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Sample records for hydrogen iea technical

  1. Technology status of hydrogen road vehicles. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement of the production and utilization of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, T.A.

    1998-01-31

    The report was commissioned under the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and examines the state of the art in the evolving field of hydrogen-fueled vehicles for road transport. The first phase surveys and analyzes developments since 1989, when a comprehensive review was last published. The report emphasizes the following: problems, especially backfiring, with internal combustion engines (ICEs); operational safety; hydrogen handling and on-board storage; and ongoing demonstration projects. Hydrogen vehicles are receiving much attention, especially at the research and development level. However, there has been a steady move during the past 5 years toward integral demonstrations of operable vehicles intended for public roads. Because they emit few, or no greenhouse gases, hydrogen vehicles are beginning to be taken seriously as a promising solution to the problems of urban air quality. Since the time the first draft of the report was prepared (mid-19 96), the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference took place in Stuttgart, Germany. This biennial conference can be regarded as a valid updating of the state of the art; therefore, the 1996 results are included in the current version. Sections of the report include: hydrogen production and distribution to urban users; on-board storage and refilling; vehicle power units and drives, and four appendices titled: 'Safety questions of hydrogen storage and use in vehicles', 'Performance of hydrogen fuel in internal production engines for road vehicles, 'Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles', and 'Summaries of papers on hydrogen vehicles'. (refs., tabs.)

  2. Solar photoproduction of hydrogen. IEA technical report of the IEA Agreement of the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, J.R.

    1996-09-30

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Hydrogen Program and represents the result of subtask C, Annex 10 - Photoproduction of Hydrogen. The concept of using solar energy to drive the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen has been examined, from the standpoints of potential and ideal efficiencies, measurement of (and how to calculate) solar hydrogen production efficiencies, a survey of the state-of-the-art, and a technological assessment of various solar hydrogen options. The analysis demonstrates that the ideal limit of the conversion efficiency for 1 sun irradiance is {approximately}31% for a single photosystem scheme and {approximately}42% for a dual photosystem scheme. However, practical considerations indicate that real efficiencies will not likely exceed {approximately}10% and {approximately}16% for single and dual photosystem schemes, respectively. Four types of solar photochemical hydrogen systems have been identified: photochemical systems, semiconductor systems, photobiological systems, and hybrid and other systems. A survey of the state-of-the-art of these four types is presented. The four types (and their subtypes) have also been examined in a technological assessment, where each has been examined as to efficiency, potential for improvement, and long-term functionality. Four solar hydrogen systems have been selected as showing sufficient promise for further research and development: (1) Photovoltaic cells plus an electrolyzer; (2) Photoelectrochemical cells with one or more semiconductor electrodes; (3) Photobiological systems; and (4) Photodegradation systems. The following recommendations were presented for consideration of the IEA: (1) Define and measure solar hydrogen conversion efficiencies as the ratio of the rate of generation of Gibbs energy of dry hydrogen gas (with appropriate corrections for any bias power) to the incident solar power (solar irradiance times the irradiated area); (2) Expand support for pilot

  3. Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1998-03-31

    This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that

  4. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    1997-01-31

    The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including a brief summary of hydrogen in general. The Chairman's report provides highlights for the year. Sections are included on hydrogen energy activities in the IEA Hydrogen Agreement member countries, including Canada, European Commission, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. Lastly, Annex reports are given for the following tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage.

  5. IEA agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 2000 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C.

    2001-12-01

    The 2000 annual report of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement contains an overview of the agreement, including its guiding principles, latest strategic plan, and a report from the Chairman, Mr. Neil P. Rossmeissl, U.S. Department of Energy. Overviews of the National Hydrogen Programs of nine member countries are given: Canada, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Task updates are provided on the following annexes: Annex 12 - Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Annex 13 - Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Annex 14 - Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and, Annex 15 - Photobiological Production of Hydrogen.

  6. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1999 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    2000-01-31

    The annual report begins with an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including guiding principles and their strategic plan followed by the Chairman's report providing the year's highlights. Annex reports included are: the final report for Task 11, Integrated Systems; task updates for Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Task 13, Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Task 14, Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and Task 15, Photobiological Production of Hydrogen; and a feature article by Karsten Wurr titled 'Large-Scale Industrial Uses of Hydrogen: Final Development Report'.

  7. IEA Agreement on the Production and utilization of hydrogen: 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    1999-01-31

    The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including its guiding principles. The Chairman's report section includes highlights of the agreement for 1998. Annex reports are given on various tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage. Lastly, a feature article by Karsten Wurr, E3M Material Consulting, GmbH, Hamburg Germany, is included titled 'Hydrogen in Material Science and Technology: State of the Art and New Tendencies'.

  8. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  9. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  10. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  11. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-21

    The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) was established under Section 807 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to provide technical and programmatic advice to the Energy Secretary on DOE's hydrogen research, development, and demonstration efforts.

  12. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  13. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant Hazards Technical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David L.; Greene, Ben; Frazier, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Fire, Explosion, Compatibility and Safety Hazards of Hydrogen Peroxide NASA technical manual was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility. NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2004-213151 covers topics concerning high concentration hydrogen peroxide including fire and explosion hazards, material and fluid reactivity, materials selection information, personnel and environmental hazards, physical and chemical properties, analytical spectroscopy, specifications, analytical methods, and material compatibility data. A summary of hydrogen peroxide-related accidents, incidents, dose calls, mishaps and lessons learned is included. The manual draws from art extensive literature base and includes recent applicable regulatory compliance documentation. The manual may be obtained by United States government agencies from NASA Johnson Space Center and used as a reference source for hazards and safe handling of hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Hydrogen energy systems studies. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.; Kartha, S.; Iwan, L.

    1996-08-13

    The results of previous studies suggest that the use of hydrogen from natural gas might be an important first step toward a hydrogen economy based on renewables. Because of infrastructure considerations (the difficulty and cost of storing, transmitting and distributing hydrogen), hydrogen produced from natural gas at the end-user`s site could be a key feature in the early development of hydrogen energy systems. In the first chapter of this report, the authors assess the technical and economic prospects for small scale technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas (steam reformers, autothermal reformers and partial oxidation systems), addressing the following questions: (1) What are the performance, cost and emissions of small scale steam reformer technology now on the market? How does this compare to partial oxidation and autothermal systems? (2) How do the performance and cost of reformer technologies depend on scale? What critical technologies limit cost and performance of small scale hydrogen production systems? What are the prospects for potential cost reductions and performance improvements as these technologies advance? (3) How would reductions in the reformer capital cost impact the delivered cost of hydrogen transportation fuel? In the second chapter of this report the authors estimate the potential demand for hydrogen transportation fuel in Southern California.

  15. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    SciTech Connect

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  16. 77 FR 50488 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy... open meeting (Webinar) of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). The Federal..., DC 20585. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

  17. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  18. TIMSS 2003 Technical Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V.S., Ed.; Chrostowski, Steven J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This volume describes the technical aspects of TIMSS 2003 and summarizes the main activities involved in the development of the data collection instruments, the data collection itself, and the analysis and reporting of the data. The thirteen chapters contained herein are: (1) Overview of TIMSS 2003 (Michael O. Martin and Ina V. S. Mullis); (2)…

  19. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technology information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.

  20. Advancing the hydrogen safety knowledge base

    DOE PAGES

    Weiner, S. C.

    2014-08-29

    The International Energy Agency's Hydrogen Implementing Agreement (IEA HIA) was established in 1977 to pursue collaborative hydrogen research and development and information exchange among its member countries. Information and knowledge dissemination is a key aspect of the work within IEA HIA tasks, and case studies, technical reports and presentations/publications often result from the collaborative efforts. The work conducted in hydrogen safety under Task 31 and its predecessor, Task 19, can positively impact the objectives of national programs even in cases for which a specific task report is not published. As a result, the interactions within Task 31 illustrate how technologymore » information and knowledge exchange among participating hydrogen safety experts serve the objectives intended by the IEA HIA.« less

  1. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Codes and Standards Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Karen I.

    2007-05-12

    This project contributed significantly to the development of new codes and standards, both domestically and internationally. The NHA collaborated with codes and standards development organizations to identify technical areas of expertise that would be required to produce the codes and standards that industry and DOE felt were required to facilitate commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and infrastructure. NHA staff participated directly in technical committees and working groups where issues could be discussed with the appropriate industry groups. In other cases, the NHA recommended specific industry experts to serve on technical committees and working groups where the need for this specific industry expertise would be on-going, and where this approach was likely to contribute to timely completion of the effort. The project also facilitated dialog between codes and standards development organizations, hydrogen and fuel cell experts, the government and national labs, researchers, code officials, industry associations, as well as the public regarding the timeframes for needed codes and standards, industry consensus on technical issues, procedures for implementing changes, and general principles of hydrogen safety. The project facilitated hands-on learning, as participants in several NHA workshops and technical meetings were able to experience hydrogen vehicles, witness hydrogen refueling demonstrations, see metal hydride storage cartridges in operation, and view other hydrogen energy products.

  2. Startech Hydrogen Production Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Startech Engineering Department

    2007-11-27

    The assigned work scope includes the modification and utilization of the Plasma Converter System, Integration of a StarCell{trademark} Multistage Ceramic Membrane System (StarCell), and testing of the integrated systems towards DOE targets for gasification and membrane separation. Testing and evaluation was performed at the Startech Engineering and Demonstration Test Center in Bristol, CT. The Objectives of the program are as follows: (1) Characterize the performance of the integrated Plasma Converter and StarCell{trademark} Systems for hydrogen production and purification from abundant and inexpensive feedstocks; (2) Compare integrated hydrogen production performance to conventional technologies and DOE benchmarks; (3) Run pressure and temperature testing to baseline StarCell's performance; and (4) Determine the effect of process contaminants on the StarCell{trademark} system.

  3. 76 FR 28759 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC... meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) was established under... Updates Industry Presentations HTAC Subcommittee Overviews Fuel Cell Users Group State Initiatives...

  4. 78 FR 18578 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC... Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces an open meeting of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory...

  5. Texas Hydrogen Education Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David; Bullock, Dan

    2011-06-30

    , and hydrogen fueling) are effective for engaging target audiences, and (3) a clear path forward is needed for state and local agencies interested in project implementation (funding, financing, preliminary design, technical assistance, etc.).

  6. 77 FR 18243 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC); Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC); Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Office of Energy... announces a meeting of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). The Federal Advisory...., Washington, DC 20585. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel...

  7. 77 FR 65542 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) was established under... web at: http://hydrogen.energy.gov ). Public Comment DOE Program Updates Congressional Fuel...

  8. 78 FR 6086 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... announces an open meeting (Webinar) of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). The..., DC 20585. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose of the Committee: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

  9. 78 FR 60866 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... open meeting of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). The Federal Advisory... Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) was established under section 807 of the Energy Policy Act...

  10. IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-05-01

    The twenty-third IEA Wind Energy Annual Report reviews the progress during 2000 of the activities in the Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research and Development on Wind Turbine Systems under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The agreement and its program, which is known as IEA R&D Wind, is a collaborative venture among 19 contracting parties from 17 IEA member countries and the European Commission.

  11. 75 FR 2860 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) was established...

  12. 77 FR 2714 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy... open meeting of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). The HTAC...

  13. 76 FR 4645 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy... the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC). HTAC was established under section 807... HTAC Annual Report Development Stationary Fuel Cell Industry Analysis Overview of the November 2010...

  14. Technical support for the hydrogen control requirement for the EPRI advanced light water reactor requirements document

    SciTech Connect

    Plys, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogen could be a significant contributor to severe-accident risk if hydrogen generation and combustion were to lead to containment failure and resulting release of fission products. To eliminate hydrogen as a significant risk contributor for advanced light water reactors (ALWRs), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) ALWR requirements document has imposed a hydrogen control requirement. This requirement specifies an upper limit of 13 dry vol% for the allowable hydrogen concentration in containment. The requirement also considers hydrogen generation during severe accidents and states an upper bound on the hydrogen source equivalent to that generated by oxidizing 75% of the active cladding (commonly stated as 75% metal/water reaction (MWR)). The purpose of this paper is to technically support and substantiate the EPRI ALWR hydrogen requirement. The current understanding of hydrogen generation and combustion is evaluated as it applies to reactor systems, and it is concluded that both experimental results and analytical methods provide a sound technical basis for the requirement.

  15. 76 FR 60478 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cell... Efficiency and Renewable Advisory Committee. Impact of Natural Gas Supply on Fuel Cell and Hydrogen...

  16. A Technical and Economic Review of Solar Hydrogen Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Erik; Fowler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen energy systems are being developed to replace fossil fuels-based systems for transportation and stationary application. One of the challenges facing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy vector is the lack of an efficient, economical, and sustainable method of hydrogen production. In the short term, hydrogen produced from…

  17. 75 FR 59705 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel...

  18. 75 FR 26743 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Hydrogen and Fuel...

  19. Technical Breakthrough Points and Opportunities in Transition Scenarios for Hydrogen as Vehicular Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; James, B.; Perez, J.; Spisak, A.

    2011-12-01

    This technical reports is about investigating a generic case of hydrogen production/delivery/dispensing pathway evolution in a large population city, assuming that hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) will capture a major share of the vehicle market by the year 2050. The range of questions that are considered includes (i) what is the typical succession of hydrogen pathways that minimizes consumer cost? (ii) what are the major factors that will likely influence this sequence?

  20. Technical and economic aspects of hydrogen storage in metal hydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R.

    1981-01-01

    The recovery of hydrogen from such metal hydrides as LiH, MgH2, TiH2, CaH2 and FeTiH compounds is studied, with the aim of evaluating the viability of the technique for the storage of hydrogen fuel. The pressure-temperature dependence of the reactions, enthalpies of formation, the kinetics of the hydrogen absorption and desorption, and the mechanical and chemical stability of the metal hydrides are taken into account in the evaluation. Economic aspects are considered. Development of portable metal hydride hydrogen storage reservoirs is also mentioned.

  1. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Thanh; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Peng, J. -K; Kromer, Matt; Lasher, Stephen; McKenney, Kurtis; Law, Karen; Sinha, Jayanti

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  2. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H[2]Sim) technical description.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Scott A.; Kamery, William; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.; Lutz, Andrew E.; Rosthal, Jennifer Elizabeth

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen has the potential to become an integral part of our energy transportation and heat and power sectors in the coming decades and offers a possible solution to many of the problems associated with a heavy reliance on oil and other fossil fuels. The Hydrogen Futures Simulation Model (H2Sim) was developed to provide a high level, internally consistent, strategic tool for evaluating the economic and environmental trade offs of alternative hydrogen production, storage, transport and end use options in the year 2020. Based on the model's default assumptions, estimated hydrogen production costs range from 0.68 $/kg for coal gasification to as high as 5.64 $/kg for centralized electrolysis using solar PV. Coal gasification remains the least cost option if carbon capture and sequestration costs ($0.16/kg) are added. This result is fairly robust; for example, assumed coal prices would have to more than triple or the assumed capital cost would have to increase by more than 2.5 times for natural gas reformation to become the cheaper option. Alternatively, assumed natural gas prices would have to fall below $2/MBtu to compete with coal gasification. The electrolysis results are highly sensitive to electricity costs, but electrolysis only becomes cost competitive with other options when electricity drops below 1 cent/kWhr. Delivered 2020 hydrogen costs are likely to be double the estimated production costs due to the inherent difficulties associated with storing, transporting, and dispensing hydrogen due to its low volumetric density. H2Sim estimates distribution costs ranging from 1.37 $/kg (low distance, low production) to 3.23 $/kg (long distance, high production volumes, carbon sequestration). Distributed hydrogen production options, such as on site natural gas, would avoid some of these costs. H2Sim compares the expected 2020 per mile driving costs (fuel, capital, maintenance, license, and registration) of current technology internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles

  3. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  4. Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J. -K; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J.

    2011-06-21

    In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program’s Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and costing the systems discussed here and in the Appendices.

  5. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J. -K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, Kurtis; Sinha, J.

    2009-12-01

    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  6. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM ELECTROLYSIS - REVISED FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    IBRAHIM, SAMIR; STICHTER, MICHAEL

    2008-07-31

    DOE GO13028-0001 DESCRIPTION/ABSTRACT This report is a summary of the work performed by Teledyne Energy Systems to understand high pressure electrolysis mechanisms, investigate and address safety concerns related to high pressure electrolysis, develop methods to test components and systems of a high pressure electrolyzer, and produce design specifications for a low cost high pressure electrolysis system using lessons learned throughout the project. Included in this report are data on separator materials, electrode materials, structural cell design, and dissolved gas tests. Also included are the results of trade studies for active area, component design analysis, high pressure hydrogen/oxygen reactions, and control systems design. Several key pieces of a high pressure electrolysis system were investigated in this project and the results will be useful in further attempts at high pressure and/or low cost hydrogen generator projects. An important portion of the testing and research performed in this study are the safety issues that are present in a high pressure electrolyzer system and that they can not easily be simplified to a level where units can be manufactured at the cost goals specified, or operated by other than trained personnel in a well safeguarded environment. The two key objectives of the program were to develop a system to supply hydrogen at a rate of at least 10,000 scf/day at a pressure of 5000psi, and to meet cost goals of $600/ kW in production quantities of 10,000/year. On these two points TESI was not successful. The project was halted due to concerns over safety of high pressure gas electrolysis and the associated costs of a system which reduced the safety concerns.

  7. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  8. Hydrogen Vehicles: Impacts of DOE Technical Targets on Market Acceptance and Societal Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Dong, Jing; Greene, David L

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen vehicles (H2V), including H2 internal combustion engine, fuel cell and fuel cell plugin hybrid, could greatly reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. The U.S. Department of Energy has adopted targets for vehicle component technologies to address key technical barriers towidespread commercialization of H2Vs. This study estimates the market acceptance of H2Vs and the resulting societal benefits and subsidy in 41 scenarios that reflect a wide range of progress in meeting these technical targets. Important results include: (1) H2Vs could reach 20e70% market shares by 2050, depending on progress in achieving the technical targets.With a basic hydrogen infrastructure (w5% hydrogen availability), the H2V market share is estimated to be 2e8%. Fuel cell and hydrogen costs are the most important factors affecting the long-term market shares of H2Vs. (2) Meeting all technical targets on time could result in about an 80% cut in petroleumuse and a 62% (or 72% with aggressive electricity de-carbonization) reduction in GHG in 2050. (3) The required hydrogen infrastructure subsidy is estimated to range from $22 to $47 billion and the vehicle subsidy from $4 to $17 billion. (4) Long-term H2V market shares, societal benefits and hydrogen subsidies appear to be highly robust against delay in one target, if all other targets are met on time. R&D diversification could provide insurance for greater societal benefits. (5) Both H2Vs and plug-in electric vehicles could exceed 50% market shares by 2050, if all targets are met on time. The overlapping technology, the fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, appears attractive both in the short and long runs, but for different reasons.

  9. Hydrogen Station Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Technical Status and Costs: Systems Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, G.; Boyd, R.; Cornish, J.; Remick, R.

    2014-05-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory commissioned an independent review of hydrogen compression, storage, and dispensing (CSD) for pipeline delivery of hydrogen and forecourt hydrogen production. The panel was asked to address the (1) cost calculation methodology, (2) current cost/technical status, (3) feasibility of achieving the FCTO's 2020 CSD levelized cost targets, and to (4) suggest research areas that will help the FCTO reach its targets. As the panel neared the completion of these tasks, it was also asked to evaluate CSD costs for the delivery of hydrogen by high-pressure tube trailer. This report details these findings.

  10. Technical Analysis of the Hydrogen Energy Station Concept, Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    TIAX, LLC

    2005-05-04

    patterns would be most viable for an energy station, TIAX developed several criteria for selecting a representative set of technology configurations. TIAX applied these criteria to all possible technology configurations to determine an optimized set for further analysis, as shown in Table ES-1. This analysis also considered potential energy station operational scenarios and their impact upon hydrogen and power production. For example, an energy station with a 50-kWe reformer could generate enough hydrogen to serve up to 12 vehicles/day (at 5 kg/fill) or generate up to 1,200 kWh/day, as shown in Figure ES-1. Buildings that would be well suited for an energy station would utilize both the thermal and electrical output of the station. Optimizing the generation and utilization of thermal energy, hydrogen, and electricity requires a detailed look at the energy transfer within the energy station and the transfer between the station and nearby facilities. TIAX selected the Baseline configuration given in Table ES-1 for an initial analysis of the energy and mass transfer expected from an operating energy station. Phase II The purpose of this technical analysis was to analyze the development of a hydrogen-dispensing infrastructure for transportation applications through the installation of a 50-75 kW stationary fuel cell-based energy station at federal building sites. The various scenarios, costs, designs and impacts of such a station were quantified for a hypothetical cost-shared program that utilizes a natural gas reformer to provide hydrogen fuel for both the stack(s) and a limited number of fuel cell powered vehicles, with the possibility of using cogeneration to support the building heat load.

  11. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  12. Technical Analysis of Projects Being Funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edward G. Skolnik

    2006-02-10

    In July 2000, Energetics began a project in which we performed site-visit based technical analyses or evaluations on hydrogen R&D projects for the purpose of providing in-depth information on the status and accomplishments of these projects to the public, and especially to hydrogen stakeholders. Over a three year period, 32 site-visit analyses were performed. In addition two concepts gleaned from the site visits became subjects of in depth techno-economic analyses. Finally, Energetics produced a compilation document that contains each site-visit analysis that we have performed, starting in 1996 on other contracts through the end of Year One of the current project (July 2001). This included 21 projects evaluated on previous contracts, and 10 additional ones from Year One. Reports on projects visited in Years One and Two were included in their respective Annual Reports. The Year Two Report also includes the two In-depth Analyses and the Compilation document. Reports in Year three began an attempt to perform reviews more geared to hydrogen safety. This Final Report contains a summary of the overall project, all of the 32 site-visit analyses and the two In-depth Analyses.

  13. Second IEA Mathematics Study. Suggested Tables of Specifications for the IEA Mathematics Tests. Working Paper I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Wellington (New Zealand).

    This working paper presents specifications for the test items to be used in the second mathematics study to be conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). A content-by-behaviors grid is presented for two population levels, with specifics for each dimension outlines and examples of test items…

  14. Solar powered hydrogen generating facility and hydrogen powered vehicle fleet. Final technical report, August 11, 1994--January 6, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Provenzano, J.J.

    1997-04-01

    This final report describes activities carried out in support of a demonstration of a hydrogen powered vehicle fleet and construction of a solar powered hydrogen generation system. The hydrogen generation system was permitted for construction, constructed, and permitted for operation. It is not connected to the utility grid, either for electrolytic generation of hydrogen or for compression of the gas. Operation results from ideal and cloudy days are presented. The report also describes the achievement of licensing permits for their hydrogen powered trucks in California, safety assessments of the trucks, performance data, and information on emissions measurements which demonstrate performance better than the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle levels.

  15. Final Technical Report: Hawaii Hydrogen Center for Development and Deployment of Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, Richard E.

    2008-09-30

    -efficiency CIGS and a-Si:H with operating features compatible with high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting. The objective of one activity under the hydrogen production from biomass task was to conduct parametric testing of the Pearson gasifier and to determine the effects of gasifier operating conditions on the gas yields and quality. The hydrogen yield from this gasifier was evaluated in a parametric test series over a range of residence times from 0.8 to 2.2 seconds. H2 concentrations as high as 55% (volume) were measured in the product gas at the longer residence times and this corresponds to a hydrogen yield of 90 kg per tonne of bagasse without gas upgrading. The objective of another activity was to develop hot gas clean-up capabilities for the HNEI gasifier test facility to support hydrogen-from-biomass research. The product gas stream at the outlet of the hot gas filter was characterized for concentrations of permanent gas species and contaminants. Biomass feedstock processing activity included a preliminary investigation into methods for processing sugar cane trash at the Puunene Sugar Factory on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The objective of the investigation was to explore treatment methods that would enable the successful use of cane trash as fuel for the production of hydrogen via gasification. Analyses were completed for the technical and economic feasibility of producing biofuel from photosynthetic marine microbes on a commercial scale. Results included estimates for total costs, energy efficiency, and return on investment. The biohydrogen team undertook a comprehensive review of the field and came to what is considered a realistic conclusion. To summarize, continued research is recommended in the fundamentals of the science related to genetic engineering and specific topics to cover knowledge gaps. In the meantime, the team also advocates continued development of related processes which can be linked to pollution control and other real world

  16. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  17. The green hydrogen report. The 1995 progress report of the Secretary of Energy`s Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the idea that hydrogen and electricity, ultimately derived from renewable technologies, will serve as the clean, inexhaustible energy carriers in the next century. The widespread introduction of these energy forms would dramatically reduce the nation`s air pollution, enhance its energy security, and ameliorate potential global climate problems. The topics of the report include the role of hydrogen, research priorities, and use of hydrogen in surface transportation and aircraft.

  18. IEA predicts late '80s oil crisis, urges conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, M.

    1982-10-18

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) is urging industrial conservation to offset a major oil crisis in the late 1980s. IEA foresees that growing demand and shrinking production will cause price increases and market disruptions. Their concern is that industrialists are misreading the market signals of the current oil glut and stable prices. IEA urges oil-importing countries to conserve energy and to substitute more non-oil energy. Among its recommendations are heat-recovery technology, decontrol of energy prices, and government efficiency standards. (DCK)

  19. Improvement of hydrogen solubility and entrainment in hydrocracker feedstocks. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the conditions for the hydrogen-heavy oil feed preparation so as to optimize the yield of hydrocracking reactions. Proper contacting of hydrogen with heavy oil on the catalytic bed is necessary to improve the yields of the hydrocracking reactions. It is most desirable to have the necessary amount of hydrogen available either in the dissolved or in entrained state, so that hydrogen diffusion to the reaction site does not provide rate controlling resistance to the overall rates of hydrocracking reactions. This project proposes to measure solubility and entrainment data for hydrogen in heavy oils at conditions such as in hydrocrackers, and investigate the improvement of these properties by usage of appropriate additives. Specifically, measurements will be carried out at temperatures up to 300{degrees}C and pressures up to 120 atmospheres. Correlations for solubility and entrainment kinetics will be developed from the measured data, and a method for estimating yield of hydrocracking reactions using these correlations will be suggested. Exxon Research and Engineering Company will serve as private sector collaborator providing A&T with test samples and some technical expertise that will assure successful completion of the project. Results are presented for solubility of hydrogen in hydrocarbons and in heavy petroleum fractions. Comparison with experimental data shows good agreements. It is also demonstrated that the model is easily applied to compute solubility of hydrogen in heavy petroleum fractions with fair degree of accuracy. Detailed results are presented.

  20. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to supplying pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supplying distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking needs to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs.

  1. High flux ceramic membrane for hydrogen separation. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    K. Durai-Swamy

    1999-05-04

    Fuel cells that convert hydrogen to electricity will play an increasingly important role in the generation of future electric power for stationary and transportation sector applications. However, more economic methods to produce hydrogen from fossil fuels are needed. This project addresses the need to develop low cost ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation from reformed fuels.

  2. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production: Evaluation of H2 Mini-Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Lasher, Stephen; Sinha, Jayanti

    2005-05-03

    We have assessed the transportation of hydrogen as a metal hydride slurry through pipelines over a short distance from a neighborhood hydrogen production facility to local points of use. The assessment was conducted in the context of a hydrogen "mini-grid" serving both vehicle fueling and stationary fuel cell power systems for local building heat and power. The concept was compared to a compressed gaseous hydrogen mini-grid option and to a stand-alone hydrogen fueling station. Based on our analysis results we have concluded that the metal hydride slurry concept has potential to provide significant reductions in overall energy use compared to liquid or chemical hydride delivery, but only modest reductions in overall energy use, hydrogen cost, and GHG emissions compared to a compressed gaseous hydrogen delivery. However, given the inherent (and perceived) safety and reasonable cost/efficiency of the metal hydride slurry systems, additional research and analysis is warranted. The concept could potentially overcome the public acceptance barrier associated with the perceptions about hydrogen delivery (including liquid hydrogen tanker trucks and high-pressure gaseous hydrogen pipelines or tube trailers) and facilitate the development of a near-term hydrogen infrastructure.

  3. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  4. Overview of IEA biomass combustion activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustad, J. E.

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA) bioenergy program are: (1) to encourage cooperative research, development and use of energy and the increased utilization of alternatives to oil; and (2) to establish increased program and project cooperation between participants in the whole field of bioenergy. There are four Task Annexes to the Implementing Agreement during the period 1992-1994: Efficient and Environmentally Sound Biomass Production Systems; Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Biomass Utilization; and Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstock to Energy. The report describes the following biomass combustion activities during the period 1992-1994: Round robin test of a wood stove; Emissions from biomass combustion; A pilot project cofiring biomass with oil to reduce SO2 emissions; Small scale biomass chip handling; Energy from contaminated wood waste combustion; Modeling of biomass combustion; Wood chip cogeneration; Combustion of wet biomass feedstocks, ash reinjection and carbon burnout; Oxidation of wet biomass; Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances; Characterization of biomass fuels and ashes; Measurement techniques (FTIR).

  5. Impact of hydrogen partial pressure on coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, D.; Hoover, D.S.; Schweighardt, F.K.

    1984-06-01

    This program was conducted to determine the effects of hydrogen partial pressure on the SRC-I direct coal liquefaction process and SRC-I Demonstration Plant design. A native solvent was produced in quantity and slurried with Kentucky number 9 Mulford coal in a series of coal liquefaction runs under varying hydrogen gas rates, temperatures, residence times, and hydrogen partial pressures. The results showed that hydrogen partial pressure significantly affected product distribution; the magnitude of the effect was comparable to changes in temperature and residence time. Also, the impact of hydrogen partial pressure was enhanced by increases in both temperature and residence time. Operating at low hydrogen partial pressure did not show any apparent advantage; it reduced coal conversion, reduced oil yield, and had a detrimental effect on the yield distribution of other products. An increase in hydrogen partial pressure had the following effects: increased coal conversion; increased conversion of asphaltenes and preasphaltenes to lighter products; significantly increased the oil yield; increased light gas yields; decreased sulfur content in the SRC; increased hydrogen content of the recycle solvent; and increased hydrogen consumption. This study strongly suggests that further studies should be conducted to optimize the effects of hydrogen partial pressure on the process, both within and, preferably, beyond the constraints of the current basic SRC-I design, considering the major impact of this variable on the process. 10 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  6. A novel approach to hydrogen recovery, storage and transport: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, M.C.; Sangiovanni, J.J.

    1988-12-01

    The obtaining of high purity hydrogen from the coal gasification process is a series of chemical reactions, several of which require preparation/purification. At any point in the process, it would be useful to have a chemical separation system which can purify the product hydrogen and store it in convenient form. The purpose of this research program is to evaluate one such candidate system, the catalytically reversible hydrogenation of an aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene, to its corresponding cyclical paraffin, methylcyclohexane. In this reaction scheme, the hydrogen present in the product flow from, in principle, any reaction in the coal gasification process is extracted from the flow by reaction with toluene, a readily transportable liquid at ambient temperatures, to form methylcyclohexane, MCH, which is also a liquid at ambient conditions. The hydrogen stored in the organic hydride could therefore be transported and released when desired in the reverse reaction to give recoverable toluene and the desired hydrogen. 13 refs., 30 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Technical and economic assessment of methods for the storage of large quantities of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. B.; Alderson, J. E. A.; Kalyanam, K. M.; Phillips, L. A.; Lyle, A. B.

    Attention is given to five scenarios for the storage of large quantities of hydrogen, involving storage above ground as a cryogenic liquid as well as high pressure storage both above and below ground in either natural or man-made cavities. The incremental cost of storage is calculated, and sensitivity is determined for variations of throughput, capital cost and electricity cost. These data also include the costs of electrolytic hydrogen and of hydrogen liquefaction. It is established that the cost of storage can add between 30 and 300 percent to the cost of hydrogen; it is accordingly essential that large offsetting benefits exist, in order to achieve economic variablity.

  8. Final Technical Report: Hydrogen Energy in Engineering Education (H2E3)

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, Peter A.; Cashman, Eileen; Lipman, Timothy; Engel, Richard A.

    2011-09-15

    Schatz Energy Research Center's Hydrogen Energy in Engineering Education curriculum development project delivered hydrogen energy and fuel cell learning experiences to over 1,000 undergraduate engineering students at five California universities, provided follow-on internships for students at a fuel cell company; and developed commercializable hydrogen teaching tools including a fuel cell test station and a fuel cell/electrolyzer experiment kit. Monitoring and evaluation tracked student learning and faculty and student opinions of the curriculum, showing that use of the curriculum did advance student comprehension of hydrogen fundamentals. The project web site (hydrogencurriculum.org) provides more information.

  9. Final technical report [Molecular genetic analysis of biophotolytic hydrogen production in green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Mets, Laurens

    2000-12-31

    The principal objective of this project was to identify genes necessary for biophotolytic hydrogen production in green algae, using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an experimental organism. The main strategy was to isolate mutants that are selectively deficient in hydrogen production and to genetically map, physically isolate, and ultimately sequence the affected genes.

  10. Experimental hydrogen-fueled automotive engine design data-base project. Volume 2. Main technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1983-05-01

    Operational performance and emissions characteristics of hydrogen-fueled engines are reviewed. The project activities are reviewed including descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained. Analyses of other hydrogen engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort.

  11. Economic and technical analysis of distributed utility benefits for hydrogen refueling stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1998-04-01

    This report presents the potential economic benefits of operating hydrogen refueling stations to accomplish two objectives: supply pressurized hydrogen for vehicles, and supply distributed utility generation, transmission and distribution peaking energy and capacity to the utility. The study determined under what circumstances using a hydrogen-fueled generator as a distributed utility generation source, co-located with the hydrogen refueling station components (electrolyzer and storage), would result in cost savings to the station owner, and hence lower hydrogen production costs. The systems studied include a refueling station (including such components as an electrolyzer, storage, hydrogen dispensers, and compressors) plus on-site hydrogen fueled electricity generation units (e.g., fuel cells or combustion engines). The operational strategy is to use off-peak electricity in the electrolyzer to fill hydrogen storage, and to dispatch the electricity generation about one hour per day to meet the utility`s local and system peaks. The utility was assumed to be willing to pay for such service up to its avoided generation, fuel, transmission and distribution costs.

  12. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    SciTech Connect

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  13. Technical prospects for commercial and residential distribution and utilization of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangborn, J.; Scott, M.; Sharer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Various investigators have assumed that hydrogen will be compatible with conventional gas delivery systems and that, with minor modifications, hydrogen can be utilized in existing equipment for heating and cooking. The paper addresses some of the issues of concern in the compatibility of natural gas systems with hydrogen and hydrogen mixtures and identifies areas for which tests, research, or development are appropriate. Requirements to be met by atmospheric burners built for most commercial and residential gas appliances are discussed. Expected modifications to appliances for satisfactory operation with hydrogen are closing the primary air shutters, replacing the burners, adjusting the appliance gas regulator for proper delivery pressure, and possibly replacing the gas regulator or its vent.

  14. Technical and economic analyses of hydrogen production via indirectly heated gasification and pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-09-01

    Technoeconomic analyses have been conducted on two processes to produce hydrogen from biomass: indirectly-heated gasification of biomass followed by steam reforming of the syngas, and biomass pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. The analysis of the gasification-based process was highly detailed, including a process flowsheet, material and energy balances calculated with a process simulation program, equipment cost estimation, and the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen. The pyrolysis-based process analysis was of a less detailed nature, as all necessary experimental data have not been obtained; this analysis is a follow-up to the preliminary economic analysis presented at the 1994 Hydrogen Program Review. A coproduct option in which pyrolysis oil is used to produce hydrogen and a commercial adhesive was also studied for economic viability. Based on feedstock availability estimates, three plant sizes were studied: 907 T/day, 272 T/day, and 27 T/day. The necessary selling price of hydrogen produced by steam reforming syngas from the Battelle Columbus Laboratories indirectly heated biomass gasifier falls within current market values for the large and medium size plants within a wide range of feedstock costs. Results show that the small scale plant does not produce hydrogen at economically competitive prices, indicating that if gasification is used as the upstream process to produce hydrogen, local refueling stations similar to current gasoline stations, would probably not be feasible.

  15. HYDROGEN INITIATIVE: AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TOWARD RATIONAL NANOCATALYST DESIGN FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION. Technical Report-Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vlachos, Dionisios G; Buttrey, Douglas J; Lauterbach, Jochen

    2007-03-29

    The overall objective of this grant is to develop a rational framework for the discovery of low cost, robust, and active nano-catalysts that will enable efficient hydrogen production. Our approach will be the first demonstration of integrated multiscale model, nano-catalyst synthesis, and nanoscale characterization assisted high throughput experimentation (HTE). We will initially demonstrate our approach with ammonia decomposition on noble metal catalysts. Our research focuses on many elements of the Hydrogen Initiative in the Focus Area of “Design of Catalysts at the Nanoscale’. It combines high-throughput screening methods with various nanostructure synthesis protocols, advanced measurements, novel in situ and ex situ characterization techniques, and multiscale theory, modeling and simulation. This project directly addresses several of the long-term goals of the DOE/BES program. In particular, new nanoscale catalytic materials will be synthesized, characterized and modeled for the production of hydrogen from ammonia and a computational framework will be developed for efficient extraction of information from experimental data and for rational design of catalysts whose impact goes well beyond the proposed hydrogen production project. In the first year of the grant, we have carried out HTE screening using a 16 parallel microreactor coupled with an FTIR analysis system. We screened nearly twenty single metals and several bimetallic catalysts as a function of temperature, catalyst loading, inlet composition, and temperature (order of 400 experiments). We have found that Ru is the best single metal catalyst and no better catalysts were found among the library of bimetallics we have created so far. Furthermore, we have investigated promoting effects (i.e., K, Cs, and Ba) of the Ru catalyst. We have found that K is the dominant promoter of increased Ru activity. Response surface experimental design has led to substantial improvements of the Ru catalyst with promotion

  16. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  17. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Hua, T.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Gardiner, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC; U.S. DOE

    2010-05-01

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage are assessed and compared to the targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm. The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) or by central electrolysis. The main conclusions are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity, mid-term target for system volumetric capacity, and the target for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. However, the high-volume manufacturing cost and the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production scenario are, respectively, 2-4 and 1.6-2.4 times the current targets, and the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  18. Improvement of hydrogen solubility and entrainment in hydrocracker feedstocks. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1997-02-01

    The project consisted of two tasks: (1) development of a thermodynamic model for hydrogen solubility in hydrocarbons and extension of this model to predict solubility of hydrogen in hydrocracker feedstocks at conditions similar to those of hydrocracking operations, and (2) design and construction of a gas solubility apparatus to measure solubility of hydrogen in hydrocarbons and in hydrocracker feedstocks. The theoretical work proposed was fully accomplished by developing a sophisticated model for hydrogen solubility in hydrocarbons and in hydrocracker feedstocks at advanced temperatures and pressures. The proposed experimental work ran into a number of obstacles, especially to get the original and newly designed on-line sampling technique to function properly. A number of calibrations and tests for reproducibility were necessary to assure the accuracy of measured data. Although a very well designed gas solubility apparatus was built, not much time was left to generate significant hydrogen solubility data. The plans are to use the apparatus in future to measure hydrogen solubility data in liquid fuels to facilitate more efficient design of fuel conversion systems.

  19. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC

    2010-03-03

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has been assessed and compared to the DOE 2010, 2015 and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The Gen-3 prototype system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was modeled to project the performance of a scaled-down 5.6-kg usable hydrogen storage system. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers 1.5 kg/min of liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm (4000 psi). The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) and by central electrolysis using electricity from renewable sources. The main conclusions from the assessment are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity and the 2015 target for system volumetric capacity (see Table I). The system compares favorably with targets for durability and operability although additional work is needed to understand failure modes for combined pressure and temperature cycling. The system may meet the targets for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. The high-volume manufacturing cost is projected to be 2-4 times the current 2010 target of $4/kWh. For the reference conditions considered most applicable, the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production and liquid H{sub 2} delivery scenario is 60%-140% higher than the current target of $2-$3/gge while the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  20. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  1. Achievement Data in IEA Studies and Simpson's Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzovsky, Ruth; Steinberg, David M.; Libman, Zipi

    2011-01-01

    This paper is meant to highlight the occurrence of Simpson's Paradox when using aggregated data obtained from two IEA studies in Israel, while ignoring the effect of a powerful intervening variable in the local context--the ethnicity factor. It will demonstrate faulty conclusions regarding either the absence of relationships between a contextual…

  2. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J.

    2011-02-09

    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  3. Destruction of hazardous compounds by ultraviolet-catalyzed oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Technical completion report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, D.W.; Klei, H.E.

    1986-10-01

    Toxic and hazardous compounds are often present in water supplies at low concentrations, which can make their removal difficult and costly by conventional treatment processes. The project investigated the destruction of hazardous compounds in water by ultraviolet-catalyzed oxidation using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. The effectiveness of this process was determined with a variety of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, including trichloroethylene, chloroform, dichloromethane, benzene, chlorobenzene, chlorophenol, and diethyl phthalate. The reactions were conducted in batch and flow reactors equipped with low-pressure ultraviolet lamps.

  4. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility help guide an overhead crane toward a workstand containing a solar array in order to move it for installation onto the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA). A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  5. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility get ready to attach an overhead crane (center top) to the solar array below it to move the array for installation onto the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA). A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  6. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The overhead crane carrying a solar array turns on its axis to move the array to the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) for installation. A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  7. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B.-M.; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  8. IEA Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Meier, Alan; Runci, Paul J.

    2008-08-05

    This guide presents insights and guidance from DOE’s gathered through longstanding and extensive participation in IEA implementing agreements (IAs) and annexes. Even though DOE has been a key participant in international research activities through the IEA since the 1970s, the experience, knowledge, and institutional memory associated with these activities can be lost or forgotten easily as key DOE managers retire or leave the department. The guide seeks to assemble in a single reference some of the learning that has occurred through participation in IEA IAs as a guide for BTP managers currently responsible for IAs and for those who might consider entering into new IEA activities in the future.

  9. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream`s composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  11. Open Session IEA General Assembly (24th, Enschede, Netherlands, August 15-19, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, T. J. H. M., Ed.

    Ten papers, four general overviews,, and three commentaries delivered at the General Assembly of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) in 1983 are presented. The papers include: (1) "Why Join IEA?" (J. P. Keeves); (2) "Research and Policymaking in Education: An International Perspective" (T. Husen); and…

  12. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O'Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Norway, 1997 review

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-29

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Norway, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report highlights the electricity sector, where the impressive reforms allow for all consumers to choose their supplier. The report describes in considerable detail the first international electricity spot and financial exchange market, and also covers the diversification of the fully hydro based system to bring on gas-fired generation. The report describes the significance of the North Sea petroleum resources whose production has placed Norway as the second largest oil exporting country after Saudi Arabia. Increased production has been facilitated by adapting the licensing regime to provide more incentives for investment and development. These achievements and suggested further steps are discussed here. The report also examines the pivotal position of Norwegian natural gas in the European market, a market which is poised for change, and calls for critical evaluation of the state`s role. It acknowledges that hydrocarbon developments in Norway have enhanced the security of supply for energy consuming countries. Other issues highlighted in the report include Norway`s position at the forefront on international efforts to respond to global environmental concerns. This report forms part of the a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member Countries on a four-year cycle.

  14. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own

  15. IEA Energy conservation in the iron and steel industry. [US and Western Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Tunnah, B.G.

    1981-01-01

    The NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society research program, under the auspices of the IEA, had the objectives of collecting data on material requirements and energy-consumption patterns in selected energy-intensive industries in the US and Western Europe, of identifying technologies and operating practices with the potential for energy conservation in those industries, and of recommending research projects that could lead to improved energy efficiency. The steel industry was selected for analysis and ideas for an international cooperative program were developed. Representatives from various countries conducted meetings and the form of an implementing agreement for a research and development program was finalized in December, 1980. The program includes three technical areas: hot-surface inspection, heat recovery, and coal gasification. Hot-surface inspection methods to be demonstrated are: optical, induction, electromagnetic ultrasonic, electromagnetic ultrasonic surface testing methods, and eddy current method for hot surface inspection and an infrared system (possibly). Three heat-recovery projects are: ceramic heat wheel development; demonstration of granular bed/heat pipe system for heat recovery; and demonstration of tubular ceramic recuperators. Processes in coal gasification are: converter process, gas treatment, and iron treatment. Each project is described in detail. (MCW)

  16. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  17. Technical comment on "Hydrogen mapping of the lunar South Pole using the LRO neutron detector experiment LEND".

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David J; Eke, Vincent R; Elphic, Richard C; Feldman, William C; Funsten, Herbert O; Prettyman, Thomas H; Teodoro, Luis F A

    2011-11-25

    Based on a study of high-energy epithermal (HEE) neutrons in data from the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), the background from HEE neutrons is larger than initially estimated. Claims by Mitrofanov et al. (Reports, 22 October 2010, p. 483) of enhanced hydrogen abundance in sunlit portions of the lunar south pole and quantitative hydrogen concentration values in south pole permanently shaded regions are therefore insufficiently supported.

  18. Low cost hydrogen/novel membranes technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    During this quarter, work continued on the development of high-flux palladium-silver membranes for the separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide. Palladium-silver/poly(etherimide) composite membranes were prepared by a vacuum sputtering technique. The influence of different poly(etherimide) support membranes on the performance of palladium-silver membranes was investigated. All membranes tested showed a hydrogen/carbon dioxide selectivity lower than that of the uncoated poly(etherimide)/poly(dimethylsiloxane) membranes. This is probably due to damage of the skin layer of the asymmetric poly(etherimide) support membranes during the palladium-silver electron bombardment. Polysulfone/poly(dimethylsiloxane) / poly(ether-ester-amide) composite membranes were also prepared. Membrane samples consistently showed a carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity of 9 to 10 and a normalized carbon dioxide flux of 2 to 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} cm{sup 3} (STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec{center_dot}cmHg. These are extremely good values, superior to any commercially available membranes for this separation. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Production of Hydrogen by Superadiabatic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide - Final Technical Report for the Period June 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Rachid B. Slimane; Francis S. Lau; Javad Abbasian

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.

  20. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Oei, D.

    1995-08-03

    This is the fourth Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) Develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls). This propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) Select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; and (3) Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) Identify any future R&D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

  1. Results of a technical analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Program Office requested the expertise of the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Steering Committee (NAFBSSC) in the conduct of an independent assessment of the HST's battery system to assist in their decision of whether to fly nickel-cadmium or nickel-hydrogen batteries on the telescope. In response, a subcommittee to the NAFBSSC was organized with membership comprised of experts with background in the nickel-cadmium/nickel-hydrogen secondary battery/power systems areas. The work and recommendations of that subcommittee are presented.

  2. Final Technical Report on STTR Project DE-FG02-04ER86191 Hydrogen Cryostat for Muon Beam Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland P.

    2008-05-07

    The project was to develop cryostat designs that could be used for muon beam cooling channels where hydrogen would circulate through refrigerators and the beam-cooling channel to simultaneously refrigerate 1) high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) magnet coils, 2) cold copper RF cavities, and 3) the hydrogen that is heated by the muon beam. In an application where a large amount of hydrogen is naturally present because it is the optimum ionization cooling material, it was reasonable to explore its use with HTS magnets and cold, but not superconducting, RF cavities. In this project we developed computer programs for simulations and analysis and conducted experimental programs to examine the parameters and technological limitations of the materials and designs of Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) components (magnet conductor, RF cavities, absorber windows, heat transport, energy absorber, and refrigerant).The project showed that although a hydrogen cryostat is not the optimum solution for muon ionization cooling channels, the studies of the cooling channel components that define the cryostat requirements led to fundamental advances. In particular, two new lines of promising development were opened up, regarding very high field HTS magnets and the HS concept, that have led to new proposals and funded projects.

  3. Microbiological removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas by means of a separate biofilter system: experience with technical operation.

    PubMed

    Schieder, D; Quicker, P; Schneider, R; Winter, H; Prechtl, S; Faulstich, M

    2003-01-01

    The "BIO-Sulfex" biofilter of ATZ-EVUS removes hydrogen sulfide from biogas in a biological way. Hydrogen sulfide causes massive problems during power generation from biogas in a power plant, e.g. corrosion of engines and heat exchangers, and thus causes frequent and therefore expensive engine oil changes. The BIO-Sulfex module is placed between the digester and the power-plant and warrants a cost-effective, reliable and fully biological desulfurization. In the cleaned gas concentrations of less than 100 ppm can be achieved. Power-plant manufacturers usually demand less than 500 or less than 200 ppm. At present, several plants with biogas flow rates between 20 and 350 m3/h are in operation.

  4. Proceedings of the ninth IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Burn, G.L.; Hodgson, E.R.; Shikama, T.

    1997-12-31

    Several IEA workshops have been held over the past few years to discuss the growing number of experimental studies on the intriguing phenomenon of radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED). In the past year, several new RIED irradiation experiments have been performed which have a significant impact on the understanding of the RIED phenomenon. These experiments include a HFIR neutron irradiation experiment on 12 different grades of single- and poly-crystal alumina (450 C, {approximately}3 dpa, 200 V/mm) and several additional neutron, electron and light ion irradiation experiments. The primary objective of the IEA workshop was to review the available RIED studies on ceramic insulators. Some discussion of recent work in other areas such as loss tangent measurements, mechanical strength, etc. occurred on the final afternoon of the workshop. The IEA workshop was held in conjunction with a US-Japan JUPITER program experimenter`s workshop on dynamic radiation effects in ceramic insulators.

  5. Proceedings of the IEA Working Group meeting on ferritic/martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    An IEA working group on ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion applications, consisting of researchers from Japan, European Union, USA, and Switzerland, met at the headquarters of the Joint European Torus, Culham, UK. At the meeting, preliminary data generated on the large heats of steels purchased for the IEA program and on other heats of steels were presented and discussed. Second purpose of the meeting was to continue planning and coordinating the collaborative test program in progress on reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels. The majority of this report consists of viewographs for the presentations.

  6. Transition metal catalysis of hydrogen shuttling in coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1985-November 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines and ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. During the fifth quarter of this three-year grant the following phases of this study received particular attention: (a) the principal investigator completed his three-month period as visiting scientist at Cornell University, October 1 to December 31, 1985, with Professor Roald Hoffmann on the topic of Extended Hueckel Molecular Orbital calculations of organometallic structure; (b) final gas evolution studies between LiAlH/sub 4/ and bipyridyl(1,5-cyclooctadiene) nickel have been made and the related manuscript written for publication; (c) gas evolution studies between diisobutylaluminum hydride and phosphine complexes of Pt(0) and Ni(0) have been undertaken, as part of our trying to understand how powerful reducing agents can be generated from such combinations; (d) hydrogen shuttling studies continue between dihydroaromatic hydrocarbons and Ni(0) complexes; (e) studies on the cleavage of benzylic C-C bonds by Ni(0) and Cr(0) complexes are being intensified; and (f) attempts are being made to isolate crystalline samples of several organonickel intermediates in the foregoing cleavage reactions, so that x-ray structure determinations can be carried out.

  7. Hydrogen production costs -- A survey

    SciTech Connect

    Basye, L.; Swaminathan, S.

    1997-12-04

    Hydrogen, produced using renewable resources, is an environmentally benign energy carrier that will play a vital role in sustainable energy systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure. International interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier is high. Research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of hydrogen energy systems are in progress in many countries. Annex 11 of the International Energy Agency (IEA) facilitates member countries to collaborate on hydrogen RD and D projects. The United States is a member of Annex 11, and the US representative is the Program Manager of the DOE Hydrogen R and D Program. The Executive Committee of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in its June 1997 meeting decided to review the production costs of hydrogen via the currently commercially available processes. This report compiles that data. The methods of production are steam reforming, partial oxidation, gasification, pyrolysis, electrolysis, photochemical, photobiological, and photoelectrochemical reactions.

  8. Nano Structured Activated Carbon for Hydrogen Storge. Project Final Technical Report (May 2, 2005-Dec. 31, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Cabasso, Israel; Yuan, Youxin

    2013-02-27

    Development of a nanostructured synthetic carbons materials that have been synthesized by thermal-decomposition of aromatic rich polyether such as poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is reported. These polymers based nanostructured carbons efficacious for gas adsorption and storage and have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of more than 3000 m2/g, and with average pore diameter of < 2nm. Surface-area, pore characteristics, and other critical variables for selecting porous materials of high gas adsorption capacities are presented. Analysis of the fragments evolved under various carbonization temperatures, and the correlation between the activation and carbonization temperatures provides a mechanistic perspective of the pore evolution during activation. Correlations between gas (N2 and H2) adsorption capacity and porous texture of the materials have been established. The materials possess excellent hydrogen storage properties, with hydrogen storage capacity up to 7.4 wt% (gravimetric) and ~ 45 g H2 L-1 (volumetric) at -196oC and 6.0 MPa.

  9. Civic Education across Countries: Twenty-four National Case Studies from the IEA Civic Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Schwille, John; Amadeo, Jo-Ann

    This volume reports the results of the first phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). During 1996 and 1997, researchers in 24 countries collected documentary evidence on the circumstances, contents, and processes of civic education in response to a common set of…

  10. Summary of the IEA Workshop on Alpha Physics and Tritium Issues in Large Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Stratton, B.; Zweben, S.J.; Pitcher, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    A brief summary is presented of the talks given during this meeting, which was held at PPPL and sponsored by the IEA (International Energy Agency) as part of the Large Tokamak collaboration. These talks are summarized into four sessions: tritium issues in large tokamaks, alpha particle simulation experiments, alpha particle theory, and alpha particle diagnostics.

  11. Methodological Issues in Comparative Educational Studies: The Case of the IEA Reading Literacy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Marilyn, Ed.; And Others

    This report discusses various methodological issues confronted in the Reading Literacy Study conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and issues relating to analysis of the data. The study analyzed in the report involved fourth- and ninth-grade students (9-year-olds and…

  12. Reading Literacy in an International Perspective: Collected Papers from the IEA Reading Literacy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Marilyn, Ed.; And Others

    Presenting nine papers from the IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) Reading Literacy Study that place results in an international perspective, this report address factors related to variation in literacy outcomes, both across and within countries; the teaching of reading; and the quality of life in…

  13. IEA BESTEST Multi-Zone Non-Airflow In-Depth Diagnostic Cases: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.; Alexander, D.; Felsmann, C.; Strachan, P.; Wijsman, A.

    2011-11-01

    This paper documents a set of in-depth diagnostic test cases for multi-zone heat transfer models that do not include the heat and mass transfer effects of airflow between zones. The multi-zone non-airflow test cases represent an extension to IEA BESTEST (Judkoff and Neymark 1995a).

  14. Technical basis for hydrogen-water chemistry: Laboratory studies of water chemistry effects on SCC (stress-corrosion-cracking)

    SciTech Connect

    Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Soppet, W.K.

    1986-10-01

    The influence of different impurities, viz., oxyacids and several chloride salts, on the stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel (SS) was investigated in constant-extension-rate-tensile (CERT) tests in 289/sup 0/C water at a low dissolved-oxygen concentration (<5 ppB). Cyclic loading experiments on fatigue precracked fracture-mechanics-type specimens of this material and Type 316NG were also performed at 289/sup 0/C in low-oxygen environments with and without sulfate at low concentrations. In these experiments, the crack growth behavior of the materials was correlated with the type and concentration of the impurities and the electrochemical potentials of Type 304 SS and platinum electrodes in the simulated hydrogen-water chemistry environments. The information suggests that better characterization of water quality, through measurement of the concentrations of individual species (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cu/sup 2 +/, etc.) coupled with measurements of the corrosion and redox potentials at high temperatures will provide a viable means to monitor and ultimately improve the performance of BWR system materials.

  15. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase III Results Regarding Tripod Support Structure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.; Camp, T.; Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Larsen, T.; Hansen, A.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.; Munduate, X.; Vorpahl, F.; Kleinhansl, S.; Kohlmeier, M.; Kossel, T.; Boker, C.; Kaufer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation codes. This paper describes the findings of code-to-code verification activities of the IEA Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration.

  16. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    SciTech Connect

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Gramlich, N.; Lohr, N.; Glugla, M.; Shu, W.; Willms, S.

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challenges to delivering hydrogen for use as a widespread energy carrier, and the research goals for hydrogen delivery.

  18. Hydride development for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.J.; Guthrie, S.E.; Bauer, W.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Sandrock, G.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate improved hydride materials for hydrogen storage. The work currently is organized into four tasks: hydride development, bed fabrication, materials support for engineering systems, and IEA Annex 12 activities. At the present time, hydride development is focused on Mg alloys. These materials generally have higher weight densities for storing hydrogen than rare earth or transition metal alloys, but suffer from high operating temperatures, slow kinetic behavior and material stability. The authors approach is to study bulk alloy additions which increase equilibrium overpressure, in combination with stable surface alloy modification and particle size control to improve kinetic properties. This work attempts to build on the considerable previous research in this area, but examines specific alloy systems in greater detail, with attention to known phase properties and structures. The authors have found that specific phases can be produced which have significantly improved hydride properties compared to previous studies.

  19. Summary of the IEA workshop/working group meeting on ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    An International Energy Agency (IEA) Working Group on Ferritic/Martensitic Steels for Fusion Applications, consisting of researchers from Japan, the European Union, the United States, and Switzerland, met at the headquarters of the Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, United Kingdom, 24-25 October 1996. At the meeting preliminary data generated on the large heats of steel purchased for the IEA program and on other heats of steels were presented and discussed. The second purpose of the meeting was to continue planning and coordinating the collaborative test program in progress on reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels. The next meeting will be held in conjunction with the International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials (ICFRM-8) in Sendai, Japan, 23-31 October 1997.

  20. Summary of the IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    A brief summary is given of research on radiation effects in ceramic insulators for fusion energy application performed during the last two years in Europe, Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the United States. The IEA round-robin radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) experiment on Wesgo AL995 polycrystalline alumina has been completed by 5 research groups, with none of the groups observing clear indications of REID.

  1. Study of hydrogen slush-hydrogen gel utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. W.

    1967-01-01

    Study of hydrogen slush-hydrogen gel utilization is presented in two volume publication. The first volume contains the physical and thermal property data for hydrogen used in the study. In the second volume, details of the technical effort are presented including parametric analysis of effects on vehicle systems.

  2. Recurring issues in the IEA, the discipline and the profession of ergonomics/human factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John R

    2012-01-01

    Although the past 25 years have seen many apparently new challenges for the academic discipline and the professional practice of ergonomics/human factors, and for the International Ergonomics Association, many issues in fact have recurred over the period. This paper takes the relevant decades and de3scribes the internal and external priorities of the IEA at the time, the main developments for researchers and practitioners, and the author's own professional interests at the time..Such an admittedly partial description of events and priorities could feed into current attempts to strengthen the position of ergonomics/ human factors for this and subsequent decades.

  3. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  4. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2010-12-01

    This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the larger of the two volumes and contains five chapters that cover background information and objectives of Subtask 2 and results from each of the four phases of the project.

  5. Hydrogen as an energy vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing hydrogen as an energy vector is considered, with special attention given to means of hydrogen production. The state-of-the-art in thermochemical processes is reviewed, and criteria for the technical and economic feasibility of large-scale thermochemical water splitting processes are presented. The production of hydrogen from coal and from photolysis of water is discussed.

  6. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  7. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Final technical report, September 1, 1988--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  8. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  9. IEA's TIMSS 2003 International Report on Achievement in the Mathematics Cognitive Domains: Findings from a Developmental Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Foy, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the process undertaken to produce scales in three cognitive domains: knowing, applying, and reasoning. Included are the final scales showing differences among countries, as well as within countries. TIMSS 2003 is the third and most recently completed round of IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, a…

  10. Comparing Civic Competence among European Youth: Composite and Domain-Specific Indicators Using IEA Civic Education Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony Louise; Barber, Carolyn; Van Nijlen, Daniel; Villalba, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the European Union monitoring of civic competence, this article presents a composite indicator of civic competence and four domain indicators. The data used are from the 1999 IEA Civic Education study of 14-year-olds in school. The results demonstrate the complexity of the various influences on the development of civic competencies…

  11. Children's Activities and Their Effect on Child Development: The Results of the IEA Pre-primary Project in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karwowska-Struczyk, Malgorzata

    1998-01-01

    Describes early childhood education research done in Poland as part of the IEA Pre-primary Quality of Life project. Observations discussed include: the children's activities, teacher behavior, management of children's time in kindergarten, the relationship between these variables, and their connection with the development of 4- to 7-year-old…

  12. Torsten Husén--A Co-Founder and Chairman of IEA from 1962 to 1978

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the work and contribution of one of the most influential comparativists in education--Torsten Husén in the period when he was a co-founder and chairman of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) in the 60 and 70 decades of the 20th century. At that particular time, the first major…

  13. Early Childhood Settings in 15 Countries: What Are Their Structural Characteristics? The IEA Preprimary Project, Phase 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P., Ed.; Montie, Jeanne, Ed.

    This is the second of four monographs reporting the findings of Phase 2 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Preprimary Project, which presents data on the physical characteristics of children's early childhood settings. Early childhood settings were documented in the following 15 countries: (1)…

  14. TECHNICAL BASIS AND APPLICATION OF NEW RULES ON FRACTURE CONTROL OF HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN VESSEL IN ASME SECTION VIII, DIVISION 3 CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G

    2007-04-30

    As a part of an ongoing activity to develop ASME Code rules for the hydrogen infrastructure, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Committee approved new fracture control rules for Section VIII, Division 3 vessels in 2006. These rules have been incorporated into new Article KD-10 in Division 3. The new rules require determining fatigue crack growth rate and fracture resistance properties of materials in high pressure hydrogen gas. Test methods have been specified to measure these fracture properties, which are required to be used in establishing the vessel fatigue life. An example has been given to demonstrate the application of these new rules.

  15. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  16. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  17. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  18. A Hydrogen Utopia?

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Robert Stephen; Reynolds, Bruce Allen

    2004-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation and stationary applications is receiving much favorable attention as a technical and policy issue. However, the widespread introduction of this technology is likely also to have negative consequences that are not being actively discussed in broad public forums. Such possibilities include, among others, delayed development of other energy alternatives, hazards of catalyst or hydride metals, disruptive employment shifts, land usage conflicts, and increased vehicle usage. Even though hydrogen is likely to be beneficial in its overall societal and environmental effects, hydrogen technology advocates must understand the range of problematic issues and prepare to address them.

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Rockward, Tommy

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  20. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Ela, E.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.

    2008-06-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  1. Studies of the mechanism of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1-May 31, 1980. [For high-temperature, high pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Ira B.

    1980-07-01

    This is the first quarterly report on the program Studies of Coal Hydrogenation by Electron Spin Resonance. This quarter has been devoted to constructing apparatus for high temperature-high pressure electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, characterizing the performance of the microwave cavity, and carrying out preliminary room temperature studies on coals and coal products. At the start of this program, there were no microwave cavities available to study high pressure-high temperature reactions. A system was constructed which can be used to study coal hydrogenation, and satisfies the conditions described in the report. This cavity was constructed using funding from Rockwell International, and will be used on this program. Because of the dependence of the work to be done with this device for this program, the construction is described in detail. This report, therefore, considers the design philosophy, construction of the device, a preliminary discussion of its performance, and application of the cavity for room temperature studies on several varieties of coal.

  2. Hydrogen fueled-hydrogen transport rail system - A NASA proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, A. L.; Tison, R. R.; Spafka, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The technical possibility of fueling motive power equipment with hydrogen as an alternative to petroleum is studied, and the economics of operating hydrogen-fueled systems are evaluated. Technical considerations include the areas of fuel storage and distribution systems, engine design changes, and a test and evaluation program. A conversion methodology, which conforms to the scheme of high-pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the cylinder late in the compresssion stroke and injection of pilot diesel fuel for ignition, is illustrated with detailed diagrams.

  3. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory

  4. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  5. The IEA contribution to the transition of Ergonomics from research to practice.

    PubMed

    Caple, David C

    2010-10-01

    The future growth of ergonomics as a scientific discipline will require a greater focus on methods to transition research findings into practice. Whilst the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) and the Federated Ergonomics Societies provide opportunities to promote exchange on ergonomics research and collaboration in research programs, the future sustainability of the domain will be dependent on the provision of ongoing educational opportunities in ergonomics and the transitioning of the research findings into practice. This transition will require greater external focus outside the ergonomics profession in working in collaboration and partnership with other professional associations, governments and international agencies. Practical tools that are targeted towards particular user groups within the community, workplace, and governments will enhance the opportunities for the transition of ergonomics research into practice. Focus on extramural initiatives such as Ergonomics Checkpoints, integration of the ergonomics design process into the International Organisation for Standardization Guidelines, and the incorporation of ergonomics into the World Health Organisation research programs will ensure that the positioning of ergonomics will continue at an international level.

  6. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement - comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.; Feeney, S.; Nygaard, N.; Poodt, M.; St. Martin, C.; Tüxen, E.; Wagenaar, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise. Each member of the group has derived both the power curve based on the wind speed at hub height and the power curve based on the REWS. This yielded results for different wind turbines, located in diverse types of terrain and where the wind speed profile was measured with different instruments (mast or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions with large shear and low turbulence intensity.

  7. Proceedings of the IEA implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems. Annex 4 workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS), established in 1993, is a collaborative effort of sponsoring countries to reduce costs of technology applications, increase awareness of potential value, and foster market deployment of PV. Task 4, the Modeling of Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation in Support of the Electric Grid, is one of six project work areas established under the Implementing Agreement. The work under Task 4 has been assigned to Annex 4. Although Task 4 was framed in 1993, no progress had been made in implementation as of mid-1995. The Annex 4 Workshop, described herein, was a focused effort by the participants to redefine the issuer in light of today`s knowledge, and to gain interest among potential collaborators and participants. The purpose of the workshop was to determine the current status of methods for evaluating the benefits of and planning for grid-connected PV systems and to establish a plan for further action according to the needs and priorities of participants.

  8. Evaluation of advanced sodium receiver losses during operation of the IEA/SSPS central receiver system

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, R.; Rosa, F.; Jacobs, H.; Sanchez, M.

    1989-02-01

    This article presents the measurements and experiments conducted on the external receiver: the so-called Advanced Sodium Receiver (ASR) of the Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Project of the International Energy Agency (IEA) in southern Spain. The basis of this experiment was to provide loss measurements for later use in determining receiver performance. The tests to evaluate thermal losses consisted in operating the receiver with the doors open and circulating the sodium in normal and reverse flow without providing any incident power from the heliostat field (flux-off technique). In this way, total thermal losses are calculated as the energy lost by the sodium. Radiative losses have been calculated based on theoretical calculations and some results have been compared with infrared thermography measurements. Conductive losses are small and have been estimated by flux-off experiments with the receiver doors closed. Convective losses were evaluated subtracting radiative and conductive losses from the total thermal losses. Optical losses were assessed using absorptance measurements of the receiver coating. A simplified analytical model has been developed to calculate losses and ASR efficiency during operation. In spite of the method's simplicity, the results are very similar to those found by other investigators, verified simulation programs and test results.

  9. Summary of the 9th IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Hodgson, E.R.; Shikama, T.

    1997-08-01

    Twenty one scientists attended an IEA workshop in Cincinnati, Ohio on May 8-9, 1997, which was mainly devoted to reviewing the current knowledge base on the phenonenon of radiation induced electrical degradation in ceramic insulators. Whereas convincing evidence for bulk RIED behavior has been observed by two research groups in sapphire after electron irradiation, definitive levels of bulk RIED have not been observed in high purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by several research groups during energetic ion or fission neutron irradiation. Possible reasons for the conflicting RIED results obtained by different research groups were discussed. It was conducted that RIED does not appear to be of immediate concern for near-term fusion devices such as ITER. However, continued research on the RIED phenomenon with particular emphasis on electron irradiations of single crystal alumina was recommended in order to determine the underlying physical mechanisms. This will allow a better determination of whether RIED might occur under any of the widely varying experimental conditions in a fusion energy device. Several critical issues which are recommended for future study were outlined by the workshop attendees.

  10. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  11. Technical Consultation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) Battery Charge Capacity Prediction. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Pandipati, Radha; Ling, Jerri; Miller, Thomas; Jeevarajan, Judith; Halpert, Gerald; Zimmerman, Albert

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the GSFC position paper is to identify critical HST milestone dates for continued science studies followed by the attachment of a re-entry module or a robotic servicing mission. The paper examines the viability of the HST with respect to the NiH2 continued battery charge capacity. In the course of the assessment, it was recognized that the HST battery thermal control system has an average heat dissipation limitation of 30 W per bay per orbit cycle. This thermal constraint will continue to govern options for battery capacity maintenance. In addition, the HST usage represents the longest exposure ofNiH2 batteries to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at the current level of Depth of Discharge (DOD). Finally, the current battery life is at the limit predicted by the manufacturer, Eaglepicher. Therefore, given these factors, the potential exists that the HST battery capacities could radically degrade at any point. Given this caveat on any life extrapolations, the conservative model proposed in the GSFC position paper was viewed by the NESC as having several technical assumptions such as limited utilization of flight battery capacity data, the susceptibility of the proposed prediction method to large variations when supplemented with additional information, and the failure to qualitatively or quantitatively assess life prediction sensitivities. The NESC conducted an independent evaluation of the supporting information and assumptions to generate the predictions for battery capacity loss and practicality of on-orbit battery conditioning.

  12. Hydrogen use projections and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1976-01-01

    Two projections of future hydrogen demand, based on the Ford technical fix and the Westinghouse nuclear electric economy energy supply and demand scenarios, are analyzed. It is suggested that hydrogen use will increase during the remainder of this century by at least a factor of five, and perhaps by a factor of twenty. Primary energy sources for producing hydrogen are discussed in terms of the transition from low to high demand for hydrogen.

  13. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin C.; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Christopher, Aardahl L.

    2008-05-12

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE’s hydrogen storage targets.

  14. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  15. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  16. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vitina, Aisma; Lüers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabø, Lief I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan H; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  17. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J

    2002-02-01

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of

  18. Technical writing versus technical writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  19. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  20. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  1. The Second IEA International Research Conference: Proceedings of the IRC-2006. Volume 1: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemaker, Paula, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As part of its mission, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) is committed to the development of the community of researchers who work in the area of assessment both nationally and internationally. The association also has a commitment to provide policymakers with the types of data and analyses that will…

  2. The Second IEA Science Study: Data Related to Precollege Science in the U.S.A. ERIC/SMEAC Science Education Digest No. 1, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L.

    In 1986, a total of 11 different populations involving more than 1000 schools and more than 20,000 students participated in the Second IEA Science Study (SISS). This digest discusses findings related to curricular patterns and student outcomes. Ratings were done at grades 5, 9, and 12, to ensure that the achievement tests reflected the science…

  3. An International Perspective on Active Citizenship among Lower Secondary Students. Concepts and Measures Developed for the IEA Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The new IEA "International Civic and Citizenship Education Study" (ICCS) will investigate the extent to which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens across a range of countries. ICCS will survey 13-to-14-year old students in over 30 countries in the year 2009. The ICCS outcome data will be obtained from representative…

  4. Some Reflections on the Past and Future of Research Concerning the Civic Engagement of Youth within the Context of the IEA International Civic Education Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith

    In 1993, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) decided to mount a 2-phase study of civic education, the first phase being more qualitative and the second more quantitative, to complete testing before the end of the 20th century and to be released early in the 21st century. Countries participating in…

  5. Hydrogen Technology Research at SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, E.

    2011-02-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including membrane filters for H2 separation, doped carbon nanotubes

  6. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  7. Novel Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer

    2011-02-27

    To reduce dependence on oil and emission of greenhouse gases, hydrogen is favored as an energy carrier for the near future. Hydrogen can be converted to electrical energy utilizing fuel cells and turbines. One way to produce hydrogen is to gasify coal which is abundant in the U.S. The coal gasification produces syngas from which hydrogen is then separated. Designing metallic alloys for hydrogen separation membranes which will work in a syngas environment poses significant challenges. In this presentation, a review of technical targets, metallic membrane development activities at NETL and challenges that are facing the development of new technologies will be given.

  8. Photobiological production of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, P. F.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.

    1980-01-01

    This literature survey of photobiological hydrogen production covers the period from its discovery in relatively pure cultures during the early 1930s through 1978. The focus is hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms (and their components) which occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. The survey covers the major contributions in the area; however, in many cases, space has limited the degree of detail provided. Among the topics included is a brief historical overview of hydrogen metabolism in photosynthetic bacteria, eucaryotic algae, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). The primary enzyme systems, including hydrogenase and nitrogenase, are discussed along with the manner in which they are coupled to electron transport and the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis. A number of in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen evolving schemes including photosynthetic bacterial, green algal, cyanobacterial, two-stage, and cell-free systems are examined in some detail. The remainder of the review discusses specific technical problem areas that currently limit the yield and duration of many of the systems and research that might lead to progress in these specific areas. The final section outlines, in broadest terms, future research directions necessary to these specific areas. The final section outlines, in broadest terms, future research directions necessary to develop practical photobiological hydrogen-producing systems. Both whole cell (near- to mid-term) and cell-free (long-term) systems should be emphasized. Photosynthetic bacteria currently show the most promise for near-term applied systems.

  9. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  10. Third Program Plan for DOE's participation in the IEA Working Party on Energy-Conservation Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Plan documents the projects currently being conducted by the working party in which DOE is participating and the projects proposed by DOE for consideration by other IEA member nations. Chapter 1 reviews current and planned DOE commitments to existing implementing agreements: buildings and community systems; energy conservation in building complexes; energy cascading; heat pumps with thermal storage; advanced heat pumps; combustion; heat transfer and heat exchangers; energy storage; cement manufacturer; and high-temperature materials for automotive propulsion systems. Chapter 2 reviews planned DOE commitments to new implementing agreements: combustion; pulp and paper; iron and steel; food processing; urban waste; and alcohol additives to fuel. Appendix A discusses the mechanisms for establishing implementing agreements and annexes. Appendix B lists working party members and Appendix C describes the evaluation methodology.

  11. HYDROGEN DELIVERY: INFRASTRUCTURE, CHALLENGES, AND MATERIALS NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Gardiner, Monterey

    2009-01-01

    Current domestic energy policy is aimed at encouraging the development of alternative fuels such as hydrogen for use as a renewable and environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based fuels for transportation and stationary power. The purpose of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is to provide insight and input on hydrogen delivery infrastructure research. Ongoing research has identified materials R&D challenges required to support this infrastructure. A few of these challenges are summarized with emphasis placed on materials.

  12. Hydrogen Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The series of absorption or emission lines that are characteristic of the hydrogen atom. According to the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom, devised by Danish physicist Neils Bohr (1885-1962) in 1913, the hydrogen atom can be envisaged as consisting of a central nucleus (a proton) around which a single electron revolves. The electron is located in one of a number of possible permitted orbits, each...

  13. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  14. Coal hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1981-01-06

    Disclosure is made of a method and apparatus for reacting carbonaceous material such as pulverized coal with heated hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases and liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. The heated hydrogen and entrained coal are injected through a rocket engine type injector device. The coal particles are reacted with hydrogen in a reaction chamber downstream of the injector. The products of reaction are rapidly quenched as they exit the reaction chamber and are subsequently collected.

  15. FINAL/ SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Henry; Singh, Suminderpal

    2006-08-28

    The overall objective of the Chattanooga fuel cell demonstrations project was to develop and demonstrate a prototype 5-kW grid-parallel, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system that co-produces hydrogen, based on Ion America’s technology. The commercial viability of the 5kW SOFC system was tested by transporting, installing and commissioning the SOFC system at the Alternative Energy Laboratory at the University of Tennessee – Chattanooga. The system also demonstrated the efficiency and the reliability of the system running on natural gas. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of DOE technology validation milestones from the Technology Validation section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. Results of the project can be found in the final technical report.

  16. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural alloys. A technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. L., Jr.; Stuhrke, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Technical abstracts for about 90 significant documents relating to hydrogen embrittlement of structural metals and alloys are reviewed. Particular note was taken of documents regarding hydrogen effects in rocket propulsion, aircraft propulsion and hydrogen energy systems, including storage and transfer systems.

  17. Hydrogen Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  18. Hydrogen energy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, P P; Kuznetsov, V L; David, W I F

    2007-04-15

    The problem of anthropogenically driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs are arguably the greatest challenge facing our planet. Hydrogen is now widely regarded as one key element of a potential energy solution for the twenty-first century, capable of assisting in issues of environmental emissions, sustainability and energy security. Hydrogen has the potential to provide for energy in transportation, distributed heat and power generation and energy storage systems with little or no impact on the environment, both locally and globally. However, any transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers. This brief report aims to outline the basis of the growing worldwide interest in hydrogen energy and examines some of the important issues relating to the future development of hydrogen as an energy vector.

  19. Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. ); Linkous, C.A. )

    2000-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an

  20. Fracture toughness of the IEA heat of F82H ferritic/martensitic stainless steel as a function of loading mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaxin; Gelles, D.S.; Hirth, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    Mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness tests were performed for the IEA heat of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel F82H at ambient temperature in order to provide comparison with previous measurements on a small heat given a different heat treatment. The results showed that heat to heat variations and heat treatment had negligible consequences on Mode I fracture toughness, but behavior during mixed-mode testing showed unexpected instabilities.

  1. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 6 Report Promoting a Southeast Hydrogen Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project task was to establish a technical consortium to promote the deployment of hydrogen technologies and infrastructure in the Southeast. The goal was to partner with fuel cell manufacturers, hydrogen fuel infrastructure providers, electric utilities, energy service companies, research institutions, and user groups to improve education and awareness of hydrogen technologies in an area that is lagging behind other parts of the country in terms of vehicle and infrastructure demonstrations and deployments. This report documents that effort.

  2. Hydrogen Effect against Hydrogen Embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Yukitaka; Kanezaki, Toshihiko; Mine, Yoji

    2010-10-01

    The well-known term “hydrogen embrittlement” (HE) expresses undesirable effects due to hydrogen such as loss of ductility, decreased fracture toughness, and degradation of fatigue properties of metals. However, this article shows, surprisingly, that hydrogen can have an effect against HE. A dramatic phenomenon was found in which charging a supersaturated level of hydrogen into specimens of austenitic stainless steels of types 304 and 316L drastically improved the fatigue crack growth resistance, rather than accelerating fatigue crack growth rates. Although this mysterious phenomenon has not previously been observed in the history of HE research, its mechanism can be understood as an interaction between hydrogen and dislocations. Hydrogen can play two roles in terms of dislocation mobility: pinning (or dragging) and enhancement of mobility. Competition between these two roles determines whether the resulting phenomenon is damaging or, unexpectedly, desirable. This finding will, not only be the crucial key factor to elucidate the mechanism of HE, but also be a trigger to review all existing theories on HE in which hydrogen is regarded as a dangerous culprit.

  3. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

  4. Hydrogen and Storage Initiatives at the NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel; Woods, Stephen S.

    2006-01-01

    NASA WSTF Hydrogen Activities: a) Aerospace Test; b) System Certification & Verification; c) Component, System, & Facility Hazard Assessment; d) Safety Training Technical Transfer: a) Development of Voluntary Consensus Standards and Practices; b) Support of National Hydrogen Infrastructure Development.

  5. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-06-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

  6. Energy Simulation studies in IEA/SHC Task 18 advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Lyons, P.

    1995-04-01

    Researchers participating in IEA/SHC Task 18 on advanced glazing materials have as their primary objective the development of new innovative glazing products such as high performance glazings, wavelength selective glazings, chromogenic optical switching devices, and light transport mechanisms that will lead to significant energy use reductions and increased comfort in commercial and residential buildings. Part of the Task 18 effort involves evaluation of the energy and comfort performance of these new glazings through the use of various performance analysis simulation tools. Eleven countries (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) are contributing to this multi-year simulation study to better understand the complex heat transfer interactions that determine window performance. Each country has selected particular simulation programs and identified the following items to guide the simulation tasks: (1) geographic locations; (2) building types; (3) window systems and control strategies; and (4) analysis parameters of interest. This paper summarizes the results obtained thus far by several of the research organizations.

  7. Automatic Extraction of Optimal Endmembers from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery Using Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and Spectral Discrimination Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ahram; Chang, Anjin; Choi, Jaewan; Choi, Seokkeun; Kim, Yongil

    2015-01-01

    Pure surface materials denoted by endmembers play an important role in hyperspectral processing in various fields. Many endmember extraction algorithms (EEAs) have been proposed to find appropriate endmember sets. Most studies involving the automatic extraction of appropriate endmembers without a priori information have focused on N-FINDR. Although there are many different versions of N-FINDR algorithms, computational complexity issues still remain and these algorithms cannot consider the case where spectrally mixed materials are extracted as final endmembers. A sequential endmember extraction-based algorithm may be more effective when the number of endmembers to be extracted is unknown. In this study, we propose a simple but accurate method to automatically determine the optimal endmembers using such a method. The proposed method consists of three steps for determining the proper number of endmembers and for removing endmembers that are repeated or contain mixed signatures using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) images obtained from Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and spectral discrimination measurements. A synthetic hyperpsectral image and two different airborne images such as Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application (AISA) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data were tested using the proposed method, and our experimental results indicate that the final endmember set contained all of the distinct signatures without redundant endmembers and errors from mixed materials. PMID:25625907

  8. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation within IEA Wind Task 30: Phase II Results Regarding a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.; Qvist, J.; Froyd, L.; Chen, X.; Azcona, J.; Uzungoglu, E.; Guedes Soares, C.; Luan, C.; Yutong, H.; Pengcheng, F.; Yde, A.; Larsen, T.; Nichols, J.; Buils, R.; Lei, L.; Anders Nygard, T.; et al.

    2014-03-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools (or codes) that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project, which operates under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 30. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of simulation codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating semisubmersible in 200 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants? codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  9. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  10. MSW to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, A.D.; Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.; Wallman, H.; Richter, G.N.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.

    1994-04-19

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the preparation and conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen by gasification and purification. The laboratory focus will be on pretreatment of MSW waste in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. Initial pretreatment approaches include (1) hydrothermal processing at saturated conditions around 300 C with or without chemical/pH modification and (2) mild dry pyrolysis with subsequent incorporation into an appropriate slurry. Initial experiments will be performed with newspaper, a major constituent of MSW, prior to actual work with progressively more representative MSW samples. Overall system modeling with special attention to energy efficiency and waste water handling of the pretreatment process will provide overall guidance to critical scale-up parameters. Incorporation of additional feed stock elements (e.g., heavy oil) will be evaluated subject to the heating value, viscosity, and economics of the MSW optimal slurry for hydrogen production. Ultimate scale-up of the optimized process will provide sufficient material for demonstration in the Texaco pilot facility; additional long term objectives include more detailed economic analysis of the process as a function of technical parameters and development of a measure/control system to ensure slagging ash for variable MSW feed stocks. Details of the overall project plan and initial experimental and modeling results are presented.

  11. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gronich, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  12. Hydrogen turbine power conversion system assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lucci, A. D.; Campbell, J.; Lee, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A three part technical study was conducted whereby parametric technical and economic feasibility data were developed on several power conversion systems suitable for the generation of central station electric power through the combustion of hydrogen and the use of the resulting heat energy in turbogenerator equipment. The study assessed potential applications of hydrogen-fueled power conversion systems and identified the three most promising candidates: (1) Ericsson Cycle, (2) gas turbine, and (3) direct steam injection system for fossil fuel as well as nuclear powerplants. A technical and economic evaluation was performed on the three systems from which the direct injection system (fossil fuel only) was selected for a preliminary conceptual design of an integrated hydrogen-fired power conversion system.

  13. Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Codes and Standards Tech Team (CSTT) mission is to enable and facilitate the appropriate research, development, & demonstration (RD&D) for the development of safe, performance-based defensible technical codes and standards that support the technology readiness and are appropriate for widespread consumer use of fuel cells and hydrogen-based technologies with commercialization by 2020. Therefore, it is important that the necessary codes and standards be in place no later than 2015.

  14. Chlordane (Technical)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlordane ( Technical ) ; CASRN 12789 - 03 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  15. Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

  16. Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

    2007-07-31

    IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

  17. Technical and systems evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P.

    1998-08-01

    During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen sulfide ; 7783 - 06 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  19. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  20. Hydrogen technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    To the non-nonsense engineer, any talk of a hydrogen economy may seem like so much hot air. This paper reports that as legislative, safety and environmental issues continue to tighten, they're promoting hydrogen's chances as an energy source and, more immediately, its prospects as a chemical feedstock. Paradoxically, the environmental demands that are stimulating hydrogen demand are also inhibiting the gas's production. Previously, gasoline was made with benzene, which means that H{sub 2} was rejected. But now that the laws mandate lower aromatic and higher oxygenate levels in gasolines, there's less H{sub 2} available as byproduct. At the same time, H{sub 2} demand is rising in hydrodesulfurization units, since the same laws require refiners to cut sulfur levels in fuels. Supplementary sources for the gas are also shrinking. In the chlor-alkali industry, H{sub 2} output is dropping, as demand for its coproduct chlorine weakens. At the same time, H{sub 2} demand for the making of hydrogen peroxide is growing, as that environmentally safer bleach gains chlorine's market share.

  1. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Biris, A. S.; Mazumder, M. K.; Karabacak, T.; Kannarpady, Ganesh; Sharma, R.

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  2. NFPA's Hydrogen Technologies Code Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C. H.

    2008-12-01

    This article discusses the development of National Fire Protection Association 2 (NFPA), a comprehensive hydrogen safety code. It analyses the contents of this document with particular attention focused on new requirements for setting hydrogen storage systems. These new requirements use computational fluid dynamic modeling and risk assessment procedures to develop requirements that are based on both technical analyses and defined risk criteria. The intent is to develop requirements based on procedures that can be replicated based on the information provided in the code document. This code will require documentation of the modeling inputs and risk criteria and analyses in the supporting information. This article also includes a description of the codes and standards that address hydrogen technologies in general.

  3. Metallic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvera, Isaac; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Salamat, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe. At high pressure it is predicted to transform to a metal with remarkable properties: room temperature superconductivity, a metastable metal at ambient conditions, and a revolutionary rocket propellant. Both theory and experiment have been challenged for almost 80 years to determine its condensed matter phase diagram, in particular the insulator-metal transition. Hydrogen is predicted to dissociate to a liquid atomic metal at multi-megabar pressures and T =0 K, or at megabar pressures and very high temperatures. Thus, its predicted phase diagram has a broad field of liquid metallic hydrogen at high pressure, with temperatures ranging from thousands of degrees to zero Kelvin. In a bench top experiment using static compression in a diamond anvil cell and pulsed laser heating, we have conducted measurements on dense hydrogen in the region of 1.1-1.7 Mbar and up to 2200 K. We observe a first-order phase transition in the liquid phase, as well as sharp changes in optical transmission and reflectivity when this phase is entered. The optical signature is that of a metal. The mapping of the phase line of this transition is in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions for the long-sought plasma phase transition to metallic hydrogen. Research supported by the NSF, Grant DMR-1308641, the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  4. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Start-Up and Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Fred; Dalton, Penni J.

    2001-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35% depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will describe the battery hardware configuration, operation, and role in providing power to the main power system of the ISS. We will also discuss initial battery start-up and performance data.

  5. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35 percent depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty-eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 (Port) Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will discuss the battery performance data after eighteen months of cycling.

  6. Update on International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Battery On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni; Cohen, Fred

    2003-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) utilizes Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a 35% depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation. Thirty-eight individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU). Two ORUs are series-connected utilizing a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. The ISS is the first application for low earth orbit (LEO) cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells. The P6 (Port) Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) containing the initial ISS high-power components was successfully launched on November 30, 2000. The IEA contains 12 Battery Subassembly ORUs (6 batteries) that provide station power during eclipse periods. This paper will discuss the battery performance data after two and a half years of cycling.

  7. 2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Global Commercialization & Development Update

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-11-01

    This report offers examples of real-world applications and technical progress of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, including policies adopted by countries to increase technology development and commercialization.

  8. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory.

  9. Hydrogen scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, David W.; Salazar, Kenneth V.; Trkula, Mitchell; Sandoval, Cynthia W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a codeposition process for fabricating hydrogen scavengers. First, a .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is prepared by reacting an allylic transition metal halide with an organic ligand complexed with an alkali metal; and then, in a second step, a vapor of the .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is combined with the vapor of an acetylenic compound, irradiated with UV light, and codeposited on a substrate.

  10. Regasification of liquefied natural gas and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonkonog, V. G.; Tukmakov, A. L.; Muchitova, K. M.; Agalakov, U. A.; Serazetdinov, F. Sh; Gromov, B. C.

    2016-06-01

    Liquefied natural gas and hydrogen gasification process is suggested, in which vapor phase is generated by the decrease of internal energy of the liquid. Methane and hydrogen gasification processes have been numerically modeled. Flow rates of the methane and hydrogen through choke channel were defined. A satisfactory match between the modeled and experimental data for liquid nitrogen has been acquired. Technical suitability of the suggested process is proved. Based on the initial parameters of the cryogenic fluid, the amount of vapor phase is 5-20% of the flow rate.

  11. National Agenda for Hydrogen Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, C.

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of hydrogen codes and standards with an emphasis on the national effort supported and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the help and cooperation of standards and model code development organizations, industry, and other interested parties, DOE has established a coordinated national agenda for hydrogen and fuel cell codes and standards. With the adoption of the Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap and with its implementation through the Codes and Standards Technical Team, DOE helps strengthen the scientific basis for requirements incorporated in codes and standards that, in turn, will facilitate international market receptivity for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, E

    2008-02-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists, and it is believed to be the largest such staff in the U.S. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including

  13. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  14. Hydrogen environment embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement is classified into three types: internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen reaction embrittlement, and hydrogen environment embrittlement. Characteristics of and materials embrittled by these types of hydrogen embrittlement are discussed. Hydrogen environment embrittlement is reviewed in detail. Factors involved in standardizing test methods for detecting the occurrence of and evaluating the severity of hydrogen environment embrittlement are considered. The effect of test technique, hydrogen pressure, purity, strain rate, stress concentration factor, and test temperature are discussed. Additional research is required to determine whether hydrogen environment embrittlement and internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement are similar or distinct types of embrittlement.

  15. Hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Richmond, A.A.

    1995-07-01

    A technical and economic assessment is being conducted of a hydrogen fuel dispensing station to develop an understanding of the infrastructure requirements for supplying hydrogen fuel for mobile applications. The study includes a process design of a conceptual small-scale, stand-alone, grassroots fuel dispensing facility (similar to the present-day gasoline stations) producing hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. Other hydrogen production processes (such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and water electrolysis) were reviewed to determine their suitability for manufacturing the hydrogen. The study includes an assessment of the environmental and other regulatory permitting requirements likely to be imposed on a hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles. The assessment concludes that a dispensing station designed to produce 0.75 million standard cubic feet of fuel grade (99.99%+ purity) hydrogen will meet the fuel needs of 300 light-duty vehicles per day. Preliminary economics place the total capital investment (in 1994 US dollars) for the dispensing station at $4.5 million and the annual operating costs at around $1 million. A discounted cash-flow analysis indicates that the fuel hydrogen product price (excluding taxes) to range between $1.37 to $2.31 per pound of hydrogen, depending upon the natural gas price, the plant financing scenario, and the rate of return on equity capital. A report on the assessment is due in June 1995. This paper presents a summary of the current status of the assessment.

  16. Patent landscape for biological hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Levin, David B; Lubieniechi, Simona

    2013-12-01

    Research and development of biological hydrogen production have expanded significantly in the past decade. Production of renewable hydrogen from agricultural, forestry, or other organic waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to hydrogen production capacity with no net, or at least with lower, greenhouse gas emissions. Significant improvements in the volumetric or molar yields of hydrogen production have been accomplished through genetic engineering of hydrogen synthesizing microorganisms. Although no commercial scale renewable biohydrogen production facilities are currently in operation, a few pilot scale systems have been demonstrated successfully, and while industrial scale production of biohydrogen still faces a number of technical and economic barriers, understanding the patent landscape is an important step in developing a viable commercialization strategy. In this paper, we review patents filed on biological hydrogen production. Patents on biohydrogen production from both the Canadian and American Patents databases were classified into three main groups: (1) patents for biological hydrogen by direct photolysis; (2) patents for biological hydrogen by dark fermentation; and (3) patents for process engineering for biological hydrogen production.

  17. Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Pathway Integration Technical Team (FPITT) supports the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (the Partnership) in the identification and evaluation of implementation scenarios for fuel cell technology pathways, including hydrogen and fuel cell electric vehicles in the transportation sector, both during a transition period and in the long term.

  18. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Anastasios

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  19. Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Projects at Brooklyn Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedotov, Alex; Farah, Shadia; Farley, Daithi; Ghani, Naureen; Kuo, Emmy; Aponte, Cecielo; Abrescia, Leo; Kwan, Laiyee; Khan, Ussamah; Khizner, Felix; Yam, Anthony; Sakeeb, Khan; Grey, Daniel; Anika, Zarin; Issa, Fouad; Boussayoud, Chayama; Abdeldayem, Mahmoud; Zhang, Alvin; Chen, Kelin; Chan, Kameron Chuen; Roytman, Viktor; Yee, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the projects on solar hydrogen powered vehicles using water as fuel conducted by teams at Brooklyn Technical High School. Their investigations into the pure and applied chemical thermodynamics of hydrogen fuel cells and bio-inspired devices have been consolidated in a new and emerging sub-discipline that they define as solar…

  20. Second Information Technology in Education Study: SITES 2006 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carstens, Ralph, Ed.; Pelgrum, Willem J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) has been conducting comparative studies for 50 years. SITES 2006 is the fifth wave of surveys related to information and communication technology (ICT), a wave that IEA started with its Computers in Education Study (two studies with data collection in 1989 and 1992),…

  1. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    SciTech Connect

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  2. Hydrogen storage in carbon materials—preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jörissen, Ludwig; Klos, Holger; Lamp, Peter; Reichenauer, Gudrun; Trapp, Victor

    1998-08-01

    Recent developments aiming at the accelerated commercialization of fuel cells for automotive applications have triggered an intensive research on fuel storage concepts for fuel cell cars. The fuel cell technology currently lacks technically and economically viable hydrogen storage technologies. On-board reforming of gasoline or methanol into hydrogen can only be regarded as an intermediate solution due to the inherently poor energy efficiency of such processes. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibers may lead to an efficient solution to the above described problems.

  3. Hydrogen detector

    DOEpatents

    Kanegae, Naomichi; Ikemoto, Ichiro

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

  4. NASA Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space Based Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Project management activities for this grant includes internal oversight, coordination and facilitation among research groups (internal to UF and external); system and/or trade studies to assist in evaluating and prioritizing new hydrogen production processes that may become available for potential research investigations; a technical and programmatic outreach activity; and formal reporting, including periodic technical reviews with the NASA team.

  5. The Second IEA International Research Conference: Proceedings of the IRC-2006. Volume 2: Civic Education Study (CivEd), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemaker, Paula, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As part of its mission, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) is committed to the development of the community of researchers who work in the area of assessment both nationally and internationally. The association also has a commitment to provide policymakers with the types of data and analyses that will…

  6. TEDS-M Encyclopedia: A Guide to Teacher Education Context, Structure, and Quality Assurance in 17 Countries. Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwille, John, Ed.; Ingvarson, Lawrence, Ed.; Holdgreve-Resendez, Richard, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) is the first large-scale international study of the preparation of primary and lower-secondary teachers. The study investigated the pedagogical and subject-specific knowledge that future primary and lower secondary school teachers acquire during their mathematics teacher…

  7. An Analysis of Teacher Education Context, Structure, and Quality-Assurance Arrangements in TEDS-M Countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Schwille, John; Tatto, Maria Teresa; Rowley, Glenn; Peck, Ray; Senk, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS-M) is the first crossnational study to examine the mathematics preparation of future teachers for both primary and secondary school levels. The study, conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), collected data from…

  8. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  9. The U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and opinions about Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Christy; Truett, Lorena Faith; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    To design and maintain its education program, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program conducted a statistically-valid national survey to measure knowledge and opinions of hydrogen among key target audiences. The Hydrogen Baseline Knowledge Survey provides a reference for designing the DOE hydrogen education strategy and will be used in comparisons with future surveys to measure changes in knowledge and opinions over time. The survey sampled four U.S. populations: (1) public; (2) students; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen end-users in three business categories Questions measured technical understanding of hydrogen and opinions about hydrogen safety. Other questions assessed visions of the likelihood of future hydrogen applications and sources of energy information. Several important findings were discovered, including a striking lack of technical understanding across all survey groups, as well as a strong correlation between technical knowlege and opinions about safety: those who demonstrated an understanding of hydrogen technologies expressed the least fear of its safe use.

  10. Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lin

    2009-11-30

    Technical report describing DOE's Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence investigation into various adsorbent and chemisorption materials and progress towards meeting DOE's hydrogen storage targets. The report presents a review of the material status as related to DOE hydrogen storage targets and explains the basis for the down select decisions.

  11. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given

  12. Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, Krishna; Tan, Zhaosheng; Chao, Ben

    2010-09-30

    The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... peroxide is used in these products: Hydrogen peroxide Hair bleach Some contact lens cleaners Note: Household hydrogen peroxide ... it contains 97% water and 3% hydrogen peroxide. Hair bleaches are stronger. They usually have a concentration of ...

  14. Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee annual report: Summary of DOE hydrogen programs for FY 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Hydrogen Energy Coordinating Committee (HECC) was established over 14 years ago to ensure that the many varied aspects of hydrogen technology research and development within the Department are coordinated. Each year the committee brings together technical representatives within the Department to coordinate activities, share research results and discuss future priorities and directions. An annual report is published summarizing the work in progress. This summary is the fourteenth consecutive report. It provides an overview of the hydrogen-related programs of the DOE offices represented in the HECC.

  15. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  16. Hydrogen engines based on liquid fuels, a review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Voecks, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of storing hydrogen as part of a liquid fuel, such as gasoline or methanol, and subsequent onboard generation of the hydrogen from such liquids, is reviewed. Hydrogen generation processes, such as steam reforming, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition are evaluated in terms of theoretical potential and practical limitations, and a summary is presented on the major experimental work on conversion of gasoline and methanol. Results of experiments indicate that onboard hydrogen generation from methanol is technically feasible and will yield substantial improvements in fuel economy and emissions, especially if methanol decomposition is brought about by the use of engine exhaust heat; e.g., a methanol decomposition reactor of 3.8 provides hydrogen-rich gas for a 4 cylinder engine (1.952), and 80% of the methanol is converted, engine exhaust gas being the only heat supply. A preliminary outline of the development of a methanol-based hydrogen engine and a straight hydrogen engine is presented.

  17. The NASA Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology study - A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laumann, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    This study is concerned with: hydrogen use, alternatives and comparisons, hydrogen production, factors affecting application, and technology requirements. Two scenarios for future use are explained. One is called the reference hydrogen use scenario and assumes continued historic uses of hydrogen along with additional use for coal gasification and liquefaction, consistent with the Ford technical fix baseline (1974) projection. The expanded scenario relies on the nuclear electric economy (1973) energy projection and assumes the addition of limited new uses such as experimental hydrogen-fueled aircraft, some mixing with natural gas, and energy storage by utilities. Current uses and supply of hydrogen are described, and the technological requirements for developing new methods of hydrogen production are discussed.

  18. Tribology in Gaseous Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawae, Yoshinori; Sugimura, Joich

    Hydrogen is expected as a clean and renewable energy carrier for future environment-friendly society. Many machine elements in hydrogen energy systems should be operating within hydrogen gas and tribological behavior, such as friction and wear, of bearings and seals are affected by the hydrogen environment through some interactions between material surfaces and gaseous hydrogen, i.e., physisorption of hydrogen molecules and following chemisorptions of dissociated atoms on metal surfaces, formation of metal hydride and reduction of metal oxide layer by hydrogen atoms diffused into bulk. Therefore, friction and wear characteristics of tribomaterials in the hydrogen environment should be appropriately understood to establish a design guideline for reliable hydrogen utilizing systems. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the effect of hydrogen on friction and wear of materials, and then describes our recent progress of hydrogen research in the tribology field.

  19. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vitina, Aisma; Luers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabo, Leif I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto; Hand, M. Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  20. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  1. Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, Kevin; Jovanovic, Goran; Paul, Brian

    2015-09-30

    The document summarized the technical progress associated with OSU’s involvement in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. OSU focused on the development of microscale enhancement technologies for improving heat and mass transfer in automotive hydrogen storage systems. OSU’s key contributions included the development of an extremely compact microchannel combustion system for discharging hydrogen storage systems and a thermal management system for adsorption based hydrogen storage using microchannel cooling (the Modular Adsorption Tank Insert or MATI).

  2. Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, David L.; T-Raissi, Ali

    2009-01-01

    This final report describes the R&D activities and projects conducted for NASA under the 6-year NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities grant program. Contained within this report are summaries of the overall activities, one-page description of all the reports funded under this program and all of the individual reports from each of the 29 projects supported by the effort. The R&D activities cover hydrogen technologies related to production, cryogenics, sensors, storage, separation processes, fuel cells, resource assessments and education. In the span of 6 years, the NASA Hydrogen Research at Florida Universities program funded a total of 44 individual university projects, and employed more than 100 faculty and over 100 graduate research students in the six participating universities. Researchers involved in this program have filed more than 20 patents in all hydrogen technology areas and put out over 220 technical publications in the last 2 years alone. This 6 year hydrogen research program was conducted by a consortium of six Florida universities: Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida State University (FSU) and Florida A&M University (FAMU) in Tallahassee, University of Central Florida (UCF) in Orlando, University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa, and University of Florida (UF) in Gainesville. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida managed the research activities of all consortium member universities except those at the University of Florida. This report does not include any of the programs or activities conducted at the University of Florida, but can be found in NASA/CR-2008-215440-PART 1-3.

  3. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  4. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  5. HGMS: Glasses and Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinska, Kris; Hemmers, Oliver

    2013-02-17

    directly address any hydrogen storage technical barriers or targets in terms of numbers. Specifically, hydrogen sorption and desorption tests or kinetics measurements were not part of the project scope. However, the insights gained from these studies could help to answer fundamental questions necessary for considering glass-based materials as hydrogen storage media and could be applied indirectly towards the DOE hydrogen storage technical targets such as system weight and volume, system cost and energy density. Such questions are: Can specific macro-crystals, proven to attract hydrogen when in a macroscopic form (bulk), be nucleated in glass matrices as nanocrystals to create two-phased materials? What are suitable compositions that enable to synthetize glass-based, two-phase materials with nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen via surface or bulk interactions? What are the limits of controlling the microstructure of these materials, especially limits for nanocrystals density and size? Finally, from a technological point of view, the fabrication of glass-derived nanocomposites that we explore is a very simple, fast and inexpensive process that does not require costly or specialized equipment which is an important factor for practical applications.

  6. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Dane F. Wilson; Steven J. Pawel

    2007-09-01

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R&D decisions.

  7. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Semelsberger, Troy; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kg system), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/L system). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material propertiesdand most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  8. A Few Facts about Hydrogen [and] Hydrogen Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, H. Roger

    Divided into two sections, this publication presents facts about and the characteristics of hydrogen and a bibliography on hydrogen. The first section lists nine facts on what hydrogen is, four on where hydrogen is found, nine on how hydrogen is used, nine on how hydrogen can be used, and 14 on how hydrogen is made. Also included are nine…

  9. Using Hydrogen Safety Best Practices and Learning from Safety Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Quick, Kathleen A.

    2011-02-28

    A best practice is a technique or methodology that has reliably led to a desired result. A wealth of experience regarding the safe use and handling of hydrogen exists as a result of an extensive history in a wide variety of industrial and aerospace settings. Hydrogen Safety Best Practices (www.h2bestpractices.org) captures this vast knowledge base and makes it publically available to those working with hydrogen and related systems, including those just starting to work with hydrogen. This online manual is organized under a number of hierarchical technical content categories. References, including publications and other online links, that deal with the safety aspects of hydrogen are compiled for easy access. This paper discusses the development of Hydrogen Safety Best Practices as a safety knowledge tool, the nature of its technical content, and the steps taken to enhance its value and usefulness. Specific safety event examples are provided to illustrate the link between technical content in the online best practices manual and a companion safety knowledge tool, Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned (www.h2incidents.org), which encourages the sharing of lessons learned and other safety event information.

  10. Using Hydrogen Safety Best Practices and Learning from Safety Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Quick, Kathleen A.

    2009-09-16

    A best practice is a technique or methodology that has reliably led to a desired result. A wealth of experience regarding the safe use and handling of hydrogen exists as a result of an extensive history in a wide variety of industrial and aerospace settings. Hydrogen Safety Best Practices (www.h2bestpractices.org) captures this vast knowledge base and makes it publically available to those working with hydrogen and related systems, including those just starting to work with hydrogen. This online manual is organized under a number of hierarchical technical content categories. References, including publications and other online links, that deal with the safety aspects of hydrogen are compiled for easy access. This paper discusses the development of Hydrogen Safety Best Practices as a safety knowledge tool, the nature of its technical content, and the steps taken to enhance its value and usefulness. Specific safety event examples are provided to illustrate the link between technical content in the online best practices manual and a companion safety knowledge tool, Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned (www.h2incidents.org), which encourages the sharing of lessons learned and other safety event information.

  11. Nickel hydrogen batteries: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A LeRC innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass,volume, and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in

  12. Plasma-chemical conversion of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    A waste-treatment process that recovers both hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen-sulfide-contaminated industrial wastes is being developed to replace the Claus technology, which recovers only sulfur. The proposed process is based on research reported in the Soviet technical literature and uses microwave (or radio-frequency) energy to initiate plasma-chemical reactions that dissociate hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. In the plasma-chemical process, the gaseous stream would be purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Since unconverted hydrogen sulfide is recycled to the plasma reactor, the plasma-chemical process has the potential for sulfur recoveries in excess of 99% without the additional tail-gas clean-up processes associated with the Claus technology. Laboratory experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide have confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery and natural gas production acid gases have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and do not appear to create new waste-treatment problems. Other experiments show that the cyclonic-flow pattern hypothesized by the Russian theoretical analysis of the plasma-chemical process can substantially decrease energy requirements for hydrogen sulfide dissociation while increasing conversion. This process has several advantages over the current Claus-plus-tail-gas-cleanup technology. The primary advantage is the potential for recovering hydrogen more cheaply than the direct production of hydrogen. The difference could amount to an energy savings of 40 {times} 10{sup 15} to 70 {times} 10{sup 15} J/yr in the refining industry, for an annual savings of $500 million to $1,000 million.

  13. Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

  14. Photosynthesis as a power supply for (bio-)hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Esper, Berndt; Badura, Adrian; Rögner, Matthias

    2006-11-01

    Although hydrogen is considered to be one of the most promising future energy sources and the technical aspects involved in using it have advanced considerably, the future supply of hydrogen from renewable sources is still unsolved. This review focuses on the production of hydrogen from water using biological catalysts that have been optimized by nature: the process of water-splitting photosynthesis on the one hand and hydrogen production via the catalyst hydrogenase on the other. Using water as a source of electrons and sunlight as a source of energy, both engineered natural systems and biomimetic (bio-inspired) model systems can be designed as first steps towards water-splitting-based hydrogen production (biophotolytic hydrogen production).

  15. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection: Process Performance Package

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-06-01

    This document describes the details of implementing a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) hydrogen production plant to deploy with the Next General Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP). Technical requirements and specifications are included, and a conceptual plant design is presented. The following areas of interest are outlined in particular as a baseline for the various technology comparisons: (1) Performance Criteria - (a) Quantity of hydrogen produced, (b) Purity of hydrogen produced, (c) Flexibility to serve various applications, (d) Waste management; (2) Economic Considerations - (a) Cost of hydrogen, (b) Development costs; and (3) Risk - (a) Technical maturity of the S-I process, (b) Development risk, (c) Scale up options.

  16. Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Methods for concentrating hydrogen peroxide solutions have been described. The methods utilize a polymeric membrane separating a hydrogen peroxide solution from a sweep gas or permeate. The membrane is selective to the permeability of water over the permeability of hydrogen peroxide, thereby facilitating the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution through the transport of water through the membrane to the permeate. By utilizing methods in accordance with the invention, hydrogen peroxide solutions of up to 85% by volume or higher may be generated at a point of use without storing substantial quantities of the highly concentrated solutions and without requiring temperatures that would produce explosive mixtures of hydrogen peroxide vapors.

  17. Hydrogen quantitative risk assessment workshop proceedings.

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, Katrina M.; Harris, Aaron P.

    2013-09-01

    The Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) Toolkit Introduction Workshop was held at Energetics on June 11-12. The workshop was co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and HySafe, the International Association for Hydrogen Safety. The objective of the workshop was twofold: (1) Present a hydrogen-specific methodology and toolkit (currently under development) for conducting QRA to support the development of codes and standards and safety assessments of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and fueling stations, and (2) Obtain feedback on the needs of early-stage users (hydrogen as well as potential leveraging for Compressed Natural Gas [CNG], and Liquefied Natural Gas [LNG]) and set priorities for %E2%80%9CVersion 1%E2%80%9D of the toolkit in the context of the commercial evolution of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). The workshop consisted of an introduction and three technical sessions: Risk Informed Development and Approach; CNG/LNG Applications; and Introduction of a Hydrogen Specific QRA Toolkit.

  18. Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield

    SciTech Connect

    G. De

    2003-02-24

    One potential failure mechanism for titanium and its alloys under repository conditions is via the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. The resulting decreased ductility and fracture toughness may lead to brittle mechanical fracture called hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, HIC may be a problem since the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this scientific analysis and modeling activity is to evaluate whether the drip shield will fail by HIC or not under repository conditions within 10,000 years of emplacement. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) addresses features, events, and processes related to hydrogen induced cracking of the drip shield. REV 00 of this AMR served as a feed to ''Waste Package Degradation Process Model Report'' and was developed in accordance with the activity section ''Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Drip Shield'' of the development plan entitled ''Analysis and Model Reports to Support Waste Package PMR'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This AMR, prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Materials Data Analyses and Modeling'' (BSC 2002), is to feed the License Application.

  19. A solar-hydrogen economy for U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockris, J. Om.; Veziroglu, T. N.

    The benefits, safety, production, distribution, storage, and uses, as well as the economics of a solar and hydrogen based U.S. energy system are described. Tropical and subtropical locations for the generation plants would provide power from photovoltaics, heliostat arrays, OTEC plants, or genetically engineered algae to produce hydrogen by electrolysis, direct thermal conversion, thermochemical reactions, photolysis, or hybrid systems. Either pipelines for gas transport or supertankers for liquefied hydrogen would distribute the fuel, with storage in underground reservoirs, aquifers, and pressurized bladders at sea. The fuel would be distributed to factories, houses, gas stations, and airports. It can be used in combustion engines, gas turbines, and jet engines, and produces water vapor as an exhaust gas. The necessary research effort to define and initiate construction of technically and economically viable solar-hydrogen plants is projected to be 3 yr, while the technical definition of fusion power plants, the other nondepletable energy system, is expected to take 25 yr.

  20. Technical Editor Looks at Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard (Bud)

    1982-01-01

    The author explores problems in technical writing, the editor's role, and the author-editor relationship. He presents a list of basic writing rules to help the technical writer achieve success. These involve subject matter, deadlines, purpose, topic sentences, arrangement, clarity, idea development, examples, vocabulary, reading level, and…

  1. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commerical Buildings across the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Community Systems (IEA/ECBCS). Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings, assumed to have a total floor area of 500 m2 or less. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire existing stock of small U.S. commercial buildings using a bottom-up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models.

  2. A comparative study of the SSC resistance of a novel welding process IEA with SAW and MIG

    SciTech Connect

    Natividad, C. . E-mail: consnatividad@yahoo.com.mx; Salazar, M. . E-mail: salazarm@imp.mx; Espinosa-Medina, M.A.; Perez, R.

    2007-08-15

    The Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance of X65 weldments produced by Indirect Electric Arc, Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and Metal Inert Gas (MIG) processes were evaluated in a NACE solution saturated with H{sub 2}S at 25 deg. C, 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C using Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) and electrochemical measurements. Weldments produced by the Indirect Electric Arc presented the best Stress Sulphide Cracking resistance at 25 deg. C. This behavior is attributed to the microstructural modification of the weld bead from ferrite in a needlelike form to a fine grain microstructure, which was not observed at 37 deg. C and 50 deg. C. In addition, the hydrogen permeation flux increased with the temperature, this result is associated with the ferrite phase. The electrochemical results show a decrease of the trapping sites for the atomic hydrogen on this weldment. This behavior has not been observed for the other welding processes due to their microstructure (a typical columnar growth of coarse grain)

  3. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debajyoti; De, Debojyoti; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-01-01

    The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical), Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source. PMID:16371161

  4. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  5. Power from space and the hydrogen economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Philip K.; Haynes, William E.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen economy. On the other hand, an economy based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen economy, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane economy also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS.

  6. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  7. Solar hydrogen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Sabol, A. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus, using solar energy to manufacture hydrogen by dissociating water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen molecules is described. Solar energy is concentrated on a globe containing water thereby heating the water to its dissociation temperature. The globe is pervious to hydrogen molecules permitting them to pass through the globe while being essentially impervious to oxygen molecules. The hydrogen molecules are collected after passing through the globe and the oxygen molecules are removed from the globe.

  8. Disposable Hydrogen Generator.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J H; Allgeier, D L

    1965-02-26

    A convenient means of producing hydrogen gas for anaerobe jars or other situations where 2 liters of hydrogen will suffice is described. Hydrogen gas is produced by the chemical action of magnesium metal, zinc chloride, sodium chloride, and water within a unique plastic and aluminum foil envelope. That there is no excessive buildup of hydrogen greatly reduces the hazard of explosion. The gas-producing units are simple to activate and may be discarded after use.

  9. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of the Drip Shield

    SciTech Connect

    F. Hua

    2004-09-07

    Hydrogen-induced cracking is characterized by the decreased ductility and fracture toughness of a material due to the absorption of atomic hydrogen in the metal crystal lattice. Corrosion is the source of hydrogen generation. For the current design of the engineered barrier without backfill, hydrogen-induced cracking may be a concern because the titanium drip shield can be galvanically coupled to rock bolts (or wire mesh), which may fall onto the drip shield, thereby creating conditions for hydrogen production by electrochemical reaction. The purpose of this report is to analyze whether the drip shield will fail by hydrogen-induced cracking under repository conditions within 10,000 years after emplacement. Hydrogen-induced cracking is a scenario of premature failure of the drip shield. This report develops a realistic model to assess the form of hydrogen-induced cracking degradation of the drip shield under the hydrogen-induced cracking. The scope of this work covers the evaluation of hydrogen absorbed due to general corrosion and galvanic coupling to less noble metals (e.g., Stainless Steel Type 316 and carbon steels) under the repository conditions during the 10,000-year regulatory period after emplacement and whether the absorbed hydrogen content will exceed the critical hydrogen concentration value, above which the hydrogen-induced cracking is assumed to occur. This report also provides the basis for excluding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to hydrogen-induced cracking of the drip shield with particular emphasis on FEP 2.1.03.04.OB, hydride cracking of drip shields (DTN: M00407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). This report is prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169944]).

  10. Technical report writing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidoli, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    This manual covers the fundamentals of organizing, writing, and reviewing NASA technical reports. It was written to improve the writing skills of LeRC technical authors and the overall quality of their reports.

  11. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    DOEpatents

    Grover, George M.; Frank, Thurman G.; Keddy, Edward S.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

  12. Purification of Hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Newton, A S

    1950-12-05

    Disclosed is a process for purifying hydrogen containing various gaseous impurities by passing the hydrogen over a large surface of uranium metal at a temperature above the decomposition temperature of uranium hydride, and below the decomposition temperature of the compounds formed by the combination of the uranium with the impurities in the hydrogen.

  13. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  14. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  15. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  16. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  17. Proceedings of the DOE Chemical Energy Storage and Hydrogen Energy Systems Contracts Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    The background and objectives of thirty-nine hydrogen-related tasks were discussed, the status of the studies or technical effort is shown, and state projected solutions for resolving the identified problems are projected.

  18. Hydrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Mundschau, Michael; Xie, Xiaobing; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul; Wright, Harold

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  19. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies for combined-cycle propulsion applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a technical assessment of the realization of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction technologies in a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process setting. The technical findings related to the status of air liquefaction technologies are reviewed. Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers, heat exchanger atmospheric constituent fouling alleviation measures, para/ortho-hydrogen shift-conversion catalysts, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps, hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as a heat sink, liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices, and technically related engine concepts are discussed. Much of the LACE work is related to aerospaceplane propulsion concepts that were developed in the 1960's. Emphasis is placed on the Liquid Air Cycle Engine (LACE).

  20. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Hydrogen Generation From Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cohen; Stephen Porter; Oscar Chow; David Henderson

    2009-03-06

    Small-scale (100-500 kg H2/day) electrolysis is an important step in increasing the use of hydrogen as fuel. Until there is a large population of hydrogen fueled vehicles, the smaller production systems will be the most cost-effective. Performing conceptual designs and analyses in this size range enables identification of issues and/or opportunities for improvement in approach on the path to 1500 kg H2/day and larger systems. The objectives of this program are to establish the possible pathways to cost effective larger Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis systems and to identify areas where future research and development efforts have the opportunity for the greatest impact in terms of capital cost reduction and efficiency improvements. System design and analysis was conducted to determine the overall electrolysis system component architecture and develop a life cycle cost estimate. A design trade study identified subsystem components and configurations based on the trade-offs between system efficiency, cost and lifetime. Laboratory testing of components was conducted to optimize performance and decrease cost, and this data was used as input to modeling of system performance and cost. PEM electrolysis has historically been burdened by high capital costs and lower efficiency than required for large-scale hydrogen production. This was known going into the program and solutions to these issues were the focus of the work. The program provided insights to significant cost reduction and efficiency improvement opportunities for PEM electrolysis. The work performed revealed many improvement ideas that when utilized together can make significant progress towards the technical and cost targets of the DOE program. The cell stack capital cost requires reduction to approximately 25% of today’s technology. The pathway to achieve this is through part count reduction, use of thinner membranes, and catalyst loading reduction. Large-scale power supplies are available

  2. IEA Wind Task 26 - Multi-national Case Study of the Financial Cost of Wind Energy; Work Package 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, P.; Lensink, S.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The lifetime cost of wind energy is comprised of a number of components including the investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, financing costs, and annual energy production. Accurate representation of these cost streams is critical in estimating a wind plant's cost of energy. Some of these cost streams will vary over the life of a given project. From the outset of project development, investors in wind energy have relatively certain knowledge of the plant's lifetime cost of wind energy. This is because a wind energy project's installed costs and mean wind speed are known early on, and wind generation generally has low variable operation and maintenance costs, zero fuel cost, and no carbon emissions cost. Despite these inherent characteristics, there are wide variations in the cost of wind energy internationally, which is the focus of this report. Using a multinational case-study approach, this work seeks to understand the sources of wind energy cost differences among seven countries under International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 26 - Cost of Wind Energy. The participating countries in this study include Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Due to data availability, onshore wind energy is the primary focus of this study, though a small sample of reported offshore cost data is also included.

  3. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  4. Photobiological hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Asada, Y; Miyake, J

    1999-01-01

    The principles and recent progress in the research and development of photobiological hydrogen production are reviewed. Cyanobacteria produce hydrogen gas using nitrogenase and/or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenases in cyanobacteria occurs under in the dark under anaerobic conditions by degradation of intracellular glycogen. In vitro and in vivo coupling of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic system with a clostridial hydrogenase via cyanobacterial ferredoxin was demonstrated in the presence of light. Genetic transformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum was successful; the active enzyme was expressed in PCC7942. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Coculture of Rhodobacter and Clostriudium was applied for hydrogen production from glucose. A mutant strain of Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV whose light-harvesting proteins were altered was obtained by UV irradiation. Hydrogen productivity by the mutant was improved when irradiated with monochromatic light of some wavelengths. The development of photobioreactors for hydrogen production is also reviewed.

  5. HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, E

    2009-03-02

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists, and it is believed to be the largest such staff in the U.S. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including

  6. Hydrogen storage methods.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen

  7. Hydrogen storage methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is

  8. Final Scientifc Report - Hydrogen Education State Partnership Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Warren

    2012-02-03

    Under the leadership of the Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells program, Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA) educated and worked with state leaders to encourage wider deployment of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Through outreach to state policymakers, legislative leaders, clean energy funds, energy agencies, and public utility commissions, CESA worked to accomplish the following objectives of this project: 1. Provide information and technical assistance to state policy leaders and state renewable energy programs in the development of effective hydrogen fuel cell programs. 2. Identify and foster hydrogen program best practices. 3. Identify and promote strategic opportunities for states and the Department of Energy (DOE) to advance hydrogen technology deployment through partnerships, collaboration, and targeted activities. Over the three years of this project, CESA, with our partner National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), was able to provide credible information on fuel cell policies, finance, and technical assistance to hundreds of state officials and other stakeholders. CESA worked with its membership network to effectively educate state clean energy policymakers, program managers, and decision makers about fuel cell and hydrogen technologies and the efforts by states to advance those technologies. With the assistance of NCSL, CESA gained access to an effective forum for outreach and communication with state legislators from all 50 states on hydrogen issues and policies. This project worked to educate policymakers and stakeholders with the potential to develop and deploy stationary and portable fuel cell technologies.

  9. Wind-To-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.

    2008-12-01

    This study is being performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy and Xcel Energy's Wind-to-Hydrogen Project (Wind2H2) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The general aim of the project is to identify areas for improving the production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources. These areas include both technical development and cost analysis of systems that convert renewable energy to hydrogen via water electrolysis. Increased efficiency and reduced cost will bring about greater market penetration for hydrogen production and application. There are different issues for isolated versus grid-connected systems, however, and these issues must be considered. The manner in which hydrogen production is integrated in the larger energy system will determine its cost feasibility and energy efficiency.

  10. WEB-BASED RESOURCES ENHANCE HYDROGEN SAFETY KNOWLEDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Blake, Chad; Aceves, Salvador; Somerday, Brian P.; Ruiz, Antonio

    2013-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Program addresses key technical challenges and institutional barriers facing the development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies with the goal of decreasing dependence on oil, reducing carbon emissions and enabling reliable power generation. The Safety, Codes & Standards program area seeks to develop and implement the practices and procedures that will ensure safety in the operation, handling and use of hydrogen and hydrogen systems for all projects and utilize these practices and lessons learned to promote the safe use of hydrogen. Enabling the development of codes and standards for the safe use of hydrogen in energy applications and facilitating the development and harmonization of international codes and standards are integral to this work.

  11. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  12. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  13. Hydrogen interactions with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Harkins, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Review of the literature on the nature and extent of hydrogen interactions with metals and the role of hydrogen in metal failure. The classification of hydrogen-containing systems is discussed, including such categories as covalent hydrides, volatile hydrides, polymeric hydrides, and transition metal hydride complexes. The use of electronegativity as a correlating parameter in determining hydride type is evaluated. A detailed study is made of the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen systems, touching upon such aspects as hydrogen solubility, the positions occupied by hydrogen atoms within the solvent metal lattice, the derivation of thermodynamic functions of solid solutions from solubility data, and the construction of statistical models for hydrogen-metal solutions. A number of theories of hydrogen-metal bonding are reviewed, including the rigid-band model, the screened-proton model, and an approach employing the augmented plane wave method to solve the one-electron energy band problem. Finally, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is investigated on the basis of literature data concerning stress effects and the kinetics of hydrogen transport to critical sites.

  14. Utilization of extremozymes for the bioconversion of renewable sugar to molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Danson, M.; Hough, D.; Ward, N.

    1997-12-31

    We have recently demonstrated the technical feasibility of the bioconversion of glucose and cellulose to molecular hydrogen using two extremozymes glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and hydrogenase. The utilization of compatible extremozymes is important to obtain the fastest rates of hydrogen production possible. The rate limiting step in the conversion of hydrogen appears to be the rate at which insoluble cellulose is enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase since the rate of hydrogen production from soluble starch, hydrolyzed by glucoamylase, was similar to that obtained with glucose at the substrate. Xylose is also a substrate for the GDH used (from Thermoplasma acidophilum expressed in E coli) suggesting that the hemicellulose component of biomass can also be transformed to hydrogen. Current to hydrogen experimentation includes the use of cellulases from extremophiles for the bioconversion of cellulosic substrates to hydrogen and the utilization of enzymatic pathways for obtaining the maximum yield of hydrogen/mol of substrate.

  15. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use

    2004-08-31

    The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

  16. Proceedings of the DOE chemical/hydrogen energy contractor review systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Chemical/hydrogen energy system contracts were reviewed. The review served as an effective means to (1) give all contracts an insight into the background and objectives of thirty-nine hydrogen-related tasks, (2) show the status of the studies or technical effort, (3) relate any problems that had impeded the progress, and (4) state projected solutions for resolving the identified problems.

  17. Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide. A Safe Molar Volume-Molar Mass Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedenbaugh, John H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a molar volume-molar mass experiment for use in general chemistry laboratories. Gives background technical information, procedures for the titration of aqueous hydrogen peroxide with standard potassium permanganate and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce oxygen, and a discussion of the results obtained in three…

  18. Proceedings of the 1994 DOE/NREL Hydrogen Program Review, April 18--21, 1994, Livermore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted programs of research and development in hydrogen and related technologies since 1975. The current program, conducted in accordance with the DOE Hydrogen Program Plan FY 1993--FY 1997 published in June 1992, establishes program priorities and guidance for allocating funding. The core program, currently under the Office of Energy Management, supports projects in the areas of hydrogen production, storage, and systems research. At an annual program review, each research project is evaluated by a panel of technical experts for technical quality, progress, and programmatic benefit. This Proceedings of the April 1994 Hydrogen Program Review compiles all research projects supported by the Hydrogen Program during FY 1994. For those people interested in the status of hydrogen technologies, we hope that the Proceedings will serve as a useful technical reference. Individual reports are processed separately.

  19. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  20. IGCC power plant integrated to a Finnish pulp and paper mill: IEA bioenergy techno-economic analysis activity. Research notes

    SciTech Connect

    Koljonen, T.; Solantausta, Y.; Salo, K.; Horvath, A.

    1999-02-01

    This site-specific study describes the technical and economic feasibility of a biomass gasification combined cycle producing heat and power for a typical Finish pulp and paper mill. The aim is to replace an old bark boiler by an IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) to enhance the economy and environmental performance of the power plant. The IGCC feasibility study is conducted for a pulp and paper industrial plant because of its suitable infrastructure for IGCC and a large amount of wood waste available at the site. For comparison, the feasibility of an IGCC integrated to a pulp mill is also assessed. The operation and design of the IGCC concept is based on a 20 MW(e) gas turbine (MW151). The heat of gas turbine exhaust gas is utilized in a HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) of two pressure levels to generate steam for the pulp and paper mill and the steam turbine. The IGCC power plant operates in condensing mode. The techno-economic assessment of the biomass IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill or a pulp mill indicated that the IGCC will be competitive compared to the conventional bark boiler steam cycle. The IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill was slightly more economical than the IGCC pulp mill integration.

  1. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  2. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by introducing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel in the form of a spray into a partial oxidation region and mixing with a mixture of steam and air that is preheated by indirect heat exchange with the formed hydrogen rich gas, igniting the hydrocarbon fuel spray mixed with the preheated mixture of steam and air within the partial oxidation region to form a hydrogen rich gas.

  3. HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, R.W.

    1958-08-12

    The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

  4. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  5. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the

  6. Proceedings of the 1993 DOE/NREL Hydrogen Program Review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted programs of research and development in hydrogen and related technologies since 1975. The current program is conducted in accordance with the DOE Hydrogen Program Plan FY 1993--FY 1997 which was published in June 1992. The plan establishes program priorities and guidance for the allocation of funding. The core program. currently under the Office of Energy Management, supports projects in the areas of hydrogen production, storage and systems research. A program review is held annually to evaluate each research project for technical quality, progress and programmatic benefit. The evaluation is conducted by a panel of technical experts. This proceedings of the Program Review conducted in May 1993 is a compilation of all research projects supported by the Hydrogen Program during FY 1993. It is produced in the anticipation that will serve as a useful technical reference for those interested in the status of hydrogen technologies. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Hydrogen energy creeps forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, G.

    1983-05-01

    There have been hopeful forecasts of a 21st centry 'hydrogen economy' in which cheap hydrogen fuel would finally end mankind's dependence on petroleum fuels. The present investigation is concerned with developments related to the possible realization of such forecasts. One vital factor involves the feasibility to provide hydrogen at competitive prices for use as a fuel. Industrial hydrogen is too expensive for applications involving a competition with currently used common fuels. A number of investigations are being conducted in the U.S. and in other countries with the aim to develop an economical process by which hydrogen can be obtained from water. There exist already a great number of feasible different approaches for obtaining hydrogen on the basis of the decomposition of the water molecule. However, problems still to be solved are related to the development of any of these approaches to the point of economic viability. Another crucial factor concerns the strorage of hydrogen. Automakers are testing hydrogen-powered cars in which hydrogen is stored in liquid form or with the aid of metal hydrides.

  8. HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. McCollor; John P. Kay

    1999-08-01

    A likely membrane for future testing of high-temperature hydrogen separation from a gasification product stream was targeted as an inorganic analog of a dense-metal membrane, where the hydrogen would dissolve into and diffuse through the membrane structure. An amorphous membrane such as zinc sulfide appeared to be promising. Previously, ZnS film coating tests had been performed using an electron-beam vacuum coating instrument, with zinc films successfully applied to glass substrates. The coatings appeared relatively stable in air and in a simple simulated gasification atmosphere at elevated temperature. Because the electron-beam coating instrument suffered irreparable breakdown, several alternative methods were tested in an effort to produce a nitrogen-impermeable, hydrogen-permeable membrane on porous sintered steel substrates. None of the preparation methods proved successful in sealing the porous substrate against nitrogen gas. To provide a nitrogen-impermeable ZnS material to test for hydrogen permeability, two ZnS infrared sample windows were purchased. These relatively thick ''membranes'' did not show measurable permeation of hydrogen, either due to lack of absorption or a negligible permeation rate due to their thickness. To determine if hydrogen was indeed adsorbed, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses tests were performed on samples of ZnS powder. A significant uptake of hydrogen gas occurred, corresponding to a maximum of 1 mole H{sub 2} per 1 mole ZnS at a temperature of 175 C. The hydrogen remained in the material at ambient temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere, but approximately 50% would be removed in argon. Reheating in a hydrogen atmosphere resulted in no additional hydrogen uptake. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the hydrogen uptake was probably due to the formation of a zinc-sulfur-hydrogen species resulting in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The zinc sulfide was found to be unstable above approximately 200 C

  9. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Deb, Satyen K.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing.

  10. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

    1990-10-02

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

  11. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  12. Sustainable hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  13. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost models assume a natural gas cost of $5/MMBtu (HHV). Praxair has, in Phases I and II of this program, shown that significant improvements in cost, plant layout, system integration and overall system optimization are achievable. Phase III of the program, submitted in January 2007, was to focus on demonstrating both the technical feasibility and economic viability of the design developed in Phases I and II through a full-scale prototype design, construction, installation, analysis and operation at a hydrogen fueling station. Due to funding limitations, Phase III of the program was not approved by the DOE.

  14. Hydrogen systems analysis, education, and outreach. Annual report, August 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Klareich, F.H.

    1997-11-01

    The set of activities performed by SENTECH, Inc. addressed the specific recommendations provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) by its advisors, including the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel and the review panel members of the DOE Annual Hydrogen Program Review. SENTECH`s efforts were conducted under five tasks: Task 1: Technology and Process Analysis; Task 2: Hydrogen Information Development and Transfer; Task 3: Educational Products; Task 4: Systems Analysis; and Task 5: Life Cycle Costs. SENTECH activities were executed in two broad areas--analysis and technology transfer. The analytical tasks undertaken in FY97 were focused on two types of analysis--systems analysis and technical/economic assessments. These analytical activities benefit DOE by providing data that allow it to define the strategic goals of the hydrogen R and D program. By collecting analysis of the energy efficiency, environmental externality, and economic competitiveness factors of hydrogen energy systems, DOE is able to determine the potential impacts of these systems. The technical/economic assessments and process analyses looked at component technologies and their relative merits in different hydrogen energy system configurations. Together these analyses provide important information on factors affecting program direction. The technologies reported on within are hydrogen storage in carbon materials, hydrogen production methods, and electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems.

  15. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwel; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  16. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  17. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, Larry A.; Mead, Keith E.; Smith, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  18. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  19. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  20. Lost carbon emissions: The role of non-manufacturing 'other industries' and refining in industrial energy use and carbon emissions in IEA countries

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee; Unander, Fridtjof; Karbuz, Sohbet; Khrushch, Marta

    2000-05-01

    We present a review of trends in energy use and output in branches of industry not often studied in detail: petroleum refining and what we call the other industries--agriculture, mining, and construction. From a sample of IEA countries we analyze eight with the most complete data from the early 1970s to the mid-1990s. We carry out a decomposition analysis of changes in energy use and carbon emissions in the ''other industries'' sector. We also review briefly the impact of including refining in the evolution of manufacturing energy use, usually studied without refining. Despite many data problems, we present our results as a way of enticing others to study these important ''lost'' sectors more carefully. We have five basic findings. First, ''other industries'' tends to be a minor consumer of energy in many countries, but in some, particularly Denmark, the US, and Australia, mining or agriculture can be a major sector too large to be overlooked. Second, refining is an extremely energy intensive industry which despite a relatively low share of value added consumes as much as 20 percent of final energy use in manufacturing. Third, as a result of a slower decline in the carbon-intensity of these industries vis-a-vis the manufacturing industries, their share of industrial emissions has been rising. Fourth, for other industries variation in per capita output plays a relatively small role in differentiating per capita carbon emissions compared to the impact of subsectoral energy intensities. Finally, including this energy in CO2 calculations has little impact on overall trends, but does change the magnitude of emissions in most countries significantly. Clearly, these industries provide important opportunities for searching for carbon emissions reductions.

  1. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOEpatents

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  2. Hydrogenated graphene and hydrogenated silicene: computational insights.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Phong, Pham Nam; Tuyen, Nguyen Duc

    2015-06-01

    Density functional calculations are performed to study the energetic, structural, and electronic properties of graphene and silicene functionalized with hydrogen. Our calculations predict that H atoms bind much more strongly to silicene than to graphene. The adsorbed H atoms tend to cooperatively stabilize each other leading to a two-dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism. The different structural and electronic modifications induced by H in fully functionalized graphene and silicene (known as graphane and silicane) are also explained. Finally, the electronic properties of defective graphane with multiple hydrogen vacancies are investigated. Engineering the vacancies in graphane offers a way to modify the electronic properties of this material.

  3. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  4. Hydrogen and the materials of a sustainable energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Zalbowitz, M.

    1997-02-01

    The National Educator`s Workshop (NEW): Update 96 was held October 27--30, 1996, and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This was the 11th annual conference aimed at improving the teaching of material science, engineering and technology by updating educators and providing laboratory experiments on emerging technology for teaching fundamental and newly evolving materials concepts. The Hydrogen Education Outreach Activity at Los Alamos National Laboratory organized a special conference theme: Hydrogen and the Materials of a Sustainable Energy Future. The hydrogen component of the NEW:Update 96 offered the opportunity for educators to have direct communication with scientists in laboratory settings, develop mentor relationship with laboratory staff, and bring leading edge materials/technologies into the classroom to upgrade educational curricula. Lack of public education and understanding about hydrogen is a major barrier for initial implementation of hydrogen energy technologies and is an important prerequisite for acceptance of hydrogen outside the scientific/technical research communities. The following materials contain the papers and view graphs from the conference presentations. In addition, supplemental reference articles are also included: a general overview of hydrogen and an article on handling hydrogen safely. A resource list containing a curriculum outline, bibliography, Internet resources, and a list of periodicals often publishing relevant research articles can be found in the last section.

  5. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Peercy, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH/sub 1/) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon.

  6. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  7. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  8. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  9. Towards a Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Sherif, S.A.; Barbir, Frano; Veziroglu, T.N.

    2005-07-01

    From electrolysis and thermolysis to production from biomass, hydrogen production methods are falling into place. So is storage, via all modes of gaseous, liquid, slush, and metal hydride systems. But proponents need to address the perception that hydrogen poses a severe safety risk, since the evidence suggests its risks are of the same order of magnitude as gasoline or natural gas.

  10. Toward a Technical Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malassis, Louis

    1977-01-01

    Examines the relationship between education and development in developing nations. Advocates the fostering of a technical humanism--the development of knowledge in all its forms as a basis for action. In this system, technical education is as highly valued as general education. The system, and its applications to rural education is discussed. (CP)

  11. Technical Training for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverland, Edgar M.

    The question has arisen as to what kind of information a manager without extensive technical training needs to learn to supervise effectively. For example, the Nike Hercules fire control platoon leader, usually an officer in his first active duty assignment, seldom has had extensive technical training. Yet he is responsibile for the…

  12. Technical Manual. The ACT®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    This manual contains technical information about the ACT® college readiness assessment. The principal purpose of this manual is to document the technical characteristics of the ACT in light of its intended purposes. ACT regularly conducts research as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of its programs. The research is intended to ensure that…

  13. Technical and Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This issue focuses on the various forms that secondary technical and vocational education takes in different European Community Member States. "The Future for Skilled Workers" is an interview with Burkart Lutz, a German researcher. Other articles are as follows: "Contradictions in Technical and Vocational Education: The Outlook" (Paolo Garonna);…

  14. Focus on Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Noting that technical writing is becoming an increasingly important element in the college curriculum, this journal issue presents eight articles that provide information for use by technical writing instructors. The first article surveys resources and strategies currently available, while the second article reflects upon some of the adjustments…

  15. Three Technical Word Processors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudeck, Robert; McGuire, Dennis P.

    1987-01-01

    Three technical word processing systems for microcomputers are reviewed. Tech/Print, a basic addition to Word Star, is easy to use and adequate for simple or low volume mathematics. Math Text is very good, but not well suited for heavy text processing. T3, the most expensive, is excellent for both standard and technical text. (JAZ)

  16. Research in Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLennan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to list and demonstrate areas in which research needs to be carried out, or questions answered, in order to raise the quality of technical education. Design/methodology/approach: The area of technical education expanded very rapidly in the late 1950s, and there was little comprehensive knowledge regarding the…

  17. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  18. Scientific and Technical English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaclavik, Jaroslav

    Technical English differs from everyday English because of the specialized contexts in which it is used and because of the specialized interests of scientists and engineers. This text provides exercises in technical and scientific exposition in the following fields: mathematics, physics, temperature effects, mechanics, dynamics, conservation of…

  19. Technical Mathematics: Restructure of Technical Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Carol A.

    Designed to accompany a series of videotapes, this textbook provides information, examples, problems, and solutions relating to mathematics and its applications in technical fields. Chapter I deals with basic arithmetic, providing information on fractions, decimals, ratios, proportions, percentages, and order of operations. Chapter II focuses on…

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2007-01-01

    A relatively simple and economical process and apparatus for concentrating hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution at the point of use have been invented. The heart of the apparatus is a vessel comprising an outer shell containing tubular membranes made of a polymer that is significantly more permeable by water than by hydrogen peroxide. The aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide to be concentrated is fed through the interstitial spaces between the tubular membranes. An initially dry sweep gas is pumped through the interiors of the tubular membranes. Water diffuses through the membranes and is carried away as water vapor mixed into the sweep gas. Because of the removal of water, the hydrogen peroxide solution flowing from the vessel at the outlet end is more concentrated than that fed into the vessel at the inlet end. The sweep gas can be air, nitrogen, or any other gas that can be conveniently supplied in dry form and does not react chemically with hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Atomic hydrogen rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Flurchick, K.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket using atomic hydrogen propellant is discussed. An essential feature of the proposed engine is that the atomic hydrogen fuel is used as it is produced, thus eliminating the necessity of storage. The atomic hydrogen flows into a combustion chamber and recombines, producing high velocity molecular hydrogen which flows out an exhaust port. Standard thermodynamics, kinetic theory and wall recombination cross-sections are used to predict a thrust of approximately 1.4 N for a RF hydrogen flow rate of 4 x 10 to the 22nd/sec. Specific impulses are nominally from 1000 to 2000 sec. It is predicted that thrusts on the order of one Newton and specific impulses of up to 2200 sec are attainable with nominal RF discharge fluxes on the order of 10 to the 22nd atoms/sec; further refinements will probably not alter these predictions by more than a factor of two.

  2. Biological hydrogen production: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Sool; Vermaas, Wim F J; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogen gas provides exceptional value as an energy carrier and industrial feedstock, but currently is produced entirely by reforming fossil fuels. Biological hydrogen production (BioH(2)), which offers the possibility of being renewable and carbon neutral, can be achieved by photosynthesis, fermentation, and microbial electrolysis cells. This review introduces the principles, advantages and challenges of each approach to BioH(2). Photosynthetic BioH(2) is the ultimate renewable source, since it directly uses inexhaustible resources: sunlight energy and electrons from H(2)O. However, it presents major technical challenges, particularly due to oxygen sensitivity. Fermentative BioH(2) offers a high production rate, but poor conversion efficiency from the organic substrate to H(2). The microbial electrolysis cell can achieve high conversion efficiency, but is an emerging technology.

  3. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November...

  4. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItÆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  5. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  6. Measuring Hydrogen Concentrations in Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial corrosion-measurement system adapted to electrochemical determination of hydrogen concentrations in metals. New technique based on diffusion of hydrogen through foil specimen of metal. In sample holder, hydrogen produced on one side of foil, either by corrosion reaction or by cathodic current. Hydrogen diffused through foil removed on other side by constant anode potential, which leads to oxidation of hydrogen to water. Anode current is measure of concentration of hydrogen diffusing through foil. System used to study hydrogen uptake, hydrogen elimination by baking, effect of heat treatment, and effect of electroplating on high-strength steels.

  7. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E.

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  8. Diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in a cast gamma titanium aluminide

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, P.A.; Wessel, E.; Ennis, P.J.; Quadakkers, W.J.; Singheiser, L.

    1999-06-04

    Gamma titanium aluminides have the potential for high temperature applications because of their high specific strength and specific modulus. Their oxidation resistance is good, especially at intermediate temperatures and with suitable alloying additions, good oxidation resistance can be obtained up to 800 C. One critical area of application is in combustion engines in aero-space vehicles such as hypersonic airplanes and high speed civil transport airplanes. This entails the use of hydrogen as a fuel component and hence the effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of gamma titanium aluminides is of significant scientific and technological utility. The purpose of this short investigation is to use an electrochemical method under galvanostatic conditions to determine the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in a cast gamma titanium aluminide, a typical technical alloy with potential application in gas turbines under creep conditions. This result will be then compared with that obtained by microhardness profiling of electrolytically hydrogen precharged material.

  9. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Aldridge, F.T.

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu/sub 5/ type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo/sub 4/ and CaNi/sub 5/, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen cn produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  10. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Aldridge, Frederick T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  11. Extremely weak hydrogen flames

    SciTech Connect

    Lecoustre, V.R.; Sunderland, P.B.; Chao, B.H.; Axelbaum, R.L.

    2010-11-15

    Hydrogen jet diffusion flames were observed near their quenching limits. These involved downward laminar flow of hydrogen from a stainless steel hypodermic tube with an inside diameter of 0.15 mm. Near their quenching limits these flames had hydrogen flow rates of 3.9 and 2.1 {mu}g/s in air and oxygen, respectively. Assuming complete combustion, the associated heat release rates are 0.46 and 0.25 W. To the authors' knowledge, these are the weakest self-sustaining steady flames ever observed. (author)

  12. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  13. Biological hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  14. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  15. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2013-11-06

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  16. Biological reformation of ethanol to hydrogen by Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Ghosh, Dipankar; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    A future hydrogen economy requires the sustainable production of renewable hydrogen. One method to produce hydrogen from stored renewable energy could be through reformation of bioethanol. However, chemically catalyzed reformation processes, although well studied, still present a number of significant technical challenges. Here, bioreformation of ethanol to hydrogen by photofermentation with the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris is described. Cultures were shown to tolerate up to 2% ethanol. An RSM (response surface methodology) was carried out in which three key factors, light intensity, and ethanol and glutamate concentrations were varied. The results showed that nearly 2mol of H2 could be obtained from one mole of ethanol, 33% of that theoretically possible.

  17. Summary and Findings from the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop (June 8, 2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.; Post, M.; Rivkin, C.

    2012-07-01

    On June 8, 2011, DOE/NREL hosted a hydrogen sensor workshop attended by nearly forty participants from private organizations, government facilities, and academic institutions . The workshop participants represented a cross section of stakeholders in the hydrogen community, including sensor developers, end users, site safety officials, and code and standards developers. The goals of the workshop were to identify critical applications for the emerging hydrogen infrastructure that require or would benefit from hydrogen sensors, to assign performance specifications for sensor deployed in each application, and to identify shortcomings or deficiencies (i.e., technical gaps) in the ability of current sensor technology to meet the assigned performance requirements.

  18. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  19. TADS and Technical Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trohanis, Pascal L.

    1983-01-01

    Accomplishments of the Technical Assistance Development System (TADS) are cited, current challenges (including program development, and communication and coordination) are noted, and the mission mandated for TADS is outlined. (CL)

  20. Technical Institute Stresses Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At the Waukesha County Technical Institute in Wisconsin students benefit from individualized instruction and open entry/open exit system. The key to this flexibility is a series of audio-visual modules to support lecture presentations and demonstrations. (HD)

  1. Remote hydrogen sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate remote hydrogen sensing methodologies utilizing metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOS-FET) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies and combinations thereof.

  2. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.; Sanchez, R.; Dulleck, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report covers the development of fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensors for monitoring dissolved hydrogen gas in transformer oil. The concentration of hydrogen gas is a measure of the corona and spark discharge within the transformer and reflects the state of health of the transformer. Key features of the instrument include use of palladium alloys to enhance hydrogen sensitivity, a microprocessor controlled instrument with RS-232, liquid crystal readout, and 4-20 ma. current loop interfaces. Calibration data for both sensors can be down loaded to the instrument through the RS-232 interface. This project was supported by the Technology Transfer Initiative in collaboration with J. W. Harley, Inc. through the mechanism of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA).

  3. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  4. Hydrogen-fueled engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laumann, E. A.; Reynolds, R. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen fueled internal combustion engine is described, which utilizes an inert gas, such as argon, as a working fluid to increase the efficiency of the engine, eliminate pollution, and facilitate operation of a closed cycle energy system. In a system where sunlight or other intermittent energy source is available to separate hydrogen and oxygen from water, the oxygen and inert gas are taken into a diesel engine into which hydrogen is injected and ignited. The exhaust is cooled so that it contains only water and the inert gas. The inert gas in the exhaust is returned to the engine for use with fresh oxygen, while the water in the exhaust is returned to the intermittent energy source for reconversion to hydrogen and oxygen.

  5. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A.

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  6. Hydrogen chloride test set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Detector uses tertiary amine, which makes reaction fairly specific for relatively small highly polarized hydrogen chloride molecule. Reaction is monitored by any microbalance capable of measuring extremely small mass differences in real time.

  7. Hydrogen storage compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  8. Preparation of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, W.F.

    1984-07-31

    Hydrogen peroxide is produced in a reaction between carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water in the presence of a solvent using a Group 8 noble metal as a catalyst. Especially preferred as the working solution is palladium chloride in acetone.

  9. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  10. Hydrogen moderator performance calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Picton, D. J.; Beynon, T. D.; Broome, T. A.

    1997-09-01

    A comparison was made between MCNP calculations and experimental measurements of the neutron spectrum from the liquid hydrogen moderator on ISIS. The calculations were performed for varying ortho/para concentrations, and demonstrated a best fit for 100% para-hydrogen. The agreement between the measured and calculated results was good below 2Å (i.e. for energies above 20 meV) but significant deviations were seen for longer wavelengths. A second study used the MCNP code for a detailed comparison of the time distributions and neutron spectra from poisoned liquid hydrogen and liquid methane moderators. The results indicate that the replacement of a liquid methane moderator with liquid hydrogen, in order to eliminate radiation damage effects, is an option which can be seriously considered. (auth)

  11. The hydrogen issue.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  12. The hydrogen issue.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  13. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  14. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  15. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  16. Hydrogen-powered flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.

    2005-01-01

    As the Nation moves towards a hydrogen economy the shape of aviation will change dramatically. To accommodate a switch to hydrogen the aircraft designs, propulsion, and power systems will look much different than the systems of today. Hydrogen will enable a number of new aircraft capabilities from high altitude long endurance remotely operated aircraft (HALE ROA) that will fly weeks to months without refueling to clean, zero emissions transport aircraft. Design and development of new hydrogen powered aircraft have a number of challenges which must be addressed before an operational system can become a reality. While the switch to hydrogen will be most outwardly noticeable in the aircraft designs of the future, other significant changes will be occurring in the environment. A switch to hydrogen for aircraft will completely eliminate harmful greenhouse gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SOx), unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke. While these aircraft emissions are a small percentage of the amount produced on a daily basis, their placement in the upper atmosphere make them particularly harmful. Another troublesome gaseous emission from aircraft is nitrogen oxides (NOx) which contribute to ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere. Nitrogen oxide emissions are produced during the combustion process and are primarily a function of combustion temperature and residence time. The introduction of hydrogen to a gas turbine propulsion system will not eliminate NOx emissions; however the wide flammability range will make low NOx producing, lean burning systems feasible. A revolutionary approach to completely eliminating NOx would be to fly all electric aircraft powered by hydrogen air fuel cells. The fuel cells systems would only produce water, which could be captured on board or released in the lower altitudes. Currently fuel cell systems do not have sufficient energy densities for use in large aircraft, but the long term potential of eliminating

  17. Lokiarchaeon is hydrogen dependent.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Filipa L; Neukirchen, Sinje; Allen, John F; Lane, Nick; Martin, William F

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the host that acquired the mitochondrion at the eukaryote origin is an important microbial evolutionary issue. Modern phylogenetics indicates that the host was an archaeon. The metagenome sequence of Candidatus Lokiarchaeon has identified it as being the closest relative of the host yet known. Here, we report comparative genomic evidence indicating that Lokiarchaeon is hydrogen dependent, as one theory for the eukaryote origin-the hydrogen hypothesis-predicts for the host lineage. PMID:27572645

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K.

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  20. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  1. Research opportunities in photochemical sciences for the DOE Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    Padro, C.E.G.

    1996-09-01

    For several decades, interest in hydrogen has ebbed and flowed. With the OPEC oil embargo of the 1970`s and the promise of inexpensive nuclear power, hydrogen research focused on fuel applications. The economics and the realities of nuclear power shifted the emphasis to hydrogen as an energy carrier. Environmental benefits took center stage as scientists and politicians agreed on the potential threat of carbon dioxide emissions to global climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies manages the National Hydrogen Program. In this role, the DOE provides national leadership and acts as a catalyst through partnerships with industry. These partnerships are needed to assist in the transition of sustainable hydrogen systems from a government-supported research and development phase to commercial successes in the marketplace. The outcome of the Program is expected to be the orderly phase-out of fossil fuels as a result of market-driven technology advances, with a least-cost, environmentally benign energy delivery system. The program seeks to maintain its balance of high-risk, long-term research in renewable based technologies that address the environmental benefits, with nearer-term, fossil based technologies that address infrastructure and market issues. National laboratories, universities, and industry are encouraged to participate, cooperate, and collaborate in the program. The U.S. Hydrogen Program is poised to overcome the technical and economic challenges that currently limit the impact of hydrogen on our energy picture, through cooperative research, development, and demonstrations.

  2. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  3. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  5. Radiolytic Bubble Gas Hydrogen Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, J.R.

    2003-02-05

    Radioactive waste solids can trap bubbles containing hydrogen that may pose a flammability risk if they are disturbed and hydrogen is released. Whether a release is a problem or not depends, among other things, on the hydrogen composition of the gas. This report develops a method for estimating the hydrogen composition of trapped bubbles based on waste properties.

  6. Radiolytic Bubble Gas Hydrogen Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, J.R.

    2001-08-28

    Radioactive waste solids can trap bubbles containing hydrogen that may pose a flammability risk if they are disturbed and hydrogen is released. Whether a release is a problem or not depends, among other things, on the hydrogen composition of the gas. This report develops a method for estimating the hydrogen composition of trapped bubbles based on waste properties.

  7. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  8. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F; Weisberg, A H; Myers, B

    2000-07-22

    Lightweight hydrogen storage for vehicles is enabled by adopting and adapting aerospace tankage technology. The weight, volume, and cost are already acceptable and improving. Prototype tankage was demonstrated with 11.3% hydrogen by weight, 1.74 million inch (44.3 km) burst performance factor (P{sub b}V/W), and 3.77 kWh/kg specific energy for the tank and hydrogen (LHV). DOE cannot afford full scale aerospace development costs. For example, it costs many tens of $M to develop a rocket motor casing with a safety factor (SF) of 1.25. Large teams of experts are required to design, develop, and test new processes. Car companies are buying existing technology with only modest investments in research and development (R&D). The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) team is maximizing the leverage from DOE funding by joining with industry to solve technical risks at the component level. LLNL is developing fabrication processes with IMPCO Technologies, Thiokol Propulsion, and Aero Tec Laboratories (ATL). LLNL is creating commercial products that are close to adoption under DOE solicitation. LLNL is breaking ground to achieve greater than 10% hydrogen by weight tankage with safety that exceeds the requirements of NGV2 standards modified for hydrogen. Risk reduction is proceeding along three axes: (1) Commercializable products will be available next year with {approx}90% confidence; (2) R&D progress is pushing the envelope in lightweight tankage for vehicles; and (3) Integration challenges are being met with partners in industry and DOE demo programs. This project is a key part of LLNL's effort to develop high cycle life energy storage systems with >600 Wh/kg specific energy for various applications, including: high altitude long endurance solar rechargeable aircraft, zero emission vehicles, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems for spacecraft, energy storage for premium power, remote power sources, and peak shaving.

  9. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  10. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  11. The U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and Opinions about Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Christy; Truett, Lorena Faith; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    Data were collected in surveys of four component populations. The purpose was to serve as a reference for designing a hydrogen education program and as a baseline for measuring changes in understanding and awareness over time. Comparisons of the baseline data with future results will be made when the survey is fielded again (2008 and 2011). The methodology was successful in measuring knowledge levels and opinions of the target populations. Because the survey instruments were very similar, comparisons could be made among the target populations. These comparisons showed wide differences in knowledge levels between the government agencies and the other populations. General public, students, and potential large scale end user respondents had a general lack of knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. There was a correlation between technical knowledge of hydrogen fuel cell technologies and opinions about the safe use of hydrogen. Respondents who demonstrated a greater understanding of the concepts of a hydrogen economy and hydrogen fuel cell technology expressed less fear about the safe use of hydrogen.

  12. High-Performance Palladium Based Membrane for Hydrogen Separation and Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Scott

    2012-01-31

    The mission of the DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies'Hydrogen Fuels R&D effort is to research, develop, and validate technologies for producing, storing, and delivering hydrogen in an efficient, clean, safe, reliable, and affordable manner. A key program technical milestone for hydrogen technology readiness is to produce hydrogen from diverse, domestic resources at $2.00-$3.00 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) delivered, untaxed. Low-cost, high-temperature hydrogen separation membranes represent a key enabling technology for small-scale distributed hydrogen production units. Availability of such membranes with high selectivity and high permeability for hydrogen will allow their integration with hydrocarbon reforming and water gas shift reactions, potentially reducing the cost of hydrogen produced. Pd-metal-based dense membranes are known for their excellent hydrogen selectivity and permeability characteristics, however, utilization of these membranes has so far been limited to small scale niche markets for hydrogen purification primarily due to the relatively high cost of Pd-alloy tubes compared to pressure swing adsorption (PSA) units. This project was aimed at development of thin-film Pd-alloy membranes deposited on Pall Corporation's DOE-based AccuSep® porous metal tube substrates to form a composite hydrogen separation membrane for these applications. Pall's composite membrane development addressed the typical limitations of composite structures by developing robust membranes capable of withstanding thermal and mechanical stresses resulting from high temperature (400C), high pressure (400 psi steam methane reformer and 1000 psi coal) operations and thermal cycling involved in conventional hydrogen production. In addition, the Pd-alloy membrane composition was optimized to be able to offer the most stability in the typical synthesis gas environments produced by reforming of natural gas and bio-derived liquid fuels (BILI) validating the technical

  13. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  14. The NASA hydrogen energy systems technology study: A summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laumann, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    The results and conclusions of the study, which found a significant current usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs and supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks are discussed. These needs are expected to increase significantly in the remainder of this century and to largely outgrow the current means of supply. Several hydrogen production methods were evaluated. Those not dependent on fossil resources were found to be presently more costly and technically more difficult than fossil-feedstock-based technologies, but it is clear that they will eventually need to be implemented.

  15. Hydrogen Fuel Cell on a Helicopter: A System Engineering Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesheiwat, Rod

    Hydrogen fuel cells have been previously investigated as a viable replacement to traditional gas turbine auxiliary power unit onboard fixed wing commercial jets. However, so far no study has attempted to extend their applicability to rotary wing aircrafts. To aid in the advancement of such innovative technologies, a holistic technical approach is required to ensure risk reduction and cost effectiveness throughout the product lifecycle. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of replacing a gas turbine auxiliary power unit on a helicopter with a direct hydrogen, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, all while emphasizing a system engineering approach that utilize a specialized set of tools and artifacts.

  16. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  17. 1980 Bibliography of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Virginia Alm; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Offers resources on technical writing that were published in 1980. Arranges the citations under 12 categories: bibliographies, books, reviews, and articles on theory and philosophy; pedagogy; writing technical articles and reports; research; technical writing and the computer; graphic/visual aids; correspondence; technical speech; and designing…

  18. Technical Report: Final

    SciTech Connect

    Lueking, Angela D.; Wang, Cheng-Yu

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this work was to develop catalyzed nanoporous materials that have superior hydrogen uptake between 300K and 400K and moderate pressures. Platinum nanoparticles were introduced to both activated carbons (ACs) and microporous metal organic frameworks (MMOFs) in order to dissociate molecular hydrogen into an active hydrogen species that diffuses from the catalyst to weakly chemisorbs to the AC/MMOF support; this combined sequence is referred to as the hydrogen spillover mechanism. For all materials studied, maximum excess hydrogen uptake was 1-1.4 wt% (excess) at 300K, falling short of DOE storage goals (5.5 wt% by 2015). Select Pt/AC materials (after in situ catalyst activation) had high uptake (up to 1.4 wt%) at low pressure which significantly exceeded that expected for physisorption. The uptake was not correlated to size of Pt catalyst, but appeared to be associated with high surface activity of the AC support and the methodology of catalyst doping. Multiple techniques were explored to introduce Pt nanoparticles into MMOFs, but most led to significant structural degradation. Ultimately, a ‘pre-bridge’ (PB) technique was used to introduce Pt/AC catalysts into MMOFs, as the PB technique led to virtually non-detectable changes in structure. At high pressure, hydrogen spillover of ~1 wt% (excess) to a PB-MMOF was very slow (i.e. >80 hours at 70-80 bar), which can be attributed to high diffusion barriers in a complex three-surface domain material (Pt, AC, MMOF) as well as unexpected evidence for mechanical instability of the undoped MMOF precursor. In a low-pressure comparison study of three PB-MMOFs, we found evidence that the doping technique may introduce defects which may contribute to enhanced adsorption at 300K. However, we could not rule out the effect of active Pt sites, as common predictors of adsorption generally favored the materials without Pt. Furthermore, spectroscopic evidence provided definitive evidence of weak hydrogen

  19. Technical Assistance to Developers

    SciTech Connect

    Rockward, Tommy; Borup, Rodney L.; Garzon, Fernando H.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Spernjak, Dusan

    2012-07-17

    This task supports the allowance of technical assistance to fuel-cell component and system developers as directed by the DOE. This task includes testing of novel materials and participation in the further development and validation of single cell test protocols. This task also covers technical assistance to DOE Working Groups, the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability (U.S. Drive) Fuel Cell Technology Team. Assistance includes technical validation of new fuel cell materials and methods, single cell fuel cell testing to support the development of targets and test protocols, and regular advisory participation in other working groups and reviews. This assistance is made available to PEM fuel cell developers by request and DOE Approval. The objectives are to: (1) Support technically, as directed by DOE, fuel cell component and system developers; (2) Assess fuel cell materials and components and give feedback to developers; (3) Assist the DOE Durability Working Group with the development of various new material durability Testing protocols; and (4) Provide support to the U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the USCAR/DOE Fuel Cell Technology Team. FY2012 specific technical objectives are: (1) Evaluate novel MPL materials; (2) Develop of startup/ shutdown protocol; (3) Test the impact of hydrophobic treatment on graphite bi-polar plates; (4) Perform complete diagnostics on metal bi-polar plates for corrosion; and (5) Participate and lead efforts in the DOE Working Groups.

  20. Safe Use of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This is a viewgraph presentation that is a course for teaching the safe use of hydrogen. The objectives of the course are 1. To familiarize the student with H2 safety properties 2. To enable the identification, evaluations and addressing of H2 system hazards 3. To teach: a. Safe practices for, b. Design, c. Materials selection, d. H2 system operation, e. Physical principles and empirical observations on which these safe practices are based, f. How to respond to emergency situations involving H2, g How to visualize safety concepts through in-class exercises, h. Identify numerous parameters important to H2 safety.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Watt, Barbara E; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidising agent that is used in a number of household products, including general-purpose disinfectants, chlorine-free bleaches, fabric stain removers, contact lens disinfectants and hair dyes, and it is a component of some tooth whitening products. In industry, the principal use of hydrogen peroxide is as a bleaching agent in the manufacture of paper and pulp. Hydrogen peroxide has been employed medicinally for wound irrigation and for the sterilisation of ophthalmic and endoscopic instruments. Hydrogen peroxide causes toxicity via three main mechanisms: corrosive damage, oxygen gas formation and lipid peroxidation. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide is caustic and exposure may result in local tissue damage. Ingestion of concentrated (>35%) hydrogen peroxide can also result in the generation of substantial volumes of oxygen. Where the amount of oxygen evolved exceeds its maximum solubility in blood, venous or arterial gas embolism may occur. The mechanism of CNS damage is thought to be arterial gas embolisation with subsequent brain infarction. Rapid generation of oxygen in closed body cavities can also cause mechanical distension and there is potential for the rupture of the hollow viscus secondary to oxygen liberation. In addition, intravascular foaming following absorption can seriously impede right ventricular output and produce complete loss of cardiac output. Hydrogen peroxide can also exert a direct cytotoxic effect via lipid peroxidation. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide may cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract with nausea, vomiting, haematemesis and foaming at the mouth; the foam may obstruct the respiratory tract or result in pulmonary aspiration. Painful gastric distension and belching may be caused by the liberation of large volumes of oxygen in the stomach. Blistering of the mucosae and oropharyngeal burns are common following ingestion of concentrated solutions, and laryngospasm and haemorrhagic gastritis have been

  2. Design of the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility as of March 1981: a technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor, which has been built as an extension to the National Coal Board Power Station, which is adjacent to Grimethorpe Colliery, Yorkshire, England, is described in this report. The Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, have agreed to share equally between them the costs of building and operating the plant. Control of the project was vested in an Executive Committee consisting of one representative of each Government with all decisions requiring unanimity. The actual operation of the project was vested in an Operating Agent, NCB (IEA Services) Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the National Coal Board. The Implementing Agreement envisages a seven year project to be executed in four stages: (1) Procurement of Design Study with accompanying tender documents. (2) Tendering for construction of the Plant; study of appraisal of tenders. (3) Construction and acceptance of the Plant. (4) Operation of the Plant. The project is now towards the end of Stage 3. Construction has been completed and commissioning is in progress to prepare the plant for the start of the operational phase in Autumn 1981. Because of the confidentiality of much of the design information, for the purposes of this report technical descriptions have been confined to that of a general appraisal.

  3. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  4. Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries - An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; ODonnell, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    This article on nickel-hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel-hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results, and trends. There is more than one nickel-hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV), Common Pressure Vessel (CPV), bipolar, and low-pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel-cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous Earth orbit applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000-10,000 cycles at 60 - 80 % DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep Depths of Discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low-cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume, and cost. A key is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A CPV nickel-hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume, and manufacturing costs. A 10-A-h CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short-lived Clementine spacecraft. A bipolar nickel -hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 % DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high-pulse power capability. A low-pressure aerospace nickel-metal-hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design that has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

  5. Reversible Chemochromic Hydrogen Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), affiliated with the University of Central Florida, has invented a reversible pigment that changes from light beige to blue when exposed to hydrogen and back to light beige when exposed to atmospheric oxygen. In laboratory and environmental studies, the FSEC pigment in its tape form failed to change color adequately when exposed to hydrogen after one day of exposure at Kennedy Space Center's Beach Corrosion Test Facility. The reversible hydrogen-detecting tape also lost its ability to change color after being placed in an environmental chamber at 45 C for one day. The first attempts at extruding the reversible pigment into various polymers were unsuccessful because of the pigment's poor thermal stability. The goal of this project was to formulate a pigment with improved thermal and environmental stability for extrusion into a variety of appropriate polymer matrices. The formulation of the reversible hydrogen-detecting pigment was modified by removing one reagent and chemically modifying the hydrogen sensitive ingredient. This was intended to improve the hydrophobicity of the pigment and alter the thermal degradation mechanism.

  6. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, Tim

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  7. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    W. David Swank

    2007-02-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant’s absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  8. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Swank, W. David; Carmack, Jon; Werner, James E.; Pink, Robert J.; Haggard, DeLon C.; Johnson, Ryan

    2007-01-30

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISP. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant's absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500 deg. C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test low activity uranium containing materials but is also suited for testing cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  9. Hydrogen-Selective Membrane

    DOEpatents

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  10. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOEpatents

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  11. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOEpatents

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  12. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOEpatents

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  13. Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

  14. Hydrogen Optical Fiber Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Robert A.; Beshay, Manal; Cordero, Steven R.

    2008-07-28

    Optically-based hydrogen sensors promise to deliver an added level of safety as hydrogen and fuel cell technologies enter the mainstream. More importantly, they offer reduced power consumption and lower cost, which are desirable for mass production applications such as automobiles and consumer appliances. This program addressed two of the major challenges previously identified in porous optrode-based optical hydrogen sensors: sensitivity to moisture (ambient humidity), and interference from the oxygen in air. Polymer coatings to inhibit moisture and oxygen were developed in conjunction with newer and novel hydrogen sensing chemistries. The results showed that it is possible to achieve sensitive hydrogen detection and rapid response with minimal interference from oxygen and humidity. As a result of this work, a new and more exciting avenue of investigation was developed: the elimination of the porous optrode and deposition of the sensor chemistry directly into the polymer film. Initial results have been promising, and open up a wider range of potential applications from extended optical fiber sensing networks, to simple plastic "stickers" for use around the home and office.

  15. Second Generation MOF's for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Matzger

    2008-05-31

    This final technical report summarizes work exploring strategies to generate second generation metal organic frameworks (MOFs). These strategies were (a) the formation of interpenetrated frameworks and (b) the generation of coordinatively unsaturated metal centers (open metal sites). In the first phase of the project the effectiveness of these strategies was evaluated experimentally by measuring the saturation hydrogen uptake at high pressure and low temperature of 14 MOFs. The results of these studies demonstrated that surface area is the most useful parameter that correlates with ultimate hydrogen capacity. The strategy of interpenetration has so far failed to produce MOFs with high surface areas and therefore high saturation capacities for hydrogen have not been achieved. The incorporation of coordinatively unsaturated metal centers, however, is a promising strategy that allows higher heats of H2 adsorption to be realized without compromising surface area. Based on these initial findings, research efforts in phase two have concentrated on the discovery of new ultrahigh surface area materials with metal centers capable of supporting coordinative unsaturation without structural collapse. One approach has been the synthesis of new organic linkers that have more exposed edges, which is a factor that contributes to increasing surface area, at least when considering subunits of graphene sheets. Another strategy has been to synthesize MOFs with reduced symmetry linkers in order to generate structure types that are less likely to interpenetrate. Successful implementation of these strategies has resulted in the synthesis of 7 new compounds one of which is the highest surface area Cu based MOF reported to date.

  16. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  17. Melaminium hydrogen malonate

    PubMed Central

    Froschauer, Barbara; Weil, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The melaminium (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium) cation in the title compound, C3H7N6 +·C3H3O4 −, is essentially planar, with a r.m.s. deviation of the non-H atoms of 0.0085 Å. Extensive hydrogen bonding of the types N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O between cations and cations and between cations and hydrogen malonate (2-carb­oxy­ethano­ate) anions leads to the formation of supra­molecular layers parallel to (1-2-1). An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the single deprotonated malonate anion also occurs. PMID:22904984

  18. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  19. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  20. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  1. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  2. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Rupe, J. H.; Kushida, R. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by injecting air and hydrocarbon fuel at one end of a cylindrically shaped chamber to form a mixture and igniting the mixture to provide hot combustion gases by partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon fuel. The combustion gases move away from the ignition region to another region where water is injected to be turned into steam by the hot combustion gases. The steam which is formed mixes with the hot gases to yield a uniform hot gas whereby a steam reforming reaction with the hydrocarbon fuel takes place to produce a hydrogen rich gas.

  3. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated through the use of concentrated hydrogen peroxide fed as a monopropellant into a catalyzed thruster assembly. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50%-70% by volume, and may be increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding decomposition in the thruster assembly. The exhaust of the thruster assembly, rich in hydroxyl and/or hydroperoxy radicals, may be fed into a stream containing oxidizable components, such as nitric oxide, to facilitate their oxidation.

  5. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  6. Reduced hydrogen cadmium plating

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeller, T.; Ross, L. ); Varma, R. ); Agarwala, V.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the advantages of using a periodic reverse pulse plating method, incorporating a fast cathodic pulse which is separated from the subsequent anodic/cathodic pulses by a long rest period in producing silvery cadmium coatings on steel from aqueous fluoroborate electrolyte. Also, the deposition obtained by combination of pulse currents and turbulent electrolyte flow system (forced convection of electrolyte, Re {approximately} 20-25,000) result in a near hydrogen-free electrodeposition of fine- grained cadmium. This is confirmed by the determination of diffusible hydrogen by the electrochemical (Barnach Electrode) method.

  7. NREL's Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The research and development taking place today at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is paving the way for nature's most plentiful element—hydrogen—to power the next generation. NREL researchers are working to unlock the potential of hydrogen and to advance the fuel cell technologies that will power the automobiles, equipment, and buildings of tomorrow. Hydrogen and fuel cells are a fundamental part of the broader portfolio of renewable technologies that are moving our nation toward its goals of energy independence and sustainability.

  8. Hydrogen environment embrittlement of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewett, R. P.; Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.; Frohmberg, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Hydrogen environment embrittlement refers to metals stressed while exposed to a hydrogen atmosphere. Tested in air, even after exposure to hydrogen under pressure, this effect is not observed on similar specimens. Much high purity hydrogen is prepared by evaporation of liquid hydrogen, and thus has low levels for potential impurities which could otherwise inhibit or poison the absorbent reactions that are involved. High strength steels and nickel-base allows are rated as showing extreme embrittlement; aluminum alloys and the austenitic stainless steels, as well as copper, have negligible susceptibility to this phenomenon. The cracking that occurs appears to be a surface phenomenon, is unlike that of internal hydrogen embrittlement.

  9. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.M.

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  10. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    DOEpatents

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  11. Characterizations of Hydrogen Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Energetics Inc

    2003-04-01

    In 1996, Dr. Ed Skolnik of Energetics, Incorporated, began a series of visits to the locations of various projects that were part of the DOE Hydrogen Program. The site visits/evaluations were initiated to help the DOE Program Management, which had limited time and limited travel budgets, to get a detailed snapshot of each project. The evaluations were soon found to have other uses as well: they provided reviewers on the annual Hydrogen Program Peer Review Team with an in-depth look at a project--something that is lacking in a short presentation--and also provided a means for hydrogen stakeholders to learn about the R&D that the Hydrogen Program is sponsoring. The visits were conducted under several different contract mechanisms, at project locations specified by DOE Headquarters Program Management, Golden Field Office Contract Managers, or Energetics, Inc., or through discussion by some or all of the above. The methodology for these site-visit-evaluations changed slightly over the years, but was fundamentally as follows: Contact the Principal Investigator (PI) and arrange a time for the visit; Conduct a literature review. This would include a review of the last two or three years of Annual Operating Plan submittals, monthly reports, the paper submitted with the last two or three Annual Peer Review, published reviewers' consensus comments from the past few years, publications in journals, and journal publications on the same or similar topics by other researchers; Send the PI a list of questions/topics about a week ahead of time, which we would discuss during the visit. The types of questions vary depending on the project, but include some detailed technical questions that delve into some fundamental scientific and engineering issues, and also include some economic and goal-oriented topics; Conduct the site-visit itself including--Presentations by the PI and/or his staff. This would be formal in some cases, informal in others, and merely a ''sit around the table

  12. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  13. Selective and mild hydrogen production using water and formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Heim, Leo E; Schlörer, Nils E; Choi, Jong-Hoo; Prechtl, Martin H G

    2014-04-08

    With the increased efforts in finding new energy storage systems for mobile and stationary applications, an intensively studied fuel molecule is dihydrogen owing to its energy content, and the possibility to store it in the form of hydridic and protic hydrogen, for example, in liquid organic hydrogen carriers. Here we show that water in the presence of paraformaldehyde or formaldehyde is suitable for molecular hydrogen storage, as these molecules form stable methanediol, which can be easily and selectively dehydrogenated forming hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In this system, both molecules are hydrogen sources, yielding a theoretical weight efficiency of 8.4% assuming one equivalent of water and one equivalent of formaldehyde. Thus it is potentially higher than formic acid (4.4 wt%), as even when technical aqueous formaldehyde (37 wt%) is used, the diluted methanediol solution has an efficiency of 5.0 wt%. The hydrogen can be efficiently generated in the presence of air using a ruthenium catalyst at low temperature.

  14. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

  15. Wind-To-Hydrogen Energy Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Rebenitsch; Randall Bush; Allen Boushee; Brad G. Stevens; Kirk D. Williams; Jeremy Woeste; Ronda Peters; Keith Bennett

    2009-04-24

    WIND-TO-HYDROGEN ENERGY PILOT PROJECT: BASIN ELECTRIC POWER COOPERATIVE In an effort to address the hurdles of wind-generated electricity (specifically wind's intermittency and transmission capacity limitations) and support development of electrolysis technology, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC) conducted a research project involving a wind-to-hydrogen system. Through this effort, BEPC, with the support of the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota, evaluated the feasibility of dynamically scheduling wind energy to power an electrolysis-based hydrogen production system. The goal of this project was to research the application of hydrogen production from wind energy, allowing for continued wind energy development in remote wind-rich areas and mitigating the necessity for electrical transmission expansion. Prior to expending significant funding on equipment and site development, a feasibility study was performed. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to provide BEPC and The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with sufficient information to make a determination whether or not to proceed with Phase II of the project, which was equipment procurement, installation, and operation. Four modes of operation were considered in the feasibility report to evaluate technical and economic merits. Mode 1 - scaled wind, Mode 2 - scaled wind with off-peak, Mode 3 - full wind, and Mode 4 - full wind with off-peak In summary, the feasibility report, completed on August 11, 2005, found that the proposed hydrogen production system would produce between 8000 and 20,000 kg of hydrogen annually depending on the mode of operation. This estimate was based on actual wind energy production from one of the North Dakota (ND) wind farms of which BEPC is the electrical off-taker. The cost of the hydrogen produced ranged from $20 to $10 per kg (depending on the mode of operation). The economic sensitivity analysis performed as part of the feasibility

  16. CATV Technical Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Complete technical papers of the 1977 National Cable Television Association Convention are included in this report. Twenty-two of 32 papers and two abstracts cover the topics of advanced cable television techniques, human reactions to television picture impairment, special displays and services, protection from theft of service, everyday…

  17. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  18. Education for Technical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbey, Maurice C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The 20 articles in this issue of Illinois Libraries were written by practicing technical services librarians, library educators, and former librarians now involved in commercial enterprise. The articles are: (1) "The Development of Library Education in Illinois" (Anne V. J. Wendler); (2) "Financial Management in Acquisitions: Things They Never…

  19. Teaching Technical Report Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pasquale, Joseph A.

    1977-01-01

    A high school electronics teacher describes the integration of technical report writing in the electronics program for trade and industrial students. He notes that the report writing rather than just recording data seemed to improve student laboratory experience but further improvements in the program are needed. A sample lab report is included.…

  20. Assessing Technical Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwaller, Anthony E.; Slipy, Dave

    1985-01-01

    Describes the results of a joint project of St. Cloud State University (Minnesota) and DeZURIK Corporation (a manufacturer and distributor of industrial valves) which developed and implemented a technical training needs questionnaire for use with the company's employees. Student involvement in the process is noted. (MBR)

  1. Special technical assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to perform various special analytical and experimental investigations to support the NRC in resolving regulatory research issues related to irradiation effects on materials. This task currently addresses two major areas: (1) providing technical expertise and assistance in the review of national codes and standards and (2) experimental evaluations of test specimens and practices and material properties.

  2. ICCS 2009 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram, Ed.; Ainley, John, Ed.; Fraillon, Julian, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This report is structured so as to provide technical detail about each aspect of International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS). The overview is followed by a series of chapters that provide detail about different aspects of ICCS. Chapters, 2, 3, 4, and 5 are concerned with the instruments. Chapter 2 provides information about the…

  3. PISA 2012 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "PISA 2012 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2012 survey, which tested 15-year-olds' competencies in mathematics, reading and science and, in some countries, problem solving and financial literacy. It examines the design and implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to…

  4. PISA 2009 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "PISA 2009 Technical Report" describes the methodology underlying the PISA 2009 survey. It examines additional features related to the implementation of the project at a level of detail that allows researchers to understand and replicate its analyses. The reader will find a wealth of information on the test and sample design, methodologies…

  5. Improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  6. Teaching Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lummis, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Uses concept-based laboratory reports to incorporate technical writing into teaching. Features three paragraphs in the writing format: introductory paragraph, data paragraph, and conclusion. Recommends using this teaching method, especially in chemistry laboratories, because of the difficulties students have in understanding. (YDS)

  7. Technical Writing in Hydrogeology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A project for Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire is described as a method to relate the process of writing to the process of learning hydrology. The project focuses on an actual groundwater contamination case and is designed to improve the technical writing skills of students. (JN)

  8. Technical Report Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffnagle, Gale F.

    A Bibliography of all unclassified technical reports prepared by USAF Environmental Health Laboratory, McClellan is presented. It contains a listing by subject matter and a listing of all reports by year with report number and abstract. The reports cover most areas of environmental topics such as air, water, noise, and radiation pollution. (NTIS)

  9. Second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for a USAB V-160 Stirling engine: Evaluation of on-sun test results using the proposed IEA guidelines and analysis of heat pipe damage

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, D.; Traebing, C.

    1997-11-01

    Dish/Stirling technology has demonstrated the highest conversion efficiencies of all solar thermal conversion systems. At the DLR a second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for the Schlaich Bergermann und Partner (SBP) 9-kW{sub e} dish/Stirling system has been developed and constructed. Long-term operation occurred from Oct. 1992 until Aug. 1993 at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain, accumulating 950 operating hours. The performance of the SBP 9-kW{sub e} system with a sodium heat pipe receiver is evaluated according to the guidelines for dish/Stirling performance evaluation by Stine and Powel, as proposed to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Tests were stopped due to a leak in the receiver absorber surface. The analysis of this damage is reported.

  10. Hydrogen trapping and the interaction of hydrogen with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of trapped hydrogen in metal alloys, involving the determination of mobile hydrogen using the electrochemical method and the determination of total hydrogen with the fusion method, the difference in hydrogen concentrations being due to trapped hydrogen. It has been found that hydrogen enters body-centered cubic structures through the grain bodies rather than through the grain boundaries. Hydrogen also diffuses much more rapidly in body-centered cubic structures on charging than in face-centered cubic structures, the hydrogen distribution being more uniform in nature. The energy necessary to cause hydrogen embrittlement is postulated to arise from the changes in crystal lattice energies brought about through interaction of hydrogen with atoms in the metal lattice. The total energy change is more negative for body-centered cubic structures, believed to be the cause of a greater tendency toward hydrogen embrittlement. Finally, the agreement of hydrogen concentrations obtained at 25 C by the electrochemical method with those obtained by the fusion method are taken as a strong indication of the power and validity of the electrochemical method.

  11. Gas controlled hydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Zeng, Raymond J; Bernet, Nicolas; Pratt, Steven; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Batstone, Damien John

    2012-04-01

    Acidogenic fermentation is an anaerobic process of double purpose, while treating organic residues it produces chemical compounds, such as hydrogen, ethanol and organic acids. Therefore, acidogenic fermentation arises as an attractive biotechnology process towards the biorefinery concept. Moreover, this process does not need sterile operating conditions and works under a wide range of pH. Changes of operating conditions produce metabolic shifts, inducing variability on acidogenic product yield. To induce those changes, experiments, based on reactor headspace N(2)-flushing (gas phase), were designed. A major result was the hydrogen yield increase from 1 to 3.25±0.4 ( [Formula: see text] ) at pH 4.5 and N(2)-flushing of 58.4 (L·d(-1)). This yield is close to the theoretical acidogenic value (4 [Formula: see text] ). The mechanisms that explain this increase on hydrogen yield shifts are related to the thermodynamics of three metabolic reactions: lactate hydrogenase, NADH hydrogenase and homoacetogenesis, which are affected by the low hydrogen partial pressures. PMID:22342590

  12. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  13. Experiments on hydrogen deflagration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Iwabuchi, H.; Groethe, M.; Merilo, E.; Chiba, S.

    Deflagrations of hydrogen mixed with air have been studied in an open space and inside a shock tube to provide fundamental data needed for safety evaluations and validation of computer models. The open space tests were performed in 5.2- and 37-m 3 rectangular tents and in a 300-m 3 hemispherical tent that were filled with quiescent, homogenous mixtures ranging from 15 to 57% hydrogen by volume. The mixture was contained by a very thin plastic membrane that was cut just prior to igniting the mixture with a spark at the bottom center to prevent confinement of the mass flow. The information collected included flame front propagation monitored with ionization probes, the pressure-time histories of the resulting blast, and radiated heat obtained from thermal flux sensors. In these experiments the following results were obtained. (i) Deflagration of 30% hydrogen generated a much higher overpressure than deflagration of 9.5% natural gas. (ii) The flame propagation velocity and generated pressure were remarkably influenced by the hydrogen concentration. (iii) Turbulence caused by obstacles within the gas mixture and increasing the gas mixture volume increased the speed of the flame propagation and the overpressure. (iv) The combustion inside a tube also showed a high-speed deflagration. These results are useful to re-examine the existing codes and standards.

  14. Hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlit, J.R.; Denton, W.H.; Sherman, R.H.

    Disclosed is a system of four cryogenic fractional distillation columns interlinked with two equilibrators for separating a DT and hydrogen feed stream into four product streams, consisting of a stream of high purity D/sub 2/, DT, T/sub 2/, and a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal.

  15. Hydrogen isotope separation

    DOEpatents

    Bartlit, John R.; Denton, William H.; Sherman, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    A system of four cryogenic fractional distillation columns interlinked with two equilibrators for separating a DT and hydrogen feed stream into four product streams, consisting of a stream of high purity D.sub.2, DT, T.sub.2, and a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal.

  16. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  17. Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Harigel, G.G.

    2004-06-23

    In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

  18. Chemochromic Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiggins, Bryan C.

    2007-01-01

    As fossil fuel supplies decline, hydrogen is quickly becoming an increasingly important fuel source. Currently hydrogen is the prime fuel of today's space vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle) and featured as a fuel for some prototype vehicles such as the BMW seven series model. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas with a 4% lower explosive limit which makes leak detection a priority. In an effort to support the use of hydrogen, a chemochromic (color changing) sensor was developed that is robust, simple to use, and does not require active operation. It can be made into a thin tape which can be conveniently used for leak detection at flanges, valves, or outlets. Chemochromic sensors can be either reversible or irreversible; however, irreversible chemochromic sensors will be analyzed in this report. The irreversible sensor is useful during hazardous operations when personnel cannot be present. To actively monitor leaks, testing of the irreversible sensor against environmental effects was completed and results indicated this material is suitable for outdoor use in the harsh beachside environment of Kennedy Space Center. The experiments in this report will give additional results to the environmental testing by adding solid rocket booster residue as a variable. The primary motivation for these experiments is to prepare the sensors for the launch pad environment at the Kennedy Space Center. In an effort to simulate the atmosphere at the pads before and after launch, the chemochromic sensors are exposed to solid rocket residue under various conditions.

  19. Hydrogen fuel - Universal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, A. G.; Burg, J. A.

    The technology for the production, storage, transmission, and consumption of hydrogen as a fuel is surveyed, with the physical and chemical properties of hydrogen examined as they affect its use as a fuel. Sources of hydrogen production are described including synthesis from coal or natural gas, biomass conversion, thermochemical decomposition of water, and electrolysis of water, of these only electrolysis is considered economicially and technologically feasible in the near future. Methods of production of the large quantities of electricity required for the electrolysis of sea water are explored: fossil fuels, hydroelectric plants, nuclear fission, solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, tidal power, wave motion, electrochemical concentration cells, and finally ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The wind power and OTEC are considered in detail as the most feasible approaches. Techniques for transmission (by railcar or pipeline), storage (as liquid in underwater or underground tanks, as granular metal hydride, or as cryogenic liquid), and consumption (in fuel cells in conventional power plants, for home usage, for industrial furnaces, and for cars and aircraft) are analyzed. The safety problems of hydrogen as a universal fuel are discussed, noting that they are no greater than those for conventional fuels.

  20. Hydrogen evolution: Guiding principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhenhai

    2016-10-01

    Lower-cost alternatives to platinum electrocatalysts are being explored for the sustainable production of hydrogen, but often trial-and-error approaches are used for their development. Now, principles are elucidated that suggest pathways to rationally design efficient metal-free electrocatalysts based on doped graphene.

  1. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to

  2. The Summer of Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Ground crew veterans at Kennedy Space Center still talk about what they call "the summer of hydrogen"-the long, frustrating months in 1990 when the shuttle fleet was grounded by an elusive hydrogen leak that foiled our efforts to fill the orbiter's external fuel tank. Columbia (STS-35) was on Launch Pad A for a scheduled May 30 launch when we discovered the hydrogen leak during - tanking. The external fuel tank is loaded through the orbiter. Liquid hydrogen flows through a 17-inch umbilical between the orbiter and the tank. During fueling, we purge the aft fuselage with gaseous nitrogen to reduce the risk of fire, and we have a leak-detection system in the mobile launch platform, which samples (via tygon tubing) the atmosphere in and around the vehicle, drawing it down to a mass spectrometer that analyzes its composition. When we progressed to the stage of tanking where liquid hydrogen flows through the vehicle, the concentration of hydrogen approached four percent-the limit above which it would be dangerously flammable. We had a leak. We did everything we could think of to find it, and the contractor who supplied the flight hardware was there every day, working alongside us. We did tanking tests, which involved instrumenting the suspected leak sources, and cryo-loaded the external tank to try to isolate precisely where the leak originated. We switched out umbilicals; we replaced the seals between the umbilical and the orbiter. We inspected the seals microscopically and found no flaws. We replaced the recirculation pumps, and we found and replaced a damaged teflon seal in a main propulsion system detent cover, which holds the prevalve-the main valve supplying hydrogen to Space Shuttle Main Engine 3 -in the open position. The seal passed leak tests at ambient temperature but leaked when cryogenic temperatures were applied. We added new leak sensors-up to twenty at a time and tried to be methodical in our placements to narrow down the possible sources of the problem

  3. Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Jerry; Prebo, Brendan

    2010-07-31

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. The bus chassis and body were configured to carry nine passengers with

  4. Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters

    DOEpatents

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2008-09-09

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  5. Onboard hydrogen generation for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Problems concerning the use of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are related to the storage of the hydrogen onboard a vehicle. The feasibility is investigated to use an approach based on onboard hydrogen generation as a means to avoid these storage difficulties. Two major chemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from liquid hydrocarbons and methanol. In steam reforming, the fuel reacts with water on a catalytic surface to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In partial oxidation, the fuel reacts with air, either on a catalytic surface or in a flame front, to yield a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There are many trade-offs in onboard hydrogen generation, both in the choice of fuels as well as in the choice of a chemical process. Attention is given to these alternatives, the results of some experimental work in this area, and the combustion of various hydrogen-rich gases in an internal combustion engine.

  6. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  7. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  8. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G.; Swain, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  9. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  10. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  11. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9,...

  12. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, John B. L.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  13. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  14. Magnetic levitation of condensed hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, C. G.; Seidel, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid and solid molecular hydrogen has been levitated using a pair of small superconducting solenoids. The hydrogen samples, up to 3 mm in dimension, were trapped in a magnetic potential having either a discrete minimum or a minimum in the form of a ring 1 cm in diameter. The hydrogen could be moved about in the magnetic trap by applying an electric field.

  15. Hydrogen, socio-environmental impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, J. S.; Matthews, W. E.; Duff, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    The concept and logic flow of a hydrogen technology assessment are described along with a specific procedure for such an assessment. The development of hydrogen technology is discussed. Factors considered in the development and use of hydrogen include: stimulus of societal needs and technological innovations; economic factors; and social and environmental effects.

  16. Hydrogen rotation-vibration oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, C.K.

    1974-01-29

    A laser system is described wherein molecular species of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes are induced to oscillate on rotational-vibrational levels by subjecting the hydrogen to a transverse beam of electrons of a narrowly defined energy between about 1 and 5 eV, thereby producing high intensity and high energy output. (Official Gazette)

  17. Nickel-hydrogen component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charleston, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Light weight energy storage systems for future space missions are investigated. One of the systems being studied is the nickel hydrogen battery. This battery is designed to achieve longer life, improve performance, and higher energy densities for space applications. The nickel hydrogen component development is discussed. Test data from polarization measurements of the hydrogen electrode component is presented.

  18. NASA Technical Standards Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Establish and maintain "NASA Preferred Technical Standard" as a common baseline for NASA programs. Support the use of technical standards on NASA program in the systems requirement process.

  19. Interpersonal Skills for Technical Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridie, Pamela

    1986-01-01

    Describes a summer internship as a faculty technical writer with a business corporation, revising installation manuals based upon information from computer programers--an experience that highlighted technical writers' need for interpersonal skills. (HTH)

  20. Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennakoon, Charles L. K.; Singh, Waheguru; Anderson, Kelvin C.

    2010-01-01

    Two-electron reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide is a much researched topic. Most of the work has been done in the production of hydrogen peroxide in basic media, in order to address the needs of the pulp and paper industry. However, peroxides under alkaline conditions show poor stabilities and are not useful in disinfection applications. There is a need to design electrocatalysts that are stable and provide good current and energy efficiencies to produce hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions. The innovation focuses on the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide using an electrochemical cell having a gas diffusion electrode as the cathode (electrode connected to the negative pole of the power supply) and a platinized titanium anode. The cathode and anode compartments are separated by a readily available cation-exchange membrane (Nafion 117). The anode compartment is fed with deionized water. Generation of oxygen is the anode reaction. Protons from the anode compartment are transferred across the cation-exchange membrane to the cathode compartment by electrostatic attraction towards the negatively charged electrode. The cathode compartment is fed with oxygen. Here, hydrogen peroxide is generated by the reduction of oxygen. Water may also be generated in the cathode. A small amount of water is also transported across the membrane along with hydrated protons transported across the membrane. Generally, each proton is hydrated with 3-5 molecules. The process is unique because hydrogen peroxide is formed as a high-purity aqueous solution. Since there are no hazardous chemicals or liquids used in the process, the disinfection product can be applied directly to water, before entering a water filtration unit to disinfect the incoming water and to prevent the build up of heterotrophic bacteria, for example, in carbon based filters. The competitive advantages of this process are: 1. No consumable chemicals are needed in the process. The only raw materials

  1. Hydrogen attack - Influence of hydrogen sulfide. [on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.

  2. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH‑ = U4+ + O2‑ + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  3. Hydrogen Diffusion in Forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Mackwell, S.

    2002-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of Earth's mantle are readily modified by interaction with volatiles, such as water. Thus, characterization of solubility and kinetics of incorporation for water in nominally anhydrous minerals is important in order to understand the behavior of Earth's interior under hydrous conditions. Experimental studies on the olivine-water system indicate that significant amounts of OH can dissolve within olivine as point defects (Bell and Rossman, 1992; Kohlstedt et al. 1996). Extending Kohlstedt and Mackwell's (1998) work, our study concerns the kinetics of hydrogen transport in the iron-free olivine-water system. This study is based on hydrogenation of forsterite samples during piston-cylinder and TZM cold-seal vessel experiments. We use infrared analyses in order to constrain the speciation of the mobile water-derived defects in forsterite single-crystal sample, and the rates of diffusion of such species under uppermost mantle conditions (0.2 to 1.5 GPa, 900 to 1100° C). Hydrogen defect transport in single crystals of forsterite is investigated for diffusion parallel to each crystallographic axis. Defect diffusivities are obtained by fitting a diffusion law to the OH content as a function of position in the sample. Our current results indicate that incorporation of hydroxyl species into iron-free olivine is a one-stage process with hydrogen diffusion linked to magnesium vacancy self-diffusion DV, such that DV = D~/3 = 10-12 m2/s at 1000° C parallel to [001], where D~ represents the chemical diffusivity. Those diffusion rates are slightly lower than in iron-bearing olivine for the same incorporation mechanism. The different concentration profiles show a clear anisotropy of diffusion, with fastest diffusion parallel to [001] as in iron-bearing olivine. Thus, while hydrogen solubilities are dependent on iron content, the rate of incorporation of water-derived species in olivine is not strongly coupled to the concentration of iron. This

  4. Hydrogen diffusion in Zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrin, Jannick; Zhang, Peipei

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen mobility in gem quality zircon single crystals from Madagascar was investigated through H-D exchange experiments. Thin slices were annealed in a horizontal furnace flushed with a gas mixture of Ar/D2(10%) under ambient pressure between 900 ° C to 1150 ° C. FTIR analyses were performed on oriented slices before and after each annealing run. H diffusion along [100] and [010] follow the same diffusion law D = D0exp[-E /RT], with log D0 = 2.24 ± 1.57 (in m2/s) and E = 374 ± 39 kJ/mol. H diffusion along [001] follows a slightly more rapid diffusion law, with log D0 = 1.11 ± 0.22 (in m2/s) and E = 334 ± 49 kJ/mol. H diffusion in zircon has much higher activation energy and slower diffusivity than other NAMs below 1150 ° C even iron-poor garnets which are known to be among the slowest (Blanchard and Ingrin, 2004; Kurka et al. 2005). During H-D exchange zircon incorporates also deuterium. This hydration reaction involves uranium reduction as it is shown from the exchange of U5+ and U4+ characteristic bands in the near infrared region during annealing. It is the first time that a hydration reaction U5+ + OH- = U4+ + O2- + 1/2H2, is experimentally reported. The kinetics of deuterium incorporation is slightly slower than hydrogen diffusion, suggesting that the reaction is limited by hydrogen mobility. Hydrogen isotopic memory of zircon is higher than other NAMs. Zircons will be moderately retentive of H signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures. At 500 ° C, a zircon with a radius of 300 μm would retain its H isotopic signature over more than a million years. However, a zircon is unable to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism unless the grain size is large enough. Refrences Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2004) Hydrogen diffusion in Dora Maira pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 31, 593-605. Kurka, A., Blanchard, M. and Ingrin, J. (2005) Kinetics of hydrogen extraction and deuteration in

  5. Radcalc for Windows. Volume 2: Technical manual

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.

    1995-09-27

    Radcalc for Windows is a user-friendly menu-driven Windows-compatible software program with applications in the transportation of radioactive materials. It calculates the radiolytic generation of hydrogen gas in the matrix of low-level and high-level radioactive waste using NRC-accepted methodology. It computes the quantity of a radionuclide and its associated products for a given period of time. In addition, the code categorizes shipment quantities as radioactive, Type A or Type B, limited quantity, low specific activity, highway route controlled, and fissile excepted using DOT definitions and methodologies, as outlined in 49 CFR Subchapter C. The code has undergone extensive testing and validation. Volume I is a User`s Guide, and Volume II is the Technical Manual for Radcalc for Windows

  6. New infrared photon absorption processes. Final technical progress report, August 1, 1988--February 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bayfield, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    The fast ionization of atoms by very short laser pulses, and its possible suppression at extreme pulse intensities, is an active new field of investigation at present. Described is an investigation of whether past techniques for infrared laser multiphoton ionization of excited hydrogen atoms and of one-dimensional microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms can be combined and extended to address the new issues. Although technically difficult and requiring further improvement of apparatus, intense-field infrared laser experiments on excited hydrogen atoms are possible and can directly test theoretical and numerical results.

  7. Microemulsions in technical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Schwuger, M.J.; Stickdorn, K.; Schomaecker, R.

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present once again the basic properties of microemulsions and to relate them to some already established applications and also to show further potential fields of application. This review will survey this area, focusing mainly on the last decade. Earlier publications on the technical relevance of microemulsions and reverse micelles were reviewed by Langevin in 1982. The most important properties of these systems, which are of significance for technical applications, will be described. The applications discussed are: enhanced oil recovery; liquid-liquid extraction; extraction from chemically contaminated soils; lubricants and cutting oils; pharmaceuticals and cosmetics; washing; impregnation and textile finishing; and chemical reactions in microemulsions. 143 refs.

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  9. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  10. Advisory Technical Skills Committee Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbee, Jim R.

    2005-01-01

    The use of advisory committees is well established in the public school system. The purpose of advisory committees is to provide leadership, guidance and technical assistance to maintain, improve and develop quality career and technical education programs. This manual is written for those planning to form new advisory technical skills committees,…

  11. Assessing Students' Technical Skill Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2010-01-01

    The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) is working to comply with the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Perkins) to ensure that its graduates have mastered the technical skills needed by business and industry. The legislation requires that each state identify and approve program assessment strategies…

  12. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2005-10-27

    In this final technical report, a summary of work is provided. Work toward an improved representation of frontal clouds in global climate models occurred. This involved analysis of cloud variability in ARM observations and the careful contrast of single column model solutions with ARM data. In addition, high resolution simulations of frontal clouds were employed to diagnosis processes that are important for the development of frontal clouds.

  13. DENSO Technical Communication Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Emiko; Suzuki, Takamasa

    We developed technical communication education from beginning to managerial levels to enhance communication skills necessary for engineers. The courses in this program progressed from theory to hands-on training and discussion, providing an opportunity for fact-finding and problem-solving. After the courses were completed, the engineers applied what they had learned on the job. The courses proved to be useful, satisfying participating engineers.

  14. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Turnbull, Robert J.; Foster, Christopher A.; Hendricks, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  16. PHOTOBIOLOGICAL HYDROGEN RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Philippidis, George; Tek, Vekalet

    2009-07-01

    The project objectives are to develop bio-hydrogen production by: Cloning the structural and subunit genes (cooKMUX and cooLH resp.) of the O{sub 2}- tolerant NiFe-hydrogenase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS strain in collaboration with NREL. Cloning the active site maturation genes (hypA-F) of the CBS hydrogenase in collaboration with NREL. Transforming the structural and subunits genes, along with the maturation genes, into E. coli and determining the minimum number of genes required for expression of a functional hydrogenase. Upon expression of a functional hydrogenase, purifying and characterizing the recombinant hydrogenase from E. coli and performing bioreactor studies to optimize hydrogen production by E. coli.

  17. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  18. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Solomon, David E.

    1977-01-01

    A container for the storage, shipping and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same which has compactness, which is safe against fracture or accident, and which is reusable. The container consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example, of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and will be retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  19. Thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-07-13

    A thermochemical reaction cycle for the generation of hydrogen from water comprising the following sequence of reactions wherein M represents a metal and Z represents a metalloid selected from the arsenic-antimony-bismuth and selenium-tellurium subgroups of the periodic system: 2MO + Z + SO.sub.2 .fwdarw. MZ + MSO.sub.4 (1) mz + h.sub.2 so.sub.4 .fwdarw. mso.sub.4 + h.sub.2 z (2) 2mso.sub.4 .fwdarw. 2mo + so.sub.2 + so.sub.3 + 1/20.sub.2 (3) h.sub.2 z .fwdarw. z + h.sub.2 (4) h.sub.2 o + so.sub.3 .fwdarw. h.sub.2 so.sub.4 (5) the net reaction is the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  20. Hydrogen Reclamation and Reutilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Bartt; Lansaw, John

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.