Science.gov

Sample records for hydrogen infrastructure networks

  1. Hydrogen Distribution Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintz, Marianne; Molburg, John; Folga, Stephen; Gillette, Jerry

    2003-07-01

    Whether produced from fossil or non-fossil sources, the widespread use of hydrogen will require a new and extensive infrastructure to produce, distribute, store and dispense it as a vehicular fuel or for electric generation. Depending on the source from which hydrogen is produced and the form in which it is delivered, many alternative infrastructures can be envisioned. Tradeoffs in scale economies between process and distribution technologies, and such issues as operating cost, safety, materials, etc. can also favor alternative forms of infrastructure. This paper discusses several infrastructure alternatives and the associated "well-to-pump" or "fuel cycle" cost of delivered hydrogen.

  2. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  3. HYDROGEN DELIVERY: INFRASTRUCTURE, CHALLENGES, AND MATERIALS NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Gardiner, Monterey

    2009-01-01

    Current domestic energy policy is aimed at encouraging the development of alternative fuels such as hydrogen for use as a renewable and environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based fuels for transportation and stationary power. The purpose of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is to provide insight and input on hydrogen delivery infrastructure research. Ongoing research has identified materials R&D challenges required to support this infrastructure. A few of these challenges are summarized with emphasis placed on materials.

  4. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challenges to delivering hydrogen for use as a widespread energy carrier, and the research goals for hydrogen delivery.

  5. Complex Networks and Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setola, Roberto; de Porcellinis, Stefano

    The term “Critical Infrastructures” indicates all those technological infrastructures such as: electric grids, telecommunication networks, railways, healthcare systems, financial circuits, etc. that are more and more relevant for the welfare of our countries. Each one of these infrastructures is a complex, highly non-linear, geographically dispersed cluster of systems, that interact with their human owners, operators, users and with the other infrastructures. Their augmented relevance and the actual political and technological scenarios, which have increased their exposition to accidental failure and deliberate attacks, demand for different and innovative protection strategies (generally indicate as CIP - Critical Infrastructure Protection). To this end it is mandatory to understand the mechanisms that regulate the dynamic of these infrastructures. In this framework, an interesting approach is those provided by the complex networks. In this paper we illustrate some results achieved considering structural and functional properties of the corresponding topological networks both when each infrastructure is assumed as an autonomous system and when we take into account also the dependencies existing among the different infrastructures.

  6. CU-ICAR Hydrogen Infrastructure Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Leitner; David Bodde; Dennis Wiese; John Skardon; Bethany Carter

    2011-09-28

    The goal of this project was to establish an innovation center to accelerate the transition to a 'hydrogen economy' an infrastructure of vehicles, fuel resources, and maintenance capabilities based on hydrogen as the primary energy carrier. The specific objectives of the proposed project were to: (a) define the essential attributes of the innovation center; (b) validate the concept with potential partners; (c) create an implementation plan; and (d) establish a pilot center and demonstrate its benefits via a series of small scale projects.

  7. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Staley

    2010-03-31

    This program was undertaken in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-PS30-03GO93010, resulting in this Cooperative Agreement with the Ford Motor Company and BP to demonstrate and evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and required fueling infrastructure. Ford initially placed 18 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCV) in three geographic regions of the US (Sacramento, CA; Orlando, FL; and southeast Michigan). Subsequently, 8 advanced technology vehicles were developed and evaluated by the Ford engineering team in Michigan. BP is Ford's principal partner and co-applicant on this project and provided the hydrogen infrastructure to support the fuel cell vehicles. BP ultimately provided three new fueling stations. The Ford-BP program consists of two overlapping phases. The deliverables of this project, combined with those of other industry consortia, are to be used to provide critical input to hydrogen economy commercialization decisions by 2015. The program's goal is to support industry efforts of the US President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative in developing a path to a hydrogen economy. This program was designed to seek complete systems solutions to address hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle development, and possible synergies between hydrogen fuel electricity generation and transportation applications. This project, in support of that national goal, was designed to gain real world experience with Hydrogen powered Fuel Cell Vehicles (H2FCV) 'on the road' used in everyday activities, and further, to begin the development of the required supporting H2 infrastructure. Implementation of a new hydrogen vehicle technology is, as expected, complex because of the need for parallel introduction of a viable, available fuel delivery system and sufficient numbers of vehicles to buy fuel to justify expansion of the fueling infrastructure. Viability of the fuel structure means widespread, affordable hydrogen which can return a reasonable profit to the fuel provider, while

  8. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-10-01

    In FY 2004 and 2005, NREL developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. This report identifies key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastructure efforts during the early hydrogen transition.

  9. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Stottler, Gary

    2012-02-08

    General Motors, LLC and energy partner Shell Hydrogen, LLC, deployed a system of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles integrated with a hydrogen fueling station infrastructure to operate under real world conditions as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project. This technical report documents the performance and describes the learnings from progressive generations of vehicle fuel cell system technology and multiple approaches to hydrogen generation and delivery for vehicle fueling.

  10. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

    2012-08-01

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  11. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-01-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction. PMID:27075559

  12. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-14

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  13. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  14. Future Naval Use of COTS Networking Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    continuous process improvement in support of NGEN and CANES under the Information Technology Infrastructure Library ( ITIL ) model. In addition, the Navy...Shipboard Network System IT Information Technology IT-21 Information Technology for the 21st Century ITIL Information Technology Infrastructure

  15. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  16. Electrolytic hydrogen production infrastructure options evaluation. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles have the potential to provide the range, acceleration, rapid refueling times, and other creature comforts associated with gasoline-powered vehicles, but with virtually no environmental degradation. To achieve this potential, society will have to develop the necessary infrastructure to supply hydrogen to the fuel-cell vehicles. Hydrogen could be stored directly on the vehicle, or it could be derived from methanol or other hydrocarbon fuels by on-board chemical reformation. This infrastructure analysis assumes high-pressure (5,000 psi) hydrogen on-board storage. This study evaluates one approach to providing hydrogen fuel: the electrolysis of water using off-peak electricity. Other contractors at Princeton University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen by steam reforming natural gas, probably the least expensive hydrogen infrastructure alternative for large markets. Electrolytic hydrogen is a possible short-term transition strategy to provide relatively inexpensive hydrogen before there are enough fuel-cell vehicles to justify building large natural gas reforming facilities. In this study, the authors estimate the necessary price of off-peak electricity that would make electrolytic hydrogen costs competitive with gasoline on a per-mile basis, assuming that the electrolyzer systems are manufactured in relatively high volumes compared to current production. They then compare this off-peak electricity price goal with actual current utility residential prices across the US.

  17. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  18. Wireless intelligent network: infrastructure before services?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Narisa N.

    1996-01-01

    The Wireless Intelligent Network (WIN) intends to take advantage of the Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN) concepts and products developed from wireline communications. However, progress of the AIN deployment has been slow due to the many barriers that exist in the traditional wireline carriers' deployment procedures and infrastructure. The success of AIN has not been truly demonstrated. The AIN objectives and directions are applicable to the wireless industry although the plans and implementations could be significantly different. This paper points out WIN characteristics in architecture, flexibility, deployment, and value to customers. In order to succeed, the technology driven AIN concept has to be reinforced by the market driven WIN services. An infrastructure suitable for the WIN will contain elements that are foreign to the wireline network. The deployment process is expected to seed with the revenue generated services. Standardization will be achieved by simplifying and incorporating the IS-41C, AIN, and Intelligent Network CS-1 recommendations. Integration of the existing and future systems impose the biggest challenge of all. Service creation has to be complemented with service deployment process which heavily impact the carriers' infrastructure. WIN deployment will likely start from an Intelligent Peripheral, a Service Control Point and migrate to a Service Node when sufficient triggers are implemented in the mobile switch for distributed call control. The struggle to move forward will not be based on technology, but rather on the impact to existing infrastructure.

  19. Reliable Communication Models in Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangkeun; Chinthavali, Supriya; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure networks are becoming increasingly interdependent where the failures in one network may cascade to other dependent networks, causing severe widespread national-scale failures. A number of previous efforts have been made to analyze the resiliency and robustness of interdependent networks based on different models. However, communication network, which plays an important role in today's infrastructures to detect and handle failures, has attracted little attention in the interdependency studies, and no previous models have captured enough practical features in the critical infrastructure networks. In this paper, we study the interdependencies between communication network and other kinds of critical infrastructure networks with an aim to identify vulnerable components and design resilient communication networks. We propose several interdependency models that systematically capture various features and dynamics of failures spreading in critical infrastructure networks. We also discuss several research challenges in building reliable communication solutions to handle failures in these models.

  20. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Kalil A; Rosa, Nelson S; Cunha, Paulo R F

    2015-10-29

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS.

  1. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  2. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY INFRASTRUCTURE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, George S

    2010-06-29

    An agent-based model of the transition to a hydrogen transportation economy explores influences on adoption of hydrogen vehicles and fueling infrastructure. Attention is given to whether significant penetration occurs and, if so, to the length of time required for it to occur. Estimates are provided of sensitivity to numerical values of model parameters and to effects of alternative market and policy scenarios. The model is applied to the Los Angeles metropolitan area In the benchmark simulation, the prices of hydrogen and non-hydrogen vehicles are comparable. Due to fuel efficiency, hydrogen vehicles have a fuel savings advantage of 9.8 cents per mile over non-hydrogen vehicles. Hydrogen vehicles account for 60% of new vehicle sales in 20 years from the initial entry of hydrogen vehicles into show rooms, going on to 86% in 40 years and reaching still higher values after that. If the fuel savings is 20.7 cents per mile for a hydrogen vehicle, penetration reaches 86% of new car sales by the 20th year. If the fuel savings is 0.5 cents per mile, market penetration reaches only 10% by the 20th year. To turn to vehicle price difference, if a hydrogen vehicle costs $2,000 less than a non-hydrogen vehicle, new car sales penetration reaches 92% by the 20th year. If a hydrogen vehicle costs $6,500 more than a non-hydrogen vehicle, market penetration is only 6% by the 20th year. Results from other sensitivity runs are presented. Policies that could affect hydrogen vehicle adoption are investigated. A tax credit for the purchase of a hydrogen vehicle of $2,500 tax credit results in 88% penetration by the 20th year, as compared with 60% in the benchmark case. If the tax credit is $6,000, penetration is 99% by the 20th year. Under a more modest approach, the tax credit would be available only for the first 10 years. Hydrogen sales penetration then reach 69% of sales by the 20th year with the $2,500 credit and 79% with the $6,000 credit. A carbon tax of $38 per metric ton is not

  3. Network and computing infrastructure for scientific applications in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvatadze, R.; Modebadze, Z.

    2016-09-01

    Status of network and computing infrastructure and available services for research and education community of Georgia are presented. Research and Educational Networking Association - GRENA provides the following network services: Internet connectivity, network services, cyber security, technical support, etc. Computing resources used by the research teams are located at GRENA and at major state universities. GE-01-GRENA site is included in European Grid infrastructure. Paper also contains information about programs of Learning Center and research and development projects in which GRENA is participating.

  4. Appendix G - GPRA06 hydrogen, fuel cells, and infrastructure technologies (HFCIT) program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target markets for the Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program include transportation (cars and light trucks) and stationary (particularly residential and commercial) applications.

  5. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  6. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  7. An infrastructure for passive network monitoring of application data streams

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deb; Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

    2003-03-01

    When diagnosing network problems, it is often desirable to have a view of traffic inside the network. In this paper we describe an infrastructure for passive monitoring that can be used to determine which segments of the network are the source of problems for an application data stream. The monitoring hosts are relatively low-cost, off-the-shelf PCs. A unique feature of the infrastructure is secure activation of monitoring hosts in the core of the network without direct network administrator intervention.

  8. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  9. Powering the Network: The Forgotten Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses systems that power the telecommunications infrastructure. Highlights include power for central telephone company offices; private branch exchange systems; power interruptions and power irregularities; uninterruptible power systems; problems in the systems; and photovoltaic systems. (LRW)

  10. Spatial-Temporal Quantification of Interdependencies Across Infrastructure Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Christopher; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo

    As infrastructure networks become more complex and intertwined, the relevance of network interdependency research is increasingly evident. Interconnected networks bring about efficiencies during normal operations but also come with risks of cascading failures with disaster events. An adequate understanding of network interdependencies and realistic multi-system modeling capabilities enable the exploration of practical operation strategies and mitigation efforts applicable to existing or future coupled networked systems. This chapter examines recent efforts in quantifying infrastructure network interdependencies through spatial and time-series analyses to reveal the heterogeneity and complexity in their coupling. Furthermore, a combined spatial-temporal methodology is recommended for the future calibration and validation of theoretical and computational models of interdependent networks of networks. An example case study is demonstrated using data derived from the 2010 Chilean Earthquake in the Talcahuano-Concepción region, which highlights the richness in coupling strengths across infrastructure systems, both as a function of time and geographical extent. Insights for design and control of coupled networks are also derivable from joint spatial-temporal analyses of infrastructure interdependence and its evolution.

  11. Towards a European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network: the ECRIN programme.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the interconnection of national networks of clinical research centres (CRCs) and clinical trials units (CTUs), the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) programme aims to develop an infrastructure allowing for bottom-up harmonisation of the support and training for, and practice of, clinical research, and to provide public sponsors for biotechnology small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) with support for translational research and multicentre clinical studies in Europe. This will be achieved through an application to the next FP6 'Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives' call. However, prior work is required to improve the reciprocal knowledge of partners in the ECRIN consortium and, as a first step, country-specific workshops will be organised by national networks in order to address the organisation of CRC/CTUs and national networks, and their interaction with the national environment of clinical research; this will enable in-depth discussion addressing the bottlenecks hampering transnational studies.

  12. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  13. The RNA infrastructure: an introduction to ncRNA networks.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lesley J

    2011-01-01

    The RNA infrastructure connects RNA-based functions. With transcription-to-translation processing forming the core of the network, we can visualise how RNA-based regulation, cleavage and modification are the backbone of cellular function. The key to interpreting the RNA-infrastructure is in understanding how core RNAs (tRNA, mRNA and rRNA) and other ncRNAs operate in a spatial-temporal manner, moving around the nucleus, cytoplasm and organelles during processing, or in response to environmental cues. This chapter summarises the concept of the RNA-infrastructure, and highlights examples of RNA-based networking within prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It describes how transcription-to-translation processes are tightly connected, and explores some similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA networking.

  14. A European perspective--the European clinical research infrastructures network.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, J; Kubiak, C

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating research outcomes requires multinational cooperation in clinical research for optimization of treatment strategies and comparative effectiveness research, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. The European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) is a distributed ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific potential. Servicing multinational trials started during its preparatory phase, and ECRIN will now apply for an ERIC (European Research Infrastructures Consortium) status by 2011. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this achievement will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of the research and education capacity, tackling the major societal challenges starting with the area of healthy ageing, and removing barriers to bring ideas to the market.

  15. Spatial risk assessment for critical network infrastructure using sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möderl, Michael; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    The presented spatial risk assessment method allows for managing critical network infrastructure in urban areas under abnormal and future conditions caused e.g., by terrorist attacks, infrastructure deterioration or climate change. For the spatial risk assessment, vulnerability maps for critical network infrastructure are merged with hazard maps for an interfering process. Vulnerability maps are generated using a spatial sensitivity analysis of network transport models to evaluate performance decrease under investigated thread scenarios. Thereby parameters are varied according to the specific impact of a particular threat scenario. Hazard maps are generated with a geographical information system using raster data of the same threat scenario derived from structured interviews and cluster analysis of events in the past. The application of the spatial risk assessment is exemplified by means of a case study for a water supply system, but the principal concept is applicable likewise to other critical network infrastructure. The aim of the approach is to help decision makers in choosing zones for preventive measures.

  16. IPV6 Network Infrastructure and Stability Inference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the Too Big Trick ( TBT ) to induce the remote targets to return fragmented responses. By evaluating the responses, the uptime for approximately 35% of...Internet. Approximately 50,000 IPv6 addresses were probed continuously from March to June 2014, using the Too Big Trick ( TBT ) to induce the remote targets...SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol TSval Timestamp Value TCP Transmission Control Protocol TBT Too Big Trick USG U.S. government xiv

  17. Fiber Optic Infrastructure for Wireless Communication Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Kam Y.; Cutrer, David M.; Georges, John B.; Yeung, Simon

    It is clear that to meet the new demands of wireless customers, conventional cellular service providers and upcoming Personal Communication Service (PCS) providers for conventional phone service and high bandwidth wireless LAN must upgrade their networks to provide complete radio coverage. This evolution has motivated the need for low-cost systems that transport radio signals to and from areas of poor signal coverage. The most important area where this problem must be solved is inside of buildings, since this is where people spend most of their time. Unfortunately, the in-building environment is also the most challenging area to provide radio coverage due to severe attenuation and multi-path effects. The problem must be tackled from the viewpoint of optimization of performance/cost ratio of the network. In this paper, we describe a system-level approach to tackle this problem. We demonstrate how one can trade-off hardware performance, which represent cost, with proper choice of system architecture which includes, among other factors, in-building radio environment, to arrive at an optimum network solution technically and economically.

  18. Robustness and Recovery of Lifeline Infrastructure and Ecosystem Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, U.; Ganguly, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Disruptive events, both natural and man-made, can have widespread impacts on both natural systems and lifeline infrastructure networks leading to the loss of biodiversity and essential functionality, respectively. Projected sea-level rise and climate change can further increase the frequency and severity of large-scale floods on urban-coastal megacities. Nevertheless, Failure in infrastructure systems can trigger cascading impacts on dependent ecosystems, and vice-versa. An important consideration in the behavior of the isolated networks and inter-connected networks following disruptive events is their resilience, or the ability of the network to "bounce back" to a pre-disaster state. Conventional risk analysis and subsequent risk management frameworks have focused on identifying the components' vulnerability and strengthening of the isolated components to withstand these disruptions. But high interconnectedness of these systems, and evolving nature of hazards, particularly in the context of climate extremes, make the component level analysis unrealistic. In this study, we discuss the complex network-based resilience framework to understand fragility and recovery strategies for infrastructure systems impacted by climate-related hazards. We extend the proposed framework to assess the response of ecological networks to multiple species loss and design the restoration management framework to identify the most efficient restoration sequence of species, which can potentially lead to disproportionate gains in biodiversity.

  19. Free space optical sensor network for fixed infrastructure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Navik; Milner, Stuart D.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2009-08-01

    Free space optical (FSO) links for indoor sensor networks can provide data rates that can range from bits/s to hundreds of Mb/s. In addition, they offer physical security, and in contrast with omnidirectional RF networks, they avoid interference with other electronic systems. These features are advantageous for communication over short distances in fixed infrastructure sensor networks. In this paper the system architecture for a fixed infrastructure FSO sensor network is presented. The system includes a network of small, low power (mW), sensor systems, or "motes," that transmit data optically to a central "cluster head," which controls the network traffic of all the motes and can aggregate the sensor information. The cluster head is designed with multiple vertical cavity surface emitting lasers oriented in different directions and controlled to diverge at 12º in order to provide signal coverage over a wide field of view. Both the cluster head and motes form a local area network. Our system design focuses on low-power wireless motes that can maintain successful communication over distances up to a few meters without having to use stringent optical alignment techniques, and our network design focuses on controlling mote sleep cycles for energy efficiency. This paper presents the design as well as the experimental link and optical communications performance of a prototype FSO-based sensor network.

  20. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  1. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence.

    PubMed

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G; Tivnan, Brian F; Bagrow, James P; Hines, Paul D H

    2017-03-20

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a "smart" power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  2. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835

  3. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  4. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASAs Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Gilbert J., III; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, MEO, GEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes architecture features of cognitive networking within the future NASA space communications infrastructure, and interacting with the legacy systems and infrastructure in the meantime. The paper begins by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system collaboration. This discussion motivates the features of an architecture including cognitive networking for future missions and relays, interoperating with both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture as a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  5. [Life cycle assessment of the infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles].

    PubMed

    Feng, Wen; Wang, Shujuan; Ni, Weidou; Chen, Changhe

    2003-05-01

    In order to promote the application of life cycle assessment and provide references for China to make the project of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles in the near future, 10 feasible plans of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles were designed according to the current technologies of producing, storing and transporting hydrogen. Then life cycle assessment was used as a tool to evaluate the environmental performances of the 10 plans. The standard indexes of classified environmental impacts of every plan were gotten and sensitivity analysis for several parameters were carried out. The results showed that the best plan was that hydrogen will be produced by natural gas steam reforming in central factory, then transported to refuelling stations through pipelines, and filled to fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen gas at last.

  6. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  7. Interoperability and security in wireless body area network infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Warren, Steve; Lebak, Jeffrey; Yao, Jianchu; Creekmore, Jonathan; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their supporting information infrastructures offer unprecedented opportunities to monitor state of health without constraining the activities of a wearer. These mobile point-of-care systems are now realizable due to the convergence of technologies such as low-power wireless communication standards, plug-and-play device buses, off-the-shelf development kits for low-power microcontrollers, handheld computers, electronic medical records, and the Internet. To increase acceptance of personal monitoring technology while lowering equipment cost, advances must be made in interoperability (at both the system and device levels) and security. This paper presents an overview of WBAN infrastructure work in these areas currently underway in the Medical Component Design Laboratory at Kansas State University (KSU) and at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). KSU efforts include the development of wearable health status monitoring systems that utilize ISO/IEEE 11073, Bluetooth, Health Level 7, and OpenEMed. WBAN efforts at UAH include the development of wearable activity and health monitors that incorporate ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor platforms with hardware-level encryption and the TinyOS development environment. WBAN infrastructures are complex, requiring many functional support elements. To realize these infrastructures through collaborative efforts, organizations such as KSU and UAH must define and utilize standard interfaces, nomenclature, and security approaches.

  8. Dependable Emergency-Response Networking Based on Retaskable Network Infrastructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Emergency-Response Network ESP Energy Service Provider HAN Home-Area Network HVAC Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning MDMA Meter Data Management...replaced with advanced 1 meters that have computational capabilities and are often connected to the Meter Data Management Agency ( MDMA ) using mesh networking...some background on them here. Advanced meters are electric meters that have been modified so that they trans- mit usage information back to an MDMA

  9. Architecture for Cognitive Networking within NASA's Future Space Communications Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Gilbert; Eddy, Wesley M.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Barnes, James; Brooks, David

    2016-01-01

    Future space mission concepts and designs pose many networking challenges for command, telemetry, and science data applications with diverse end-to-end data delivery needs. For future end-to-end architecture designs, a key challenge is meeting expected application quality of service requirements for multiple simultaneous mission data flows with options to use diverse onboard local data buses, commercial ground networks, and multiple satellite relay constellations in LEO, GEO, MEO, or even deep space relay links. Effectively utilizing a complex network topology requires orchestration and direction that spans the many discrete, individually addressable computer systems, which cause them to act in concert to achieve the overall network goals. The system must be intelligent enough to not only function under nominal conditions, but also adapt to unexpected situations, and reorganize or adapt to perform roles not originally intended for the system or explicitly programmed. This paper describes an architecture enabling the development and deployment of cognitive networking capabilities into the envisioned future NASA space communications infrastructure. We begin by discussing the need for increased automation, including inter-system discovery and collaboration. This discussion frames the requirements for an architecture supporting cognitive networking for future missions and relays, including both existing endpoint-based networking models and emerging information-centric models. From this basis, we discuss progress on a proof-of-concept implementation of this architecture, and results of implementation and initial testing of a cognitive networking on-orbit application on the SCaN Testbed attached to the International Space Station.

  10. European network infrastructures of observatories for terrestrial Global Change research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The earth's climate is significantly changing (e.g. IPCC, 2007) and thus directly affecting the terrestrial systems. The number and intensity hydrological extremes, such as floods and droughts, are continually increasing, resulting in major economical and social impacts. Furthermore, the land cover in Europe has been modified fundamentally by conversions for agriculture, forest and for other purposes such as industrialisation and urbanisation. Additionally, water resources are more than ever used for human development, especially as a key resource for agricultural and industrial activities. As a special case, the mountains of the world are of significant importance in terms of water resources supply, biodiversity, economy, agriculture, traffic and recreation but particularly vulnerable to environmental change. The Alps are unique because of the pronounced small scale variability they contain, the high population density they support and their central position in Europe. The Alps build a single coherent physical and natural environment, artificially cut by national borders. The scientific community and governmental bodies have responded to these environmental changes by performing dedicated experiments and by establishing environmental research networks to monitor, analyse and predict the impact of Global Change on different terrestrial systems of the Earths' environment. Several European network infrastructures for terrestrial Global Change research are presently immerging or upgrading, such as ICOS, ANAEE, LifeWatch or LTER-Europe. However, the strongest existing networks are still operating on a regional or national level and the historical growth of such networks resulted in a very heterogeneous landscape of observation networks. We propose therefore the establishment of two complementary networks: The NetwOrk of Hydrological observAtories, NOHA. NOHA aims to promote the sustainable management of water resources in Europe, to support the prediction of

  11. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    DOE PAGES

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; ...

    2017-03-20

    Increased coupling between critical infrastructure networks, such as power and communication systems, has important implications for the reliability and security of these systems. To understand the effects of power-communication coupling, several researchers have studied models of interdependent networks and reported that increased coupling can increase vulnerability. However, these conclusions come largely from models that have substantially different mechanisms of cascading failure, relative to those found in actual power and communication networks, and that do not capture the benefits of connecting systems with complementary capabilities. In order to understand the importance of these details, this paper compares network vulnerability in simplemore » topological models and in models that more accurately capture the dynamics of cascading in power systems. First, we compare a simple model of topological contagion to a model of cascading in power systems and find that the power grid model shows a higher level of vulnerability, relative to the contagion model. Second, we compare a percolation model of topological cascading in coupled networks to three different models of power networks coupled to communication systems. Again, the more accurate models suggest very different conclusions than the percolation model. In all but the most extreme case, the physics-based power grid models indicate that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability. This is opposite from what one would conclude from the percolation model, in which zero coupling is optimal. Only in an extreme case, in which communication failures immediately cause grid failures, did we find that increased coupling can be harmful. Together, these results suggest design strategies for reducing the risk of cascades in interdependent infrastructure systems.« less

  12. United States National Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and Infrastructure Learning Demonstration - Status and Results (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke,K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Garbak, J.

    2009-03-06

    This presentation provides status and results for the United States National Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration, including project objectives, partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's role in the project and methodology, how to access complete results, and results of vehicle and infrastructure analysis.

  13. Networking of Icelandic Earth Infrastructures - Natural laboratories and Volcano Supersites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, K. S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hjaltadóttir, S.; Björnsson, H.; Arason, Ø.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Kjartansson, E.; Sigbjörnsson, R.; Halldórsson, B.; Valsson, G.

    2012-04-01

    The back-bone of Icelandic geoscientific research infrastructure is the country's permanent monitoring networks, which have been built up to monitor seismic and volcanic hazard and deformation of the Earth's surface. The networks are mainly focussed around the plate boundary in Iceland, particularly the two seismic zones, where earthquakes of up to M7.3 have occurred in centuries past, and the rift zones with over 30 active volcanic systems where a large number of powerful eruptions have occurred, including highly explosive ones. The main observational systems are seismic, strong motion, GPS and bore-hole strain networks, with the addition of more recent systems like hydrological stations, permanent and portable radars, ash-particle counters and gas monitoring systems. Most of the networks are owned by a handful of Icelandic institutions, but some are operated in collaboration with international institutions and universities. The networks have been in operation for years to decades and have recorded large volumes of research quality data. The main Icelandic infrastructures will be networked in the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). The plate boundary in the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ) with its book-shelf tectonics and repeating major earthquakes sequences of up to M7 events, has the potential to be defined a natural laboratory within EPOS. Work towards integrating multidisciplinary data and technologies from the monitoring infrastructures in the SISZ with other fault regions has started in the FP7 project NERA, under the heading of Networking of Near-Fault Observatories. The purpose is to make research-quality data from near-fault observatories available to the research community, as well as to promote transfer of knowledge and techical know-how between the different observatories of Europe, in order to create a network of fault-monitoring networks. The seismic and strong-motion systems in the SISZ are also, to some degree, being networked nationally to

  14. Architecture, Infrastructure, and Broadband Civic Network Design: An Institutional View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Murali; Chango, Mawaki

    Cultural values frame architectures, and architectures motivate infrastructures — by which we mean the foundational telecommunications and Internet access services that software applications depend on. Design is the social process that realizes architectural elements in an infrastructure. This process is often a conflicted one where transformative visions confront the realities of entrenched power, where innovation confronts pressure from institutionalized interests and practices working to resist change and reproduce the status quo in the design outcome. We use this viewpoint to discuss design aspects of the Urban-net, a broadband civic networking case. Civic networks are embodiments of distinctive technological configurations and forms of social order. In choosing some technological configurations over others, designers are favoring some social structural configurations over alternatives. To the extent that a civic network sets out to reconfigure the prevailing social order (as was the case in the Urban-net project considered here), the design process becomes the arena where challengers of the prevailing order encounter its defenders. In this case, the defenders prevailed and the design that emerged was conservative and reproduced the status quo. What steps can stakeholders take so that the project’s future development is in line with the original aim of structural change? We outline two strategies. We argue the importance of articulating cultural desiderata in an architecture that stakeholders can use to open up the infrastructure to new constituents and incremental change. Next, we argue the importance of designing the conditions of design. The climate in which social interactions occur can powerfully shape design outcomes, but this does not usually figure in stakeholders’ design concerns.

  15. Cyber-physical networking for wireless mesh infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannweiler, C.; Lottermann, C.; Klein, A.; Schneider, J.; Schotten, H. D.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for cyber-physical network control. "Cyber-physical" refers to the inclusion of different parameters and information sources, ranging from physical sensors (e.g. energy, temperature, light) to conventional network information (bandwidth, delay, jitter, etc.) to logical data providers (inference systems, user profiles, spectrum usage databases). For a consistent processing, collected data is represented in a uniform way, analyzed, and provided to dedicated network management functions and network services, both internally and, through an according API, to third party services. Specifically, in this work, we outline the design of sophisticated energy management functionalities for a hybrid wireless mesh network (WLAN for both backhaul traffic and access, GSM for access only), disposing of autonomous energy supply, in this case solar power. Energy consumption is optimized under the presumption of fluctuating power availability and considerable storage constraints, thus influencing, among others, handover and routing decisions. Moreover, advanced situation-aware auto-configuration and self-adaptation mechanisms are introduced for an autonomous operation of the network. The overall objective is to deploy a robust wireless access and backbone infrastructure with minimal operational cost and effective, cyber-physical control mechanisms, especially dedicated for rural or developing regions.

  16. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, T.; Giardini, D.; Bossu, R.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-12-01

    NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) is an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (I3) project within the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC). The project consortium consists of 25 participants from 13 different European countries. It is currently the largest earth science project ever funded by the EC. The goal of NERIES is to integrate European seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated cyber-infrastructure for seismological data serving the research community, civil protection authorities and the general public. The EC provides funds for the networking and research. The participants provide the necessary hardware investments, mostly through national resources. NERIES consists of 13 subprojects (networking and research activities) and 5 facilities providing access through grants (Transnational Access). The project is coordinated by ORFEUS in close cooperation with the EMSC. The individual subprojects address different issues such as: extension of the Virtual European Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) from 140 to about 500 stations, implementing the core European Integrated Waveform Data Archive (EIDA) consisting of ODC-KNMI, GFZ, INGV and IPGP and a distributed archive of historical Data. Providing access to data gathered by acceleration networks within Europe and its surroundings and deploys Ocean Bottom Seismometers in coordination with relevant Ocean bottom projects like ESONET. Tot facilitate access to this diverse and distributed data NERIES invests a significant portion of its resources to implementing a portal for which a beta release is planned to be release in the autumn of 2008. The research project main goal is to produce products and tools facilitating data interpretation and analysis. These tools include a European reference (velocity) model, real-time hazard tools, shakemaps and lossmaps, site response determination software and tools, and automatic tools to manage and

  17. Infrastructure Support for Accessing Network Services in Dynamic Network Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    in Chapter 1 can be realized. 1A similar phenomenon can be found in works on extensible OS ( ExoKernel [17], SPIN [5] etc.). 18 2.2.1 Network Layer...CS-97-194, Carnegie Mellon School of Com- puter Science, 1997. [17] Dawson R. Engler, M. Frans Kaashoek, and James O’Toole Jr. Exokernel : an op

  18. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  19. The transition to hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and infrastructure requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Ramback, G.D.; Smith, J.R.

    1996-03-20

    Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range with emissions below one-tenth the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being considered in California as Equivalent Zero Emission Vehicles. These vehicles can also be manufactured with increased but not excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining optimized engines and other advanced components, the overall vehicle efficiency should approach 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to the 3.1 cents/km U.S. vehicle operators pay today while using conventional automobiles. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  20. Tera-node Network Technology (TASK 4) Network Infrastructure Activities (NIA) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, John; Bannister, Joe

    2000-03-15

    The TNT project developed software technologies in scalable personal telecommunications (SPT), Reservation Protocol 2 (RSVP2), Scalable Computing Infrastructure (SCOPE), and Network Infrastructure Activities (NIA). SPT = developed many innovative protocols to support the use of videoconferencing applications on the Internet. RSVP2 = developed a new reference model and further standardization of RSVP. SCOPE = developed dynamic resource discovery techniques and distributed directory services in support of resource allocation for large distributed systems and computations. NIA = provided policy, operational, and support to the transitioning Internet.

  1. A toolkit for integrated deterministic and probabilistic assessment for hydrogen infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, Katrina M.; Tchouvelev, Andrei V.

    2014-03-01

    There has been increasing interest in using Quantitative Risk Assessment [QRA] to help improve the safety of hydrogen infrastructure and applications. Hydrogen infrastructure for transportation (e.g. fueling fuel cell vehicles) or stationary (e.g. back-up power) applications is a relatively new area for application of QRA vs. traditional industrial production and use, and as a result there are few tools designed to enable QRA for this emerging sector. There are few existing QRA tools containing models that have been developed and validated for use in small-scale hydrogen applications. However, in the past several years, there has been significant progress in developing and validating deterministic physical and engineering models for hydrogen dispersion, ignition, and flame behavior. In parallel, there has been progress in developing defensible probabilistic models for the occurrence of events such as hydrogen release and ignition. While models and data are available, using this information is difficult due to a lack of readily available tools for integrating deterministic and probabilistic components into a single analysis framework. This paper discusses the first steps in building an integrated toolkit for performing QRA on hydrogen transportation technologies and suggests directions for extending the toolkit.

  2. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2006 Progress Update

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Thomas, H.; Sprik, S.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.

    2006-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project through a competitive solicitation process in 2003. The purpose of this project is to conduct an integrated field validation that simultaneously examines the performance of fuel cell vehicles and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure. Four industry teams have signed cooperative agreements with DOE and are supporting plans for more than 130 fuel cell vehicles and 20 hydrogen refueling stations over the 5-year project duration. This paper provides a status update covering the progress accomplished by the demonstration and validation project over the last six months; the first composite data products from the project were published in March 2006. The composite data products aggregate individual performance into a range that protects the intellectual property of the companies involved, while publicizing the progress the hydrogen and fuel cell industry is making as a whole relative to the program objectives and timeline. Updates to previously published composite data products, such as on-road fuel economy and vehicle/infrastructure safety, will be presented along with new composite data products, such as fuel cell stack efficiency and refueling behavior.

  3. [ECRIN (European clinical research infrastructures network), a pan-European infrastructure for clinical research].

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2010-12-01

    Clinical research plays a key role both in the development of innovative health products and in the optimisation of medical strategies, leading to evidence-based practice and healthcare cost containment. ECRIN is a distributed ESFRI-roadmap pan-European infrastructure designed to support multinational clinical research, making Europe a single area for clinical studies, taking advantage of its population size to access patients, and unlocking latent scientific providing services to multinational. Servicing of multinational trials started during the preparatory phase, and ECRIN has applied for ERIC status in 2011. In parallel, ECRIN has also proposed an FP7 integrating activity project to further develop, upgrade and expand the ECRIN infrastructure built up during the past FP6 and FP7 projects, facilitating an efficient organization of clinical research in Europe, with ECRIN developing generic tools and providing generic services for multinational studies, and supporting the construction of pan-European disease-oriented networks that will in turn act as ECRIN users. This organization will improve Europe's attractiveness for industry trials, boost its scientific competitiveness, and result in better healthcare for European citizens. The three medical areas supported in this project (rare diseases, medical devices, and nutrition) will serve as pilots for other biomedical research fields. By creating a single area for clinical research in Europe, this structure will contribute to the implementation of the Europe flagship initiative 2020 'Innovation Union', whose objectives include defragmentation of research and educational capacities, tackling the major societal challenges (starting with healthy aging), and removing barriers to bringing ideas to the market.

  4. Final Technical Report: Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Grasman

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract DE-FC36-04GO14285 by Mercedes-Benz & Research Development, North America (MBRDNA), Chrysler, Daimler, Mercedes Benz USA (MBUSA), BP, DTE Energy and NextEnergy to validate fuel cell technologies for infrastructure, transportation as well as assess technology and commercial readiness for the market. The Mercedes Team, together with its partners, tested the technology by operating and fueling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles under real world conditions in varying climate, terrain and driving conditions. Vehicle and infrastructure data was collected to monitor the progress toward the hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure performance targets of $2.00 to 3.00/gge hydrogen production cost and 2,000-hour fuel cell durability. Finally, to prepare the public for a hydrogen economy, outreach activities were designed to promote awareness and acceptance of hydrogen technology. DTE, BP and NextEnergy established hydrogen filling stations using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage and dispensing. DTE established a hydrogen station in Southfield, Michigan while NextEnergy and BP worked together to construct one hydrogen station in Detroit. BP constructed another fueling station in Burbank, California and provided a full-time hydrogen trailer at San Francisco, California and a hydrogen station located at Los Angeles International Airport in Southern, California. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2011. The Team deployed 30 Gen I Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs) in the beginning of the project. While 28 Gen I F-CELLs used the A-Class platform, the remaining 2 were Sprinter delivery vans. Fuel cell vehicles were operated by external customers for real-world operations in various regions (ecosystems) to capture various driving patterns and climate conditions (hot, moderate and cold). External operators consisted of F-CELL partner organizations in California and Michigan

  5. Environmental Monitoring using Measurements from Cellular Network Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Gao, O. H.

    2015-12-01

    atmospheric phenomena using current and future planned frequencies of cellular network infrastructure will be introduced.

  6. Charge-Assisted Hydrogen-Bonded Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Michael D.

    The importance of hydrogen bonds is widely recognized because of their role in defining the structure and properties of many compounds, including water, proteins, DNA, and polymers. Hydrogen bonding also has emerged as a critical tool in solid-state chemistry, in which the versatility of organic synthesis has been combined with the structure-directing properties of hydrogen-bond donor-acceptor pairs to steer molecular assembly into networks that reflect the symmetries of their molecular constituents. Although these efforts have been largely empirical, the dominance of hydrogen bonding among the multitude of intermolecular forces often leads to predictable control of crystal structure. Although charge-assisted hydrogen bonds (donors and acceptors with ionic character that reinforce the electrostatic character of the hydrogen bond) have been recognized for decades, their use in network design, particularly for “crystal engineering,” has grown substantially in the past decade. The evidence suggests that charge-assisted hydrogen bonds introduce extraordinary robustness to molecular networks that reflects a combination of strong intermolecular forces and structural compliance, thus facilitating design of organic solid-state materials.

  7. A Data Scheduling and Management Infrastructure for the TEAM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andelman, S.; Baru, C.; Chandra, S.; Fegraus, E.; Lin, K.; Unwin, R.

    2009-04-01

    currently partnering with the San Diego Super Computer Center to build the data management infrastructure. Data collected from the three core protocols as well as others are currently made available through the TEAM Network portal, which provides the content management framework, the data scheduling and management framework, an administrative framework to implement and manage TEAM sites, collaborative tools and a number of tools and applications utilizing Google Map and Google Earth products. A critical element of the TEAM Network data management infrastructure is to make the data publicly available in as close to real-time as possible (the TEAM Network Data Use Policy: http://www.teamnetwork.org/en/data/policy). This requires two essential tasks to be accomplished, 1) A data collection schedule has to be planned, proposed and approved for a given TEAM site. This is a challenging process since TEAM sites are geographically distributed across the tropics and hence have different seasons where they schedule field sampling for the different TEAM protocols. Capturing this information and ensuring that TEAM sites follow the outlined legal contract is key to the data collection process and 2) A stream-lined and efficient information management system to ensure data collected from the field meet the minimum data standards (i.e. are of the highest scientific quality) and are securely transferred, archived, processed and be rapidly made publicaly available, as a finished consumable product via the TEAM Network portal. The TEAM Network is achieving these goals by implementing an end-to-end framework consisting of the Sampling Scheduler application and the Data Management Framework. Sampling Scheduler The Sampling Scheduler is a project management, calendar based portal application that will allow scientists at a TEAM site to schedule field sampling for each of the TEAM protocols implemented at that site. The sampling scheduler addresses the specific requirements established in the

  8. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Adrian R.; Martin, Mitchell Tyler; Hamlet, Jason; Stout, William M.S.; Lee, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  9. Co-location and Self-Similar Topologies of Urban Infrastructure Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, Christopher; Zhan, Xianyuan; Ukkusuri, Satish; Elisabeth, Krueger; Paik, Kyungrock; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    The co-location of urban infrastructure is too obvious to be easily ignored. For reasons of practicality, reliability, and eminent domain, the spatial locations of many urban infrastructure networks, including drainage, sanitary sewers, and road networks, are well correlated. However, important questions dealing with correlations in the network topologies of differing infrastructure types remain unanswered. Here, we have extracted randomly distributed, nested subnets from the urban drainage, sanitary sewer, and road networks in two distinctly different cities: Amman, Jordan; and Indianapolis, USA. Network analyses were performed for each randomly chosen subnet (location and size), using a dual-mapping approach (Hierarchical Intersection Continuity Negotiation). Topological metrics for each infrastructure type were calculated and compared for all subnets in a given city. Despite large differences in the climate, governance, and populace of the two cities, and functional properties of the different infrastructure types, these infrastructure networks are shown to be highly spatially homogenous. Furthermore, strong correlations are found between topological metrics of differing types of surface and subsurface infrastructure networks. Also, the network topologies of each infrastructure type for both cities are shown to exhibit self-similar characteristics (i.e., power law node-degree distributions, [p(k) = ak-γ]. These findings can be used to assist city planners and engineers either expanding or retrofitting existing infrastructure, or in the case of developing countries, building new cities from the ground up. In addition, the self-similar nature of these infrastructure networks holds significant implications for the vulnerability of these critical infrastructure networks to external hazards and ways in which network resilience can be improved.

  10. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    SciTech Connect

    Tamhankar, Satish; Gulamhusein, Ali; Boyd, Tony; DaCosta, David; Golben, Mark

    2011-06-30

    The project was started in April 2005 with the objective to meet the DOE target of delivered hydrogen of <$1.50/gge, which was later revised by DOE to $2-$3/gge range for hydrogen to be competitive with gasoline as a fuel for vehicles. For small, on-site hydrogen plants being evaluated at the time for refueling stations (the 'forecourt'), it was determined that capital cost is the main contributor to the high cost of delivered hydrogen. The concept of this project was to reduce the cost by combining unit operations for the entire generation, purification, and compression system (refer to Figure 1). To accomplish this, the Fluid Bed Membrane Reactor (FBMR) developed by MRT was used. The FBMR has hydrogen selective, palladium-alloy membrane modules immersed in the reformer vessel, thereby directly producing high purity hydrogen in a single step. The continuous removal of pure hydrogen from the reformer pushes the equilibrium 'forward', thereby maximizing the productivity with an associated reduction in the cost of product hydrogen. Additional gains were envisaged by the integration of the novel Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor (MHC) developed by Ergenics, which compresses hydrogen from 0.5 bar (7 psia) to 350 bar (5,076 psia) or higher in a single unit using thermal energy. Excess energy from the reformer provides up to 25% of the power used for driving the hydride compressor so that system integration improved efficiency. Hydrogen from the membrane reformer is of very high, fuel cell vehicle (FCV) quality (purity over 99.99%), eliminating the need for a separate purification step. The hydride compressor maintains hydrogen purity because it does not have dynamic seals or lubricating oil. The project team set out to integrate the membrane reformer developed by MRT and the hydride compression system developed by Ergenics in a single package. This was expected to result in lower cost and higher efficiency compared to conventional hydrogen production technologies. The

  11. Introduction to the U.S. Department of Energy's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Welch, C.; Gronich, S.; Garbak, J.; Hooker, D.

    2006-05-01

    Early in 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the ''Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project'' solicitation. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact and performance of fuel cell vehicles and the requisite hydrogen infrastructure in real-world applications. The integrated nature of the project enables DOE to work with industry to test, demonstrate, and validate optimal system solutions. Information learned from the vehicles and infrastructure will be fed back into DOE's R&D program to guide and refocus future research as needed, making this project truly a ''learning demonstration''.

  12. Sensor network infrastructure for a home care monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Stimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia

    2014-02-25

    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus.

  13. Sensor Network Infrastructure for a Home Care Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Filippo; Ullberg, Jonas; Štimec, Ales; Furfari, Francesco; Karlsson, Lars; Coradeschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the sensor network infrastructure for a home care system that allows long-term monitoring of physiological data and everyday activities. The aim of the proposed system is to allow the elderly to live longer in their home without compromising safety and ensuring the detection of health problems. The system offers the possibility of a virtual visit via a teleoperated robot. During the visit, physiological data and activities occurring during a period of time can be discussed. These data are collected from physiological sensors (e.g., temperature, blood pressure, glucose) and environmental sensors (e.g., motion, bed/chair occupancy, electrical usage). The system can also give alarms if sudden problems occur, like a fall, and warnings based on more long-term trends, such as the deterioration of health being detected. It has been implemented and tested in a test environment and has been deployed in six real homes for a year-long evaluation. The key contribution of the paper is the presentation of an implemented system for ambient assisted living (AAL) tested in a real environment, combining the acquisition of sensor data, a flexible and adaptable middleware compliant with the OSGistandard and a context recognition application. The system has been developed in a European project called GiraffPlus. PMID:24573309

  14. Hydrogen bonded network properties in liquid formamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakó, Imre; Megyes, Tünde; Bálint, Szabolcs; Chihaia, Viorel; Bellissent-Funel, Marie-Claire; Krienke, Hartmut; Kopf, Andreas; Suh, Soong-Hyuck

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for liquid formamide using two different types of potential model (OPLS, Cordeiro). The structural results obtained from simulation were compared to experimental (x-ray and neutron diffraction measurements) outcomes. A generally good agreement for both models examined has been found, but in the hydrogen bonded region (2.9 Å) the Cordeiro model shows a slightly better fit. Besides the evaluation of partial radial distribution functions, orientational correlation functions and energy distribution functions, describing the hydrogen bonded structure, have been calculated based on the statistical analysis of configurations, resulting into a new insight in the clustering properties and topology of hydrogen bonded network. It has been shown that in liquid formamide exists a continuous hydrogen bonded network and from the analysis of the distribution of small rings revealed the ring size distribution in liquid formamide. Our study resulted that the ring size distribution of the hydrogen bonded liquid formamide shows a broad distribution with a maximum around 11. It has been found that the topology in formamide is significantly different than in water.

  15. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  16. A distributed optical grid network infrastructure for future easy-to-use innovative network services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sugang; Harai, Hiroaki; Wada, Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Extending the researches on wavelength switched optical networks (WSON), efficient integration of the novel optical packet switching network and wavelength switching-based optical circuit switching network technologies which offers both best-effort packet delivery and QoS guaranteed lightpath services has been being studied. In addition, researches on the optical-layer transparent data processing, such as all-optical wavelength multicasting, all-optical 3R regeneration, etc, are conducted simultaneously. It is believed that future innovative optical network services (INSes) would be built on these novel future-proof technologies, and foster colorful applications in the new generation networks. Before the wide applications of INS in different fields, there would be a foreseeable strong requirement for INS firstly posed by pioneer grid applications, e.g., e-science, e-government, and e-banking, etc, which would require the high-performance underlying networks. Our research here is motivated to glue the optical networks and grid applications by integrating lightpath, geographically distributed INS systems and grid resources (e.g., computers, storages, instruments, etc.), and finally offering an easy-to-use high performance networked grid computing environment-optical grid network (OGN) to user applications. In this paper, we introduce our research activities of a distributed optical grid network infrastructure (OGNI), and the creation of the future easy-to-use INS based on OGNI. The proposals have been validated through fieldtrial experiments over a developed WSON testbed.

  17. Making Infrastructure Visible: A Case Study of Home Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetty, Marshini

    2011-01-01

    Technological infrastructure is often taken for granted in our day to day lives until it breaks down, usually because it invisibly supports tasks otherwise. Previous work in HCI has focused on how people react and deal with breaks in infrastructure as well as how to help people to fix or exploit these breaks. However, few have sought to understand…

  18. Making Infrastructure Visible: A Case Study of Home Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetty, Marshini

    2011-01-01

    Technological infrastructure is often taken for granted in our day to day lives until it breaks down, usually because it invisibly supports tasks otherwise. Previous work in HCI has focused on how people react and deal with breaks in infrastructure as well as how to help people to fix or exploit these breaks. However, few have sought to understand…

  19. Alternative transportation fuels: Infrastructure requirements and environmental impacts for ethanol and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakeley, Heather L.

    Alternative fuels could replace a significant portion of the 140 billion gallons of annual US gasoline use. Considerable attention is being paid to processes and technologies for producing alternative fuels, but an enormous investment in new infrastructure will be needed to have substantial impact on the demand for petroleum. The economics of production, distribution, and use, along with environmental impacts of these fuels, will determine the success or failure of a transition away from US petroleum dependence. This dissertation evaluates infrastructure requirements for ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels. It begins with an economic case study for ethanol and hydrogen in Iowa. A large-scale linear optimization model is developed to estimate average transportation distances and costs for nationwide ethanol production and distribution systems. Environmental impacts of transportation in the ethanol life cycle are calculated using the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. An EIO-LCA Hybrid method is developed to evaluate impacts of future fuel production technologies. This method is used to estimate emissions for hydrogen production and distribution pathways. Results from the ethanol analyses indicate that the ethanol transportation cost component is significant and is the most variable. Costs for ethanol sold in the Midwest, near primary production centers, are estimated to be comparable to or lower than gasoline costs. Along with a wide range of transportation costs, environmental impacts for ethanol range over three orders of magnitude, depending on the transport required. As a result, intensive ethanol use should be encouraged near ethanol production areas. Fossil fuels are likely to remain the primary feedstock sources for hydrogen production in the near- and mid-term. Costs and environmental impacts of hydrogen produced from natural gas and transported by pipeline are comparable to gasoline. However, capital costs are prohibitive and

  20. Modeling the resilience of critical infrastructure: the role of network dependencies.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Roberto; Chmielewski, Hana; Unnikrishnan, Vipin; Gardoni, Paolo; McAllister, Therese; van de Lindt, John

    2016-01-01

    Water and wastewater network, electric power network, transportation network, communication network, and information technology network are among the critical infrastructure in our communities; their disruption during and after hazard events greatly affects communities' well-being, economic security, social welfare, and public health. In addition, a disruption in one network may cause disruption to other networks and lead to their reduced functionality. This paper presents a unified theoretical methodology for the modeling of dependent/interdependent infrastructure networks and incorporates it in a six-step probabilistic procedure to assess their resilience. Both the methodology and the procedure are general, can be applied to any infrastructure network and hazard, and can model different types of dependencies between networks. As an illustration, the paper models the direct effects of seismic events on the functionality of a potable water distribution network and the cascading effects of the damage of the electric power network (EPN) on the potable water distribution network (WN). The results quantify the loss of functionality and delay in the recovery process due to dependency of the WN on the EPN. The results show the importance of capturing the dependency between networks in modeling the resilience of critical infrastructure.

  1. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  2. Network Interdependency Modeling for Risk Assessment on Built Infrastructure Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Generally, infrastructure sectors (such as transportation, electrical, water/ wastewater , facilities, etc.) are examined in isolation without regard to...classified under the broad term of functional interdependency while spatial interdependencies receive the same treatment as a geographical

  3. Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet) Technology Infrastructure for a Distributed Data Network

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Lisa M.; Kwan, Bethany M.; Drolshagen, Charles T.; Hosokawa, Patrick W.; Brandt, Elias; Pace, Wilson D.; Uhrich, Christopher; Kamerick, Michael; Bunting, Aidan; Payne, Philip R.O.; Stephens, William E.; George, Joseph M.; Vance, Mark; Giacomini, Kelli; Braddy, Jason; Green, Mika K.; Kahn, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Distributed Data Networks (DDNs) offer infrastructure solutions for sharing electronic health data from across disparate data sources to support comparative effectiveness research. Data sharing mechanisms must address technical and governance concerns stemming from network security and data disclosure laws and best practices, such as HIPAA. Methods: The Scalable Architecture for Federated Translational Inquiries Network (SAFTINet) deploys TRIAD grid technology, a common data model, detailed technical documentation, and custom software for data harmonization to facilitate data sharing in collaboration with stakeholders in the care of safety net populations. Data sharing partners host TRIAD grid nodes containing harmonized clinical data within their internal or hosted network environments. Authorized users can use a central web-based query system to request analytic data sets. Discussion: SAFTINet DDN infrastructure achieved a number of data sharing objectives, including scalable and sustainable systems for ensuring harmonized data structures and terminologies and secure distributed queries. Initial implementation challenges were resolved through iterative discussions, development and implementation of technical documentation, governance, and technology solutions. PMID:25848567

  4. Hydrogen Scenario Analysis Summary Report: Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome; James, Brian; Perez, Julie; Melendez, Margo; Milbrandt, Anelia; Unnasch, Stefan; Rutherford, Daniel; Hooks, Matthew

    2008-03-01

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself. The transition to hydrogen-powered transportation faces imposing economic barriers. The challenges include developing and refining a new and different power-train technology, building a supporting fuel infrastructure, creating a market for new and unfamiliar vehicles, and achieving economies of scale in vehicle production while providing an attractive selection of vehicle makes and models for car-buyers. The upfront costs will be high and could persist for a decade or more, delaying profitability until an adequate number of vehicles can be produced and moved into consumer markets. However, the potential rewards to the economy, environment, and national security are immense. Such a profound market transformation will require careful planning and strong, consistent policy incentives. Section 811 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 2005, Public Law 109-59 (U.S. House, 2005), calls for a report from the Secretary of Energy on measures to support the transition to a hydrogen economy. The report was to specifically address production and deployment of hydrogen-fueled vehicles and the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure needed to support those vehicles. In addition, the 2004 report of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, 2004), The Hydrogen Economy, contained two recommendations for analyses to be conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to strengthen hydrogen energy transition and infrastructure planning for the hydrogen economy. In response to the EPACT requirement and NAS recommendations, DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and

  5. Toward Information Infrastructure Studies: Ways of Knowing in a Networked Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, Geoffrey C.; Baker, Karen; Millerand, Florence; Ribes, David

    This article presents Information Infrastructure Studies, a research area that takes up some core issues in digital information and organization research. Infrastructure Studies simultaneously addresses the technical, social, and organizational aspects of the development, usage, and maintenance of infrastructures in local communities as well as global arenas. While infrastructure is understood as a broad category referring to a variety of pervasive, enabling network resources such as railroad lines, plumbing and pipes, electrical power plants and wires, this article focuses on information infrastructure, such as computational services and help desks, or federating activities such as scientific data repositories and archives spanning the multiple disciplines needed to address such issues as climate warming and the biodiversity crisis. These are elements associated with the internet and, frequently today, associated with cyberinfrastructure or e-science endeavors. We argue that a theoretical understanding of infrastructure provides the context for needed dialogue between design, use, and sustainability of internet-based infrastructure services. This article outlines a research area and outlines overarching themes of Infrastructure Studies. Part one of the paper presents definitions for infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure, reviewing salient previous work. Part two portrays key ideas from infrastructure studies (knowledge work, social and political values, new forms of sociality, etc.). In closing, the character of the field today is considered.

  6. Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

  7. Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

  8. A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleutério, J.; Hattemer, C.; Rozan, A.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.

  9. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  10. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Puneet; Casey, Dan

    2011-03-29

    This report summarizes the work conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14286 by Chevron Technology Ventures (CTV, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.), Hyundai Motor Company (HMC), and UTC Power (UTCP, a United Technologies company) to validate hydrogen (H2) infrastructure technology and fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Chevron established hydrogen filling stations at fleet operator sites using multiple technologies for on-site hydrogen generation, storage, and dispensing. CTV constructed five demonstration stations to support a vehicle fleet of 33 fuel cell passenger vehicles, eight internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, three fuel cell transit busses, and eight internal combustion engine shuttle busses. Stations were operated between 2005 and 2010. HMC introduced 33 fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the course of the project. Generation I included 17 vehicles that used UTCP fuel cell power plants and operated at 350 bar. Generation II included 16 vehicles that had upgraded UTC fuel cell power plants and demonstrated options such as the use of super-capacitors and operation at 700 bar. All 33 vehicles used the Hyundai Tucson sports utility vehicle (SUV) platform. Fleet operators demonstrated commercial operation of the vehicles in three climate zones (hot, moderate, and cold) and for various driving patterns. Fleet operators were Southern California Edison (SCE), AC Transit (of Oakland, California), Hyundai America Technical Center Inc. (HATCI), and the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC, in a site agreement with Selfridge Army National Guard Base in Selfridge, Michigan).

  11. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking.

  12. A centralized informatics infrastructure for the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jeng-Jong; Nahm, Meredith; Wakim, Paul; Cushing, Carol; Poole, Lori; Tai, Betty; Pieper, Carl F

    2009-02-01

    Clinical trial networks (CTNs) were created to provide a sustaining infrastructure for the conduct of multisite clinical trials. As such, they must withstand changes in membership. Centralization of infrastructure including knowledge management, portfolio management, information management, process automation, work policies, and procedures in clinical research networks facilitates consistency and ultimately research. In 2005, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) CTN transitioned from a distributed data management model to a centralized informatics infrastructure to support the network's trial activities and administration. We describe the centralized informatics infrastructure and discuss our challenges to inform others considering such an endeavor. During the migration of a clinical trial network from a decentralized to a centralized data center model, descriptive data were captured and are presented here to assess the impact of centralization. We present the framework for the informatics infrastructure and evaluative metrics. The network has decreased the time from last patient-last visit to database lock from an average of 7.6 months to 2.8 months. The average database error rate decreased from 0.8% to 0.2%, with a corresponding decrease in the interquartile range from 0.04%-1.0% before centralization to 0.01-0.27% after centralization. Centralization has provided the CTN with integrated trial status reporting and the first standards-based public data share. A preliminary cost-benefit analysis showed a 50% reduction in data management cost per study participant over the life of a trial. A single clinical trial network comprising addiction researchers and community treatment programs was assessed. The findings may not be applicable to other research settings. The identified informatics components provide the information and infrastructure needed for our clinical trial network. Post centralization data management operations are more efficient and less

  13. Libraries in the Global, National, and Local Networked Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Charles R.

    This paper explores the challenges and opportunities facing libraries as they evolve into the electronic networked environment, and looks at options for libraries in the year 2000 and beyond. The internationally networked environment has fundamentally changed the way in which people acquire and use information resources and services. The paper…

  14. Fieldservers and Sensor Service Grid as Real-time Monitoring Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kiyoshi; Shrestha, Aadit; Witayangkurn, Apichon; Chinnachodteeranun, Rassarin; Shimamura, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The fieldserver is an Internet based observation robot that can provide an outdoor solution for monitoring environmental parameters in real-time. The data from its sensors can be collected to a central server infrastructure and published on the Internet. The information from the sensor network will contribute to monitoring and modeling on various environmental issues in Asia, including agriculture, food, pollution, disaster, climate change etc. An initiative called Sensor Asia is developing an infrastructure called Sensor Service Grid (SSG), which integrates fieldservers and Web GIS to realize easy and low cost installation and operation of ubiquitous field sensor networks.

  15. Network Computing Infrastructure to Share Tools and Data in Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Guehee; Suzuki, Yoshio; Teshima, Naoya

    CCSE/JAEA (Center for Computational Science and e-Systems/Japan Atomic Energy Agency) integrated a prototype system of a network computing infrastructure for sharing tools and data to support the U.S. and Japan collaboration in GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership). We focused on three technical issues to apply our information process infrastructure, which are accessibility, security, and usability. In designing the prototype system, we integrated and improved both network and Web technologies. For the accessibility issue, we adopted SSL-VPN (Security Socket Layer-Virtual Private Network) technology for the access beyond firewalls. For the security issue, we developed an authentication gateway based on the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authentication mechanism to strengthen the security. Also, we set fine access control policy to shared tools and data and used shared key based encryption method to protect tools and data against leakage to third parties. For the usability issue, we chose Web browsers as user interface and developed Web application to provide functions to support sharing tools and data. By using WebDAV (Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning) function, users can manipulate shared tools and data through the Windows-like folder environment. We implemented the prototype system in Grid infrastructure for atomic energy research: AEGIS (Atomic Energy Grid Infrastructure) developed by CCSE/JAEA. The prototype system was applied for the trial use in the first period of GNEP.

  16. Networking Research Infrastructures for Earthquake Seismology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, Domenico; van Eck, Torild; Bossu, Rémy; Wiemer, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    In the past decade, European countries have experienced a surge in funding, of the order of 100 million euro (€100 million), for new earthquake monitoring equipment and initiatives. Permanent and mobile seismograph and accelerometer networks on national, regional, and global levels are being modernized and are expanding at a significant pace. Currently, earthquakes in the European-Mediterranean region are recorded by more than 2500 short-period (SP) seismometers, 3000 accelerometers, and 800 broadband (BB) permanent seismic stations operated by more than 100 networks and observatories. An additional 400 BB and more than 1200 SP mobile stations are deployed by universities and research institutes in temporary experiments. This unprecedented and still-expanding recording capacity in Europe and its immediate surroundings opens up new research opportunities as well as new data-handling challenges. For example, maintaining optimum access to the data and integrating facilities with different types of data require a high level of networking and coordination.

  17. Critical node analysis (CNA) of electrical infrastructure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaran, Venkat; Bennette, Walter

    2016-05-01

    This work addresses the problem of identifying the set of nodes in a power network critical to system operation. Formally, the CNA problem is the problem of identifying a minimum cardinality set of nodes to target in a power network in order to reduce throughput by a given factor. Since the defender may reroute flows in an attempt to restore throughput, the attack must anticipate and defeat this possibility. We develop here an algorithm to solve this problem. In our approach we model the problem as a bi-level optimization problem where the master problem attempts different attack combinations and the sub-problem responds with the best routing. The optimization problems that result from such a framework are mixed integer programs (MIPs), which we solve in our implementation using IBM CPLEX. The algorithm has been tested on several benchmark networks and appears to perform well. We have also developed variants that can be used for determining optimal restoration configuration post damage on large networks (4000 nodes, 8000 links) and for modeling propagation of failures after the initial attack. We report on computational experiments with these variants as well.

  18. Low power wireless sensor networks for infrastructure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaed, Mohammad Hassan; Ghahramani, Mohammad Mahdi; Chen, Gregory; Fojtik, Matthew; Blaauw, David; Flynn, Michael P.; Sylvester, Dennis

    2012-04-01

    Sensors with long lifetimes are ideal for infrastructure monitoring. Miniaturized sensor systems are only capable of storing small amounts of energy. Prior work has increased sensor lifetime through the reduction of supply voltage , necessitating voltage conversion from storage elements such as batteries. Sensor lifetime can be further extended by harvesting from solar, vibrational, or thermal energy. Since harvested energy is sporadic, it must be detected and stored. Harvesting sources do not provide voltage levels suitable for secondary power sources, necessitating DC-DC upconversion. We demonstrate a 8.75mm3 sensor system with a near-threshold ARM microcontroller, custom 3.3fW/bit SRAM, two 1mm2 solar cells, a thin-film Li-ion battery, and integrated power management unit. The 7.7μW system enters a 550pW data-retentive sleep state between measurements and harvests solar energy to enable energy autonomy. Our receiver and transmitter architectures benefit from a design strategy that employs mixed signal and digital circuit schemes that perform well in advanced CMOS integrated circuit technologies. A prototype transmitter implemented in 0.13μm CMOS satisfies the requirements for Zigbee, but consumes far less power consumption than state-of-the-art commercial devices.

  19. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  20. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Kurtz, Nolan Scot

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  1. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  2. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations

  3. Building Research Infrastructure in Community Health Centers: A Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN) Report

    PubMed Central

    Likumahuwa, Sonja; Song, Hui; Singal, Robbie; Weir, Rosy Chang; Crane, Heidi; Muench, John; Sim, Shao-Chee; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the Community Health Applied Research Network (CHARN), a practice-based research network of community health centers (CHCs). Established by the Health Resources and Services Administration in 2010, CHARN is a network of 4 community research nodes, each with multiple affiliated CHCs and an academic center. The four nodes (18 individual CHCs and 4 academic partners in 9 states) are supported by a data coordinating center. Here we provide case studies detailing how CHARN is building research infrastructure and capacity in CHCs, with a particular focus on how community practice-academic partnerships were facilitated by the CHARN structure. The examples provided by the CHARN nodes include many of the building blocks of research capacity: communication capacity and “matchmaking” between providers and researchers; technology transfer; research methods tailored to community practice settings; and community institutional review board infrastructure to enable community oversight. We draw lessons learned from these case studies that we hope will serve as examples for other networks, with special relevance for community-based networks seeking to build research infrastructure in primary care settings. PMID:24004710

  4. JERICO: a Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puillat, I.; Sparnocchia, S.; Bozzano, R.; Coppola, L.; Petihakis, G.; Ntoumas, M.; Lefevre, D.; Caballero, A.; Beguery, L.; Testor, P.

    2013-12-01

    Existing coastal observatories in European waters are composed of platforms such as moored buoys, piles, profiling systems, gliders, ';ferryboxes' and automated systems on board of ships of opportunity. JERICO project strives to integrate existing infrastructures and provides a platform for the identification and dissemination of best practices for the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of observing systems and the dissemination of data. In order to reach these objectives several kinds of actions are undertaken, amongst which the offer of Trans-National Access (TNA) to a number of coastal observatories and calibration facilities for international research and technology development. This presentation will give a short overview of the selected TNA proposals and a focus will be drawn on some of the TNA results. Calibrating sensors regularly is the prime requirement for getting reliable data from coastal observatories and ensuring their long-term relevance as viable providers of information on the marine environment. The calibration facilities at the HCMR complex in Crete hosted users for calibration experiments. The first one was accessed by a HCMR team to improve their experience in calibrating high-quality oceanographic temperature sensors using primary ITS-90 reference standards. The experiment involved full calibrations of two SBE 35 thermometers from Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. owned by the HCMR that will be used as reference sensors for temperature measurements in their calibration laboratory in Crete. Gliders make oceanographic measurements traditionally collected by research vessels or moored instruments, but at a fraction of the costs. The GESEBB glider Mission started in July 2013, in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. The objective of the mission is sampling the characteristics of a mesoscale eddy that appears in the southeastern Bay of Biscay, during spring and summer. The origin of this structure is associated with the strength and extension

  5. Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks

    PubMed Central

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Robson, Craig; Glenis, Vassilis; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options. A case study in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK shows that both green roof infrastructure and traditional engineering interventions such as culverts or flood walls can reduce transport disruption from flooding. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the flood event and adaptation strategy, but for the scenarios considered here 3–22% improvements in city-wide travel times are achieved. The network metric of betweenness centrality, weighted by travel time, is shown to provide a rapid approach to identify and prioritize the most critical locations for flood risk management intervention. Protecting just the top ranked critical location from flooding provides an 11% reduction in person delays. A city-wide deployment of green roofs achieves a 26% reduction, and although key routes still flood, the benefits of this strategy are more evenly distributed across the transport network as flood depths are reduced across the model domain. Both options should form part of an urban flood risk management strategy, but this method can be used to optimize investment and target limited resources at critical locations, enabling green infrastructure strategies to be gradually implemented over the longer term to provide city-wide benefits. This framework provides a means of prioritizing limited financial resources to improve resilience. This is particularly important as flood management investments must typically

  6. Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks.

    PubMed

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Robson, Craig; Glenis, Vassilis; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options. A case study in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK shows that both green roof infrastructure and traditional engineering interventions such as culverts or flood walls can reduce transport disruption from flooding. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the flood event and adaptation strategy, but for the scenarios considered here 3-22% improvements in city-wide travel times are achieved. The network metric of betweenness centrality, weighted by travel time, is shown to provide a rapid approach to identify and prioritize the most critical locations for flood risk management intervention. Protecting just the top ranked critical location from flooding provides an 11% reduction in person delays. A city-wide deployment of green roofs achieves a 26% reduction, and although key routes still flood, the benefits of this strategy are more evenly distributed across the transport network as flood depths are reduced across the model domain. Both options should form part of an urban flood risk management strategy, but this method can be used to optimize investment and target limited resources at critical locations, enabling green infrastructure strategies to be gradually implemented over the longer term to provide city-wide benefits. This framework provides a means of prioritizing limited financial resources to improve resilience. This is particularly important as flood management investments must typically exceed

  7. ICOS Sweden - a national infrastructure network for greenhouse gas research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Anders; Heliasz, Michal; Klemedtsson, Leif; Friborg, Thomas; Nilsson, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Rutgersson, Anna; Stiegler, Christian

    2015-04-01

    ICOS Sweden operates a measurement network consisting of seven field stations representing major Swedish ecosystems (forests, wetlands, crop sites and marine) and climatic conditions. Three sites also host atmospheric measurements in high towers. In addition to ICOS activities, the stations are open to all researchers wishing to perform complementary studies. The ICOS Sweden ecosystem and atmospheric stations are all equipped according to the ICOS "class 1" criteria, and will be fully operational in beginning of 2015. All ICOS Sweden field stations are equipped with mains power, internet, computers and staff meaning that many other projects, both long-term and short-term, can be linked to them - for example, in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, biodiversity, land and soil studies etc. ICOS Sweden is comprised of the following stations; Abisko-Stordalen (subarctic mire), Degerö (boreal mire), Svartberget (boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Norunda (hemi boreal pine/spruce forest + atmospheric observations), Lanna (cropland), Östergarnsholm (marine) and Hyltemossa (southern boreal spruce + atmospheric observations).

  8. Partnership effectiveness in primary community care networks: A national empirical analysis of partners' coordination infrastructure designs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical and managerial studies have ignored the effectiveness of integrated health networks. It has been argued that the varying definitions and strategic imperatives of integrated organizations may have complicated the assessment of the outcomes/performance of varying models, particularly when their market structures and contexts differed. This study aimed to empirically verify a theoretical perspective on the coordination infrastructure designs and the effectiveness of the primary community care networks (PCCNs) formed and funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance since March 2003. The PCCNs present a model to replace the traditional fragmented providers in Taiwan's health care. The study used a cross-sectional mailed survey designed to ascertain partnership coordination infrastructure and integration of governance, clinical care, bonding, finances, and information. The outcome indicators were PCCNs' perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. Structural equation modeling examined the causal relationships, controlling for organizational and environmental factors. Primary data collection occurred from February through December 2005, via structured questionnaires sent to 172 PCCNs. Using the individual PCCN as the unit of analysis, the results found that a network's efforts regarding coordination infrastructures were positively related to the PCCN's perceived performance and willingness to remain within the network. In addition, PCCNs practicing in rural areas and in areas with higher density of medical resources had better perceived effectiveness and willingness to cooperate in the network.Practical Implication: The lack of both an operational definition and an information about system-wide integration may have obstructed understanding of integrated health networks' organizational dynamics. This study empirically examined individual PCCNs and offers new insights on how to improve networks' organizational design and

  9. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Shawn; Lake, Andrew; Laurens, Philippe; Severini, Horst; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wolff, Stephen; Zurawski, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Global scientific collaborations, such as ATLAS, continue to push the network requirements envelope. Data movement in this collaboration is routinely including the regular exchange of petabytes of datasets between the collection and analysis facilities in the coming years. These requirements place a high emphasis on networks functioning at peak efficiency and availability; the lack thereof could mean critical delays in the overall scientific progress of distributed data-intensive experiments like ATLAS. Network operations staff routinely must deal with problems deep in the infrastructure; this may be as benign as replacing a failing piece of equipment, or as complex as dealing with a multi-domain path that is experiencing data loss. In either case, it is crucial that effective monitoring and performance analysis tools are available to ease the burden of management. We will report on our experiences deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit at ATLAS sites in the United States. This software creates a dedicated monitoring server, capable of collecting and performing a wide range of passive and active network measurements. Each independent instance is managed locally, but able to federate on a global scale; enabling a full view of the network infrastructure that spans domain boundaries. This information, available through web service interfaces, can easily be retrieved to create customized applications. The US ATLAS collaboration has developed a centralized “dashboard” offering network administrators, users, and decision makers the ability to see the performance of the network at a glance. The dashboard framework includes the ability to notify users (alarm) when problems are found, thus allowing rapid response to potential problems and making perfSONAR-PS crucial to the operation of our distributed computing infrastructure.

  10. Networking for large-scale science: infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Nageswara S.; Carter, Steven M.; Wu, Qishi; Wing, William R.; Zhu, Mengxia; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Veeraraghavan, Malathi; Blondin, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale science computations and experiments require unprecedented network capabilities in the form of large bandwidth and dynamically stable connections to support data transfers, interactive visualizations, and monitoring and steering operations. A number of component technologies dealing with the infrastructure, provisioning, transport and application mappings must be developed and/or optimized to achieve these capabilities. We present a brief account of the following technologies that contribute toward achieving these network capabilities: (a) DOE UltraScienceNet and NSF CHEETAH network testbeds that provide on-demand and scheduled dedicated network connections; (b) experimental results on transport protocols that achieve close to 100% utilization on dedicated 1Gbps wide-area channels; (c) a scheme for optimally mapping a visualization pipeline onto a network to minimize the end-to-end delays; and (d) interconnect configuration and protocols that provides multiple Gbps flows from Cray X1 to external hosts.

  11. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.; James, Brian; Perez, Julie; Melendez, Margo; Milbrandt, Anelia; Unnash, Stefan; Rutherford, Daniel; Hooks, Matthew

    2008-03-14

    Achieving a successful transition to hydrogen-powered vehicles in the U.S. automotive market will require strong and sustained commitment by hydrogen producers, vehicle manufacturers, transporters and retailers, consumers, and governments. The interaction of these agents in the marketplace will determine the real costs and benefits of early market transformation policies, and ultimately the success of the transition itself.

  12. Network Corrected Real-Time Kinematic - Infrastructure Partnering betwen Industry and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrock, Gavin

    2010-05-01

    The rapid deployment of GNSS sensors in the form of continuously operating reference stations (CORS) both as stand-alone CORS and as networks of CORS grouped by function or administration provides a tremendous opportunity for partnering and development of joint resources for science and industry. The drivers for development of early GNSS networks and the funding thereof typically came from specific user segments like surveying, mapping, construction, public safety, structural integrity monitoring, precision agriculture, science and academia, often developed and operated centrally via a single entity. Such an approach would often result in duplicity of effort and limited utility for expanded or enhanced uses. The more recent trend is towards serving multiple user segments both in design and administration as cooperative networks. Implementation and utilization of GNSS networks has a longer history in geophysical sciences of academia and federal geodetic services than in the surveying, construction and mapping sectors, and only of late in more commercial and consumer level ventures. Such legacy infrastructure is more typically utilized in a post-processed mode. The more recent boom in the development of CORS has been in support of real-time kinematics uses like surveying, mapping, and construction. Network corrected real-time infrastructure, more commonly referred to as RTN (real-time networks) applies multiple scientific approaches in providing sub-centimetre 3D positions for mobile users (rovers) and even tighter results for server-side motion-engine processing.

  13. Joint accurate time and stable frequency distribution infrastructure sharing fiber footprint with research network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtech, Josef; Slapak, Martin; Skoda, Pavel; Radil, Jan; Havlis, Ondrej; Altmann, Michal; Munster, Petr; Smotlacha, Vladimir; Kundrat, Jan; Velc, Radek; Altmannova, Lada; Hula, Miloslav

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present infrastructure for accurate time and stable frequency distribution. It is based on sharing of fibers of research and educational network carrying data traffic. Accurate time and stable frequency transmission uses mainly created dark channels amplified by special bidirectional amplifiers with the same propagation path for both directions. Paper also targets challenges joined with bidirectional transmission, which represents directional non-reciprocities and interaction with parallel data transmissions.

  14. Effective Utilization of Resources and Infrastructure for a Spaceport Network Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy; Larson, Wiley; Mueller, Robert; Roberson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Providing routine, affordable access to a variety of orbital and deep space destinations requires an intricate network of ground, planetary surface, and space-based spaceports like those on Earth (land and sea), in various Earth orbits, and on other extraterrestrial surfaces. Advancements in technology and international collaboration are critical to establish a spaceport network that satisfies the requirements for private and government research, exploration, and commercial objectives. Technologies, interfaces, assembly techniques, and protocols must be adapted to enable mission critical capabilities and interoperability throughout the spaceport network. The conceptual space mission architecture must address the full range of required spaceport services, from managing propellants for a variety of spacecraft to governance structure. In order to accomplish affordability and sustainability goals, the network architecture must consider deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to the maximum extent possible. Water on the Moon and Mars, Mars' atmospheric CO2, and O2 extracted from lunar regolith are examples of in situ resources that could be used to generate propellants for various spacecraft, orbital stages and trajectories, and the commodities to support habitation and human operations at these destinations. The ability to use in-space fuel depots containing in situ derived propellants would drastically reduce the mass required to launch long-duration or deep space missions from Earth's gravity well. Advances in transformative technologies and common capabilities, interfaces, umbilicals, commodities, protocols, and agreements will facilitate a cost-effective, safe, reliable infrastructure for a versatile network of Earth- and extraterrestrial spaceports. Defining a common infrastructure on Earth, planetary surfaces, and in space, as well as deriving propellants from in situ planetary resources to construct in-space propellant depots to serve the spaceport

  15. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Duleep, Gopal

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  16. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Kotenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described. PMID:25254229

  17. The framework for simulation of bioinspired security mechanisms against network infrastructure attacks.

    PubMed

    Shorov, Andrey; Kotenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named "network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed procedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine necessary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  18. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell& Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2003-08-01

    Fact sheet describes the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus that was demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency from November 2002 to February 2003. The bus was evaluated by DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  19. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  20. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN): infrastructure development and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Mark; Silva, Susan G; Compton, Scott; Chrisman, Allan; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Kondo, Douglas; Kirchner, Jerry; March, John S

    2009-01-01

    Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR) mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF) running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of incorporating clinical research into

  1. Infrastructure sensing

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  2. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-06

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors.

  3. Common solutions for power, communication and robustness in operations of large measurement networks within Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Robert; Beranzoli, Laura; Fiebig, Markus; Gilbert, Olivier; Laj, Paolo; Mazzola, Mauro; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Pedersen, Helle; Stocker, Markus; Vitale, Vito; Waldmann, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    European Environmental Research Infrastructures (RI) frequently comprise in situ observatories from large-scale networks of platforms or sites to local networks of various sensors. Network operation is usually a cumbersome aspect of these RIs facing specific technological problems related to operations in remote areas, maintenance of the network, transmission of observation values, etc.. Robust inter-connection within and across these networks is still at infancy level and the burden increases with remoteness of the station, harshness of environmental conditions, and unavailability of classic communication systems, which is a common feature here. Despite existing RIs having developed ad-hoc solutions to overcome specific problems and innovative technologies becoming available, no common approach yet exists. Within the European project ENVRIplus, a dedicated work package aims to stimulate common network operation technologies and approaches in terms of power supply and storage, robustness, and data transmission. Major objectives of this task are to review existing technologies and RI requirements, propose innovative solutions and evaluate the standardization potential prior to wider deployment across networks. Focus areas within these efforts are: improving energy production and storage units, testing robustness of RI equipment towards extreme conditions as well as methodologies for robust data transmission. We will introduce current project activities which are coordinated at various levels including the engineering as well as the data management perspective, and explain how environmental RIs can benefit from the developments.

  4. Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network: establishing an infrastructure for efficient conduct of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Anjum; Nauman, Elizabeth; Carton, Tom; Horswell, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The state of Louisiana, like the nation as a whole, is facing the salient challenge of improving population health and efficiency of healthcare delivery. Research to inform innovations in healthcare will best enhance this effort if it is timely, efficient, and patient-centered. The Louisiana Clinical Data Research Network (LACDRN) will increase the capacity to conduct robust comparative effectiveness research by building a health information technology infrastructure that provides access to comprehensive clinical data for more than 1 million patients statewide. To ensure that network-based research best serves its end-users, the project will actively engage patients and providers as key informants and decision-makers in the implementation of LACDRN. The network's patient-centered research agenda will prioritize patients’ and clinicians’ needs and aim to support evidence-based decisions on the healthcare they receive and provide, to optimize patient outcomes and quality of life. PMID:24821735

  5. HyPro: A Financial Tool for Simulating Hydrogen Infrastructure Development, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D. James, Peter O. Schmidt, Julie Perez

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes a multi-year Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI) project to study the build-out of hydrogen production facilities during the transition from gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The primary objectives of the project are to develop an enhanced understanding of hydrogen production issues during the transition period (out to 2050) and to develop recommendations for the DOE on areas of further study. These objectives are achieved by conducting economic and scenario analysis to predict how industry would provide the hydrogen production, delivery and dispensing capabilities necessary to satisfy increased hydrogen demand. The primary tool used for the analysis is a custom created MatLab simulation tool entitled HyPro (short for Hydrogen Production). This report describes the calculation methodology used in HyPro, the baseline assumptions, the results of the baseline analysis and several corollary studies. The appendices of this report included a complete listing of model assumptions (capital costs, efficiencies, feedstock prices, delivery distances, etc.) and a step-by-step manual on the specific operation of the HyPro program. This study was made possible with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Equipment Management for Sensor Networks: Linking Physical Infrastructure and Actions to Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Matos, M.; Caraballo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Networks conducting long term monitoring using in situ sensors need the functionality to track physical equipment as well as deployments, calibrations, and other actions related to site and equipment maintenance. The observational data being generated by sensors are enhanced if direct linkages to equipment details and actions can be made. This type of information is typically recorded in field notebooks or in static files, which are rarely linked to observations in a way that could be used to interpret results. However, the record of field activities is often relevant to analysis or post-processing of the observational data. We have developed an underlying database schema and deployed a web interface for recording and retrieving information on physical infrastructure and related actions for observational networks. The database schema for equipment was designed as an extension to the Observations Data Model 2 (ODM2), a community-developed information model for spatially discrete, feature based earth observations. The core entities of ODM2 describe location, observed variable, and timing of observations, and the equipment extension contains entities to provide additional metadata specific to the inventory of physical infrastructure and associated actions. The schema is implemented in a relational database system for storage and management with an associated web interface. We designed the web-based tools for technicians to enter and query information on the physical equipment and actions such as site visits, equipment deployments, maintenance, and calibrations. These tools were implemented for the iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydrosustainability) ecohydrologic observatory, and we anticipate that they will be useful for similar large-scale monitoring networks desiring to link observing infrastructure to observational data to increase the quality of sensor-based data products.

  7. Potential Applications of Friction Stir Welding to the Hydrogen Economy. Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program In Pennsylvania, Materials Task

    SciTech Connect

    Brendlinger, Jennifer

    2009-07-17

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique developed by The Welding Institute (TWI) of Cambridge, UK in the early 1990’s. The process uses a non-consumable rotating tool to develop frictional heat and plastically deform workpieces to be joined, resulting in a solid-state weld on the trailing side of the advancing tool. Since the materials to be joined are not melted, FSW results in a finer grain structure and therefore enhanced properties, relative to fusion welds. And unlike fusion welding, a relatively small number of key process parameters exist for FSW: tool rotational speed, linear weld velocity and force perpendicular to the joining surface. FSW is more energy efficient than fusion welding and can be accomplished in one or two passes, versus many more passes required of fusion welding thicker workpieces. Reduced post-weld workpiece distortion is another factor that helps to reduce the cost of FSW relative to fusion welding. Two primary areas have been identified for potential impact on the hydrogen economy: FSW of metallic pipes for hydrogen transmission and FSW of aluminum pressure vessels for hydrogen storage. Both areas have been under active development and are explored in this paper.

  8. Modeling complexity in engineered infrastructure system: Water distribution network as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Xiang; Li, Ke

    2017-02-01

    The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties. Comparison with different modeling approaches indicates that a realistic demand node distribution and co-evolvement of demand node and network are important for the simulation of real complex networks. The simulation results indicate that the efficiency of water distribution networks is exponentially affected by the urban growth pattern. On the contrary, the improvement of efficiency by engineering optimization is limited and relatively insignificant. The redundancy and robustness, on another aspect, can be significantly improved through engineering methods.

  9. Opportunities for Condensed Matter Research at the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (http://www.nnin.org)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research at the nano-scale, and particularly for condensed matter, is the availability of infrastructure that can allow easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements or for other exploratory directions of interest. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometer and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex knowledge-mix derived from other research areas and tools that require skill and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is an NSF-funded infrastructure of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure. Particularly relevant to condensed matter physics (e.g., in experiments involving single-electron transistor or its use in ultra-sensitive measurements, or measurements across a single nano-scale structure such as a molecule or a nanocrystal, development of new apparatus that allows X-ray measurements of soft materials, etc.) is the ability to integrate the small length scale through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron microscopy, spectroscopic techniques, etc. for characterization; synthesis, growth, deposition, etc. for assembling; lithography, etching

  10. Slow poisoning and destruction of networks: Edge proximity and its implications for biological and infrastructure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Sinha, Saptarshi; Roy, Soumen

    2015-02-01

    We propose a network metric, edge proximity, Pe, which demonstrates the importance of specific edges in a network, hitherto not captured by existing network metrics. The effects of removing edges with high Pe might initially seem inconspicuous but are eventually shown to be very harmful for networks. Compared to existing strategies, the removal of edges by Pe leads to a remarkable increase in the diameter and average shortest path length in undirected real and random networks till the first disconnection and well beyond. Pe can be consistently used to rupture the network into two nearly equal parts, thus presenting a very potent strategy to greatly harm a network. Targeting by Pe causes notable efficiency loss in U.S. and European power grid networks. Pe identifies proteins with essential cellular functions in protein-protein interaction networks. It pinpoints regulatory neural connections and important portions of the neural and brain networks, respectively. Energy flow interactions identified by Pe form the backbone of long food web chains. Finally, we scrutinize the potential of Pe in edge controllability dynamics of directed networks.

  11. Slow poisoning and destruction of networks: edge proximity and its implications for biological and infrastructure networks.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumya Jyoti; Sinha, Saptarshi; Roy, Soumen

    2015-02-01

    We propose a network metric, edge proximity, P(e), which demonstrates the importance of specific edges in a network, hitherto not captured by existing network metrics. The effects of removing edges with high P(e) might initially seem inconspicuous but are eventually shown to be very harmful for networks. Compared to existing strategies, the removal of edges by P(e) leads to a remarkable increase in the diameter and average shortest path length in undirected real and random networks till the first disconnection and well beyond. P(e) can be consistently used to rupture the network into two nearly equal parts, thus presenting a very potent strategy to greatly harm a network. Targeting by P(e) causes notable efficiency loss in U.S. and European power grid networks. P(e) identifies proteins with essential cellular functions in protein-protein interaction networks. It pinpoints regulatory neural connections and important portions of the neural and brain networks, respectively. Energy flow interactions identified by P(e) form the backbone of long food web chains. Finally, we scrutinize the potential of P(e) in edge controllability dynamics of directed networks.

  12. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  13. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks. A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines. Blending hydrogen into the existing natural gas pipeline network has also been proposed as a means of increasing the output of renewable energy systems such as large wind farms.

  15. An integrated MEMS infrastructure for fuel processing: hydrogen generation and separation for portable power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varady, M. J.; McLeod, L.; Meacham, J. M.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2007-09-01

    Portable fuel cells are an enabling technology for high efficiency and ultra-high density distributed power generation, which is essential for many terrestrial and aerospace applications. A key element of fuel cell power sources is the fuel processor, which should have the capability to efficiently reform liquid fuels and produce high purity hydrogen that is consumed by the fuel cells. To this end, we are reporting on the development of two novel MEMS hydrogen generators with improved functionality achieved through an innovative process organization and system integration approach that exploits the advantages of transport and catalysis on the micro/nano scale. One fuel processor design utilizes transient, reverse-flow operation of an autothermal MEMS microreactor with an intimately integrated, micromachined ultrasonic fuel atomizer and a Pd/Ag membrane for in situ hydrogen separation from the product stream. The other design features a simpler, more compact planar structure with the atomized fuel ejected directly onto the catalyst layer, which is coupled to an integrated hydrogen selective membrane.

  16. Joint optimization of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies in a regional logistics network with CO2 emission reduction targets

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Dezhi; Zhan, Qingwen; Chen, Yuche; ...

    2016-03-14

    This study proposes an optimization model that simultaneously incorporates the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes to achieve specific CO2 emission targets in a regional logistics network. The proposed model is formulated as a bi-level formulation, in which the upper level determines the optimal selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes such that the benefit-cost ratio of the entire logistics system is maximized. The lower level describes the selected service routes of logistics users. A genetic and Frank-Wolfe hybrid algorithm is introduced to solve the proposed model. The proposed model ismore » applied to the regional logistics network of Changsha City, China. Findings show that using the joint scheme of the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and green subsidies is more effective than using them solely. In conclusion, carbon emission reduction targets can significantly affect logistics infrastructure investments and subsidy levels.« less

  17. Quantifying the benefits of urban forest systems as a component of the green infrastructure stormwater treatment network

    Treesearch

    Eric Kuehler; Jon Hathaway; Andrew Tirpak

    2017-01-01

    The use of green infrastructure for reducing stormwater runoff is increasingly common. One under‐studied component of the green infrastructure network is the urban forest system. Trees can play an important role as the “first line of defense” for restoring more natural hydrologic regimes in urban watersheds by intercepting rainfall, delaying runoff, infiltrating, and...

  18. The U.S. national nanotechnology infrastructure network and support of photonics research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2006-04-01

    A major challenge in science and engineering research and development at the nano-scale, and particularly for photonics, is the availability of infrastructure that allows easy and quick implementation of structures, devices, or more complex systems necessary for making rigorous measurements, other exploratory directions of interest, and building of assemblies that utilize techniques from multiple disciplines. The experiments connect across length scales - nanometers and up, employ a variety of materials and techniques of assembly and patterning, and require a complex mix of knowledge that are derived from other research areas and tools that are demanding in skills and are hard to access. The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN; www.nnin.org) is funded by the National Science Foundation and is a partnership of open shared facilities across the country that enables the national community to pursue research and technology development that can benefit from nanotechnology. The NNIN provides easy hands-on access to external users, remote usage, staff support, low cost usage, knowledge infrastructure, and brings together an extensive coordinated array of instruments for fabrication, synthesis, and characterization together with other infrastructure resources. Particularly relevant to photonics is the ability to combine optical quality materials and fabrication techniques with ultra-sensitive characterization and application to biology, fluidics, and problems of interest in optical and electronic communication. Integration to the smallest length scales through synthesis and electron-beam lithography, growth and deposition of a variety materials with controlled properties, patterning of complex shapes in the three-dimensions, connecting such structures, characterization, and the ability to achieve this quickly and at low cost is essential to successful university research and industrial innovation. NNIN tool resources that span focused-ion beam, electron

  19. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  20. Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper

    2013-09-01

    The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement

  1. Quantifying the digital divide: a scientific overview of network connectivity and grid infrastructure in South Asian countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. M.; Cottrell, R. L.; Kalim, U.; Ali, A.

    2008-07-01

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices.

  2. Quantifying the Digital Divide: A Scientific Overview of Network Connectivity and Grid Infrastructure in South Asian Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Shahryar Muhammad; Cottrell, R.Les; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2007-10-30

    The future of Computing in High Energy Physics (HEP) applications depends on both the Network and Grid infrastructure. South Asian countries such as India and Pakistan are making significant progress by building clusters as well as improving their network infrastructure However to facilitate the use of these resources, they need to manage the issues of network connectivity to be among the leading participants in Computing for HEP experiments. In this paper we classify the connectivity for academic and research institutions of South Asia. The quantitative measurements are carried out using the PingER methodology; an approach that induces minimal ICMP traffic to gather active end-to-end network statistics. The PingER project has been measuring the Internet performance for the last decade. Currently the measurement infrastructure comprises of over 700 hosts in more than 130 countries which collectively represents approximately 99% of the world's Internet-connected population. Thus, we are well positioned to characterize the world's connectivity. Here we present the current state of the National Research and Educational Networks (NRENs) and Grid Infrastructure in the South Asian countries and identify the areas of concern. We also present comparisons between South Asia and other developing as well as developed regions. We show that there is a strong correlation between the Network performance and several Human Development indices.

  3. Optimizing End-to-End Big Data Transfers over Terabits Network Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Atchley, Scott; Vallee, Geoffroy R.; Lee, Sangkeun; Shipman, Galen M.

    2016-04-05

    While future terabit networks hold the promise of significantly improving big-data motion among geographically distributed data centers, significant challenges must be overcome even on today's 100 gigabit networks to realize end-to-end performance. Multiple bottlenecks exist along the end-to-end path from source to sink, for instance, the data storage infrastructure at both the source and sink and its interplay with the wide-area network are increasingly the bottleneck to achieving high performance. In this study, we identify the issues that lead to congestion on the path of an end-to-end data transfer in the terabit network environment, and we present a new bulk data movement framework for terabit networks, called LADS. LADS exploits the underlying storage layout at each endpoint to maximize throughput without negatively impacting the performance of shared storage resources for other users. LADS also uses the Common Communication Interface (CCI) in lieu of the sockets interface to benefit from hardware-level zero-copy, and operating system bypass capabilities when available. It can further improve data transfer performance under congestion on the end systems using buffering at the source using flash storage. With our evaluations, we show that LADS can avoid congested storage elements within the shared storage resource, improving input/output bandwidth, and data transfer rates across the high speed networks. We also investigate the performance degradation problems of LADS due to I/O contention on the parallel file system (PFS), when multiple LADS tools share the PFS. We design and evaluate a meta-scheduler to coordinate multiple I/O streams while sharing the PFS, to minimize the I/O contention on the PFS. Finally, with our evaluations, we observe that LADS with meta-scheduling can further improve the performance by up to 14 percent relative to LADS without meta-scheduling.

  4. Optimizing End-to-End Big Data Transfers over Terabits Network Infrastructure

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Youngjae; Atchley, Scott; Vallee, Geoffroy R.; ...

    2016-04-05

    While future terabit networks hold the promise of significantly improving big-data motion among geographically distributed data centers, significant challenges must be overcome even on today's 100 gigabit networks to realize end-to-end performance. Multiple bottlenecks exist along the end-to-end path from source to sink, for instance, the data storage infrastructure at both the source and sink and its interplay with the wide-area network are increasingly the bottleneck to achieving high performance. In this study, we identify the issues that lead to congestion on the path of an end-to-end data transfer in the terabit network environment, and we present a new bulkmore » data movement framework for terabit networks, called LADS. LADS exploits the underlying storage layout at each endpoint to maximize throughput without negatively impacting the performance of shared storage resources for other users. LADS also uses the Common Communication Interface (CCI) in lieu of the sockets interface to benefit from hardware-level zero-copy, and operating system bypass capabilities when available. It can further improve data transfer performance under congestion on the end systems using buffering at the source using flash storage. With our evaluations, we show that LADS can avoid congested storage elements within the shared storage resource, improving input/output bandwidth, and data transfer rates across the high speed networks. We also investigate the performance degradation problems of LADS due to I/O contention on the parallel file system (PFS), when multiple LADS tools share the PFS. We design and evaluate a meta-scheduler to coordinate multiple I/O streams while sharing the PFS, to minimize the I/O contention on the PFS. Finally, with our evaluations, we observe that LADS with meta-scheduling can further improve the performance by up to 14 percent relative to LADS without meta-scheduling.« less

  5. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    SciTech Connect

    Akai, Makoto

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  6. Liquid state of a hydrogen bond network in ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkin, M. I.; Klyuev, A. V.; Sinitsyn, V. V.; Ryzhkin, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    It is theoretically shown that the Coulomb interaction between violations of the Bernal-Fowler rules leads to a temperature-induced stepwise increase in their concentration by 6-7 orders of magnitude. This first-order phase transition is accompanied by commensurable decrease in the relaxation time and can be interpreted as melting of the hydrogen bond network. The new phase with the melted hydrogen lattice and survived oxygen one is unstable in the bulk of ice, and further drastic increase in the concentrations of oxygen interstitials and vacancies accomplishes the ice melting. The fraction of broken hydrogen bonds immediately after the melting is about 0.07 of their total number that implies an essential conservation of oxygen lattice in water.

  7. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Reyna, Ana; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-06-26

    Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency.

  8. Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Trains as Data Mules to Monitor Slab Track Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Cañete, Eduardo; Chen, Jaime; Díaz, Manuel; Llopis, Luis; Reyna, Ana; Rubio, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    Recently, slab track systems have arisen as a safer and more sustainable option for high speed railway infrastructures, compared to traditional ballasted tracks. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks within these infrastructures can provide structural health related data that can be used to evaluate their degradation and to not only detect failures but also to predict them. The design of such systems has to deal with a scenario of large areas with inaccessible zones, where neither Internet coverage nor electricity supply is guaranteed. In this paper we propose a monitoring system for slab track systems that measures vibrations and displacements in the track. Collected data is transmitted to passing trains, which are used as data mules to upload the information to a remote control center. On arrival at the station, the data is stored in a database, which is queried by an application in order to detect and predict failures. In this paper, different communication architectures are designed and tested to select the most suitable system meeting such requirements as efficiency, low cost and data accuracy. In addition, to ensure communication between the sensing devices and the train, the communication system must take into account parameters such as train speed, antenna coverage, band and frequency. PMID:26131668

  9. Nano-scale hydrogen-bond network improves the durability of greener cements

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Johan; Rodrigues, Michelle Santos; Telling, Mark T. F.; Beraldo, Antonio Ludovico; Santos, Sérgio Francisco; Aldridge, Laurence P.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2013-01-01

    More than ever before, the world's increasing need for new infrastructure demands the construction of efficient, sustainable and durable buildings, requiring minimal climate-changing gas-generation in their production. Maintenance-free “greener” building materials made from blended cements have advantages over ordinary Portland cements, as they are cheaper, generate less carbon dioxide and are more durable. The key for the improved performance of blends (which substitute fine amorphous silicates for cement) is related to their resistance to water penetration. The mechanism of this water resistance is of great environmental and economical impact but is not yet understood due to the complexity of the cement's hydration reactions. Using neutron spectroscopy, we studied a blend where cement was replaced by ash from sugar cane residuals originating from agricultural waste. Our findings demonstrate that the development of a distinctive hydrogen bond network at the nano-scale is the key to the performance of these greener materials. PMID:24036676

  10. The Navajo Learning Network and the NASA Life Sciences/AFOSR Infrastructure Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The NSF-funded Navajo Learning Network project, with help from NASA Life Sciences and AFOSR, enabled Dine College to take a giant leap forward technologically - in a way that could never had been possible had these projects been managed separately. The combination of these and other efforts created a network of over 500 computers located at ten sites across the Navajo reservation. Additionally, the college was able to install a modern telephone system which shares network data, and purchase a new higher education management system. The NASA Life Sciences funds further allowed the college library system to go online and become available to the entire campus community. NSF, NASA and AFOSR are committed to improving minority access to higher education opportunities and promoting faculty development and undergraduate research through infrastructure support and development. This project has begun to address critical inequalities in access to science, mathematics, engineering and technology for Navajo students and educators. As a result, Navajo K-12 education has been bolstered and Dine College will therefore better prepare students to transfer successfully to four-year institutions. Due to the integration of the NSF and NASA/AFOSR components of the project, a unified project report is appropriate.

  11. Towards Resilient Critical Infrastructures: Application of Type-2 Fuzzy Logic in Embedded Network Security Cyber Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-08-01

    Resiliency and cyber security of modern critical infrastructures is becoming increasingly important with the growing number of threats in the cyber-environment. This paper proposes an extension to a previously developed fuzzy logic based anomaly detection network security cyber sensor via incorporating Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (T2 FL). In general, fuzzy logic provides a framework for system modeling in linguistic form capable of coping with imprecise and vague meanings of words. T2 FL is an extension of Type-1 FL which proved to be successful in modeling and minimizing the effects of various kinds of dynamic uncertainties. In this paper, T2 FL provides a basis for robust anomaly detection and cyber security state awareness. In addition, the proposed algorithm was specifically developed to comply with the constrained computational requirements of low-cost embedded network security cyber sensors. The performance of the system was evaluated on a set of network data recorded from an experimental cyber-security test-bed.

  12. The construction of a public key infrastructure for healthcare information networks in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, N

    2001-01-01

    The digital signature is a key technology in the forthcoming Internet society for electronic healthcare as well as for electronic commerce. Efficient exchanges of authorized information with a digital signature in healthcare information networks require a construction of a public key infrastructure (PKI). In order to introduce a PKI to healthcare information networks in Japan, we proposed a development of a user authentication system based on a PKI for user management, user authentication and privilege management of healthcare information systems. In this paper, we describe the design of the user authentication system and its implementation. The user authentication system provides a certification authority service and a privilege management service while it is comprised of a user authentication client and user authentication serves. It is designed on a basis of an X.509 PKI and is implemented with using OpenSSL and OpenLDAP. It was incorporated into the financial information management system for the national university hospitals and has been successfully working for about one year. The hospitals plan to use it as a user authentication method for their whole healthcare information systems. One implementation of the system is free to the national university hospitals with permission of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Another implementation is open to the other healthcare institutes by support of the Medical Information System Development Center (MEDIS-DC). We are moving forward to a nation-wide construction of a PKI for healthcare information networks based on it.

  13. Information Technology Infrastructure for the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Solutions Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; Shaw, D. R.; O'Hara, C. G.; Frisbie, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program uses the term Solutions Network in the context of its Enterprise Architecture to describe the ability of different components of the enterprise to generate ideas for new ways to use NASA missions, research, and/or models in conjunction with operational decision-making processes (or decision support systems) to achieve a particular benefit to society. In this paper, we describe the development of an information technology infrastructure that will facilitate that ability. The two main components of this infrastructure are: the Research Projects Knowledge Base (RPKB); and the Partner Network Knowledge Base (PNKB). The RPKB aims to index all relevant NASA research result publications in a database that will be interoperable with the evolving NASA enterprise architecture system and will share relevant table space with it. In particular, fields from this system identifying relevant NASA missions, models, and data products will be used to cross-index the data collected on published results of research projects. Fields characterizing the research results based on the seven Earth-Sun system science focus areas and the twelve applications of national priority are included. In the course of developing the RPKB, novel uses of existing online databases and search tools have been developed. In addition, data mining tools are being developed for facilitating the location of candidate results and the indexing of relevant matches. The PNKB database will characterize the current network of NASA Earth-Sun system partners. This includes information on organizations and agencies funded by or partnered with NASA to conduct Earth-Sun system scientific research, technology, and applications projects. The relationships between NASA programs and project sponsors are also captured in this database. Both the PNKB and the RPKB will be integrated with an existing, evolving model of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise using an enterprise architecture modeling and

  14. Cyber-Physical Systems for Critical Infrastructure Protection: A Wireless Sensor Network Application for Electric Grid Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint, Martin

    Critical infrastructure includes resources which are essential to the function of society. Despite an increased focus on protecting U.S. critical infrastructure, some sectors including the electric grid are more vulnerable than ever. Existing critical infrastructure protection (CIP) regulations and the monitoring and control systems used to achieve them have not met performance expectations. This indicates that the next generation of grid control should explore new architectures. This thesis explores the question of whether a cyber-physical system in the form of wireless sensor networks can be used to improve CIP. We examine efforts by others to design a wireless sensor module for monitoring transmission and distribution lines, and note that this work includes little information about the performance of the communications subsystem. Laboratory testing of throughput and reliability for one example communication network are undertaken here, along with consideration of the short message service as one alternative for backhauling sensor data.

  15. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-Aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carols H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    Eaton, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a project that applies a combination of wireless sensor network (WSN) technology, anticipatory theory, and a near-term value proposition based on diagnostics and process uptime to ensure the security and reliability of critical electrical power infrastructure. Representatives of several Eaton business units have been engaged to ensure a viable commercialization plan. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), American Electric Power (AEP), PEPCO, and Commonwealth Edison were recruited as partners to confirm and refine the requirements definition from the perspective of the utilities that actually operate the facilities to be protected. Those utilities have cooperated with on-site field tests as the project proceeds. Accomplishments of this project included: (1) the design, modeling, and simulation of the anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) that will be used to gather field information for the anticipatory application, (2) the design and implementation of hardware and software prototypes for laboratory and field experimentation, (3) stack and application integration, (4) develop installation and test plan, and (5) refinement of the commercialization plan.

  16. Virtualization in network and servers infrastructure to support dynamic system reconfiguration in ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Ovando, Nicolás.; Bartsch, Marcelo; Simmond, Max; Vélez, Gastón; Robles, Manuel; Soto, Rubén.; Ibsen, Jorge; Saldias, Christian

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is the first astronomical project being constructed and operated under industrial approach due to the huge amount of elements involved. In order to achieve the maximum through put during the engineering and scientific commissioning phase, several production lines have been established to work in parallel. This decision required modification in the original system architecture in which all the elements are controlled and operated within a unique Standard Test Environment (STE). The advance in the network industry and together with the maturity of virtualization paradigm allows us to provide a solution which can replicate the STE infrastructure without changing their network address definition. This is only possible with Virtual Routing and Forwarding (VRF) and Virtual LAN (VLAN) concepts. The solution allows dynamic reconfiguration of antennas and other hardware across the production lines with minimum time and zero human intervention in the cabling. We also push the virtualization even further, classical rack mount servers are being replaced and consolidated by blade servers. On top of them virtualized server are centrally administrated with VMWare ESX. Hardware costs and system administration effort will be reduced considerably. This mechanism has been established and operated successfully during the last two years. This experience gave us confident to propose a solution to divide the main operation array into subarrays using the same concept which will introduce huge flexibility and efficiency for ALMA operation and eventually may simplify the complexity of ALMA core observing software since there will be no need to deal with subarrays complexity at software level.

  17. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  18. Autothermal hydrogen generation from methanol in a ceramic microchannel network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Angela M.; Wilhite, Benjamin A.

    In this paper, the authors present the first demonstration of a new class of integrated ceramic microchannel reactors for all-in-one reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. The reactor concept employs precision-machined metal distributors capable of realizing complex flow distribution patterns with extruded ceramic microchannel networks for cost-effective thermal integration of multiple chemical processes. The presently reported reactor is comprised of five methanol steam reforming channels packed with CuO/γ-Al 2O 3, interspersed with four methanol combustion channels washcoated with Pt/γ-Al 2O 3, for autothermal hydrogen production (i.e., without external heating). Results demonstrate the capability of this new device for integrating combustion and steam reforming of methanol for autothermal production of hydrogen, owing to the axially self-insulating nature of distributor-packaged ceramic microchannels. In the absence of any external insulation, stable reforming of methanol to hydrogen at conversions >90% and hydrogen yields >70% was achieved at a maximum reactor temperature of 400 °C, while simultaneously maintaining a packaging temperature <50 °C.

  19. A statistical model of hydrogen bond networks in liquid alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillrén, Per; Bielecki, Johan; Mattsson, Johan; Börjesson, Lars; Matic, Aleksandar

    2012-03-01

    We here present a statistical model of hydrogen bond induced network structures in liquid alcohols. The model generalises the Andersson-Schulz-Flory chain model to allow also for branched structures. Two bonding probabilities are assigned to each hydroxyl group oxygen, where the first is the probability of a lone pair accepting an H-bond and the second is the probability that given this bond also the second lone pair is bonded. The average hydroxyl group cluster size, cluster size distribution, and the number of branches and leaves in the tree-like network clusters are directly determined from these probabilities. The applicability of the model is tested by comparison to cluster size distributions and bonding probabilities obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of the monoalcohols methanol, propanol, butanol, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether, the di-alcohol propylene glycol, and the tri-alcohol glycerol. We find that the tree model can reproduce the cluster size distributions and the bonding probabilities for both mono- and poly-alcohols, showing the branched nature of the OH-clusters in these liquids. Thus, this statistical model is a useful tool to better understand the structure of network forming hydrogen bonded liquids. The model can be applied to experimental data, allowing the topology of the clusters to be determined from such studies.

  20. Case studies: Application of SEA in provincial level expressway infrastructure network planning in China - Current existing problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Kaiyi; Sheate, William R.

    2011-11-15

    Since the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment was enacted in 2003 and Huanfa 2004 No. 98 was released in 2004, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been officially being implemented in the expressway infrastructure planning field in China. Through scrutinizing two SEA application cases of China's provincial level expressway infrastructure (PLEI) network plans, it is found that current SEA practice in expressway infrastructure planning field has a number of problems including: SEA practitioners do not fully understand the objective of SEA; its potential contributions to strategic planning and decision-making is extremely limited; the employed application procedure and prediction and assessment techniques are too simple to bring objective, unbiased and scientific results; and no alternative options are considered. All these problems directly lead to poor quality SEA and consequently weaken SEA's effectiveness.

  1. Stakeholder analysis combined with social network analysis provides fine-grained insights into water infrastructure planning processes.

    PubMed

    Lienert, Judit; Schnetzer, Florian; Ingold, Karin

    2013-08-15

    Environmental policy and decision-making are characterized by complex interactions between different actors and sectors. As a rule, a stakeholder analysis is performed to understand those involved, but it has been criticized for lacking quality and consistency. This lack is remedied here by a formal social network analysis that investigates collaborative and multi-level governance settings in a rigorous way. We examine the added value of combining both elements. Our case study examines infrastructure planning in the Swiss water sector. Water supply and wastewater infrastructures are planned far into the future, usually on the basis of projections of past boundary conditions. They affect many actors, including the population, and are expensive. In view of increasing future dynamics and climate change, a more participatory and long-term planning approach is required. Our specific aims are to investigate fragmentation in water infrastructure planning, to understand how actors from different decision levels and sectors are represented, and which interests they follow. We conducted 27 semi-structured interviews with local stakeholders, but also cantonal and national actors. The network analysis confirmed our hypothesis of strong fragmentation: we found little collaboration between the water supply and wastewater sector (confirming horizontal fragmentation), and few ties between local, cantonal, and national actors (confirming vertical fragmentation). Infrastructure planning is clearly dominated by engineers and local authorities. Little importance is placed on longer-term strategic objectives and integrated catchment planning, but this was perceived as more important in a second analysis going beyond typical questions of stakeholder analysis. We conclude that linking a stakeholder analysis, comprising rarely asked questions, with a rigorous social network analysis is very fruitful and generates complementary results. This combination gave us deeper insight into the

  2. Making Network Markets in Education: The Development of Data Infrastructure in Australian Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellar, Sam

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the development of data infrastructure in Australian schooling with a specific focus on interoperability standards that help to make new markets for education data. The conceptual framework combines insights from studies of infrastructure, economic markets and digital data. The case of the Australian National Schools…

  3. A simple grid implementation with Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing using BLAST as a model

    PubMed Central

    Pinthong, Watthanai; Muangruen, Panya

    2016-01-01

    Development of high-throughput technologies, such as Next-generation sequencing, allows thousands of experiments to be performed simultaneously while reducing resource requirement. Consequently, a massive amount of experiment data is now rapidly generated. Nevertheless, the data are not readily usable or meaningful until they are further analysed and interpreted. Due to the size of the data, a high performance computer (HPC) is required for the analysis and interpretation. However, the HPC is expensive and difficult to access. Other means were developed to allow researchers to acquire the power of HPC without a need to purchase and maintain one such as cloud computing services and grid computing system. In this study, we implemented grid computing in a computer training center environment using Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) as a job distributor and data manager combining all desktop computers to virtualize the HPC. Fifty desktop computers were used for setting up a grid system during the off-hours. In order to test the performance of the grid system, we adapted the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST) to the BOINC system. Sequencing results from Illumina platform were aligned to the human genome database by BLAST on the grid system. The result and processing time were compared to those from a single desktop computer and HPC. The estimated durations of BLAST analysis for 4 million sequence reads on a desktop PC, HPC and the grid system were 568, 24 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, the grid implementation of BLAST by BOINC is an efficient alternative to the HPC for sequence alignment. The grid implementation by BOINC also helped tap unused computing resources during the off-hours and could be easily modified for other available bioinformatics software. PMID:27547555

  4. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  5. A simple grid implementation with Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing using BLAST as a model.

    PubMed

    Pinthong, Watthanai; Muangruen, Panya; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Mairiang, Dumrong

    2016-01-01

    Development of high-throughput technologies, such as Next-generation sequencing, allows thousands of experiments to be performed simultaneously while reducing resource requirement. Consequently, a massive amount of experiment data is now rapidly generated. Nevertheless, the data are not readily usable or meaningful until they are further analysed and interpreted. Due to the size of the data, a high performance computer (HPC) is required for the analysis and interpretation. However, the HPC is expensive and difficult to access. Other means were developed to allow researchers to acquire the power of HPC without a need to purchase and maintain one such as cloud computing services and grid computing system. In this study, we implemented grid computing in a computer training center environment using Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) as a job distributor and data manager combining all desktop computers to virtualize the HPC. Fifty desktop computers were used for setting up a grid system during the off-hours. In order to test the performance of the grid system, we adapted the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST) to the BOINC system. Sequencing results from Illumina platform were aligned to the human genome database by BLAST on the grid system. The result and processing time were compared to those from a single desktop computer and HPC. The estimated durations of BLAST analysis for 4 million sequence reads on a desktop PC, HPC and the grid system were 568, 24 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, the grid implementation of BLAST by BOINC is an efficient alternative to the HPC for sequence alignment. The grid implementation by BOINC also helped tap unused computing resources during the off-hours and could be easily modified for other available bioinformatics software.

  6. Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

    2013-03-01

    The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

  7. The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, D.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Loustau, D.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ICOS Ecosystem includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC) which is responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. The Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation and the data access and data use policies will be presented together with the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy. The aim is to identify and discuss integration and collaboration with others similar initiatives, also thanks to the support of the COOPEUS European project

  8. TRANSVAC research infrastructure - Results and lessons learned from the European network of vaccine research and development.

    PubMed

    Geels, Mark J; Thøgersen, Regitze L; Guzman, Carlos A; Ho, Mei Mei; Verreck, Frank; Collin, Nicolas; Robertson, James S; McConkey, Samuel J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Leroy, Odile

    2015-10-05

    TRANSVAC was a collaborative infrastructure project aimed at enhancing European translational vaccine research and training. The objective of this four year project (2009-2013), funded under the European Commission's (EC) seventh framework programme (FP7), was to support European collaboration in the vaccine field, principally through the provision of transnational access (TNA) to critical vaccine research and development (R&D) infrastructures, as well as by improving and harmonising the services provided by these infrastructures through joint research activities (JRA). The project successfully provided all available services to advance 29 projects and, through engaging all vaccine stakeholders, successfully laid down the blueprint for the implementation of a permanent research infrastructure for early vaccine R&D in Europe.

  9. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption with 3D silicon nanotube-network and film-network structures: Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Kang, Zhan; Huang, Xiaobo

    2015-08-28

    Hydrogen is clean, sustainable, and renewable, thus is viewed as promising energy carrier. However, its industrial utilization is greatly hampered by the lack of effective hydrogen storage and release method. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were viewed as one of the potential hydrogen containers, but it has been proved that pure CNTs cannot attain the desired target capacity of hydrogen storage. In this paper, we present a numerical study on the material-driven and structure-driven hydrogen adsorption of 3D silicon networks and propose a deformation-driven hydrogen desorption approach based on molecular simulations. Two types of 3D nanostructures, silicon nanotube-network (Si-NN) and silicon film-network (Si-FN), are first investigated in terms of hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. It is revealed that the hydrogen storage capacity is determined by the lithium doping ratio and geometrical parameters, and the maximum hydrogen uptake can be achieved by a 3D nanostructure with optimal configuration and doping ratio obtained through design optimization technique. For hydrogen desorption, a mechanical-deformation-driven-hydrogen-release approach is proposed. Compared with temperature/pressure change-induced hydrogen desorption method, the proposed approach is so effective that nearly complete hydrogen desorption can be achieved by Si-FN nanostructures under sufficient compression but without structural failure observed. The approach is also reversible since the mechanical deformation in Si-FN nanostructures can be elastically recovered, which suggests a good reusability. This study may shed light on the mechanism of hydrogen adsorption and desorption and thus provide useful guidance toward engineering design of microstructural hydrogen (or other gas) adsorption materials.

  10. Hydrogen adsorption and desorption with 3D silicon nanotube-network and film-network structures: Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Huang, Xiaobo; Kang, Zhan

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen is clean, sustainable, and renewable, thus is viewed as promising energy carrier. However, its industrial utilization is greatly hampered by the lack of effective hydrogen storage and release method. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were viewed as one of the potential hydrogen containers, but it has been proved that pure CNTs cannot attain the desired target capacity of hydrogen storage. In this paper, we present a numerical study on the material-driven and structure-driven hydrogen adsorption of 3D silicon networks and propose a deformation-driven hydrogen desorption approach based on molecular simulations. Two types of 3D nanostructures, silicon nanotube-network (Si-NN) and silicon film-network (Si-FN), are first investigated in terms of hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. It is revealed that the hydrogen storage capacity is determined by the lithium doping ratio and geometrical parameters, and the maximum hydrogen uptake can be achieved by a 3D nanostructure with optimal configuration and doping ratio obtained through design optimization technique. For hydrogen desorption, a mechanical-deformation-driven-hydrogen-release approach is proposed. Compared with temperature/pressure change-induced hydrogen desorption method, the proposed approach is so effective that nearly complete hydrogen desorption can be achieved by Si-FN nanostructures under sufficient compression but without structural failure observed. The approach is also reversible since the mechanical deformation in Si-FN nanostructures can be elastically recovered, which suggests a good reusability. This study may shed light on the mechanism of hydrogen adsorption and desorption and thus provide useful guidance toward engineering design of microstructural hydrogen (or other gas) adsorption materials.

  11. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. PMID:27146689

  12. A network-based framework for assessing infrastructure resilience: a case study of the London metro system.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Dillon, Trent; Bilec, Melissa M; Khanna, Vikas

    2016-05-01

    Modern society is increasingly dependent on the stability of a complex system of interdependent infrastructure sectors. It is imperative to build resilience of large-scale infrastructures like metro systems for addressing the threat of natural disasters and man-made attacks in urban areas. Analysis is needed to ensure that these systems are capable of withstanding and containing unexpected perturbations, and develop heuristic strategies for guiding the design of more resilient networks in the future. We present a comprehensive, multi-pronged framework that analyses information on network topology, spatial organization and passenger flow to understand the resilience of the London metro system. Topology of the London metro system is not fault tolerant in terms of maintaining connectivity at the periphery of the network since it does not exhibit small-world properties. The passenger strength distribution follows a power law, suggesting that while the London metro system is robust to random failures, it is vulnerable to disruptions on a few critical stations. The analysis further identifies particular sources of structural and functional vulnerabilities that need to be mitigated for improving the resilience of the London metro network. The insights from our framework provide useful strategies to build resilience for both existing and upcoming metro systems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Systematic analysis of natural hazards along infrastructure networks using a GIS-tool for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruffini, Mirko

    2010-05-01

    GIS-based system can be for effective and efficient disaster response management. In the coming years our GIS application will be a data base containing all information needed for the evaluation of risk sites along the Gotthard line. Our GIS application can help the technical management to decide about protection measures because of, in addition to the visualisation, tools for spatial data analysis will be available. REFERENCES Bründl M. (Ed.) 2009 : Risikokonzept für Naturgefahren - Leitfaden. Nationale Plattform für Naturgefahren PLANAT, Bern. 416 S. BUWAL 1999: Risikoanalyse bei gravitativen Naturgefahren - Methode, Fallbeispiele und Daten (Risk analyses for gravitational natural hazards). Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft (BUWAL). Umwelt-Materialen Nr. 107, 1-244. Loat, R. & Zimmermann, M. 2004: La gestion des risques en Suisse (Risk Management in Switzerland). In: Veyret, Y., Garry, G., Meschinet de Richemont, N. & Armand Colin (eds) 2002: Colloque Arche de la Défense 22-24 octobre 2002, dans Risques naturels et aménagement en Europe, 108-120. Maggi R. et al, 2009: Evaluation of the optimal resilience for vulnerable infrastructure networks. An interdisciplinary pilot study on the transalpine transportation corridors, NRP 54 "Sustainable Development of the Built Environment", Projekt Nr. 405 440, Final Scientific Report, Lugano

  14. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  15. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  16. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  17. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  18. Towards Networked Knowledge: The Learning Registry, an Infrastructure for Sharing Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ashley; Hobson, Joe; Bienkowski, Marie; Midgley, Steve; Currier, Sarah; Campbell, Lorna M.; Novoselova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an open-source, open-data digital infrastructure for sharing information about open educational resources (OERs) across disparate systems and platforms. The Learning Registry, which began as a project funded by the U.S. Departments of Education and Defense, currently has an active international community…

  19. The ICOS Ecosystem network and Thematic Center: an infrastructure to monitor and better understand the ecosystem GHGs exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, Ivan; Papale, Dario; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Gielen, Bert; Loustau, Denis; de Beeck, Maarten Op; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The ICOS Ecosystem network is part of the ICOS European Research Infrastructure (www.icos-infrastructure.eu) together with the Atmospheric and Ocean networks. The ecosystem network includes highly standardized monitoring sites based on commercially available instruments embedded into an integrated system that is coordinated by the ICOS Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC), which is also responsible for the methodologies advancement, data processing and data distribution. The ecosystem monitoring activity will involve human intervention in field activities and for this reason rigorously standardized protocol for field ecosystem measurements are in preparation also in coordination with others international related activities. The core measurement in the ICOS Ecosystem sites are the main GHGs fluxes that include CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O, using the eddy covariance method and chambers for the soil effluxes. To better interpret and understand the GHGs exchanges a full series of meteorological data (including spectral reflectance measurements and full radiation and water balance) are also collected and the sites are characterized in terms of carbon stocks, nutrients availability and management and disturbance history. Centralized raw data processing, QAQC and uncertainty estimation, test and development of new methodologies and techniques, assistance to the network and chemical analysis and long term storage of the vegetation and soil samples are the main activities where the ETC is responsible. The ETC, based in Italy and with sections in Belgium and France, is under construction and will be operative in 2013. We present the actual status of the Ecosystem network, including the variables collected, the protocols under preparation, the data access and data use policies and the Ecosystem Thematic Center role and development strategy, with special emphasis on the approaches followed to reach high level of to standardization together with the uncertainty quantification.

  20. Rotational Spectra of Hydrogen Bonded Networks of Amino Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectra of several different amino alcohols including D/L-allo-threoninol, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol and 1,3-diamino-2-propanol over the 6.5-18.5 GHz range have been investigated under jet-cooled conditions using chirped-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Despite the small size of these molecules, a great variety of conformations have been observed in the molecular expansion. While the NH2 group is typically thought of as a H-bond acceptor, it often acts both as acceptor and donor in forming H-bonded networks. With three adjacent H-bonding substituents (a combination of OH and NH2 groups), many different hydrogen bonding patterns are possible, including H-bonded chains and H-bonded cycles. Since many of these structures differ primarily by the relative orientation of the H-atoms, the analysis of these rotational spectra are challenging. Only through an exhaustive conformational search and the comparison with the experimental rotational constants, nuclear quadrupolar splittings, and line strengths are we able to understand the complex nature of these interactions. The ways in which the presence and number of NH2 groups affects the relative energies, and distorts the structures will be explored.

  1. URBAN-NET: A Network-based Infrastructure Monitoring and Analysis System for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangkeun; Chen, Liangzhe; Duan, Sisi; Chinthavali, Supriya; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Prakash, B. Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Critical Infrastructures (CIs) such as energy, water, and transportation are complex networks that are crucial for sustaining day-to-day commodity flows vital to national security, economic stability, and public safety. The nature of these CIs is such that failures caused by an extreme weather event or a man-made incident can trigger widespread cascading failures, sending ripple effects at regional or even national scales. To minimize such effects, it is critical for emergency responders to identify existing or potential vulnerabilities within CIs during such stressor events in a systematic and quantifiable manner and take appropriate mitigating actions. We present here a novel critical infrastructure monitoring and analysis system named URBAN-NET. The system includes a software stack and tools for monitoring CIs, pre-processing data, interconnecting multiple CI datasets as a heterogeneous network, identifying vulnerabilities through graph-based topological analysis, and predicting consequences based on what-if simulations along with visualization. As a proof-of-concept, we present several case studies to show the capabilities of our system. We also discuss remaining challenges and future work.

  2. De novo design of protein homo-oligomers with modular hydrogen bond network-mediated specificity

    PubMed Central

    Boyken, Scott E.; Chen, Zibo; Groves, Benjamin; Langan, Robert A.; Oberdorfer, Gustav; Ford, Alex; Gilmore, Jason; Xu, Chunfu; DiMaio, Frank; Pereira, Jose Henrique; Sankaran, Banumathi; Seelig, Georg; Zwart, Peter H.; Baker, David

    2017-01-01

    In nature, structural specificity in DNA and proteins is encoded quite differently: in DNA, specificity arises from modular hydrogen bonds in the core of the double helix, whereas in proteins, specificity arises largely from buried hydrophobic packing complemented by irregular peripheral polar interactions. Here we describe a general approach for designing a wide range of protein homo-oligomers with specificity determined by modular arrays of central hydrogen bond networks. We use the approach to design dimers, trimers, and tetramers consisting of two concentric rings of helices, including previously not seen triangular, square, and supercoiled topologies. X-ray crystallography confirms that the structures overall, and the hydrogen bond networks in particular, are nearly identical to the design models, and the networks confer interaction specificity in vivo. The ability to design extensive hydrogen bond networks with atomic accuracy is a milestone for protein design and enables the programming of protein interaction specificity for a broad range of synthetic biology applications. PMID:27151862

  3. Joint optimization of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies in a regional logistics network with CO2 emission reduction targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dezhi; Zhan, Qingwen; Chen, Yuche; Li, Shuangyan

    2016-03-14

    This study proposes an optimization model that simultaneously incorporates the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes to achieve specific CO2 emission targets in a regional logistics network. The proposed model is formulated as a bi-level formulation, in which the upper level determines the optimal selection of logistics infrastructure investments and subsidies for green transport modes such that the benefit-cost ratio of the entire logistics system is maximized. The lower level describes the selected service routes of logistics users. A genetic and Frank-Wolfe hybrid algorithm is introduced to solve the proposed model. The proposed model is applied to the regional logistics network of Changsha City, China. Findings show that using the joint scheme of the selection of logistics infrastructure investments and green subsidies is more effective than using them solely. In conclusion, carbon emission reduction targets can significantly affect logistics infrastructure investments and subsidy levels.

  4. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Scott; Schopf, Jennifer M.; Miller, Kenneth; Zurawski, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.

  5. Towards a Scalable and Reliable Real Time In-Network Data Analysis Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ciraci, Selim; Yin, Jian

    2011-12-01

    The smart grid applications requires real time analysis, response within the order of milliseconds and high-reliability because of the mission critical structure of the power grid system. The only way to satisfy these requirements is in network data analysis and build-in redundancy routing for failures. To achieve this, we propose a data dissemination system that builds routes using network flow algorithms, have in network processing of the data and utilize data encoding to cope with high latencies.

  6. Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

    2009-05-01

    Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

  7. Boosting Bandwidth: Colleges Are Upgrading Their Network Infrastructure to Support Next-Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, nearly half of U.S. community colleges--46.2 percent-- said upgrading their campus networks is a "very important priority" within the next three years, according to The Campus Computing Project, a survey of 94 community colleges. More robust networks are needed to support a host of new wireless access points and the…

  8. Test Plan of the Anticipatory Wirelss Sensor Network for the Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Rentel

    2006-09-01

    The test plan for the performance of the Anticipatory Wireless Sensor Network (A-WSN) is presented. The results of the test campaigns will be obtained after actual measurements are taken in the field with the Wireless Sensor Network developed by The Innovation Center-Eaton Corp., and the Anticipatory algorithms developed by ORNL.

  9. Boosting Bandwidth: Colleges Are Upgrading Their Network Infrastructure to Support Next-Generation Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, nearly half of U.S. community colleges--46.2 percent-- said upgrading their campus networks is a "very important priority" within the next three years, according to The Campus Computing Project, a survey of 94 community colleges. More robust networks are needed to support a host of new wireless access points and the…

  10. Design and initial deployment of the wireless local area networking infrastructure at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Long, John P.; Hamill, Michael J.; Mitchell, M. G.; Miller, Marc M.; Witzke, Edward L.; Wiener, Dallas J

    2006-11-01

    A major portion of the Wireless Networking Project at Sandia National Laboratories over the last few years has been to examine IEEE 802.11 wireless networking for possible use at Sandia and if practical, introduce this technology. This project team deployed 802.11a, b, and g Wireless Local Area Networking at Sandia. This report examines the basics of wireless networking and captures key results from project tests and experiments. It also records project members thoughts and designs on wireless LAN architecture and security issues. It documents some of the actions and milestones of this project, including pilot and production deployment of wireless networking equipment, and captures the team's rationale behind some of the decisions made. Finally, the report examines lessons learned, future directions, and conclusions.

  11. The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) Software Development: Applications, Infrastructure, and Middleware/Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-06-30

    The status of and future plans for the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) hinge on software that PCMDI is either currently distributing or plans to distribute to the climate community in the near future. These software products include standard conventions, national and international federated infrastructures, and community analysis and visualization tools. This report also mentions other secondary software not necessarily led by or developed at PCMDI to provide a complete picture of the overarching applications, infrastructures, and middleware/networks. Much of the software described anticipates the use of future technologies envisioned over the span of next year to 10 years. These technologies, together with the software, will be the catalyst required to address extreme-scale data warehousing, scalability issues, and service-level requirements for a diverse set of well-known projects essential for predicting climate change. These tools, unlike the previous static analysis tools of the past, will support the co-existence of many users in a productive, shared virtual environment. This advanced technological world driven by extreme-scale computing and the data it generates will increase scientists’ productivity, exploit national and international relationships, and push research to new levels of understanding.

  12. Web-Based Community Networks: Emerging Information Infrastructures for the New Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    1999-01-01

    Considers recent developments in Web-based community networks. Examines fundamental attributes and describes various types of paradigms. Presents considerations for the planning process, which address implementation, technical, budgetary, design, operational, and functional issues and concerns. (Author/AEF)

  13. Bandwidth provisioning in infrastructure-based wireless networks employing directional antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Hasiviswanthan, Shiva; Zhao, Bo; Vasudevan, Sudarshan; Yrgaonkar, Bhuvan

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the widespread proliferation of wireless networks employing directional antennas, we study the problem of provisioning bandwidth in such networks. Given a set of subscribers and one or more access points possessing directional antennas, we formalize the problem of orienting these antennas in two fundamental settings: (1) subscriber-centric, where the objective is to fairly allocate bandwidth among the subscribers and (2) provider-centric, where the objective is to maximize the revenue generated by satisfying the bandwidth requirements of subscribers. For both the problems, we first design algorithms for a network with only one access point working under the assumption that the number of antennas does not exceed the number of noninterfering channels. Using the well-regarded lexicographic max-min fair allocation as the objective for a subscriber-centric network, we present an optimum dynamic programming algorithm. For a provider-centric network, the allocation problem turns out to be NP-hard. We present a greedy heuristic based algorithm that guarantees almost half of the optimum revenue. We later enhance both these algorithms to operate in more general networks with multiple access points and no restrictions on the relative numbers of antennas and channels. A simulation-based evaluation using OPNET demonstrates the efficacy of our approaches and provides us further in insights into these problems.

  14. A hydrogen-bonding network plays a catalytic role in photosynthetic oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Polander, Brandon C; Barry, Bridgette A

    2012-04-17

    In photosystem II, oxygen evolution occurs by the accumulation of photo-induced oxidizing equivalents at the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). The sequentially oxidized states are called the S(0)-S(4) states, and the dark stable state is S(1). Hydrogen bonds to water form a network around the OEC; this network is predicted to involve multiple peptide carbonyl groups. In this work, we tested the idea that a network of hydrogen bonded water molecules plays a catalytic role in water oxidation. As probes, we used OEC peptide carbonyl frequencies, the substrate-based inhibitor, ammonia, and the sugar, trehalose. Reaction-induced FT-IR spectroscopy was used to describe the protein dynamics associated with the S(1) to S(2) transition. A shift in an amide CO vibrational frequency (1664 (S(1)) to 1653 (S(2)) cm(-1)) was observed, consistent with an increase in hydrogen bond strength when the OEC is oxidized. Treatment with ammonia/ammonium altered these CO vibrational frequencies. The ammonia-induced spectral changes are attributed to alterations in hydrogen bonding, when ammonia/ammonium is incorporated into the OEC hydrogen bond network. The ammonia-induced changes in CO frequency were reversed or blocked when trehalose was substituted for sucrose. This trehalose effect is attributed to a displacement of ammonia molecules from the hydrogen bond network. These results imply that ammonia, and by extension water, participate in a catalytically essential hydrogen bond network, which involves OEC peptide CO groups. Comparison to the ammonia transporter, AmtB, reveals structural similarities with the bound water network in the OEC.

  15. A hydrogen-bonding network plays a catalytic role in photosynthetic oxygen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Polander, Brandon C.; Barry, Bridgette A.

    2012-01-01

    In photosystem II, oxygen evolution occurs by the accumulation of photo-induced oxidizing equivalents at the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). The sequentially oxidized states are called the S0-S4 states, and the dark stable state is S1. Hydrogen bonds to water form a network around the OEC; this network is predicted to involve multiple peptide carbonyl groups. In this work, we tested the idea that a network of hydrogen bonded water molecules plays a catalytic role in water oxidation. As probes, we used OEC peptide carbonyl frequencies, the substrate-based inhibitor, ammonia, and the sugar, trehalose. Reaction-induced FT-IR spectroscopy was used to describe the protein dynamics associated with the S1 to S2 transition. A shift in an amide CO vibrational frequency (1664 (S1) to 1653 (S2) cm-1) was observed, consistent with an increase in hydrogen bond strength when the OEC is oxidized. Treatment with ammonia/ammonium altered these CO vibrational frequencies. The ammonia-induced spectral changes are attributed to alterations in hydrogen bonding, when ammonia/ammonium is incorporated into the OEC hydrogen bond network. The ammonia-induced changes in CO frequency were reversed or blocked when trehalose was substituted for sucrose. This trehalose effect is attributed to a displacement of ammonia molecules from the hydrogen bond network. These results imply that ammonia, and by extension water, participate in a catalytically essential hydrogen bond network, which involves OEC peptide CO groups. Comparison to the ammonia transporter, AmtB, reveals structural similarities with the bound water network in the OEC. PMID:22474345

  16. Expanding the Usefulness of Existing Data-Collection Infrastructure with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.

    2009-12-01

    Throughout the world, considerable effort has been expended to construct data collection networks with real-time data collection. The U.S. Geological Survey’s streamflow-gaging stations compose one such network, with over 7,000 stations providing hourly data nationwide primarily via GOES satellite telemetry. Real-time telemetry is a critical component of a robust data collection protocol, allowing problems to be identified as they occur. These existing data collection networks offer a significant opportunity for expansion with wireless sensor networks. Common to nearly every USGS gaging station, and many other real-time networks, is a data logger with an SDI-12 interface for connecting sensors. SDI-12 is an ASCII text-based serial protocol that provides a standardized method for data loggers to communicate with sensors (www.sdi-12.org). A hardware/firmware module recently developed at USGS bridges this SDI-12 interface on data loggers with commercially available wireless sensor network hardware, such as Crossbow MICA2 motes or ZigBee mesh radios. The module appears as a single SDI-12 sensor to the data logger. With each measurement command from the data logger to the module, a request for data is sent out to each node in the wireless sensor network. These data are then formatted into the appropriate SDI-12 response from the module to the data logger, with tags identifying the measurement node. The combined data from all sensors is then transmitted by the data logger to the USGS National Water Information System database, where it is parsed and stored under the appropriate sensor location. The main advantages of bridging the SDI-12 interface with wireless sensor networks are (1) sensors can be deployed in the general vicinity of gaging stations or other platforms, to take advantage of existing real-time telemetry, without being constrained by physical cabling, (2) the wireless sensor network is seen as a single SDI-12 sensor at the data logger, with consequent

  17. Towards a unified description of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water: A dynamics based approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah Zhou, Tiecheng; Clark, Aurora E.

    2014-12-07

    The definition of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) is intimately related to the topological and dynamic properties of the hydrogen bond network within liquid water. The development of a universal H-bond definition for water is an active area of research as it would remove many ambiguities in the network properties that derive from the fixed definition employed to assign whether a water dimer is hydrogen bonded. This work investigates the impact that an electronic-structure based definition, an energetic, and a geometric definition of the H-bond has upon both topological and dynamic network behavior of simulated water. In each definition, the use of a cutoff (either geometric or energetic) to assign the presence of a H-bond leads to the formation of transiently bonded or broken dimers, which have been quantified within the simulation data. The relative concentration of transient species, and their duration, results in two of the three definitions sharing similarities in either topological or dynamic features (H-bond distribution, H-bond lifetime, etc.), however no two definitions exhibit similar behavior for both classes of network properties. In fact, two networks with similar local network topology (as indicated by similar average H-bonds) can have dramatically different global network topology (as indicated by the defect state distributions) and altered H-bond lifetimes. A dynamics based correction scheme is then used to remove artificially transient H-bonds and to repair artificially broken bonds within the network such that the corrected network exhibits the same structural and dynamic properties for two H-bond definitions (the properties of the third definition being significantly improved). The algorithm described represents a significant step forward in the development of a unified hydrogen bond network whose properties are independent of the original hydrogen bond definition that is employed.

  18. Towards a unified description of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water: a dynamics based approach.

    PubMed

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Zhou, Tiecheng; Clark, Aurora E

    2014-12-07

    The definition of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) is intimately related to the topological and dynamic properties of the hydrogen bond network within liquid water. The development of a universal H-bond definition for water is an active area of research as it would remove many ambiguities in the network properties that derive from the fixed definition employed to assign whether a water dimer is hydrogen bonded. This work investigates the impact that an electronic-structure based definition, an energetic, and a geometric definition of the H-bond has upon both topological and dynamic network behavior of simulated water. In each definition, the use of a cutoff (either geometric or energetic) to assign the presence of a H-bond leads to the formation of transiently bonded or broken dimers, which have been quantified within the simulation data. The relative concentration of transient species, and their duration, results in two of the three definitions sharing similarities in either topological or dynamic features (H-bond distribution, H-bond lifetime, etc.), however no two definitions exhibit similar behavior for both classes of network properties. In fact, two networks with similar local network topology (as indicated by similar average H-bonds) can have dramatically different global network topology (as indicated by the defect state distributions) and altered H-bond lifetimes. A dynamics based correction scheme is then used to remove artificially transient H-bonds and to repair artificially broken bonds within the network such that the corrected network exhibits the same structural and dynamic properties for two H-bond definitions (the properties of the third definition being significantly improved). The algorithm described represents a significant step forward in the development of a unified hydrogen bond network whose properties are independent of the original hydrogen bond definition that is employed.

  19. Hydrogen bond network topology in liquid water and methanol: a graph theory approach.

    PubMed

    Bakó, Imre; Bencsura, Akos; Hermannson, Kersti; Bálint, Szabolcs; Grósz, Tamás; Chihaia, Viorel; Oláh, Julianna

    2013-09-28

    Networks are increasingly recognized as important building blocks of various systems in nature and society. Water is known to possess an extended hydrogen bond network, in which the individual bonds are broken in the sub-picosecond range and still the network structure remains intact. We investigated and compared the topological properties of liquid water and methanol at various temperatures using concepts derived within the framework of graph and network theory (neighbour number and cycle size distribution, the distribution of local cyclic and local bonding coefficients, Laplacian spectra of the network, inverse participation ratio distribution of the eigenvalues and average localization distribution of a node) and compared them to small world and Erdős-Rényi random networks. Various characteristic properties (e.g. the local cyclic and bonding coefficients) of the network in liquid water could be reproduced by small world and/or Erdős-Rényi networks, but the ring size distribution of water is unique and none of the studied graph models could describe it. Using the inverse participation ratio of the Laplacian eigenvectors we characterized the network inhomogeneities found in water and showed that similar phenomena can be observed in Erdős-Rényi and small world graphs. We demonstrated that the topological properties of the hydrogen bond network found in liquid water systematically change with the temperature and that increasing temperature leads to a broader ring size distribution. We applied the studied topological indices to the network of water molecules with four hydrogen bonds, and showed that at low temperature (250 K) these molecules form a percolated or nearly-percolated network, while at ambient or high temperatures only small clusters of four-hydrogen bonded water molecules exist.

  20. Collaborative-Hybrid Multi-Layer Network Control for Emerging Cyber-Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, Tom; Ghani, Nasir; Boyd, Eric

    2010-08-31

    At a high level, there were four basic task areas identified for the Hybrid-MLN project. They are: o Multi-Layer, Multi-Domain, Control Plane Architecture and Implementation, including OSCARS layer2 and InterDomain Adaptation, Integration of LambdaStation and Terapaths with Layer2 dynamic provisioning, Control plane software release, Scheduling, AAA, security architecture, Network Virtualization architecture, Multi-Layer Network Architecture Framework Definition; o Heterogeneous DataPlane Testing; o Simulation; o Project Publications, Reports, and Presentations.

  1. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  2. Architectural and Mobility Management Designs in Internet-Based Infrastructure Wireless Mesh Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Weiyi

    2011-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…

  3. Quantum delocalization of protons in the hydrogen-bond network of an enzyme active site

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Fried, Stephen D.; Boxer, Steven G.; Markland, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes use protein architectures to create highly specialized structural motifs that can greatly enhance the rates of complex chemical transformations. Here, we use experiments, combined with ab initio simulations that exactly include nuclear quantum effects, to show that a triad of strongly hydrogen-bonded tyrosine residues within the active site of the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI) facilitates quantum proton delocalization. This delocalization dramatically stabilizes the deprotonation of an active-site tyrosine residue, resulting in a very large isotope effect on its acidity. When an intermediate analog is docked, it is incorporated into the hydrogen-bond network, giving rise to extended quantum proton delocalization in the active site. These results shed light on the role of nuclear quantum effects in the hydrogen-bond network that stabilizes the reactive intermediate of KSI, and the behavior of protons in biological systems containing strong hydrogen bonds. PMID:25503367

  4. Cooperating Mobile GIS and Wireless Sensor Networks for Managing Transportation Infrastructures in Urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shad, R.; Abazari, N.; Alizadeh, A.; Choghooni, M.

    2013-10-01

    Time management is a major subject which, in order to optimize trip conditions, emphasizes on interpreting processes and classifying individual's information. In this paper, with the aim of providing an optimal system for urban commuting in proper time in Mashhad, each user using SMS and introducing some of his/her mental priorities to the system, will be able to select the best option depending on the timing of movement of the available public transport system. The present study adopts a newly developed method of time management which is evaluated for urban transportation considering dynamic conditions of a spatial database. For this purpose, regarding time management, processed data such as bus lines, taxi networks, and the subway system are combined in a spatial framework of a designed Mobile GIS based on a wireless network. So, multiple potential paths which end to a desirable destination.

  5. A Graph-Based Computational Framework for Simulation and Optimization of Coupled Infrastructure Network

    SciTech Connect

    Jalving, Jordan; Abhyankar, Shrirang; Kim, Kibaek; Hereld, Mark; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a computational framework that facilitates the construction, instantiation, and analysis of large-scale optimization and simulation applications of coupled energy networks. The framework integrates the optimization modeling package PLASMO and the simulation package DMNetwork (built around PETSc). These tools use a common graphbased abstraction that enables us to achieve compatibility between data structures and to build applications that use network models of different physical fidelity. We also describe how to embed these tools within complex computational workflows using SWIFT, which is a tool that facilitates parallel execution of multiple simulation runs and management of input and output data. We discuss how to use these capabilities to target coupled natural gas and electricity systems.

  6. A Graph-Based Computational Framework for Simulation and Optimization of Coupled Infrastructure Network

    DOE PAGES

    Jalving, Jordan; Abhyankar, Shrirang; Kim, Kibaek; ...

    2017-01-01

    We present a computational framework that facilitates the construction, instantiation, and analysis of large-scale optimization and simulation applications of coupled energy networks. The framework integrates the optimization modeling package PLASMO and the simulation package DMNetwork (built around PETSc). These tools use a common graphbased abstraction that enables us to achieve compatibility between data structures and to build applications that use network models of different physical fidelity. We also describe how to embed these tools within complex computational workflows using SWIFT, which is a tool that facilitates parallel execution of multiple simulation runs and management of input and output data. Wemore » discuss how to use these capabilities to target coupled natural gas and electricity systems.« less

  7. Modeling network infrastructure and performance evaluation for PACS: DICOM over ethernet-based TCP/IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Roth, David

    2001-08-01

    Studies of information and process modeling have demonstrated the importance and clinical impact of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems in the efficient operational management of imaging within the clinical setting. The appropriate identification of both clinical and technology requirements for the planning and deployment of such systems is essential to achieve cost-effectiveness in use. The understanding of the complexities of clinically viable network topologies and architectures for PACS can be achieved through realistic simulations and modeling. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology for modeling the DICOM session and application layer entities over Ethernet-based TCP/IP, by using the OPNET Modeler, and derive performance evaluation metrics for different PACS network topologies.

  8. A graph-based computational framework for simulation and optimisation of coupled infrastructure networks

    DOE PAGES

    Jalving, Jordan; Abhyankar, Shrirang; Kim, Kibaek; ...

    2017-04-24

    Here, we present a computational framework that facilitates the construction, instantiation, and analysis of large-scale optimization and simulation applications of coupled energy networks. The framework integrates the optimization modeling package PLASMO and the simulation package DMNetwork (built around PETSc). These tools use a common graphbased abstraction that enables us to achieve compatibility between data structures and to build applications that use network models of different physical fidelity. We also describe how to embed these tools within complex computational workflows using SWIFT, which is a tool that facilitates parallel execution of multiple simulation runs and management of input and output data.more » We discuss how to use these capabilities to target coupled natural gas and electricity systems.« less

  9. Evaluating Security and Quality of Service Considerations in Critical Infrastructure Communication Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    traffic to migrate to a utility intranet. Some types of SCADA data include injections, real and reactive power flows, voltage status, and breaker ...Data will be sent from event/fault recorders when an event occurs. An example of an event is a lightening strike followed by a series of circuit ... breakers that trip as a result of the lightening strike. Event data can be very large as compared to other types of traffic on the network. Event

  10. Hydrogen-Bond Networks: Strengths of Different Types of Hydrogen Bonds and An Alternative to the Low Barrier Hydrogen-Bond Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Yanping; O'Doherty, George A.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2013-11-27

    We report quantifying the strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds in hydrogen bond networks (HBNs) via measurement of the adiabatic electron detachment energy of the conjugate base of a small covalent polyol model compound (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) in the gas phase and the pKa of the corresponding acid in DMSO. The latter result reveals that the hydrogen bonds to the charged center and those that are one solvation shell further away (i.e., primary and secondary) provide 5.3 and 2.5 pKa units of stabilization per hydrogen bond in DMSO. Computations indicate that these energies increase to 8.4 and 3.9 pKa units in benzene and that the total stabilizations are 16 (DMSO) and 25 (benzene) pKa units. Calculations on a larger linear heptaol (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) reveal that the terminal hydroxyl groups each contribute 0.6 pKa units of stabilization in DMSO and 1.1 pKa units in benzene. All of these results taken together indicate that the presence of a charged center can provide a powerful energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN.

  11. Hydrogen-bond networks: strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds and an alternative to the low barrier hydrogen-bond proposal.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Yanping; O'Doherty, George A; Wang, Xue-Bin; Kass, Steven R

    2013-11-27

    We report quantifying the strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds in hydrogen-bond networks (HBNs) via measurement of the adiabatic electron detachment energy of the conjugate base of a small covalent polyol model compound (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) in the gas phase and the pKa of the corresponding acid in DMSO. The latter result reveals that the hydrogen bonds to the charged center and those that are one solvation shell further away (i.e., primary and secondary) provide 5.3 and 2.5 pKa units of stabilization per hydrogen bond in DMSO. Computations indicate that these energies increase to 8.4 and 3.9 pKa units in benzene and that the total stabilizations are 16 (DMSO) and 25 (benzene) pKa units. Calculations on a larger linear heptaol (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) reveal that the terminal hydroxyl groups each contribute 0.6 pKa units of stabilization in DMSO and 1.1 pKa units in benzene. All of these results taken together indicate that the presence of a charged center can provide a powerful energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN.

  12. Usage of Wireless Sensor Networks in a service based spatial data infrastructure for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Walter, K.; Kallash, A.; Niemeyer, F.; Azzam, R.; Bill, R.

    2007-12-01

    The joint project Sensor based Landslide Early Warning System (SLEWS) aims at a systematic development of a prototyping alarm- and early warning system for the detection of mass movements by application of an ad hoc wireless sensor network (WSN). Next to the development of suitable sensor setups, sensor fusion and network fusion are applied to enhance data quality and reduce false alarm rates. Of special interest is the data retrieval, processing and visualization in GI-Systems. Therefore a suitable serviced based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) will be developed with respect to existing and upcoming Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards.The application of WSN provides a cheap and easy to set up solution for special monitoring and data gathering in large areas. Measurement data from different low-cost transducers for deformation observation (acceleration, displacement, tilting) is collected by distributed sensor nodes (motes), which interact separately and connect each other in a self-organizing manner. Data are collected and aggregated at the beacon (transmission station) and further operations like data pre-processing and compression can be performed. The WSN concept provides next to energy efficiency, miniaturization, real-time monitoring and remote operation, but also new monitoring strategies like sensor and network fusion. Since not only single sensors can be integrated at single motes either cross-validation or redundant sensor setups are possible to enhance data quality. The planned monitoring and information system will include a mobile infrastructure (information technologies and communication components) as well as methods and models to estimate surface deformation parameters (positioning systems). The measurements result in heterogeneous observation sets that have to be integrated in a common adjustment and filtering approach. Reliable real-time information will be obtained using a range of sensor input and algorithms, from which early warnings

  13. A Preorganized Hydrogen Bond Network and Its Effect on Anion Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, Masoud; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2014-08-07

    Rigid tricyclic locked in all axial 1,3,5-cyclohexanetriol derivatives with 0–3 trifluoromethyl groups were synthesized and photoelectron spectra of their conjugate bases and chloride anion clusters are reported along with density functional computations. The resulting vertical and adiabatic detachment energies provide measures of the anion stabilization due to the hydrogen bond network and inductive effects. The latter mechanism is found to be transmitted through space via hydrogen bonds

  14. Development of Real-Time Soil Carbon Ecoinformatics Infrastructure Using Observational Network Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J.; Risk, D. A.; Nickerson, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    To understand and model the temporal variability of soil respiration, we need high frequency, long-term data sets for model development and validation. Three observational stations equipped with Continuous Timeseries-Forced Diffusion (CTFD) probes were deployed in the summer of 2010 across a 1000 km transect in Atlantic Canada. At half hourly resolution, each observational station records soil CO2 efflux from two (2) probes and from a suite of meteorological sensors and peripherals. Each station is equipped with telemetry and data is continuously downloaded, quality controlled, processed, and made available for online display via several CGI, Java, and Perl scripts (http://fluxlab.stfx.ca/fieldsites/). This small network is intended to be the beginning developments of a larger Ecoinformatics Network. This presentation will display early data from this network and summarize real-time modeling efforts. The high-frequency observations show extremely dynamic systems which demonstrate CO2 efflux dependency to temperature and other important environmental drivers; pronounced increases in CO2 efflux after rain; differences across spatial scales; and short-term lags in data owing to gas or thermal transport. Other measurement methods (i.e. chambers) may miss many of these short-term flux variations in the absence of continuous data collection. Intra-site temporal observations (at sub-meter scale) show that spatially variable fluxes have similar scales of amplitude variation. All sites seem to show similar scales of temporal variability but CO2 fluxes can lag between probes across various time scales. These results suggest that site variably may be captured by measurements at only a few representative locations with high temporal frequency. Observation efforts will continue to monitor over winter and will provide unique data measuring fluxes under the snow pack at the soil interface. A key goal of this Ecoinformatics Network system is to develop improved soil models

  15. Dynamic properties of hydrogen-bonded networks in supercritical water

    PubMed

    Marti

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic properties of supercritical water at temperatures between 573 and 773 K and densities between 0.49 and 0.83 g/cm(3) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and compared to states located on the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. A flexible simple point charge potential has been assumed for interactions in the subcritical states, whereas a reparameterization of that model has been performed to model the supercritical states. The hydrogen bonding structure and the diffusion coefficients in an ensemble of simulated states were previously analyzed and a good agreement with available experimental data was found. Dynamic properties of hydrogen bonding like the bond lifetimes and the influence of hydrogen bonds in the vibrational spectra are discussed along a range of simulation conditions. A nonlinear behavior of the hydrogen-bond lifetime as a function of temperature is observed in subcritical water whereas a linear dependence is found in supercritical water. Special attention is paid to the intermolecular vibrational spectrum (10-400 cm(-1)). It has been observed that the mode centered at 200 cm(-1), attributed to the intermolecular O-O stretching vibration in the ambient state remains active in the supercritical states.

  16. Efficient room temperature hydrogen sensor based on UV-activated ZnO nano-network.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Rahul; Rajamani, Saravanan; Ranwa, Sapana; Fanetti, Mattia; Valant, Matjaz; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-09-08

    Room temperature hydrogen sensors were fabricated from Au embedded ZnO nano-networks using a 30 mW GaN ultraviolet LED. The Au-decorated ZnO nano-networks were deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical vapour deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum analysis revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and presence of Au. The ZnO nanoparticles were interconnected, forming nano-network structures. Au nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on ZnO surfaces, as confirmed by FESEM imaging. Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated on the ZnO nano-networks using optical lithography. Sensor performances were measured with and without UV illumination, at room temperate, with concentrations of hydrogen varying from 5 ppm to 1%. The sensor response was found to be ∼21.5% under UV illumination and 0% without UV at room temperature for low hydrogen concentration of 5 ppm. The UV-photoactivated mode enhanced the adsorption of photo-induced O(-) and O(2-) ions, and the d-band electron transition from the Au nanoparticles to ZnO-which increased the chemisorbed reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The sensor response was also measured at 150 °C (without UV illumination) and found to be ∼18% at 5 ppm. Energy efficient low cost hydrogen sensors can be designed and fabricated with the combination of GaN UV LEDs and ZnO nanostructures.

  17. Efficient room temperature hydrogen sensor based on UV-activated ZnO nano-network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohit; Kumar, Rahul; Rajamani, Saravanan; Ranwa, Sapana; Fanetti, Mattia; Valant, Matjaz; Kumar, Mahesh

    2017-09-01

    Room temperature hydrogen sensors were fabricated from Au embedded ZnO nano-networks using a 30 mW GaN ultraviolet LED. The Au-decorated ZnO nano-networks were deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate by a chemical vapour deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum analysis revealed a hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO and presence of Au. The ZnO nanoparticles were interconnected, forming nano-network structures. Au nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on ZnO surfaces, as confirmed by FESEM imaging. Interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) were fabricated on the ZnO nano-networks using optical lithography. Sensor performances were measured with and without UV illumination, at room temperate, with concentrations of hydrogen varying from 5 ppm to 1%. The sensor response was found to be ˜21.5% under UV illumination and 0% without UV at room temperature for low hydrogen concentration of 5 ppm. The UV-photoactivated mode enhanced the adsorption of photo-induced O- and O2- ions, and the d-band electron transition from the Au nanoparticles to ZnO—which increased the chemisorbed reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The sensor response was also measured at 150 °C (without UV illumination) and found to be ˜18% at 5 ppm. Energy efficient low cost hydrogen sensors can be designed and fabricated with the combination of GaN UV LEDs and ZnO nanostructures.

  18. Moving Toward an Optimal and Automated Geospatial Network for CCUS Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Brendan Arthur

    2016-08-05

    Modifications in the global climate are being driven by the anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide (CO2) (Middleton et al. 2014). CO2 emissions have, for example, been directly linked to an increase in total global temperature (Seneviratne et al. 2016). Strategies that limit CO2 emissions—like CO2 capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technology—can greatly reduce emissions by capturing CO2 before it is released to the atmosphere. However, to date CCUS technology has not been developed at a large commercial scale despite several promising high profile demonstration projects (Middleton et al. 2015). Current CCUS research has often focused on capturing CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, but recent research at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) suggests focusing CCUS CO2 capture research upon industrial sources might better encourage CCUS deployment. To further promote industrial CCUS deployment, this project builds off current LANL research by continuing the development of a software tool called SimCCS, which estimates a regional system of transport to inject CO2 into sedimentary basins. The goal of SimCCS, which was first developed by Middleton and Bielicki (2009), is to output an automated and optimal geospatial industrial CCUS pipeline that accounts for industrial source and sink locations by estimating a Delaunay triangle network which also minimizes topographic and social costs (Middleton and Bielicki 2009). Current development of SimCCS is focused on creating a new version that accounts for spatial arrangements that were not available in the previous version. This project specifically addresses the issue of non-unique Delaunay triangles by adding additional triangles to the network, which can affect how the CCUS network is calculated.

  19. Virtual machine-based simulation platform for mobile ad-hoc network-based cyber infrastructure

    DOE PAGES

    Yoginath, Srikanth B.; Perumalla, Kayla S.; Henz, Brian J.

    2015-09-29

    In modeling and simulating complex systems such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) in de-fense communications, it is a major challenge to reconcile multiple important considerations: the rapidity of unavoidable changes to the software (network layers and applications), the difficulty of modeling the critical, implementation-dependent behavioral effects, the need to sustain larger scale scenarios, and the desire for faster simulations. Here we present our approach in success-fully reconciling them using a virtual time-synchronized virtual machine(VM)-based parallel ex-ecution framework that accurately lifts both the devices as well as the network communications to a virtual time plane while retaining full fidelity. At themore » core of our framework is a scheduling engine that operates at the level of a hypervisor scheduler, offering a unique ability to execute multi-core guest nodes over multi-core host nodes in an accurate, virtual time-synchronized manner. In contrast to other related approaches that suffer from either speed or accuracy issues, our framework provides MANET node-wise scalability, high fidelity of software behaviors, and time-ordering accuracy. The design and development of this framework is presented, and an ac-tual implementation based on the widely used Xen hypervisor system is described. Benchmarks with synthetic and actual applications are used to identify the benefits of our approach. The time inaccuracy of traditional emulation methods is demonstrated, in comparison with the accurate execution of our framework verified by theoretically correct results expected from analytical models of the same scenarios. In the largest high fidelity tests, we are able to perform virtual time-synchronized simulation of 64-node VM-based full-stack, actual software behaviors of MANETs containing a mix of static and mobile (unmanned airborne vehicle) nodes, hosted on a 32-core host, with full fidelity of unmodified ad-hoc routing protocols, unmodified

  20. Virtual machine-based simulation platform for mobile ad-hoc network-based cyber infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginath, Srikanth B.; Perumalla, Kayla S.; Henz, Brian J.

    2015-09-29

    In modeling and simulating complex systems such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) in de-fense communications, it is a major challenge to reconcile multiple important considerations: the rapidity of unavoidable changes to the software (network layers and applications), the difficulty of modeling the critical, implementation-dependent behavioral effects, the need to sustain larger scale scenarios, and the desire for faster simulations. Here we present our approach in success-fully reconciling them using a virtual time-synchronized virtual machine(VM)-based parallel ex-ecution framework that accurately lifts both the devices as well as the network communications to a virtual time plane while retaining full fidelity. At the core of our framework is a scheduling engine that operates at the level of a hypervisor scheduler, offering a unique ability to execute multi-core guest nodes over multi-core host nodes in an accurate, virtual time-synchronized manner. In contrast to other related approaches that suffer from either speed or accuracy issues, our framework provides MANET node-wise scalability, high fidelity of software behaviors, and time-ordering accuracy. The design and development of this framework is presented, and an ac-tual implementation based on the widely used Xen hypervisor system is described. Benchmarks with synthetic and actual applications are used to identify the benefits of our approach. The time inaccuracy of traditional emulation methods is demonstrated, in comparison with the accurate execution of our framework verified by theoretically correct results expected from analytical models of the same scenarios. In the largest high fidelity tests, we are able to perform virtual time-synchronized simulation of 64-node VM-based full-stack, actual software behaviors of MANETs containing a mix of static and mobile (unmanned airborne vehicle) nodes, hosted on a 32-core host, with full fidelity of unmodified ad-hoc routing protocols, unmodified application

  1. An infrastructure with a unified control plane to integrate IP into optical metro networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor

    2012-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users and the nature of the Internet traffic will undertake a fundamental transformation. Consequently, the current Internet will no longer suffice for serving cloud traffic in metro areas. This work proposes an infrastructure with a unified control plane that integrates simple packet aggregation technology with optical express through the interoperation between IP routers and electrical traffic controllers in optical metro networks. The proposed infrastructure provides flexible, intelligent, and eco-friendly bandwidth on demand for cloud computing in metro areas.

  2. Teledesic Global Wireless Broadband Network: Space Infrastructure Architecture, Design Features and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The Teledesic satellites are a new class of small satellites which demonstrate the important commercial benefits of using technologies developed for other purposes by U.S. National Laboratories. The Teledesic satellite architecture, subsystem design features, and new technologies are described. The new Teledesic satellite manufacturing, integration, and test approaches which use modern high volume production techniques and result in surprisingly low space segment costs are discussed. The constellation control and management features and attendant software architecture features are addressed. After briefly discussing the economic and technological impact on the USA commercial space industries of the space communications revolution and such large constellation projects, the paper concludes with observations on the trend toward future system architectures using networked groups of much smaller satellites.

  3. Creating an infrastructure for safety event reporting and analysis in a multicenter pediatric emergency department network.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, James M; Shaw, Kathy N; Lillis, Kathleen A; Mahajan, Prashant V; Ruddy, Richard M; Lichenstein, Richard; Olsen, Cody S; Dean, J Michael

    2013-02-01

    Hospital incident reporting is widely used but has had limited effectiveness for improving patient safety nationally. We describe the process of establishing a multi-institutional safety event reporting system. A descriptive study in The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network of 22 hospital emergency departments was performed. An extensive legal analysis addressed investigators' concerns about sharing confidential incident reports (IRs): (1) the ability to identify sites and (2) potential loss of peer review statute protection. Of the 22 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network sites, 19 received institutional approval to submit deidentified IRs to the data center. Incident reports were randomly assigned to independent review; discordance was resolved by consensus. Incident reports were categorized by type, subtype, severity, staff involved, and contributing factors. A total of 3,106 IRs were submitted by 18 sites in the first year. Reporting rates ranged more than 50-fold from 0.12 to 6.13 per 1000 patients. Data were sufficient to determine type of error (90% of IRs), severity (79%), staff involved (82%), and contributing factors (82%). However, contributing factors were clearly identified in only 44% of IRs and required extrapolation by investigators in 38%. The most common incidents were related to laboratory specimens (25.5%), medication administration (19.3%), and process variance, such as delays in care (14.4%). Incident reporting provides qualitative data concerning safety events. Perceived legal barriers to sharing confidential data can be addressed. Large variability in reporting rates and low rates of providing contributing factors suggest a need for standardization and improvement of safety event reporting.

  4. Calcium-decorated carbyne networks as hydrogen storage media.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Pavel B; Lee, Hoonkyung; Antipina, Lyubov Yu; Singh, Abhishek K; Yakobson, Boris I

    2011-07-13

    Among the carbon allotropes, carbyne chains appear outstandingly accessible for sorption and very light. Hydrogen adsorption on calcium-decorated carbyne chain was studied using ab initio density functional calculations. The estimation of surface area of carbyne gives the value four times larger than that of graphene, which makes carbyne attractive as a storage scaffold medium. Furthermore, calculations show that a Ca-decorated carbyne can adsorb up to 6 H(2) molecules per Ca atom with a binding energy of ∼0.2 eV, desirable for reversible storage, and the hydrogen storage capacity can exceed ∼8 wt %. Unlike recently reported transition metal-decorated carbon nanostructures, which suffer from the metal clustering diminishing the storage capacity, the clustering of Ca atoms on carbyne is energetically unfavorable. Thermodynamics of adsorption of H(2) molecules on the Ca atom was also investigated using equilibrium grand partition function.

  5. Correlation of structural order, anomalous density, and hydrogen bonding network of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Dibyendu; Mohan, S; Ghosh, S K; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2013-07-25

    We use extensive molecular dynamics simulations employing different state-of-the-art force fields to find a common framework for comparing structural orders and density anomalies as obtained from different water models. It is found that the average number of hydrogen bonds correlates well with various order parameters as well as the temperature of maximum densities across the different models, unifying apparently disparate results from different models and emphasizing the importance of hydrogen bonding in determining anomalous properties and the structure of water. A deeper insight into the hydrogen bond network of water reveals that the solvation shell of a water molecule can be defined by considering only those neighbors that are hydrogen-bonded to it. On the basis of this view, the origin of the appearance of a non-tetrahedral peak at a higher temperature in the distribution of tetrahedral order parameters has been explained. It is found that a neighbor that is hydrogen-bonded to the central molecule is tetrahedrally coordinated even at higher temperatures. The non-tetrahedral peak at a higher temperature arises due to the strained orientation of the neighbors that are non-hydrogen-bonded to the central molecule. With the new definition of the solvation shell, liquid water can be viewed as an instantaneously changing random hydrogen-bonded network consisting of differently coordinated hydrogen-bonded molecules with their distinct solvation shells. The variation of the composition of these hydrogen-bonded molecules against temperature accounts for the density anomaly without introducing the concept of large-scale structural polyamorphism in water.

  6. Caltech/USGS Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN): Infrastructure upgrade to support Earthquake Early Warning (EEW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadha, R. J.; Hauksson, E.; Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    The SCSN is the modern digital ground motion seismic network in Southern California and performs the following tasks: 1) Operates remote seismic stations and the central data processing systems in Pasadena; 2) Generates and reports real-time products including location, magnitude, ShakeMap, aftershock probabilities and others; 3) Responds to FEMA, CalOES, media, and public inquiries about earthquakes; 4) Manages the production, archival, and distribution of waveforms, phase picks, and other data at the SCEDC; 5) Contributes to development and implementation of the demonstration EEW system called CISN ShakeAlert. Initially, the ShakeAlert project was funded through the US Geological Survey (USGS) and in early 2012, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation provided three years of new funding for EEW research and development for the US west coast. Recently, we have also received some Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI) funding to enhance the EEW capabilities for the local UASI region by making our system overall faster, more reliable and redundant than the existing system. The additional and upgraded stations will be capable of decreasing latency and ensuring data delivery by using more reliable and redundant telemetry pathways. Overall, this will enhance the reliability of the earthquake early warnings by providing denser station coverage and more resilient data centers than before. * Seismic Datalogger upgrade: replaces existing dataloggers with modern equipment capable of sending one-second uncompressed packets and utilizing redundant Ethernet telemetry. * GPS upgrade: replaces the existing GPS receivers and antennas, especially at "zipper array" sites near the major faults, with receivers that perform on-board precise point positioning to calculate position and velocity in real time and stream continuous data for use in EEW calculations. * New co-located seismic/GPS stations: increases station density and reduces early warning delays that are incurred by travel

  7. Pressure-induced localisation of the hydrogen-bond network in KOH-VI

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Andreas Nelmes, Richard J.; Loveday, John S.; Guthrie, Malcolm

    2015-12-28

    Using a combination of ab initio crystal structure prediction and neutron diffraction techniques, we have solved the full structure of KOH-VI at 7 GPa. Rather than being orthorhombic and proton-ordered as had previously be proposed, we find that this high-pressure phase of potassium hydroxide is tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) and proton disordered. It has an unusual hydrogen bond topology, where the hydroxyl groups form isolated hydrogen-bonded square planar (OH){sub 4} units. This structure is stable above 6.5 GPa and, despite being macroscopically proton-disordered, local ice rules enforce microscopic order of the hydrogen bonds. We suggest the use of this novel type of structure to study concerted proton tunneling in the solid state, while the topology of the hydrogen bond network could conceivably be exploited in data storage applications based solely on the manipulations of hydrogen bonds. The unusual localisation of the hydrogen bond network under applied pressure is found to be favored by a more compact packing of the constituents in a distorted cesium chloride structure.

  8. Pressure-induced localisation of the hydrogen-bond network in KOH-VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Andreas; Guthrie, Malcolm; Nelmes, Richard J.; Loveday, John S.

    2015-12-01

    Using a combination of ab initio crystal structure prediction and neutron diffraction techniques, we have solved the full structure of KOH-VI at 7 GPa. Rather than being orthorhombic and proton-ordered as had previously be proposed, we find that this high-pressure phase of potassium hydroxide is tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) and proton disordered. It has an unusual hydrogen bond topology, where the hydroxyl groups form isolated hydrogen-bonded square planar (OH)4 units. This structure is stable above 6.5 GPa and, despite being macroscopically proton-disordered, local ice rules enforce microscopic order of the hydrogen bonds. We suggest the use of this novel type of structure to study concerted proton tunneling in the solid state, while the topology of the hydrogen bond network could conceivably be exploited in data storage applications based solely on the manipulations of hydrogen bonds. The unusual localisation of the hydrogen bond network under applied pressure is found to be favored by a more compact packing of the constituents in a distorted cesium chloride structure.

  9. Pressure-induced localisation of the hydrogen-bond network in KOH-VI.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Andreas; Guthrie, Malcolm; Nelmes, Richard J; Loveday, John S

    2015-12-28

    Using a combination of ab initio crystal structure prediction and neutron diffraction techniques, we have solved the full structure of KOH-VI at 7 GPa. Rather than being orthorhombic and proton-ordered as had previously be proposed, we find that this high-pressure phase of potassium hydroxide is tetragonal (space group I4/mmm) and proton disordered. It has an unusual hydrogen bond topology, where the hydroxyl groups form isolated hydrogen-bonded square planar (OH)4 units. This structure is stable above 6.5 GPa and, despite being macroscopically proton-disordered, local ice rules enforce microscopic order of the hydrogen bonds. We suggest the use of this novel type of structure to study concerted proton tunneling in the solid state, while the topology of the hydrogen bond network could conceivably be exploited in data storage applications based solely on the manipulations of hydrogen bonds. The unusual localisation of the hydrogen bond network under applied pressure is found to be favored by a more compact packing of the constituents in a distorted cesium chloride structure.

  10. Individualized network-based drug repositioning infrastructure for precision oncology in the panomics era.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixiong; Hong, Huixiao; Yang, Shengyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-06-12

    Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have generated the data supporting a large volume of somatic alterations in several national and international cancer genome projects, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas and the International Cancer Genome Consortium. These cancer genomics data have facilitated the revolution of a novel oncology drug discovery paradigm from candidate target or gene studies toward targeting clinically relevant driver mutations or molecular features for precision cancer therapy. This focuses on identifying the most appropriately targeted therapy to an individual patient harboring a particularly genetic profile or molecular feature. However, traditional experimental approaches that are used to develop new chemical entities for targeting the clinically relevant driver mutations are costly and high-risk. Drug repositioning, also known as drug repurposing, re-tasking or re-profiling, has been demonstrated as a promising strategy for drug discovery and development. Recently, computational techniques and methods have been proposed for oncology drug repositioning and identifying pharmacogenomics biomarkers, but overall progress remains to be seen. In this review, we focus on introducing new developments and advances of the individualized network-based drug repositioning approaches by targeting the clinically relevant driver events or molecular features derived from cancer panomics data for the development of precision oncology drug therapies (e.g. one-person trials) to fully realize the promise of precision medicine. We discuss several potential challenges (e.g. tumor heterogeneity and cancer subclones) for precision oncology. Finally, we highlight several new directions for the precision oncology drug discovery via biotherapies (e.g. gene therapy and immunotherapy) that target the 'undruggable' cancer genome in the functional genomics era.

  11. Integration in primary community care networks (PCCNs): examination of governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information infrastructures in a national demonstration project in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Background Taiwan's primary community care network (PCCN) demonstration project, funded by the Bureau of National Health Insurance on March 2003, was established to discourage hospital shopping behavior of people and drive the traditional fragmented health care providers into cooperate care models. Between 2003 and 2005, 268 PCCNs were established. This study profiled the individual members in the PCCNs to study the nature and extent to which their network infrastructures have been integrated among the members (clinics and hospitals) within individual PCCNs. Methods The thorough questionnaire items, covering the network working infrastructures – governance, clinical, marketing, financial, and information integration in PCCNs, were developed with validity and reliability confirmed. One thousand five hundred and fifty-seven clinics that had belonged to PCCNs for more than one year, based on the 2003–2005 Taiwan Primary Community Care Network List, were surveyed by mail. Nine hundred and twenty-eight clinic members responded to the surveys giving a 59.6 % response rate. Results Overall, the PCCNs' members had higher involvement in the governance infrastructure, which was usually viewed as the most important for establishment of core values in PCCNs' organization design and management at the early integration stage. In addition, it found that there existed a higher extent of integration of clinical, marketing, and information infrastructures among the hospital-clinic member relationship than those among clinic members within individual PCCNs. The financial infrastructure was shown the least integrated relative to other functional infrastructures at the early stage of PCCN formation. Conclusion There was still room for better integrated partnerships, as evidenced by the great variety of relationships and differences in extent of integration in this study. In addition to provide how the network members have done for their initial work at the early stage of network

  12. Hydrogen gas sensing with networks of ultra-small palladium nanowires formed on filtration membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X. Q.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Panuganti, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Xu, T.

    2010-11-29

    Hydrogen sensors based on single Pd nanowires show promising results in speed, sensitivity, and ultralow power consumption. The utilization of single Pd nanowires, however, face challenges in nanofabrication, manipulation, and achieving ultrasmall transverse dimensions. We report on hydrogen sensors that take advantage of single palladium nanowires in high speed and sensitivity and that can be fabricated conveniently. The sensors are based on networks of ultrasmall (<10 nm) palladium nanowires deposited onto commercially available filtration membranes. We investigated the sensitivities and response times of these sensors as a function of the thickness of the nanowires and also compared them with a continuous reference film. The superior performance of the ultrasmall Pd nanowire network based sensors demonstrates the novelty of our fabrication approach, which can be directly applied to palladium alloy and other hydrogen sensing materials.

  13. Restructuring the crystalline cellulose hydrogen bond network enhances its depolymerization rate

    Treesearch

    Shishir P.S. Chundawat; Giovanni Bellesia; Nirmal Uppugundla; Leonardo da Costa Sousa; Dahai Gao; Albert M. Cheh; Umesh P. Agarwal; Christopher M. Bianchetti; George N. Phillips; Paul Langan; Venkatesh Balan; S. Gnanakaran; Bruce E. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels is partly inefficient due to the deleterious impact of cellulose crystallinity on enzymatic saccharification. We demonstrate how the synergistic activity of cellulases was enhanced by altering the hydrogen bond network within crystalline cellulose fibrils. We provide a molecular-scale explanation of these phenomena through...

  14. Hydrogen bond network rearrangement dynamics in water clusters: Effects of intermolecular vibrational excitation on tunneling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, William T. S.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2017-08-01

    Theoretical studies of hydrogen bond network rearrangement (HBNR) dynamics in liquid water have indicated that librational motions initiate the hydrogen bond breaking/formation processes. We present the results of using a simple time evolution method to extract and compare the tunneling lifetimes for motions that break and reform the hydrogen bond for the water dimer, trimer, and pentamer from the experimentally measured tunneling splittings in the ground and excited intermolecular vibrational states. We find that the specific nature of the intermolecular vibrational excitation does not significantly influence the tunneling lifetime of the dimer, but that only excitations to a librational vibration affect the water trimer and pentamer lifetimes. The specific enhancement of bifurcation tunneling in larger clusters relative to the dimer also indicates that hydrogen bond cooperativity is a vital element of these dynamics.

  15. Hydrogen bond network rearrangement dynamics in water clusters: Effects of intermolecular vibrational excitation on tunneling rates.

    PubMed

    Cole, William T S; Saykally, Richard J

    2017-08-14

    Theoretical studies of hydrogen bond network rearrangement (HBNR) dynamics in liquid water have indicated that librational motions initiate the hydrogen bond breaking/formation processes. We present the results of using a simple time evolution method to extract and compare the tunneling lifetimes for motions that break and reform the hydrogen bond for the water dimer, trimer, and pentamer from the experimentally measured tunneling splittings in the ground and excited intermolecular vibrational states. We find that the specific nature of the intermolecular vibrational excitation does not significantly influence the tunneling lifetime of the dimer, but that only excitations to a librational vibration affect the water trimer and pentamer lifetimes. The specific enhancement of bifurcation tunneling in larger clusters relative to the dimer also indicates that hydrogen bond cooperativity is a vital element of these dynamics.

  16. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  17. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  18. Bioengineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Tabita, F. Robert

    2013-07-30

    In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available “unrestrained” organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.

  19. The Irpinia Seismic Network: An Advanced Monitoring Infrastructure For Earthquake Early Warning in The Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Zollo, A.; Bobbio, A.; Cantore, L.; Convertito, V.; Elia, L.; Festa, G.; Lancieri, M.; Martino, C.; Romeo, A.; Satriano, C.; Vassallo, M.

    2007-12-01

    A new seismic network (ISNet, Irpinia Seismic Network) is now operating in the Southern Italy. It is conceived as the core infrastructure for an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) under development in Southern Italy. It is primarily aimed at providing an alert for moderate to large earthquakes (M>4) to selected target sites in Campania Region and it also provides data for rapid computation of regional ground-shaking maps. ISNet is deployed over an area of about 100×70 km2 covering the Apenninic active seismic zone where most of large earthquakes occurred during the last centuries, including the Ms=6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet is composed of 29 seismic stations equipped with three components accelerometers and velocimeters aggregated in six smaller sub-nets. The sub-net stations are connected with a real-time communications to a central data- collector site (LCC, Local Control Center). The different LCCs are linked among them and to a Network Control Center (NCC) located in the city of Naples 100 km away from the network center, with different type of transmission systems chosen according their transmission mode robustness and reliability. The network is designed to provide estimates of the location and size of a potential destructive earthquake within few seconds from the earthquake detection, through an evolutionary and fully probabilistic approach. For the real time location we developed a methodology which extends and generalizes the one Horiuchi et al. (2005) by a) starting the location procedure after only one station has triggered, b) using the Equal Differential Time (EDT) approach to incorporate the triggered arrivals and the not-yet-triggered stations, c) estimating the hypocenter probabilistically as a pdf instead of as a point, and d) applying a full, non-linearized, global-search for each update of the location estimate. Following an evolutionary approach, the method evaluates, at each time step, the EDT equations considering not only each

  20. Layered vanadyl (IV) nitroprusside: Magnetic interaction through a network of hydrogen bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, D.M.; Osiry, H.; Pomiro, F.; Varetti, E.L.; Carbonio, R.E.; Alejandro, R.R.; Ben Altabef, A.; and others

    2016-07-15

    The hydrogen bond and π-π stacking are two non-covalent interactions able to support cooperative magnetic ordering between paramagnetic centers. This contribution reports the crystal structure and related magnetic properties for VO[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]·2H{sub 2}O, which has a layered structure. This solid crystallizes with an orthorhombic unit cell, in the Pna2{sub 1} space group, with cell parameters a=14.1804(2), b=10.4935(1), c=7.1722(8) Å and four molecules per unit cell (Z=4). Its crystal structure was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Neighboring layers remain linked through a network of hydrogen bonds involving a water molecule coordinated to the axial position for the V atom and the unbridged axial NO and CN ligands. An uncoordinated water molecule is found forming a triple bridge between these last two ligands and the coordinated water molecule. The magnetic measurements, recorded down to 2 K, shows a ferromagnetic interaction between V atoms located at neighboring layers, with a Curie-Weiss constant of 3.14 K. Such ferromagnetic behavior was interpreted as resulting from a superexchange interaction through the network of strong OH····O{sub H2O}, OH····N{sub CN}, and OH····O{sub NO} hydrogen bonds that connects neighboring layers. The interaction within the layer must be of antiferromagnetic nature and it was detected close to 2 K. - Graphical abstract: Coordination environment for the metals in vanadyl (II) nitroprusside dihydrate. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystal structure of vanadyl nitroprusside dehydrate. • Network of hydrogen bonds. • Magnetic interactions through a network of hydrogen bonds. • Layered transition metal nitroprussides.

  1. Community-Based Soil Quality Assessment As a Tool for Designing an Urban Green Infrastructure Network to Manage Runoff.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimas, C.; Montgomery, J.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) may be the most practical approach for reducing contaminated runoff, providing ecosystem services, mitigating food deserts and creating community open spaces in urban areas. This project was funded by the USEPA's People-Prosperity-Planet (P3) program and was a partnership between a team of DePaul University undergraduates (the P3 team) and high school interns (Green Teens) and staff from the Gary Comer Youth Center (GCYC). GCYC is located in a low-income African-American community on Chicago's south side characterized by high crime, abandoned buildings, lack of green space and a food desert. The overaching project goal was to develop a network of Green Teens qualified to conduct soil quality assessment using USDA-NRCS protocols in order to let them develop GI plans to minimize storm water runoff and contaminant loadings, improve community and environmental health, and provide more equitable access to green space. Working with a USDA-ARS soil scientist from Washington State University, the P3 team conducted soil quality assessment on 116 soil samples collected among four abandoned residential lots owned by GCYC. Analytes included infiltration, bulk density, texture, pH, conductivity, aggregate stability, available nutrients, and total and bioavailable (PBET) lead. Soil pH on all lots is greater than 8.0, are low in organic matter, have little microbial respiration activity, are enriched in available phosphorus, and have average total lead values ranging from 24-2,700 mg/kg. PBET lead was less than 40% on most lots. Regardless, these soils will need to be remediated by adding carbon-rich materials such as biosolids prior to GI installation. Students enrolled in a landscape design course at DePaul developed 3-D models representing potential GI designs for one of the vacant lots that include strategies for immobilizing heavy metals, reducing runoff, and which are tied into an educational module for neighborhood school children.

  2. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J.; Lopez-Garriga, Juan

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus

  3. Application of social network analysis in the assessment of organization infrastructure for service delivery: a three district case study from post-conflict northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Kawooya, Vincent; Namakula, Justine; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-06-16

    In post-conflict settings, service coverage indices are unlikely to be sustained if health systems are built on weak and unstable inter-organization networks-here referred to as infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-organization infrastructure that supports the provision of selected health services in the reconstruction phase after conflict in northern Uganda. Applied social network analysis was used to establish the structure, size and function among organizations supporting the provision of (1) HIV treatment, (2) maternal delivery services and (3) workforce strengthening. Overall, 87 organizations were identified from 48 respondent organizations in the three post-conflict districts in northern Uganda. A two-stage snowball approach was used starting with service provider organizations in each district. Data included a list of organizations and their key attributes related to the provision of each service for the year 2012-13. The findings show that inter-organization networks are mostly focused on HIV treatment and least for workforce strengthening. The networks for HIV treatment and maternal services were about 3-4 times denser relative to the network for workforce strengthening. The network for HIV treatment accounted for 69-81% of the aggregated network in Gulu and Kitgum districts. In contrast, the network for workforce strengthening contributed the least (6% and 10%) in these two districts. Likewise, the networks supporting a young district (Amuru) was under invested with few organizations and sparse connections. Overall, organizations exhibited a broad range of functional roles in supporting HIV treatment compared to other services in the study. Basic information about the inter-organization setup (infrastructure)-can contribute to knowledge for building organization networks in more equitable ways. More connected organizations can be leveraged for faster communication and resource flow to boost the delivery of health services

  4. Configurational Disorder of Water Hydrogen-Bond Network at the Protein Dynamical Transition.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Obaidur; Kalimeri, Maria; Katava, Marina; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Sterpone, Fabio

    2017-07-20

    We introduce a novel strategy to quantify the disorder of extended water-water hydrogen-bond (HB) networks sampled in particle-based computer simulations. The method relies on the conformational clustering of the HB connectivity states. We successfully applied it to unveil the fine relationship among the protein dynamical transition in hydrated powder, which marks the activation of protein flexibility at Td ≈ 240 K, and the sudden increase in the configurational disorder of the water HB network enveloping the proteins. Our finding links, in the spirit of the Adam-Gibbs relationship, the diffusivity of protein atoms, as quantified by the hydrogen mean-square displacements, and the thermodynamic solvent configurational entropy.

  5. N-doped carbon networks: alternative materials tracing new routes for activating molecular hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Remedios; Ferrante, Francesco; Roggan, Stefan; Duca, Dario

    2015-02-23

    The fragmentation of molecular hydrogen on N-doped carbon networks was investigated by using molecular (polyaromatic macrocycles) as well as truncated and periodic (carbon nanotubes) models. The computational study was focused on the ergonicity analysis of the reaction and on the properties of the transition states involved when constellations of three or four pyridinic nitrogen atom defects are present in the carbon network. Calculations show that whenever N-defects are embedded in species characterized by large conjugated π-systems, either in polyaromatic macrocycles or carbon nanotubes, the corresponding H2 bond cleavage is largely exergonic. The fragmentation Gibbs free energy is affected by the final arrangement of the hydrogen atoms on the defect and by the extension of the π-electron cloud, but it is not influenced by the curvature of the system.

  6. Defective continuous hydrogen-bond networks: an alternative interpretation of IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Diedrich A; Miki, Kazushi

    2008-09-15

    We apply our previously developed deconvolution method and interpretation to analyze changes in the OH stretching band [nu(OH) band] of low-concentration (< or =0.2 m) aqueous solutions of NaCl and KCl. We treat these simple, monovalent ions as defects in the hydrogen-bond network of pure water and quantify the changes in the spectra at low defect concentration with an "order parameter". Order-parameter analysis of difference spectra of the two solutions leads to hydration numbers of 7.0+/-1.0 and 5.9+/-0.3 for K(+) and Na(+), respectively. Additionally, we find that changes in the nu(OH) band due to low concentrations of ions result from changes in the topology of the hydrogen-bond network.

  7. Organocatalysis by Networks of Cooperative Hydrogen Bonds: Enantioselective Direct Mannich Addition to Preformed Arylideneureas.

    PubMed

    Lillo, Victor J; Mansilla, Javier; Saá, José M

    2016-03-18

    The concept of noncovalent organocatalysis by means of networks of cooperative hydrogen bonds (NCHB organocatalysis) has been explored. Arylideneureas were chosen as ideal substrates because of their powerful donor-acceptor properties. We have examined their uncatalyzed, direct Mannich reaction with acetoacetates in comparison with that catalyzed by a number of salan derivatives capable of providing a network of cooperative hydrogen bonds. Catalyst D [(R,R)-N,N'-bis(salicyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine] was found to drive the above direct Mannich reaction in an enantioselective manner, thereby allowing the synthesis of several Biginelli dihydropyrimidinones with high enantioselectivity. DFT calculations (B3LYP-D-PCM/6-31+G*//B3LYP/6-31+G*) revealed that the NCHB organocatalyst lowers the energy barrier of the reaction. The NCHB organocatalysts appear to function as biomimetic catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Communication: On the locality of Hydrogen bond networks at hydrophobic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeth, Bradley P.; Junghans, Christoph; Kremer, Kurt; Clementi, Cecilia; Delle Site, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The formation of structured hydrogen bond networks in the solvation shells immediate to hydrophobic solutes is crucial for a large number of water mediated processes. A long lasting debate in this context regards the mutual influence of the hydrophobic solute into the bulk water and the role of the hydrogen bond network of the bulk in supporting the solvation structure around a hydrophobic molecule. In this context we present a molecular dynamics study of the solvation of various hydrophobic molecules where the effect of different regions around the solvent can be analyzed by employing an adaptive resolution method, which can systematically separate local and nonlocal factors in the structure of water around a hydrophobic molecule. A number of hydrophobic solutes of different sizes and two different model potential interactions between the water and the solute are investigated.

  9. Large research infrastructure for Earth-Ocean Science: Challenges of multidisciplinary integration across hardware, software, and people networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Barnes, C. R.; Johnson, F.; Pautet, L.; Pirenne, B.; Founding Scientists Of Neptune Canada

    2010-12-01

    nutrient and cross-shelf sediment transport around the shelf/slope break and through the canyon to the deep sea. There and north along the mid-continental slope, instruments on exposed and shallowly buried gas hydrates allow monitoring of changes in their distribution, structure, and venting, particularly related to earthquakes, slope failures and regional plate motions. Circulation obviation retrofit kits (CORKs) at mid-plate ODP 1026-7 monitor real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, particularly as they relate to events such as earthquakes, hydrothermal convection or regional plate strain. At Endeavour Ridge, complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes are quantified at the western edge of the Juan de Fuca plate. Across the network, high resolution seismic information elucidates tectonic processes such as earthquakes, and a tsunami system allows determination of open ocean tsunami amplitude, propagation direction, and speed. The infrastructure has further capacity for experiments to expand from this initial suite. Further information and opportunities can be found at http://www.neptunecanada.ca

  10. Onset of hydrogen bonded collective network of water in 1,4-dioxane.

    PubMed

    Luong, Trung Quan; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Mitra, Rajib Kumar; Havenith, Martina

    2011-12-22

    We have studied the evolution of water hydrogen bonded collective network dynamics in mixtures of 1,4-dioxane (Dx) as the mole fraction of water (X(w)) increases from 0.005 to 0.54. The inter- and intramolecular vibrations of water have been observed using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the frequency range 0.4-1.4 THz (13-47 cm(-1)) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the far-infrared (30-650 cm(-1)) and mid-infrared (3000-3700 cm(-1)) regions. These results have been correlated with the reactivity of water in these mixtures as determined by kinetic studies of the solvolysis reaction of benzoyl chloride (BzCl). Our studies show an onset of intermolecular hydrogen bonded water network dynamics beyond X(w) ≥ 0.1. At the same concentration, we observe a rapid increase of the rate constant of solvolysis of BzCl in water-Dx mixtures. Our results establish a correlation between the onset of collective hydrogen bonded network with the solvation dynamics and the activity of clustered water.

  11. Molecular tectonics: polymorphism and enhancement of network dimensionality by a combination of primary and secondary hydrogen bond sites.

    PubMed

    Dechambenoit, Pierre; Ferlay, Sylvie; Hosseini, Mir Wais; Kyritsakas, Nathalie

    2007-11-28

    A dicationic tecton bearing four NH and two OH groups, as primary and secondary hydrogen bond donor sites, respectively, leads, in the presence of [M(CN)(4)](2-) anions, to the formation of polymorphic 2- and 3-D hydrogen-bonded networks.

  12. Quantitative Tools for Dissection of Hydrogen-Producing Metabolic Networks-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Dismukes, G.Charles.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2012-10-19

    During this project we have pioneered the development of integrated experimental-computational technologies for the quantitative dissection of metabolism in hydrogen and biofuel producing microorganisms (i.e. C. acetobutylicum and various cyanobacteria species). The application of these new methodologies resulted in many significant advances in the understanding of the metabolic networks and metabolism of these organisms, and has provided new strategies to enhance their hydrogen or biofuel producing capabilities. As an example, using mass spectrometry, isotope tracers, and quantitative flux-modeling we mapped the metabolic network structure in C. acetobutylicum. This resulted in a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of central carbon metabolism that could not have been obtained using genomic data alone. We discovered that biofuel production in this bacterium, which only occurs during stationary phase, requires a global remodeling of central metabolism (involving large changes in metabolite concentrations and fluxes) that has the effect of redirecting resources (carbon and reducing power) from biomass production into solvent production. This new holistic, quantitative understanding of metabolism is now being used as the basis for metabolic engineering strategies to improve solvent production in this bacterium. In another example, making use of newly developed technologies for monitoring hydrogen and NAD(P)H levels in vivo, we dissected the metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. This investigation led to the identification of multiple targets for improving hydrogen production. Importantly, the quantitative tools and approaches that we have developed are broadly applicable and we are now using them to investigate other important biofuel producers, such as cellulolytic bacteria.

  13. Rearrangement dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded network of clathrate hydrates encaging polar guest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    Mechanisms of rearrangement process in a defect-bearing solid hydrogen-bonded network system —a clathrate hydrate encaging polar guest—are examined in terms of the waiting time distribution functions for connectivity changes of water molecules. As previously found for the lifetime distributions of hydrogen bonds in supercooled water by Sciortino et al., a power-law-like behavior is observed for the waiting time distribution in short-time region in the clathrate hydrates; in long time region the distribution is close to an exponential form. It is revealed that the behavior is accounted for by assuming two kinds of processes of the connectivity changes: one is caused by thermal excitation in a perfect network region, which can be regarded as a Poisson process and another is induced by defects in the environmental network, which is responsible for the power-law-like behavior. Also the waiting time for the defect-induced connectivity changes of a molecule is related to how many other molecules are involved in local network rearrangement processes. By a simple model of single-axis rotator for reorientational jumps of a water molecule, we show that a power-law-like behavior appears in the dipole autocorrelation function when the waiting time for jump events is a strong power-law type distribution as observed in the defect-induced connectivity changes.

  14. Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Bockris, John O’M.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech. PMID:28824125

  15. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  16. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  17. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  18. Hydrogen-bonding networks from first-principles: exploring the guanidine crystal.

    PubMed

    Hoepfner, Veronika; Deringer, Volker L; Dronskowski, Richard

    2012-05-10

    Hydrogen bonding is among the most important interactions in molecular crystals, and examples are abundant. As a consequence of such interactions, many molecules crystallize in complex but intriguing structures, in contrast to the relatively simple packing principles of metallic or ionic solids. In this work, we present a computational approach based on plane-wave density-functional theory (DFT) and supercell techniques, aiming to understand and quantify hydrogen-bonded networks in the solid state and in two-, one-, and zero-dimensional fragments derived from the molecular crystal. With such methodology at hand, we investigate guanidine, a fitting example of a molecular crystal and an important compound for inorganic and organic chemistry alike. On the basis of our computations, we discuss the initially proposed layered structure of guanidine and identify both stabilizing and destabilizing cooperative interactions in the three crystalline dimensions.

  19. Security-Oriented and Load-Balancing Wireless Data Routing Game in the Integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure Network in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fulin; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    Ensuring flexible and reliable data routing is indispensable for the integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks, we propose a secure-oriented and load-balancing wireless data routing scheme. A novel utility function is designed based on security routing scheme. Then, we model the interactive security-oriented routing strategy among meter data concentrators or smart grid meters as a mixed-strategy network formation game. Finally, such problem results in a stable probabilistic routing scheme with proposed distributed learning algorithm. One contributions is that we studied that different types of applications affect the routing selection strategy and the strategy tendency. Another contributions is that the chosen strategy of our mixed routing can adaptively to converge to a new mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) during the learning process in the smart grid.

  20. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the three-dimensional polymer network in composites.

    PubMed

    Durner, Jürgen; Stojanovic, Marija; Urcan, Ebru; Spahl, Werner; Haertel, Ursula; Hickel, Reinhard; Reichl, Franx-Xaver

    2011-06-01

    Less data are available about the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the three-dimensional polymer network of polymerized composites. Therefore the study was performed to test the effects of hydrogen peroxide on the three-dimensional polymer network in composites. Polymerized specimens from Tetric Flow®, Tetric Ceram® and Filtek™ Supreme XT were bleached with Opalescence® PF 15% for 5h or PF 35% for 0.5h, respectively, and then stored in methanol for 1d and 7d. Controls were unbleached specimens. The eluates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More methacrylic acid (MAA), bisphenol-A (BPA), ethoxylated bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate (BisEMA), hydroquinone monomethyl ether (HQME), 1,10-decanediol dimethacrylate (DDDMA) and/or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were eluted from bleached specimens compared with non bleached controls (1d). The highest DDDMA amount of 419.8 μmol/l was found in the eluates after 7d in Tetric Flow® specimens treated with PF 15. The highest HQME amount of 159.6 μmol/l was found in eluates from Tetric Ceram® specimens treated with PF after 7d. The highest TEGDMA amount of 178.7 μmol/l was found in eluates from Filtek™ Supreme XT specimens treated with PF 35 after 7d. Bleaching with hydrogen peroxide has an effect on the three-dimensional polymer network in polymerized composites leading to an increase in the release of unpolymerized monomers, additives and unspecific oxidative products. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of metal nanowire networks on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shouyi; Hou, Guofu; Chen, Peizhuan; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the application of metal nanowire (NW) networks as a transparent electrode on hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) solar cells. We first systematically investigate the optical performances of the metal NW networks on a-Si:H solar cells in different electrode configurations through numerical simulations to fully understand the mechanisms to guide the experiments. The theoretically optimized configuration is discovered to be metal NWs sandwiched between a 40 nm indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and a 20 nm ITO layer. The overall performances of the solar cells integrated with the metal NW networks are experimentally studied. It has been found the experimentally best performing NW integrated solar cell deviates from the theoretically predicated design due to the performance degradation induced by the fabrication complicity. A 6.7% efficiency enhancement was achieved for the solar cell with metal NW network integrated on top of a 60 nm thick ITO layer compared to the cell with only the ITO layer due to enhanced electrical conductivity by the metal NW network.

  2. Application of metal nanowire networks on hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shouyi; Hou, Guofu; Chen, Peizhuan; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2017-02-24

    We demonstrate the application of metal nanowire (NW) networks as a transparent electrode on hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) solar cells. We first systematically investigate the optical performances of the metal NW networks on a-Si:H solar cells in different electrode configurations through numerical simulations to fully understand the mechanisms to guide the experiments. The theoretically optimized configuration is discovered to be metal NWs sandwiched between a 40 nm indium tin oxide (ITO) layer and a 20 nm ITO layer. The overall performances of the solar cells integrated with the metal NW networks are experimentally studied. It has been found the experimentally best performing NW integrated solar cell deviates from the theoretically predicated design due to the performance degradation induced by the fabrication complicity. A 6.7% efficiency enhancement was achieved for the solar cell with metal NW network integrated on top of a 60 nm thick ITO layer compared to the cell with only the ITO layer due to enhanced electrical conductivity by the metal NW network.

  3. Large scale silver nanowires network fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honey, S.; Naseem, S.; Ishaq, A.; Maaza, M.; Bhatti, M. T.; Wan, D.

    2016-04-01

    A random two-dimensional large scale nano-network of silver nanowires (Ag-NWs) is fabricated by MeV hydrogen (H+) ion beam irradiation. Ag-NWs are irradiated under H+ ion beam at different ion fluences at room temperature. The Ag-NW network is fabricated by H+ ion beam-induced welding of Ag-NWs at intersecting positions. H+ ion beam induced welding is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the structure of Ag NWs remains stable under H+ ion beam, and networks are optically transparent. Morphology also remains stable under H+ ion beam irradiation. No slicings or cuttings of Ag-NWs are observed under MeV H+ ion beam irradiation. The results exhibit that the formation of Ag-NW network proceeds through three steps: ion beam induced thermal spikes lead to the local heating of Ag-NWs, the formation of simple junctions on small scale, and the formation of a large scale network. This observation is useful for using Ag-NWs based devices in upper space where protons are abandoned in an energy range from MeV to GeV. This high-quality Ag-NW network can also be used as a transparent electrode for optoelectronics devices. Project supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the French Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique, iThemba-LABS, the UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS), Organization of Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSDW), the Abdus Salam ICTP via the Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

  4. A Simple and Accurate Network for Hydrogen and Carbon Chemistry in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Munan; Ostriker, Eve C.; Wolfire, Mark G.

    2017-07-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the interstellar medium (ISM), regulating the heating and cooling of the gas and determining abundances of molecular species that trace gas properties in observations. Although solving the time-dependent equations is necessary for accurate abundances and temperature in the dynamic ISM, a full chemical network is too computationally expensive to incorporate into numerical simulations. In this paper, we propose a new simplified chemical network for hydrogen and carbon chemistry in the atomic and molecular ISM. We compare results from our chemical network in detail with results from a full photodissociation region (PDR) code, and also with the Nelson & Langer (NL99) network previously adopted in the simulation literature. We show that our chemical network gives similar results to the PDR code in the equilibrium abundances of all species over a wide range of densities, temperature, and metallicities, whereas the NL99 network shows significant disagreement. Applying our network to 1D models, we find that the CO-dominated regime delimits the coldest gas and that the corresponding temperature tracks the cosmic-ray ionization rate in molecular clouds. We provide a simple fit for the locus of CO-dominated regions as a function of gas density and column. We also compare with observations of diffuse and translucent clouds. We find that the CO, {{CH}}x, and {{OH}}x abundances are consistent with equilibrium predictions for densities n=100{--}1000 {{cm}}-3, but the predicted equilibrium C abundance is higher than that seen in observations, signaling the potential importance of non-equilibrium/dynamical effects.

  5. Thermal stability of the hydrogen-bonded water network in the hydration shell of islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Brovchenko, I; Andrews, M N; Oleinikova, A

    2011-04-20

    The effect of temperature on the connectivity of hydrogen bonds in the hydration shells of the islet amyloid polypeptides (IAPPs) is studied by means of computer simulations. The hydrogen-bonded network of hydration water homogeneously envelopes a peptide at low temperature and breaks into an ensemble of small clusters upon heating. This thermal break occurs via a percolation transition, which is not found to be sensitive to the chemical modifications of IAPP (IAPP with and without a disulfide bridge, human and rat IAPP). The radius of gyration of IAPP starts to increase when the hydration water network breaks upon heating. The fluctuations of the number of intra-peptide hydrogen bonds show negative correlation with the fraction of molecules in the largest cluster of hydration water. The thermal stability of the network of hydration water is enhanced upon increasing number of intra-peptide hydrogen bonds, which makes the peptide surface more hydrophobic. The thermal stabilities of the hydrogen-bonded water networks in the hydration shells of IAPPs and of several other biomolecules are found to be rather similar: the network breaks between 300 and 330 K, i.e., in the temperature interval where the biological activity of living organisms is maximal.

  6. Hydrogen isotopes from source water to leaf lipid in a continental-scale sample network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Daniel; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentary plant waxes are useful paleoclimate proxies because they are preserved in depositional settings on geologic timescales and the isotopic composition of the hydrogen in these molecules reflects that of the source water available during biosynthesis. This application is based largely on empirical calibrations that have demonstrated continental-scale correlations between source water and lipid hydrogen isotope values. However, the importance of variable net isotopic fractionation between source water and lipid for different species and environmental conditions is increasingly recognized. Isotopic enrichment of leaf water during transpiration is key among these secondary factors, and is itself sensitive to changes in hydroclimate. Leaf water enrichment also occurs prior to photosynthetic water uptake, and is therefore independent from cellular-level biomarker synthesis. Mechanistic models can predict the mean leaf water hydrogen isotope composition from readily available meteorological variables. This permits global-scale isoscape maps of leaf water isotopic composition and enrichment above source water to be generated, but these models have not been widely validated at continental spatial scales. We have established a network of twenty-one sites across Europe where we are sampling for leaf-, xylem-, and soil-water isotopes (H and O) at approximately 5-week intervals over the summer growing season. We augment the sample set with weekly to monthly precipitation samples and early- and late-season plant wax lipid samples. Collaborators at each site are conducting the sampling, and most sites are members of the FLUXNET tower network that also record high-resolution meteorological data. We present information on the implementation of the network and preliminary results from the 2014 summer season. The complete dataset will be used to track the evolution of water isotopes from source to leaf water and from leaf water to lipid hydrogen across diverse environments

  7. Water-containing hydrogen-bonding network in the active center of channelrhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shota; Kato, Hideaki E; Taniguchi, Reiya; Iwata, Tatsuya; Nureki, Osamu; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-03-05

    Channelrhodopsin (ChR) functions as a light-gated ion channel in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Passive transport of cations by ChR is fundamentally different from the active transport by light-driven ion pumps such as archaerhodopsin, bacteriorhodopsin, and halorhodopsin. These microbial rhodopsins are important tools for optogenetics, where ChR is used to activate neurons by light, while the ion pumps are used for neural silencing. Ion-transport functions by these rhodopsins strongly depend on the specific hydrogen-bonding networks containing water near the retinal chromophore. In this work, we measured protein-bound water molecules in a chimeric ChR protein of ChR1 (helices A to E) and ChR2 (helices F and G) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy at 77 K. We found that the active center of ChR possesses more water molecules (9 water vibrations) than those of other microbial (2-6 water vibrations) and animal (6-8 water vibrations) rhodopsins. We conclude that the protonated retinal Schiff base interacts with the counterion (Glu162) directly, without the intervening water molecule found in proton-pumping microbial rhodopsins. The present FTIR results and the recent X-ray structure of ChR reveal a unique hydrogen-bonding network around the active center of this light-gated ion channel.

  8. The thermodynamic properties of 2-aminobiphenyl (an intermediate in the carbazole/hydrogen reaction network)

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.

    1990-12-01

    Catalytic hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) is a key step in upgrading processes for conversion of heavy petroleum, shale oil, tar sands, and the products of the liquefaction of coal to economically viable products. This research program provides accurate experimental thermochemical and thermophysical properties for key organic nitrogen-containing compounds present in the range of alternative feedstocks, and applies the experimental information to thermodynamic analyses of key HDN reaction networks. This report is the first in a series that will lead to an analysis of a three-ring HDN system; the carbazole/hydrogen reaction network. 2-Aminobiphenyl is the initial intermediate in the HDN pathway for carbazole, which consumes the least hydrogen possible. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2-aminobiphenyl are reported. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c). Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 298.15 K and 820 K. The critical temperature and critical density were determined for 2-aminobiphenyl with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. The Gibbs energies of formation are used in thermodynamic calculations to compare the feasibility of the initial hydrogenolysis step in the carbazole/H{sub 2} network with that of its hydrocarbon and oxygen-containing analogous; i.e., fluorene/H{sub 2} and dibenzofuran/H{sub 2}. Results of the thermodynamic calculations are compared with those of batch-reaction studies reported in the literature. 57 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Hydration and hydrogen bond network of water around hydrophobic surface investigated by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shiraga, K; Suzuki, T; Kondo, N; Ogawa, Y

    2014-12-21

    Water conformation around hydrophobic side chains of four amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-aminobutyric acid, and L-norvaline) was investigated via changes in complex dielectric constant in the terahertz (THz) region. Each of these amino acids has the same hydrophilic backbone, with successive additions of hydrophobic straight methylene groups (-CH2-) to the side chain. Changes in the degree of hydration (number of dynamically retarded water molecules relative to bulk water) and the structural conformation of the water hydrogen bond (HB) network related to the number of methylene groups were quantitatively measured. Since dielectric responses in the THz region represent water relaxations and water HB vibrations at a sub-picosecond and picosecond timescale, these measurements characterized the water relaxations and HB vibrations perturbed by the methylene apolar groups. We found each successive straight -CH2- group on the side chain restrained approximately two hydrophobic hydration water molecules. Additionally, the number of non-hydrogen-bonded (NHB) water molecules increased slightly around these hydrophobic side chains. The latter result seems to contradict the iceberg model proposed by Frank and Evans, where water molecules are said to be more ordered around apolar surfaces. Furthermore, we compared the water-hydrophilic interactions of the hydrophilic amino acid backbone with those with the water-hydrophobic interactions around the side chains. As the hydrophobicity of the side chain increased, the ordering of the surrounding water HB network was altered from that surrounding the hydrophilic amino acid backbone, thereby diminishing the fraction of NHB water and ordering the surrounding tetrahedral water HB network.

  10. C₅-symmetric chiral corannulenes: desymmetrization of bowl inversion equilibrium via "intramolecular" hydrogen-bonding network.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiheong; Miyajima, Daigo; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Mori, Tadashi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yamauchi, Masahito; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Harada, Soichiro; Aida, Takuzo

    2014-07-30

    Because of a rapid conformational inversion, bowl-shaped C5-symmetric corannulenes, though geometrically chiral, have not been directly resolved into their enantiomers. However, if this inversion equilibrium can be desymmetrized, chiral corannulenes enriched in either enantiomer can be obtained. We demonstrated this possibility using pentasubstituted corannulenes 4 and 5 carrying amide-appended thioalkyl side chains. Compound 4 displays chiroptical activity in a chiral hydrocarbon such as limonene. Because compound 5 carries a chiral center in the side chains, its enantiomers 5R and 5S show chiroptical activity even in achiral solvents such as CHCl3 and methylcyclohexane. In sharp contrast, when the side chains bear no amide functionality (1 and 2R), no chiroptical activity emerges even in limonene or with a chiral center in the side chains. Detailed investigations revealed that the peripheral amide units in 4 and 5 are hydrogen-bonded only "intramolecularly" along the corannulene periphery, affording cyclic amide networks with clockwise and anticlockwise geometries. Although this networking gives rise to four stereoisomers, only two, which are enantiomeric to one another, are suggested computationally to exist in the equilibrated system. In a chiral environment (chiral solvent or side chain), their thermodynamic stabilities are certainly unequal, so the bowl-inversion equilibrium can be desymmetrized. However, this is not the case when the system contains a protic solvent that can deteriorate the hydrogen-bonding network. When the enantiomeric purity of limonene as the solvent is varied, the chiroptical activity of the corannulene core changes nonlinearly with its enantiomeric excess (majority rule).

  11. Communications infrastructure requirements for telemedicine/telehealth in the context of planning for and responding to natural disasters: Considering the need for shared regional networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John Carver

    1991-01-01

    During the course of recent years the frequency and magnitude of major disasters - of natural, technological, or ecological origin - have made the world community dramatically aware of the immense losses of human life and economic resources that are caused regularly by such calamities. Particularly hard hit are developing countries, for whom the magnitude of disasters frequently outstrips the ability of the society to cope with them. In many cases this situation can be prevented, and the recent trend in disaster management has been to emphasize the importance of preparedness and mitigation as a means of prevention. In cases of disaster, a system is needed to respond to relief requirements, particularly the delivery of medical care. There is no generic telecommunications infrastructure appropriate for the variety of applications in medical care and disaster management. The need to integrate telemedicine/telehealth into shared regional disaster management telecommunications networks is discussed. Focus is on the development of infrastructure designed to serve the needs of disaster prone regions of the developing world.

  12. From hydrogen bonding to metal coordination and back: Porphyrin-based networks on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Studener, F. Müller, K.; Stöhr, M.; Marets, N.; Bulach, V. Hosseini, M. W.

    2015-03-14

    The self-assembly of a metal-free porphyrin bearing two pyridyl coordinating sites and two pentyl chains at trans meso positions was investigated under ultrahigh vacuum on a Ag(111) surface by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The STM measurements revealed a well-ordered close-packed structure with a rhombic unit cell for coverages ≤1 monolayer with their molecular plane parallel to the surface. The growth direction of the molecular islands is aligned along the step edges, which are restructured due to molecule-substrate interactions. The shorter unit cell vector of the molecular superstructure follows the 〈1-10〉 direction of the Ag(111) substrate. Hydrogen bonds between pyridyl and pyrrole groups of neighboring molecules as well as weak van der Waals forces between the pentyl chains stabilize the superstructure. Deposition of cobalt atoms onto the close-packed structure at room temperature leads to the formation of a hexagonal porous network stabilized by metal-ligand bonding between the pyridyl ligands and the cobalt atoms. Thermal annealing of the Co-coordination network at temperatures >450 K results in the transformation of the hexagonal network into a second close-packed structure. Changes in the molecule-substrate interactions due to metalation of the porphyrin core with Co as well as intermolecular interactions can explain the observed structural transformations.

  13. Calcium and the Hydrogen-Bonded Water Network in the Photosynthetic Oxygen-Evolving Complex.

    PubMed

    Polander, Brandon C; Barry, Bridgette A

    2013-03-07

    In photosynthesis, photosystem II evolves oxygen from water at a Mn4CaO5 cluster (OEC). Calcium is required for biological oxygen evolution. In the OEC, a water network, extending from the calcium to four peptide carbonyl groups, has recently been predicted by a high-resolution crystal structure. Here, we use carbonyl vibrational frequencies as reporters of electrostatic changes to test the presence of this water network. A single flash, oxidizing Mn(III) to Mn(IV) (the S1 to S2 transition), upshifted the frequencies of peptide C═O bands. The spectral change was attributable to a decrease in C═O hydrogen bonding. Strontium, which supports a lower level of steady state activity, also led to an oxidation-induced shift in C═O frequencies, but treatment with barium and magnesium, which do not support activity, did not. This work provides evidence that calcium maintains an electrostatically responsive water network in the OEC and shows that OEC peptide carbonyl groups can be used as solvatochromic markers.

  14. Effect of hydrogen bond networks on the nucleation mechanism of protein folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djikaev, Y. S.; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2009-12-01

    We have recently developed a kinetic model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding (NMPF) in terms of ternary nucleation by using the first passage time analysis. A protein was considered as a random heteropolymer consisting of hydrophobic, hydrophilic (some of which are negatively or positively ionizable), and neutral beads. The main idea of the NMPF model consisted of averaging the dihedral potential in which a selected residue is involved over all possible configurations of all neighboring residues along the protein chain. The combination of the average dihedral, effective pairwise (due to Lennard-Jones-type and electrostatic interactions), and confining (due to the polymer connectivity constraint) potentials gives rise to an overall potential around the cluster that, as a function of the distance from the cluster center, has a double-well shape. This allows one to evaluate the protein folding time. In the original NMPF model hydrogen bonding was not taken into account explicitly. To improve the NMPF model and make it more realistic, in this paper we modify our (previously developed) probabilistic hydrogen bond model and combine it with the former. Thus, a contribution due to the disruption of hydrogen bond networks around the interacting particles (cluster of native residues and residue in the protein unfolded part) appears in the overall potential field around a cluster. The modified model is applied to the folding of the same model proteins that were examined in the original model: a short protein consisting of 124 residues (roughly mimicking bovine pancreatic ribonuclease) and a long one consisting of 2500 residues (as a representative of large proteins with superlong polypeptide chains), at pH=8.3 , 7.3, and 6.3. The hydrogen bond contribution now plays a dominant role in the total potential field around the cluster (except for very short distances thereto where the repulsive energy tends to infinity). It is by an order of magnitude stronger for

  15. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-03-21

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider's server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs' users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs' risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs' risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing.

  16. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider’s server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs’ users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs’ risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs’ risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing. PMID:28335569

  17. Optimization of active distribution networks: Design and analysis of significative case studies for enabling control actions of real infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moneta, Diana; Mora, Paolo; Viganò, Giacomo; Alimonti, Gianluca

    2014-12-01

    The diffusion of Distributed Generation (DG) based on Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires new strategies to ensure reliable and economic operation of the distribution networks and to support the diffusion of DG itself. An advanced algorithm (DISCoVER - DIStribution Company VoltagE Regulator) is being developed to optimize the operation of active network by means of an advanced voltage control based on several regulations. Starting from forecasted load and generation, real on-field measurements, technical constraints and costs for each resource, the algorithm generates for each time period a set of commands for controllable resources that guarantees achievement of technical goals minimizing the overall cost. Before integrating the controller into the telecontrol system of the real networks, and in order to validate the proper behaviour of the algorithm and to identify possible critical conditions, a complete simulation phase has started. The first step is concerning the definition of a wide range of "case studies", that are the combination of network topology, technical constraints and targets, load and generation profiles and "costs" of resources that define a valid context to test the algorithm, with particular focus on battery and RES management. First results achieved from simulation activity on test networks (based on real MV grids) and actual battery characteristics are given, together with prospective performance on real case applications.

  18. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  19. Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Liao

    2012-05-22

    This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB

  20. The Other Infrastructure: Distance Education's Digital Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Suggests a new infrastructure--the digital plant--for supporting flexible Web campus environments. Describes four categories which make up the infrastructure: personal communication tools and applications; network of networks for the Web campus; dedicated servers and software applications; software applications and services from external…

  1. The Other Infrastructure: Distance Education's Digital Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith V.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay

    2000-01-01

    Suggests a new infrastructure--the digital plant--for supporting flexible Web campus environments. Describes four categories which make up the infrastructure: personal communication tools and applications; network of networks for the Web campus; dedicated servers and software applications; software applications and services from external…

  2. The dual network of GABAergic interneurons linked by both chemical and electrical synapses: a possible infrastructure of the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, T; Kosaka, T

    2000-10-01

    To know the structural feature of individual nerve cells and of the network they form is essentially important for understanding how the brain works. We have recently shown that a certain subpopulation of hippocampal GABAergic neurons that contain a calcium-binding protein parvalbumin form the dual network connected by both chemical synapses and gap junctions. The mutual chemical synaptic contacts are formed between their axon terminals and somata whereas gap junctions are located between their dendrites. In this article, we demonstrate that the dual network of parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons is not restricted to the hippocampus but found also in the neocortex and, therefore, appears to be a fundamental structure of the cerebral cortex, possibly having some relevance to the synchronized activities observed broadly in various cortical areas.

  3. Conformational changes in the archaerhodopsin-3 proton pump: detection of conserved strongly hydrogen bonded water networks.

    PubMed

    Clair, Erica C Saint; Ogren, John I; Mamaev, Sergey; Kralj, Joel M; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Archaerhodopsin-3 (AR3) is a light-driven proton pump from Halorubrum sodomense, but little is known about its photocycle. Recent interest has focused on AR3 because of its ability to serve both as a high-performance, genetically-targetable optical silencer of neuronal activity and as a membrane voltage sensor. We examined light-activated structural changes of the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules during the photocycle of AR3. Low-temperature and rapid-scan time-resolved FTIR-difference spectroscopy revealed that conformational changes during formation of the K, M, and N photocycle intermediates are similar, although not identical, to bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Positive/negative bands in the region above 3,600 cm( - 1), which have previously been assigned to structural changes of weakly hydrogen bonded internal water molecules, were substantially different between AR3 and BR. This included the absence of positive bands recently associated with a chain of proton transporting water molecules in the cytoplasmic channel and a weakly hydrogen bonded water (W401), which is part of a hydrogen-bonded pentagonal cluster located near the retinal Schiff base. However, many of the broad IR continuum absorption changes below 3,000 cm( - 1) assigned to networks of water molecules involved in proton transport through cytoplasmic and extracellular portions in BR were very similar in AR3. This work and subsequent studies comparing BR and AR3 structural changes will help identify conserved elements in BR-like proton pumps as well as bioengineer AR3 to optimize neural silencing and voltage sensing.

  4. Solvated water molecules and hydrogen-bridged networks in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corongiu, Giorgina; Clementi, Enrico

    1993-02-01

    We have analyzed the molecular-dynamics (MD) trajectories for the oxygen and hydrogen atoms of liquid water, at six temperatures (from hot, T=361 K, to supercooled water, T=242 K); in the MD simulations the Nieser-Corongiu-Clementi ab initio potential has been used, since it yields reliable x-ray and neutron-diffraction data as well as infrared, Raman, and neutron-scattering spectra. Our analysis leads to two complementary models where we can consider each water as a solvated molecule (placed at the center of a solvation shell) or as a component of a cyclic polymer, a substructure of the hydrogen-bonded network. In the first solvation shell all water molecules are solvated with coordination values in the range 2-8. The most probable solvation number is four, at low temperature, and five at high temperature considering oxygen-oxygen pairs; however, the coordination number is four at all the temperatures if we consider oxygen-hydrogen pairs. The lifetime of the tetra coordinated complexes is the largest one and increases as temperature decreases. The computed population of cyclic polymers is highest for the pentameters in the studied temperature range, the second most probable cyclic structure is for hexamers. The average O-O distances in the liquid are temperature dependent and shorter than those in the gas phase, approaching ice values at low temperature (except for cyclic trimers, for which the O-O distance is nearly temperature independent). As a preliminary result, the lifetime of the polygons is estimated to be around 0.01 ps.

  5. Thermodynamic consequences of disrupting a water-mediated hydrogen bond network in a protein:pheromone complex.

    PubMed

    Sharrow, Scott D; Edmonds, Katherine A; Goodman, Michael A; Novotny, Milos V; Stone, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    The mouse pheromones (+/-)-2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT) and 6-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-heptanone (HMH) bind into an occluded hydrophobic cavity in the mouse major urinary protein (MUP-1). Although the ligands are structurally unrelated, in both cases binding is accompanied by formation of a similar buried, water-mediated hydrogen bond network between the ligand and several backbone and side chain groups on the protein. To investigate the energetic contribution of this hydrogen bond network to ligand binding, we have applied isothermal titration calorimetry to measure the binding thermodynamics using several MUP mutants and ligand analogs. Mutation of Tyr-120 to Phe, which disrupts a hydrogen bond from the phenolic hydroxyl group of Tyr-120 to one of the bound water molecules, results in a substantial loss of favorable binding enthalpy, which is partially compensated by a favorable change in binding entropy. A similar thermodynamic effect was observed when the hydrogen bonded nitrogen atom of the heterocyclic ligand was replaced by a methyne group. Several other modifications of the protein or ligand had smaller effects on the binding thermodynamics. The data provide supporting evidence for the role of the hydrogen bond network in stabilizing the complex.

  6. Ultrasound stimulus effect on hydrogen bonding in networked alumina and polyacrylic acid slurry.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, Ngo Le; Takaomi, Kobayashi

    2010-01-01

    The influence of ultrasound (US) on the viscosity of aqueous slurry composing polyacrylic acid (PAA) and alumina was studied. For exposure to an aqueous slurry solution, US waves emitted at three different frequencies of 28, 45, and 100 kHz were used. Results show that the stimulus effect of US on viscosity change was a breakage of the hydrogen bonding networks of alumina and PAA in the slurry solution. That decrease in viscosity was enhanced strongly by US exposure as the output power was increased from 175 to 300 W. In addition, a lower US frequency was effective for slurry viscosity reduction. The reduced viscosity of the slurry also depended on the solution pH. After US was stopped, the viscosity increased gradually and recovered to its original value within about 15 min. The stimulus effect on the viscosity change was cycled by US.

  7. Transparent Pd Wire Network-Based Areal Hydrogen Sensor with Inherent Joule Heater.

    PubMed

    Walia, Sunil; Gupta, Ritu; Rao, K D M; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2016-09-07

    A high degree of transparency in devices is considered highly desirable for futuristic technology. This demands that both the active material and the electrodes are made of transparent materials. In this work, a transparent Pd wire network (∼1 cm(2)), fabricated using crackle lithography technique with sheet resistance and transmittance of ∼200 Ohm per square and ∼80%, respectively, serves multiple roles; besides being an electrode, it acts as an active material for H2 sensing as well as an in-built electrothermal heater. The sensor works over a wide range of hydrogen (H2) concentration down to 0.02% with a response time of ∼41 s, which could be improved to ∼13 s by in situ Joule heating to ∼75 °C. Importantly, the device has the potential of scale-up to a window size transparent panel and to be flexible when desired.

  8. Characterization of the hydrogen-bond network of water around sucrose and trehalose: Microwave and terahertz spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Adachi, Aya; Nakamura, Masahito; Tajima, Takuro; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2017-03-14

    Modification of the water hydrogen bond network imposed by disaccharides is known to serve as a bioprotective agent in living organisms, though its comprehensive understanding is still yet to be reached. In this study, aiming to characterize the dynamical slowing down and destructuring effect of disaccharides, we performed broadband dielectric spectroscopy, ranging from 0.5 GHz to 12 THz, of sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions. The destructuring effect was examined in two ways (the hydrogen bond fragmentation and disordering) and our result showed that both sucrose and trehalose exhibit an obvious destructuring effect with a similar strength, by fragmenting hydrogen bonds and distorting the tetrahedral-like structure of water. This observation strongly supports a chaotropic (structure-breaking) aspect of disaccharides on the water structure. At the same time, hydration water was found to exhibit slower dynamics and a greater reorientational cooperativity than bulk water because of the strengthened hydrogen bonds. These results lead to the conclusion that strong disaccharide-water hydrogen bonds structurally incompatible with native water-water bonds lead to the rigid but destructured hydrogen bond network around disaccharides. Another important finding in this study is that the greater dynamical slowing down of trehalose was found compared with that of sucrose, at variance with the destructuring effect where no solute dependent difference was observed. This discovery suggests that the exceptionally greater bioprotective impact especially of trehalose among disaccharides is mainly associated with the dynamical slowing down (rather than the destructuring effect).

  9. Characterization of the hydrogen-bond network of water around sucrose and trehalose: Microwave and terahertz spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Adachi, Aya; Nakamura, Masahito; Tajima, Takuro; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2017-03-01

    Modification of the water hydrogen bond network imposed by disaccharides is known to serve as a bioprotective agent in living organisms, though its comprehensive understanding is still yet to be reached. In this study, aiming to characterize the dynamical slowing down and destructuring effect of disaccharides, we performed broadband dielectric spectroscopy, ranging from 0.5 GHz to 12 THz, of sucrose and trehalose aqueous solutions. The destructuring effect was examined in two ways (the hydrogen bond fragmentation and disordering) and our result showed that both sucrose and trehalose exhibit an obvious destructuring effect with a similar strength, by fragmenting hydrogen bonds and distorting the tetrahedral-like structure of water. This observation strongly supports a chaotropic (structure-breaking) aspect of disaccharides on the water structure. At the same time, hydration water was found to exhibit slower dynamics and a greater reorientational cooperativity than bulk water because of the strengthened hydrogen bonds. These results lead to the conclusion that strong disaccharide-water hydrogen bonds structurally incompatible with native water-water bonds lead to the rigid but destructured hydrogen bond network around disaccharides. Another important finding in this study is that the greater dynamical slowing down of trehalose was found compared with that of sucrose, at variance with the destructuring effect where no solute dependent difference was observed. This discovery suggests that the exceptionally greater bioprotective impact especially of trehalose among disaccharides is mainly associated with the dynamical slowing down (rather than the destructuring effect).

  10. Effects of glycerol on the molecular mobility and hydrogen bond network in starch matrix.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Ludescher, Richard D

    2015-01-22

    The effects of glycerol on molecular mobility and hydrogen bonding network in an amorphous glassy starch matrix were studied using phosphorescence and IR spectroscopy. Amorphous potato starch films containing varying amounts of glycerol (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 wt.%) were formulated by rapidly dehydrating aqueous potato starch gel (5%, w/v) with a corresponding content of glycerol; X-ray diffraction data confirm that the films contained negligible content of crystalline starch. Erythrosin B (Ery B) phosphorescence was used to monitor the molecular mobility of these matrices over the temperature range from 0 to 100°C. Analysis of Ery B emission peak frequency, band width and intensity decay provided information about thermally-activated modes of molecular mobility in the matrix. Dipolar relaxation around the triplet state of Ery B was enhanced by addition of glycerol and the extent of relaxation increased at low and intermediate but decreased at higher temperature. The glycerol content-dependent onset temperature for this transition was 70°C for pure starch and decreased to 40°C for a matrix with 30% glycerol. Measurements of the rate of non-radiative decay from the Ery B triplet state indicated that glycerol plasticized the starch matrix above ∼10 wt.% while acting as an antiplastizer to increase the matrix molecular mobility at lower content. These matrix properties were related to glycerol-dependent increases in hydrogen bond strength as measured by IR.

  11. Making the pieces fit. After assembling their care networks, systems' next big challenge is to build a unifying information infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J

    1998-05-11

    Five years into a manic pace of consolidation, hospital-based health delivery systems across the country are feeling the pressure to establish computer networks to unite all sites and services. In the campaign to lift healthcare out of an era of paper and pencil, organizations have spent freely on healthcare software applications. But computer pros say that's not enough.

  12. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WIDE AREA COVERAGE CONSTRUCT LAND MOBILE NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS...effects to the above resources are anticipated. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK WAC Environmental...Hill communication site include adding trunked radio equipment and microwave equipment to the existing shelter and tower. Teton Ridge Communication

  13. Using enhanced and integrated services to improve response to standard methadone treatment: changing the clinical infrastructure of treatment networks.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Karin; Kidorf, Michael; King, Van; Stoller, Ken; Clark, Michael; Peirce, Jessica; Brooner, Robert K

    2010-03-01

    Outcomes are presented from opioid-dependent outpatients (N = 81) participating in a new community-based initiative designed to improve access to enhanced substance abuse and psychiatric services in a publicly supported methadone maintenance treatment network in Baltimore, MD. The initiative, entitled Community Access to Specialized Treatment (CAST), is located at the Addiction Treatment Services, a program within this network. Network programs referred patients engaged in unremitting drug use who are at risk for discharge to CAST, where they received methadone substitution, individual and group counseling within an adaptive platform, behavioral contingencies to reinforce adherence, and on-site psychiatric evaluation and care. Patients returned to their referring program after producing at least two consecutive weeks of drug-negative urine samples and full counseling adherence. CAST was well utilized by the community. Patients had high rates of adherence to scheduled individual and group counseling services (93% and 73%, respectively); 43% of referrals successfully completed the program in an average of 101 days. This community-wide service delivery approach is a novel alternative to integrating intensive substance abuse and psychiatric care at each program within a treatment network.

  14. The dispersion correction and weak-hydrogen-bond network in low-frequency vibration of solid-state salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2012-04-01

    We perform the dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations of vibrational absorption and the far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at different temperature to examine the effect of weak-hydrogen-bond network on the low-frequency vibrations of solid-state salicylic acid. By dispersion correction, calculated frequencies improve especially in the intermonomer torsion and interdimer translational modes which are closely related to the weak hydrogen bonds. The calculated frequencies and their relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum in the accuracy of 10 cm-1 or less. Weak-hydrogen-bond network causes a large frequency shift of out-of-plane intermonomer modes and enhances interdimer translational modes accompanied by the O⋯H stretching vibrations.

  15. Room-Temperature Activation of Hydrogen by Semi-immobilized Frustrated Lewis Pairs in Microporous Polymer Networks.

    PubMed

    Trunk, Matthias; Teichert, Johannes F; Thomas, Arne

    2017-03-15

    Porous polymer networks based on sterically encumbered triphenylphosphine motifs, mimicking the basic sites employed in frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) chemistry, were synthesized via Yamamoto polymerization and their interactions with the strong Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 probed. The combinations yield semi-immobilized FLPs, which are able to cleave dihydrogen heterolytically at ambient temperature and low hydrogen pressure.

  16. Control of cytochrome c redox reactivity through off-pathway modifications in the protein hydrogen-bonding network.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jie; Yang, Soyeun; Rajic, Alexander J; Kurnikov, Igor V; Prytkova, Tatiana R; Pletneva, Ekaterina V

    2014-05-25

    Measurements of photoinduced Fe(2+)-to-Ru(3+) electron transfer (ET), supported by theoretical analysis, demonstrate that mutations off the dominant ET pathways can strongly influence the redox reactivity of cytochrome c. The effects arise from the change in the protein dynamics mediated by the intraprotein hydrogen-bonding network.

  17. NanoCapillary Network Proton Conducting Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pintauro, Peter

    2012-07-09

    The objective of this proposal is to fabricate and characterize a new class of NanoCapillary Network (NCN) proton conducting membranes for hydrogen/air fuel cells that operate under high temperature, low humidity conditions. The membranes will be intelligently designed, where a high density interconnecting 3-D network of nm-diameter electrospun proton conducting polymer fibers is embedded in an inert (uncharged) water/gas impermeable polymer matrix. The high density of fibers in the resulting mat and the high ion-exchange capacity of the fiber polymer will ensure high proton conductivity. To further enhance water retention, molecular silica will be added to the sulfonated polymer fibers. The uncharged matrix material will control water swelling of the high ion-exchange capacity proton conducting polymer fibers and will impart toughness to the final nanocapillary composite membrane. Thus, unlike other fuel cell membranes, the role of the polymer support matrix will be decoupled from that of the proton-conducting channels. The expected final outcome of this 5-year project is the fabrication of fuel cell membranes with properties that exceed the DOE’s technical targets, in particular a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at a temperature less than or equal to120°C and 25-50% relative humidity.

  18. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  19. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  20. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES)-Web Portal Developments for Interactive Access to Earthquake Data on a European Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Rives, S.; Thomy, P.; Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Saul, J.; Heinloo, A.; Bossu, R.; van Eck, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) is European Commission (EC) project whose focus is networking together seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated European infrastructure that provides access to data and data products for research. Seismological institutes and organizations in European and Mediterranean countries maintain large, geographically distributed data archives, therefore this scenario suggested a design approach based on the concept of an internet service oriented architecture (SOA) to establish a cyberinfrastructure for distributed and heterogeneous data streams and services. Moreover, one of the goals of NERIES is to design and develop a Web portal that acts as the uppermost layer of the infrastructure and provides rendering capabilities for the underlying sets of data The Web services that are currently being designed and implemented will deliver data that has been adopted to appropriate formats. The parametric information about a seismic event is delivered using a seismology-specific Extensible mark-up Language(XML) format called QuakeML (https://quake.ethz.ch/quakeml), which has been formalized and implemented in coordination with global earthquake-information agencies. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) are used to assign identifiers to (1) seismic-event parameters described by QuakeML, and (2) generic resources, for example, authorities, locations providers, location methods, software adopted, and so on, described by use of a data model constructed with the resource description framework (RDF) and accessible as a service. The European-Mediterranean Seismological Center (EMSC) has implemented a unique event identifier (UNID) that will create the seismic event URI used by the QuakeML data model. Access to data such as broadband waveform, accelerometric data and stations inventories will be also provided through a set of Web services that will wrap the middleware used by the

  1. Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) - Web Portal Developments for Interactive Access to Earthquake Data on a European Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Rives, S.; Thomy, P.; Euchner, F.; Schorlemmer, D.; Saul, J.; Heinloo, A.; Bossu, R.; van Eck, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology (NERIES) is European Commission (EC) project whose focus is networking together seismological observatories and research institutes into one integrated European infrastructure that provides access to data and data products for research. Seismological institutes and organizations in European and Mediterranean countries maintain large, geographically distributed data archives, therefore this scenario suggested a design approach based on the concept of an internet service oriented architecture (SOA) to establish a cyberinfrastructure for distributed and heterogeneous data streams and services. Moreover, one of the goals of NERIES is to design and develop a Web portal that acts as the uppermost layer of the infrastructure and provides rendering capabilities for the underlying sets of data The Web services that are currently being designed and implemented will deliver data that has been adopted to appropriate formats. The parametric information about a seismic event is delivered using a seismology- specific Extensible mark-up Language(XML) format called QuakeML (https://quake.ethz.ch/quakeml), which has been formalized and implemented in coordination with global earthquake-information agencies. Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) are used to assign identifiers to (1) seismic-event parameters described by QuakeML, and (2) generic resources, for example, authorities, locations providers, location methods, software adopted, and so on, described by use of a data model constructed with the resource description framework (RDF) and accessible as a service. The European-Mediterranean Seismological Center (EMSC) has implemented a unique event identifier (UNID) that will create the seismic event URI used by the QuakeML data model. Access to data such as broadband waveform, accelerometric data and stations inventories will be also provided through a set of Web services that will wrap the middleware used by the

  2. Overview of NASA communications infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.; Fuechsel, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The infrastructure of NASA communications systems for effecting coordination across NASA offices and with the national and international research and technological communities is discussed. The offices and networks of the communication system include the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA), which manages all NASA missions, and the Office of Space Operations, which furnishes communication support through the NASCOM, the mission critical communications support network, and the Program Support Communications network. The NASA Science Internet was established by OSSA to centrally manage, develop, and operate an integrated computer network service dedicated to NASA's space science and application research. Planned for the future is the National Research and Education Network, which will provide communications infrastructure to enhance science resources at a national level.

  3. Molecular tectonics. Selective exchange of cations in porous anionic hydrogen-bonded networks built from derivatives of tetraphenylborate.

    PubMed

    Malek, Nadia; Maris, Thierry; Simard, Michel; Wuest, James D

    2005-04-27

    Tetraphenylmethanes with multiple hydrogen-bonding sites are known to associate to form robust porous supramolecular networks. Analogous anionic networks can be built from the corresponding tetraphenylborates. Crystallization of the tetraphenylphosphonium salt of tetraphenylborate 2 produces an anionic network in which 74% of the volume is available for including cations and neutral guests. Other salts of anion 2 with diverse cations crystallize consistently to form the same network, whereas a neutral analogue of anion 2, tetraphenylmethane 1, produces an uncharged network that is far less open. Cations can be exchanged in single crystals of salts of tetraphenylborate 2 with retention of crystallinity and with selectivities similar to those observed in typical zeolites. Together, these observations provide new strategies for making ordered molecular materials by design, and they reveal that constructing such materials from charged subunits offers special advantages.

  4. Highly sensitive hydrogen detection of catalyst-free ZnO nanorod networks suspended by lithography-assisted growth.

    PubMed

    Huh, Junghwan; Park, Jonghyurk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Park, Jeong Young

    2011-02-25

    We have successfully demonstrated a ZnO nanorod-based 3D nanostructure to show a high sensitivity and very fast response/recovery to hydrogen gas. ZnO nanorods have been synthesized selectively over the pre-defined area at relatively low temperature using a simple self-catalytic solution process assisted by a lithographic method. The conductance of the ZnO nanorod device varies significantly as the concentration of the hydrogen is changed without any additive metal catalyst, revealing a high sensitivity to hydrogen gas. Its superior performance can be explained by the porous structure of its three-dimensional network and the enhanced surface reaction of the hydrogen molecules with the oxygen defects resulting from a high surface-to-volume ratio. It was found that the change of conductance follows a power law depending on the hydrogen concentration. A Langmuir isotherm following an ideal power law and a cross-over behavior of the activation energy with respect to hydrogen concentration were observed. This is a very novel and intriguing phenomenon on nanostructured materials, which suggests competitive surface reactions in ZnO nanorod gas sensors.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of acetone-methanol liquid mixtures: Hydrogen bond network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2005-01-01

    Acetone and methanol mixtures covering the whole solubility range are studied by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. The strong bathochromic shifts observed on methanol OH and acetone CO stretch IR bands are related to hydrogen bonds between these groups. Factor analysis separates the spectra into four acetone and four methanol principal factors. A random molecular model developed for the acetone-water system [Max and Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5632 (2003); 120, 6625 (2004)] was modified for the acetone-methanol system. This model, which takes into account H bonds accepted by methanol and acetone, is made up of 12 methanol and 11 acetone species. The 23 species abundances are regrouped according to evolving patterns or spectral similarities to compare them to the eight experimental factors. Methanol acetone mixtures are almost but not exactly random: the methanol oxygen atoms have stronger capacities than acetone to accept H bonds from methanol in the proportion 1.5 to 1. Since oxygen atoms are in excess, all labile hydrogen atoms will form H bonds. As acetone is added to methanol, its OH stretch band blueshifts as the number of accepted H bonds decreases. When methanol gives one H bond and accepts one, an H-bonding network is formed that was coined "chained organization." However, the acetone molecules do not sequester any methanol molecules by breaking or increasing the H-bond methanol network. Similarly, the methanol molecules do not sequester any acetone molecules. Consequently no acetone-methanol complex is formed in the mixtures. Gaussian simulation of the four principal factors in the methanol OH stretch region gave three distinct absorption regimes consisting of the OH stretch bands and their satellites that are identified as MeOH1, MeOH2, and MeOH3 (subscript indicates the number of H, covalent and H bond, which surround the oxygen). These regimes are related to those identified in the water-acetone system as OH2, OH3

  6. A Comparison of Techniques for Optimal Infrastructure Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    failures can have large impacts on critical infrastructure (e.g., telecommunication networks, power networks, transportation networks and distribution...serious impacts on the humans and the economy of a country. Critical civil infrastructures include telecommunication networks, power net- works...use interdependent power de- livery and telecommunication systems as an example to show the capability of their model for the development of design

  7. Real-Time Earthquake Risk Mitigation Of Infrastructures Using Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali; Tunc, Suleyman; Erdik, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The Istanbul EEW network consisting of 10 inland and 5 OBS strong motion stations located close to the Main Marmara Fault zone is operated by KOERI. Data transmission between the remote stations and the base station at KOERI is provided both with satellite and fiber optic cable systems. The continuous on-line data from these stations is used to provide real time warning for emerging potentially disastrous earthquakes. The data transmission time from the remote stations to the KOERI data center is a few milliseconds through fiber optic lines and less than a second via satellites. The early warning signal (consisting three alarm levels) is communicated to the appropriate servo shut-down systems of the receipent facilities, that automatically decide proper action based on the alarm level. Istanbul Gas Distribution Corporation (IGDAS) is one of the end users of the EEW signal. IGDAS, the primary natural gas provider in Istanbul, operates an extensive system 9,867 km of gas lines with 550 district regulators and 474,000 service boxes. State of-the-art protection systems automatically cut natural gas flow when breaks in the pipelines are detected. Since 2005, buildings in Istanbul using natural gas are required to install seismometers that automatically cut natural gas flow when certain thresholds are exceeded. IGDAS uses a sophisticated SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to monitor the state-of-health of its pipeline network. This system provides real-time information about quantities related to pipeline monitoring, including input-output pressure, drawing information, positions of station and RTU (remote terminal unit) gates, slum shut mechanism status at 581 district regulator sites. The SCADA system of IGDAŞ receives the EEW signal from KOERI and decide the proper actions according to the previously specified ground acceleration levels. Presently, KOERI sends EEW signal to the SCADA system of IGDAS Natural Gas Network of Istanbul. The EEW signal

  8. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. II. Spectral graph analysis of water hydrogen-bonding network and ion aggregate structures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2014-10-21

    Graph theory in mathematics and computer science is the study of graphs that are structures with pairwise connections between any objects. Here, the spectral graph theory and molecular dynamics simulation method are used to describe both morphological variation of ion aggregates in high salt solutions and ion effects on water hydrogen-bonding network structure. From the characteristic value analysis of the adjacency matrices that are graph theoretical representations of ion clusters, ion networks, and water H-bond structures, we obtained the ensemble average eigenvalue spectra revealing intricate connectivity and topology of ion aggregate structure that can be classified as either ion cluster or ion network. We further show that there is an isospectral relationship between the eigenvalue spectra of ion networks in high KSCN solutions and those of water H-bonding networks. This reveals the isomorphic relationship between water H-bond structure and ion-ion network structure in KSCN solution. On the other hand, the ion clusters formed in high NaCl solutions are shown to be graph-theoretically and morphologically different from the ion network structures in KSCN solutions. These observations support the bifurcation hypothesis on large ion aggregate growth mechanism via either ion cluster or ion network formation. We thus anticipate that the present spectral graph analyses of ion aggregate structures and their effects on water H-bonding network structures in high salt solutions can provide important information on the specific ion effects on water structures and possibly protein stability resulting from protein-water interactions.

  9. Yeast ribonuclease III uses a network of multiple hydrogen bonds for RNA binding and cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Mathieu; Abou Elela, Sherif

    2008-08-19

    Members of the bacterial RNase III family recognize a variety of short structured RNAs with few common features. It is not clear how this group of enzymes supports high cleavage fidelity while maintaining a broad base of substrates. Here we show that the yeast orthologue of RNase III (Rnt1p) uses a network of 2'-OH-dependent interactions to recognize substrates with different structures. We designed a series of bipartite substrates permitting the distinction between binding and cleavage defects. Each substrate was engineered to carry a single or multiple 2'- O-methyl or 2'-fluoro ribonucleotide substitutions to prevent the formation of hydrogen bonds with a specific nucleotide or group of nucleotides. Interestingly, introduction of 2'- O-methyl ribonucleotides near the cleavage site increased the rate of catalysis, indicating that 2'-OH are not required for cleavage. Substitution of nucleotides in known Rnt1p binding site with 2'- O-methyl ribonucleotides inhibited cleavage while single 2'-fluoro ribonucleotide substitutions did not. This indicates that while no single 2'-OH is essential for Rnt1p cleavage, small changes in the substrate structure are not tolerated. Strikingly, several nucleotide substitutions greatly increased the substrate dissociation constant with little or no effect on the Michaelis-Menten constant or rate of catalysis. Together, the results indicate that Rnt1p uses a network of nucleotide interactions to identify its substrate and support two distinct modes of binding. One mode is primarily mediated by the dsRNA binding domain and leads to the formation of stable RNA/protein complex, while the other requires the presence of the nuclease and N-terminal domains and leads to RNA cleavage.

  10. Development of a Network-Based Information Infrastructure for Fisheries and Hydropower Information in the Columbia River Basin : Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Johnson, Gary E.; Perkins, Bill

    1997-05-01

    The goal of this project was to help develop technology and a unified structure to access and disseminate information related to the Bonneville Power Administration's fish and wildlife responsibility in the Pacific Northwest. BPA desires to increase access to, and exchange of, information produced by the Environment Fish, and Wildlife Group in concert with regional partners. Historically, data and information have been managed through numerous centralized, controlled information systems. Fisheries information has been fragmented and not widely exchanged. Where exchange has occurred, it often is not timely enough to allow resource managers to effectively use the information to guide planning and decision making. This project (and related projects) have successfully developed and piloted a network-based infrastructure that will serve as a vehicle to transparently connect existing information systems in a manner that makes information exchange efficient and inexpensive. This project was designed to provide a mechanism to help BPA address measures in the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife program: 3.2H Disseminate Research and Monitoring Information and 5.1A.5 manage water supplies in accordance with the Annual Implementation Work Plan. This project also provided resources that can be used to assist monitoring and evaluation of the Program.

  11. Optimization of green infrastructure network at semi-urbanized watersheds to manage stormwater volume, peak flow and life cycle cost: Case study of Dead Run watershed in Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari Haratmeh, B.; Rai, A.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Green Infrastructure (GI) has become widely known as a sustainable solution for stormwater management in urban environments. Despite more recognition and acknowledgment, researchers and practitioners lack clear and explicit guidelines on how GI practices should be implemented in urban settings. This study is developing a noisy-based multi-objective, multi-scaled genetic algorithm that determines optimal GI networks for environmental, economic and social objectives. The methodology accounts for uncertainty in modeling results and is designed to perform at sub-watershed as well as patch scale using two different simulation models, SWMM and RHESSys, in a Cloud-based implementation using a Web interface. As an initial case study, a semi-urbanized watershed— DeadRun 5— in Baltimore County, Maryland, is selected. The objective of the study is to minimize life cycle cost, maximize human preference for human well-being and the difference between pre-development hydrographs generated from current rainfall events and design storms, as well as those that result from proposed GI scenarios. Initial results for DeadRun5 watershed suggest that placing GI in the proximity of the watershed outlet optimizes life cycle cost, stormwater volume, and peak flow capture. The framework can easily present outcomes of GI design scenarios to both designers and local stakeholders, and future plans include receiving feedback from users on candidate designs, and interactively updating optimal GI network designs in a crowd-sourced design process. This approach can also be helpful in deriving design guidelines that better meet stakeholder needs.

  12. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  13. Reorganization of hydrogen bond network makes strong polyelectrolyte brushes pH-responsive

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Xiaowen; Yang, Jun; Hua, Zan; Tian, Kangzhen; Kou, Ran; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Shuji; Luo, Yi; Craig, Vincent S. J.; Zhang, Guangzhao; Liu, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Weak polyelectrolytes have found extensive practical applications owing to their rich pH-responsive properties. In contrast, strong polyelectrolytes have long been regarded as pH-insensitive based on the well-established fact that the average degree of charging of strong polyelectrolyte chains is independent of pH. The possible applications of strong polyelectrolytes in smart materials have, thus, been severely limited. However, we demonstrate that almost all important properties of strong polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs), such as chain conformation, hydration, stiffness, surface wettability, lubricity, adhesion, and protein adsorption are sensitive to pH. The pH response originates from the reorganization of the interchain hydrogen bond network between the grafted chains, triggered by the pH-mediated adsorption-desorption equilibrium of hydronium or hydroxide with the brushes. The reorganization process is firmly identified by advanced sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Our findings not only provide a new understanding of the fundamental properties of SPBs but also uncover an extensive family of building blocks for constructing pH-responsive materials. PMID:27532049

  14. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    PubMed Central

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-01

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water's hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought. PMID:26725363

  15. Proteomic signatures uncover hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide cross-talk signaling network in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Tanou, Georgia; Job, Claudette; Belghazi, Maya; Molassiotis, Athanassios; Diamantidis, Grigorios; Job, Dominique

    2010-11-05

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide ((•)NO) elicit numerous processes in plants. However, our knowledge of H(2)O(2) and (•)NO-responsive proteins is limited. The present study aimed to identify proteins whose accumulation levels were regulated by these signaling molecules in citrus leaves. To address this question, hydroponically grown citrus plants were treated by incubating their roots in the presence of H(2)O(2) or the (•)NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Both treatments induced H(2)O(2) and (•)NO production in leaves, indicating occurrence of oxidative and nitrosative stress conditions. However, treated plants maintained their normal physiological status. The vascular system was shown to be involved in the H(2)O(2) and (•)NO systemic signaling as evidenced by real-time labeling of the two molecules. Comparative proteomic analysis identified a number of proteins whose accumulation levels were altered by treatments. They were mainly involved in photosynthesis, defense and energy. More than half of them were commonly modulated by both treatments, indicating a strong overlap between H(2)O(2) and (•)NO responses. Using a redox proteomic approach, several proteins were also identified as being carbonylation targets of H(2)O(2) and SNP. The analysis reveals an interlinked H(2)O(2) and (•)NO proteins network allowing a deeper understanding of oxidative and nitrosative signaling in plants.

  16. A multipoint hydrogen-bond network underlying KcsA C-type inactivation.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Morales, Julio F; Jogini, Vishwanath; Chakrapani, Sudha; Perozo, Eduardo

    2011-05-18

    In the prokaryotic potassium channel KcsA activation gating at the inner bundle gate is followed by C-type inactivation at the selectivity filter. Entry into the C-type inactivated state has been directly linked to the strength of the H-bond interaction between residues Glu-71 and Asp-80 behind the filter, and is allosterically triggered by the rearrangement of the inner bundle gate. Here, we show that H-bond pairing between residues Trp-67 and Asp-80, conserved in most K⁺ channels, constitutes another critical interaction that determines the rate and extent of KcsA C-type inactivation. Disruption of the equivalent interaction in Shaker (Trp-434-Asp-447) and Kv1.2 (Trp-366-Asp-379) leads also to modulation of the inactivation process, suggesting that these residues also play an analogous role in the inactivation gating of Kv channels. The present results show that in KcsA C-type inactivation gating is governed by a multipoint hydrogen-bond network formed by the triad Trp-67-Glu71-Asp-80. This triad exerts a critical role in the dynamics and conformational stability of the selectivity filter and might serve as a general modulator of selectivity filter gating in other members of the K⁺ channel family. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogen Bond Network Isomers of the Water Nonamer and Decamer Observed by Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Cristobal; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Seifert, Nathan A.; Pate, Brooks H.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.

    2013-06-01

    After our previous study of the rotational spectrum of water clusters in the 6-18 GHz region, in order to study clusters of larger size (>8 water molecules), a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectrometer in the 2-8 GHz frequency range has been used to obtain the broadband rotational spectra of five water nonamer isomers and four water decamer isomers in a pulsed molecular beam. The oxygen atom framework geometries for three nonamers and two decamers have also been unambiguously identified from isotopic labeling measurements using an H_{2}^{18}O enriched sample. Three of the four observed water decamer show tunneling effect associated with the internal dynamics of hydrogen-bond network in a similar fashion as the prism water hexamer. These tunneling paths are quenched upon a single incorporation of a H_{2}^{18}O molecule in the cluster. Due the large amount of closely-spaced rotational transitions in the H_{2}^{18}O spectrum, automated fitting tools were employed to extract the corresponding rotational spectra, which will be also briefly described. C. Perez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, and B. H. Pate, Science 336, 897 (2012).

  18. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    DOE PAGES

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-04

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’smore » hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.« less

  19. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-04

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’s hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.

  20. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-01

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  1. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. IV. Graph-theoretical analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-09-14

    Ions in high salt solutions form a variety of ion aggregates, from ion pairs to clusters and networks. Their influences on water hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structures have long been of great interest. Recently, we have shown that the morphological structures of ion aggregates can be analyzed by using a spectral graph analysis theory, where each ion cluster or ion network is represented by a properly defined graph with edges and vertices. Here, to further examine the network properties of ion aggregates and water H-bonding networks in high salt solutions, we consider a few representative graph-theoretical descriptors: clustering coefficient, minimum path length, global efficiency, and degree distribution of ion aggregates. From the molecular dynamics trajectories, these graph theoretical properties of ion aggregates and water structures in NaCl and kosmotropic solutions are calculated and shown to be strongly dependent on the two types of ion aggregate structures, i.e., ion cluster and ion network. Ion clusters in high NaCl solutions exhibit typical behaviors of scale free network. The corresponding graph theoretical properties of ion networks in high KSCN solutions are notably different from those of NaCl ion clusters and furthermore they are very similar to those of water hydrogen-bonding network. The present graph-theoretical analysis results indicate that the high solubility limits of KSCN and other ion-network-forming salts might originate from their ability to form a large scale morphological network that can be intertwined with co-existing water H-bonding network. Furthermore, it is shown that the graph-theoretical properties of water H-bonding network structures do not strongly depend on the nature of dissolved ions nor on the morphological structures of ion aggregates, indicating that water's H-bonding interaction and network-forming capability are highly robust. We anticipate that the present graph-theoretical analysis results of high salt

  2. High-performance hydrogen production and oxidation electrodes with hydrogenase supported on metallic single-wall carbon nanotube networks.

    PubMed

    Svedružić, Draženka; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Tenent, Robert C; Rocha, John-David R; Vinzant, Todd B; Heben, Michael J; King, Paul W

    2011-03-30

    We studied the electrocatalytic activity of an [FeFe]-hydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaH2ase) immobilized on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks. SWNT networks were prepared on carbon cloth by ultrasonic spraying of suspensions with predetermined ratios of metallic and semiconducting nanotubes. Current densities for both proton reduction and hydrogen oxidation electrocatalytic activities were at least 1 order of magnitude higher when hydrogenase was immobilized onto SWNT networks with high metallic tube (m-SWNT) content in comparison to hydrogenase supported on networks with low metallic tube content or when SWNTs were absent. We conclude that the increase in electrocatalytic activities in the presence of SWNTs was mainly due to the m-SWNT fraction and can be attributed to (i) substantial increases in the active electrode surface area, and (ii) improved electronic coupling between CaH2ase redox-active sites and the electrode surface.

  3. Force spectroscopy of hyaluronan by atomic force microscopy: from hydrogen-bonded networks toward single-chain behavior.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Marina I; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Vancso, G Julius

    2007-09-01

    The conformational behavior of hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharide chains in aqueous NaCl solution was characterized directly at the single-molecule level. This communication reports on one of the first single-chain atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed at variable temperatures, investigating the influence of the temperature on the stability of the HA single-chain conformation. Through AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the temperature destabilization of a local structure was proven. This structure involved a hydrogen-bonded network along the polymeric chain, with hydrogen bonds between the polar groups of HA and possibly water, and a change from a nonrandom coil to a random coil behavior was observed when increasing the temperature from 29 +/- 1 to 46 +/- 1 degrees C. As a result of the applied force, this superstructure was found to break progressively at room temperature. The use of a hydrogen-bonding breaker solvent demonstrated the hydrogen-bonded water-bridged nature of the network structure of HA single chains in aqueous NaCl solution.

  4. Ab initio molecular dynamics of hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces using neural networks and novelty sampling.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Jeffery; Vlachos, Dionisios G

    2007-10-21

    We outline a hybrid multiscale approach for the construction of ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) useful for performing six-dimensional (6D) classical or quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of diatomic molecules reacting at single crystal surfaces. The algorithm implements concepts from the corrugation reduction procedure, which reduces energetic variation in the PES, and uses neural networks for interpolation of smoothed ab initio data. A novelty sampling scheme is implemented and used to identify configurations that are most likely to be predicted inaccurately by the neural network. This hybrid multiscale approach, which couples PES construction at the electronic structure level to MD simulations at the atomistic scale, reduces the number of density functional theory (DFT) calculations needed to specify an accurate PES. Due to the iterative nature of the novelty sampling algorithm, it is possible to obtain a quantitative measure of the convergence of the PES with respect to the number of ab initio calculations used to train the neural network. We demonstrate the algorithm by first applying it to two analytic potentials, which model the H2/Pt(111) and H2/Cu(111) systems. These potentials are of the corrugated London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato form, which are based on DFT calculations, but are not globally accurate. After demonstrating the convergence of the PES using these simple potentials, we use DFT calculations directly and obtain converged semiclassical trajectories for the H2/Pt(111) system at the PW91/generalized gradient approximation level. We obtain a converged PES for a 6D hydrogen-surface dissociation reaction using novelty sampling coupled directly to DFT. These results, in excellent agreement with experiments and previous theoretical work, are compared to previous simulations in order to explore the sensitivity of the PES (and therefore MD) to the choice of exchange and correlation functional. Despite having a lower energetic

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics of hydrogen dissociation on metal surfaces using neural networks and novelty sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Jeffery; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2007-10-01

    We outline a hybrid multiscale approach for the construction of ab initio potential energy surfaces (PESs) useful for performing six-dimensional (6D) classical or quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of diatomic molecules reacting at single crystal surfaces. The algorithm implements concepts from the corrugation reduction procedure, which reduces energetic variation in the PES, and uses neural networks for interpolation of smoothed ab initio data. A novelty sampling scheme is implemented and used to identify configurations that are most likely to be predicted inaccurately by the neural network. This hybrid multiscale approach, which couples PES construction at the electronic structure level to MD simulations at the atomistic scale, reduces the number of density functional theory (DFT) calculations needed to specify an accurate PES. Due to the iterative nature of the novelty sampling algorithm, it is possible to obtain a quantitative measure of the convergence of the PES with respect to the number of ab initio calculations used to train the neural network. We demonstrate the algorithm by first applying it to two analytic potentials, which model the H2/Pt(111) and H2/Cu(111) systems. These potentials are of the corrugated London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato form, which are based on DFT calculations, but are not globally accurate. After demonstrating the convergence of the PES using these simple potentials, we use DFT calculations directly and obtain converged semiclassical trajectories for the H2/Pt(111) system at the PW91/generalized gradient approximation level. We obtain a converged PES for a 6D hydrogen-surface dissociation reaction using novelty sampling coupled directly to DFT. These results, in excellent agreement with experiments and previous theoretical work, are compared to previous simulations in order to explore the sensitivity of the PES (and therefore MD) to the choice of exchange and correlation functional. Despite having a lower energetic

  6. Modifications on the hydrogen bond network by mutations of Escherichia coli copper efflux oxidase affect the process of proton transfer to dioxygen leading to alterations of enzymatic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Takao; Kataoka, Kunishige; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proton transfer pathway to dioxygen in CueO was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glu506 is the key amino acid to transport proton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala mutation at Glu506 formed a compensatory proton transfer pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ile mutation at Glu506 shut down the hydrogen bond network. -- Abstract: CueO has a branched hydrogen bond network leading from the exterior of the protein molecule to the trinuclear copper center. This network transports protons in the four-electron reduction of dioxygen. We replaced the acidic Glu506 and Asp507 residues with the charged and uncharged amino acid residues. Peculiar changes in the enzyme activity of the mutants relative to the native enzyme indicate that an acidic amino acid residue at position 506 is essential for effective proton transport. The Ala mutation resulted in the formation of a compensatory hydrogen bond network with one or two extra water molecules. On the other hand, the Ile mutation resulted in the complete shutdown of the hydrogen bond network leading to loss of enzymatic activities of CueO. In contrast, the hydrogen bond network without the proton transport function was constructed by the Gln mutation. These results exerted on the hydrogen bond network in CueO are discussed in comparison with proton transfers in cytochrome oxidase.

  7. Hydrogen-Bonding Network Promoted [3+2] Cycloaddition: Asymmetric Catalytic Construction of Spiro-pseudoindoxyl Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang-Jie; Wang, Yao; Hu, Xiu-Qin; Xu, Peng-Fei

    2016-03-18

    The enantioselective construction of a spirocyclic quaternary stereogenic carbon center at the C2 position of indole has long been an elusive problem in organic synthesis. Herein, by employing a rationally designed hydrogen-bonding network activation strategy, for the first time, 2,2'-pyrrolidinyl-spirooxindole, which is a valuable and prevalent indole alkaloid scaffold, was directly obtained through a catalytic asymmetric [3+2] cycloaddition reaction with high yields and excellent stereoselectivities.

  8. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  9. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Information Infrastructure Task Force.

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) is planned as a web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at the users' fingertips. Private sector firms are beginning to develop this infrastructure, but essential roles remain for the Federal Government. The National…

  11. Institutional Support Infrastructure for Online Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Asserting that providing infrastructure to support online classes is analogous to building a new physical campus adjacent to the pre-existing one, describes the support requirements of online faculty, information technology networks, students, and administrators. Says that if these infrastructure considerations are not addressed near the beginning…

  12. Cyber Security and Critical Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Onyeji, Ijeoma; Bazilian, Morgan; Bronk, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Both the number and security implications of sophisticated cyber attacks on companies providing critical energy infrastructures are increasing. As power networks and, to a certain extent, oil and gas infrastructure both upstream and downstream, are becoming increasingly integrated with information communication technology systems, they are growing more susceptible to cyber attacks.

  13. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  14. Oligomers Based on a Weak Hydrogen Bond Network: the Rotational Spectrum of the Tetramer of Difluoromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Gang; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther; Cacelli, Ivo; Carbonaro, Laura; Prampolini, Giacomo

    2013-06-01

    Following the investigation of the rotational spectra of three conformers (so-called ``book'', ``prism'' and ``cage'') of the water hexamer, and of some other water oligomers, we report here the rotational spectrum of the tetramer of a freon molecule. The pulse jet Fourier transform microwave (pj-FTMW) spectrum of an isomer of the difluoromethane tetramer has been assigned. This molecular system is made of units of a relatively heavy asymmetric rotor, held together by a network of weak hydrogen bonds. The search of the rotational spectrum has been based on a high-level reference method, the CCSD(T)/CBS protocol. It is interesting to outline that the rotational spectrum of the water tetramer was not observed, probably because the minimum energy structures of this oligomer is effectively nonpolar in its ground states, or because of high energy tunnelling splittings. The rotational spectra of the monomer, dimer, trimer and tetramer of difluoromethane have been assigned in 1952, 1999, 2007, and 2013 (present work), with a decreasing time spacing between the various steps, looking then promising for a continuous and rapid extension of the size limits of molecular systems accessible to MW spectroscopy. C. Pérez, M. T. Muckle, D. P. Zaleski, N. A. Seifert, B. Temelso, G. C. Shields, Z. Kisiel, B. H. Pate, Science {336} (2012) 897. D. R. Lide, Jr., J. Am. Chem. Soc. {74} (1952) 3548. W. Caminati, S. Melandri, P. Moreschini, P. G. Favero, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. {38} (1999) 2924. S. Blanco, S. Melandri, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Am. Chem. Soc. {129} (2007) 2700.

  15. Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, S.; Truzzolillo, D.; Bordi, F.

    2012-07-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy data over the range 100 MHz-40 GHz allow for a reliable analysis of two of the major relaxation phenomena for polyelectrolytes (PE) in water. Within this range, the dielectric relaxation of pure water is dominated by a near-Debye process at ν = 18.5 GHz corresponding to a relaxation time of τ = 8.4 ps at 25 °C. This mode is commonly attributed to the cooperative relaxation specific to liquids forming a hydrogen bond network (HBN) and arising from long range H-bond-mediated dipole-dipole interactions. The presence of charged polymers in water partially modifies the dielectric characteristics of the orientational water molecule relaxation due to a change of the dielectric constant of water surrounding the charges on the polyion chain. We report experimental results on the effect of the presence of a standard flexible polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate) on the HBN relaxation in water for different temperatures, showing that the HBN relaxation time does not change by increasing the polyelectrolyte density in water, even if relatively high concentrations are reached (0.02 monomol l-1 ≤ C ≤ 0.4 monomol l-1). We also find that the effect of PE addition on the HBN relaxation is not even a broadening of its distribution, rather a decrease of the spectral weight that goes beyond the pure volume fraction effect. This extra decrease is larger at low T and less evident at high T, supporting the idea that the correlation length of the water is less affected by the presence of charged flexible chains at high temperatures.

  16. Proton polarizability of hydrogen-bonded network and its role in proton transfer in bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; El-Sayed, M.A.

    2000-05-11

    Room-temperature time-resolved step-scan Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to study the photocycle of native bacteriorhodopsin (bR) suspension in both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O. The kinetics of the retinal isomerization, and that of the protonation/deprotonation of the proton acceptor, Asp85, are compared in the {micro}s to ms time domain. It is found that hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) isotope exchange does not significantly affect the kinetics of the retinal isomerization and relaxation processes. However, the protonation/deprotonation processes of Asp85 COO{sup {minus}} become slower in D{sub 2}O. The authors also studied the kinetics of the continuum absorbance change in the 1850-1800 cm{sup {minus}1} frequency region, which has previously been proposed to correspond to the absorption of the delocalized proton that is involved in the proton transport to the surface during the photocycle. An H/D isotope shift of the frequency range of this continuum absorbance has been confirmed by the observation that the band in the 1850-1800 cm{sup {minus}1} disappears in the photocycle of bR in D{sub 2}O. These results could support the previous proposal that the intramolecular proton release pathway consists of an H-bonded network. Their results also suggest that the two independent processes, the transfer of a proton from the Schiff base to Asp85 and the release of a different proton to the extracellular surface, are closely coupled events.

  17. The Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network - Breast (SCAN-B) Initiative: a large-scale multicenter infrastructure towards implementation of breast cancer genomic analyses in the clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Saal, Lao H; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Häkkinen, Jari; Hegardt, Cecilia; Grabau, Dorthe; Winter, Christof; Brueffer, Christian; Tang, Man-Hung Eric; Reuterswärd, Christel; Schulz, Ralph; Karlsson, Anna; Ehinger, Anna; Malina, Janne; Manjer, Jonas; Malmberg, Martin; Larsson, Christer; Rydén, Lisa; Loman, Niklas; Borg, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer exhibits significant molecular, pathological, and clinical heterogeneity. Current clinicopathological evaluation is imperfect for predicting outcome, which results in overtreatment for many patients, and for others, leads to death from recurrent disease. Therefore, additional criteria are needed to better personalize care and maximize treatment effectiveness and survival. To address these challenges, the Sweden Cancerome Analysis Network - Breast (SCAN-B) consortium was initiated in 2010 as a multicenter prospective study with longsighted aims to analyze breast cancers with next-generation genomic technologies for translational research in a population-based manner and integrated with healthcare; decipher fundamental tumor biology from these analyses; utilize genomic data to develop and validate new clinically-actionable biomarker assays; and establish real-time clinical implementation of molecular diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tests. In the first phase, we focus on molecular profiling by next-generation RNA-sequencing on the Illumina platform. In the first 3 years from 30 August 2010 through 31 August 2013, we have consented and enrolled 3,979 patients with primary breast cancer at the seven hospital sites in South Sweden, representing approximately 85% of eligible patients in the catchment area. Preoperative blood samples have been collected for 3,942 (99%) patients and primary tumor specimens collected for 2,929 (74%) patients. Herein we describe the study infrastructure and protocols and present initial proof of concept results from prospective RNA sequencing including tumor molecular subtyping and detection of driver gene mutations. Prospective patient enrollment is ongoing. We demonstrate that large-scale population-based collection and RNA-sequencing analysis of breast cancer is feasible. The SCAN-B Initiative should significantly reduce the time to discovery, validation, and clinical implementation of novel molecular diagnostic and

  18. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItÆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  19. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  20. Hybrid Deep Eutectic Solvents with Flexible Hydrogen-Bonded Supramolecular Networks for Highly Efficient Uptake of NH3.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Ali, Mohammad Chand; Yang, Qiwei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Bao, Zongbi; Su, Baogen; Xing, Huabin; Ren, Qilong

    2017-09-11

    Serious environmental concerns have led to a great demand for efficient uptake of NH3 by solvents. However, traditional aqueous absorbents have many shortcomings and efforts to use ionic liquids have met with limited success. A hybrid deep eutectic solvents (DESs) designed with a flexible hydrogen-bonded supramolecular network exhibits both exceptional NH3 uptake capacity and superior desorption-regeneration performance, along with superb NH3 /CO2 selectivity and environmental merit. Elucidated by molecular dynamic simulations and spectroscopic analysis, the abundant hydrogen-bonding sites in the hybrid DESs bind every atom of the NH3 molecule and enable strong physical reversible solvation, whereas the multiple interactions among the hybrid components create a flexible hydrogen-bonded supramolecular network and allow for solvent-unbreaking absorption to ensure the full participation of the solvent and process stability. A mass solubility of NH3 up to 0.13 g g(-1) was achieved at 313 K and 101 kPa by the hybrid DES choline chloride/resorcinol/glycerol (1:3:5), which is higher than all reported ionic liquids and ordinary DESs. Moreover, the performance remained the same after ten absorption-desorption cycles and the DESs could be easily regenerated. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Topological study of pseudo-cubic hydrogen-bond networks in a binary system composed of primary ammonium carboxylates: an analogue of an ice cube.

    PubMed

    Yuge, Tetsuharu; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Fukuda, Takeyoshi; Hisaki, Ichiro; Miyata, Mikiji

    2007-01-01

    Hierarchical classification and single-crystal X-ray analysis of unique pseudo-cubic hydrogen-bond networks composed of primary ammonium carboxylates were carried out. The networks consist of four carboxylate anions and four primary ammonium cations at the corners of the cube, and twelve charge-assisted N--H...O hydrogen bonds on the sides of the cube. The configuration of the carboxylate anions generates topological diversity in the network. The results of this hierarchical classification showed that pseudo-cubic hydrogen-bond networks composed of primary ammonium carboxylates can form nine topologically different networks. These pseudo-cubic networks are a subset of the networks formed by octameric water in the form of an "ice cube". The classification system can be applied to other pseudo-cubic networks in a similar way. A survey of crystal structures based on combinations of triphenylacetic acid with various alkylamines (carbon numbers up to eight) and examination of the CSD (Cambridge Structural Database) showed eight salts that form such networks in their crystal structures. These structures are classified into six topologically different networks. Similar networks composed of other salts are also discussed from a topological point of view.

  2. Role of the Distal Hydrogen-Bonding Network in Regulating Oxygen Affinity in the Truncated Hemoglobin III from Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Mañez, Pau Arroyo; Lu, Changyuan; Boechi, Leonardo; Martí, Marcelo A.; Shepherd, Mark; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Poole, Robert K.; Luque, F. Javier; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Estrin, Darío A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen affinity in heme-containing proteins is determined by a number of factors, such as the nature and conformation of the distal residues that stabilize the heme bound-oxygen via hydrogen-bonding interactions. The truncated hemoglobin III from Campylobacter jejuni (Ctb) contains three potential hydrogen-bond donors in the distal site: TyrB10, TrpG8, and HisE7. Previous studies suggested that Ctb exhibits an extremely slow oxygen dissociation rate due to an interlaced hydrogen-bonding network involving the three distal residues. Here we have studied the structural and kinetic properties of the G8WF mutant of Ctb and employed state-of-the-art computer simulation methods to investigate the properties of the O2 adduct of the G8WF mutant, with respect to those of the wild-type protein and the previously studied E7HL and/or B10YF mutants. Our data indicate that the unique oxygen binding properties of Ctb are determined by the interplay of hydrogen-bonding interactions between the heme-bound ligand and the surrounding TyrB10, TrpG8, and HisE7 residues. PMID:21476539

  3. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring

  4. Oxygen- and Lithium-Doped Hybrid Boron-Nitride/Carbon Networks for Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Shayeganfar, Farzaneh; Shahsavari, Rouzbeh

    2016-12-20

    Hydrogen storage capacities have been studied on newly designed three-dimensional pillared boron nitride (PBN) and pillared graphene boron nitride (PGBN). We propose these novel materials based on the covalent connection of BNNTs and graphene sheets, which enhance the surface and free volume for storage within the nanomaterial and increase the gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen uptake capacities. Density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations show that these lithium- and oxygen-doped pillared structures have improved gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen capacities at room temperature, with values on the order of 9.1-11.6 wt % and 40-60 g/L. Our findings demonstrate that the gravimetric uptake of oxygen- and lithium-doped PBN and PGBN has significantly enhanced the hydrogen sorption and desorption. Calculations for O-doped PGBN yield gravimetric hydrogen uptake capacities greater than 11.6 wt % at room temperature. This increased value is attributed to the pillared morphology, which improves the mechanical properties and increases porosity, as well as the high binding energy between oxygen and GBN. Our results suggest that hybrid carbon/BNNT nanostructures are an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage, owing to the combination of the electron mobility of graphene and the polarized nature of BN at heterojunctions, which enhances the uptake capacity, providing ample opportunities to further tune this hybrid material for efficient hydrogen storage.

  5. N,P-Codoped Carbon Networks as Efficient Metal-free Bifunctional Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Qu, Liangti; Shi, Gaoquan; Liu, Jiangyong; Chen, Jianfeng; Dai, Liming

    2016-02-05

    The high cost and scarcity of noble metal catalysts, such as Pt, have hindered the hydrogen production from electrochemical water splitting, the oxygen reduction in fuel cells and batteries. Herein, we developed a simple template-free approach to three-dimensional porous carbon networks codoped with nitrogen and phosphorus by pyrolysis of a supermolecular aggregate of self-assembled melamine, phytic acid, and graphene oxide (MPSA/GO). The pyrolyzed MPSA/GO acted as the first metal-free bifunctional catalyst with high activities for both oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution. Zn-air batteries with the pyrolyzed MPSA/GO air electrode showed a high peak power density (310 W g(-1) ) and an excellent durability. Thus, the pyrolyzed MPSA/GO is a promising bifunctional catalyst for renewable energy technologies, particularly regenerative fuel cells.

  6. Reconstructing a hydrogen-driven microbial metabolic network in Opalinus Clay rock.

    PubMed

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert L; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F; Leupin, Olivier X; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-10-14

    The Opalinus Clay formation will host geological nuclear waste repositories in Switzerland. It is expected that gas pressure will build-up due to hydrogen production from steel corrosion, jeopardizing the integrity of the engineered barriers. In an in situ experiment located in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, we demonstrate that hydrogen is consumed by microorganisms, fuelling a microbial community. Metagenomic binning and metaproteomic analysis of this deep subsurface community reveals a carbon cycle driven by autotrophic hydrogen oxidizers belonging to novel genera. Necromass is then processed by fermenters, followed by complete oxidation to carbon dioxide by heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, which closes the cycle. This microbial metabolic web can be integrated in the design of geological repositories to reduce pressure build-up. This study shows that Opalinus Clay harbours the potential for chemolithoautotrophic-based system, and provides a model of microbial carbon cycle in deep subsurface environments where hydrogen and sulfate are present.

  7. Reconstructing a hydrogen-driven microbial metabolic network in Opalinus Clay rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert L.; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-10-01

    The Opalinus Clay formation will host geological nuclear waste repositories in Switzerland. It is expected that gas pressure will build-up due to hydrogen production from steel corrosion, jeopardizing the integrity of the engineered barriers. In an in situ experiment located in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, we demonstrate that hydrogen is consumed by microorganisms, fuelling a microbial community. Metagenomic binning and metaproteomic analysis of this deep subsurface community reveals a carbon cycle driven by autotrophic hydrogen oxidizers belonging to novel genera. Necromass is then processed by fermenters, followed by complete oxidation to carbon dioxide by heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, which closes the cycle. This microbial metabolic web can be integrated in the design of geological repositories to reduce pressure build-up. This study shows that Opalinus Clay harbours the potential for chemolithoautotrophic-based system, and provides a model of microbial carbon cycle in deep subsurface environments where hydrogen and sulfate are present.

  8. Reconstructing a hydrogen-driven microbial metabolic network in Opalinus Clay rock

    PubMed Central

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert L.; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-01-01

    The Opalinus Clay formation will host geological nuclear waste repositories in Switzerland. It is expected that gas pressure will build-up due to hydrogen production from steel corrosion, jeopardizing the integrity of the engineered barriers. In an in situ experiment located in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, we demonstrate that hydrogen is consumed by microorganisms, fuelling a microbial community. Metagenomic binning and metaproteomic analysis of this deep subsurface community reveals a carbon cycle driven by autotrophic hydrogen oxidizers belonging to novel genera. Necromass is then processed by fermenters, followed by complete oxidation to carbon dioxide by heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, which closes the cycle. This microbial metabolic web can be integrated in the design of geological repositories to reduce pressure build-up. This study shows that Opalinus Clay harbours the potential for chemolithoautotrophic-based system, and provides a model of microbial carbon cycle in deep subsurface environments where hydrogen and sulfate are present. PMID:27739431

  9. Direct evidence that an extended hydrogen-bonding network influences activation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in aspartate aminotransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Dajnowicz, Steven; Parks, Jerry M.; Hu, Xiche; ...

    2017-02-23

    We used pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a fundamental, multifunctional enzyme cofactor to catalyze a wide variety of chemical reactions involved in amino acid metabolism. PLP-dependent enzymes optimize specific chemical reactions by modulating the electronic states of PLP through distinct active site environments. In aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), an extended hydrogen bond network is coupled to the pyridinyl nitrogen of the PLP, influencing the electrophilicity of the cofactor. This network, which involves residues Asp-222, His-143, Thr-139, His-189, and structural waters, is located at the edge of PLP opposite the reactive Schiff base. We demonstrate that this hydrogen bond network directly influences themore » protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen of PLP, which affects the rates of catalysis. We analyzed perturbations caused by single- and double-mutant variants using steady-state kinetics, high resolution X-ray crystallography, and quantum chemical calculations. Protonation of the pyridinyl nitrogen to form a pyridinium cation induces electronic delocalization in the PLP, which correlates with the enhancement in catalytic rate in AAT. Therefore, PLP activation is controlled by the proximity of the pyridinyl nitrogen to the hydrogen bond microenvironment. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that Asp-222, which is directly coupled to the pyridinyl nitrogen, increases the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen and stabilizes the pyridinium cation. His-143 and His-189 also increase the pKa of the pyridine nitrogen but, more significantly, influence the position of the proton that resides between Asp-222 and the pyridinyl nitrogen. Our findings indicate that the second shell residues directly enhance the rate of catalysis in AAT.« less

  10. The Best-of-2-Worlds philosophy: developing local dismantling and global infrastructure network for sustainable e-waste treatment in emerging economies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Meskers, Christina E M; Schluep, Mathias; Stevels, Ab; Hagelüken, Christian

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is a complex waste category containing both hazardous and valuable substances. It demands for a cost-efficient treatment system which simultaneously liberates and refines target fractions in an environmentally sound way. In most developing countries there is a lack of systems covering all steps from disposal until final processing due to limited infrastructure and access to technologies and investment. This paper introduces the 'Best-of-2-Worlds' philosophy (Bo2W), which provides a network and pragmatic solution for e-waste treatment in emerging economies. It seeks technical and logistic integration of 'best' pre-processing in developing countries to manually dismantle e-waste and 'best' end-processing to treat hazardous and complex fractions in international state-of-the-art end-processing facilities. A series of dismantling trials was conducted on waste desktop computers, IT equipment, large and small household appliances, in order to compare the environmental and economic performances of the Bo2W philosophy with other conventional recycling scenarios. The assessment showed that the performance of the Bo2W scenario is more eco-efficient than mechanical separation scenarios and other local treatment solutions. For equipment containing substantial hazardous substances, it demands the assistance from domestic legislation for mandatory removal and safe handling of such fractions together with proper financing to cover the costs. Experience from Bo2W pilot projects in China and India highlighted key societal factors influencing successful implementation. These include market size, informal competitors, availability of national e-waste legislation, formal take-back systems, financing and trust between industrial players. The Bo2W philosophy can serve as a pragmatic and environmentally responsible transition before establishment of end-processing facilities in developing countries is made feasible. The executive models of Bo2W should be flexibly differentiated

  11. Insights into a highly conserved network of hydrogen bonds in the agonist binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a structural and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Alexandre; Graton, Jérôme; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2014-10-01

    Structural and theoretical studies on the geometrical features of a hydrogen-bond network occurring in the binding site of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and composed of interconnected WxPD (Trp-x-Pro-Asp) and SWyz (Ser-Trp-yz) sequences from loops A and B, respectively, have been carried out. Multiple sequence alignments using as template the sequence of the apoform of Aplysia californica acetylcholine binding protein (Ac-AChBP) show the strict conservation of serine and tryptophan residues of the loop B SWyz sequence. Considering a sample of 19 high resolution AChBP structures, the strong conformational preferences of the key tryptophan residue has been pointing out, whatever the form, free or bounded, of AChBP. The geometry of the motif hydrogen-bond network has been characterized through the analyses of seven distances. The robustness of the various hydrogen-bond interactions is pointed out, the one involving the aspartate carboxylate group and the serine residue being the shortest of the network. The role of a cooperative effect involving a NH(His145)…OH (Ser142) hydrogen bond is highlighted. Density functional theory calculations on several simplified models based on the motif hydrogen-bond network allow probing the importance of the various hydrogen-bond interactions. The removal of the Ser142 hydroxyl group induces strong structural rearrangements, in agreement with the structural observations. Molecular electrostatic potential calculations on model systems highlight the importance of a cooperative effect in the whole hydrogen-bond network. More precisely, the key role of the Ser142 hydroxyl group, involved in several hydrogen bonds, is underlined.

  12. Oxygen-evolving complex of Photosystem II: an analysis of second-shell residues and hydrogen-bonding networks.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Leslie; Vinyard, David J; Khan, Sahr; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-04-01

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) is a Mn4O5Ca cluster embedded in the Photosystem II (PSII) protein complex. As the site of water oxidation, the OEC is connected to the lumen by channels that conduct water, oxygen, and/or protons during the catalytic cycle. The hydrogen-bond networks found in these channels also serve to stabilize the oxidized intermediates, known as the S states. We review recent developments in characterizing these networks via protein mutations, molecular inhibitors, and computational modeling. On the basis of these results, we highlight regions of the PSII protein in which changes have indirect effects on the S1, S2, and S3 oxidation states of the OEC while still allowing photosynthetic activity.

  13. Systems analysis of hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hermelee, A.; Beller, M.; D'Acierno, J.

    1981-11-01

    The potential for hydrogen supplementation in natural gas pipelines is analyzed for a specific site from both mid-term (1985) and long-term perspectives. The concept of supplementing natural gas with the addition of hydrogen in the existing gas pipeline system serves to provide a transport and storage medium for hydrogen while eliminating the high investment costs associated with constructing separate hydrogen pipelines. This paper examines incentives and barriers to the implementation of this concept. The analysis is performed with the assumption that current developmental programs will achieve a process for cost-effectively separating pure hydrogen from natural gas/hydrogen mixtures to produce a separable and versatile chemical and fuel commodity. The energy systems formulation used to evaluate the role of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure is the Reference Energy System (RES). The RES is a network diagram that provides an analytic framework for incorporating all resources, technologies, and uses of energy in a uniform manner. A major aspect of the study is to perform a market analysis of traditional uses of resources in the various consuming sectors and the potential for hydrogen substitution in these sectors. The market analysis will focus on areas of industry where hydrogen is used as a feedstock rather than for its fuel-use opportunities to replace oil and natural gas. The sectors of industry where hydrogen is currently used and where its use can be expanded or substituted for other resources include petroleum refining, chemicals, iron and steel, and other minor uses.

  14. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  15. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  16. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  17. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  18. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  19. Climate Action Benefits: Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides background on the relationship between infrastructure and climate change and describes what the CIRA Infrastructure analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Bridges, Roads, Urban Drainage, and Coastal Property.

  20. Pillared Graphene: A New 3-D Innovative Network Nanostructure Augments Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgios, Dimitrakakis K.; Emmanuel, Tylianakis; George, Froudakis E.

    2009-08-01

    Nowadays, people have turned into finding an alternative power source for everyday applications. One of the most promising energy fuels is hydrogen. It can be used as an energy carrier at small portable devices (e.g. laptops and/or cell phones) up to larger, like cars. Hydrogen is considered as the perfect fuel. It can be burnt in combustion engines and the only by-product is water. For hydrogen-powered vehicles a big liming factor is the gas tank and is the reason for not using widely hydrogen in automobile applications. According to United States' Department of Energy (D.O.E.) the target for reversible hydrogen storage in mobile applications is 6% wt. and 45 gr. H2/L and these should be met by 2010. After their synthesis Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) were considered as ideal candidates for hydrogen storage especially after some initially incorrect but invitingly results. As it was proven later, pristine carbon nanotubes cannot achieve D.O.E.'s targets in ambient conditions of pressure and temperature. Therefore, a way to increase their hydrogen storage capacity should be found. An attempt was done by doping CNTs with alkali metal atoms. Although the results were promising, even that increment was not enough. Consequently, new architectures were suggested as materials that could potentially enhance hydrogen storage. In this work a novel three dimensional (3-D) nanoporous carbon structure called Pillared Graphene (Figure 1) is proposed for augmented hydrogen storage in ambient conditions. Pillared Graphene consists of parallel graphene sheets and CNTs that act like pillars and support the graphene sheets. The entire structure (Figure 1) can be resembled like a building in its early stages of construction, where the floors are represented by graphene sheets and the pillars are the CNTs. As shown in Figure 1, CNTs do not penetrate the structure from top to bottom. Instead, they alternately go up and down, so that on the same plane do not exist two neighboring CNTs with the

  1. Disruption of Hydrogen-Bonding Network Eliminates Water Anomalies Normally Observed on Cooling to Its Calorimetric Glass Transition

    DOE PAGES

    Borreguero, Jose M.; Mamontov, Eugene

    2017-04-11

    Here, the calorimetric glass-transition temperature of water is 136 K, but extrapolation of thermodynamic and relaxation properties of water from ambient temperature to below its homogeneous nucleation temperature TH = 235 K predicts divergence at TS = 228 K. The “no-man’s land” between the TH and glassy water crystallization temperature of 150 K, which is encountered on warming up from the vitrified state, precludes a straightforward reconciliation of the two incompatible temperature dependences of water properties, above 235 K and below 150 K. The addition of lithium chloride to water allows bypassing both TH and TS on cooling, resulting inmore » the dynamics with no features except the calorimetric glass transition, still at 136 K. We show that lithium chloride prevents hydrogen-bonding network completion in water on cooling, as manifested, in particular, in changing microscopic diffusion mechanism of the water molecules. Thus thermodynamic and relaxation peculiarities exhibited by pure water on cooling to its glass transition, such as the existence of the TH and TS, must be associated specifically with the hydrogen-bonding network.« less

  2. Integrating large-scale functional genomics data to dissect metabolic networks for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, Caroline S

    2012-12-17

    The goal of this project is to identify gene networks that are critical for efficient biohydrogen production by leveraging variation in gene content and gene expression in independently isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains. Coexpression methods were applied to large data sets that we have collected to define probabilistic causal gene networks. To our knowledge this a first systems level approach that takes advantage of strain-to strain variability to computationally define networks critical for a particular bacterial phenotypic trait.

  3. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  4. Hydrogen powered bus

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-07

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  5. Effect of hydrogen bonds on pKa values: importance of networking.

    PubMed

    Shokri, Alireza; Abedin, Azardokht; Fattahi, Alireza; Kass, Steven R

    2012-06-27

    The pK(a) of an acyclic aliphatic heptaol ((HOCH(2)CH(2)CH(OH)CH(2))(3)COH) was measured in DMSO, and its gas-phase acidity is reported as well. This tertiary alcohol was found to be 10(21) times more acidic than tert-butyl alcohol in DMSO and an order of magnitude more acidic than acetic acid (i.e., pK(a) = 11.4 vs 12.3). This can be attributed to a 21.9 kcal mol(-1) stabilization of the charged oxygen center in the conjugate base by three hydrogen bonds and another 6.3 kcal mol(-1) stabilization resulting from an additional three hydrogen bonds between the uncharged primary and secondary hydroxyl groups. Charge delocalization by both the first and second solvation shells may be used to facilitate enzymatic reactions. Acidity constants of a series of polyols were also computed, and the combination of hydrogen-bonding and electron-withdrawing substituents was found to afford acids that are predicted to be extremely acidic in DMSO (i.e., pK(a) < 0). These hydrogen bond enhanced acids represent an attractive class of Brønsted acid catalysts.

  6. Porous nanotube network: a novel 3-D nanostructured material with enhanced hydrogen storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Dimitrakakis, Georgios K; Melchor, Santiago; Dobado, Jose A; Froudakis, George E

    2011-02-28

    A multiscale theoretical approach (ab initio and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo calculations) was used to investigate hydrogen storage in a novel three-dimensional carbon nanostructure. Our results show that a large-pore PNN can overpass the gravimetric capacity of 20% at 77 K while a Li-doped PNN can reach the value of 8% at room temperature.

  7. An authentication infrastructure for today and tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Engert, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    The Open Software Foundation`s Distributed Computing Environment (OSF/DCE) was originally designed to provide a secure environment for distributed applications. By combining it with Kerberos Version 5 from MIT, it can be extended to provide network security as well. This combination can be used to build both an inter and intra organizational infrastructure while providing single sign-on for the user with overall improved security. The ESnet community of the Department of Energy is building just such an infrastructure. ESnet has modified these systems to improve their interoperability, while encouraging the developers to incorporate these changes and work more closely together to continue to improve the interoperability. The success of this infrastructure depends on its flexibility to meet the needs of many applications and network security requirements. The open nature of Kerberos, combined with the vendor support of OSF/DCE, provides the infrastructure for today and tomorrow.

  8. The operational performance of hydrogen masers in the Deep Space Network (the performance of laboratory reference frequency standards in an operational environment)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Spacecraft navigation to the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) places very stringent demands upon the performance of frequency and time (F&T) reference standards. The Deep Space Network (DSN) makes use of hydrogen masers as an aid in meeting the routine F&T operational requirements within the 64 m antenna network. Results as of October 1980 indicate the hydrogen masers are performing within the required specifications. Two problem areas are discussed: insufficient control over the environment in which the reference standards reside; and frequency drift.

  9. Snapshots of the fluctuating hydrogen bond network in liquid water on the sub-femtosecond timescale with vibrational resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Pietzsch, A; Hennies, F; Miedema, P S; Kennedy, B; Schlappa, J; Schmitt, T; Strocov, V N; Föhlisch, A

    2015-02-27

    Liquid water molecules interact strongly with each other, forming a fluctuating hydrogen bond network and thereby giving rise to the anomalous phase diagram of liquid water. Consequently, symmetric and asymmetric water molecules have been found in the picosecond time average with IR and optical Raman spectroscopy. With subnatural linewidth resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at vibrational resolution, we take sub-femtosecond snapshots of the electronic and structural properties of water molecules in the hydrogen bond network. We derive a strong dominance of nonsymmetric molecules in liquid water in contrast to the gas phase on the sub-femtosecond timescale of RIXS and determine the fraction of highly asymmetrically distorted molecules.

  10. Snapshots of the Fluctuating Hydrogen Bond Network in Liquid Water on the Sub-Femtosecond Timescale with Vibrational Resonant Inelastic x-ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzsch, A.; Hennies, F.; Miedema, P. S.; Kennedy, B.; Schlappa, J.; Schmitt, T.; Strocov, V. N.; Föhlisch, A.

    2015-02-01

    Liquid water molecules interact strongly with each other, forming a fluctuating hydrogen bond network and thereby giving rise to the anomalous phase diagram of liquid water. Consequently, symmetric and asymmetric water molecules have been found in the picosecond time average with IR and optical Raman spectroscopy. With subnatural linewidth resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at vibrational resolution, we take sub-femtosecond snapshots of the electronic and structural properties of water molecules in the hydrogen bond network. We derive a strong dominance of nonsymmetric molecules in liquid water in contrast to the gas phase on the sub-femtosecond timescale of RIXS and determine the fraction of highly asymmetrically distorted molecules.

  11. Neutron structure of human carbonic anhydrase II: A hydrogen bonded water network switch is observed between pH 7.8 and 10.0.

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Zoe; Langan, Paul; Mustyakimov, Marat; Kovalevsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    The neutron structure of wild type human carbonic anhydrase II at pH 7.8 has been determined to 2.0 resolution. Detailed analysis and comparison to the previous determined structure at pH 10.0 shows important differences in protonation of key catalytic residues in the active site as well as a rearrangement of the hydrogen bonded water network. For the first time, a completed hydrogen bonded network stretching from the Zn-bound solvent to the proton shuttling residue His64 has been directed observed.

  12. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  13. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liriano, Melissa L.; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A.; Murphy, Colin J.; Lawton, Timothy J.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Therrien, Andrew J.; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2016-03-01

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  14. The interplay of covalency, hydrogen bonding, and dispersion leads to a long range chiral network: The example of 2-butanol.

    PubMed

    Liriano, Melissa L; Carrasco, Javier; Lewis, Emily A; Murphy, Colin J; Lawton, Timothy J; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Therrien, Andrew J; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E Charles H

    2016-03-07

    The assembly of complex structures in nature is driven by an interplay between several intermolecular interactions, from strong covalent bonds to weaker dispersion forces. Understanding and ultimately controlling the self-assembly of materials requires extensive study of how these forces drive local nanoscale interactions and how larger structures evolve. Surface-based self-assembly is particularly amenable to modeling and measuring these interactions in well-defined systems. This study focuses on 2-butanol, the simplest aliphatic chiral alcohol. 2-butanol has recently been shown to have interesting properties as a chiral modifier of surface chemistry; however, its mode of action is not fully understood and a microscopic understanding of the role non-covalent interactions play in its adsorption and assembly on surfaces is lacking. In order to probe its surface properties, we employed high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. We found a surprisingly rich degree of enantiospecific adsorption, association, chiral cluster growth and ultimately long range, highly ordered chiral templating. Firstly, the chiral molecules acquire a second chiral center when adsorbed to the surface via dative bonding of one of the oxygen atom lone pairs. This interaction is controlled via the molecule's intrinsic chiral center leading to monomers of like chirality, at both chiral centers, adsorbed on the surface. The monomers then associate into tetramers via a cyclical network of hydrogen bonds with an opposite chirality at the oxygen atom. The evolution of these square units is surprising given that the underlying surface has a hexagonal symmetry. Our DFT calculations, however, reveal that the tetramers are stable entities that are able to associate with each other by weaker van der Waals interactions and tessellate in an extended square network. This network of homochiral square pores grows to cover the whole Au(111) surface. Our data

  15. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 6 Report Promoting a Southeast Hydrogen Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project task was to establish a technical consortium to promote the deployment of hydrogen technologies and infrastructure in the Southeast. The goal was to partner with fuel cell manufacturers, hydrogen fuel infrastructure providers, electric utilities, energy service companies, research institutions, and user groups to improve education and awareness of hydrogen technologies in an area that is lagging behind other parts of the country in terms of vehicle and infrastructure demonstrations and deployments. This report documents that effort.

  16. Reconstructing a hydrogen-driven microbial metabolic network in Opalinus Clay rock

    DOE PAGES

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert L.; ...

    2016-10-14

    A significant fraction (~ 20%) of microbial life is found in the terrestrial deep subsurface, yet the metabolic processes extant in those environments are poorly understood. Here we show that H2, injected into the Opalinus Clay formation in a borehole located 300 meters below the surface, fuels a community of microorganisms with interconnected metabolisms. Metagenomic binning and metaproteomic analysis reveal a complete carbon cycle, driven by autotrophic hydrogen oxidizers. Dead biomass from these organisms is a substrate for a fermenting bacterium that produces acetate as a product. In turn, complete oxidizer heterotrophic sulfate- reducing bacteria utilize acetate and oxidize itmore » to CO2, closing the cycle. This metabolic reconstruction sheds light onto a hydrogen-driven carbon cycle, and a sunlight-independent ecosystem in the deep subsurface.« less

  17. Reconstructing a hydrogen-driven microbial metabolic network in Opalinus Clay rock

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnoud, Alexandre; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert L.; de Bruijn, Ino; Andersson, Anders F.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Schwyn, Bernhard; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2016-10-14

    A significant fraction (~ 20%) of microbial life is found in the terrestrial deep subsurface, yet the metabolic processes extant in those environments are poorly understood. Here we show that H2, injected into the Opalinus Clay formation in a borehole located 300 meters below the surface, fuels a community of microorganisms with interconnected metabolisms. Metagenomic binning and metaproteomic analysis reveal a complete carbon cycle, driven by autotrophic hydrogen oxidizers. Dead biomass from these organisms is a substrate for a fermenting bacterium that produces acetate as a product. In turn, complete oxidizer heterotrophic sulfate- reducing bacteria utilize acetate and oxidize it to CO2, closing the cycle. This metabolic reconstruction sheds light onto a hydrogen-driven carbon cycle, and a sunlight-independent ecosystem in the deep subsurface.

  18. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-06-12

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  20. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    . The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines

  1. Internet Infrastructures and Health Care Systems: a Qualitative Comparative Analysis on Networks and Markets in the British National Health Service and Kaiser Permanente

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background The Internet and emergent telecommunications infrastructures are transforming the future of health care management. The costs of health care delivery systems, products, and services continue to rise everywhere, but performance of health care delivery is associated with institutional and ideological considerations as well as availability of financial and technological resources. Objective To identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures including the Internet and telecommunications technologies by a comparative case analysis of two large health care organizations: the British National Health Service and the California-based Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization. Methods A qualitative comparative analysis focusing on the British National Health Service and the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization to show how system infrastructures vary according to market dynamics dominated by health care institutions ("push") or by consumer demand ("pull"). System control mechanisms may be technologically embedded, institutional, or behavioral. Results The analysis suggests that telecommunications technologies and the Internet may contribute significantly to health care system performance in a context of ideological diversity. Conclusions The study offers evidence to validate alternative models of health care governance: the national constitution model, and the enterprise business contract model. This evidence also suggests important questions for health care policy makers as well as researchers in telecommunications, organizational theory, and health care management. PMID:12554552

  2. 47 CFR 59.2 - Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to, enter into joint ownership or operation of public switched network infrastructure, technology... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING § 59.2 Terms and conditions of infrastructure sharing. (a) An...

  3. Neural networks as a tool for control and management of a biological reactor for treating hydrogen sulphide.

    PubMed

    Elías, A; Ibarra-Berastegi, G; Arias, R; Barona, A

    2006-07-01

    Based on an experimental database consisting of 194 daily cases, artificial neural networks were used to model the removal efficiency of a biofilter for treating hydrogen sulphide (H2S). In this work, the removal efficiency of the reactor was considered as a function of the changes in the air flow and concentration of H2S entering the biofilter. In order to obtain true representative values, the removal efficiencies (outputs) were measured 24 h after each input was changed. A MLP (multilayer perceptron 2-2-1) model with two input variables (unit flow and concentration of the contaminant fed into the biofilter) rendered good prediction values with a determination coefficient of 0.92 for the removal efficiency within the range studied. This means that the MLP model can explain 92% of the overall variability detected in the biofilter corresponding to a wide range of operating conditions.

  4. Inelastic neutron scattering study of reline: shedding light on the hydrogen bonding network of deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C F; Coutinho, J A P; Nolasco, M M; Parker, S F; Ribeiro-Claro, P J A; Rudić, S; Soares, B I G; Vaz, P D

    2017-07-21

    The solids choline chloride and urea, mixed in a 1 : 2 molar proportion, form the iconic deep eutectic solvent "Reline". A combination of computational and vibrational spectroscopy tools, including inelastic neutron scattering (INS), have been used to probe intermolecular interactions in the eutectic mixture. Reline's experimental spectra were estimated using discrete and periodic ab initio calculations of a molecular aggregate with two choline chloride and four urea units. This is the minimum size required to achieve satisfactory agreement with experiment, as smaller clusters cannot represent all of reline's significant intermolecular interactions. The INS spectrum of reline, compared with that of pure choline chloride, reveals a displacement of chloride anions away from their preferred positions on top of choline's methyl groups, whose torsional movement becomes less hindered in the mixture. Urea, which adopts a planar (sp(2)) shape in the crystal, becomes non-planar (sp(3)) in reline, a feature herein discussed for the first time. In reline, urea molecules form a wide range of hydrogen bonds, from soft contacts to stronger associations, the latter being responsible for the deviation from ideality. The chloride's interactions with choline are largely conserved at the hydroxyl end while becoming weaker at the cationic headgroup. The interplay of soft and strong interactions confers flexibility to the newly formed hydrogen-bond network and allows the ensemble to remain liquid at room temperature.

  5. Water Hydrogen-Bonding Network Structure and Dynamics at Phospholipid Multibilayer Surface: Femtosecond Mid-IR Pump-Probe Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Achintya; Błasiak, Bartosz; Lim, Joon-Hyung; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-03-03

    The water hydrogen-bonding network at a lipid bilayer surface is crucial to understanding membrane structures and its functional activities. With a phospholipid multibilayer mimicking a biological membrane, we study the temperature dependence of water hydrogen-bonding structure, distribution, and dynamics at a lipid multibilayer surface using femtosecond mid-IR pump-probe spectroscopy. We observe two distinguished vibrational lifetime components. The fast component (0.6 ps) is associated with water interacting with a phosphate part, whereas the slow component (1.9 ps) is with bulk-like choline-associated water. With increasing temperature, the vibrational lifetime of phosphate-associated water remains constant though its relative fraction dramatically increases. The OD stretch vibrational lifetime of choline-bound water slows down in a sigmoidal fashion with respect to temperature, indicating a noticeable change of the water environment upon the phase transition. The water structure and dynamics are thus shown to be in quantitative correlation with the structural change of liquid multibilayer upon the gel-to-liquid crystal phase transition.

  6. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  7. Architecture-based multiscale computational modeling of plant cell wall mechanics to examine the hydrogen-bonding hypothesis of cell wall network structure model

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Hojae; Puri, Virendra M.

    2012-11-01

    A primary plant cell wall network was computationally modeled using the finite element approach to study the hypothesis of hemicellulose (HC) tethering with the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) as one of the major load-bearing mechanisms of the growing cell wall. A computational primary cell wall network fragment (10 × 10 μm) comprising typical compositions and properties of CMFs and HC was modeled with well-aligned CMFs. The tethering of HC to CMFs is modeled in accordance with the strength of the hydrogen bonding by implementing a specific load-bearing connection (i.e. the joint element). The introduction of the CMF-HC interaction to the computational cell wall network model is a key to the quantitative examination of the mechanical consequences of cell wall structure models, including the tethering HC model. When the cell wall network models with and without joint elements were compared, the hydrogen bond exhibited a significant contribution to the overall stiffness of the cell wall network fragment. When the cell wall network model was stretched 1% in the transverse direction, the tethering of CMF-HC via hydrogen bonds was not strong enough to maintain its integrity. When the cell wall network model was stretched 1% in the longitudinal direction, the tethering provided comparable strength to maintain its integrity. This substantial anisotropy suggests that the HC tethering with hydrogen bonds alone does not manifest sufficient energy to maintain the integrity of the cell wall during its growth (i.e. other mechanisms are present to ensure the cell wall shape).

  8. pK(a) Calculations suggest storage of an excess proton in a hydrogen-bonded water network in bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Spassov, V Z; Luecke, H; Gerwert, K; Bashford, D

    2001-09-07

    Calculations of protonation states and pK(a) values for the ionizable groups in the resting state of bacteriorhodopsin have been carried out using the recently available 1.55 A resolution X-ray crystallographic structure. The calculations are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data for groups on or near the ion transport chain (the retinal Schiff base; Asp85, 96, 115, 212, and Arg82). In contrast to earlier studies using lower-resolution structural data, this agreement is achieved without manipulations of the crystallographically determined heavy-atom positions or ad hoc adjustments of the intrinsic pK(a) of the Schiff base. Thus, the theoretical methods used provide increased reliability as the input structural data are improved. Only minor effects on the agreement with experiment are found with respect to methodological variations, such as single versus multi-conformational treatment of hydrogen atom placements, or retaining the crystallographically determined internal water molecules versus treating them as high-dielectric cavities. The long-standing question of the identity of the group that releases a proton to the extracellular side of the membrane during the L-to-M transition of the photocycle is addressed by including as pH-titratable sites not only Glu204 and Glu194, residues near the extracellular side that have been proposed as the release group, but also an H(5)O(2)(+) molecule in a nearby cavity. The latter represents the recently proposed storage of the release proton in an hydrogen-bonded water network. In all calculations where this possibility is included, the proton is stored in the H(5)O(2)(+) rather than on either of the glutamic acids, thus establishing the plausibility on theoretical grounds of the storage of the release proton in bacteriorhodopsin in a hydrogen-bonded water network. The methods used here may also be applicable to other proteins that may store a proton in this way, such as the photosynthetic reaction

  9. CIMS: A FRAMEWORK FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; May R. Permann; Milos Manic

    2006-12-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and even financial networks. While modeling and simulation tools have provided insight into the behavior of individual infrastructure networks, a far less understood area is that of the interrelationships among multiple infrastructure networks including the potential cascading effects that may result due to these interdependencies. This paper first describes infrastructure interdependencies as well as presenting a formalization of interdependency types. Next the paper describes a modeling and simulation framework called CIMS© and the work that is being conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model and simulate infrastructure interdependencies and the complex behaviors that can result.

  10. Tetrahedral oxyanions-assisted supramolecular assemblies of pyridine-based tectons into hydrogen-bonding networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xue-Hua; Wang, Shi; Li, Yong-Hua; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The systematic research has been done into structural variations of supramolecular architectures by the self assembly of two pyridine-based potential anion receptors, 1-(4-pyridyl)piperazine (L1) and 4-pyrrolidinopyridine (L2), and different inorganic acids (HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, HIO4, H2SO4 and H3PO4). The formation of four fascinating salts, i.e. (H2L12+)·(H2PO4-)2 (1), (H2L12+)·(ClO4-)2 (2), (HL2+)·(ClO4-) (3) and (HL2+)·(IO4-) (4), indicates that N-heterocyclic L1 and L2 are prone to cocrystallize with tetrahedral oxyanions and anionic topologies play a crucial role in the crystallization process. Structural analyses reveal that various intermolecular ring motifs have been generated by robust hydrogen-bonding interactions in compounds 1-4. In particular, interesting substructures were observed in H2PO4- from salts 1 due to its polytopic potential hydrogen-bonding donor and acceptor oxygen atoms, including ring motifs, 1D ribbons and 2D supramolecular framework. Much to our surprise, crystal 4 proves to be a member of few supramolecular salts crystallizing with IO4- anion according to the Cambridge Structure Database (CSD).

  11. The hydrogen-bond network in propylene-glycol studied by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, V.; Longo, F.; Majolino, D.; Venuti, V.

    2006-06-01

    In the present work, we report a polarized Raman study versus temperature of the complex O-H stretching vibrational band (3800-3000 cm -1) performed in a glass forming liquid, namely propylene-glycol (PG), with chemical formula given by H[OCH(CH 3)CH 2]OH. The spectra were collected in bulk and confined state within a sol-gel controlled porous glass having highly interconnected 25 Å diameter pores and characterized by a huge number of silanol groups (Si-OH), able to interact with PG molecules via hydrogen bond. The goal was to investigate how the hydrophilic nature of the surface influenced the molecular mobility of this hydrogen-bonded system, by monitoring intra- and inter-molecular host-host and host-guest interactions. The analysed O-H spectral region was decomposed into Gaussian symmetrical profiles, each of them associated to a well-defined aggregate, triggered by the presence of H-bond. Passing from the bulk state to the confined one, a clear change of the dynamical properties has been revealed and related to the interactions with the surface. The observed results were discussed on the basis of current models for associated liquids.

  12. An insight into liquid water networks through hydrogen bonding halide anion: Stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenghan; Fang, Wenhui; Li, Tianyu; Li, Fangfang; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Zuowei; Huang, Yuxin; Men, Zhiwei

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the interaction between water molecules and halide anions and acquired the influence of concentration by the spontaneous Raman spectrum. The results agreed well with the previous researches. To explore further, the stimulated Raman scattering of a halide-water binary solution is measured to study the nature of the hydrogen bonding between water molecules and halogen anions. Under the effect of laser-induced plasma, the OH stretching vibration spectra of aqueous solutions of halogen ions pretty exhibit different trend compared with that of spontaneous Raman spectrum. The frequency shifts of water OH vibration show different values and directions with adding different halide anions. The red shift of F-- and Cl--water molecule clusters is due to the process of charge transfer, whereas the blue shift of Br-- and I--water molecule cluster is due to polarization effect without charge transfer. The results demonstrate that F- and Cl- slightly weaken the hydrogen bond (HB), whereas Br- and I- enhance HB in the water cluster. The decrease of concentration of halogen ions aqueous solution can weaken the effect on the HB.

  13. Combined Molecular Dynamics, Atoms in Molecules, and IR Studies of the Bulk Monofluoroethanol and Bulk Ethanol To Understand the Role of Organic Fluorine in the Hydrogen Bond Network.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Biswajit; Mondal, Saptarsi; Singh, Prashant Chandra

    2017-02-16

    The presence of the fluorocarbon group in fluorinated alcohols makes them an important class of molecules that have diverse applications in the field of separation techniques, synthetic chemistry, polymer industry, and biology. In this paper, we have performed the density function theory calculation along with atom in molecule analysis, molecular dynamics simulation, and IR measurements of bulk monofluoroethanol (MFE) and compared them with the data for bulk ethanol (ETH) to understand the effect of the fluorocarbon group in the structure and the hydrogen bond network of bulk MFE. It has been found that the intramolecular O-H···F hydrogen bond is almost absent in bulk MFE. Molecular dynamics simulation and density function theory calculation along with atom in molecule analysis clearly depict that in the case of bulk MFE, a significant amount of intermolecular O-H···F and C-H···F hydrogen bonds are present along with the intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bond. The presence of intermolecular O-H···F and C-H···F hydrogen bonds causes the difference in the IR spectrum of bulk MFE as compared to bulk ETH. This study clearly depicts that the organic fluorine (fluorocarbon) of MFE acts as a hydrogen bond acceptor and plays a significant role in the structure and hydrogen bond network of bulk MFE through the formation of weak O-H···F as well C-H···F hydrogen bonds, which may be one of the important reasons behind the unique behavior of the fluoroethanols.

  14. Insight into methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Cu(111): Complex reaction network and the effects of H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yafan; Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Peden, Charles HF; Li, Jun; Mei, Donghai

    2011-05-31

    Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on supported Cu catalysts is of considerable importance in the chemical and energy industries. Although extensive experimental and theoretical efforts have been carried out in the past decades, the most fundamental questions such as the reaction mechanisms and the key reaction intermediates are still in debate. In the present work, a comprehensive reaction network for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on Cu(111) was studied using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All of the elementary reaction steps in the reaction network were identified in an unbiased way with the dimer method. Our calculation results show that methanol synthesis from direct hydrogenation of formate on Cu(111) is not feasible due to the high activation barriers for some of the elementary steps. Instead, we find that CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocarboxyl (trans-COOH) is kinetically more favorable than formate in the presence of H2O via a unique proton transfer mechanism. The trans-COOH is then converted into hydroxymethylidyne (COH) via dihydroxycarbene (COHOH) intermediates, followed by three consecutive hydrogenation steps to form hydroxymethylene (HCOH), hydroxymethyl (H2COH), and methanol. This is consistent with recent experimental observations [1], which indicate that direct hydrogenation of formate will not produce methanol under dry hydrogen conditions. Thus, both experiment and computational modeling clearly demonstrate the important role of trace amounts of water in methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Cu catalysts. The proposed methanol synthesis route on Cu(111) not only provides new insights into methanol synthesis chemistry, but also demonstrates again that spectroscopically observed surface species are often not critical reaction intermediates but rather spectator species. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  15. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  16. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  17. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  18. Levoglucosan formation from crystalline cellulose: importance of a hydrogen bonding network in the reaction.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Takashi; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) formation by the thermal degradation of native cellulose was investigated by MP4(SDQ)//DFT(B3LYP) and DFT(M06-2X)//DFT(B3LYP) level computations. The computational results of dimer models lead to the conclusion that the degradation occurs by a concerted mechanism similar to the degradation of methyl β-D-glucoside reported in our previous study. One-chain models of glucose hexamer, in which the interchain hydrogen bonds of real cellulose crystals are absent, do not exhibit the correct reaction behavior of levoglucosan formation; for instance, the activation enthalpy (Ea =≈38 kcal mol(-1) ) is considerably underestimated compared to the experimental value (48-60 kcal mol(-1) ). This problem is solved with the use of two-chain models that contain interchain hydrogen bonds. The theoretical study of this model clearly shows that the degradation of the internal glucosyl residue leads to the formation of a levoglucosan precursor at the chain end and levoglucosan is selectively formed from this levoglucosan end. The calculated Ea (56-62 kcal mol(-1) ) agrees well with the experimental value. The computational results of three-chain models indicate that this degradation occurs selectively on the crystalline surface. All these computational results provide a comprehensive understanding of several experimental facts, the mechanisms of which have not yet been elucidated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  20. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of glucose aqueous solution: Analysis of the hydration state and the hydrogen bond network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Tajima, Takuro; Nakamura, Masahito; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies of saccharides' peculiar anti-freezing and anti-dehydration properties point to a close association with their strong hydration capability and destructuring effect on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of bulk water. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. In this respect, examination of the complex dielectric constants of saccharide aqueous solutions, especially over a broadband frequency region, should provide interesting insights into these properties, since the dielectric responses reflect corresponding dynamics over the time scales measured. In order to do this, the complex dielectric constants of glucose solutions between 0.5 GHz and 12 THz (from the microwave to the far-infrared region) were measured. We then performed analysis procedures on this broadband spectrum by decomposing it into four Debye and two Lorentz functions, with particular attention being paid to the β relaxation (glucose tumbling), δ relaxation (rotational polarization of the hydrated water), slow relaxation (reorientation of the HB network water), fast relaxation (rotation of the non-HB water), and intermolecular stretching vibration (hindered translation of water). On the basis of this analysis, we revealed that the hydrated water surrounding the glucose molecules exhibits a mono-modal relaxational dispersion with 2-3 times slower relaxation times than unperturbed bulk water and with a hydration number of around 20. Furthermore, other species of water with distorted tetrahedral HB water structures, as well as increases in the relative proportion of non-HB water molecules which have a faster relaxation time and are not a part of the surrounding bulk water HB network, was found in the vicinity of the glucose molecules. These clearly point to the HB destructuring effect of saccharide solutes in aqueous solution. The results, as a whole, provide a detailed picture of glucose-water and water-water interactions in the vicinity of the glucose molecules at

  1. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of glucose aqueous solution: Analysis of the hydration state and the hydrogen bond network.

    PubMed

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Tajima, Takuro; Nakamura, Masahito; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Ajito, Katsuhiro; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-21

    Recent studies of saccharides' peculiar anti-freezing and anti-dehydration properties point to a close association with their strong hydration capability and destructuring effect on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of bulk water. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. In this respect, examination of the complex dielectric constants of saccharide aqueous solutions, especially over a broadband frequency region, should provide interesting insights into these properties, since the dielectric responses reflect corresponding dynamics over the time scales measured. In order to do this, the complex dielectric constants of glucose solutions between 0.5 GHz and 12 THz (from the microwave to the far-infrared region) were measured. We then performed analysis procedures on this broadband spectrum by decomposing it into four Debye and two Lorentz functions, with particular attention being paid to the β relaxation (glucose tumbling), δ relaxation (rotational polarization of the hydrated water), slow relaxation (reorientation of the HB network water), fast relaxation (rotation of the non-HB water), and intermolecular stretching vibration (hindered translation of water). On the basis of this analysis, we revealed that the hydrated water surrounding the glucose molecules exhibits a mono-modal relaxational dispersion with 2-3 times slower relaxation times than unperturbed bulk water and with a hydration number of around 20. Furthermore, other species of water with distorted tetrahedral HB water structures, as well as increases in the relative proportion of non-HB water molecules which have a faster relaxation time and are not a part of the surrounding bulk water HB network, was found in the vicinity of the glucose molecules. These clearly point to the HB destructuring effect of saccharide solutes in aqueous solution. The results, as a whole, provide a detailed picture of glucose-water and water-water interactions in the vicinity of the glucose molecules at

  2. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  4. The operational performance of hydrogen masers in the deep space network: The performance of laboratory reference frequency standards in an operational environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen masers used as aids in meeting the routine frequency and time operational requirements within the 64 m antenna Deep Space Network. Both the operational syntonation (frequency synchronization) and the the clock (epoch) synchronization requirements were established through the use of specifically calibrated H-P E215061A flying clock. The sync/synt to UTC was maintained using LORAN and TV in simultaneous reception mode. The sync/synt within the 64 m net was maintained through the use of very long base interferometry. Results indicate that the hydrogen masers perform well within the required specifications.

  5. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  6. The component model of infrastructure: a practical approach to understanding public health program infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, S René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P

    2014-08-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement.

  7. Multi Infrastructure Control and Optimization Toolkit, Resilient Design Module (MICOT-RDT), version 2.X

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell; Nagarajan, Harsha; Yamangil, Emre; Coffrin, Carleton

    2016-06-24

    MICOT is a tool for optimizing and controlling infrastructure systems. In includes modules for optimizing the operations of an infrastructure structure (for example optimal dispatch), designing infrastructure systems, restoring infrastructures systems, resiliency, preparing for natural disasters, interdicting networks, state estimation, sensor placement, and simulation of infrastructure systems. It implements algorithms developed at LANL that have been published in the academic community. This is a release of the of resilient design module of the MICOT.

  8. [Attributes of forest infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

    2007-06-01

    This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management.

  9. Networking strategies of the microscopy community for improved utilisation of advanced instruments: (3) Two European initiatives to support TEM infrastructures and promote electron microscopy over Europe, ESTEEM (2006-2011) and ESTEEM 2 (2012-2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeck, Etienne; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2014-02-01

    The ESTEEM consortium of electron microscopy laboratories for materials science and solid-state physics has been created as an EU-supported delocalized infrastructure (I3) to bring together the major electron microscopy centres in Europe. Its main objectives were to develop networking, to offer transnational access to these centres with specialized and complementary techniques and skills and to upgrade in close collaboration different technical and methodological aspects such as tomography, spectroscopy, holography, detectors, and specimen holders. These efforts were aimed to strengthen the position of European microscopy and to generate new technologies potentially of high relevance in many domains identified as strategic. Following the success of the first program, ESTEEM has been reconducted in 2012 for four more years with an enlarged set of partners. xml:lang="fr"

  10. Asn792 participates in the hydrogen bond network around the K+-binding pocket of gastric H,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Swarts, Herman G P; Koenderink, Jan B; Willems, Peter H G M; Krieger, Elmar; De Pont, Jan Joep H H M

    2005-03-25

    Asn792 present in M5 of gastric H,K-ATPase is highly conserved within the P-type ATPase family. A direct role in K+ binding was postulated for Na,K-ATPase but was not found in a recent model for gastric H,K-ATPase (Koenderink, J. B., Swarts, H. G. P., Willems, P. H. G. M., Krieger, E., and De Pont, J. J. H. H. M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 16417-16424). Therefore, its role in K+ binding and E1/E2 conformational equilibrium in gastric H,K-ATPase was studied by site-directed mutagenesis and expression in Sf9 cells. N792Q and N792A, but not N792D and N792E, had a markedly reduced K+ affinity in both the ATPase and dephosphorylation reactions. In addition, N792A shifted the conformational equilibrium to the E1 form. In double mutants, the effect of N792A on K+ sensitivity was overruled by either E820Q (K(+)-independent activity) or E343D (no dephosphorylation activity). Models were made for the mutants based on the E2 structure of Ca(2+)-ATPase. In the wild-type model the acid amide group of Asn792 has hydrogen bridges to Lys791, Ala339, and Val341. Comparison of the effects of the various mutants suggests that the hydrogen bridge between the carbonyl oxygen of Asn792 and the amino group of Lys791 is essential for the K+ sensitivity and the E2 preference of wild-type enzyme. Moreover, there was a high positive correlation (r = 0.98) between the in silico calculated energy difference of the E2 form (mutants versus wild type) and the experimentally measured IC50 values for vanadate, which reflects the direction of the E2<-->E1 conformational equilibrium. These data strongly support the validity of the model in which Asn792 participates in the hydrogen bond network around the K(+)-binding pocket.

  11. The Proximal Hydrogen Bond Network Modulates Bacillus subtilis Nitric-oxide Synthase Electronic and Structural Properties

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Albane; Wilson, Adjélé; Henry, Laura; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins are believed to be genuine NOSs. As for cytochromes P450 (CYPs), NOS-proximal ligand is a thiolate that exerts a push effect crucial for the process of dioxygen activation. Unlike CYPs, this catalytic electron donation seems controlled by a hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction between the thiolate ligand and a vicinal tryptophan. Variations of the strength of this H-bond could provide a direct way to tune the stability along with the electronic and structural properties of NOS. We generated five different mutations of bsNOS Trp66, which can modulate this proximal H-bond. We investigated the effects of these mutations on different NOS complexes (FeIII, FeIICO, and FeIINO), using a combination of UV-visible absorption, EPR, FTIR, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Our results indicate that (i) the proximal H-bond modulation can selectively decrease or increase the electron donating properties of the proximal thiolate, (ii) this modulation controls the σ-competition between distal and proximal ligands, (iii) this H-bond controls the stability of various NOS intermediates, and (iv) a fine tuning of the electron donation by the proximal ligand is required to allow at the same time oxygen activation and to prevent uncoupling reactions. PMID:21310962

  12. Proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded network of phenol molecules: intracluster formation of water.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Jozef; Gorejová, Radka; Herman, Zdeněk; Fárník, Michal

    2013-11-07

    Electron ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to investigate the phenol clusters (PhOH)n of different size from single molecule to large clusters: in coexpansion with He, the dimers n = 2 are mostly generated; in Ar, large species of n ≥ 10 also occur. Besides [(PhOH)n](+•) cluster ion series, hydrated phenol cluster ions [(PhOH)n·xH2O](+•) with up to x = 3 water molecules and dehydrated phenol clusters [(PhOH)n-H2O](+•) were observed. The hydrated phenol series exhibits minima and maxima that are interpreted as evidence for proton transfer between the hydrogen bonded cluster ions of cyclic structures. The proton transfer leads to a water generation within the clusters, and subsequent elimination of the diphenyl ether molecule(s) from the cluster yields the hydrated phenol cluster ions. Alternatively, a water molecule release yields a series of dehydrated phenols, among which the diphenyl ether ion [PhOPh](+•) (n = 2) constitutes the maximum.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide in plants: a versatile molecule of the reactive oxygen species network.

    PubMed

    Quan, Li-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei-Wei; Li, Hong-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Plants often face the challenge of severe environmental conditions, which include various biotic and abiotic stresses that exert adverse effects on plant growth and development. During evolution, plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stressors. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are subsequently converted to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Even under normal conditions, higher plants produce ROS during metabolic processes. Excess concentrations of ROS result in oxidative damage to or the apoptotic death of cells. Development of an antioxidant defense system in plants protects them against oxidative stress damage. These ROS and, more particularly, H(2)O(2,) play versatile roles in normal plant physiological processes and in resistance to stresses. Recently, H(2)O(2) has been regarded as a signaling molecule and regulator of the expression of some genes in cells. This review describes various aspects of H(2)O(2) function, generation and scavenging, gene regulation and cross-links with other physiological molecules during plant growth, development and resistance responses.

  14. Influence of electric field on the hydrogen bond network of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, S. J.; Satish, A. V.; Choudhary, A.

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the inherent response of water to an external electric (E)-field is useful towards decoupling the role of E-field and surface in several practically encountered situations, such as that near an ion, near a charged surface, or within a biological nanopore. While this problem has been studied in some detail through simulations in the past, it has not been very amenable for theoretical analysis owing to the complexities presented by the hydrogen (H) bond interactions in water. It is also difficult to perform experiments with water in externally imposed, high E-fields owing to dielectric breakdown problems; it is hence all the more important that theoretical progress in this area complements the progress achieved through simulations. In an attempt to fill this lacuna, we develop a theory based on relatively simple concepts of reaction equilibria and Boltzmann distribution. The results are discussed in three parts: one pertaining to a comparison of the key features of the theory vis a vis published simulation/experimental results; second pertaining to insights into the H-bond stoichiometry and molecular orientations at different field strengths and temperatures; and the third relating to a surprising but explainable finding that H-bonds can stabilize molecules whose dipoles are oriented perpendicular to the direction of field (in addition to the E-field and H-bonds both stabilizing molecules with dipoles aligned in the direction of the field).

  15. The proximal hydrogen bond network modulates Bacillus subtilis nitric-oxide synthase electronic and structural properties.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Albane; Wilson, Adjélé; Henry, Laura; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme

    2011-04-08

    Bacterial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS)-like proteins are believed to be genuine NOSs. As for cytochromes P450 (CYPs), NOS-proximal ligand is a thiolate that exerts a push effect crucial for the process of dioxygen activation. Unlike CYPs, this catalytic electron donation seems controlled by a hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction between the thiolate ligand and a vicinal tryptophan. Variations of the strength of this H-bond could provide a direct way to tune the stability along with the electronic and structural properties of NOS. We generated five different mutations of bsNOS Trp66, which can modulate this proximal H-bond. We investigated the effects of these mutations on different NOS complexes (FeIII, FeIICO, and FeIINO), using a combination of UV-visible absorption, EPR, FTIR, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Our results indicate that (i) the proximal H-bond modulation can selectively decrease or increase the electron donating properties of the proximal thiolate, (ii) this modulation controls the σ-competition between distal and proximal ligands, (iii) this H-bond controls the stability of various NOS intermediates, and (iv) a fine tuning of the electron donation by the proximal ligand is required to allow at the same time oxygen activation and to prevent uncoupling reactions.

  16. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    and secondly, it also reduces the wastewater load to central facility. In addition, lesser dependency on the distribution network contributes to increased reliability and resiliency of the infrastructure. The goal of this research is to develop a framework which seeks an optimal combination of decentralized water and energy alternatives and centralized infrastructures based on physical and socio-economic environments of a region. Centralized and decentralized options related to water, wastewater and stormwater and distributed energy alternatives including photovoltaic (PV) generators, fuel cells and microturbines are investigated. In the context of the water-energy nexus, water recovery from energy alternatives and energy recovery from water alternatives are reflected. Alternatives recapturing nutrients from wastewater are also considered to conserve depleting resources. The alternatives are evaluated in terms of their life-cycle environmental impact and economic performance using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and cost benefit analysis, respectively. Meeting the increasing demand of a test bed, an optimal combination of the alternatives is designed to minimize environmental and economic impacts including CO2 emissions, human health risk, natural resource use, and construction and operation cost. The framework determines the optimal combination depending on urban density, transmission or conveyance distance or network, geology, climate, etc. Therefore, it will be also able to evaluate infrastructure resiliency against physical and socio-economic challenges such as population growth, severe weather, energy and water shortage, economic crisis, and so on.

  17. The ICT Infrastructure: A Driver of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the influence of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure changes on higher education. Addresses issues such as ICT hardware, networks, and leadership and skills; budgets; policy (including access to information, information privacy, information security, and ownership of faculty course materials); changes in…

  18. Privacy and the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Explains the work of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility regarding privacy issues in the use of electronic networks; recommends principles that should be adopted for a National Information Infrastructure privacy code; discusses the need for public education; and suggests pertinent legislative proposals. (LRW)

  19. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Microcomputers for Information Management, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the National Information Infrastructure and the role of the government. Topics include private sector investment; universal service; technological innovation; user orientation; information security and network reliability; management of the radio frequency spectrum; intellectual property rights; coordination with other levels of…

  20. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  1. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  2. Reconceptualizing the Role of Infrastructure in Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, Melissa A.; Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Sheahan, Thomas C.

    2014-08-01

    The Sustainable Adaptive Gradients in the Coastal Environment (SAGE) research collaboration network is composed of U.S., Caribbean, and European engineers, geoscientists, ecologists, social scientists, planners, and policy makers. The goal of SAGE is to establish international, cross-disciplinary networks of researchers working on resilient coastal infrastructure (gray, green, and cultural), with a focus on understanding how varying coastal characteristics contribute toward resilient adaptation strategies (funded under National Science Foundation grant ICER-1338767).

  3. Fast detection and low power hydrogen sensor using edge-oriented vertically aligned 3-D network of MoS2 flakes at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, A. V.; Kumar, R.; Venkatesan, S.; Zakhidov, A.; Zhu, Z.; Bao, Jiming; Kumar, Mahesh; Kumar, Mukesh

    2017-08-01

    The increased usage of hydrogen as a next generation clean fuel strongly demands the parallel development of room temperature and low power hydrogen sensors for their safety operation. In this work, we report strong evidence for preferential hydrogen adsorption at edge-sites in an edge oriented vertically aligned 3-D network of MoS2 flakes at room temperature. The vertically aligned edge-oriented MoS2 flakes were synthesised by a modified CVD process on a SiO2/Si substrate and confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and PL spectroscopy reveal the signature of few-layer MoS2 flakes in the sample. The sensor's performance was tested from room temperature to 150 °C for 1% hydrogen concentration. The device shows a fast response of 14.3 s even at room temperature. The sensitivity of the device strongly depends on temperature and increases from ˜1% to ˜11% as temperature increases. A detail hydrogen sensing mechanism was proposed based on the preferential hydrogen adsorption at MoS2 edge sites. The proposed gas sensing mechanism was verified by depositing ˜2-3 nm of ZnO on top of the MoS2 flakes that partially passivated the edge sites. We found a decrease in the relative response of MoS2-ZnO hybrid structures. This study provides a strong experimental evidence for the role of MoS2 edge-sites in the fast hydrogen sensing and a step closer towards room temperature, low power (0.3 mW), hydrogen sensor development.

  4. Climate Science's Globally Distributed Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is primarily funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science (the Office of Biological and Environmental Research [BER] Climate Data Informatics Program and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research Next Generation Network for Science Program), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the European Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System Modeling (IS-ENES), and the Australian National University (ANU). Support also comes from other U.S. federal and international agencies. The federation works across multiple worldwide data centers and spans seven international network organizations to provide users with the ability to access, analyze, and visualize data using a globally federated collection of networks, computers, and software. Its architecture employs a series of geographically distributed peer nodes that are independently administered and united by common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The full ESGF infrastructure has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP; output used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment reports), multiple model intercomparison projects (MIPs; endorsed by the World Climate Research Programme [WCRP]), and the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME; ESGF is included in the overarching ACME workflow process to store model output). ESGF is a successful example of integration of disparate open-source technologies into a cohesive functional system that serves the needs the global climate science community. Data served by ESGF includes not only model output but also observational data from satellites and instruments, reanalysis, and generated images.

  5. Toward Developing Genetic Algorithms to Aid in Critical Infrastructure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    Today’s society relies upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, telecommunication, financial and energy. Understanding these interdependencies is necessary in order to protect our critical infrastructure. The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System, CIMS©, examines the interrelationships between infrastructure networks. CIMS© development is sponsored by the National Security Division at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in its ongoing mission for providing critical infrastructure protection and preparedness. A genetic algorithm (GA) is an optimization technique based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. A GA can be coupled with CIMS© to search for optimum ways to protect infrastructure assets. This includes identifying optimum assets to enforce or protect, testing the addition of or change to infrastructure before implementation, or finding the optimum response to an emergency for response planning. This paper describes the addition of a GA to infrastructure modeling for infrastructure planning. It first introduces the CIMS© infrastructure modeling software used as the modeling engine to support the GA. Next, the GA techniques and parameters are defined. Then a test scenario illustrates the integration with CIMS© and the preliminary results.

  6. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  7. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  8. Pennsylvania Reaches Infrastructure Milestone

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With a series of “aye” votes, the Pennsylvania agency that turns EPA funding and state financing into water infrastructure projects crossed a key threshold recently – $8 billion in investment over nearly three decades

  9. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  10. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  11. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  12. A Federal Response: The President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection Board's purpose, budget, principles, and priorities. Describes the board's role in coordinating all federal activities related to protection of information systems and networks supporting critical infrastructures. Also discusses its responsibility in creating a policy and road map for government…

  13. A Federal Response: The President's Critical Infrastructure Protection Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Howard

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection Board's purpose, budget, principles, and priorities. Describes the board's role in coordinating all federal activities related to protection of information systems and networks supporting critical infrastructures. Also discusses its responsibility in creating a policy and road map for government…

  14. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  15. On the hydrogen-bond network and the non-Arrhenius transport properties of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galamba, N.

    2017-01-01

    We study the structural and dynamic transformations of SPC/E water with temperature, through molecular dynamics (MD), and discuss the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and orientational dynamics, and the magnitude of the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) and the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations, in the light of these transformations. Our results show that deviations from Arrhenius behavior of the self-diffusion at low temperatures cannot be exclusively explained by the reduction of water defects (interstitial waters) and the increase of the local tetrahedrality, thus, suggesting the importance of the slowdown of collective rearrangements. Interestingly we find that at high temperatures (T  ⩾  340 K) water defects lead to a slight increase of the tetrahedrality and a decrease of the self-diffusion, opposite to water at low temperatures. The relative magnitude of the breakdown of the SE and the SED relations is found to be in accord with recent experiments (Dehaoui et al 2015 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112 12020) resolving the discrepancy with previous MD results. Further, we show that SPC/E hydrogen-bond (HB) lifetimes deviate from Arrhenious behaviour at low temperatures in contrast with some previous MD studies. This deviation is nevertheless much smaller than that observed for the orientational dynamics and the transport properties of water, consistent with the relaxation times measured by several experimental methods. The HB acceptor exchange dynamics defined here by the acceptor switch and reform (librational dynamics) frequencies exhibit similar Arrhenius deviations, thus explaining to some extent the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and of the orientational dynamics of water. Our results also show that the fraction of HB switches through a bifurcated pathway follow a power law with the temperature decrease. Thus, at low temperatures HB acceptor switches are less frequent but occur on a faster time scale

  16. On the hydrogen-bond network and the non-Arrhenius transport properties of water.

    PubMed

    Galamba, N

    2017-01-11

    We study the structural and dynamic transformations of SPC/E water with temperature, through molecular dynamics (MD), and discuss the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and orientational dynamics, and the magnitude of the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) and the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations, in the light of these transformations. Our results show that deviations from Arrhenius behavior of the self-diffusion at low temperatures cannot be exclusively explained by the reduction of water defects (interstitial waters) and the increase of the local tetrahedrality, thus, suggesting the importance of the slowdown of collective rearrangements. Interestingly we find that at high temperatures (T  ⩾  340 K) water defects lead to a slight increase of the tetrahedrality and a decrease of the self-diffusion, opposite to water at low temperatures. The relative magnitude of the breakdown of the SE and the SED relations is found to be in accord with recent experiments (Dehaoui et al 2015 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112 12020) resolving the discrepancy with previous MD results. Further, we show that SPC/E hydrogen-bond (HB) lifetimes deviate from Arrhenious behaviour at low temperatures in contrast with some previous MD studies. This deviation is nevertheless much smaller than that observed for the orientational dynamics and the transport properties of water, consistent with the relaxation times measured by several experimental methods. The HB acceptor exchange dynamics defined here by the acceptor switch and reform (librational dynamics) frequencies exhibit similar Arrhenius deviations, thus explaining to some extent the non-Arrhenius behavior of the transport properties and of the orientational dynamics of water. Our results also show that the fraction of HB switches through a bifurcated pathway follow a power law with the temperature decrease. Thus, at low temperatures HB acceptor switches are less frequent but occur on a faster time scale

  17. 3Drefine: Consistent Protein Structure Refinement by Optimizing Hydrogen Bonding Network and Atomic-Level Energy Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Debswapna; Cheng, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    One of the major limitations of computational protein structure prediction is the deviation of predicted models from their experimentally derived true, native structures. The limitations often hinder the possibility of applying computational protein structure prediction methods in biochemical assignment and drug design that are very sensitive to structural details. Refinement of these low-resolution predicted models to high-resolution structures close to the native state, however, has proven to be extremely challenging. Thus, protein structure refinement remains a largely unsolved problem. Critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction (CASP) specifically indicated that most predictors participating in the refinement category still did not consistently improve model quality. Here, we propose a two-step refinement protocol, called 3Drefine, to consistently bring the initial model closer to the native structure. The first step is based on optimization of hydrogen bonding (HB) network and the second step applies atomic-level energy minimization on the optimized model using a composite physics and knowledge-based force fields. The approach has been evaluated on the CASP benchmark data and it exhibits consistent improvement over the initial structure in both global and local structural quality measures. 3Drefine method is also computationally inexpensive, consuming only few minutes of CPU time to refine a protein of typical length (300 residues). PMID:22927229

  18. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-01

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  19. Emergency navigation without an infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-08-18

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process.

  20. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Gelenbe, Erol; Bi, Huibo

    2014-01-01

    Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN)-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF) and a cognitive packet network (CPN)-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN)-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process. PMID:25196014

  1. Predictable and SuStainable Implementation of National Cardiovascular Registries (PASSION) infrastructure: A think tank report from Medical Device Epidemiological Network Initiative (MDEpiNet).

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Emily P; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Drozda, Joseph P; Kessler, Larry G; Kirtane, Ajay J; Kong, David F; Laschinger, John; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Morice, Marie-Claude; Reed, Terrie; Sedrakyan, Art; Stein, Kenneth M; Tcheng, James; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2016-01-01

    The MDEpiNet is a public-private partnership between the US Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health and participating partners. The PASSION program is an MDEpiNet-sponsored program that aims to demonstrate the goals of MDEpiNet by using cardiovascular medical device registries to bridge evidence gaps across the medical device total product life cycle. To this end, a PASSION Think Tank meeting took place in October 2014 in Silver Spring, MD, to facilitate discussion between stakeholders about the successes, challenges, and future novel applications of medical device registries, with particular emphasis on identifying pilot projects. Participants spanned a broad range of groups including patients, device manufacturers, regulators, physicians/academicians, professional societies, providers, and payers. The meeting focus included 4 areas of cardiovascular medicine intended to cultivate interest in 4 MDEpiNet disease-specific/device-specific working groups: coronary intervention, electrophysiology, valvular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. In addition, more general issues applying to registry-based infrastructure and analytical methodologies for assessing device benefit/risk were considered to provide context for the working groups as PASSION programs going forward. This article summarizes the discussions at the meeting and the future directions of the PASSION program.

  2. Proton transfer reactions and hydrogen-bond networks in protein environments

    PubMed Central

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Saito, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In protein environments, proton transfer reactions occur along polar or charged residues and isolated water molecules. These species consist of H-bond networks that serve as proton transfer pathways; therefore, thorough understanding of H-bond energetics is essential when investigating proton transfer reactions in protein environments. When the pKa values (or proton affinity) of the H-bond donor and acceptor moieties are equal, significantly short, symmetric H-bonds can be formed between the two, and proton transfer reactions can occur in an efficient manner. However, such short, symmetric H-bonds are not necessarily stable when they are situated near the protein bulk surface, because the condition of matching pKa values is opposite to that required for the formation of strong salt bridges, which play a key role in protein–protein interactions. To satisfy the pKa matching condition and allow for proton transfer reactions, proteins often adjust the pKa via electron transfer reactions or H-bond pattern changes. In particular, when a symmetric H-bond is formed near the protein bulk surface as a result of one of these phenomena, its instability often results in breakage, leading to large changes in protein conformation. PMID:24284891

  3. Evaluation of hydrogen bond networks in cellulose Iβ and II crystals using density functional theory and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Daichi; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Mazeau, Karim; Ueda, Kazuyoshi

    2017-09-08

    Crystal models of cellulose Iβ and II, which contain various hydrogen bonding (HB) networks, were analyzed using density functional theory and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations. From the CPMD trajectories, the power spectra of the velocity correlation functions of hydroxyl groups involved in hydrogen bonds were calculated. For the Iβ allomorph, HB network A, which is dominant according to the neutron diffraction data, was stable, and the power spectrum represented the essential features of the experimental IR spectra. In contrast, network B, which is a minor structure, was unstable because its hydroxymethyl groups reoriented during the CPMD simulation, yielding a different crystal structure to that determined by experiments. For the II allomorph, a HB network A is proposed based on diffraction data, whereas molecular modeling identifies an alternative network B. Our simulations showed that the interaction energies of the cellulose II (B) model are slightly more favorable than model II(A). However, the evaluation of the free energy should be waited for the accurate determination from the energy point of view. For the IR calculation, cellulose II (B) model reproduces the spectra better than model II (A). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Versatile supramolecular reactivity of zinc-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin in crystalline solids: Polymeric grids with zinc dichloride and hydrogen-bonded networks with mellitic acid.

    PubMed

    Lipstman, Sophia; Goldberg, Israel

    2009-12-11

    Crystal engineering studies confirm that the zinc-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin building block reveals versatile supramolecular chemistry. In this work, it was found to be reactive in the assembly of both (a) a 2D polymeric array by a unique combination of self-coordination and coordination through external zinc dichloride linkers and (b) an extended heteromolecular hydrogen-bonded network with mellitic acid sustained by multiple connectivity between the component species.

  5. 75 FR 75611 - Critical Infrastructure Protection Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Protection Month, we highlight the vast network of systems and structures that sustain the vigor and vitality..., we must work to empower communities, an integral part of critical infrastructure security, to...

  6. Neuron-Inspired Interpenetrative Network Composed of Cobalt-Phosphorus-Derived Nanoparticles Embedded within Porous Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Juanxia; Yang, Zhi; Ge, Mengzhan; Li, Ping; Nie, Huagui; Cai, Qiran; Gu, Cancan; Yang, Keqin; Huang, Shaoming

    2016-07-13

    The ongoing search for cheap and efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts to replace currently used catalysts based on Pt or its alloys has been considered as an prevalent strategy to produce renewable and clean hydrogen energy. Herein, inspired by the neuron structure in biological systems, we demonstrate a novel fabrication strategy via a simple two-step method for the synthesis of a neuronlike interpenetrative nanocomposite network of Co-P embedded in porous carbon nanotubes (NIN-Co-P/PCNTs). It is found that the interpenetrative network provides a natural transport path to accelerate the hydrogen production process. The embedded-type structure improves the utilization ratio of Co-P and the hollow, tubelike, and porous structure of PCNTs further promote charge and reactant transport. These factors allow the as-prepared NIN-Co-P/PCNTs to achieve a onset potential low to 43 mV, a Tafel slope as small as 40 mV/decade, an excellent stability, and a high turnover frequency value of 3.2 s(-1) at η = 0.2 V in acidic conditions. These encouraging properties derived from the neuronlike interpenetrative network structure might offer new inspiration for the preparation of more nanocomposites for applications in other catalytic and optoelectronic field.

  7. Environmental and Health Benefits and Risks of a Global Hydrogen Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    Rapid development in hydrogen fuel-cell technologies will create a strong impetus for a massive hydrogen supply and distribution infrastructure in the coming decades. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. Stratospheric ozone depletion would increase exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation and increased risk to melanoma. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) is the principal source of uncertainty in our assessment. We propose global monitoring of hydrogen and its deuterium content to define a baseline and track its budget to responsibly prepare for a global hydrogen economy.

  8. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  9. Towards the integration and development of a cross-European research network and infrastructure: the DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub.

    PubMed

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Kroeze, Willemieke; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Allais, Oliver; Andersen, Lene Frost; Cardon, Greet; Capranica, Laura; Chastin, Sebastien; Donnelly, Alan; Ekelund, Ulf; Finglas, Paul; Flechtner-Mors, Marion; Hebestreit, Antje; Hendriksen, Ingrid; Kubiak, Thomas; Lanza, Massimo; Loyen, Anne; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Mazzocchi, Mario; Monsivais, Pablo; Murphy, Marie; Nöthlings, Ute; O'Gorman, Donal J; Renner, Britta; Roos, Gun; Schuit, Abertine J; Schulze, Matthias; Steinacker, Jürgen; Stronks, Karien; Volkert, Dorothee; Van't Veer, Pieter; Lien, Nanna; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2014-11-22

    To address major societal challenges and enhance cooperation in research across Europe, the European Commission has initiated and facilitated 'joint programming'. Joint programming is a process by which Member States engage in defining, developing and implementing a common strategic research agenda, based on a shared vision of how to address major societal challenges that no Member State is capable of resolving independently. Setting up a Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) should also contribute to avoiding unnecessary overlap and repetition of research, and enable and enhance the development and use of standardised research methods, procedures and data management. The Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity (DEDIPAC) Knowledge Hub (KH) is the first act of the European JPI 'A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life'. The objective of DEDIPAC is to contribute to improving understanding of the determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. DEDIPAC KH is a multi-disciplinary consortium of 46 consortia and organisations supported by joint programming grants from 12 countries across Europe. The work is divided into three thematic areas: (I) assessment and harmonisation of methods for future research, surveillance and monitoring, and for evaluation of interventions and policies; (II) determinants of dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours across the life course and in vulnerable groups; and (III) evaluation and benchmarking of public health and policy interventions aimed at improving dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. In the first three years, DEDIPAC KH will organise, develop, share and harmonise expertise, methods, measures, data and other infrastructure. This should further European research and improve the broad multi-disciplinary approach needed to study the interactions between multilevel determinants in influencing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Insights will be translated into more effective

  10. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  11. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, Anelia; Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  12. A sociotechnical framework for understanding infrastructure breakdown and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, Benjamin H

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at how and why infrastructure is repaired. With a new era of infrastructure spending underway, policymakers need to understand and anticipate the particular technical and political challenges posed by infrastructure repair. In particular, as infrastructure problems are increasingly in the public eye with current economic stimulus efforts, the question has increasingly been asked: why has it been so difficult for the United Statesto devote sustained resources to maintaining and upgrading its national infrastructure? This paper provides a sociotechnical framework for understanding the challenges of infrastructure repair, and demonstrates this framework using a case study of seismic retrofit of freeway bridges in California. The design of infrastructure is quite different from other types of design work even when new infrastructure is being designed. Infrastructure projects are almost always situated within, and must work with, existing infrastructure networks. As a result, compared to design of more discrete technological artifacts, the design of infrastructure systems requires a great deal of attention to interfaces as well as adaptation of design to the constraints imposed by existing systems. Also, because of their scale, infrastructural technologies engage with social life at a level where explicit political agendas may playa central role in the design process. The design and building of infrastructure is therefore often an enormously complex feat of sociotechnical engineering, in which technical and political agendas are negotiated together until an outcome is reached that allows the project to move forward. These sociotechnical settlements often result in a complex balancing of powerful interests around infrastructural artifacts; at the same time, less powerful interests have historically often been excluded or marginalized from such settlements.

  13. ITER Cryoplant Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauve, E.; Monneret, E.; Voigt, T.; Vincent, G.; Forgeas, A.; Simon, M.

    2017-02-01

    The ITER Tokamak requires an average 75 kW of refrigeration power at 4.5 K and 600 kW of refrigeration Power at 80 K to maintain the nominal operation condition of the ITER thermal shields, superconducting magnets and cryopumps. This is produced by the ITER Cryoplant, a complex cluster of refrigeration systems including in particular three identical Liquid Helium Plants and two identical Liquid Nitrogen Plants. Beyond the equipment directly part of the Cryoplant, colossal infrastructures are required. These infrastructures account for a large part of the Cryoplants lay-out, budget and engineering efforts. It is ITER Organization responsibility to ensure that all infrastructures are adequately sized and designed to interface with the Cryoplant. This proceeding presents the overall architecture of the cryoplant. It provides order of magnitude related to the cryoplant building and utilities: electricity, cooling water, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

  14. Disruption of a hydrogen bond network in human versus spider monkey cytochrome c affects heme crevice stability.

    PubMed

    Goldes, Matthew E; Jeakins-Cooley, Margaret E; McClelland, Levi J; Mou, Tung-Chung; Bowler, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    The hypothesis that the recent rapid evolution of primate cytochromes c, which primarily involves residues in the least stable Ω-loop (Ω-loop C, residues 40-57), stabilizes the heme crevice of cytochrome c relative to other mammals, is tested. To accomplish this goal, we have compared the properties of human and spider monkey cytochrome c and a set of four variants produced in the process of converting human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability of all variants has been measured by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. The stability of the heme crevice has been assessed with the alkaline conformational transition. Structural insight into the effects of the five amino acid substitutions needed to convert human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c is provided by a 1.15Å resolution structure of spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability for all variants is near 9.0kcal/mol at 25°C and pH7, which is higher than that observed for other mammalian cytochromes c. The heme crevice stability is more sensitive to the substitutions required to produce spider monkey cytochrome c with decreases of up to 0.5 units in the apparent pKa of the alkaline conformational transition relative to human cytochrome c. The structure of spider monkey cytochrome c indicates that the Y46F substitution destabilizes the heme crevice by disrupting an extensive hydrogen bond network that connects three surface loops including Ω-loop D (residues 70-85), which contains the Met80 heme ligand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  16. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  17. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    DOE PAGES

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; ...

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users andmore » vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.« less

  18. Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on 'Advanced Signal Processing Techniques and Telecommunications Network Infrastructures for Smart Grid Analysis, Monitoring, and Management'

    SciTech Connect

    Bracale, Antonio; Barros, Julio; Cacciapuoti, Angela Sara; Chang, Gary; Dall'Anese, Emiliano

    2015-06-10

    Electrical power systems are undergoing a radical change in structure, components, and operational paradigms, and are progressively approaching the new concept of smart grids (SGs). Future power distribution systems will be characterized by the simultaneous presence of various distributed resources, such as renewable energy systems (i.e., photovoltaic power plant and wind farms), storage systems, and controllable/non-controllable loads. Control and optimization architectures will enable network-wide coordination of these grid components in order to improve system efficiency and reliability and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the energy flows will be bidirectional from large power plants to end users and vice versa; producers and consumers will continuously interact at different voltage levels to determine in advance the requests of loads and to adapt the production and demand for electricity flexibly and efficiently also taking into account the presence of storage systems.

  19. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    PubMed

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  1. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  2. An Infrastructure Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

  3. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  4. Quantifying the conservation gains from shared access to linear infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Gordon, Ascelin; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2017-05-02

    The proliferation of linear infrastructure such as roads and railways is a major global driver of cumulative biodiversity loss. One strategy for reducing habitat loss associated with development is to encourage linear infrastructure providers and users to share infrastructure networks. We quantified the reductions in biodiversity impact and capital costs under linear infrastructure sharing of a range of potential mine to port transportation links for 47 mine locations operated by 28 separate companies in the Upper Spencer Gulf Region of South Australia. We mapped transport links based on least-cost pathways for different levels of linear-infrastructure sharing and used expert-elicited impacts of linear infrastructure to estimate the consequences for biodiversity. Capital costs were calculated based on estimates of construction costs, compensation payments, and transaction costs. We evaluated proposed mine-port links by comparing biodiversity impacts and capital costs across 3 scenarios: an independent scenario, where no infrastructure is shared; a restricted-access scenario, where the largest mining companies share infrastructure but exclude smaller mining companies from sharing; and a shared scenario where all mining companies share linear infrastructure. Fully shared development of linear infrastructure reduced overall biodiversity impacts by 76% and reduced capital costs by 64% compared with the independent scenario. However, there was considerable variation among companies. Our restricted-access scenario showed only modest biodiversity benefits relative to the independent scenario, indicating that reductions are likely to be limited if the dominant mining companies restrict access to infrastructure, which often occurs without policies that promote sharing of infrastructure. Our research helps illuminate the circumstances under which infrastructure sharing can minimize the biodiversity impacts of development. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published

  5. Current and future flood risk to railway infrastructure in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubeck, Philip; Kellermann, Patric; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Dillenardt, Lisa; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-04-01

    Railway infrastructure plays an important role in the transportation of freight and passengers across the European Union. According to Eurostat, more than four billion passenger-kilometres were travelled on national and international railway lines of the EU28 in 2014. To further strengthen transport infrastructure in Europe, the European Commission will invest another € 24.05 billion in the transnational transport network until 2020 as part of its new transport infrastructure policy (TEN-T), including railway infrastructure. Floods pose a significant risk to infrastructure elements. Damage data of recent flood events in Europe show that infrastructure losses can make up a considerable share of overall losses. For example, damage to state and municipal infrastructure in the federal state of Saxony (Germany) accounted for nearly 60% of overall losses during the large-scale event in June 2013. Especially in mountainous areas with little usable space available, roads and railway lines often follow floodplains or are located along steep and unsteady slopes. In Austria, for instance, the flood of 2013 caused € 75 million of direct damage to railway infrastructure. Despite the importance of railway infrastructure and its exposure to flooding, assessments of potential damage and risk (i.e. probability * damage) are still in its infancy compared with other sectors, such as the residential or industrial sector. Infrastructure-specific assessments at the regional scale are largely lacking. Regional assessment of potential damage to railway infrastructure has been hampered by a lack of infrastructure-specific damage models and data availability. The few available regional approaches have used damage models that assess damage to various infrastructure elements (e.g. roads, railway, airports and harbours) using one aggregated damage function and cost estimate. Moreover, infrastructure elements are often considerably underrepresented in regional land cover data, such as

  6. Characterization of the hydrogen-bond network of water around sucrose and trehalose: H-O-H bending analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Adachi, Aya; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    The bioprotective properties of disaccharides have been linked to destructuring effect on the hydrogen-bond structure of the interfacial water around the disaccharide solute, but its detailed mechanisms are yet to be provided. In this study, we characterized the destructuring effect based on the complex dielectric constants of interfacial water around sucrose and trehalose in the H-O-H bending region. Our analysis showed that the destructuring effect around disaccharides involves substantial disordering of the hydrogen-bond structure and formation of strong disaccharide-water hydrogen-bond. Such a destructuring effect caused by disaccharides is totally distinct from what happens with temperature increases of neat water.

  7. Hydrogen cluster/network in tobermorite as studied by multiple-quantum spin counting {sup 1}H NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Mogami, Yuuki; Yamazaki, Satoru; Matsuno, Shinya; Matsui, Kunio; Noda, Yasuto; Takegoshi, K.

    2014-12-15

    Proton multiple-quantum (MQ) spin-counting experiment has been employed to study arrangement of hydrogen atoms in 9 Å/11 Å natural/synthetic tobermorites. Even though all tobermorite samples give similar characterless, broad static-powder {sup 1}H NMR spectra, their MQ spin-counting spectra are markedly different; higher quanta in 11 Å tobermorite do not grow with the MQ excitation time, while those in 9 Å one do. A statistical analysis of the MQ results recently proposed [26] is applied to show that hydrogens align in 9 Å tobermorite one dimensionally, while in 11 Å tobermorite they exist as a cluster of 5–8 hydrogen atoms.

  8. ACRF data collection and processing infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Macduff, M. C.; Eagan, R. C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Pacific Northwest National Lab.

    2005-01-01

    Designated a national user facility, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) provides a unique asset for the study of global climate change to the broader national and international research community. It has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range of interdisciplinary science in the areas of meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, ecology, oceanography, satellite validation, and to provide potential monitoring sites where remote sensing and modeling related to homeland security can be validated. The primary goals for the ACRF are to (1) provide infrastructure to the scientific community for scientific research pertaining to global climate change and the goals of the ARM Program (Ackerman and Stokes 2003), (2) provide data and information to the scientific community for meeting those goals, and (3) provide education and outreach on the activities and scientific findings that result from ongoing research at the ACRF. The foundation of the ACRF infrastructure is based on the scientific infrastructure created for the ARM Program (DOE 1990). In support of the ARM Program, the ACRF operates three instrumented sites and a mobile facility to provide relevant atmospheric measurements to the ARM Program and to the global scientific community. The goal of the ACRF infrastructure is to deliver these measurement data reliably, quickly, and in a useful format to the scientific community. The basic focus of the infrastructure is to get the data generated by instruments in the field to a central distribution point. The remoteness of the sites and the diversity of the instruments add to the complexity of the solution. Network access to the sites was often limited and significantly impacted options for data flow and the architecture deployed at each location. Because of several iterations and significant work to establish Internet connections at each site, the ACRF has developed an efficient and

  9. Tuning the tetrahedrality of the hydrogen-bonded network of water: Comparison of the effects of pressure and added salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Saurav; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-01

    Experiments and simulations demonstrate some intriguing equivalences in the effect of pressure and electrolytes on the hydrogen-bonded network of water. Here, we examine the extent and nature of equivalence effects between pressure and salt concentration using relationships between structure, entropy, and transport properties based on two key ideas: first, the approximation of the excess entropy of the fluid by the contribution due to the atom-atom pair correlation functions and second, Rosenfeld-type excess entropy scaling relations for transport properties. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of LiCl-H2O and bulk SPC/E water spanning the concentration range 0.025-0.300 molefraction of LiCl at 1 atm and pressure range from 0 to 7 GPa, respectively. The temperature range considered was from 225 to 350 K for both the systems. To establish that the time-temperature-transformation behaviour of electrolyte solutions and water is equivalent, we use the additional observation based on our simulations that the pair entropy behaves as a near-linear function of pressure in bulk water and of composition in LiCl-H2O. This allows for the alignment of pair entropy isotherms and allows for a simple mapping of pressure onto composition. Rosenfeld-scaling implies that pair entropy is semiquantitatively related to the transport properties. At a given temperature, equivalent state points in bulk H2O and LiCl-H2O (at 1 atm) are defined as those for which the pair entropy, diffusivity, and viscosity are nearly identical. The microscopic basis for this equivalence lies in the ability of both pressure and ions to convert the liquid phase into a pair-dominated fluid, as demonstrated by the O-O-O angular distribution within the first coordination shell of a water molecule. There are, however, sharp differences in local order and mechanisms for the breakdown of tetrahedral order by pressure and electrolytes. Increasing pressure increases orientational disorder within the first

  10. Reaping Environmental Benefits of a Global Hydrogen Economy: How Large, Fow Soon, and at What Risks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, M. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Rahn, T. A.; Kinnison, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    The Western world has taken an aggressive posture to transition to a global hydrogen economy. While numerous technical challenges need to be addressed to achieve this it is timely to examine the environmental benefits and risks of this transition. Hydrogen provides an efficient energy carrier that promises to enhance urban and regional air quality that will benefit human health. It could also reduce risks of climate change if large-scale hydrogen production by renewable or nuclear energy sources becomes viable. While it is well known that the byproduct of energy produced from hydrogen is water vapor, it is not well known that the storage and transfer of hydrogen is inevitably accompanied by measurable leakage of hydrogen. Unintended consequences of hydrogen leakage include reduction in global oxidative capacity, changes in tropospheric ozone, and increase in stratospheric water that would exacerbate halogen induced ozone losses as well as impact the earth's radiation budget and climate. We construct plausible global hydrogen energy use and leak scenarios and assess their impacts using global 3-D simulations by the Model for Ozone And Related Trace species (MOZART). The hydrogen fluxes and photochemistry in our model successfully reproduce the contemporary hydrogen cycle as observed by a network of remote global stations. Our intent is to determine environmentally tolerable leak rates and also facilitate a gradual phasing in of a hydrogen economy over the next several decades as the elimination of the use of halocarbons gradually reduces halogen induced stratospheric ozone loss rates. We stress that the leak rates in global hydrogen infrastructure and the future evolution of microbial soil sink of hydrogen that determines its current lifetime (about 2 years) are principal sources of uncertainty in our assessment.

  11. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  12. Green Infrastructure Checklists and Renderings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Materials and checklists for Denver, CO to review development project plans for green infrastructure components, best practices for inspecting and maintaining installed green infrastructure. Also includes renderings of streetscape projects.

  13. Water Molecules and Hydrogen-Bonded Networks in Bacteriorhodopsin—Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Ground State and the M-Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Grudinin, Sergei; Büldt, Georg; Gordeliy, Valentin; Baumgaertner, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Protein crystallography provides the structure of a protein, averaged over all elementary cells during data collection time. Thus, it has only a limited access to diffusive processes. This article demonstrates how molecular dynamics simulations can elucidate structure-function relationships in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) involving water molecules. The spatial distribution of water molecules and their corresponding hydrogen-bonded networks inside bR in its ground state (G) and late M intermediate conformations were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations reveal a much higher average number of internal water molecules per monomer (28 in the G and 36 in the M) than observed in crystal structures (18 and 22, respectively). We found nine water molecules trapped and 19 diffusive inside the G-monomer, and 13 trapped and 23 diffusive inside the M-monomer. The exchange of a set of diffusive internal water molecules follows an exponential decay with a 1/e time in the order of 340 ps for the G state and 460 ps for the M state. The average residence time of a diffusive water molecule inside the protein is ∼95 ps for the G state and 110 ps for the M state. We have used the Grotthuss model to describe the possible proton transport through the hydrogen-bonded networks inside the protein, which is built up in the picosecond-to-nanosecond time domains. Comparing the water distribution and hydrogen-bonded networks of the two different states, we suggest possible pathways for proton hopping and water movement inside bR. PMID:15731388

  14. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  15. Status of U.S. FCEV and Infrastructure Learning Demonstration Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2011-03-01

    Presented at the Japan Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (JHFC), 1 March 2011, Tokyo, Japan. This presentation summarizes the status of U.S. fuel cell electric vehicles and infrastructure learning demonstration project.

  16. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs): Toward a Hydrogen-free Hydrogen Economy.

    PubMed

    Preuster, Patrick; Papp, Christian; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-17

    The need to drastically reduce CO2 emissions will lead to the transformation of our current, carbon-based energy system to a more sustainable, renewable-based one. In this process, hydrogen will gain increasing importance as secondary energy vector. Energy storage requirements on the TWh scale (to bridge extended times of low wind and sun harvest) and global logistics of renewable energy equivalents will create additional driving forces toward a future hydrogen economy. However, the nature of hydrogen requires dedicated infrastructures, and this has prevented so far the introduction of elemental hydrogen into the energy sector to a large extent. Recent scientific and technological progress in handling hydrogen in chemically bound form as liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) supports the technological vision that a future hydrogen economy may work without handling large amounts of elemental hydrogen. LOHC systems are composed of pairs of hydrogen-lean and hydrogen-rich organic compounds that store hydrogen by repeated catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation cycles. While hydrogen handling in the form of LOHCs allows for using the existing infrastructure for fuels, it also builds on the existing public confidence in dealing with liquid energy carriers. In contrast to hydrogen storage by hydrogenation of gases, such as CO2 or N2, hydrogen release from LOHC systems produces pure hydrogen after condensation of the high-boiling carrier compounds. This Account highlights the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage using LOHC systems. It first introduces fundamental aspects of a future hydrogen economy and derives therefrom requirements for suitable LOHC compounds. Molecular structures that have been successfully applied in the literature are presented, and their property profiles are discussed. Fundamental and applied aspects of the involved hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis are discussed, characteristic differences for the catalytic conversion of

  17. Water Splitting: Strongly Coupled Nafion Molecules and Ordered Porous CdS Networks for Enhanced Visible-Light Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Evolution (Adv. Mater. 24/2016).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Li; Song, Ji-Peng; Ling, Tao; Hu, Zhen Peng; Yin, Peng-Fei; Davey, Kenneth; Du, Xi-Wen; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-06-01

    T. Ling, X.-W. Du, S. Z. Qiao, and co-workers report strongly coupled Nafion molecules and ordered-porous CdS networks for visible-light water splitting. The image conceptually shows how the three-dimensional ordered structure effectively harvests incoming light. As described on page 4935, the inorganic CdS skeleton is homogeneously passivated by the organic Nafion molecules to facilitate hydrogen generation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  19. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  20. Computational infrastructure for law enforcement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lades, M.; Kunz, C.; Strikos, I.

    1997-02-01

    This project planned to demonstrate the leverage of enhanced computational infrastructure for law enforcement by demonstrating the face recognition capability at LLNL. The project implemented a face finder module extending the segmentation capabilities of the current face recognition so it was capable of processing different image formats and sizes and create the pilot of a network-accessible image database for the demonstration of face recognition capabilities. The project was funded at $40k (2 man-months) for a feasibility study. It investigated several essential components of a networked face recognition system which could help identify, apprehend, and convict criminals.

  1. Vulnerability of network of networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  2. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  3. Performance of the MM/GBSA scoring using a binding site hydrogen bond network-based frame selection: the protein kinase case.

    PubMed

    Adasme-Carreño, Francisco; Muñoz-Gutierrez, Camila; Caballero, Julio; Alzate-Morales, Jans H

    2014-07-21

    A conformational selection method, based on hydrogen bond (Hbond) network analysis, has been designed in order to rationalize the configurations sampled using molecular dynamics (MD), which are commonly used in the estimation of the relative binding free energy of ligands to macromolecules through the MM/GBSA or MM/PBSA method. This approach makes use of protein-ligand complexes obtained from X-ray crystallographic data, as well as from molecular docking calculations. The combination of several computational approaches, like long MD simulations on protein-ligand complexes, Hbond network-based selection by scripting techniques and finally MM/GBSA, provides better statistical correlations against experimental binding data than previous similar reported studies. This approach has been successfully applied in the ranking of several protein kinase inhibitors (CDK2, Aurora A and p38), which present both diverse and related chemical structures.

  4. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Structural Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W

    2014-08-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines; however, it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittlement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a well-established failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. This pressure cycling represents one of the key differences in operating conditions between current hydrogen pipelines and those anticipated in a hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Applying structural integrity models in design codes coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of the reliability/integrity of steel hydrogen pipelines subjected to pressure cycling. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of physics-based predictive models, which provide important insights such as the effects of microstructure on hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth. Successful implementation of these structural integrity and physics-based models enhances confidence in the design codes and enables decisions about materials selection and operating conditions for reliable and efficient steel hydrogen pipelines.

  5. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  6. Nickel and zinc complexes with a monodentate heterocycle and tridentate Schiff base ligands: self-assembly to one- and two-dimensional supramolecular networks via hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Qiong-Jie; Liang, Zhi-Yu; Zhan, Chun-Rong; Liu, Jian-Bin

    2009-05-01

    In the complex (morpholine)[2-hydroxy-N'-(5-nitro-2-oxidobenzylidene)benzohydrazidato]nickel(II), [Ni(C(14)H(9)N(3)O(5))(C(4)H(9)NO)], (I), the Ni(II) center is in a square-planar N(2)O(2) coordination geometry. The complex bis[mu-2-hydroxy-N'-(2-oxidobenzylidene)benzohydrazidato]bis[(morpholine)zinc(II)], [Zn(2)(C(14)H(10)N(2)O(3))(2)(C(4)H(9)NO)(2)], (II), consists of a neutral centrosymmetric dimer with a coplanar Zn(2)(mu(2)-O)(2) core. The two Zn(II) centers are bridged by phenolate O atoms. Each Zn(II) center exhibits a distorted square-pyramidal stereochemistry, in which the four in-plane donors come from the O,N,O'-tridentate 2-hydroxy-N'-(2-oxidobenzylidene)benzohydrazidate(2-) ligand and a symmetry-related phenolate O atom, and the axial position is coordinated to the N atom from the morpholine molecule. There are