectrochemical cell suffers from an overpotential that limits the efficiencies. In addition, hydrogen-peroxide formation is identified as a competing process affecting the oxidative stability of photoelectrodes. We impose spin-selectivity by coating the anode with chiral organic semiconductors from helically aggregated dyes as sensitizers; Zn-porphyrins and triarylamines. Hydrogen peroxide formation is dramatically suppressed, while the overall current through the cell, correlating with the water splitting process, is enhanced. Evidence for a strong spin-selection in the chiral semiconductors is presented by magnetic conducting (mc-)AFM measurements, in which chiral and achiral Zn-porphyrins are compared. These findings contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanism of spin selectivity in multiple electron-transfer reactions and pave the way toward better chiral dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells. PMID:28132505

  14. Controlling hydrolysis reaction rates with binary ionic liquid mixtures by tuning hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cameron C; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-02-16

    The ability of a binary ionic liquid (IL) system consisting of a phosphonium transition state analogue (TSA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][NTf(2)]) to accelerate the rate of the well-studied hydrolysis of a tert-alkyl picolinium salt by influencing the solvent structure was investigated. A significant rate enhancement was observed in the presence of the TSA; however, comparison with other cations illustrated that this enhancement was not unique to the chosen TSA. Instead, the rate enhancements were correlated with the dilution of hydrogen bonding by the added cations. This phenomenon was further examined by the use of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMMIM][NTf(2)]) as a cosolvent and the use of Reichardt's dye to measure the extent of hydrogen bonding on solutes in these systems. The rate increases are rationalized in terms of weaker hydrogen bonding from the solvent system to water.

  15. High-efficiency graphene nanomesh magnets realized by controlling mono-hydrogenation of pore edges

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamijyo, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Yagi, Y.; Haruyama, J.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate a drastic improvement in the efficiency of rare-element-free graphene nanomesh (GNM) magnets with saturation magnetization values as large as ∼10{sup −4 }emu/mm{sup 2}, which are 10–100 times greater than those in previous GNM magnets hydrogenated by only annealing under a hydrogen molecule (H{sub 2}) atmosphere, even at room temperature. This improvement is realized by a significant increase in the area of the mono-H-terminated pore edges by using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist treatment with electron beam irradiation, which can produce mono-H by detaching H-silicon (Si) bonds. This result must open the door for industrial applications of graphene magnets to rare-element-free magnetic and spintronic systems.

  16. Possible Fault Control of Hydrogen Ion Concentrations Near Schiaparelli Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevy, J. R.; Kattenhorn, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron flux maps of the equatorial region near Schiaparelli Crater in Mars eastern hemisphere indicate hydrogen ion concentrations in the shallow subsurface. Published maps of these hydrogen concentrations reveal anomalous linear concentrations of hydrogen with a northeast to southwest trend. The width and trend of these linear anomalies matches the width and trend of the graben between Scylla Scopulus and Charybdis Scopulus further to the south, west of Hellas Basin. These concentrations are believed to indicate locations of subsurface water ice. As such, the flux maps pinpoint locations where quantities of water may intermittently exist today or where liquid water may have pooled in the past. The possibility of life existing on Mars, either in the distant past or at present, depends on the availability of liquid water.

  17. Preparation of Graphene with Graphane Areas of Controlled Hydrogen Isotope Composition on Opposite Sides.

    PubMed

    Balgar, Thorsten; Kim, Hyunil; Hasselbrink, Eckart

    2013-06-20

    Monolayer graphene was prepared on an Ir(111) substrate where it exhibits a 25 × 25 Å(2) moiré pattern. Molecular hydrogen was dosed first, allowing it to dissociate on open areas of the Ir substrate. The generated H atoms formed an intercalated reservoir that can bind to the graphene subsequently. Next, atomic hydrogen was dosed, which binds to the graphene sheet and also initiates the transfer of H from the Ir substrate to the graphene sheet. The opposite sides of the sheet can be hydrogenated with isotope selectivity, as a sequence of difference isotopes, H or D, can be chosen at will in the preparation procedure. Sum-frequency generation spectra prove that as consequence of the dosing sequence, C-H bonds are predominantly pointing toward the Ir substrate side when H2 is dosed first and alternatively toward the vacuum side when D2 is dosed first.

  18. System design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Truitt, R.W.; Pounds, T.S.; Smith, S.O.

    1994-08-24

    This document describes the hardware subsystems of the data acquisition and control system (DACS) used in mitigation tests conducted on waste tank SY-101 at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. The system was designed and implemented by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and supplied to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste tank, directed at certain angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. The SY-101 tank has experienced recurrent periodic gas releases of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and (recently discovered) methane. The hydrogen gas represents a danger, as some of the releases are in amounts above the lower flammability limit (LFL). These large gas releases must be mitigated. Several instruments have been added to the tank to monitor the gas compositions, the tank level, the tank temperature, and other parameters. A mixer pump has been developed to stir the tank waste to cause the gases to be released at a slow rate. It is the function of the DACS to monitor those instruments and to control the mixer pump in a safe manner. During FY93 and FY94 the mixer pump was installed with associated testing operations support equipment and a mitigation test project plan was implemented. These activities successfully demonstrated the mixer pump`s ability to mitigate the SY-101 tank hydrogen gas hazard.

  19. Controllable synthesis and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Sb₂Se₃ ultralong nanobelts with urchin-like structures.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rencheng; Chen, Gang; Pei, Jian; Sun, Jingxue; Wang, Yang

    2011-09-01

    The controlled synthesis of one-dimensional and three-dimensional Sb(2)Se(3) nanostructures has been achieved by a facile solvothermal process in the presence of citric acid. By simply controlling the concentration of citric acid, the nucleation, growth direction and exposed facet can be readily tuned, which brings the different morphologies and nanostructures to the final products. The as-prepared products have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and selected area electron diffraction. Based on the electron microscope observations, a possible growth mechanism of Sb(2)Se(3) with distinctive morphologies including ultralong nanobelts, hierarchical urchin-like nanostructures is proposed and discussed in detail. The electrochemical hydrogen storage measurements reveal that the morphology plays a key role on the hydrogen storage capacity of Sb(2)Se(3) nanostructures. The Sb(2)Se(3) ultralong nanobelts with high percentage of {-111} facets exhibit higher hydrogen storage capacity (228.5 mA h g(-1)) and better cycle stability at room temperature.

  20. 9 CFR 54.5 - Certification by owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premises within 5 years after the last high-risk or scrapie-positive animal is removed, the owner will maintain the flock in accordance with a post-exposure management and monitoring plan for 5 years; (c) If...

  1. 9 CFR 54.5 - Certification by owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises within 5 years after the last high-risk or scrapie-positive animal is removed, the owner will maintain the flock in accordance with a post-exposure management and monitoring plan for 5 years; (c) If...

  2. 24 CFR 850.155 - Securing owner's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.155 Securing owner... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join in... State, has failed for any reason whatsoever to join in the application, evidence of service of...

  4. 24 CFR 850.155 - Securing owner's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... instrument. The debt shall be repayable in the event of a substantive, uncorrected violation by an owner of... development grant assistance outstanding, plus interest which is determined by the Secretary by adding two...

  5. 24 CFR 982.310 - Owner termination of tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. The owner's termination of tenancy... the provisions for protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in 24...

  6. 24 CFR 982.310 - Owner termination of tenancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking. The owner's termination of tenancy... the provisions for protection of victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking in 24...

  7. Photocopy o a measured drawing (location and owner of original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy o a measured drawing (location and owner of original are unknown) Root and Siemens, Architect, 1906. Terra cotta details - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  8. Photocpy of a measured drawing (location and owner of original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocpy of a measured drawing (location and owner of original unknown) Root and Siemens, Architects, 1906. Elevation and plan of main entrance. - Scarritt Building & Arcade, Ninth Street & Grand Avenue, & 819 Walnut Street, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  9. 31. RUSSELL DIZE, CAPTAIN AND OWNER, AT HELM OF KATHRYN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. RUSSELL DIZE, CAPTAIN AND OWNER, AT HELM OF KATHRYN (Photocopy of 35mm color slide taken by Todd Croteau, 1997) - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  10. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RATES AND TERMS FOR STATUTORY LICENSES USE OF CERTAIN COPYRIGHTED WORKS IN CONNECTION WITH NONCOMMERCIAL... other public broadcasting entity is not aware of the identity of, or unable to locate, a copyright owner...

  11. 37 CFR 42.120 - Patent owner response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF COMMERCE TRIAL PRACTICE BEFORE THE PATENT TRIAL AND APPEAL BOARD Inter Partes Review After... response. If no time for filing a patent owner response to a petition is provided in a Board order, the...

  12. Interaction of toluene with two-color asymmetric laser fields: Controlling the directional emission of molecular hydrogen fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaziannis, S.; Kotsina, N.; Kosmidis, C.

    2014-09-14

    The interaction of toluene with strong asymmetric two-color laser irradiation of 40 fs duration is studied by means of Time of flight mass spectrometry. Highly energetic H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} fragment ions are produced through an isomerization process taking place within transient multiply charged parent ions. Comparative study of deuterium labeled toluene isotopes enables the discrimination between molecular hydrogen fragments formed exclusively within the CH{sub 3}- part from those that require hydrogen atom exchange between the former and the phenyl moiety. It is demonstrated that by manipulating the relative phase of the ω/2ω field components the selective ionization of oriented toluene molecules can be used as a tool to control the directional emission of the H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} species.

  13. Outcomes of dogs undergoing limb amputation, owner satisfaction with limb amputation procedures, and owner perceptions regarding postsurgical adaptation: 64 cases (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Vanna M; Coleman, Kevin D; Ogawa, Morika; Saba, Corey F; Cornell, Karen K; Radlinsky, MaryAnn G; Schmiedt, Chad W

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate outcomes of dogs and owner satisfaction and perception of their dogs' adaptation following amputation of a thoracic or pelvic limb. Retrospective case series. 64 client-owned dogs. Procedures-Medical records of dogs that underwent limb amputation at a veterinary teaching hospital between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed. Signalment, body weight, and body condition scores at the time of amputation, dates of amputation and discharge from the hospital, whether a thoracic or pelvic limb was amputated, and reason for amputation were recorded. Histologic diagnosis and date of death were recorded if applicable. Owners were interviewed by telephone about their experience and interpretation of the dog's adaptation after surgery. Associations between perioperative variables and postoperative quality of life scores were investigated. 58 of 64 (91%) owners perceived no change in their dog's attitude after amputation; 56 (88%) reported complete or nearly complete return to preamputation quality of life, 50 (78%) indicated the dog's recovery and adaptation were better than expected, and 47 (73%) reported no change in the dog's recreational activities. Body condition scores and body weight at the time of amputation were negatively correlated with quality of life scores after surgery. Taking all factors into account, most (55/64 [86%]) respondents reported they would make the same decision regarding amputation again, and 4 (6%) indicated they would not; 5 (8%) were unsure. This information may aid veterinarians in educating clients about adaptation potential of dogs following limb amputation and the need for postoperative weight control in such patients.

  14. Walk like a vet, think like an owner.

    PubMed

    2016-11-26

    Owners consulting the internet before venturing into a veterinary practice is a real issue in today's technological age, but how often do vets step into the owner's shoes and try to understand why they do so? On the farm, what are the motivations of the farmer, and are these being listened to by the vet? These were just some of the questions raised in a session at the BVA Congress during the London Vet Show last week. Georgina Mills reports. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Catalytic process for control of NO.sub.x emissions using hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2010-05-18

    A selective catalytic reduction process with a palladium catalyst for reducing NOx in a gas, using hydrogen as a reducing agent. A zirconium sulfate (ZrO.sub.2)SO.sub.4 catalyst support material with about 0.01-2.0 wt. % Pd is applied to a catalytic bed positioned in a flow of exhaust gas at about 70-200.degree. C. The support material may be (ZrO.sub.2--SiO.sub.2)SO.sub.4. H.sub.2O and hydrogen may be injected into the exhaust gas upstream of the catalyst to a concentration of about 15-23 vol. % H.sub.2O and a molar ratio for H.sub.2/NO.sub.x in the range of 10-100. A hydrogen-containing fuel may be synthesized in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plant for combustion in a gas turbine to produce the exhaust gas flow. A portion of the fuel may be diverted for the hydrogen injection.

  16. Controlling residual hydrogen gas in mass spectra during pulsed laser atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Kolli, R Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Residual hydrogen (H2) gas in the analysis chamber of an atom probe instrument limits the ability to measure H concentration in metals and alloys. Measuring H concentration would permit quantification of important physical phenomena, such as hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, hydrogen trapping, and grain boundary segregation. Increased insight into the behavior of residual H2 gas on the specimen tip surface in atom probe instruments could help reduce these limitations. The influence of user-selected experimental parameters on the field adsorption and desorption of residual H2 gas on nominally pure copper (Cu) was studied during ultraviolet pulsed laser atom probe tomography. The results indicate that the total residual hydrogen concentration, HTOT, in the mass spectra exhibits a generally decreasing trend with increasing laser pulse energy and increasing laser pulse frequency. Second-order interaction effects are also important. The pulse energy has the greatest influence on the quantity HTOT, which is consistently less than 0.1 at.% at a value of 80 pJ.

  17. Single crystalline tantalum oxychloride microcubes: controllable synthesis, formation mechanism and enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hao; Xu, Leilei; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo

    2015-08-11

    Single crystalline microcubes of a new tantalum compound, tantalum oxychloride (TaO2.18Cl0.64), have been fabricated hydrothermally in a concentrated aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid. They contain a superstructure and exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production due to the improved light harvest and facilitated charge transport.

  18. Partially oxidized iridium clusters within dendrimers: size-controlled synthesis and selective hydrogenation of 2-nitrobenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higaki, Tatsuya; Kitazawa, Hirokazu; Yamazoe, Seiji; Tsukuda, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Iridium clusters nominally composed of 15, 30 or 60 atoms were size-selectively synthesized within OH-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 6. Spectroscopic characterization revealed that the Ir clusters were partially oxidized. All the Ir clusters efficiently converted 2-nitrobenzaldehyde to anthranil and 2-aminobenzaldehyde under atmospheric hydrogen at room temperature in toluene via selective hydrogenation of the NO2 group. The selectivity toward 2-aminobenzaldehyde over anthranil was improved with the reduction of the cluster size. The improved selectivity is ascribed to more efficient reduction than intramolecular heterocyclization of a hydroxylamine intermediate on smaller clusters that have a higher Ir(0)-phase population on the surface.Iridium clusters nominally composed of 15, 30 or 60 atoms were size-selectively synthesized within OH-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 6. Spectroscopic characterization revealed that the Ir clusters were partially oxidized. All the Ir clusters efficiently converted 2-nitrobenzaldehyde to anthranil and 2-aminobenzaldehyde under atmospheric hydrogen at room temperature in toluene via selective hydrogenation of the NO2 group. The selectivity toward 2-aminobenzaldehyde over anthranil was improved with the reduction of the cluster size. The improved selectivity is ascribed to more efficient reduction than intramolecular heterocyclization of a hydroxylamine intermediate on smaller clusters that have a higher Ir(0)-phase population on the surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01460g

  19. Annexin A1 mediates hydrogen sulfide properties in the control of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Mitidieri, Emma; Flower, Roderick J; Cirino, Giuseppe; Perretti, Mauro

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous mediator synthesized in mammalian tissues by three main enzymes-cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-and its levels increase under inflammatory conditions or sepsis. Since H2S and H2S-releasing molecules afford inhibitory properties in leukocyte trafficking, we tested whether endogenous annexin A1 (AnxA1), a glucocorticoid-regulated inhibitor of inflammation acting through formylated-peptide receptor 2 (ALX), could display intermediary functions in the anti-inflammatory profile of H2S. We first investigated whether endogenous AnxA1 could modulate H2S biosynthesis. To this end, a marked increase in CBS and/or CSE gene products was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in aortas, kidneys, and spleens collected from AnxA1(-/-) mice, as compared with wild-type animals. When lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages were studied, H2S-donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) counteracted the increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA evoked by the endotoxin, yet it was inactive in macrophages harvested from AnxA1(-/-) mice. Next we studied the effect of in vivo administration of NaHS in a model of interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced mesenteric inflammation. AnxA1(+/+) mice treated with NaHS (100 μmol/kg) displayed inhibition of IL-1β-induced leukocyte adhesion/emigration in the inflamed microcirculation, not observed in AnxA1(-/-) animals. These results were translated by testing human neutrophils, where NaHS (10-100 μM) prompted an intense mobilization (>50%) of AnxA1 from cytosol to cell surface, an event associated with inhibition of cell/endothelium interaction under flow. Taken together, these data strongly indicate the existence of a positive interlink between AnxA1 and H2S pathway, with nonredundant functions in the control of experimental inflammation.

  20. Exploiting Distributed, Heterogeneous and Sensitive Data Stocks while Maintaining the Owner's Data Sovereignty.

    PubMed

    Lablans, M; Kadioglu, D; Muscholl, M; Ückert, F

    2015-01-01

    To achieve statistical significance in medical research, biological or data samples from several bio- or databanks often need to be complemented by those of other institutions. For that purpose, IT-based search services have been established to locate datasets matching a given set of criteria in databases distributed across several institutions. However, previous approaches require data owners to disclose information about their samples, raising a barrier for their participation in the network. To devise a method to search distributed databases for datasets matching a given set of criteria while fully maintaining their owner's data sovereignty. As a modification to traditional federated search services, we propose the decentral search, which allows the data owner a high degree of control. Relevant data are loaded into local bridgeheads, each under their owner's sovereignty. Researchers can formulate criteria sets along with a project proposal using a central search broker, which then notifies the bridgeheads. The criteria are, however, treated as an inquiry rather than a query: Instead of responding with results, bridgeheads notify their owner and wait for his/her decision regarding whether and what to answer based on the criteria set, the matching datasets and the specific project proposal. Without the owner's explicit consent, no data leaves his/her institution. The decentral search has been deployed in one of the six German Centers for Health Research, comprised of eleven university hospitals. In the process, compliance with German data protection regulations has been confirmed. The decentral search also marks the centerpiece of an open source registry software toolbox aiming to build a national registry of rare diseases in Germany. While the sacrifice of real-time answers impairs some use-cases, it leads to several beneficial side effects: improved data protection due to data parsimony, tolerance for incomplete data schema mappings and flexibility with regard

  1. A new approach to strip-based tooth whitening: 14% hydrogen peroxide delivered via controlled low dose.

    PubMed

    Sagel, Paul A; Landrigan, William F

    2004-08-01

    Professionally dispensed, take-home whitening products originally consisted of tray systems into which the patient dispensed a peroxide-containing gel. Because the process of inserting peroxide-containing gels into the trays is patient controlled, the resulting exposure of the gingiva to peroxide can be variable, and often high. In addition to concentration, soft tissue irritation is a function of the amount, or dose, of peroxide with which the tissue is challenged. All other things being equal, higher-concentration products will whiten faster because of the peroxide concentration gradient, but they also will lead to poorer soft tissue tolerability because of a higher peroxide challenge. Consequently, take-home trays are somewhat limited with respect to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide that they can safely use. In 2000, strip-based whitening technology was introduced that allowed a controlled, uniform, low dose of peroxide to be applied to the teeth. An execution of this strip-based technology that contained 6.5% hydrogen peroxide, Crest Professional Whitestrips, was launched in 2001. A new professionally dispensed strip product, Crest Whitestrips Supreme, recently has been introduced. A 14% hydrogen-peroxide gel is incorporated onto these strips, but the amount of gel is half of what is on the 6.5% strips. The net result is that the dose, or amount, of peroxide on each strip is essentially the same as for the Professional Whitestrips product. Therefore, the 14% hydrogen-peroxide strip product whitens faster and better than previous strip products, while still being well tolerated by the soft tissue.

  2. Evaluation of feed COD/sulfate ratio as a control criterion for the biological hydrogen sulfide production and lead precipitation.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Antonio; Ramírez, Martha; Volke-Sepúlveda, Tania; González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria to produce hydrogen sulfide and the high affinity of sulfide to react with divalent metallic cations represent an excellent option to remove heavy metals from wastewater. Different parameters have been proposed to control the hydrogen sulfide production by anaerobic bacteria, such as the organic and sulfate loading rates and the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio. This work relates the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio with the hydrogen sulfide production and dissolved lead precipitation, using ethanol as carbon and energy source in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. A maximum dissolved sulfide concentration of 470+/-7 mg S/L was obtained at a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 2.5, with sulfate and ethanol conversions of approximately 94 and 87%, respectively. The lowest dissolved sulfide concentration (145+/-10 mg S/L) was observed with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 0.67. Substantial amounts of acetate (510-1730 mg/L) were produced and accumulated in the bioreactor from ethanol oxidation. Although only incomplete oxidation of ethanol to acetate was observed, the consortium was able to remove 99% of the dissolved lead (200 mg/L) with a feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio of 1.5. It was found that the feed COD/SO4(2-) ratio could be an adequate parameter to control the hydrogen sulfide production and the consequent precipitation of dissolved lead.

  3. Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus) Do Not Show Signs of Secure Attachment to Their Owners

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Alice; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Ainsworth Strange Situation Test (SST) has been widely used to demonstrate that the bond between both children and dogs to their primary carer typically meets the requirements of a secure attachment (i.e. the carer being perceived as a focus of safety and security in otherwise threatening environments), and has been adapted for cats with a similar claim made. However methodological problems in this latter research make the claim that the cat-owner bond is typically a secure attachment, operationally definable by its behaviour in the SST, questionable. We therefore developed an adapted version of the SST with the necessary methodological controls which include a full counterbalance of the procedure. A cross-over design experiment with 20 cat-owner pairs (10 each undertaking one of the two versions of the SST first) and continuous focal sampling was used to record the duration of a range of behavioural states expressed by the cats that might be useful for assessing secure attachment. Since data were not normally distributed, non-parametric analyses were used on those behaviours shown to be reliable across the two versions of the test (which excluded much cat behaviour). Although cats vocalised more when the owner rather the stranger left the cat with the other individual, there was no other evidence consistent with the interpretation of the bond between a cat and its owner meeting the requirements of a secure attachment. These results are consistent with the view that adult cats are typically quite autonomous, even in their social relationships, and not necessarily dependent on others to provide a sense of security and safety. It is concluded that alternative methods need to be developed to characterise the normal psychological features of the cat-owner bond. PMID:26332470

  4. Community pharmacy owners' views of star ratings and performance measurement: In-depth interviews.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Benjamin S; Fox, Brent I; Garza, Kimberly B; Harris, Stanley G; Nau, David P; Owensby, Justin K; Westrick, Salisa C

    2016-01-01

    The star rating system implemented by Medicare has the potential to positively affect patient health and may have financial implications for community pharmacies. Learning from owners of community pharmacies with high performance on these quality measures may help us to identify and further understand factors contributing to their success. This study described high-performing community pharmacy owners' current awareness and knowledge of star ratings, attitudes toward star ratings and performance measurement, and initiatives being offered in pharmacies that aim to improve the quality of care. Qualitative interviews with owners of independent community pharmacies were conducted in Spring 2015. Fifteen community pharmacies with high performance on the star rating measures were invited to participate. Recruitment did not end until the saturation point had been reached. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed with the use of ATLAS.ti by 2 coders trained in thematic analysis. Krippendorf's alpha was calculated to assess intercoder reliability. Ten high-performing pharmacy owners participated. Analysis identified 8 themes, which were organized into the following categories: 1) current awareness and knowledge (i.e., superficial or advanced knowledge); 2) attitudes toward star ratings (positive perceptions, skeptical of performance rewards, and lack a feeling of control); and 3) pharmacy initiatives (personal patient relationships, collaborative employee relationships, and use of technology). Intercoder reliability was good overall. Interviews with high-performing pharmacies suggested that awareness of the star rating measures, overall positive attitudes toward the star ratings, the relationships that pharmacy owners have with their patients and their employees, and the use of technology as a tool to enhance patient care may contribute to high performance on the star rating measures. Future research is needed to determine if and how these

  5. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection?

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung

    2016-02-01

    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative

  7. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). Mixed-breeds and purebreds were similar in trainability and boldness scores. However, twelve out of 20 demographic and dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the "average" dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  8. Tuning the hydrogen evolution activity of β-Mo2C nanoparticles via control of their growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Timothy T; Saidi, Wissam A

    2017-03-02

    The use of water electrocatalysis for hydrogen production is a promising, sustainable and greenhouse-gas-free process to develop disruptive renewable energy technologies. Transition metal carbides, in particular β-phase Mo2C, are garnering increased attention as hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts due to their favourable synthesis conditions, stability and high catalytic efficiency. We use a thermodynamic approach in conjunction with density functional theory and a kinetic model of exchange current density to systematically study the HER activity of β-Mo2C under different experimental conditions. We show that the (011) surface has the highest HER activity, which is rationalized by its lack of strong Mo-based hydrogen adsorption sites. Thus, the HER efficiency of β-Mo2C can be tuned using nanoparticles (NPs) that expose larger fractions of this termination. We give definite maps between NP morphologies and experimental synthesis conditions, and show that the control of the carbon chemical potential during synthesis can expose up to 90% of the (011) surface, while ambient H2 has little effect on the NP morphology. The "volcano" plot shows that under these optimum conditions, the NP exchange current density is ∼10(-5) A cm(-2), that is only slightly smaller than that of Pt (111).

  9. Hydrogen-bond-assisted controlled C-H functionalization via adaptive recognition of a purine directing group.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Ajitha, Manjaly J; Lee, Yongjae; Ryu, Jaeyune; Kim, Jin; Lee, Yunho; Jung, Yousung; Chang, Sukbok

    2014-01-22

    We have developed the Rh-catalyzed selective C-H functionalization of 6-arylpurines, in which the purine moiety directs the C-H bond activation of the aryl pendant. While the first C-H amination proceeds via the N1-chelation assistance, the subsequent second C-H bond activation takes advantage of an intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction between the initially formed amino group and one nitrogen atom, either N1 or N7, of the purinyl part. Isolation of a rhodacycle intermediate and the substrate variation studies suggest that N1 is the main active site for the C-H functionalization of both the first and second amination in 6-arylpurines, while N7 plays an essential role in controlling the degree of functionalization serving as an intramolecular hydrogen-bonding site in the second amination process. This pseudo-Curtin-Hammett situation was supported by density functional calculations, which suggest that the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding capability helps second amination by reducing the steric repulsion between the first installed ArNH and the directing group.

  10. Ozone and hydrogen peroxide as strategies to control biomass in a trickling filter to treat methanol and hydrogen sulfide under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Teresa; Le Borgne, Sylvie; Revah, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    The operation and performance of a biotrickling filter for methanol (MeOH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal at acid pH was studied. Excess biomass in the filter bed, causing performance loss and high pressure drop, was controlled by intermittent addition, of ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The results showed that after adaptation to acid pH, the maximum elimination capacity (EC) reached for MeOH was 565 g m(-3) h (-1) (97 % RE). High MeOH loads resulted in increased biomass concentration within the support, triggering reductions in the removal efficiency (RE) for both compounds close to 50 %, and high pressure drop. At this stage, an inlet load of 150.2 ± 16.7 g m(-3) h(-1) of O3 was fed by 38 days favoring biomass detachment, and EC recovery and lower pressure dropped with a maximum elimination capacity of 587 g m(-3) h(-1) (81 % RE) and 15.8 g m(-3) h(-1) (97 % RE) for MeOH and H2S, respectively. After O3 addition, a rapid increase in biomass content and higher fluctuations in pressure drop were observed reducing the system performance. A second treatment with oxidants was implemented feeding a O3 load of 4.8 ± 0.1 g m(-3) h(-1) for 7 days, followed by H2O2 addition for 23 days, registering 607.5 gbiomass L(-1)packing before and 367.5 gbiomass L(-1)packing after the oxidant addition. PCR-DGGE analysis of different operating stages showed a clear change in the bacterial populations when O3 was present while the fungal population was less affected.

  11. Controllable cyanation of carbon-hydrogen bonds by zeolite crystals over manganese oxide catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Guoxiong; Zhang, Jian; Bian, Chaoqun; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of organic nitriles without using toxic cyanides is in great demand but challenging to make. Here we report an environmentally benign and cost-efficient synthesis of nitriles from the direct oxidative cyanation of primary carbon-hydrogen bonds with easily available molecular oxygen and urea. The key to this success is to design and synthesize manganese oxide catalysts fixed inside zeolite crystals, forming a manganese oxide catalyst with zeolite sheath (MnOx@S-1), which exhibits high selectivity for producing nitriles by efficiently facilitating the oxidative cyanation reaction and hindering the side hydration reaction. The work delineates a sustainable strategy for synthesizing nitriles while avoiding conventional toxic cyanide, which might open a new avenue for selective transformation of carbon-hydrogen bonds. PMID:28504259

  12. Spectators Control Selectivity in Surface Chemistry: Acrolein Partial Hydrogenation Over Pd

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a mechanistic study on selective hydrogenation of acrolein over model Pd surfaces—both single crystal Pd(111) and Pd nanoparticles supported on a model oxide support. We show for the first time that selective hydrogenation of the C=O bond in acrolein to form an unsaturated alcohol is possible over Pd(111) with nearly 100% selectivity. However, this process requires a very distinct modification of the Pd(111) surface with an overlayer of oxopropyl spectator species that are formed from acrolein during the initial stages of reaction and turn the metal surface selective toward propenol formation. By applying pulsed multimolecular beam experiments and in situ infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy, we identified the chemical nature of the spectator and the reactive surface intermediate (propenoxy species) and experimentally followed the simultaneous evolution of the reactive intermediate on the surface and formation of the product in the gas phase. PMID:26481220

  13. Controllable cyanation of carbon-hydrogen bonds by zeolite crystals over manganese oxide catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Guoxiong; Zhang, Jian; Bian, Chaoqun; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2017-05-01

    The synthesis of organic nitriles without using toxic cyanides is in great demand but challenging to make. Here we report an environmentally benign and cost-efficient synthesis of nitriles from the direct oxidative cyanation of primary carbon-hydrogen bonds with easily available molecular oxygen and urea. The key to this success is to design and synthesize manganese oxide catalysts fixed inside zeolite crystals, forming a manganese oxide catalyst with zeolite sheath (MnOx@S-1), which exhibits high selectivity for producing nitriles by efficiently facilitating the oxidative cyanation reaction and hindering the side hydration reaction. The work delineates a sustainable strategy for synthesizing nitriles while avoiding conventional toxic cyanide, which might open a new avenue for selective transformation of carbon-hydrogen bonds.

  14. Ultraviolet optical properties of silica controlled by hydrogen trapping at Ge-related defects

    SciTech Connect

    Cannas, M.; Origlio, G.

    2007-06-15

    We studied the effects induced by the ultraviolet-laser and -lamp exposure sequences on the twofold coordinated germanium (=Ge{sup {center_dot}}{sup {center_dot}}) and the H(II) center (=Ge{sup {center_dot}}-H) in silica. The H(II) centers, generated after the first laser irradiation stage by the trapping of atomic hydrogen H{sup 0} at the (=Ge{sup {center_dot}}{sup {center_dot}}), are destroyed by the subsequent lamp exposure with efficiency depending on photon energy. The H(II) photodestruction is activated from {approx}4 eV, and its cross section is here quantitatively measured, so giving the absorption profile of this center. Consistent with the observed correlated recovering of (=Ge{sup {center_dot}}{sup {center_dot}}), the photodestruction is mainly due to the photolysis of the Ge-H bond leading to hydrogen detrapping.

  15. Controlled drive-in and precipitation of hydrogen during plasma hydrogenation of silicon using a thin compressively strained SiGe layer

    SciTech Connect

    Okba, F.; Cherkashin, N.; Claverie, A.; Rossi, F.; Merabet, A.

    2010-07-19

    We have quantitatively studied by transmission electron microscopy the growth kinetics of platelets formed during the continuous hydrogenation of a Si substrate/SiGe/Si heterostructure. We have evidenced and explained the massive transfer of hydrogen from a population of platelets initially generated in the upper Si layer by plasma hydrogenation towards a population of larger platelets located in the SiGe layer. We demonstrate that this type of process can be used not only to precisely localize the micro-cracks, then the fracture line at a given depth but also to 'clean' the top layer from pre-existing defects.

  16. Control of Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement of Ultra-High Strength Steel for Naval Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Superalloys 6.03.5.3 7000 Series Aluminum Alloys 6.03.5.4 Beta Titanium Alloys 6.03.6 IMPORTANT VARIABLES AFFECTING HYDROGEN CRACKING 6.03.6.1 Fracture...Assisted Damage in Stress Corrosion Cracking 6.03.7.1.1 Example Experiments for 7000 Series Aluminum Alloys 6.03.7.1.2 Crack Chemistry Advances...hardened aluminum alloys, precipitation hardened body-centered cubic titanium (P-Ti) alloys, and precipitation hardened austenitic superalloys

  17. System and method for controlling hydrogen elimination during carbon nanotube synthesis from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2010-03-23

    A system and method for producing carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition includes a catalyst support having first and second surfaces. The catalyst support is capable of hydrogen transport from the first to the second surface. A catalyst is provided on the first surface of the catalyst support. The catalyst is selected to catalyze the chemical vapor deposition formation of carbon nanotubes. A fuel source is provided for supplying fuel to the catalyst.

  18. Use of Metallurgical Variables and Surface Properties to Control Hydrogen Embrittlement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-28

    AND MINERAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE METALLURGY SECTION FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT April 1982 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract No. NOOO...of Materials Science and Engineering The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 . . r Y 1982 A Reproduction in whole or in...H. W. Pickering, "Effect of Hydrogen Behavior of Materials ", A. W. Thompson, I. M. Bernstein and A. J. West, AIME, pp. 229-231 (1976). 12. H. W

  19. Potential energy-driven spin manipulation via a controllable hydrogen ligand.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Peter; Muenks, Matthias; Laskin, Gennadii; Brovko, Oleg; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Ternes, Markus; Kern, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Spin-bearing molecules can be stabilized on surfaces and in junctions with desirable properties, such as a net spin that can be adjusted by external stimuli. Using scanning probes, initial and final spin states can be deduced from topographic or spectroscopic data, but how the system transitions between these states is largely unknown. We address this question by manipulating the total spin of magnetic cobalt hydride complexes on a corrugated boron nitride surface with a hydrogen-functionalized scanning probe tip by simultaneously tracking force and conductance. When the additional hydrogen ligand is brought close to the cobalt monohydride, switching between a correlated S = (1)/2 Kondo state, where host electrons screen the magnetic moment, and an S = 1 state with magnetocrystalline anisotropy is observed. We show that the total spin changes when the system is transferred onto a new potential energy surface that is defined by the position of the hydrogen in the junction. These results show how and why chemically functionalized tips are an effective tool to manipulate adatoms and molecules and a promising new method to selectively tune spin systems.

  20. Control of hydrogen photoproduction by the proton gradient generated by cyclic electron flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Ghysels, Bart; Alric, Jean; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Tolstygina, Irina; Krawietz, Danuta; Happe, Thomas; Auroy, Pascaline; Adriano, Jean-Marc; Beyly, Audrey; Cuiné, Stéphan; Plet, Julie; Reiter, Ilja M; Genty, Bernard; Cournac, Laurent; Hippler, Michael; Peltier, Gilles

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen photoproduction by eukaryotic microalgae results from a connection between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. Algal H₂ production is a transitory phenomenon under most natural conditions, often viewed as a safety valve protecting the photosynthetic electron transport chain from overreduction. From the colony screening of an insertion mutant library of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on the analysis of dark-light chlorophyll fluorescence transients, we isolated a mutant impaired in cyclic electron flow around photosystem I (CEF) due to a defect in the Proton Gradient Regulation Like1 (PGRL1) protein. Under aerobiosis, nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence (NPQ) is strongly decreased in pgrl1. Under anaerobiosis, H₂ photoproduction is strongly enhanced in the pgrl1 mutant, both during short-term and long-term measurements (in conditions of sulfur deprivation). Based on the light dependence of NPQ and hydrogen production, as well as on the enhanced hydrogen production observed in the wild-type strain in the presence of the uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, we conclude that the proton gradient generated by CEF provokes a strong inhibition of electron supply to the hydrogenase in the wild-type strain, which is released in the pgrl1 mutant. Regulation of the trans-thylakoidal proton gradient by monitoring pgrl1 expression opens new perspectives toward reprogramming the cellular metabolism of microalgae for enhanced H₂ production.

  1. Controlling the subtle energy balance in protic ionic liquids: dispersion forces compete with hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Fumino, Koichi; Fossog, Verlaine; Stange, Peter; Paschek, Dietmar; Hempelmann, Rolf; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-02-23

    The properties of ionic liquids are determined by the energy-balance between Coulomb-interaction, hydrogen-bonding, and dispersion forces. Out of a set of protic ionic liquids (PILs), including trialkylammonium cations and methylsulfonate and triflate anions we could detect the transfer from hydrogen-bonding to dispersion-dominated interaction between cation and anion in the PIL [(C6 H13 )3 NH][CF3 SO3 ]. The characteristic vibrational features for both ion-pair species can be detected and assigned in the far-infrared spectra. Our approach gives direct access to the relative strength of hydrogen-bonding and dispersion forces in a Coulomb-dominated system. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations support the experimental findings. The dispersion forces could be quantified to contribute about 2.3 kJ mol(-1) per additional methylene group in the alkyl chains of the ammonium cation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  3. Sub-10 nm Platinum Nanocrystals with Size and Shape Control: Catalytic Study for Ethylene and Pyrrole Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Huang, Wenyu; Aliaga, Cesar; Hung, Ling-I; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2009-03-02

    Platinum nanocubes and nanopolyhedra with tunable size from 5 to 9 nm were synthesized by controlling the reducing rate of metal precursor ions in a one-pot polyol synthesis. A two-stage process is proposed for the simultaneous control of size and shape. In the first stage, the oxidation state of the metal ion precursors determined the nucleation rate and consequently the number of nuclei. The reaction temperature controlled the shape in the second stage by regulation of the growth kinetics. These well-defined nanocrystals were loaded into MCF-17 mesoporous silica for examination of catalytic properties. Pt loadings and dispersions of the supported catalysts were determined by elemental analysis (ICP-MS) and H2 chemisorption isotherms, respectively. Ethylene hydrogenation rates over the Pt nanocrystals were independent of both size and shape and comparable to Pt single crystals. For pyrrole hydrogenation, the nanocubes enhanced ring-opening ability and thus showed a higher selectivity to n-butylamine as compared to nanopolyhedra.

  4. Sub-10-fs control of dissociation pathways in the hydrogen molecular ion with a few-pulse attosecond pulse train

    PubMed Central

    Nabekawa, Yasuo; Furukawa, Yusuke; Okino, Tomoya; Amani Eilanlou, A; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    The control of the electronic states of a hydrogen molecular ion by photoexcitation is considerably difficult because it requires multiple sub-10 fs light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelength region with a sufficiently high intensity. Here, we demonstrate the control of the dissociation pathway originating from the 2pσu electronic state against that originating from the 2pπu electronic state in a hydrogen molecular ion by using a pair of attosecond pulse trains in the XUV wavelength region with a train-envelope duration of ∼4 fs. The switching time from the peak to the valley in the oscillation caused by the vibrational wavepacket motion in the 1sσg ground electronic state is only 8 fs. This result can be classified as the fastest control, to the best of our knowledge, of a molecular reaction in the simplest molecule on the basis of the XUV-pump and XUV-probe scheme. PMID:27647423

  5. Hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  6. Hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  7. Evaluation of dog owners' perceptions concerning radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Denneberg, Nanna Åkerlund; Egenvall, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    Background External radiation therapy (RT) has been available for small animals in Sweden since 2006. This study was designed to obtain information on owner experiences and perceptions related to RT of cancer in their dogs. Another survey was used to determine the attitudes about use of RT in a group of Swedish veterinarians. Their responses were analyzed and compared to their level of knowledge of oncology and RT. Methods Owners of all dogs (n = 23) who had undergone RT for malignancy at Jönköping Small Animal Hospital between March 2006 to September 2007 were interviewed. A questionnaire was given to a selected group of veterinarians. Results All 23 owners responded. All owners thought that their dog did well during RT and most that their dog was also fine during the following phase when acute RT-related skin reactions occur and heal. Three owners stated that their dog had pain that negatively impacted quality of life because of radiation dermatitis. Five owners reported that RT positively impacted quality of life of the dog during the first weeks after RT because palliation was achieved. The owners were not disturbed by the efforts required of them. All but one owner (22 of 23) stated that they would make the same decision about RT again if a similar situation occurred. The most important factor for this decision was the chance to delay occurrence of tumour-related discomfort. The chance for cure was of less importance but still essential, followed by expected side effects. Time commitments, travel, number of treatments required and financial cost; all had low impact. The veterinarian survey showed that less background knowledge of small animal oncology/RT was associated with more negative expectations of RT for small animals. Conclusion The results show that for these owners, RT was a worthwhile treatment modality and that the discomfort for the dog was manageable and acceptable relative to the benefits. Improved continuing education about small animal RT in

  8. Pet dogs as attachment figures for adult owners.

    PubMed

    Kurdek, Lawrence A

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed the extent to which, and under what conditions, owners turn to their pet dogs in times of emotional distress. This feature of an attachment figure-safe haven-is a key characteristic of an attachment bond. Participants (N = 975, mean age = 47.95 years, 789 women and 186 men) were relatively dedicated dog owners who completed an online survey. Relative to other features of an attachment figure, safe haven was the least salient. Nonetheless, participants were more likely to turn to their dogs than they were to turn to their mothers, fathers, brothers, sisters, best friends, and children but less likely to turn to their dogs than to their romantic partners. Characteristics of both owners (being male, widowed, highly involved in the care of the dog, and uncomfortable with self-disclosure) and dogs (strongly meeting owner's needs regarding relatedness) heightened the likelihood that dogs were turned to rather than some humans. It is concluded that some owners develop attachment bonds with their pet dogs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Vocal recognition of owners by domestic cats (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsuko; Shinozuka, Kazutaka

    2013-07-01

    Domestic cats have had a 10,000-year history of cohabitation with humans and seem to have the ability to communicate with humans. However, this has not been widely examined. We studied 20 domestic cats to investigate whether they could recognize their owners by using voices that called out the subjects' names, with a habituation-dishabituation method. While the owner was out of the cat's sight, we played three different strangers' voices serially, followed by the owner's voice. We recorded the cat's reactions to the voices and categorized them into six behavioral categories. In addition, ten naive raters rated the cats' response magnitudes. The cats responded to human voices not by communicative behavior (vocalization and tail movement), but by orienting behavior (ear movement and head movement). This tendency did not change even when they were called by their owners. Of the 20 cats, 15 demonstrated a lower response magnitude to the third voice than to the first voice. These habituated cats showed a significant rebound in response to the subsequent presentation of their owners' voices. This result indicates that cats are able to use vocal cues alone to distinguish between humans.

  10. Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2013-09-01

    Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner.

  11. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  12. Small-molecule recognition for controlling molecular motion in hydrogen-bond-assembled rotaxanes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cuezva, Alberto; Berna, Jose; Orenes, Raul-Angel; Pastor, Aurelia; Alajarin, Mateo

    2014-06-23

    Di(acylamino)pyridines successfully template the formation of hydrogen-bonded rotaxanes through five-component clipping reactions. A solid-state study showed the participation of the pyridine nitrogen atom in the stabilization of the mechanical bond between the thread and the benzylic amide macrocycle. The addition of external complementary binders to a series of interlocked bis(2,6-di(acylamino)pyridines) promoted restraint of the back and forward ring motion. The original translation can be restored through a competitive recognition event by the addition of a preorganized bis(di(acylamino)pyridine) that forms stronger ADA-DAD complexes with the external binders.

  13. A novel colorimetric fluoride sensor based on a semi-rigid chromophore controlled by hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiling; Xu, Xiaoyong; Shao, Xusheng; Li, Zhong

    2015-12-01

    A novel semi-rigid latent chromophore E1, containing an amide subunit activated by an adjacent semi-rigid intramolecular hydrogen-bonding (IHB) unit, was designed for the detection of fluoride ion by the 'naked-eye' in CH3CN. Comparative studies on structural analogs (E2, E3, and E4) provided significant insight into the structural and functional role of the amide N-H and IHB segment in the selective recognition of fluoride ions. The deprotonation of the amide N-H followed by the enhancement of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) induced the colorimetric detection of E1 for fluoride ion.

  14. Characterization of recycled rubber media for hydrogen sulphide (H2S) control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Park, Jaeyoung; Evans, Eric A; Ellis, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) adsorption capacities on recycled rubber media, tyre-derived rubber particle (TDRP), and other rubber material (ORM) have been evaluated. As part of the research, densities, moisture contents, and surface properties of TDRP and ORM have been determined. The research team findings show that TDRP and ORM are more particulate in nature and not highly porous-like activated carbon. The characteristics of surface area, pore size, and moisture content support chemisorption on the macrosurface rather than physical adsorption in micropores. For example, moisture content is essential for H2S adsorption on ORM, and an increase in moisture content results in an increase in adsorption capacity.

  15. Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions by Hydrogen Peroxide-Enhanced Gas-Phase Oxidation Of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Kasper, John M; Iii, Christian A Clausen; Cooper, C David

    1996-02-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur oxides (SOX) are criteria air pollutants, emitted in large quantities from fossil-fueled electric power plants. Emissions of SOX are currently being reduced significantly in many places by wet scrubbing of the exhaust or flue gases, but most of the NOX in the flue gases is NO, which is so insoluble that it is virtually impossible to scrub. Consequently, NOX control is mostly achieved by using combustion modifications to limit the formation of NOX, or by using chemical reduction techniques to reduce NOX to N2. Low NOX burners are relatively inexpensive but can only achieve about 50% reduction in NOX emissions; selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can achieve high reductions but is very expensive. The removal of NOX in wet scrubbers could be greatly enhanced by gas-phase oxidation of the NO to NO2, HNO2, and HNO3 (the acid gases are much more soluble in water than NO). This oxidation is accomplished by injecting liquid hydrogen peroxide into the flue gas; the H2O2 vaporizes and dissociates into hydroxyl radicals. The active OH radicals then oxidize the NO and NO2. This NOX control technique might prove economically feasible at power plants with existing SO2 scrubbers. The higher chemical costs for H2O2 would be balanced by the investment cost savings, compared with an alternative such as SCR. The oxidation of NOX by using hydrogen peroxide has been demonstrated in a laboratory quartz tube reactor. NO conversions of 97% and 75% were achieved at hydrogen peroxide/NO mole ratios of 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. The reactor conditions (500 °C, a pressure of one atmosphere, and 0.7 seconds residence time) are representative of flue gas conditions for a variety of combustion sources. The oxidized NOX species were removed by caustic water scrubbing.

  16. Hydrogen systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veziroglu, T.N.; Zhu, Y.; Bao, D.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on hydrogen fuels. Topics considered at the symposium included hydrogen from fossil fuels, electrolysis, photolytic hydrogen generation, thermochemical and photochemical methods of hydrogen production, catalysts, hydrogen biosynthesis, novel and hybrid methods of hydrogen production, storage and handling, metal hydrides and their characteristics, utilization, hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines, hydrogen gas turbines, hydrogen flow and heat transfer, fuel cells, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, thermal energy transfer, hydrogen purification, research programs, economics, primary energy sources, environmental impacts, and safety.

  17. Influences on the water testing behaviors of private well owners.

    PubMed

    Imgrund, Krystian; Kreutzwiser, Reid; de Loë, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Many private wells in the United States and Canada already are contaminated, or are at risk of contamination. Regular testing for pathogenic bacteria is one of the most concrete measures well owners can use to determine whether or not their drinking water quality is safe. This study explored the factors and causal relationships that influence well owner water quality testing behavior. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to evaluate the stewardship behavior of 22 well owners in Ontario, Canada. Causal networks were created for each interviewee. These were then aggregated to determine key factors and causal relationships. The research revealed that motivations for regular testing include peace of mind and reassurance. Barriers include complacency, inconvenience, and lack of a perceived problem. Knowledge and better information by themselves were found to provide a weak basis for changing behavior. Implications of this research for promoting water testing behavior are discussed.

  18. My owner, right or wrong: the effect of familiarity on the domestic dog's behavior in a food-choice task.

    PubMed

    Cook, Amy; Arter, Jennifer; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2014-03-01

    Dogs are strongly influenced by human behavior, and they readily form bonds with specific humans. Yet these lines of inquiry are not often combined. The goal of this study was to investigate whether such bonds would play a role in how dogs behave in response to human signals. Using various types of signals, we compared dogs' use of information from a familiar human (their owner) versus an unfamiliar human when choosing between two food containers. In some conditions, the owner indicated a container that gave food and a stranger indicated a container that did not; in other conditions, this was reversed. Dogs more often chose the container indicated by or nearest to their owner, even when this container never yielded a food reward. In two conditions, dogs chose at chance: a control condition in which both pointers were strangers and a condition in which the owner and stranger sat reading books and provided no social signal. This is the first study to directly compare owners to strangers in a single food-choice situation. Our results suggest that dogs make decisions by attending preferentially to social signals from humans with whom they have become familiar.

  19. Roles of texture in controlling oxidation, hydrogen ingress and hydride formation in Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpunar, Jerzy A.; Qin, Wen; Li, Hualong; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.

    2012-08-01

    This review article attempts to provide an overall description for the texture related issues of degradation of Zr alloys. Experimental observations show that the oxide formed on Zr alloys is strongly textured. The texture and grain-boundary characteristics of oxide are dependent on the texture of metal substrate. Computer simulation and thermodynamic modeling were used to explain the influence of metal substrate on structure of oxide film, and intrinsic factors affecting the oxide microstructure. Models of diffusion process of hydrogen atoms and oxygen diffusion through oxide are presented. Both intragranular and intergranular hydrides were found following (0 0 0 1)α-Zr||{1 1 1}δ-ZrH1.5 relationship under no load, but different relationships were observed under stress. The through-thickness texture inhomogeneity in fuel cladding tubes, the effects of hoop stress on the hydride orientation and the formation of interlinked hydride structure were studied. A thermodynamic model was developed to analyze the nucleation and the stress-induced reorientation of intergranular hydrides. These works provide a framework for understanding the effects of texture on the oxidation, the hydrogen ingress and the hydride formation in Zr alloys.

  20. Controlled Synthesis of CuInS2/ZnS Nanocubes and Their Sensitive Photoluminescence Response toward Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsun; Jang, Ho Seong; Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Sehoon; Jeon, Duk Young

    2017-09-20

    We synthesized uniform CuInS2/ZnS nanocubes by adjusting reaction parameters at the ZnS growth stage. Higher temperature and zinc concentration were shown to drive resultant crystals to have cubic morphology, which could be ascribed to the facet-dependent ligand dynamics on the crystal surface and concomitantly preferred directions of crystal growth. It was found that these nanocubes exhibit sensitive responses, as of photoluminescence quenching, toward hydrogen peroxide, compared to pyramid-shaped nanocrystals. The origin of quenching was further analyzed to be the oxidation of thiolate ligands that leaves the quenching center on the surface. It was noted that the quenched photoluminescence could be fully recovered by introducing additional ligand molecules into the system. Being adopted in the shape-controlled crystal growth, the ligand-to-crystal interaction was shown to still govern the interfacial reaction, the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, of faceted crystals in our system. It turns out that the reactivity at the crystal surface depends on the exposed facets, especially induced by shape control, and the weak ligand-binding nature of the nanocube renders it vulnerable to the surface reaction.

  1. Why Software Should Not Have Owners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallman, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Presents arguments for free software, an open sharing of intellectual property. Highlights include the suitability of copyright for printed material but not for digital information; controlling information for profit; the natural rights of authors; economic issues; and custom enhancements of free software. (LRW)

  2. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  3. A building owner's perspective on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Curl, S.C. . Environmental Management Dept.); Joyner, E.L. Jr. . Tobaccoville Process); Handy, V.K. . Whitaker Park Process Services)

    1993-08-01

    Past experiences of engineers, designers, building owners, facility managers, and maintenance supervisors determine the technical approach used to address indoor air issues. While the design, commissioning, operation, and maintenance all form links to prevent indoor air quality problems, in most cases, cost, benefit, and experience will impact the solution. This article outlines approaches from a building owner and operator's perspective on the following issues: operation and maintenance team; to test and balance or not to test and balance; air distribution systems; ventilation effectiveness; ventilation in the office environment; cooling towers; filtration and cost considerations.

  4. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.; Kingsley, N.P.; Birch, T.W.

    1998-03-27

    This bulletin reports findings from a 1994 survey of Michigan private timberland owners. The objectives of the survey were: (1) to identify and profile private timberland owners; (2) to ascertain their objectives and motives for owning timberland, including benefits received from owning timberland and expected benefits; (3) to determine their timber harvest activities, including why they harvest or do not harvest, and their timber harvest plans; (4) to determine their knowledge and use of professional forestry management assistance; and (5) to ascertain their view toward public access to their land.

  5. Work plan for transition of SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    McClees, J.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-10-12

    The purpose of this effort is to transfer operating and maintenance responsibility for the 241-SY-101 data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) from Los Alamos National Laboratory to Westinghouse Hanford Company. This work plan defines the tasks required for a successful turnover. It identifies DACS-1 transition, deliverables, responsible organizations and individuals, interfaces, cost, and schedule. The transition plan will discuss all required hardware, software, documentation, maintenance, operations, and training for use at Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The transfer of responsibilities for DACS-1 to WHC is contingent on final approval of applicable Acceptance for Beneficial Use documentation by Waste Tank Operations. The DACS-1 was designed to provide data monitoring, display, and storage for Tank 241-SY-101. The DACS-1 also provides alarm and control of all the hydrogen mitigation testing systems, as well as ancillary systems and equipment (HVAC, UPS, etc.) required to achieve safe and reliable operation of the testing systems in the tank.

  6. Controlled release hydrogen sulfide delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles protects graft endothelium from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshuo; Sun, Xiaotian; Zhang, Huili; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Ye; Yang, Wuli; Guo, Changfa; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) functions as a protective gas transmitter in various physiological and pathological processes, but the lack of ideal donors severely hampers the clinical application of H2S. This study aims to construct a controlled release H2S donor and evaluate its protective effect on graft endothelium. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded with diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an H2S-releasing agent named DATS-MSN. In vitro experiments showed that DATS-MSN could alleviate endothelial cell inflammation and enhance endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the apoptosis of graft endothelium was mitigated in the presence of DATS-MSN. Our results indicated that DATS-MSN, releasing H2S in a controlled release fashion, could serve as an ideal H2S donor.

  7. Controlled release hydrogen sulfide delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles protects graft endothelium from ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenshuo; Sun, Xiaotian; Zhang, Huili; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Ye; Yang, Wuli; Guo, Changfa; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) functions as a protective gas transmitter in various physiological and pathological processes, but the lack of ideal donors severely hampers the clinical application of H2S. This study aims to construct a controlled release H2S donor and evaluate its protective effect on graft endothelium. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized using the sol–gel method and loaded with diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an H2S-releasing agent named DATS-MSN. In vitro experiments showed that DATS-MSN could alleviate endothelial cell inflammation and enhance endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the apoptosis of graft endothelium was mitigated in the presence of DATS-MSN. Our results indicated that DATS-MSN, releasing H2S in a controlled release fashion, could serve as an ideal H2S donor. PMID:27486324

  8. Computer system design description for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-05-01

    Description of the Proposed Activity/REPORTABLE OCCURRENCE or PIAB: This ECN changes the computer systems design description support document describing the computers system used to control, monitor and archive the processes and outputs associated with the Hydrogen Mitigation Test Pump installed in SY-101. There is no new activity or procedure associated with the updating of this reference document. The updating of this computer system design description maintains an agreed upon documentation program initiated within the test program and carried into operations at time of turnover to maintain configuration control as outlined by design authority practicing guidelines. There are no new credible failure modes associated with the updating of information in a support description document. The failure analysis of each change was reviewed at the time of implementation of the Systems Change Request for all the processes changed. This document simply provides a history of implementation and current system status.

  9. [Sharing bacterial microbiota between owners and their pets (dogs, cats)].

    PubMed

    Wipler, Jan; Čermáková, Zuzana; Hanzálek, Tomáš; Horáková, Hana; Žemličková, Helena

    2017-06-01

    The microbiological aspect of a relationship between pets (dogs/cats) and their owners is mainly concerned with the incidence of shared bacterial species, in particular potential pathogens. Given the great popularity of sharing homes with pets (dogs/cats) in the Czech Republic, there is an increased possibility of communication between microbiota of the two macroorganisms (pet and owner). The aim of the study was to determine the biodiversity of shared bacteria and possibility of exchange of genes of resistance to antimicrobial agents between potential pathogens based on the close relationship between pets and humans. A total of 103 samples were collected from 20 pairs (20 owners, 16 dogs and 4 cats). All owners completed a questionnaire with their pets' veterinarians. In owners, swabs were collected from the nasal mucosa, armpit and interdigital spaces of the foot. In pets, swabs were obtained from the external auditory meatus and nasal mucosa. In individuals with skin lesions, samples were also collected from the affected areas. Bacterial species were identified by culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In shared species, susceptibility to antibiotics was tested by the disk diffusion method. Statistical methods were used to correlate the closeness of relationship with the number of shared bacterial species and to correlate previous antimicrobial therapy with shared resistance of the common bacteria. Analysis of the questionnaires showed that 65 % of owners who participated in the study kept more pets at home than only the tested one. In the previous year, 5 % of pets and 5 % of owners received antimicrobial therapy. As many as 45 % of dogs or cats slept in their owners' beds and 80 % rested on a sofa together with their owners. Also, 45 % owners had their faces licked by pets. Eighty percent of pets were fed with several types of food (dry food and cooked food). Further, 70 % of pets lived

  10. Controlled clinical trial addressing teeth whitening with hydrogen peroxide in adolescents: a 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Marcelo Mendes; Gonçalves, Marcela Leticia Leal; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Olivan, Silvia Regina; Bortoletto, Carolina; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Vergilio, Katia Lumi Tanikawa; Altavista, Olga Maria; Motta, Lara J; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the colorimetric change in incisors and canines of adolescents aged 12 to 20 years submitted to at-home whitening and to evaluate satisfaction, sensitivity and discomfort during the procedures through a questionnaire. METHOD: Thirty adolescents were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium – FGM); 2) 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 3) 10% hydrogen peroxide (Oral B 3D White – Oral-B); 4) Control group – placebo. Assessments were performed prior to treatment as well as at 7, 30, 180 and 360 days after treatment. Friedman’s ANOVA was used to analyze color. The Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s post hoc test was used to compare the groups at the different evaluation times. Answers on the questionnaires were ranked, and non-parametrical tests were employed. The groups were compared in each period using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, and the Wilcoxon test was used for the analysis of different periods. P-values were corrected using the Hyan-Holm step-down Bonferroni procedure. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01998386. RESULTS: Similar results were obtained one month after treatment with both tooth whitening gels and whitening strips. Patients were partially satisfied with the treatment after the first and second weeks and would recommend it. All products demonstrated color stability after 12 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The bleaching procedure was efficient, and the patients could perceive its result. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of bleaching on young teeth. PMID:28355362

  11. Controlled clinical trial addressing teeth whitening with hydrogen peroxide in adolescents: a 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo Mendes; Gonçalves, Marcela Leticia Leal; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa da; Deana, Alessandro Melo; Olivan, Silvia Regina; Bortoletto, Carolina; Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal de; Vergilio, Katia Lumi Tanikawa; Altavista, Olga Maria; Motta, Lara J; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the colorimetric change in incisors and canines of adolescents aged 12 to 20 years submitted to at-home whitening and to evaluate satisfaction, sensitivity and discomfort during the procedures through a questionnaire. Thirty adolescents were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) 6.0% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 2) 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (White Class with calcium - FGM); 3) 10% hydrogen peroxide (Oral B 3D White - Oral-B); 4) Control group - placebo. Assessments were performed prior to treatment as well as at 7, 30, 180 and 360 days after treatment. Friedman's ANOVA was used to analyze color. The Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's post hoc test was used to compare the groups at the different evaluation times. Answers on the questionnaires were ranked, and non-parametrical tests were employed. The groups were compared in each period using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, and the Wilcoxon test was used for the analysis of different periods. P-values were corrected using the Hyan-Holm step-down Bonferroni procedure. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01998386. Similar results were obtained one month after treatment with both tooth whitening gels and whitening strips. Patients were partially satisfied with the treatment after the first and second weeks and would recommend it. All products demonstrated color stability after 12 months of follow-up. The bleaching procedure was efficient, and the patients could perceive its result. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of bleaching on young teeth.

  12. Ultra high vacuum high precision low background setup with temperature control for thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDA-MS) of hydrogen in metals.

    PubMed

    Merzlikin, Sergiy V; Borodin, S; Vogel, D; Rohwerder, M

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a newly developed UHV-based high precision low background setup for hydrogen thermal desorption analysis (TDA) of metallic samples is presented. Using an infrared heating with a low thermal capacity enables a precise control of the temperature and rapid cool down of the measurement chamber. This novel TDA-set up is superior in sensitivity to almost every standard hydrogen analyzer available commercially due to the special design of the measurement chamber, resulting in a very low hydrogen background. No effects of background drift characteristic as for carrier gas based TDA instruments were observed, ensuring linearity and reproducibility of the analysis. This setup will prove to be valuable for detailed investigations of hydrogen trapping sites in steels and other alloys. With a determined limit of detection of 5.9×10(-3)µg g(-1) hydrogen the developed instrument is able to determine extremely low hydrogen amounts even at very low hydrogen desorption rates. This work clearly demonstrates the great potential of ultra-high vacuum thermal desorption mass spectroscopy instrumentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world’s dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). Mixed-breeds and purebreds were similar in trainability and boldness scores. However, twelve out of 20 demographic and dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the “average” dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits. PMID:28222103

  14. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing and Analytical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D.; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.; Chandler, F. O.; Grayson, G. D.; Lopez, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Pedersen, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of a unique liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and feed system concept for solar thermal upper stage was cooperatively accomplished by a Boeing/NASA Marshall Space Flight Center team. The strategy was to balance thermodynamic venting with the engine thrusting timeline during a representative 30-day mission, thereby, assuring no vent losses. Using a 2 cubic m (71 cubic ft) LH2 tank, proof-of-concept testing consisted of an engineering checkout followed by a 30-day mission simulation. The data were used to anchor a combination of standard analyses and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Dependence on orbital testing has been incrementally reduced as CFD codes, combined with standard modeling, continue to be challenged with test data such as this.

  15. Inconsistent Regolith Thermal Control of Hydrogen Distributions at the Moons South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Litvak, M.; Livengood, Tim; Sanin, A.; Starr, R. D.; Su, Jian; Hamara, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: For over fifty years, intense interest has focused on determining if, where, and how much hydrogen (H) may be found near the Moons poles [1]. Driving the ongoing interest has been the critical role that H volatiles must play as a resource for human missions [2]. Now, with several lines of evidence consistently indicating that H concentrations are enhanced in some permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), plus the possibility of diurnally-dependent volatile H concentrations [3-8], investigations are shifting towards understanding the sources of H and factors that govern concentrations. For the last seven-plus years, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has collected an unparalleled temporal and spatial record of geophysical factors that may govern the Moons H distribution [9]. XXXX

  16. Ultrafast optical control using the Kerr nonlinearity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon microcylindrical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukovic, N.; Healy, N.; Suhailin, F. H.; Mehta, P.; Day, T. D.; Badding, J. V.; Peacock, A. C.

    2013-10-01

    Microresonators are ideal systems for probing nonlinear phenomena at low thresholds due to their small mode volumes and high quality (Q) factors. As such, they have found use both for fundamental studies of light-matter interactions as well as for applications in areas ranging from telecommunications to medicine. In particular, semiconductor-based resonators with large Kerr nonlinearities have great potential for high speed, low power all-optical processing. Here we present experiments to characterize the size of the Kerr induced resonance wavelength shifting in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonator and demonstrate its potential for ultrafast all-optical modulation and switching. Large wavelength shifts are observed for low pump powers due to the high nonlinearity of the amorphous silicon material and the strong mode confinement in the microcylindrical resonator. The threshold energy for switching is less than a picojoule, representing a significant step towards advantageous low power silicon-based photonic technologies.

  17. Hydrogen isotope fractionation and redox-controlled solution mechanisms in silicate-COH melt + fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    The behavior of volatiles in silicate-COH melts and fluids and hydrogen isotope fractionation between melt and fluid were determined experimentally to advance our understanding of the role of volatiles in magmatic processes. Experiments were conducted in situ while the samples were at the desired temperature and pressure to 825°C and ~1.6 GPa and with variable redox conditions. Under oxidizing conditions, melt and fluid comprised CO2, CO3, HCO3, OH, H2O, and silicate components, whereas under reducing conditions, the species were CH4, H2, H2O, and silicate components. Temperature-dependent hydrogen isotope exchange among structural entities within coexisting fluids and melts yields ΔH values near 14 and 24 kJ/mol and -5 and -1 kJ/mol under oxidizing and reducing conditions, respectively. This temperature (and probably pressure)-dependent D/H fractionation is because of interaction between D and H and silicate and C-bearing species in silicate-saturated fluids and in COH fluid-saturated melts. The temperature- and pressure-dependent D/H fractionation factors suggest that partial melts in the presence of COH volatiles in the upper mantle can have δD values 100% or more lighter relative to coexisting silicate-saturated fluid. This effect is greater under oxidizing than under reducing conditions. It is suggested that δD variations of upper mantle mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) sources, inferred from the δD of MORB magmatic rocks, can be explained by variations in redox conditions during melting. Lower δD values of the MORB magma reflect more reducing conditions in the mantle source.

  18. Methods for estimating private forest ownership statistics: revised methods for the USDA Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey

    Treesearch

    Brenton J. ​Dickinson; Brett J. Butler

    2013-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is conducted to better understand the attitudes and behaviors of private forest ownerships, which control more than half of US forestland. Inferences about the populations of interest should be based on theoretically sound estimation procedures. A recent review of the procedures disclosed an error in...

  19. Family Forest Ownerships of the United States, 2013: Findings from the USDA Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Jaketon H. Hewes; Brenton J. Dickinson; Kyle Andrejczyk; Sarah M. Butler; Marla. Markowski-Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    There are an estimated 10.7 million family forest ownerships across the United States who collectively control 36% or 290 million acres of the nation's forestland. The US Department of Agriculture Forest Service National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) provides information on the characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors of these ownerships. Between 2011 and 2013, 8,...

  20. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  1. DNA fingerprinting approaches to trace Escherichia coli sharing between dogs and owners.

    PubMed

    Naziri, Z; Derakhshandeh, A; Firouzi, R; Motamedifar, M; Shojaee Tabrizi, A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of cross-species sharing of Escherichia coli between healthy dogs and humans living in the same household. Two faecal E. coli isolates from 25 healthy dog-owner pairs and 16 healthy control humans were tested using three fingerprinting methods. The prevalence of within-household sharing of E. coli was 4, 8 and 8% using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR analyses respectively. Within-household bacterial sharing was more prevalent than across-household sharing (P < 0·05). According to questionnaire analyses avoiding the dog-owner behaviours such as allowing a dog to kiss or lick the owner's face, sharing people food with dog and feeding it raw meat may decrease the chance of cross-species E. coli sharing. Direct contact between humans and dogs and environmental reservoirs may be important routes for cross-species sharing of bacteria. Good personal hygiene and appropriate veterinary care for pets can minimize this risk. Due to the importance of canine pathogenic E. coli reservoir hypothesis, close contacts between humans and dogs raises public health concerns. Determining the rate of cross-species bacterial sharing and confirm its accuracy by different fingerprinting techniques will help to find ways for reducing the economic impact of E. coli infections. This study support claims that public health concerns regarding the cross-species sharing of E. coli are warranted but this risk is minimal. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. An Online Social Network to Increase Walking in Dog Owners: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Murphy, Deirdra; Ferrara, Cynthia; Oleski, Jessica; Panza, Emily; Savage, Clara; Gada, Kimberly; Bozzella, Brianne; Olendzki, Effie; Kern, Daniel; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Encouraging dog walking may increase physical activity in dog owners. This cluster randomized controlled trial investigated whether a social networking website (Meetup™) could be used to deliver a multi-component dog walking intervention to increase physical activity. METHODS Sedentary dog owners (n=102) participated. Eight neighborhoods were randomly assigned to the Meetup condition (Meetup) or a condition where participants received monthly emails with content from the American Heart Association on increasing physical activity (AHA). The Meetup intervention was delivered over 6 months and consisted of newsletters, dog walks, community events and an activity monitor. The primary outcome was steps; secondary outcomes included social support for walking, sense of community, perceived dog walking outcomes, barriers to dog walking and feasibility of the intervention. RESULTS Mixed model analyses examined change from baseline to post-intervention (6 months) and whether change in outcomes differed by condition. Daily steps increased over time (p=0.04, d=0.28), with no differences by condition. The time x condition interaction was significant for the perceived outcomes of dog walking (p=0.04, d=0.40), such that the Meetup condition reported an increase in the perceived positive outcomes of dog walking, whereas the AHA condition did not. Social support, sense of community and dog walking barriers did not significantly change. Meetup logins averaged 58.38 per week (SD=11.62). Within two months of the intervention ending, organization of the Meetup groups transitioned from study staff to Meetup members. CONCLUSION Results suggest that a Meetup group is feasible for increasing physical activity in dog owners. Further research is needed to understand how to increase participation in the Meetup group and facilitate greater connection among dog owners. PMID:25003777

  3. Control of the intermolecular photodimerization of anthracene derivatives by hydrogen bonding of urea groups in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisato; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Arai, Tatsuo

    2016-08-04

    The photodimerization reaction of anthracene derivatives was performed by capitalizing on intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Anthracene derivatives that can control the dimerization reaction depending on the substitution site were designed by using two anthryl moieties and one urea group, referred to as N,N'-dianthracen-n-ylurea, nDAU (n = 1, 2 and 9), which are symmetrically substituted by 1-anthryl, 2-anthryl and 9-anthryl groups, respectively. We investigated the excimer emission and photodimerization reaction of these anthracene-urea derivatives using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy along with fluorescence decay measurements. All derivatives showed a concentration dependence of their fluorescence spectra and multiple fluorescence lifetime components even at 10(-6) M. Significantly, 9DAU resulted in an intermolecular photodimerization reaction. These differences in photoreactivity of nDAU may depend on variations in the overlap of the intermolecularly associated anthracene rings of nDAU by hydrogen bonding between intermolecular urea moieties. Furthermore, the dimerization quantum yield of 9DAU was reduced by the addition of tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc). Consequently, we revealed that the substitution site and the addition of TBAAc affected the dimerization reaction of anthracene-urea derivatives.

  4. Using cheese whey for hydrogen and methane generation in a two-stage continuous process with alternative pH controlling approaches.

    PubMed

    Venetsaneas, Nikolaos; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Stamatelatou, Katerina; Kornaros, Michael; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2009-08-01

    This study focuses on the exploitation of cheese whey as a source for hydrogen and methane, in a two-stage continuous process. Mesophilic fermentative hydrogen production from undiluted cheese whey was investigated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. Alkalinity addition (NaHCO(3)) or an automatic pH controller were used, to maintain the pH culture at a constant value of 5.2. The hydrogen production rate was 2.9+/-0.2 L/Lreactor/d, while the yield of hydrogen produced was approximately 0.78+/-0.05 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed, with alkalinity addition, while the respective values when using pH control were 1.9+/-0.1 L/Lreactor/d and 0.61+/-0.04 mol H(2)/mol glucose consumed. The corresponding yields of hydrogen produced were 2.9 L of H(2)/L cheese whey and 1.9 L of H(2)/L cheese whey, respectively. The effluent from the hydrogenogenic reactor was further digested to biogas in a continuous mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor. The anaerobic digester was operated at an HRT of 20 d and produced approximately 1L CH(4)/d, corresponding to a yield of 6.7 L CH(4)/L of influent. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) elimination reached 95.3% demonstrating that cheese whey could be efficiently used for hydrogen and methane production, in a two-stage process.

  5. Explaining the forest product selling behavior of private woodland owners

    Treesearch

    David N. Larsen; David A. Gansner; David A. Gansner

    1973-01-01

    A multiple-variable screening technique, AID, was used to explain the forest-product-sales behavior of private woodland owners. Results provide a basis for policy-related inferences and suggest an optimal strategy for encouraging sales of forest products.

  6. Using multiple research methods to understand family forest owners

    Treesearch

    John. Schelhas

    2012-01-01

    Applied research on family forest owners ensures that we understand who they are, what they do, and why they do it. This information enables us to develop policy, management, and outreach approaches that can optimize the social, economic, cultural, and environmental benefits of private forests at the landowner, community, and national levels. The three principal...

  7. 9 CFR 54.5 - Certification by owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the animal may be removed to a U.S. Department of Agriculture facility or a quarantined research... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification by owners. 54.5 Section 54.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 24 CFR 884.106 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM, NEW CONSTRUCTION SET... owners. 884.106 Section 884.106 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN...

  9. 24 CFR 884.106 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM, NEW CONSTRUCTION SET... owners. 884.106 Section 884.106 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN...

  10. 24 CFR 884.106 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM, NEW CONSTRUCTION SET... owners. 884.106 Section 884.106 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN...

  11. 24 CFR 884.106 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM, NEW CONSTRUCTION SET-ASIDE FOR SECTION 515 RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.106... respect to the period of the vacancy, that the project is not providing the owner with revenues at least...

  12. 24 CFR 884.106 - Housing assistance payments to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM, NEW CONSTRUCTION SET-ASIDE FOR SECTION 515 RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.106... respect to the period of the vacancy, that the project is not providing the owner with revenues at least...

  13. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus carriage among dogs and their owners

    PubMed Central

    BOOST, M. V.; O'DONOGHUE, M. M.; JAMES, A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Case reports have indicated transmission of Staphylococcus aureus between humans and pets. We investigated associations between level of contact between dog and owner, and S. aureus colonization. In a cross-sectional study, nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus was determined for 830 dogs and 736 owners. Relatedness of isolates was investigated using antibiograms and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Associations between carriage and demographics or amount of contact between owners and dogs were documented. S. aureus was isolated in 24% of humans and 8·8% of dogs. Antibiotic resistance was significantly more common in canine isolates. Of 17 owner/dog colonized pairs, six were indistinguishable by PFGE. Colonization of dogs was not associated with close human contact, but was strongly associated with health-care occupations (OR 3·29, 95% CI 1·49–7·26, P=0·002). In outbreak situations health-care workers' pets should be considered as a source of S. aureus. High rates of resistance indicate increased monitoring of antibiotic use in veterinary practice is needed. PMID:17678561

  14. 24 CFR 880.601 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH... under this part regardless of their race, color, creed, religion, sex or national origin. (3) With respect to non-elderly family units, the owner must undertake marketing activities in advance of marketing...

  15. 24 CFR 880.601 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH... under this part regardless of their race, color, creed, religion, sex or national origin. (3) With respect to non-elderly family units, the owner must undertake marketing activities in advance of marketing...

  16. 24 CFR 880.601 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH... under this part regardless of their race, color, creed, religion, sex or national origin. (3) With respect to non-elderly family units, the owner must undertake marketing activities in advance of marketing...

  17. 24 CFR 880.601 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH... under this part regardless of their race, color, creed, religion, sex or national origin. (3) With respect to non-elderly family units, the owner must undertake marketing activities in advance of marketing...

  18. Explaining Antagonism to the Owners of Foxwoods Casino Resort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Conflictual relations between the owners of Foxwoods Casino and Resort, who are American Indians, and the white residents of Ledyard and nearby Preston and North Stonington townships in southeastern Connecticut are long-standing. They have flared up on numerous occasions and especially since 1982 when the Mashantucket Pequots considered building a…

  19. Explaining Antagonism to the Owners of Foxwoods Casino Resort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Conflictual relations between the owners of Foxwoods Casino and Resort, who are American Indians, and the white residents of Ledyard and nearby Preston and North Stonington townships in southeastern Connecticut are long-standing. They have flared up on numerous occasions and especially since 1982 when the Mashantucket Pequots considered building a…

  20. Family forest stewardship: do owners need a financial incentive?

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Kilgore; Stephanie Snyder; Steven Taff; Joseph Schertz

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed family forest owner interest in formally committing to the types of land use and management practices that characterize good stewardship if compensated for doing so, using Minnesota's Sustainable Forest Incentives Act (SFIA) as a proxy measure of forest stewardship. The SFIA provides an annual payment in return for obtaining and using a forest...

  1. 2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST FRONT ENTRANCE, WITH OWNERS MR. & MRS. ISACC N. HAGAN (WHO CONTRACTED WITH FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT FOR THE DESIGN OF THIS HOUSE) - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  2. 24 CFR 891.400 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891... unleased units or residential spaces. (b) Management and maintenance. The Owner is responsible for all management functions. These functions include selection and admission of tenants, required reexaminations...

  3. 24 CFR 891.400 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891... unleased units or residential spaces. (b) Management and maintenance. The Owner is responsible for all management functions. These functions include selection and admission of tenants, required reexaminations...

  4. 24 CFR 891.400 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891... unleased units or residential spaces. (b) Management and maintenance. The Owner is responsible for all management functions. These functions include selection and admission of tenants, required reexaminations...

  5. 24 CFR 891.400 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891... unleased units or residential spaces. (b) Management and maintenance. The Owner is responsible for all management functions. These functions include selection and admission of tenants, required reexaminations...

  6. 24 CFR 891.400 - Responsibilities of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY AND PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Project Management § 891... unleased units or residential spaces. (b) Management and maintenance. The Owner is responsible for all management functions. These functions include selection and admission of tenants, required reexaminations...

  7. Seminar on Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, unit two of the curriculum guide is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Four major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, providing sanitary conditions in food service establishments, discusses safe use and storage of cleaning…

  8. 7 CFR 1780.70 - Owner's procurement regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding... practices between firms; organizational conflicts of interest; and unnecessary experience and bonding... shall consider fully any recommendation made by the owner concerning the technical design and choice of...

  9. Private Woodland Owners' Perspectives on Multifunctionality in English Woodlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Julie; Courtney, Paul; Slee, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed in forest policies to deliver public goods such as biodiversity, recreation, landscape and carbon sequestration, alongside timber production. In light of this, it is important to understand how woodland owners themselves perceive their role in delivering these multiple benefits. With up to 80% of woodland in…

  10. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compensation of owners. 413.102 Section 413.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of...

  11. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compensation of owners. 413.102 Section 413.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of...

  12. 42 CFR 413.102 - Compensation of owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compensation of owners. 413.102 Section 413.102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE...; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of...

  13. Seminar On Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, the conceptual outline is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Two major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, the effect of sanitary practices on the financial profits of food service, focuses on: (1) service and quality to…

  14. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    PubMed

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations.

  15. 27 CFR 479.43 - Changes through bankruptcy of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes through bankruptcy of owner. 479.43 Section 479.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  16. 27 CFR 479.43 - Changes through bankruptcy of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Changes through bankruptcy of owner. 479.43 Section 479.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  17. 27 CFR 479.42 - Changes through death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Changes through death of owner. 479.42 Section 479.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  18. 27 CFR 479.42 - Changes through death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes through death of owner. 479.42 Section 479.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  19. 27 CFR 479.42 - Changes through death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changes through death of owner. 479.42 Section 479.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  20. 27 CFR 479.43 - Changes through bankruptcy of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Changes through bankruptcy of owner. 479.43 Section 479.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  1. 27 CFR 479.43 - Changes through bankruptcy of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes through bankruptcy of owner. 479.43 Section 479.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  2. 27 CFR 479.43 - Changes through bankruptcy of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changes through bankruptcy of owner. 479.43 Section 479.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  3. 27 CFR 479.42 - Changes through death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes through death of owner. 479.42 Section 479.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  4. 27 CFR 479.42 - Changes through death of owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Changes through death of owner. 479.42 Section 479.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  5. 7 CFR 1780.70 - Owner's procurement regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Owner's procurement regulations. 1780.70 Section 1780.70 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding...

  6. 7 CFR 1780.68 - Owner's contractual responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Owner's contractual responsibility. 1780.68 Section 1780.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding...

  7. The forest-land owners of New York

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch

    1983-01-01

    Information about the attitudes and objectives of the private forest-land owners is essential to understanding New York's forest resources. Ninety-four percent of New York's 15.4 million acres of commercial forest land is in 506,500 private ownerships. Eighty-nine percent of these ownerships are individual and joint ownerships. A majority, 66 percent of these...

  8. 33 CFR 106.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Owner or operator. 106.200 Section 106.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  9. 33 CFR 106.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Owner or operator. 106.200 Section 106.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  10. 33 CFR 106.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Owner or operator. 106.200 Section 106.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  11. 33 CFR 106.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Owner or operator. 106.200 Section 106.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  12. 33 CFR 106.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Owner or operator. 106.200 Section 106.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)...

  13. Private Woodland Owners' Perspectives on Multifunctionality in English Woodlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Julie; Courtney, Paul; Slee, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed in forest policies to deliver public goods such as biodiversity, recreation, landscape and carbon sequestration, alongside timber production. In light of this, it is important to understand how woodland owners themselves perceive their role in delivering these multiple benefits. With up to 80% of woodland in…

  14. 37 CFR 2.175 - Correction of mistake by owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Correction of mistake by..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Correction, Disclaimer, Surrender, Etc. § 2.175 Correction of mistake by owner. (a) Whenever a mistake has been made in a registration and a showing has...

  15. 37 CFR 2.175 - Correction of mistake by owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Correction of mistake by..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Correction, Disclaimer, Surrender, Etc. § 2.175 Correction of mistake by owner. (a) Whenever a mistake has been made in a registration and a showing has...

  16. 71. Historic American Buildings Survey COURT BETWEEN OWNER'S SUITE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Historic American Buildings Survey COURT BETWEEN OWNER'S SUITE AND BABY HOUSE PHOTOCOPY OF PLATE FROM IRVIN L. SCOTT, 'MARALAGO', THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT (JUNE 20, 1928), P. 807 - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  17. 33 CFR 105.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 105.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.200 Owner or operator. (a) Each... in accordance with part 101 of this chapter; (13) Ensure consistency between security...

  18. 33 CFR 105.200 - Owner or operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 105.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.200 Owner or operator. (a) Each... in accordance with part 101 of this chapter; (13) Ensure consistency between security...

  19. Pet Dogs Benefit Owners' Health: A "Natural Experiment" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce; Na, Fu; Zheng, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a "natural experiment" taking place in China on the impact of dogs on owners' health. Previous Western research has reported modest health benefits, but results have remained controversial. In China pets were banned in urban areas until 1992. Since then dog ownership has grown quite rapidly in the major…

  20. 33 CFR 67.40-10 - Communication with owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communication with owner. 67.40-10 Section 67.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  1. 33 CFR 67.40-20 - Charges invoiced to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Charges invoiced to owner. 67.40-20 Section 67.40-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  2. 33 CFR 67.40-10 - Communication with owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communication with owner. 67.40-10 Section 67.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  3. 33 CFR 67.40-15 - Marking at owner's expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marking at owner's expense. 67.40-15 Section 67.40-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  4. 33 CFR 67.40-20 - Charges invoiced to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charges invoiced to owner. 67.40-20 Section 67.40-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  5. 33 CFR 67.40-20 - Charges invoiced to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Charges invoiced to owner. 67.40-20 Section 67.40-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  6. 33 CFR 67.40-15 - Marking at owner's expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marking at owner's expense. 67.40-15 Section 67.40-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  7. 33 CFR 67.40-20 - Charges invoiced to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Charges invoiced to owner. 67.40-20 Section 67.40-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  8. 33 CFR 67.40-10 - Communication with owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication with owner. 67.40-10 Section 67.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  9. 33 CFR 67.40-15 - Marking at owner's expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marking at owner's expense. 67.40-15 Section 67.40-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  10. 33 CFR 67.40-15 - Marking at owner's expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marking at owner's expense. 67.40-15 Section 67.40-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  11. 33 CFR 67.40-10 - Communication with owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communication with owner. 67.40-10 Section 67.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  12. 33 CFR 67.40-20 - Charges invoiced to owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Charges invoiced to owner. 67.40-20 Section 67.40-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  13. 33 CFR 67.40-15 - Marking at owner's expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marking at owner's expense. 67.40-15 Section 67.40-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  14. 33 CFR 67.40-10 - Communication with owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communication with owner. 67.40-10 Section 67.40-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION AIDS TO NAVIGATION ON ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS AND FIXED STRUCTURES Notification §...

  15. The forest-land owners of New Hampshire and Vermont

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1977-01-01

    The recently completed forest surveys of New Hampshire and Vermont provided estimates of forest area and timber volume by broad owner categories (Kingsley 1976 and 1977). However, these reports did not provide estimates of the volume of timber or the acreage of commercial forest land that is currently available for harvesting. Nor did they provide descriptions of...

  16. Private forest owners and invasive plants: risk perception and management

    Treesearch

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    We investigated nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners' invasive plant risk perceptions and mitigation practices using statistical analysis of mail survey data and qualitative analysis of interview data collected in Oregon's ponderosa pine zone. We found that 52% of the survey sample was aware of invasive plant species considered problematic by local...

  17. Nonindustrial private forest owner use of federal income tax provisions

    Treesearch

    John L. Greene; Thomas J. Straka; Robert J. Dee

    2004-01-01

    Seven provisions of the federal income tax provide incentives for nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) owners to follow sound management and reforestation practices. Four provisions ­ long-term capital gain treatment of qualifying income, annual deduction of management costs, depreciation and the section 179 deduction, and deductions for casualty losses or other...

  18. The forest-land owners of southern New England

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1976-01-01

    A statistical-analytical report of a mail canvass of the owners of privately owned commercial forest land in the three Southern New England States-Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. The study was conducted in conjunction with the second forest survey of Southern New England by the USDA Forest Service. Trends in forest-land ownership and the attitudes and...

  19. 33 CFR 117.7 - General requirements of drawbridge owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements of drawbridge owners. 117.7 Section 117.7 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS General Requirements § 117.7 General requirements...

  20. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...