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Sample records for hydrogen peroxide induced

  1. Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Guadarrama-Solís, Adriana; Muñoz-Seca, Carmen; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the process of bleaching vital, discolored teeth, low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are effective alternatives to heat-activated 30% H2O2. However, interest has been expressed in the assessment of pathological effects of long-term exposure to bleaching agents such as irritation and ulceration of the gingival or other soft tissues. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide on apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid and caspase-3 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. HGF cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 was both dose and time dependent. The addition of H2O2 resulted in the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and an increase of Caspase-3 cleavage. Data suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HGF is intrinsic pathway involved the release of apoptotic signal from mitochondria.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Guadarrama-Solís, Adriana; Muñoz-Seca, Carmen; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In the process of bleaching vital, discolored teeth, low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are effective alternatives to heat-activated 30% H2O2. However, interest has been expressed in the assessment of pathological effects of long-term exposure to bleaching agents such as irritation and ulceration of the gingival or other soft tissues. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide on apoptosis in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). Cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax, Bid and caspase-3 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. HGF cell apoptosis induced by H2O2 was both dose and time dependent. The addition of H2O2 resulted in the release of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and an increase of Caspase-3 cleavage. Data suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HGF is intrinsic pathway involved the release of apoptotic signal from mitochondria. PMID:26884825

  3. Hydrogen peroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen peroxide is used in these products: Hydrogen peroxide Hair bleach Some contact lens cleaners Note: Household hydrogen peroxide has a 3% concentration. That means it contains 97% water and 3% hydrogen peroxide. Hair ...

  4. UV-induced synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.M.; Huerta, A.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Suspension-cultured rose cells irradiated with UV (254 mm, 558 J m{sup {minus}2}) showed a transient efflux of K{sup +}, and a production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} measured by chemiluminescence of luminol in the presence of peroxidase. The peak concentration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, attained at about 60-90 min after irradiation, was 2-5 uM. The addition of superoxide dismutase to irradiated cells stimulated luminscence, suggesting that the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} came at least in part from superoxide that was present in the extracellular medium. Treatments that inhibited the UV-induced efflux of K{sup +} also inhibited the appearance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, though the converse was not always true, suggesting that K{sup +} efflux was necessary for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} synthesis, but not vice-versa. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the extracellular space is required for lignin synthesis in many plant tissues. Phenolic compounds, the other substrates for lignin, are induced by UV. We suggest that the UV-stimulated production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is part of a coordinated induction of lignin synthesis.

  5. Mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide-induced contraction of rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z W; Zheng, T; Zhang, A; Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    1998-03-05

    It has been suggested that reactive oxygen species may be involved in the regulation of vascular tone. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The present studies were designed to investigate the contractile effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the reactive oxygen species, on isolated ring segments of rat aorta with and without endothelium. H2O2 induced an endothelium-independent contraction in isolated rat aorta ring segments in a concentration-dependent manner at concentrations from 5 x 10(-6) to 5 x 10(-3) M. H2O2-induced contractions of denuded rat aorta rings were stronger than those on intact rat aorta segments. The contractile effects of H2O2 were inhibited completely by 1200 u/ml catalase. The presence of 1.0 microM Fe2+ or 10 microM proadifen, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitor, potentiated the contractile effect of H2O2 on isolated rat aorta segments. 1 mM deferoxamine (a Fe2+ chelator) or 100 microM dimethyl sulfoxide (a hydroxyl radical scavenger) significantly attenuated the vessel contractions induced by hydrogen peroxide plus Fe2+ or hydrogen peroxide itself. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]0), addition of 5 microM verapamil, administration of a protein kinase C inhibitor (staurosporine), treatment with an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphorylation (genistein) or employment of 5.0 microM indomethacin resulted in a significant attenuation of the contractile responses of the vessels to H2O2. Pharmacological antagonists (e.g. a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine), an antagonist of histamine H1 receptors (diphenhydramine), an antagonist of histamine H2 receptors (cimetidine), an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine), a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist (propranolol) and an antagonist of serotonin receptor (methysergide)) did not inhibit or attenuate the contractions induced by H2O2. Exposure of primary aortic smooth muscle cells to H2O2 (5 x 10(-6) to 5 x 10(-3) M) produced significant rises

  6. Geranylgeranylacetone suppresses hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Masaki; Sakai, Tadahiro; Mitsuyama, Hirohito; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2011-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease, afflicting many sufferers with both pain and functional disorders. Various therapies have been attempted for OA, but no fully effective treatment has been established yet. Apoptosis of chondrocytes caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been considered important in the pathogenesis of OA. The progression of OA may be prevented by suppressing apoptosis of chondrocytes. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been used as an anti-ulcer drug in Japan for more than 20 years. Several recent studies have shown that GGA can induce heat shock protein (HSP) and exert cytoprotective actions on a large variety of cells and tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of GGA on the apoptosis of OA chondrocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Human isolated OA chondrocytes were cultured in the absence or presence of GGA. Cell viability, caspase 3/7 and 9 activities, HSP70 mRNA and protein expressions were examined, and morphological analyses were conducted after exposure of cells to H(2)O(2) to induce apoptosis. Geranylgeranylacetone dose-dependently reversed the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease in cell viability. It was recognized that GGA rendered OA chondrocytes resistant to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis from Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL staining. Caspases 3 and 9 were activated by addition of H(2)O(2), and GGA suppressed this H(2)O(2)-induced activation of both caspases. H(2)O(2)-induced induction of HSP70 was enhanced in OA chondrocytes by pretreatment with GGA. The results showed that GGA can suppress apoptosis of chondrocytes and enhance production of HSP70. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that GGA protects OA chondrocytes from H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis, at least in part by enhancing HSP70 production. These results indicate that GGA is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of OA.

  7. Salidroside inhibits endogenous hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingyu; Jin, Lianhai; Shen, Nan; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Zhengli

    2013-01-01

    Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., shows potent antioxidant property. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of salidroside against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human endothelial cells (EVC-304). EVC-304 cells were incubated in the presence or absence of low steady states of H2O2 (3-4 µM) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX) with or without salidroside. 3(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed, together with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometric analysis using Annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI) label. The results indicated that salidroside pretreatment attenuated endogenous H2O2 induced apoptotic cell death in EVC-304 cells in a dose-dependent pattern. Furthermore, Western blot data revealed that salidroside inhibited activation of caspase-3, 9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) induced by endogenous H2O2. It also decreased the expression of Bax and rescued the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. All these results demonstrated that salidroside may present a potential therapy for oxidative stress in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Cai-ping; Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2012-03-01

    The degenerative joint disease such as osteoarthritis (OA) is closely associated with the death of chondrocytes in apoptosis fashion. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), higher expression following acute damage in OA patients, has been shown to be up-regulated during apoptosis in a bulk of experimental models. This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of H2O2-induced rabbit chondrocytes apoptosis. Articular cartilage was biopsied from the joints of 6 weeks old New Zealand rabbits. Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. H2O2 treatment induced a remarkable reduction of cell viability. We used flow cytometry to assess the form of cell death with Annexin-V/PI double staining, and found that H2O2 treatment induced apoptosis in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Exposure of chondrocytes to 1.5 mM of H2O2 for 2 h induced a burst apoptosis that can be alleviated by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) pretreatment, an anti-oxidant amino-acid derivative. Loss of mitochondria membrane potential (▵Ψm) was evaluated using confocal microscopy imaging and flow cytometry (FCM). H2O2 treatment induced a marked reduction of ▵Ψm, and the abrupt disappearance of ▵Ψm occurred within 5 minutes. These results indicate that H2O2 induces a rapid apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway in rabbit chondrocytes.

  9. Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Methods for concentrating hydrogen peroxide solutions have been described. The methods utilize a polymeric membrane separating a hydrogen peroxide solution from a sweep gas or permeate. The membrane is selective to the permeability of water over the permeability of hydrogen peroxide, thereby facilitating the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution through the transport of water through the membrane to the permeate. By utilizing methods in accordance with the invention, hydrogen peroxide solutions of up to 85% by volume or higher may be generated at a point of use without storing substantial quantities of the highly concentrated solutions and without requiring temperatures that would produce explosive mixtures of hydrogen peroxide vapors.

  10. Pyruvate protects neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Desagher, S; Glowinski, J; Prémont, J

    1997-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is suspected to be involved in numerous brain pathologies such as neurodegenerative diseases or in acute injury such as ischemia or trauma. In this study, we examined the ability of pyruvate to improve the survival of cultured striatal neurons exposed for 30 min to H2O2, as estimated 24 hr later by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay. Pyruvate strongly protected neurons against both H2O2 added to the external medium and H2O2 endogenously produced through the redox cycling of the experimental quinone menadione. The neuroprotective effect of pyruvate appeared to result rather from the ability of alpha-ketoacids to undergo nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the presence of H2O2 than from an improvement of energy metabolism. Indeed, several other alpha-ketoacids, including alpha-ketobutyrate, which is not an energy substrate, reproduced the neuroprotective effect of pyruvate. In contrast, lactate, a neuronal energy substrate, did not protect neurons from H2O2. Optimal neuroprotection was achieved with relatively low concentrations of pyruvate (induced by the cotransport of pyruvate and protons into neurons. Indeed, cytosolic acidification both enhanced the H2O2-induced neurotoxicity and decreased the rate of pyruvate decarboxylation by H2O2. Together, these results indicate that pyruvate efficiently protects neurons against both exogenous and endogenous H2O2. Its low toxicity and its capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier open a new therapeutic perspective in brain pathologies in which H2O2 is involved.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide-inducible proteins in Salmonella typhimurium overlap with heat shock and other stress proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R W; Christman, M F; Jacobson, F S; Storz, G; Ames, B N

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide treatment induces the synthesis of 30 proteins in Salmonella typhimurium. Five of these proteins are also induced by heat shock, including the highly conserved DnaK protein. The induction of one of these five proteins by heat shock is dependent on oxyR, a positive regulator of hydrogen peroxide-inducible genes, while the induction of the other four by heat shock is oxyR independent. Five of the 30 hydrogen peroxide-inducible proteins have been identified, and their structural genes have been mapped. Other stresses such as nalidixic acid, ethanol, or cumene hydroperoxide treatment also induce subsets of the 30 hydrogen peroxide-inducible proteins as well as additional proteins. Hydrogen peroxide-inducible proteins are shown to be largely different from those proteins induced by aerobiosis. In addition, the expression of the katG (catalase) gene is shown to be regulated by oxyR at the level of mRNA. Images PMID:3534881

  12. Lipid peroxidation induced by indomethacin with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide: involvement of indomethacin radicals.

    PubMed

    Miura, Toshiaki; Muraoka, Sanae; Fujimoto, Yukio

    2002-06-01

    Some of the side-effects of using indomethacin (IM) involve damage to the gastric mucosa and liver mitochondria. On the other hand, neutrophils infiltrate inflammatory sites to damage the tissues through the generation of reactive oxygen species by myeloperoxidase. The stomach and intestine have large amounts of peroxidase. These findings suggest that peroxidases are involved in tissue damage induced by IM. To clarify the basis for the tissue damage induced by IM in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and H2O2 (HRP-H2O2), lipid peroxidation was investigated. When IM was incubated with liver microsomes in the presence of HRP-H2O2 and ADP-Fe3+, lipid peroxidation was time-dependent. Catalase and desferrioxamine almost completely inhibited lipid peroxidation, indicating that H2O2 and iron are necessary for lipid peroxidation. Of interest, superoxide dismutase strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation, and it also inhibited the formation of bathophenanthroline-Fe2+, indicating that reduction of the ferric ion was due to superoxide (O2-). ESR signals of IM radicals were detected during the interaction of IM with HRP-H2O2. However, the IM radical by itself did not reduce the ferric ion. These results suggest that O2- may be generated during the interaction of IM radicals with H2O2. Ferryl species, which are formed during the reduction of iron by O2-, probably are involved in lipid peroxidation.

  13. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  14. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  15. Role of high-energy phosphate metabolism in hydrogen peroxide-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Kaneko, M; Iimuro, M; Fujise, Y; Hayashi, H

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the role of high-energy phosphate metabolism in hydrogen peroxide-induced cardiac dysfunction using phosphorus and fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The exposure of a Langendorff-perfused heart to hydrogen peroxide (200-400 micromol/L, 8 min) provoked biphasic contractile dysfunction characterized by a transient depression of left ventricular developed pressure during the administration of hydrogen peroxide and a delayed elevation of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure after the washout of hydrogen peroxide. The initial phase of cardiac dysfunction correlated well with the accumulation of sugar phosphates (r = 0.89, p < 0.01). Furthermore, we demonstrated that glibenclamide, a potent inhibitor of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel, attenuated the initial depression of developed pressure. On the other hand, the delayed elevation of end-diastolic pressure correlated well with the total ATP depletion (r = 0.96, p < 0.01). However, ATP loss was supposed to be a mere result from the increased ATP consumption corresponding to a rise in intracellular free Ca2+ (from the control value of 315+/-23 nmol/L to 708+/-104 after the administration of hydrogen peroxide, p < 0.01), which also paralleled the elevation of end-diastolic pressure. Thus glycolytic inhibition and intracellular Ca2+ overload are independently responsible for the biphasic contractile dysfunction induced by hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Caffeic acid protects hydrogen peroxide induced cell damage in WI-38 human lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Zhang, Rui; Piao, Meijing; Chae, Sungwook; Kim, Kil Nam; Jeon, You Jin; Park, Doek Bae; You, Ho Jin; Kim, Jin Sook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2006-09-01

    Cytoprotective effect of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxy cinnamic acid) on human lung fibroblast (WI-38) cells against hydrogen peroxide induced damage was investigated. Caffeic acid was found to scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen species, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and thus prevented lipid peroxidation. The caffeic acid protected cell damage of WI-38 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), via the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase protein. Caffeic acid increased the activity of catalase and its protein expression. Hence, from the present study, it is suggestive that caffeic acid protects WI-38 cells against H2O2 damage by enhancing the cellular antioxidant activity.

  17. Tolerance of pentose utilising yeast to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol fermentations follow traditional beverage fermentations where the yeast is exposed to adverse conditions such as oxidative stress. Lignocellulosic bioethanol fermentations involve the conversion of pentose and hexose sugars into ethanol. Environmental stress conditions such as osmotic stress and ethanol stress may affect the fermentation performance; however, oxidative stress as a consequence of metabolic output can also occur. However, the effect of oxidative stress on yeast with pentose utilising capabilities has yet to be investigated. Results Assaying for the effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on Candida, Pichia and Scheffersomyces spp. has demonstrated that these yeast tolerate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in a manner consistent with that demonstrated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia guillermondii appears to be more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress when compared to Candida shehatae, Candida succiphila or Scheffersomyces stipitis. Conclusions Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress increased in the presence of minimal media; however, addition of amino acids and nucleobases was observed to increase tolerance. In particular adenine increased tolerance and methionine reduced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24636079

  18. Hydrogen peroxide induced loss of heterozygosity correlates with replicative lifespan and mitotic asymmetry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Güven, Emine; Parnell, Lindsay A; Jackson, Erin D; Parker, Meighan C; Gupta, Nilin; Rodrigues, Jenny; Qin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Cellular aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to genomic instability and impaired mitotic asymmetry. To investigate the role of oxidative stress in cellular aging, we examined the effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on genomic instability and mitotic asymmetry in a collection of yeast strains with diverse backgrounds. We treated yeast cells with hydrogen peroxide and monitored the changes of viability and the frequencies of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in response to hydrogen peroxide doses. The mid-transition points of viability and LOH were quantified using sigmoid mathematical functions. We found that the increase of hydrogen peroxide dependent genomic instability often occurs before a drop in viability. We previously observed that elevation of genomic instability generally lags behind the drop in viability during chronological aging. Hence, onset of genomic instability induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide treatment is opposite to that induced by endogenous oxidative stress during chronological aging, with regards to the midpoint of viability. This contrast argues that the effect of endogenous oxidative stress on genome integrity is well suppressed up to the dying-off phase during chronological aging. We found that the leadoff of exogenous hydrogen peroxide induced genomic instability to viability significantly correlated with replicative lifespan (RLS), indicating that yeast cells' ability to counter oxidative stress contributes to their replicative longevity. Surprisingly, this leadoff is positively correlated with an inverse measure of endogenous mitotic asymmetry, indicating a trade-off between mitotic asymmetry and cell's ability to fend off hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. Overall, our results demonstrate strong associations of oxidative stress to genomic instability and mitotic asymmetry at the population level of budding yeast.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide induced loss of heterozygosity correlates with replicative lifespan and mitotic asymmetry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Erin D.; Parker, Meighan C.; Gupta, Nilin; Rodrigues, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Cellular aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can lead to genomic instability and impaired mitotic asymmetry. To investigate the role of oxidative stress in cellular aging, we examined the effect of exogenous hydrogen peroxide on genomic instability and mitotic asymmetry in a collection of yeast strains with diverse backgrounds. We treated yeast cells with hydrogen peroxide and monitored the changes of viability and the frequencies of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in response to hydrogen peroxide doses. The mid-transition points of viability and LOH were quantified using sigmoid mathematical functions. We found that the increase of hydrogen peroxide dependent genomic instability often occurs before a drop in viability. We previously observed that elevation of genomic instability generally lags behind the drop in viability during chronological aging. Hence, onset of genomic instability induced by exogenous hydrogen peroxide treatment is opposite to that induced by endogenous oxidative stress during chronological aging, with regards to the midpoint of viability. This contrast argues that the effect of endogenous oxidative stress on genome integrity is well suppressed up to the dying-off phase during chronological aging. We found that the leadoff of exogenous hydrogen peroxide induced genomic instability to viability significantly correlated with replicative lifespan (RLS), indicating that yeast cells’ ability to counter oxidative stress contributes to their replicative longevity. Surprisingly, this leadoff is positively correlated with an inverse measure of endogenous mitotic asymmetry, indicating a trade-off between mitotic asymmetry and cell’s ability to fend off hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. Overall, our results demonstrate strong associations of oxidative stress to genomic instability and mitotic asymmetry at the population level of budding yeast. PMID:27833823

  20. Mushroom extract protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity in hepatic and neuronal human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Nejib; Waly, Mostafa I

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidative stress agent that is associated with depletion of intracellular glutathione and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes in different cell lines. Consumption of antioxidant-rich foods reduces cellular oxidative stress and its related health problems. This study aimed to assess the antioxidant properties of mushroom, Agaricus bisporous cultivar extract, against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in cultured human hepatic (HepG2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. In this study, hydrogen peroxide caused significant oxidative stress in HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cells as demonstrated by glutathione depletion, impairment of total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase). Agaricusbisporous extract ameliorated the observed hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cellular insult as indicated by restoring the activity of glutathione and the assayed antioxidant enzymes to control levels. The results suggest that mushroom extract as antioxidant properties and protects against the oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide-in cultured human hepatic and neuronal cells.

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2007-01-01

    A relatively simple and economical process and apparatus for concentrating hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution at the point of use have been invented. The heart of the apparatus is a vessel comprising an outer shell containing tubular membranes made of a polymer that is significantly more permeable by water than by hydrogen peroxide. The aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide to be concentrated is fed through the interstitial spaces between the tubular membranes. An initially dry sweep gas is pumped through the interiors of the tubular membranes. Water diffuses through the membranes and is carried away as water vapor mixed into the sweep gas. Because of the removal of water, the hydrogen peroxide solution flowing from the vessel at the outlet end is more concentrated than that fed into the vessel at the inlet end. The sweep gas can be air, nitrogen, or any other gas that can be conveniently supplied in dry form and does not react chemically with hydrogen peroxide.

  2. Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.

    PubMed

    Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product.

  3. [Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide production on chondrocytes induced by fulvic acid by ginger volatile oil].

    PubMed

    Guo, P; Xu, J; Xu, S; Wang, K

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of ginger on Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), the ginger volatile oil was taken as a scavenger and proved effective in inhibiting the production of hydrogen peroxide in chondrocytes induced by fulvic acid from KBD area.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide prevents vascular calcification induced ROS production by regulating Nrf-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wensong; Li, Yi; Ding, Hanlu; Du, Yaqin; Wang, Li

    2016-08-01

    Although vascular calcification in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) represents a ubiquitous human health problem, effective therapies with limited side effects are still lacking, and the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. The Nrf-2/ARE pathway is a pivotal to regulate anti-oxidative responses in vascular calcification upon ESRD. Although Nrf-2 plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and brain ischemia, the effect of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification in ESRD patients is still unclear. The aim of this research was to study the protective role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification and the mechanism of Nrf-2 and oxidative stress on vascular calcification. Here we used the rat vascular smooth muscle cell model of β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification resembling vascular calcification in ESRD to investigate the therapeutic effect of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide on vascular calcification and further explores the possible underlying mechanisms. Our current report shows the in vitro role of 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide in protecting against intracellular ROS accumulation upon vascular calcification. Both hydrogen peroxide and sulforaphane pretreatment reduced ROS production, increased the expression of Nrf-2, and decreased the expression of Runx2 following calcification. Our study demonstrates that 0.01 mM hydrogen peroxide can effectively protect rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells against oxidative stress by preventing vascular calcification induced ROS production through Nrf-2 pathway. These data might define an antioxidant role of hydrogen peroxide in vascular calcification upon ESRD.

  5. Baicalein Decreases Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Damage to NG108-15 Cells via Upregulation of Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hung; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Liu, Pei-Shan; Kuo, Jung-Kuei; Chueh, Sheau-Huei

    2015-08-01

    Baicalein is a flavonoid inhibitor of 12-lipoxygenase. Here, we investigated its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced damage to NG108-15 cells. Hydrogen peroxide activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, decreased Nrf2 expression, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, reduced viability, and increased cell death after 2-24 h treatment of NG108-15 cells. Co-treatment with hydrogen peroxide and baicalein completely suppressed the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by upregulating Nrf2 expression and reducing ROS stress and partially inhibited the effects on cell viability and cell death. Silencing of 12-lipoxygenase had a similar protective effect to baicalein on hydrogen peroxide-induced damage by blocking the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in Nrf2 expression and increase in ROS levels. Neither protective effect was altered by addition of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, the product of 12-lipoxygenase, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide induced damage via 12-lipoxygenase by another, as yet unknown, mechanism, rather than activating it. Co-treatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide and N-acetylcysteine or the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in a similar fashion to baicalein, while the Nrf2 inhibitor retinoic acid blocked the protective effect of baicalein. Silencing Nrf2 also inhibited the protective effects of baicalein, sulforaphane, and N-acetylcysteine and resulted in high ROS levels, suggesting ROS elimination was mediated by Nrf2. Taken together our results suggest that baicalein protects cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by upregulating Nrf2 and inhibiting 12-lipoxygenase to block the increase in ROS levels. Hydrogen peroxide also activates a second mitochondrial dysfunction independent death pathway which is resistant to baicalein. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lens Endogenous Peptide αA66-80 Generates Hydrogen Peroxide and Induces Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Murugesan; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Sharma, K. Krishna

    2017-01-01

    In previous studies, we reported the presence of a large number of low-molecular-weight (LMW) peptides in aged and cataract human lens tissues. Among the LMW peptides, a peptide derived from αA-crystallin, αA66-80, was found in higher concentration in aged and cataract lenses. Additional characterization of the αA66-80 peptide showed beta sheet signature, and it formed well-defined unbranched fibrils. Further experimental data showed that αA66-80 peptide binds α-crystallin, impairs its chaperone function, and attracts additional crystallin proteins to the peptide α-crystallin complex, leading to the formation of larger light scattering aggregates. It is well established that Aβ peptide exhibits cell toxicity by the generation of hydrogen peroxide. The αA66-80 peptide shares the principal properties of Aβ peptide. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether the fibril-forming peptide αA66-80 has the ability to generate hydrogen peroxide. The results show that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide, in the amount of 1.2 nM H2O2 per µg of αA66-80 peptide by incubation at 37°C for 4h. We also observed cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in αA66-80 peptide-transduced Cos7 cells. As evident, we found more TUNEL-positive cells in αA66-80 peptide transduced Cos7 cells than in control cells, suggesting peptide-mediated cell apoptosis. Additional immunohistochemistry analysis showed the active form of caspase-3, suggesting activation of the caspase-dependent pathway during peptide-induced cell apoptosis. These results confirm that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide and promotes hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell apoptosis. PMID:28203481

  7. Lens Endogenous Peptide αA66-80 Generates Hydrogen Peroxide and Induces Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, Murugesan; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Sharma, K Krishna

    2017-02-01

    In previous studies, we reported the presence of a large number of low-molecular-weight (LMW) peptides in aged and cataract human lens tissues. Among the LMW peptides, a peptide derived from αA-crystallin, αA66-80, was found in higher concentration in aged and cataract lenses. Additional characterization of the αA66-80 peptide showed beta sheet signature, and it formed well-defined unbranched fibrils. Further experimental data showed that αA66-80 peptide binds α-crystallin, impairs its chaperone function, and attracts additional crystallin proteins to the peptide α-crystallin complex, leading to the formation of larger light scattering aggregates. It is well established that Aβ peptide exhibits cell toxicity by the generation of hydrogen peroxide. The αA66-80 peptide shares the principal properties of Aβ peptide. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether the fibril-forming peptide αA66-80 has the ability to generate hydrogen peroxide. The results show that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide, in the amount of 1.2 nM H2O2 per µg of αA66-80 peptide by incubation at 37°C for 4h. We also observed cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in αA66-80 peptide-transduced Cos7 cells. As evident, we found more TUNEL-positive cells in αA66-80 peptide transduced Cos7 cells than in control cells, suggesting peptide-mediated cell apoptosis. Additional immunohistochemistry analysis showed the active form of caspase-3, suggesting activation of the caspase-dependent pathway during peptide-induced cell apoptosis. These results confirm that the αA66-80 peptide generates hydrogen peroxide and promotes hydrogen peroxide-mediated cell apoptosis.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide catalytic decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated through the use of concentrated hydrogen peroxide fed as a monopropellant into a catalyzed thruster assembly. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50%-70% by volume, and may be increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding decomposition in the thruster assembly. The exhaust of the thruster assembly, rich in hydroxyl and/or hydroperoxy radicals, may be fed into a stream containing oxidizable components, such as nitric oxide, to facilitate their oxidation.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide-induced renal injury. A protective role for pyruvate in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Salahudeen, A K; Clark, E C; Nath, K A

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contributes to renal cellular injury. alpha-Keto acids nonenzymatically reduce H2O2 to water while undergoing decarboxylation at the 1-carbon (1-C) position. We examined, in vitro and in vivo, the protective role of sodium pyruvate in H2O2-induced renal injury. Pyruvate effectively scavenged H2O2 in vitro, and suppressed H2O2-induced renal lipid peroxidation. Injury to LLC-PK1 cells induced by hydrogen peroxide was attenuated by pyruvate to an extent comparable to that seen with catalase. Studies utilizing [1-14C]pyruvate further demonstrated 1-C decarboxylation concurrent with cytoprotection by pyruvate from H2O2-induced injury. Pyruvate was also protective in vivo. Infusion of pyruvate before and during the intrarenal infusion of H2O2 attenuated H2O2-induced proteinuria. Systemic administration of pyruvate was also protective in the glycerol model of acute renal failure, a model also characterized by increased generation of H2O2. These findings indicate that pyruvate, a ubiquitous alpha-keto acid, scavenges H2O2 and protects renal tissue in vitro and in vivo from H2O2-mediated injury. These data suggest a potential therapeutic role for pyruvate in diseases in which increased generation of H2O2 is incriminated in renal damage. Images PMID:1752950

  10. Hydrogen peroxide centrally attenuates hyperosmolarity-induced thirst and natriuresis.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Regis C; Melo, Mariana Rosso; Furuya, Werner Issao; Colombari, Eduardo; Menani, José V; Colombari, Débora Simões Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Intragastric hypertonic NaCl that simulates the ingestion of osmotically active substances by food intake induces thirst, vasopressin and oxytocin release, diuresis and natriuresis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced endogenously in central areas may act modulating autonomic and behavioral responses. In the present study, we investigated the effects of H2O2 injected centrally on water intake and renal responses induced by increasing plasma osmolality with intragastric (ig) administration of 2M NaCl (2 ml/rat). Male Holtzman rats (280-320 g) with stainless steel cannula implanted in the lateral ventricle (LV) were used. Injections of H2O2 (2.5 μmol/1 μl) into the LV reduced ig 2M NaCl-induced water intake (3.1 ± 0.7, vs. PBS: 8.6 ± 1.0 ml/60 min, p<0.05), natriuresis (769 ± 93, vs. PBS: 1158 ± 168 μEq/120 min, p<0.05) and diuresis (4.1 ± 0.5, vs. PBS: 5.0 ± 0.5 ml/120 min, p<0.05). Injections of H2O2 into the LV also decreased meal associated water intake (4.9 ± 1.5, vs. PBS: 11.0 ± 1.7 ml/120 min). However, H2O2 into the LV did not modify 2% sucrose intake (3.3 ± 1.5, vs. PBS: 5.4 ± 2.3 ml/120 min) or 24h food deprivation-induced food intake (8.2 ± 2.0, vs. PBS: 11.0 ± 1.6g/120 min), suggesting that this treatment does not produce nonspecific inhibition of ingestive behaviors. The data suggest an inhibitory role for H2O2 acting centrally on thirst and natriuresis induced by hyperosmolarity and on meal-associated thirst.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide-induced structural alterations of RNAse A.

    PubMed

    Lasch, P; Petras, T; Ullrich, O; Backmann, J; Naumann, D; Grune, T

    2001-03-23

    Proteins exposed to oxidative stress are degraded via proteolytic pathways. In the present study, we undertook a series of in vitro experiments to establish a correlation between the structural changes induced by mild oxidation of the model protein RNase A and the proteolytic rate found upon exposure of the modified protein toward the isolated 20 S proteasome. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used as a structure-sensitive probe. We report here strong experimental evidence for oxidation-induced conformational rearrangements of the model protein RNase A and, at the same time, for covalent modifications of amino acid side chains. Oxidation-related conformational changes, induced by H(2)O(2) exposure of the protein may be monitored in the amide I region, which is sensitive to changes in protein secondary structure. A comparison of the time- and H(2)O(2) concentration-dependent changes in the amide I region demonstrates a high degree of similarity to spectral alterations typical for temperature-induced unfolding of RNase A. In addition, spectral parameters of amino acid side chain marker bands (Tyr, Asp) revealed evidence for covalent modifications. Proteasome digestion measurements on oxidized RNase A revealed a specific time and H(2)O(2) concentration dependence; at low initial concentration of the oxidant, the RNase A turnover rate increases with incubation time and concentration. Based on these experimental findings, a correlation between structural alterations detected upon RNase A oxidation and proteolytic rates of RNase A is established, and possible mechanisms of the proteasome recognition process of oxidatively damaged proteins are discussed.

  12. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Seth, A; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Rao, R K

    2008-04-01

    Probiotics promote intestinal epithelial integrity and reduce infection and diarrhea. We evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-produced soluble proteins (p40 and p75) on the hydrogen peroxide-induced disruption of tight junctions and barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pretreatment of cell monolayers with p40 or p75 attenuated the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance and increase in inulin permeability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. p40 and p75 also prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced redistribution of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin from the intercellular junctions and their dissociation from the detergent-insoluble fractions. Both p40 and p75 induced a rapid increase in the membrane translocation of PKCbetaI and PKCepsilon. The attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-induced inulin permeability and redistribution of tight junction proteins by p40 and p75 was abrogated by Ro-32-0432, a PKC inhibitor. p40 and p75 also rapidly increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2 in the detergent-insoluble fractions. U0126 (a MAP kinase inhibitor) attenuated the p40- and p75-mediated reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced tight junction disruption and inulin permeability. These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism.

  13. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Seth, A.; Yan, Fang; Polk, D.Brent; Rao, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics promote intestinal epithelial integrity and reduce infection and diarrhea. We evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-produced soluble proteins (p40 and p75) on the hydrogen peroxide-induced disruption of tight junctions and barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pretreatment of cell monolayers with p40 or p75 attenuated the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance and increase in inulin permeability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. p40 and p75 also prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced redistribution of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, and β-catenin from the intercellular junctions and their dissociation from the detergent-insoluble fractions. Both p40 and p75 induced a rapid increase in the membrane translocation of PKCβI and PKCε. The attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-induced inulin permeability and redistribution of tight junction proteins by p40 and p75 was abrogated by Ro-32-0432, a PKC inhibitor. p40 and p75 also rapidly increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2 in the detergent-insoluble fractions. U0126 (a MAP kinase inhibitor) attenuated the p40- and p75-mediated reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced tight junction disruption and inulin permeability. These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. PMID:18292183

  14. Role of hydrogen peroxide in hypoxia-induced erythropoietin production.

    PubMed Central

    Fandrey, J; Frede, S; Jelkmann, W

    1994-01-01

    The addition of exogenous H2O2 inhibited hypoxia-induced erythropoietin (Epo) production in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Likewise, elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels by the addition of menadione or the catalase inhibitor, aminotriazole, dose-dependently lowered Epo production. The inhibitory effect of exogenous H2O2 on Epo formation could be completely overcome by co-incubation with catalase. When GSH levels in HepG2 cells were lowered, Epo production was more susceptible to H2O2-induced inhibition, indicating that H2O2 might affect thiol groups in regulatory proteins. Endogenous production of H2O2 in HepG2 cells was dependent on the pericellular O2 tension, being lowest under conditions of hypoxia. Our results support the hypothesis that an H2O2-generating haem protein might be part of the O2 sensor that controls Epo production. High H2O2 levels under conditions of normoxia suppress, whereas lower levels in hypoxic cells allow epo gene expression. Images Figure 1 PMID:7980410

  15. Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennakoon, Charles L. K.; Singh, Waheguru; Anderson, Kelvin C.

    2010-01-01

    Two-electron reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide is a much researched topic. Most of the work has been done in the production of hydrogen peroxide in basic media, in order to address the needs of the pulp and paper industry. However, peroxides under alkaline conditions show poor stabilities and are not useful in disinfection applications. There is a need to design electrocatalysts that are stable and provide good current and energy efficiencies to produce hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions. The innovation focuses on the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide using an electrochemical cell having a gas diffusion electrode as the cathode (electrode connected to the negative pole of the power supply) and a platinized titanium anode. The cathode and anode compartments are separated by a readily available cation-exchange membrane (Nafion 117). The anode compartment is fed with deionized water. Generation of oxygen is the anode reaction. Protons from the anode compartment are transferred across the cation-exchange membrane to the cathode compartment by electrostatic attraction towards the negatively charged electrode. The cathode compartment is fed with oxygen. Here, hydrogen peroxide is generated by the reduction of oxygen. Water may also be generated in the cathode. A small amount of water is also transported across the membrane along with hydrated protons transported across the membrane. Generally, each proton is hydrated with 3-5 molecules. The process is unique because hydrogen peroxide is formed as a high-purity aqueous solution. Since there are no hazardous chemicals or liquids used in the process, the disinfection product can be applied directly to water, before entering a water filtration unit to disinfect the incoming water and to prevent the build up of heterotrophic bacteria, for example, in carbon based filters. The competitive advantages of this process are: 1. No consumable chemicals are needed in the process. The only raw materials

  16. In vitro curcumin modulates ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Okada, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    A number of investigations have implicated the involvement of free radicals in various pathogenic process including initiation/promotion stages of carcinogenesis and antioxidants have been considered to be a protective agent for this reason. An iron chelate, ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA), is a potent nephrotoxic agent and induces acute and subacute renal proximal tubular necrosis by catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide-derived production of hydroxyl radicals, which are known to cause lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The latter is associated with a high incidence of renal adenocarcinoma in rodents. Lipid peroxidation and DNA damage are the principal manifestation of Fe-NTA-induced toxicity, which could be mitigated by antioxidants. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of curcumin, a polyphenolic compound from Curcuma longa for a possible protection against lipid peroxidation and DNA damage induced by Fe-NTA and hydrogen peroxide in vitro. Incubation of renal microsomal membrane/and or calf thymus DNA with hydrogen peroxide (40 mM) in the presence of Fe-NTA (0.1 mM) induces renal microsomal lipid peroxidation and DNA damage to about 2.2-and 5.6-fold, respectively, as compared to saline treated control (P<0.001). Induction of renal microsomal lipid peroxidation and DNA damage was modulated by curcumin dose dependently. In lipid peroxidation protection studies, curcumin treatment showed a dose-dependent strong inhibition (18-80% inhibition, P<0.05-0.001) of Fe-NTA and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation as measured by MDA formation in renal microsomes. Similarly, in DNA-sugar damage protection studies, curcumin treatment also showed a dose dependent inhibition (22-57% inhibition, P<0.05-0.001) of DNA-sugar damage. From these studies, it was concluded that curcumin modulates Fe-NTA and hydrogen peroxide-induced peroxidation of microsomal membrane lipids and DNA damage. Curcumin might, therefore, be a suitable candidate for the

  17. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuring on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuner; Guo, Ziye; Yang, Yayun; Geng, Zhonglei; Tang, Langlang; Zhao, Minglin; Qiu, Yuyan; Chen, Yifan; He, Peimin

    2016-10-01

    Ulva prolifera can protect human skin fibroblast from being injured by hydrogen peroxide. This work studied the composition of Ulva prolifera polysaccharide and identified its physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cell proliferation of 0.5mg/mL crude polysaccharide was 154.4% of that in negative control group. Moreover, ROS detection indices, including DCFH-DA, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT, indicated that crude polysaccharide could improve cellular ability to scavenge free radical and decrease the injury on human skin fibroblast by hydrogen peroxide. In purified polysaccharide, the activity of fraction P1-1 was the highest, with 174.6% of that in negative control group. The average molecular weight of P1-1 was 137kD with 18.0% of sulfate content. This work showed the inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuries on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide, which may further evaluate the application of U. prolifera on cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gardenia jasminoides extract-capped gold nanoparticles reverse hydrogen peroxide-induced premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seon Yeong; Park, Sun Young; Park, Jin Oh; Lee, Kyu Jin; Park, Geuntae

    2016-11-01

    This study reports a green approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Gardenia jasminoides extract, and specifically, can potentially enhance anti senescence activity. Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles is ecofriendly and effective for the development of environmentally sustainable nanoparticles compared with existing methods. Here, we developed a simple, fast, efficient, and ecofriendly approach to the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by means of a Gardenia jasminoides extract. These G. jasminoides extract-capped gold nanoparticles (GJ-GNPs) were characterized by UV-vis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Furrier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized GJ-GNPs turned red and showed maximal absorbance at 540nm. Thus, GJ-GNPs were synthesized successfully. We hypothesized that GJ-GNPs would protect ARPE19 cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced premature senescence. SA-β-gal activity was elevated in hydrogen peroxide-treated cells, however, this effect was attenuated by GJ-GNP treatment. Moreover, compared with the normal control, hydrogen peroxide treatment significantly increased lysosome content of the cells and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GJ-GNPs effectively attenuated the increase in lysosome content and ROS production in these senescent cells. According to cell cycle analysis, G2/M arrest was promoted by hydrogen peroxide treatment in ARPE19 cells, however, this change was reversed by GJ-GNPs. Western blot analysis showed that treatment with GJ-GNPs increased the expression of p53, p21, SIRT3, HO-1, and NQO1 in senescent cells. Our findings should advance the understanding of premature senescence and may lead to therapeutic use of GJ-GNPs in retina-related regenerative medicine.

  19. Prompt repair of hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA lesions prevents catastrophic chromosomal fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Mahaseth, Tulip; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Iron-dependent oxidative DNA damage in vivo by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, HP) induces copious single-strand(ss)-breaks and base modifications. HP also causes infrequent double-strand DNA breaks, whose relationship to the cell killing is unclear. Since hydrogen peroxide only fragments chromosomes in growing cells, these double-strand breaks were thought to represent replication forks collapsed at direct or excision ss-breaks and to be fully reparable. We have recently reported that hydrogen peroxide kills Escherichia coli by inducing catastrophic chromosome fragmentation, while cyanide (CN) potentiates both the killing and fragmentation. Remarkably, the extreme density of CN+HP-induced chromosomal double-strand breaks makes involvement of replication forks unlikely. Here we show that this massive fragmentation is further amplified by inactivation of ss-break repair or base-excision repair, suggesting that unrepaired primary DNA lesions are directly converted into double-strand breaks. Indeed, blocking DNA replication lowers CN+HP-induced fragmentation only ∼2-fold, without affecting the survival. Once cyanide is removed, recombinational repair in E. coli can mend several double-strand breaks, but cannot mend ∼100 breaks spread over the entire chromosome. Therefore, double-strand breaks induced by oxidative damage happen at the sites of unrepaired primary one-strand DNA lesions, are independent of replication and are highly lethal, supporting the model of clustered ss-breaks at the sites of stable DNA-iron complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced heme degradation in red blood cells: the protective roles of catalase and glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Nagababu, Enika; Chrest, Francis J; Rifkind, Joseph M

    2003-03-17

    Catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPX) react with red cell hydrogen peroxide. A number of recent studies indicate that catalase is the primary enzyme responsible for protecting the red cell from hydrogen peroxide. We have used flow cytometry in intact cells as a sensitive measure of the hydrogen-peroxide-induced formation of fluorescent heme degradation products. Using this method, we have been able to delineate a unique role for GSHPX in protecting the red cell from hydrogen peroxide. For extracellular hydrogen peroxide, catalase completely protected the cells, while the ability of GSHPX to protect the cells was limited by the availability of glutathione. The effect of endogenously generated hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with hemoglobin autoxidation was investigated by in vitro incubation studies. These studies indicate that fluorescent products are not formed during incubation unless the glutathione is reduced to at least 40% of its initial value as a result of incubation or by reacting the glutathione with iodoacetamide. Reactive catalase only slows down the depletion of glutathione, but does not directly prevent the formation of these fluorescent products. The unique role of GSHPX is attributed to its ability to react with hydrogen peroxide generated in close proximity to the red cell membrane in conjunction with the autoxidation of membrane-bound hemoglobin.

  1. Date seed oil inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ines, Dammak; Sonia, Boudaya; Fatma, Ben Abdallah; Souhail, Besbes; Hamadi, Attia; Hamida, Turki; Basma, Hentati

    2010-03-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various skin diseases through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the depletion of endogenous antioxidant systems. The administration of antioxidants is reportedly helpful, notably to enhance the healing process. To protect the skin against oxidative damages, we have studied the effect of new oil: "date seed oil" (DSO). This oil, may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants such as phenols and tocopherols. Here, we report the protective effect of DSO against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation, depletion of endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) using normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). In the investigated model system, DSO has significant chemoprotective effect, by inhibition of damage caused by H(2)O(2) compared with cells without such addition endowing with a radical scavenging ability. Treatment of NHEK with DSO inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation. In addition, this oil inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced depletion of antioxidant defense components, such as SOD, CAT and GPx. Our findings demonstrate that DSO is an efficient extract that is able to prevent keratinocytes oxidative damage induced by H(2)O(2) exposure and may thus be a potential promising candidate, as a chemopreventive agent, in the development of keratinocytes-related pathologies.

  2. Benzene-Induced Uncoupling of Naphthalene Dioxygenase Activity and Enzyme Inactivation by Production of Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung

    1999-01-01

    Naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) is a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidizes naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene with consumption of O2 and two electrons from NAD(P)H. In the presence of benzene, NADH oxidation and O2 utilization were partially uncoupled from substrate oxidation. Approximately 40 to 50% of the consumed O2 was detected as hydrogen peroxide. The rate of benzene-dependent O2 consumption decreased with time, but it was partially increased by the addition of catalase in the course of the O2 consumption by NDO. Detailed experiments showed that the total amount of O2 consumed and the rate of benzene-induced O2 consumption increased in the presence of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging agents, and further addition of the terminal oxygenase component (ISPNAP) of NDO. Kinetic studies showed that ISPNAP was irreversibly inactivated in the reaction that contained benzene, but the inactivation was relieved to a high degree in the presence of catalase and partially relieved in the presence of 0.1 mM ferrous ion. Benzene- and naphthalene-reacted ISPNAP gave almost identical visible absorption spectra. In addition, hydrogen peroxide added at a range of 0.1 to 0.6 mM to the reaction mixtures inactivated the reduced ISPNAP containing mononuclear iron. These results show that hydrogen peroxide released during the uncoupling reaction acts both as an inhibitor of benzene-dependent O2 consumption and as an inactivator of ISPNAP. It is proposed that the irreversible inactivation of ISPNAP occurs by a Fenton-type reaction which forms a strong oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radicals (·OH), from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous mononuclear iron at the active site. Furthermore, when [14C]benzene was used as the substrate, cis-benzene 1,2-dihydrodiol formed by NDO was detected. This result shows that NDO also couples a trace amount of benzene to both O2 consumption and NADH oxidation. PMID:10217759

  3. Cystathionine beta synthase deficiency induces catalase-mediated hydrogen peroxide detoxification in mice liver.

    PubMed

    Hamelet, Julien; Seltzer, Virginie; Petit, Emile; Noll, Christophe; Andreau, Karine; Delabar, Jean M; Janel, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Cystathionine beta synthase deficiency induces hyperhomocysteinemia which is considered as a risk factor for vascular diseases. Studies underlined the importance of altered cellular redox reactions in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced vascular pathologies. Nevertheless, hyperhomocysteinemia also induces hepatic dysfunction which may accelerate the development of vascular pathologies by modifying cholesterol homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the modifications of redox state in the liver of heterozygous cystathionine beta synthase-deficient mice, a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia. In this purpose, we quantified levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and we assayed activities of main antioxidant enzymes. We found that cystathionine beta synthase deficiency induced NADPH oxidase activation. However, there was no accumulation of reactive oxygen (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide) and nitrogen (nitrite, peroxynitrite) species. On the contrary, hepatic hydrogen peroxide level was decreased independently of an activation of glutathione-dependent mechanisms. In fact, cystathionine beta synthase deficiency had no effect on glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities. However, we found a 50% increase in hepatic catalase activity without any variation of expression. These findings demonstrate that cystathionine beta synthase deficiency initiates redox disequilibrium in the liver. However, the activation of catalase attenuates oxidative impairments.

  4. UV-induces formation of hydrogen peroxide based on the photochemistry of ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Radschuweit, A; Rüttinger, H H; Nuhn, P; Wohlrab, W; Huschka, C

    2001-02-01

    Ketoprofen (KP) is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, application to the skin is problematic because the photosensitizing properties of the benzophenone moiety may cause phototoxic effects when the treated skin region is exposed to UVA light. Using capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection we are able to differentiate the peroxides formed during illumination of KP-containing solutions of linoleic acid. Contrary to other profens a high amount of hydrogen peroxide was found among the reaction products. For investigation of the skin damaging effect human keratinocytes were used as models. Cell viability, DNA synthesis efficiency and intracellular concentration of peroxides were determined. Viability and proliferation behavior was not altered under the influence of KP. While lower concentrations of KP (10-100 nM) led to a protection against the UVA-induced (8 J/cm2) cell proliferation damage, higher concentrations (10-100 microM) led to an amplification of the proliferation decrease. With UVB irradiation at relevant doses the effects were lower than using UVA. Furthermore, intracellular peroxide content was increased after UV irradiation and KP addition. In conclusion some efforts have to be done to avoid these side effects in the use of KP for topical or transdermal application.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide decreases the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by homocysteine and its thiolactone.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been investigated widely in recent years. H2S plays a variety of roles in different biological systems, including cardiovascular system. It is the final product of amino acids metabolism, which contains sulfur-cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy). In human plasma, there are several various forms of homocysteine: free Hcy, protein-bound Hcy (S-linked, and N-linked), and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Our previous works have shown that both Hcy in the reduced form and its thiolactone may modify fibrinolysis, coagulation process, and biological activity of blood platelets. Moreover, we have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 (-•) ) in blood platelets. The aim of our study in vitro was to establish the influence of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, as a fast-releasing H2S donor; at tested concentrations: 10-1000 µM) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by the reduced Hcy (at final concentrations of 0.01-1 mM) and HTL (at final concentrations of 0.1-1 µM). Our results indicate that 10 and 100 µM NaHS decreased the lipid peroxidation in plasma treated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL (when NaHS and Hcy/HTL were added to plasma together). The protective effect of 10 and 100 µM NaHS against the lipid peroxidation in plasma preincubated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL was also observed. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the lipid peroxidation (induced by different forms of homocysteine) may be reduced by hydrogen sulfide.

  6. Ferricytochrome c protects mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sedlák, Erik; Fabian, Marian; Robinson, Neal C; Musatov, Andrej

    2010-11-30

    An excess of ferricytochrome c protects purified mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and bound cardiolipin from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative modification. All of the peroxide-induced changes within cytochrome c oxidase, such as oxidation of Trp(19,IV) and Trp(48,VIIc), partial dissociation of subunits VIa and VIIa, and generation of cardiolipin hydroperoxide, no longer take place in the presence of ferricytochrome c. Furthermore, ferricytochrome c suppresses the yield of H(2)O(2)-induced free radical detectable by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy within cytochrome c oxidase. These protective effects are based on two mechanisms. The first involves the peroxidase/catalase-like activity of ferricytochrome c, which results in the decomposition of H(2)O(2), with the apparent bimolecular rate constant of 5.1±1.0M(-1)s(-1). Although this value is lower than the rate constant of a specialized peroxidase, the activity is sufficient to eliminate H(2)O(2)-induced damage to cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of an excess of ferricytochrome c. The second mechanism involves ferricytochrome c-induced quenching of free radicals generated within cytochrome c oxidase. These results suggest that ferricytochrome c may have an important role in protection of cytochrome c oxidase and consequently the mitochondrion against oxidative damage.

  7. Protective effects of benidipine on hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in rat isolated hearts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kozo; Ina, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Rie; Nagashima, Ken; Ohmori, Kenji; Ohno, Tetsuji

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the effects of benidipine (hydrochloride), a calcium antagonist, on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced injury in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. The hearts were aerobically perfused at a constant flow and exposed to H(2)O(2) (600 micromol L(-1)) for 4 min, resulting in the oxidative stress-induced myocardial dysfunction (e.g., decrease in the left ventricular developed pressure) and myocardial cell injury (e.g., increase in the release of lactate dehydrogenase). Pretreatment of the hearts with benidipine or nifedipine was performed for 20 min until the start of H(2)O(2) exposure. Benidipine at 1 nmol L(-1) and nifedipine at 10 nmol L(-1) decreased the myocardial contractility and perfusion pressure to a similar degree in the hearts under normal conditions. Benidipine (1 nmol L(-1)) significantly reduced the H(2)O(2)-induced myocardial damage. Nifedipine (10 nmol L(-1)) also tended to exhibit similar effects. Benidipine inhibited the increase in tissue lipid peroxidation induced by H(2)O(2). The results suggest that, in addition to the calcium antagonism, benidipine possesses other actions responsible for the cardioprotective effects, to which the antioxidant activity of benidipine may partly contribute.

  8. [RAD18 gene product of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide].

    PubMed

    Kozhina, T N; Korolev, V G

    2012-04-01

    Within eukaryotes, tolerance to DNA damage is determined primarily by the repair pathway controlled by the members of the RAD6 epistasis group. Genetic studies on a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae model showed that the initial stage of postreplication repair (PRR), i.e., initiation of replication through DNA damage, is controlled by Rad6-Rad18 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex. Mutants of these genes are highly sensitive to various genotoxic agents and reduce the level of induced mutagenesis. In this case, the efficiency of mutagenesis suppression depends on the type of damage. In this study we showed that DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide at the same mutagen doses causes significantly more mutations and lethal events in the rad18 mutant cells compared to control wild-type cells.

  9. Estrogens protect against hydrogen peroxide and arachidonic acid induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Subbiah, M T

    1996-01-19

    The ability of estrogens to protect against DNA damage induced by either hydrogen peroxide or arachidonic acid alone or in combination with Cu2+ was investigated. DNA strand breaks were determined by conversion of double stranded supercoiled OX-174 RFI DNA to double stranded open circular DNA and linear single stranded DNA. Estradiol-17 beta significantly decreased the formation of single and double strand breaks in DNA induced by H2O2 alone or with Cu2+. Equilin (an equine estrogen) was more effective than estradiol-17 beta at the doses tested. Arachidonic acid in the presence of Cu2+ caused the formation of high levels of linear DNA which was protected by estrogen with equilen being more effective. These studies suggest that estrogens through this protective effect on DNA damage might contribute to cardioprotection.

  10. Protective effect of geranylgeranylacetone against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, Joo Youn; Kang, Sang Wook; Chun, Gae Sig; Ban, Ju Yeon

    2015-06-15

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), one of the major HSPs, has been reported to suppress apoptosis and formation of pathogenic proteins in neurodegenerative disorders. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an anti-ulcer drug, induces HSP70 and thereby protects against cellular damage in various diseases. We investigated the effect of GGA on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. H2O2-induced neuronal toxicity was measured by a CCK-8 assay and Hoechst 33342 staining. We also assessed oxidative stress and apoptosis by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), caspase-3 activity, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. GGA showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death. H2O2-induced induction of HSP70 was enhanced by GGA pretreatment. GGA effectively suppressed the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. GGA also blocked the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). In addition, GGA attenuated H2O2-induced ROS generation and caspase-3 activity. These results demonstrate that GGA protects SH-SY5Y cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis, at least in part by enhancing HSP70 production. Neuroprotective properties of GGA indicate that this compound may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Lipid Peroxide-Derived Short-Chain Carbonyls Mediate Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced and Salt-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Md. Sanaullah; Mano, Jun’ichi

    2015-01-01

    Lipid peroxide-derived toxic carbonyl compounds (oxylipin carbonyls), produced downstream of reactive oxygen species (ROS), were recently revealed to mediate abiotic stress-induced damage of plants. Here, we investigated how oxylipin carbonyls cause cell death. When tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, several species of short-chain oxylipin carbonyls [i.e. 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal and acrolein] accumulated and the cells underwent programmed cell death (PCD), as judged based on DNA fragmentation, an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive nuclei, and cytoplasm retraction. These oxylipin carbonyls caused PCD in BY-2 cells and roots of tobacco and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To test the possibility that oxylipin carbonyls mediate an oxidative signal to cause PCD, we performed pharmacological and genetic experiments. Carnosine and hydralazine, having distinct chemistry for scavenging carbonyls, significantly suppressed the increase in oxylipin carbonyls and blocked PCD in BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis roots, but they did not affect the levels of ROS and lipid peroxides. A transgenic tobacco line that overproduces 2-alkenal reductase, an Arabidopsis enzyme to detoxify α,β-unsaturated carbonyls, suffered less PCD in root epidermis after hydrogen peroxide or salt treatment than did the wild type, whereas the ROS level increases due to the stress treatments were not different between the lines. From these results, we conclude that oxylipin carbonyls are involved in the PCD process in oxidatively stressed cells. Our comparison of the ability of distinct carbonyls to induce PCD in BY-2 cells revealed that acrolein and 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal are the most potent carbonyls. The physiological relevance and possible mechanisms of the carbonyl-induced PCD are discussed. PMID:26025050

  12. Lipid Peroxide-Derived Short-Chain Carbonyls Mediate Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced and Salt-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Plants.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Md Sanaullah; Mano, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    Lipid peroxide-derived toxic carbonyl compounds (oxylipin carbonyls), produced downstream of reactive oxygen species (ROS), were recently revealed to mediate abiotic stress-induced damage of plants. Here, we investigated how oxylipin carbonyls cause cell death. When tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide, several species of short-chain oxylipin carbonyls [i.e. 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal and acrolein] accumulated and the cells underwent programmed cell death (PCD), as judged based on DNA fragmentation, an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive nuclei, and cytoplasm retraction. These oxylipin carbonyls caused PCD in BY-2 cells and roots of tobacco and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To test the possibility that oxylipin carbonyls mediate an oxidative signal to cause PCD, we performed pharmacological and genetic experiments. Carnosine and hydralazine, having distinct chemistry for scavenging carbonyls, significantly suppressed the increase in oxylipin carbonyls and blocked PCD in BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis roots, but they did not affect the levels of ROS and lipid peroxides. A transgenic tobacco line that overproduces 2-alkenal reductase, an Arabidopsis enzyme to detoxify α,β-unsaturated carbonyls, suffered less PCD in root epidermis after hydrogen peroxide or salt treatment than did the wild type, whereas the ROS level increases due to the stress treatments were not different between the lines. From these results, we conclude that oxylipin carbonyls are involved in the PCD process in oxidatively stressed cells. Our comparison of the ability of distinct carbonyls to induce PCD in BY-2 cells revealed that acrolein and 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal are the most potent carbonyls. The physiological relevance and possible mechanisms of the carbonyl-induced PCD are discussed. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. In vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide with chemiluminescent nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwon; Khaja, Sirajud; Velasquez-Castano, Juan C; Dasari, Madhuri; Sun, Carrie; Petros, John; Taylor, W Robert; Murthy, Niren

    2007-10-01

    The overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is implicated in the development of numerous diseases and there is currently great interest in developing contrast agents that can image hydrogen peroxide in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that nanoparticles formulated from peroxalate esters and fluorescent dyes can image hydrogen peroxide in vivo with high specificity and sensitivity. The peroxalate nanoparticles image hydrogen peroxide by undergoing a three-component chemiluminescent reaction between hydrogen peroxide, peroxalate esters and fluorescent dyes. The peroxalate nanoparticles have several attractive properties for in vivo imaging, such as tunable wavelength emission (460-630 nm), nanomolar sensitivity for hydrogen peroxide and excellent specificity for hydrogen peroxide over other reactive oxygen species. The peroxalate nanoparticles were capable of imaging hydrogen peroxide in the peritoneal cavity of mice during a lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response. We anticipate numerous applications of peroxalate nanoparticles for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide, given their high specificity and sensitivity and deep-tissue-imaging capability.

  14. Shark-cartilage containing preparation protects cells against hydrogen peroxide induced damage and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, E M; Souto, P R; Felzenszwalb, I

    1996-04-06

    Natural products from flora and fauna are frequently used as nutritional supplements and medicaments. Two short-term assays were carried out and negative results were obtained for shark-cartilage containing preparation. The tests employed were the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay using tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1535 with or without S9 mix and the SOS-Chromotest with Escherichia coli strain PQ37. Evidence for shark-cartilage containing preparation functioning as an antimutagen was detected. Using bacterial survival assays with Escherichia coli fpg (BH20) and xthA (BW9091), we investigated the putative role of shark-cartilage containing preparation in protecting cells against lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide in normal and low iron level conditions. Our data suggest that shark-cartilage containing preparation can play a scavenger role for reactive oxygen species and protect against DNA lesions in both conditions.

  15. Chloride channels involve in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wanhong; Zhu, Linyan; Bai, Zhiquan; Zhang, Haifeng; Mao, Jianwen; Chen, Lixin; Wang, Liwei

    2009-10-02

    Chloride channel activity is one of the critical factors responsible for cell apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). However, the roles of chloride channels in apoptosis have not been fully understood. In the current study, we assessed the role of chloride channels in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). Extracellular application of H(2)O(2) activated a chloride current and induced cell volume decrease in a few minutes. Incubation of cells with H(2)O(2) elevated significantly the membrane permeability to the DNA dye Hoechst 33258 in 1h and induced apoptosis of most PC12 cells tested in 24h. The chloride channel blocker NPPB (5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate) prevented appearance of H(2)O(2)-induced high membrane permeability and cell shrinkage, suppressed H(2)O(2)-activated chloride currents and protected PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by H(2)O(2). The results suggest that chloride channels may contribute to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis by ways of elevation of membrane permeability and AVD in PC12 cells.

  16. d-Amino acid oxidase-mediated increase in spinal hydrogen peroxide is mainly responsible for formalin-induced tonic pain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin-Miao; Gong, Nian; Wang, Yan-Chao; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Spinal reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critically involved in chronic pain. d-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) oxidizes d-amino acids such as d-serine to form the byproduct hydrogen peroxide without producing other ROS. DAAO inhibitors are specifically analgesic in tonic pain, neuropathic pain and cancer pain. This study examined the role of spinal hydrogen peroxide in pain and the mechanism of the analgesic effects of DAAO inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Formalin-induced pain behaviours and spinal hydrogen peroxide levels were measured in rodents. KEY RESULTS Formalin injected into the paw increased spinal hydrogen peroxide synchronously with enhanced tonic pain; both were effectively prevented by i.t. fluorocitrate, a selective astrocyte metabolic inhibitor. Given systemically, the potent DAAO inhibitor CBIO (5-chloro-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol) blocked spinal DAAO enzymatic activity and specifically prevented formalin-induced tonic pain in a dose-dependent manner. Although CBIO maximally inhibited tonic pain by 62%, it completely prevented the increase in spinal hydrogen peroxide. I.t. catalase, an enzyme specific for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, completely depleted spinal hydrogen peroxide and prevented formalin-induced tonic pain by 65%. Given systemically, the ROS scavenger PBN (phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone) also inhibited formalin-induced tonic pain and increase in spinal hydrogen peroxide. Formalin-induced tonic pain was potentiated by i.t. exogenous hydrogen peroxide. CBIO did not increase spinal d-serine level, and i.t. d-serine did not alter either formalin-induced tonic pain or CBIO's analgesic effect. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Spinal hydrogen peroxide is specifically and largely responsible for formalin-induced pain, and DAAO inhibitors produce analgesia by blocking spinal hydrogen peroxide production rather than interacting with spinal d-serine. PMID:21950354

  17. Ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis occurs via AtrbohF-mediated hydrogen peroxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Desikan, Radhika; Last, Kathryn; Harrett-Williams, Rhian; Tagliavia, Cecilia; Harter, Klaus; Hooley, Richard; Hancock, John T; Neill, Steven J

    2006-09-01

    Ethylene is a plant hormone that regulates many aspects of growth and development. Despite the well-known association between ethylene and stress signalling, its effects on stomatal movements are largely unexplored. Here, genetic and physiological data are provided that position ethylene into the Arabidopsis guard cell signalling network, and demonstrate a functional link between ethylene and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In wild-type leaves, ethylene induces stomatal closure that is dependent on H(2)O(2) production in guard cells, generated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase AtrbohF. Ethylene-induced closure is inhibited by the ethylene antagonists 1-MCP and silver. The ethylene receptor mutants etr1-1 and etr1-3 are insensitive to ethylene in terms of stomatal closure and H(2)O(2) production. Stomata of the ethylene signalling ein2-1 and arr2 mutants do not close in response to either ethylene or H(2)O(2) but do generate H(2)O(2) following ethylene challenge. Thus, the data indicate that ethylene and H(2)O(2) signalling in guard cells are mediated by ETR1 via EIN2 and ARR2-dependent pathway(s), and identify AtrbohF as a key mediator of stomatal responses to ethylene.

  18. Protective effect of butylated hydroxylanisole against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Jeon, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Baek, Kyoung Min; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Joong Sun; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, Min Young

    2015-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds: 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. We examined the effect of BHA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 treatment increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2, and promoted PARP-1 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with BHA before exposure to H2O2 significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with BHA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger). H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability was also attenuated by pretreatment with BHA and NAC. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and PARP-1 cleavage was also inhibited by BHA. Taken together, results of this investigation demonstrated that BHA protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ROS generation.

  19. [Experiment study of blackcurrant on vascular endothelial cells injury induced by hydrogen peroxide].

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zhao, Xiaoguo; Ma, Long; Re, Ziya; Gu, Yajing; Tu, Erxunjiang

    2009-09-01

    To study the effect of Blackcurrant on human umbilical vein endothelial ECV-304 cells injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 damaged model was established. The effect of Blackcurrant on injury of ECV-304 activity induced by H2O2 was determined by MTT assay. The levels of MDA, NO, ET, PGI2 and LDH activity in cell homogenate were measured with corresponding. Observed the influence of black currant extracts apoptosis induced the ECV-304 by H2O2 by flow cytometry. Blackcurrant could inhibit the hypoxia induced ECV-304 reduction (P < 0.05), decrease LDH activity (P < 0.05), reduce the MDA and ET production (P < 0.05), and increased the contents of nitric oxide (NO) and PGI2 (P < 0.05). The apoptosis rate and total apoptosis rate of blackcurrant extracts groups/positive control group/control group are obvious lower than H2O2 model group (P < 0.05). The blackcurrant ethyl acetate extract can protect HUVEC damaged by H2O2, the mechanism maybe related to antioxidant. And it can decrease the apoptosis rate and total apoptosis rate of ECV-304 apoptosis induced by H2O2 in order to protect ECV-304.

  20. Protective effect of butylated hydroxylanisole against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Geun Hye; Jeon, Yu Jin; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Baek, Kyoung Min; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Joong Sun; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Lee, Sangkyu; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jee, Jun-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic phenolic compound consisting of a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds: 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole. We examined the effect of BHA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, H2O2 treatment increased Bax, decreased Bcl-2, and promoted PARP-1 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with BHA before exposure to H2O2 significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability. H2O2 exposure resulted in an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with BHA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, an ROS scavenger). H2O2-induced decrease of cell viability was also attenuated by pretreatment with BHA and NAC. Furthermore, H2O2-induced increase of Bax, decrease of Bcl-2, and PARP-1 cleavage was also inhibited by BHA. Taken together, results of this investigation demonstrated that BHA protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against H2O2-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ROS generation. PMID:25798044

  1. Guard cell hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide mediate elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement in tomato.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kai; Li, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Guanqun; Liu, Yaru; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-10-01

    Climate change as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 influences plant photosynthesis and transpiration. Although the involvement of stomata in plant responses to elevated CO2 has been well established, the underlying mechanism of elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement remains largely unknown. We used diverse techniques, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, biochemical methodologies and gene silencing to investigate the signaling pathway for elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Elevated CO2 -induced stomatal closure was dependent on the production of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (RBOH1)-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and NITRATE REDUCTASE (NR)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells in an abscisic acid (ABA)-independent manner. Silencing of OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) compromised the elevated CO2 -induced accumulation of H2 O2 and NO, upregulation of SLOW ANION CHANNEL ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1) gene expression and reduction of stomatal aperture, whereas silencing of RBOH1 or NR had no effects on the expression of OST1. Our results demonstrate that as critical signaling molecules, RBOH1-dependent H2 O2 and NR-dependent NO act downstream of OST1 that regulate SLAC1 expression and elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement. This information is crucial to deepen the understanding of CO2 signaling pathway in guard cells.

  2. Protective effect of docosahexaenoic acid against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Bechoua, S; Dubois, M; Dominguez, Z; Goncalves, A; Némoz, G; Lagarde, M; Prigent, A F

    1999-05-01

    Oxidatively stressed lymphocytes exhibit decreased proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation. Although several sensitive targets involved in lymphocyte suppression have already been identified, little is known about the influence of oxidative stress on cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) (EC 3.1.4.17), thought to play a major role in the control of cyclic AMP (cAMP) level, a well-recognized negative effector of lymphoproliferation. Although the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of membrane phospholipids is thought to be directly related to the extent of oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation, some n-3 fatty acids also seem to have antioxidant effects, depending on the concentration used and the overall redox status of the cells in question. Results of the present study showed that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as rat thymocytes were relatively resistant to a short-term exposure (10 min) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Indeed, H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation, estimated by malondialdehyde (MDA) production, was only 2-fold increased by H2O2 concentrations lower than 2 mM, whereas a larger increase (10-fold) could be observed in PBMC at the highest dose (5 mM). Previous enrichment of PBMC with 5 microM docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), brought to the cells as a fatty acid-albumin complex (ratio 1), significantly reduced MDA production induced by low doses of H2O2, the protective effect no longer being observed at the highest doses. In contrast, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) did not have any protective effect. Cytosolic PDE activities of both human PBMC and rat thymocytes were significantly inhibited (40-50%) after H2O2 treatment of the cells, whereas particulate PDE activities were not modified. Different responses of PDE activities to H2O2 treatment were observed when PBMC were first enriched with 22:6n-3 prior to H2O2 addition. In 22:6n-3-treated cells, the H2O2-induced inhibition of both cAMP- and cGMP-PDE cytosolic activities was

  3. Protection of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage by Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaolu; Wang, Kai; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Fuliang; Zhao, Fengqi; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of high-producing dairy cows are likely to be subject to oxidative stress (OS) due to the intensive cell metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytoprotective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced OS in cultured bovine MECs (MAC-T). Pretreatment of MAC-T cells with resveratrol could rescue the decrease in cell viability and resulted in lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after H2O2 exposure. Resveratrol helped MAC-T cells to prevent H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant defense genes in MAC-T cells under normal/oxidative conditions. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was required for the cytoprotective effects on MAC-T cells by resveratrol, as knockdown of Nrf2 significantly abolished resveratrol-induced cytoprotective effects against OS. In addition, by using selective inhibitors, we further confirmed that the induction of Nrf2 by resveratrol was mediated through the prolonged activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways but negatively regulated by p38/MAPK pathway. Overall, resveratrol has beneficial effects on bovine MECs redox balance and may be potentially used as a therapeutic medicine against oxidative insult in lactating animals.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide induces p16(INK4a) through an AUF1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gai E; Ma, Li Wei; Jiang, Bin; Yi, Jie; Tong, Tan Jun; Wang, Wen Gong

    2010-04-01

    Elevation of p16(INK4a) has been described as an important mechanism for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced replicative senescence. However, the mechanisms underlying remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate an important role of RNA-binding protein AUF1-mediated mRNA turnover in H2O2-induced p16(INK4a) expression. The induction of p16 by H2O2 was accompanied with declined cytoplasmic AUF1 level. Accordingly, exposure of cells to H2O2 remarkably reduced the binding of AUF1 to p16 3'UTR and increased the half-life of an EGFP-p16-3'UTR chimeric transcript. In AUF1-silenced cells, the effect of H2O2 on p16 induction was abolished. Furthermore, in cells co-transfected with vectors expressing AUF1s, treatment with H2O2 failed to significantly reduce the expression of AUF1 and subsequently elevate the levels of p16. Moreover, HeLa cells overexpressing AUF1s were resistant to H2O2-induced senescence. Our results indicate that AUF1 is critical for H2O2-induced p16 expression and cellular senescence. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Protection of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaolu; Wang, Kai; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Fuliang; Zhao, Fengqi; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of high-producing dairy cows are likely to be subject to oxidative stress (OS) due to the intensive cell metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytoprotective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced OS in cultured bovine MECs (MAC-T). Pretreatment of MAC-T cells with resveratrol could rescue the decrease in cell viability and resulted in lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after H2O2 exposure. Resveratrol helped MAC-T cells to prevent H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant defense genes in MAC-T cells under normal/oxidative conditions. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was required for the cytoprotective effects on MAC-T cells by resveratrol, as knockdown of Nrf2 significantly abolished resveratrol-induced cytoprotective effects against OS. In addition, by using selective inhibitors, we further confirmed that the induction of Nrf2 by resveratrol was mediated through the prolonged activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways but negatively regulated by p38/MAPK pathway. Overall, resveratrol has beneficial effects on bovine MECs redox balance and may be potentially used as a therapeutic medicine against oxidative insult in lactating animals. PMID:26962394

  6. Epidermal growth factor-induced hydrogen peroxide production is mediated by dual oxidase 1.

    PubMed

    Sirokmány, Gábor; Pató, Anna; Zana, Melinda; Donkó, Ágnes; Bíró, Adrienn; Nagy, Péter; Geiszt, Miklós

    2016-08-01

    Stimulation of mammalian cells by epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicits complex signaling events, including an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. Understanding the significance of this response is limited by the fact that the source of EGF-induced H2O2 production is unknown. Here we show that EGF-induced H2O2 production in epidermal cell lines is dependent on the agonist-induced calcium signal. We analyzed the expression of NADPH oxidase isoforms and found both A431 and HaCaT cells to express the calcium-sensitive NADPH oxidase, Dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) and its protein partner Duox activator 1 (DuoxA1). Inhibition of Duox1 expression by small interfering RNAs eliminated EGF-induced H2O2 production in both cell lines. We also demonstrate that H2O2 production by Duox1 leads to the oxidation of thioredoxin-1 and the cytosolic peroxiredoxins. Our observations provide evidence for a new signaling paradigm in which changes of intracellular calcium concentration are transformed into redox signals through the calcium-dependent activation of Duox1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Role of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide induced by intermittent hypoxia in airway epithelial wound repair in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Satoshi; Sato, Atsuyasu; Hara-Chikuma, Mariko; Satooka, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Koichi; Tanimura, Kazuya; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Muro, Shigeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2016-05-15

    The airway epithelium acts as a frontline barrier against various environmental insults and its repair process after airway injury is critical for the lung homeostasis restoration. Recently, the role of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as transcription-independent damage signaling has been highlighted in the wound repair process. Both conditions of continuous hypoxia and intermittent hypoxia (IH) induce ROS. Although IH is important in clinical settings, the roles of IH-induced ROS in the airway repair process have not been investigated. In this study, we firstly showed that IH induced mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and significantly decreased bronchial epithelial cell migration, prevented by catalase treatment in a wound scratch assay. RhoA activity was higher during repair process in the IH condition compared to in the normoxic condition, resulting in the cellular morphological changes shown by immunofluorescence staining: round cells, reduced central stress fiber numbers, pronounced cortical actin filament distributions, and punctate focal adhesions. These phenotypes were replicated by exogenous H2O2 treatment under the normoxic condition. Our findings confirmed the transcription-independent role of IH-induced intracellular ROS in the bronchial epithelial cell repair process and might have significant implications for impaired bronchial epithelial cell regeneration.

  8. Relevance of apple consumption for protection against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Francesca; Tarozzi, Andrea; Carbone, Fabio; Marchesi, Alessandra; Hrelia, Silvana; Angeloni, Cristina; Forti, Giorgio Cantelli; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2007-05-01

    In a single-dosing crossover study, we investigated the ability of apple fruit consumption to protect human lymphocytes against peroxide-induced damage to DNA. Six healthy, non-smoking male volunteers were placed for 2d on an antioxidant-poor (AP) diet. After 48h of AP diet, the volunteers were required to consume a homogenate obtained from 600g of red delicious unpeeled apples or water (500 ml); blood samples were collected 0, 3, 6 and 24 h post-consumption. To evaluate whether the apple intake was sufficient to restore resistance of DNA to oxidative damage, for each subject at any time point the plasma total antioxidant activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and induction of micronuclei (MN) in isolated lymphocytes following hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were measured. Results indicated a significant inhibition (58%, P <0.05) of H2O2-induced MN frequency in the plasma samples collected at 3 h after apple consumption, as compared with plasma samples collected at 0 h (4.17 (SD 1.83) v. 9.85 (SD 1.87) MN/1000 binucleated (BN) cells, respectively). A gradual return towards the value observed at 0 h was recorded starting from 6 to 24 h. MN frequency induced by H2O2 was significantly influenced by plasma total antioxidant activity (r = -0.95, P <0.05) and by the increase of intracellular ROS formation (r = 0.88, P <0.05). These findings suggest that the consumption of whole apple provides a useful dietary source of active scavengers to protect cells and tissue from oxidative stress and related DNA injury.

  9. Differential roles of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced cell death in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Su Mi; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Kim, Jae Ho; Woo, Jae Suk; Jung, Jin Sup; Kim, Yong Keun

    2003-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested as important mediators of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in vivo. However, our previous studies have shown that cisplatin-induced cell death in vitro could not be prevented by scavengers of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical in rabbit renal cortical slices. This discrepancy may be attributed to differential roles of ROS in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. We therefore examined, in this study, the roles of ROS in necrosis and apoptosis induced by cisplatin in primary cultured rabbit proximal tubule. Cisplatin induced necrosis at high concentrations over a few hours and apoptosis at much lower concentrations over longer periods. Necrosis induced by high concentration of cisplatin was prevented by a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger (tiron), hydrogen peroxide scavengers (catalase and pyruvate), and antioxidants (Trolox and deferoxamine), whereas hydroxyl radical scavengers (dimethythiourea and thiourea) did not affect the cisplatin-induced necrosis. However, apoptosis induced by lower concentration of cisplatin was partially prevented by tiron and hydroxyl radical scavengers but not by hydrogen peroxide scavengers and antioxidants. Cisplatin-induced apoptosis was mediated by the signaling pathway that is associated with cytochrome c release from mitochondria and caspase-3 activation. These effects were prevented by tiron and dimethylthiourea but not by catalase. Dimethylthiourea produced a significant protection against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure, and the effect was associated with an inhibition of apoptosis. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide is involved in the cisplatin-induced necrosis, whereas hydroxyl radical is responsible for the cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The protective effects of hydroxyl radical scavengers are associated with an inhibition of cytochrome c release and caspase activation.

  10. Iron prevents ascorbic acid (vitamin C) induced hydrogen peroxide accumulation in copper contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

    2005-11-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) induced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) formation was measured in household drinking water and metal supplemented Milli-Q water by using the FOX assay. Here we show that ascorbic acid readily induces H(2)O(2) formation in Cu(II) supplemented Milli-Q water and poorly buffered household drinking water. In contrast to Cu(II), iron was not capable to support ascorbic acid induced H(2)O(2) formation during acidic conditions (pH: 3.5-5). In 12 out of the 48 drinking water samples incubated with 2 mM ascorbic acid, the H(2)O(2) concentration exceeded 400 microM. However, when trace amounts of Fe(III) (0.2 mg/l) was present during incubation, the ascorbic acid/Cu(II)-induced H(2)O(2) accumulation was totally blocked. Of the other common divalent or trivalent metal ions tested, that are normally present in drinking water (calcium, magnesium, zinc, cobalt, manganese or aluminum), only calcium and magnesium displayed a modest inhibitory activity on the ascorbic acid/Cu(II)-induced H(2)O(2) formation. Oxalic acid, one of the degradation products from ascorbic acid, was confirmed to actively participate in the iron induced degradation of H(2)O(2). Ascorbic acid/Cu(II)-induced H(2)O(2) formation during acidic conditions, as demonstrated here in poorly buffered drinking water, could be of importance in host defense against bacterial infections. In addition, our findings might explain the mechanism for the protective effect of iron against vitamin C induced cell toxicity.

  11. Ganglioside GT1b protects human spermatozoa from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA and membrane damage.

    PubMed

    Gavella, Mirjana; Garaj-Vrhovac, Verica; Lipovac, Vaskresenija; Antica, Mariastefania; Gajski, Goran; Car, Nikica

    2010-06-01

    We have reported previously that various gangliosides, the sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, provide protection against sperm injury caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment of human spermatozoa with ganglioside GT1b on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced DNA fragmentation and plasma membrane damage. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) used in the assessment of sperm DNA integrity showed that in vitro supplemented GT1b (100 microm) significantly reduced DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) (200 microm) (p < 0.05). Measurements of Annexin V binding in combination with the propidium iodide vital dye labelling demonstrated that the spermatozoa pre-treated with GT1b exhibited a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the percentage of live cells with intact membrane and decreased phosphatidylserine translocation after exposure to H(2)O(2). Flow cytometry using the intracellular ROS-sensitive fluorescence dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate dye employed to investigate the transport of the extracellularly supplied H(2)O(2) into the cell interior revealed that ganglioside GT1b completely inhibited the passage of H(2)O(2) through the sperm membrane. These results suggest that ganglioside GT1b may protect human spermatozoa from H(2)O(2)-induced damage by rendering sperm membrane more hydrophobic, thus inhibiting the diffusion of H(2)O(2) across the membrane.

  12. Characterization of DNA Damage in Yeast Apoptosis Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide, Acetic Acid, and Hyperosmotic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Gabriela F.; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been reported to die, under certain conditions, from programmed cell death with apoptotic markers. One of the most important markers is chromosomal DNA fragmentation as indicated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. We found TUNEL staining in S. cerevisiae to be a consequence of both single- and double-strand DNA breaks, whereas in situ ligation specifically stained double-strand DNA breaks. Cells treated with hydrogen peroxide or acetic acid staining positively for TUNEL assay stained negatively for in situ ligation, indicating that DNA damage in both cases mainly consists of single-strand DNA breaks. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA from cells dying from hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, or hyperosmotic shock revealed DNA breakdown into fragments of several hundred kilobases, consistent with the higher order chromatin degradation preceding DNA laddering in apoptotic mammalian cells. DNA fragmentation was associated with death by treatment with 10 mM hydrogen peroxide but not 150 mM and was absent if cells were fixed with formaldehyde to eliminate enzyme activity before hydrogen peroxide treatment. These observations are consistent with a process that, like mammalian apoptosis, is enzyme dependent, degrades chromosomal DNA, and is activated only at low intensity of death stimuli. PMID:16899507

  13. The Beneficial Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Schwann Cells Subjected to Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junxiong; Liu, Jun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Xiang, Liangbi

    2013-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) has been considered to have therapeutic potential in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injuries. However, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of GRg1 on peripheral nerve regeneration is currently unclear. The possible effect of GRg1 on Schwann cells (SCs), which were subjected to oxidative injury after nerve injury, might contribute to the beneficial effect of GRg1 on nerve regeneration. The present study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of GRg1 on SCs exposed to oxidative injury. The oxidative injury to SCs was induced by hydrogen peroxide. The effect of GRg1 (50 μM) on SCs exposed to oxidative injury was measured by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in SCs. The cell number and cell viability of SCs were evaluated through fluorescence observation and MTT assay. The apoptosis of SCs induced by oxidative injury was evaluated by an apoptosis assay. The expression and secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and an ELISA method. We found that GRg1 significantly up-regulated the level of SOD, GSH and CAT, and decreased the level of MDA in SCs treated with hydrogen peroxide. In addition, GRg1 has been shown to be able to inhibit the proapoptotic effect of hydrogen peroxide, as well as inhibit the detrimental effect of hydrogen peroxide on cell number and cell viability. Furthermore, GRg1 also increased the mRNA levels, protein levels and secretion of NGF and BDNF in SCs after incubation of hydrogen peroxide. Further study showed that preincubation with H89 (a PKA inhibitor) significantly inhibited the effects induced by hydrogen peroxide, indicating that the PKA pathway might be involved in the antioxidant effect and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) promoting effect of GRg1. In addition, a short-term in vivo

  14. Hypoxia induces Wee1 expression and attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelial damage in MS1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ki-Sun; Kim, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Se-Hoon; Lim, Dong-Jun; Park, Jung-Yul

    2011-01-01

    In an oxygen-depleted environment, endothelial cells initiate an adaptive pattern of synthesis, which may enable them to survive hypoxic crises. Using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in conjunction with mass spectroscopy, we obtained a 24 differential display of proteins in the pancreatic endothelial cell line, MS-1, at four time points following induction of hypoxia. The induction of Wee1 under hypoxia was confirmed both at the mRNA and protein levels. The phosphorylation of cell division cycle 2, which is downstream of Wee1, was also increased after hypoxic exposure. In addition, pre-exposure to hypoxia attenuated a decrease in hydrogen peroxide-induced cell number. The induction of bax (a pro-apoptotic protein) and reduction of bcl (an anti-apoptotic protein) after hypoxia stimulus were also attenuated by hypoxic pre-exposure. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide-induced morphologic damage did not appear in the wild-type Wee1-expressing cells. Taken together, our results suggest that Wee1 may have important role in hypoxia-induced pathophysiological situations in endothelial cells. PMID:21918363

  15. Effect of vitamin C administration on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenlei; Yang, Nanfei; Feng, Xiujing; Sun, Tingzhe; Shen, Pingping; Sun, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease, which is associated with chronic inflammation and leads to significant destruction of periodontal tissues. Periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) constitute the largest cell population in PDL tissues and a considerable body of evidence has demonstrated an association between oxidative stress and the progression of periodontitis. However, the effects on PDLCs exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the molecular mechanisms by which H2O2 affects periodontitis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the potential cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and the antioxidative function of vitamin C (Vc) in PDLCs were investigated. The results demonstrated that H2O2 treatment decreased the viability of PDLCs. The decreased PDLC viability was primarily induced by apoptosis, which was evidenced by cleaved caspases-3, caspases-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Following optimal Vc addition, the proapoptotic effects of H2O2 were partially antagonized. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that H2O2 primarily induced the apoptosis of PDLCs and that these adverse effects were partially rescued following treatment with Vc. These results revealed how H2O2 promotes the progression of periodontitis and provide an improved understanding of the reversal effect of antioxidant treatment. Therefore, optimal Vc administration may provide a potentially effective technique in periodontal therapy.

  16. Stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, M.J.; Sciafani, L.D.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a stabilized aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution having a pH below 7 and an amount of Ferric ion up to about 2 ppm comprising hydrogen peroxide, acetanilide having a concentration which ranges between 0.74 M Mol/L and 2.22 mMol/L, and o-benzene disulfonic acid or salt thereof at a concentration between about 0.86 mMol/L to about 1.62 mMol/L.

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide Is Involved in Abscisic Acid-Induced Stomatal Closure in Vicia faba1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Lin; Dong, Facai; Gao, Junfeng; Galbraith, David W.; Song, Chun-Peng

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important functions of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is to induce stomatal closure by reducing the turgor of guard cells under water deficit. Under environmental stresses, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an active oxygen species, is widely generated in many biological systems. Here, using an epidermal strip bioassay and laser-scanning confocal microscopy, we provide evidence that H2O2 may function as an intermediate in ABA signaling in Vicia faba guard cells. H2O2 inhibited induced closure of stomata, and this effect was reversed by ascorbic acid at concentrations lower than 10−5 m. Further, ABA-induced stomatal closure also was abolished partly by addition of exogenous catalase (CAT) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI), which are an H2O2 scavenger and an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, respectively. Time course experiments of single-cell assays based on the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein showed that the generation of H2O2 was dependent on ABA concentration and an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the chloroplast occurred significantly earlier than within the other regions of guard cells. The ABA-induced change in fluorescence intensity in guard cells was abolished by the application of CAT and DPI. In addition, ABA microinjected into guard cells markedly induced H2O2 production, which preceded stomatal closure. These effects were abolished by CAT or DPI micro-injection. Our results suggest that guard cells treated with ABA may close the stomata via a pathway with H2O2 production involved, and H2O2 may be an intermediate in ABA signaling. PMID:11500543

  18. Neuroprotective effect of didymin on hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in the neuronal membrane system.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sabrina; Piscioneri, Antonella; Salerno, Simona; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Drioli, Enrico; De Bartolo, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the flavonoid didymin was administered in vitro in neuronal cells after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury (neurorescue) in order to investigate the effects of this natural molecule on cell damage in a neuronal membrane system. The results showed the effects of didymin in neuronal cells by using a polycaprolactone biodegradable membrane system as an in vitro model. Two major findings are presented in this study: first is the antioxidant property of didymin and, second, for the first time we provide evidence concerning its ability to rescue neuronal cells from oxidative damage. Didymin showed radical scavenging activities and it protected the neuronal cells against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Didymin increased cell viability, decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, stimulated superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity in neuronal cells which were previously insulted with H2O2. In addition, didymin strikingly inhibited H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in terms of reduction of mitochondria membrane potential and the activation of cleaved caspase-3, and also decreased dramatically the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Therefore, this molecule is capable of inducing recovery from oxidative damage, and promoting and/or restoring normal cellular conditions. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the protective effects of didymin in H2O2-injured neuronal cells might be related to the activation of antioxidant defense enzymes as well as to the inhibition of apoptotic features, such as p-JNK and caspase-3 activation. These data suggest that didymin may be a potential therapeutic molecule for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  19. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.356 Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) may be... to exceed 0.001 percent by weight of the whey, providing that residual hydrogen peroxide is...

  20. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.356 Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) may be... to exceed 0.001 percent by weight of the whey, providing that residual hydrogen peroxide is removed...

  1. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.356 Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (CAS Reg. No. 7722-84-1) may be... to exceed 0.001 percent by weight of the whey, providing that residual hydrogen peroxide is removed...

  2. Degradation of bisphenol A and formation of hydrogen peroxide induced by glow discharge plasma in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xuanzhen; Liu, Yongjun

    2008-06-15

    Degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) and simultaneous formation of hydrogen peroxide induced by glow discharge plasma in contact with aqueous solution were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the BPA degradation rate was higher in sodium chloride solution than that in sodium sulfate or phosphate solutions. However, the formation rates of hydrogen peroxide were on the opposite case. Both the BPA removal and the hydrogen peroxide production rates decreased in the presence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, indicating that hydroxyl radicals are the most probable oxidants responsible for BPA degradation and the precursors of hydrogen peroxide. Ferric ion showed better catalytic effect than that of ferrous ion, suggesting that the ferric ion was reduced by the intermediates formed during BPA degradation, which was confirmed by following the production of ferrous ion in the system. TOC of the solution gradually reduced with discharge time; however, without catalysts, the solution COD increased with discharge time and sharply decreased in the presence of iron salts. The major intermediate products were identified by LC/MS and the possible degradation mechanism was discussed.

  3. Protective effect of oat bran extracts on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bing; Ma, Lai-ji; Yao, Jin-jing; Fang, Yun; Mei, Yan-ai; Wei, Shao-min

    2013-02-01

    Oat contains different components that possess antioxidant properties; no study to date has addressed the antioxidant effect of the extract of oat bran on the cellular level. Therefore, the present study focuses on the investigation of the protective effect of oat bran extract by enzymatic hydrolysates on human dermal fibroblast injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Kjeldahl determination, phenol-sulfuric acid method, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the enzymatic products of oat bran contain a protein amount of 71.93%, of which 97.43% are peptides with a molecular range from 438.56 to 1301.01 Da. Assays for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity indicate that oat peptide-rich extract has a direct and concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and the TdT-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis showed that administration of H(2)O(2) in human dermal fibroblasts caused cell damage and apoptosis. Pre-incubation of human dermal fibroblasts with the Oatp for 24 h markedly inhibited human dermal fibroblast injury induced by H(2)O(2), but application oat peptides with H(2)O(2) at same time did not. Pre-treatment of human dermal fibroblasts with Oatp significantly reversed the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the inhibition of malondialdehyde (MDA). The results demonstrate that oat peptides possess antioxidant activity and are effective against H(2)O(2)-induced human dermal fibroblast injury by the enhanced activity of SOD and decrease in MDA level. Our results suggest that oat bran will have the potential to be further explored as an antioxidant functional food in the prevention of aging-related skin injury.

  4. MicroRNA-135a Regulates Apoptosis Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Rat Cardiomyoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Shi, Yong-Feng; Diao, Hong-Ying; Li, Yang-Xue; Cui, Yan; Song, Xian-Jing; Tian, Xin; Li, Tian-Yi; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are the most important pathologic features of ischemic heart disease. Recent research has indicated that microRNAs (miRs) play an essential role in apoptosis. However, whether miRs might regulate B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein in apoptosis during ischemic heart disease is still unclear. The aim of this study, therefore, was to confirm the regulation of microRNA-135a (miR-135a) in oxidative stress injuries induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rat cardiomyoblast cells H9c2. To this end, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 treatment on miR-135a expression in rat cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we upregulated and inhibited miR-135a using mimics and inhibitors, respectively, and examined the effects on cell viability and apoptosis-related proteins. We observed that miR-135a was markedly up-regulated under H2O2 treatment in rat cardiomyoblast cells. Overexpression of miR-135a blocked the Bcl-2 protein and enhanced the apoptosis induced by H2O2, and miR-135a inhibition restored Bcl-2 protein expression. Interestingly, miR-135a inhibition did not attenuate H2O2-induced apoptosis with Bcl-2 knockdown. The results of the present study indicate that miR-135a regulates H2O2-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells via targeting Bcl-2, and that miR-135a may be a novel therapeutic target for ischemic heart disease. PMID:28123342

  5. A hydrogen peroxide-generating agent, 6-formylpterin, enhances heat-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wada, S; Cui, Z-G; Kondo, T; Zhao, Q-L; Ogawa, R; Shoji, M; Arai, T; Makino, K; Furuta, I

    2005-05-01

    The enhancement of heat-induced apoptosis by 6-formylpterin, an intra-cellular generator of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), was examined in human myelomonocytic lymphoma U937 cells. The cells were treated with either 6-formylpterin alone at a nontoxic concentration of 300 microM (37 degrees C), heat shock (44 degrees C per 20 min) alone or a combination of the two, then incubated at 37 degrees C for 6 h. Assessments of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and caspase-3 activation were performed by flow cytometry. Moreover, caspase-8 activation and changes in the intra-cellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined. Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bid, cytochrome c and PKCd were detected by Western blotting. The induction of heat-induced apoptosis evaluated by morphological observation and DNA fragmentation were promoted by the addition of 6-formylpterin. Mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and the activation of caspase-3 and -8 was enhanced in the cells treated with the combination. A decreased-expression of Bid was noted, although no significant changes in Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expression were observed after the combined treatment. Furthermore, both the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and the translocation of PKCd from cytosol to mitochondria, which were induced by heat shock, were enhanced by the addition of 6-formylpterin. The number of cells with a higher [Ca2+]i was also increased by the addition of 6-formylpterin. These findings suggest that the increase in [Ca2+]i, the activation of the mitochondria-caspase dependent pathway and the translocation of PKCd to mitochondria play principal roles in the enhancement of heat-induced apoptosis by 6-FP.

  6. Geraniol attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced liver fatty acid alterations in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Ahmet; Sahin, Zafer; Gorgulu, Ahmet Orhan; Yuce, Abdurrauf; Celik, Sait

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an oxidant agent and this molecule naturally occurs in the body as a product of aerobic metabolism. Geraniol is a plant-derived natural antioxidant. The aim of this study was to determine the role of geraniol on hepatic fatty acids alterations following H2O2-induced oxidative stress in male rats. Methods: After randomization, male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 7 each group). Geraniol (50 mg/kg, dissolved in corn oil) and H2O2 (16 mg/kg, dissolved in distilled water) were administered by an intraperitoneal injection. Administrations were performed during 30 days with 1-day interval. Results: Administration of H2O2 resulted with a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH) peroxidase glutathione level; geraniol restored its effects on liver. However, hepatic catalase (CAT) activities were significantly higher in H2O2, geraniol, and geraniol+H2O2 groups than control group. The ratio of hepatic total saturated fatty acids increased in H2O2-treated animals compared with control. In addition, hepatic total unsaturated fatty acids reduced in H2O2 group compared with control. The percentages of both hepatic total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not different between geraniol+H2O2 and control groups. Conclusions: H2O2-induced oxidative stress may affect fatty acid composition in liver and body. Geraniol can partly restore oxidative hepatic damage because it cannot completely reverse the H2O2-induced increase in hepatic CAT activities. Moreover, this natural compound can regulate hepatic total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids percentages against H2O2-induced alterations. PMID:28163957

  7. Hydrogen peroxide inducible clone-5 mediates reactive oxygen species signaling for hepatocellular carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Ru; Hu, Chi-Tan; You, Ren-In; Pan, Siou-Mei; Cheng, Chuan-Chu; Lee, Ming-Che; Wu, Chao-Chuan; Chang, Yao-Jen; Lin, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Chang-Shan; Lin, Teng-Yi; Wu, Wen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    One of the signaling components involved in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is the focal adhesion adaptor paxillin. Hydrogen peroxide inducible clone-5 (Hic-5), one of the paralogs of paxillin, exhibits many biological functions distinct from paxillin, but may cooperate with paxillin to trigger tumor progression. Screening of Hic-5 in 145 surgical HCCs demonstrated overexpression of Hic-5 correlated well with intra- and extra-hepatic metastasis. Hic-5 highly expressed in the patient derived HCCs with high motility such as HCC329 and HCC353 but not in the HCCs with low motility such as HCC340. Blockade of Hic-5 expression prevented constitutive migration of HCC329 and HCC353 and HGF-induced cell migration of HCC340. HCC329Hic-5(−), HCC353Hic-5(−), HCC372Hic-5(−), the HCCs stably depleted of Hic-5, exhibited reduced motility compared with each HCC expressing Scramble shRNA. Moreover, intra/extrahepatic metastasis of HCC329Hic-5(−) in SCID mice greatly decreased compared with HCC329Scramble. On the other hand, ectopic Hic-5 expression in HCC340 promoted its progression. Constitutive and HGF-induced Hic-5 expression in HCCs were suppressed by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers catalase and dithiotheritol and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. On the contrary, depletion of Hic-5 blocked constitutive and HGF-induced ROS generation and JNK phosphorylation in HCCs. Also, ectopic expression of Hic-5 enhanced ROS generation and JNK phosphorylation. These highlighted that Hic-5 plays a central role in the positive feedback ROS-JNK signal cascade. Finally, the Chinese herbal derived anti-HCC peptide LZ-8 suppressed constitutive Hic-5 expression and JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, Hic-5 mediates ROS-JNK signaling and may serve as a therapeutic target for prevention of HCC progression. PMID:26416447

  8. Protective Effects of Costunolide against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Injury in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Chong-Un; Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Lee, Ying-Ray; Lin, Mei-Ying; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hsing

    2016-07-09

    Oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury has been considered as a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by antioxidants may be a potential strategy for retarding the diseases' progression. Costunolide (CS) is a well-known sesquiterpene lactone, used as a popular herbal remedy, which possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of CS against the cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and to elucidate potential protective mechanisms in PC12 cells. The results showed that the treatment of PC12 cells with CS prior to H₂O₂ exposure effectively increased the cell viability. Furthermore, it decreased the intracellular ROS, stabilized the mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), and reduced apoptosis-related protein such as caspase 3. In addition, CS treatment attenuated the cell injury by H₂O₂ through the inhibition of phosphorylation of p38 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These results demonstrated that CS is promising as a potential therapeutic candidate for neurodegenerative diseases resulting from oxidative damage and further research on this topic should be encouraged.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide induces a rapid production of nitric oxide in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus).

    PubMed

    Lum, H K; Butt, Y K C; Lo, S C L

    2002-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been identified as an important signaling molecule in plant immune response. The present study aims to investigate the signaling pathway that leads to NO production. Using the NO specific fluorescent dye DAF-2DA, we observed rapid production of NO in mung bean leaves after the addition of 10 mM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). NO was probably produced by a NOS-like enzyme in plants, as the NO production was inhibited by l-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. The NOS-like activity in the total leaf protein preparation of mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) was elevated 8.3-fold after 10 mM H(2)O(2) treatment, as demonstrated using the chemiluminescence NOS assay. The NOS-like activity was BH(4) dependent: omitting BH(4) in the reaction mixture of NOS assay reduced the NOS activity by 76%. We also found that the H(2)O(2) induced NO production was mediated via calcium ion flux, as it was blocked in the presence of a calcium ion channel blocker, verapamil. Results from the present study identified H(2)O(2) as an upstream signal that leads to NO production in plants. H(2)O(2) and NO, besides acting as two independent signaling molecules in plant immune response, may interrelate to form an oxidative cell death (OCD) cycle.

  10. Salicylic acid-induced superoxide generation catalyzed by plant peroxidase in hydrogen peroxide-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Makoto; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that salicylic acid (SA) induces both immediate spike and long lasting phases of oxidative burst represented by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion radical (O2(•-)). In general, in the earlier phase of oxidative burst, apoplastic peroxidase are likely involved and in the late phase of the oxidative burst, NADPH oxidase is likely involved. Key signaling events connecting the 2 phases of oxidative burst are calcium channel activation and protein phosphorylation events. To date, the known earliest signaling event in response to exogenously added SA is the cell wall peroxidase-catalyzed generation of O2(•-) in a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent manner. However, this model is incomplete since the source of the initially required H2O2 could not be explained. Based on the recently proposed role for H2O2-independent mechanism for ROS production catalyzed by plant peroxidases (Kimura et al., 2014, Frontiers in Plant Science), we hereby propose a novel model for plant peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative burst fueled by SA.

  11. Resveratrol attenuates L-DOPA-induced hydrogen peroxide toxicity in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Peritore, Carina S; Ho, Angela; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Schaus, Scott E

    2012-12-05

    A variety of polyphenol antioxidant compounds derived from natural products have demonstrated neuroprotective activity against neuronal cell death. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RESV) and bioflavonoids in attenuating hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells. H2O2 levels were increased by the addition of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to cultured dopaminergic SKNSH cells. H(2)O(2) was monitored by peroxyfluor-1, a selective H(2)O(2) optical probe. To examine the neuroprotective effects of RESV and bioflavonoids against L-DOPA, we cotreated RESV, quercetin, or (-) epigallocatechin gallate with L-DOPA and monitored for H(2)O(2) levels. The combination of RESV and L-DOPA was 50% more effective at reducing H(2)O(2) levels than the combination of quercetin or epigallocatechin gallate with L-DOPA. However, the combination of each antioxidant with L-DOPA was effective at preserving cell viability.

  12. Microbial resistance in relation to catalase activity to oxidative stress induced by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Mokudai, Takayuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi; Kohno, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the mechanism of microbial resistance to oxidative stress induced by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in relation to microbial catalase activity. In microbicidal tests, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were killed and this was accompanied by production of hydroxyl radicals. C. albicans was more resistant to hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2) than was S. aureus. A catalase activity assay demonstrated that C. albicans had stronger catalase activity; accordingly, catalase activity could be one of the reasons for the resistance of the fungus to photolysis of H(2)O(2). Indeed, it was demonstrated that C. albicans with strong catalase activity was more resistant to photolysis of H(2)O(2) than that with weak catalase activity. Kinetic analysis using a modified Lineweaver-Burk plot also demonstrated that the microorganisms reacted directly with hydroxyl radicals and that this was accompanied by decomposition of H(2)O(2). The results of the present study suggest that the microbicidal effects of hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2) can be alleviated by decomposition of H(2)O(2) by catalase in microorganisms.

  13. Role of hydrogen peroxide in NF-kappaB activation: from inducer to modulator.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Marques, Virgínia; Marinho, H Susana; Cyrne, Luísa; Antunes, Fernando

    2009-09-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been implicated in the regulation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, a key regulator of the inflammatory process and adaptive immunity. However, no consensus exists regarding the regulatory role played by H2O2. We discuss how the experimental methodologies used to expose cells to H2O2 produce inconsistent results that are difficult to compare, and how the steady-state titration with H2O2 emerges as an adequate tool to overcome these problems. The redox targets of H2O2 in the NF-kappaB pathway--from the membrane to the post-translational modifications in both NF-kappaB and histones in the nucleus--are described. We also review how H2O2 acts as a specific regulator at the level of the single gene, and briefly discuss the implications of this regulation for human health in the context of kappaB polymorphisms. In conclusion, after near 30 years of research, H2O2 emerges not as an inducer of NF-kappaB, but as an agent able to modulate the activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by other agents. This modulation is generic at the level of the whole pathway but specific at the level of the single gene. Therefore, H2O2 is a fine-tuning regulator of NF-kappaB-dependent processes, as exemplified by its dual regulation of inflammation.

  14. Effects on liver hydrogen peroxide metabolism induced by dietary selenium deficiency or excess in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-Xiu; Cao, Chang-Yu; Sun, Yan-Chun; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Nan; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Jin-Long

    2014-06-01

    To determine the relationship between dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess and liver hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in chickens, 1-day-old chickens received insufficient Se (0.028 mg Se per kg of diet) or excess Se (3.0 or 5.0 mg Se per kg of diet) in their diets for 8 weeks. Body and liver weight changes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, H2O2 content, and activities and mRNA levels of enzymes associated with H2O2 metabolism (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1-3) were determined in the liver. This study showed that Se deficiency or excess Se intake elicited relative severe changes. Se deficiency decreased growth, while Se excess promoted growth in chickens. Both diets vastly altered the liver function, but no obvious histopathological changes were observed in the liver. Se deficiency significantly lowered SOD and CAT activities, and the H2O2 content in the liver and serum increased. Se excess (3.0 mg/kg) decreased SOD and CAT activities with changes in their mRNA levels, and the H2O2 content increased. The larger Se excess (5.0 mg/kg) showed more serious effects but was not fatal. These results indicated that the H2O2 metabolism played a destructive role in the changes in bird liver function induced by Se deficiency or excess.

  15. Salicylic acid-induced superoxide generation catalyzed by plant peroxidase in hydrogen peroxide-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Makoto; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that salicylic acid (SA) induces both immediate spike and long lasting phases of oxidative burst represented by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion radical (O2•−). In general, in the earlier phase of oxidative burst, apoplastic peroxidase are likely involved and in the late phase of the oxidative burst, NADPH oxidase is likely involved. Key signaling events connecting the 2 phases of oxidative burst are calcium channel activation and protein phosphorylation events. To date, the known earliest signaling event in response to exogenously added SA is the cell wall peroxidase-catalyzed generation of O2•− in a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent manner. However, this model is incomplete since the source of the initially required H2O2 could not be explained. Based on the recently proposed role for H2O2-independent mechanism for ROS production catalyzed by plant peroxidases (Kimura et al., 2014, Frontiers in Plant Science), we hereby propose a novel model for plant peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative burst fueled by SA. PMID:26633563

  16. Hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium influx in lung microvascular endothelial cells involves TRPV4

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Karthik; Servinsky, Laura; Reyes, Jose; Baksh, Syeda; Undem, Clark; Caterina, Michael; Pearse, David B.

    2015-01-01

    In acute respiratory distress syndrome, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) are thought to play important roles in promoting endothelial paracellular permeability, but the mechanisms linking ROS and [Ca2+]i in microvascular endothelial cells are not known. In this study, we assessed the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on [Ca2+]i in mouse and human lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVEC and HLMVEC, respectively). We found that in both MLMVECs and HLMVECs, exogenously applied H2O2 increased [Ca2+]i through Ca2+ influx and that pharmacologic inhibition of the calcium channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) attenuated the H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx. Additionally, knockdown of TRPV4 in HLMVEC also attenuated calcium influx following H2O2 challenge. Administration of H2O2 or TRPV4 agonists decreased transmembrane electrical resistance (TER), suggesting increased barrier permeability. To explore the regulatory mechanisms underlying TRPV4 activation by ROS, we examined H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx in MLMVECs and HLMVECs with either genetic deletion, silencing, or pharmacologic inhibition of Fyn, a Src family kinase. In both MLMVECs derived from mice deficient for Fyn and HLMVECs treated with either siRNA targeted to Fyn or the Src family kinase inhibitor SU-6656 for 24 or 48 h, the H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx was attenuated. Treatment with SU-6656 decreased the levels of phosphorylated, but not total, TRPV4 protein and had no effect on TRPV4 response to the external agonist, GSK1016790A. In conclusion, our data suggest that application of exogenous H2O2 increases [Ca2+]i and decreases TER in microvascular endothelial cells via activation of TRPV4 through a mechanism that requires the Src kinase Fyn. PMID:26453519

  17. Streptococcus oralis Induces Lysosomal Impairment of Macrophages via Bacterial Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus oralis, an oral commensal, belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and occasionally causes opportunistic infections, such as bacterial endocarditis and bacteremia. Recently, we found that the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by S. oralis is sufficient to kill human monocytes and epithelial cells, implying that streptococcal H2O2 is a cytotoxin. In the present study, we investigated whether streptococcal H2O2 impacts lysosomes, organelles of the intracellular digestive system, in relation to cell death. S. oralis infection induced the death of RAW 264 macrophages in an H2O2-dependent manner, which was exemplified by the fact that exogenous H2O2 also induced cell death. Infection with either a mutant lacking spxB, which encodes pyruvate oxidase responsible for H2O2 production, or Streptococcus mutans, which does not produce H2O2, showed less cytotoxicity. Visualization of lysosomes with LysoTracker revealed lysosome deacidification after infection with S. oralis or exposure to H2O2, which was corroborated by acridine orange staining. Similarly, fluorescent labeling of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 gradually disappeared during infection with S. oralis or exposure to H2O2. The deacidification and the following induction of cell death were inhibited by chelating iron in lysosomes. Moreover, fluorescent staining of cathepsin B indicated lysosomal destruction. However, treatment of infected cells with a specific inhibitor of cathepsin B had negligible effects on cell death; instead, it suppressed the detachment of dead cells from the culture plates. These results suggest that streptococcal H2O2 induces cell death with lysosomal destruction and then the released lysosomal cathepsins contribute to the detachment of the dead cells. PMID:27113357

  18. Hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium influx in lung microvascular endothelial cells involves TRPV4.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Karthik; Servinsky, Laura; Reyes, Jose; Baksh, Syeda; Undem, Clark; Caterina, Michael; Pearse, David B; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2015-12-15

    In acute respiratory distress syndrome, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) are thought to play important roles in promoting endothelial paracellular permeability, but the mechanisms linking ROS and [Ca(2+)]i in microvascular endothelial cells are not known. In this study, we assessed the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on [Ca(2+)]i in mouse and human lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLMVEC and HLMVEC, respectively). We found that in both MLMVECs and HLMVECs, exogenously applied H2O2 increased [Ca(2+)]i through Ca(2+) influx and that pharmacologic inhibition of the calcium channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) attenuated the H2O2-induced Ca(2+) influx. Additionally, knockdown of TRPV4 in HLMVEC also attenuated calcium influx following H2O2 challenge. Administration of H2O2 or TRPV4 agonists decreased transmembrane electrical resistance (TER), suggesting increased barrier permeability. To explore the regulatory mechanisms underlying TRPV4 activation by ROS, we examined H2O2-induced Ca(2+) influx in MLMVECs and HLMVECs with either genetic deletion, silencing, or pharmacologic inhibition of Fyn, a Src family kinase. In both MLMVECs derived from mice deficient for Fyn and HLMVECs treated with either siRNA targeted to Fyn or the Src family kinase inhibitor SU-6656 for 24 or 48 h, the H2O2-induced Ca(2+) influx was attenuated. Treatment with SU-6656 decreased the levels of phosphorylated, but not total, TRPV4 protein and had no effect on TRPV4 response to the external agonist, GSK1016790A. In conclusion, our data suggest that application of exogenous H2O2 increases [Ca(2+)]i and decreases TER in microvascular endothelial cells via activation of TRPV4 through a mechanism that requires the Src kinase Fyn. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H₂O₂)-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells.

    PubMed

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Ko, Wai Man; Zhou, Xian; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Lee, Simon M Y; Hoi, Maggie P M; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Liu, Jianxun

    2017-01-05

    Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926). SLT (1-50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed the H₂O₂-induced cell death and abolished the H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H₂O₂ (0.5 mM; 24 h) caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1-50 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and suppressed the H₂O₂-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H₂O₂-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed.

  20. Sailuotong Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)-Induced Injury in EA.hy926 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Sai Wang; Chang, Dennis; Ko, Wai Man; Zhou, Xian; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Hoi, Maggie P. M.; Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Liu, Jianxun

    2017-01-01

    Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926). SLT (1–50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed the H2O2-induced cell death and abolished the H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a concentration-dependent manner. Similarly, H2O2 (0.5 mM; 24 h) caused a ~2-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from the EA.hy926 cells which were significantly suppressed by SLT (1–50 µg/mL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of SLT (50 µg/mL) increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and suppressed the H2O2-enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that SLT protects EA.hy916 cells against H2O2-mediated injury via direct reduction of intracellular ROS generation and an increase in SOD activity. These protective effects are closely associated with the inhibition of the apoptotic death cascade via the suppression of caspase-3 activation and reduction of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, thereby indicating a potential mechanism of action for the clinical effects observed. PMID:28067784

  1. Protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelial cell death.

    PubMed

    Wongpradabchai, Sudjai; Chularojmontri, Linda; Phornchirasilp, Srichan; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

    2013-01-01

    Numerous antioxidants from natural products have been shown to lower ROS levels and enhance vascular endothelial function. The fruits of Phyllanthus emblica are well-known in possessing antioxidative properties but its role and mechanisms in the protection of vascular endothelial cells from ROS damage have not yet been established. The present study was aimed to determine the possible protective effect of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) on human EA.hy926 endothelial cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and PE protective mechanisms. Following incubation of endothelial cells with 300 microM H2O2 for 2 h, cell viability was decreased to 50.65 +/- 0.94% and intracellular ROS levels was increased to 159.01% +/- 6.27% as measured by MTT assay and DCF fluorescent intensity, respectively. Cytotoxic effect of PE was not observed in the range of 0.1 to 100 microM Pretreatment with PE (20 to 100 microg/mL) for 48 h significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and attenuated the excessive intracellular ROS formation in endothelial cells. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that PE pretreatment (40 microg/L) induced Akt phosphorylation but did not activate NF-kappaB pathway. These findings suggest that PE could effectively protect human endothelial cell death induced by H2O2 via modification of ROS-related mechanism along with activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. However the value of this plant in vivo needs further investigations in supporting them to be developed as nutraceuticals for cardiovascular disease prevention.

  2. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of ssDNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide using graphene based nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Berghian-Grosan, Camelia; Biris, Alexandru Radu; Coros, Maria; Pogacean, Florina; Pruneanu, Stela

    2015-06-01

    The oxidative damage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been intensively studied due to its role in the occurrence of some diseases. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can induce oxidation of DNA bases, sugar lesions or DNA strand breaks. The Pt/Gr-Au-3 modified electrode was employed for the analysis of four ssDNA samples: single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), ssDNA pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide (ssDNA-H2O2), ssDNA pre-treated with graphene-gold nanoparticles (ssDNA-Gr-Au) and ssDNA-Gr-Au complex pre-treated with hydrogen peroxide (ssDNA-Gr-Au-H2O2). By monitoring the changes of the purine oxidation peaks currents, we obtained valuable information about the damage induced by the hydrogen peroxide onto the un-treated or graphene pre-treated ssDNA and also about the interaction between ssDNA and graphene-based nanomaterial. The FTIR analysis has been also used to obtain information about the ssDNA damage. These findings allowed us to prove the utility of graphene-based nanomaterials (mainly Gr-Au-3) not only for the investigation of the oxidative damage induced by a non-radical oxidant, but also for the determination of the type of interaction between ssDNA and graphene surface. The stability of the ssDNA-Gr-Au-3 complex against the damage induced by H2O2, in the absence of reduced transition metals, was also established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide induces adaptive response and differential gene expression in human embryo lung fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qinzhi; Huang, Haiyan; Yang, Linqing; Yuan, Jianhui; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Yungang; Zhuang, Zhixiong

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), a substance involved in cellular oxidative stress, has been observed to induce an adaptive response, which is characterized by a protection against the toxic effect of H2 O2 at higher concentrations. However, the molecular mechanism for the adaptive response remains unclear. In particular, the existing reports on H2 O2 -induced adaptive response are limited to animal cells and human tumor cells, and relatively normal human cells have never been observed for an adaptive response to H2 O2 . In this study, a human embryo lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cell line was used to model an adaptive response to H2 O2 , and the relevant differential gene expressions by using fluoro mRNA differential display RT-PCR. The results showed significant suppression of cytotoxicity of H2 O2 (1100 μM, 1 h) after pretreatment of the cells with H2 O2 at lower concentrations (0.088-8.8 μM, 24 h), as indicated by cell survival, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the rate of apoptotic cells. Totally 60 mRNA components were differentially expressed compared to untreated cells, and five of them (sizing 400-600 bp) which demonstrated the greatest increase in expression were cloned and sequenced. They showed identity with known genes, such as BCL-2, eIF3S5, NDUFS4, and RPS10. Real time RT-PCR analysis of the five genes displayed a pattern of differential expression consistent with that by the last method. These five genes may be involved in the induction of adaptive response by H2 O2 in human cells, at least in this particular cell type. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Protective Effects of a Diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Astroglial Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Vattanarongkup, Jaturavit; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Sanvarinda, Pimtip; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Jantaratnotai, Nattinee

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms causing neuronal and astroglial cell death in various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain ischemia. Two diarylheptanoids, (3R)-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E)-4,6-heptadien-3-ol (ASPP 049) and (3S)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-(1E)-1-hepten-3-ol (ASPP 092), isolated from Curcuma comosa were investigated for cytoprotective effects on C6 astroglial cells using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure as a model of oxidative stress. ASPP 092 demonstrated free radical scavenging activity comparable to that of vitamin C, while ASPP 049 showed no antioxidant activity. Treatment with H2O2 at 400 µM for 12 h caused 79 % C6 astroglial cell death which was significantly reduced to 37 % by pretreatment with ASPP 092 (5 µM). In addition, ASPP 092 attenuated the increase in reactive oxygen species production and the decrease in total glutathione level induced by H2O2. The mechanism of ASPP 092 protection against H2O2-induced apoptotic signaling appeared to involve prevention of increase in the level of phosphorylated p53 and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as cleaved caspase-3. These findings provide new evidence that the diarylheptanoid ASPP 092 from C. comosa possesses antiapoptotic properties and could be further developed as a potential treatment for oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Baccharin prevents genotoxic effects induced by methyl methanesulfonate and hydrogen peroxide in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Leandro, Luis Fernando; Montanheiro, Giovana; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2012-08-01

    Baccharin is one of the major chemical compounds isolated from the aerial parts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), a native plant of South America and the most important botanical source of the Brazilian green propolis that has been used in alternative medicine to treat inflammation, liver disorders, and stomach ulcers. The present study was carried out in V79 cells to determine the possible genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of baccharin utilizing comet and micronucleus assays, where 2 known mutagenic agents with different mechanisms of DNA damage were used as positive controls. The V79 cells were treated with concentrations of baccharin (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μg/mL) and for to investigate the antigenotoxicity these concentrations were associated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; 200 μM-comet assay and 400 μM-micronucleus assay) or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2;) 50 μM-comet assay and 100 μM-micronucleus assay). Statistically significant differences in the rate of DNA damage were observed in cultures treated with the highest concentration of baccharin when compared to the control group, but this difference was not found in the micronucleus assay. The results also showed that the frequencies of DNA damage and micronuclei induced by MMS and H(2)O(2) were significantly reduced after treatment with baccharin. The baccharin showed a chemoprevention effect and can be the chemical compound responsible for the antigenotoxicity also demonstrated by the B. dracunculifolia. The antioxidant potential of baccharin may be related to its chemoprevention activity induced against both genomic and chromosomal damages. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide... group. Eggs: Some strains of rainbow trout eggs are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide treatment at a...

  7. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide... group. Eggs: Some strains of rainbow trout eggs are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide treatment at a...

  8. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide... group. Eggs: Some strains of rainbow trout eggs are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide treatment at a time...

  9. 21 CFR 529.1150 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 529.1150 Section 529.1150 Food... peroxide. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 396.1 milligrams (mg) hydrogen peroxide... group. Eggs: Some strains of rainbow trout eggs are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide treatment at a time...

  10. THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BY LIVER CATALASE

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John

    1928-01-01

    1. The velocity of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase as a function of (a) concentration of catalase, (b) concentration of hydrogen peroxide, (c) hydrogen ion concentration, (d) temperature has been studied in an attempt to correlate these variables as far as possible. It is concluded that the reaction involves primarily adsorption of hydrogen peroxide at the catalase surface. 2. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase is regarded as involving two reactions, namely, the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, which is a maximum at the optimum pH 6.8 to 7.0, and the "induced inactivation" of catalase by the "nascent" oxygen produced by the hydrogen peroxide and still adhering to the catalase surface. This differs from the more generally accepted view, namely that the induced inactivation is due to the H2O2 itself. On the basis of the above view, a new interpretation is given to the equation of Yamasaki and the connection between the equations of Yamasaki and of Northrop is pointed out. It is shown that the velocity of induced inactivation is a minimum at the pH which is optimal for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. 3. The critical increment of the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by catalase is of the order 3000 calories. The critical increment of induced inactivation is low in dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions but increases to a value of 30,000 calories in concentrated solutions of peroxide. PMID:19872400

  11. The Hog1 MAP Kinase Promotes the Recovery from Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Correia, Inês; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions is controlled via specific checkpoints. Signal transduction pathways mediated by MAPKs play a crucial role in sensing stress. For example, the canonical MAPKs Mkc1 (of the cell wall integrity pathway), and Hog1 (of the HOG pathway), are activated upon oxidative stress. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide on cell cycle progression in Candida albicans. Hydrogen peroxide was shown to induce a transient arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, a G1 arrest was observed, although phosphorylation of Mkc1 and Hog1 MAPKs can take place at all stages of the cell cycle. Interestingly, hog1 (but not mkc1) mutants required a longer time compared to wild type cells to resume growth after hydrogen peroxide challenge. Using GFP-labeled cells and mixed cultures of wild type and hog1 cells we were able to show that hog1 mutants progress faster through the cell cycle under standard growth conditions in the absence of stress (YPD at 37°C). Consequently, hog1 mutants exhibited a smaller cell size. The altered cell cycle progression correlates with altered expression of the G1 cyclins Cln3 and Pcl2 in hog1 cells compared to the wild type strain. In addition, Hgc1 (a hypha-specific G1 cyclin) as well as Cln3 displayed a different kinetics of expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in hog1 mutants. Collectively, these results indicate that Hog1 regulates the expression of G1 cyclins not only in response to oxidative stress, but also under standard growth conditions. Hydrogen peroxide treated cells did not show fluctuations in the mRNA levels for SOL1, which are observed in untreated cells during cell cycle progression. In addition, treatment with hydrogen peroxide prevented degradation of Sol1, an effect which was enhanced in hog1 mutants. Therefore, in C. albicans, the MAPK Hog1 mediates cell cycle progression in response to oxidative

  12. The Hog1 MAP Kinase Promotes the Recovery from Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Inês; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions is controlled via specific checkpoints. Signal transduction pathways mediated by MAPKs play a crucial role in sensing stress. For example, the canonical MAPKs Mkc1 (of the cell wall integrity pathway), and Hog1 (of the HOG pathway), are activated upon oxidative stress. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide on cell cycle progression in Candida albicans. Hydrogen peroxide was shown to induce a transient arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, a G1 arrest was observed, although phosphorylation of Mkc1 and Hog1 MAPKs can take place at all stages of the cell cycle. Interestingly, hog1 (but not mkc1) mutants required a longer time compared to wild type cells to resume growth after hydrogen peroxide challenge. Using GFP-labeled cells and mixed cultures of wild type and hog1 cells we were able to show that hog1 mutants progress faster through the cell cycle under standard growth conditions in the absence of stress (YPD at 37°C). Consequently, hog1 mutants exhibited a smaller cell size. The altered cell cycle progression correlates with altered expression of the G1 cyclins Cln3 and Pcl2 in hog1 cells compared to the wild type strain. In addition, Hgc1 (a hypha-specific G1 cyclin) as well as Cln3 displayed a different kinetics of expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in hog1 mutants. Collectively, these results indicate that Hog1 regulates the expression of G1 cyclins not only in response to oxidative stress, but also under standard growth conditions. Hydrogen peroxide treated cells did not show fluctuations in the mRNA levels for SOL1, which are observed in untreated cells during cell cycle progression. In addition, treatment with hydrogen peroxide prevented degradation of Sol1, an effect which was enhanced in hog1 mutants. Therefore, in C. albicans, the MAPK Hog1 mediates cell cycle progression in response to oxidative

  13. Heterotrimeric G protein mediates ethylene-induced stomatal closure via hydrogen peroxide synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Min; Cai, Hong-Li; Lei, Xue; Zhou, Xue; Yue, Ming; He, Jun-Min

    2015-04-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins function as key players in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in plant cells, but whether G proteins mediate ethylene-induced H2O2 production and stomatal closure are not clear. Here, evidences are provided to show the Gα subunit GPA1 as a missing link between ethylene and H2O2 in guard cell ethylene signalling. In wild-type leaves, ethylene-triggered H2O2 synthesis and stomatal closure were dependent on activation of Gα. GPA1 mutants showed the defect of ethylene-induced H2O2 production and stomatal closure, whereas wGα and cGα overexpression lines showed faster stomatal closure and H2O2 production in response to ethylene. Ethylene-triggered H2O2 generation and stomatal closure were impaired in RAN1, ETR1, ERS1 and EIN4 mutants but not impaired in ETR2 and ERS2 mutants. Gα activator and H2O2 rescued the defect of RAN1 and EIN4 mutants or etr1-3 in ethylene-induced H2O2 production and stomatal closure, but only rescued the defect of ERS1 mutants or etr1-1 and etr1-9 in ethylene-induced H2O2 production. Stomata of CTR1 mutants showed constitutive H2O2 production and stomatal closure, but which could be abolished by Gα inhibitor. Stomata of EIN2, EIN3 and ARR2 mutants did not close in responses to ethylene, Gα activator or H2O2, but do generate H2O2 following challenge of ethylene or Gα activator. The data indicate that Gα mediates ethylene-induced stomatal closure via H2O2 production, and acts downstream of RAN1, ETR1, ERS1, EIN4 and CTR1 and upstream of EIN2, EIN3 and ARR2. The data also show that ETR1 and ERS1 mediate both ethylene and H2O2 signalling in guard cells.

  14. Copper inhibition of hydrogen peroxide-induced hypertrophy in embryonic rat cardiac H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Youchun; Kang, Y James

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that dietary copper deficiency causes cardiac hypertrophy and depression of vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse model. Copper replenishment in the diet reverses cardiac hypertrophy and restores VEGF expression. The present study was undertaken to specifically determine the role of VEGF in copper effect on cell hypertrophy. Embryonic rat cardiac H9c2 cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide to develop hypertrophy, determined by increases in cell size and total protein content. Copper addition at 5 microM in cultures suppressed cell hypertrophy. In the presence of anti-VEGF antibody, copper inhibitory effect on cell hypertrophy was blunted, and VEGF alone mimicked the inhibitory effect of copper. The results thus demonstrated that VEGF is critically involved in copper inhibition of cell hypertrophy induced by hydrogen peroxide in the H9c2 cells.

  15. Mechanisms of Sb(III) oxidation by pyrite-induced hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kong, Linghao; Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang

    2015-03-17

    Antimony (Sb) is an element of growing interest, and its toxicity and mobility are strongly influenced by redox processes. Sb(III) oxidation mechanisms in pyrite suspensions were comprehensively investigated by kinetic measurements in oxic and anoxic conditions and simulated sunlight. Sb(III) was oxidized to Sb(V) in both solution and on pyrite surfaces in oxic conditions; the oxidation efficiency of Sb(III) was gradually enhanced with the increase of pH. The pyrite-induced hydroxyl radical (·OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are the oxidants for Sb(III) oxidation. ·OH is the oxidant for Sb(III) oxidation in acidic solutions, and H2O2 becomes the main oxidant in neutral and alkaline solutions. ·OH and H2O2 can be generated by the reaction of previously existing FeIII(pyrite) and H2O on pyrite in anoxic conditions. The oxygen molecule is the crucial factor in continuously producing ·OH and H2O2 for Sb(III) oxidation. The efficiency of Sb(III) oxidation was enhanced in surface-oxidized pyrite (SOP) suspension, more ·OH formed through Fenton reaction in acidic solutions, but Fe(IV) and H2O2 were formed in neutral and alkaline solutions. Under the illumination of simulated sunlight, more ·OH and H2O2 were produced in the pyrite suspension, and the oxidation efficiency of Sb(III) was remarkably enhanced. In conclusion, Sb(III) can be oxidized to Sb(V) in the presence of pyrite, which will greatly influence the fate of Sb(III) in the environment.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment induces salt-stress acclimation in maize plants.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Neto, André Dias; Prisco, José Tarquinio; Enéas-Filho, Joaquim; Medeiros, Jand-Venes Rolim; Gomes-Filho, Enéas

    2005-10-01

    The effect of exogenously applied H2O2 on salt stress acclimation was studied with regard to plant growth, lipid peroxidation, and activity of antioxidative enzymes in leaves and roots of a salt-sensitive maize genotype. Pre-treatment by addition of 1 microM H2O2 to the hydroponic solution for 2 days induced an increase in salt tolerance during subsequent exposure to salt stress. This was evidenced by plant growth, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes measurements. In both leaves and roots the variations in lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) activities of both acclimated and unacclimated plants, suggest that differences in the antioxidative enzyme activities may, at least in part, explain the increased tolerance of acclimated plants to salt stress, and that H2O2 metabolism is involved as signal in the processes of maize salt acclimation.

  17. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  18. Zinc carnosine protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in WIL2-NS lymphoblastoid cell line independent of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase expression.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Mohammad, Nur Hafiza; Sharif, Razinah

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of zinc carnosine to protect the human lymphoblastoid (WIL2-NS) cell line from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. Cells were cultured with medium containing zinc carnosine at the concentrations of 0.4, 4, 16 and 32 μM for 9 days prior to treatment with 30 μM of hydrogen peroxide (30 min). Zinc carnosine at the concentration 16 μM was optimal in protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and gave the lowest percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Results showed that zinc carnosine was able to induce glutathione production and protect cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress at all concentration and the highest protection was observed at 32-μM zinc carnosine culture. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay showed that cells cultured with 4-32 μM of zinc carnosine showed significant reduction in micronuclei formation, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear bud frequencies (p < 0.05), suggesting that these concentrations maybe optimal in protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage. However, after being challenged with hydrogen peroxide, no increase in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression was observed. Thus, results from this study demonstrate that zinc carnosines possess antioxidant properties and are able to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in vitro independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Further studies are warranted to understand the mechanism of protection of zinc carnosine against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage.

  19. Argon Preconditioning Protects Airway Epithelial Cells against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christina; Qi, Hong; Soto-Gonzalez, Lourdes; Doerr, Katharina; Ullrich, Roman; Tretter, Eva Verena; Markstaller, Klaus; Klein, Klaus Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is the predominant pathogenic mechanism of ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The noble gas argon has been shown to alleviate oxidative stress-related myocardial and cerebral injury. The risk of lung IR injury is increased in some major surgeries, reducing clinical outcome. However, no study has examined the lung-protective efficacy of argon preconditioning. The present study investigated the protective effects of argon preconditioning on airway epithelial cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to induce oxidative stress. A549 airway epithelial cells were treated with a cytotoxic concentration of H2O2 after exposure to standard air or 30 or 50% argon/21% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide/rest nitrogen for 30, 45 or 180 min. Cells were stained with annexin V/propidium iodide, and apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protective signalling pathways activated by argon exposure were identified by Western blot analysis for phosphorylated candidate molecules of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) pathways. Preconditioning with 50% argon for 30, 45 and 180 min and 30% argon for 180 min caused significant protection of A549 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis, with increases in cellular viability of 5-47% (p < 0.0001). A small adverse effect was also observed, which presented as a 12-15% increase in cellular necrosis in argon-treated groups. Argon exposure resulted in early activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, peaking 10- 30 min after the start of preconditioning, and delayed activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway, peaking after 60-90 min. Argon preconditioning protects airway epithelial cells from H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death. Argon activates the JNK, p38, and ERK1/2 pathways, but not the Akt pathway. The cytoprotective properties of argon suggest possible prophylactic applications in surgery-related IR injury of the lungs. © 2016 S. Karger AG

  20. 8-Alkylcoumarins from the Fruits of Cnidium monnieri Protect against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Stress Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chi-I; Hu, Wan-Chiao; Shen, Che-Piao; Hsu, Ban-Dar; Lin, Wei-Yong; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Wang, Wei-Hsien; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Three new 8-alkylcoumarins, 7-O-methylphellodenol-B (1), 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2,3-epoxy-1-oxobutyl)chromen-2-one (2), and 3′-O-methylvaginol (3), together with seven known compounds (4–10) were isolated from the fruits of Cnidium monnieri. Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with the data of known analogues. All the isolates were evaluated the cytoprotective activity by MTS cell proliferation assay and the results showed that all the three new 8-alkylcoumarins exhibited cytoprotective effect on Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells injured by hydrogen peroxide. PMID:24642881

  1. Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Chicken Cardiomyocytes during Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunyun; Xiang, Jinmei; Li, Youwen; Guo, Dingzong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is both an exogenous and endogenous cytotoxic agent that can reliably induce apoptosis in numerous cell types for studies on apoptosis signaling pathways. However, little is known of these apoptotic processes in myocardial cells of chicken, a species prone to progressive heart failure. Sequencing of mRNA transcripts (RNA-Seq) allows for the identification of differentially expressed genes under various physiological and pathological conditions to elucidate the molecular pathways involved, including cellular responses to exogenous and endogenous toxins. We used RNA-seq to examine genes differentially expressed during H2O2-induced apoptosis in primary cultures of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes. Following control or H2O2 treatment, RNA was extracted and sequencing performed to identify novel transcripts up- or downregulated in the H2O2 treatment group and construct protein-protein interaction networks. Of the 19,268 known and 2,160 novel transcripts identified in both control and H2O2 treatment groups, 4,650 showed significant differential expression. Among them, 55.63% were upregulated and 44.37% downregulated. Initiation of apoptosis by H2O2 was associated with upregulation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes API5 and TRIA1. Many other differentially expressed genes were associated with metabolic pathways (including 'Fatty acid metabolism', 'Alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism', and 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids') and cell signaling pathways (including 'PPAR signaling pathway', 'Adipocytokine signaling pathway', 'TGF-beta signaling pathway', 'MAPK signaling pathway', and 'p53 signaling pathway'). In chicken cardiomyocytes, H2O2 alters the expression of numerous genes linked to cell signaling and metabolism as well as genes directly associated with apoptosis. In particular, H2O2 also affects the biosynthesis and processing of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids. These

  2. Protective effect of medicinal fungus Xylaria nigripes mycelia extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Divate, Rupesh D; Wang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Chiun-Chuang; Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2017-03-01

    Xylaria nigripes ( XN) is a medicinal fungus that was used traditionally as a diuretic, nerve tonic, and for treating insomnia and trauma. In this study, we elucidated possible mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of XN mycelia extracts. XN mycelia were produced by fermentation. Hot water extract and 70% ethanol extract of XN mycelia were evaluated on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line. Both XN extracts effectively protected PC12 cells against H2O2-induced cell damage by inhibiting release of lactate dehydrogenase, decreasing DNA damage, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, and arresting abnormal apoptosis through upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of Bax and caspase 3. Compared to water extract, ethanol extract showed not only greater neuroprotective effects but also a higher antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and reducing power. High phenolic content and antioxidant activity may provide the neuroprotective properties of XN ethanol extract.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide induce modifications of human extracellular superoxide dismutase that results in enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gottfredsen, Randi H; Larsen, Ulrike G; Enghild, Jan J; Petersen, Steen V

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) controls the level of superoxide in the extracellular space by catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. In addition, the enzyme reacts with hydrogen peroxide in a peroxidase reaction which is known to disrupt enzymatic activity. Here, we show that the peroxidase reaction supports a site-specific bond cleavage. Analyses by peptide mapping and mass spectrometry shows that oxidation of Pro112 supports the cleavage of the Pro112-His113 peptide bond. Substitution of Ala for Pro112 did not inhibit fragmentation, indicating that the oxidative fragmentation at this position is dictated by spatial organization and not by side-chain specificity. The major part of EC-SOD inhibited by the peroxidase reaction was not fragmented but found to encompass oxidations of histidine residues involved in the coordination of copper (His98 and His163). These oxidations are likely to support the dissociation of copper from the active site and thus loss of enzymatic activity. Homologous modifications have also been described for the intracellular isozyme, Cu/Zn-SOD, reflecting the almost identical structures of the active site within these enzymes. We speculate that the inactivation of EC-SOD by peroxidase activity plays a role in regulating SOD activity in vivo, as even low levels of superoxide will allow for the peroxidase reaction to occur.

  4. Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death: The Major Defences Relative Roles and Consequences in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Lionel; Dukan, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a mathematical model for predicting reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration and macromolecules oxidation in vivo. We constructed such a model using Escherichia coli as a model organism and a set of ordinary differential equations. In order to evaluate the major defences relative roles against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2), we investigated the relative contributions of the various reactions to the dynamic system and searched for approximate analytical solutions for the explicit expression of changes in H2 O2 internal or external concentrations. Although the key actors in cell defence are enzymes and membrane, a detailed analysis shows that their involvement depends on the H2 O2 concentration level. Actually, the impact of the membrane upon the H2 O2 stress felt by the cell is greater when micromolar H2 O2 is present (9-fold less H2 O2 in the cell than out of the cell) than when millimolar H2 O2 is present (about 2-fold less H2 O2 in the cell than out of the cell). The ratio between maximal external H2 O2 and internal H2 O2 concentration also changes, reducing from 8 to 2 while external H2 O2 concentration increases from micromolar to millimolar. This non-linear behaviour mainly occurs because of the switch in the predominant scavenger from Ahp (Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase) to Cat (catalase). The phenomenon changes the internal H2 O2 maximal concentration, which surprisingly does not depend on cell density. The external H2 O2 half-life and the cumulative internal H2 O2 exposure do depend upon cell density. Based on these analyses and in order to introduce a concept of dose response relationship for H2 O2-induced cell death, we developed the concepts of “maximal internal H2 O2 concentration” and “cumulative internal H2 O2 concentration” (e.g. the total amount of H2 O2). We predict that cumulative internal H2 O2 concentration is responsible for the H2 O2-mediated death of bacterial cells. PMID:27494019

  5. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  7. Sampling Stoichiometry: The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a demonstration of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to provide an interesting, quantitative illustration of the stoichiometric relationship between the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and the formation of oxygen gas. This 10-minute demonstration uses ordinary hydrogen peroxide and yeast that can be purchased in a supermarket.…

  8. Sampling Stoichiometry: The Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a demonstration of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to provide an interesting, quantitative illustration of the stoichiometric relationship between the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and the formation of oxygen gas. This 10-minute demonstration uses ordinary hydrogen peroxide and yeast that can be purchased in a supermarket.…

  9. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1366 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 582.1366 Section 582.1366 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1366 Hydrogen peroxide. (a) Product. Hydrogen peroxide. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  12. Improved dual flow aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.; Matthews, D.

    1993-11-30

    A novel dual flow battery configuration is provided comprising an aqueous hydrogen peroxide catholyte, an aqueous anolyte, a porous solid electrocatalyst capable of reducing said hydrogen peroxide and separating said anolyte, and an aluminum anode positioned within said anolyte. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode.

  13. Improved dual flow aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Catherine; Licht, Stuart L.; Matthews, Donna

    1993-11-01

    A novel dual flow battery configuration is provided comprising an aqueous hydrogen peroxide catholyte, an aqueous anolyte, a porous solid electrocatalyst capable of reducing said hydrogen peroxide and separating said anolyte, and an aluminum anode positioned within said anolyte. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode.

  14. γ-Tocotrienol does not substantially protect DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Then, Sue-Mian; Sanfeliu, Coral; Top, Gapor M; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2012-01-05

    Down syndrome (DS) neurons are more susceptible to oxidative stress and previous studies have shown that vitamin E was able to reduce oxidative stress and improve DS neurons' viability. Therefore, this study was done to investigate the protective role of γ-tocotrienol (γT3) in DS neurons from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -induced oxidative stress. The pro-apoptosis tendency of γT3 was compared to α-tocopherol (αT) in non-stress condition as well. Primary culture of DS and euploid neurons were divided into six groups of treatment: control, H2O2, γT3 pre-treatment with H2O2, γT3 only, αT pre-treatment with H2O2 and αT only. The treatments were assessed by MTS assay and apoptosis assay by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) apoptosis ELISA assay, Hoechst and Neu-N immunofluorescence staining. The cellular uptake of γT3 and αT was determined by HPLC while protein expressions were determined by Western blot. Comparison between groups was made by the Student's t test, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment as well as two-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons. One day incubation of γT3 was able to reduced apoptosis of DS neurons by 10%, however γT3 was cytotoxic at longer incubation period (14 days) and at concentrations ≥ 100 μM. Pre-treatment of αT and γT3 only attenuate apoptosis and increase cell viability in H2O2-treated DS and euploid neurons by 10% in which the effects were minimal to maintain most of the DS cells' morphology. γT3 act as a free radical scavenger by reducing ROS generated by H2O2. In untreated controls, DS neurons showed lower Bcl-2/Bax ratio and p53 expression compared to normal neurons, while cPKC and PKC-δ expressions were higher in DS neurons. On the other hand, pre-treatment of γT3 in H2O2-treated DS neurons have reduced Bcl-2/Bax ratio, which was not shown in euploid neurons. This suggests that pre-treatment of γT3 did not promote DS cell survival. Meanwhile γT3 and αT treatments without H2O2 as well as pre-treatment of γT3 and

  15. Method for detection of hydrogen peroxide in HT22 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jacewicz, Dagmara; Siedlecka-Kroplewska, Kamila; Drzeżdżon, Joanna; Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Tesmar, Aleksandra; Żamojć, Krzysztof; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed a new method which can be applied in assessing the intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide. Using this assay we have examined the hydrogen peroxide generation during the L-glutamate induced oxidative stress in the HT22 hippocampal cells. The detection of hydrogen peroxide is based on two crucial reagents cis-[Cr(C2O4)(pm)(OH2)2]+ (pm denotes pyridoxamine) and 2-ketobutyrate. The results obtained indicate that the presented method can be a promising tool to detect hydrogen peroxide in biological samples, particularly in cellular experimental models. PMID:28358356

  16. Hydrogen peroxide induces activation of insulin signaling pathway via AMP-dependent kinase in podocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Rogacka, Dorota; Angielski, Stefan; Jankowski, Maciej

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activates the insulin signaling pathway and glucose uptake in podocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces time-dependent changes in AMPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhances insulin signaling pathways via AMPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation of glucose uptake is AMPK-dependent. -- Abstract: Podocytes are cells that form the glomerular filtration barrier in the kidney. Insulin signaling in podocytes is critical for normal kidney function. Insulin signaling is regulated by oxidative stress and intracellular energy levels. We cultured rat podocytes to investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on the phosphorylation of proximal and distal elements of insulin signaling. We also investigated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced intracellular changes in the distribution of protein kinase B (Akt). Western blots showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (100 {mu}M) induced rapid, transient phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), the IR substrate-1 (IRS1), and Akt with peak activities at 5 min ({Delta} 183%, P < 0.05), 3 min ({Delta} 414%, P < 0.05), and 10 min ({Delta} 35%, P < 0.05), respectively. Immunostaining cells with an Akt-specific antibody showed increased intensity at the plasma membrane after treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}>. Furthermore, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibited phosphorylation of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN; peak activity at 10 min; {Delta} -32%, P < 0.05) and stimulated phosphorylation of the AMP-dependent kinase alpha subunit (AMPK{alpha}; 78% at 3 min and 244% at 10 min). The stimulation of AMPK was abolished with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C (100 {mu}M, 2 h). Moreover, Compound C significantly reduced the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on IR phosphorylation by about 40% (from 2.07 {+-} 0.28 to 1.28 {+-} 0.12, P < 0.05). In addition, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased glucose uptake in podocytes

  17. Exogenous low-dose hydrogen peroxide enhances drought tolerance of soybean (Glycine max L.) through inducing antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Guler, Neslihan Saruhan; Pehlivan, Necla

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) functions as a signal molecule in plants under abiotic and biotic stress. In this study, the role of exogenous H(2)O(2) in improving drought tolerance in two soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill) differing in their tolerance to drought was evaluated. Plants were grown in plastic pots with normal irrigation in a phytotron. Four weeks after radicle emergence, either 1 mM H(2)O(2) or distilled water was sprayed as foliar onto the leaves of each plant, after drought stress was applied. Leaf samples were harvested on the 4(th) and 7(th) days of the drought. Antioxidant-related enzyme activity, such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was measured during the drought period. Drought stress decreased leaf water potential, relative water content and photosynthetic pigment content but enhanced lipid peroxidation and endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration. By contrast, exogenous low dose H(2)O(2) improved water status, pigment content and lipid peroxidation under drought stress. Endogenous H(2)O(2) concentration was reduced by exogenous H(2)O(2) as compared to drought treatment alone. H(2)O(2) pre-treatment induced all the antioxidant enzyme activities, to a greater extent than the control leaves, during drought. H(2)O(2) pretreatment further enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerant cultivar compared to the sensitive cultivar. Results suggested that low dose H(2)O(2) pre-treatment alleviated water loss and H(2)O(2) content and increased drought stress tolerance by inducing the antioxidant system.

  18. Antioxidant potential of silk protein sericin against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Dash, Rupesh; Acharya, Chitrangada; Bindu, P C; Kundu, S C

    2008-03-31

    The antioxidant potential of silk protein sericin from the non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta cocoon has been assessed and compared with that of the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori. Skin fibroblast cell line (AH927) challenged with hydrogen peroxide served as the positive control for the experiment. Our results showed that the sericin obtained from tasar cocoons offers protection against oxidative stress and cell viability is restored to that of control on pre-incubation with the sericin. Fibroblasts pre-incubated with non-mulberry sericin had significantly lower levels of catalase; lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde activity when compared to untreated ones. This report indicates that the silk protein sericin from the non-mulberry tropical tasar silkworm, A. mylitta can serve as a valuable antioxidant.

  19. Titanium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles protect cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrea; Zhu, Aiping; Petty, Howard R.

    2014-01-01

    To develop new nanoparticle materials possessing anti-oxidative capacity with improved physical characteristics, we have studied titanium-doped cerium oxide (CeTiO2) nanoparticles. CeTiO2 nanoparticles had a mode diameter of 15-20 nm. These nanoparticles demonstrated catalase activity, and did not promote the activation of hemolytic or cytolytic pathways in living cells. Using surface plasmon resonance enhanced microscopy, we find that these nanoparticles associate with cells. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that these nanoparticles accumulate within the vacuolar compartment of cells. Importantly, CeTiO2 nanoparticles decrease hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptosis of cells as judged by the reduced cleavage of a caspase 3-sensitive label. CeTiO2 nanoparticles may contribute to deflecting tissue damage in a broad spectrum of oxidant-mediated diseases, such as macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24791147

  20. Titanium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles protect cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Andrea; Zhu, Aiping; Petty, Howard R.

    2013-12-01

    To develop new nanoparticle materials possessing antioxidative capacity with improved physical characteristics, we have studied titanium-doped cerium oxide (CeTiO2) nanoparticles. CeTiO2 nanoparticles had mode diameters in the range of 15-20 nm. These nanoparticles demonstrated catalase activity, and did not promote the activation of hemolytic or cytolytic pathways in living cells. Using surface plasmon resonance-enhanced microscopy, we find that these nanoparticles associate with cells. Transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that these nanoparticles accumulate within the vacuolar compartment of cells. Importantly, CeTiO2 nanoparticles decrease hydrogen peroxide-mediated apoptosis of cells as judged by the reduced cleavage of a caspase 3-sensitive label. CeTiO2 nanoparticles may contribute to deflecting tissue damage in a broad spectrum of oxidant-mediated diseases, such as macular degeneration and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Lovastatin protects chondrocytes derived from Wharton's jelly of human cord against hydrogen-peroxide-induced in vitro injury.

    PubMed

    Wajid, Nadia; Mehmood, Azra; Bhatti, Fazal-ur-Rehman; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2013-03-01

    Our aim was to improve the survival and reduce the apoptosis of chondrocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord (WJMSCs) by Lovastatin supplementation under hydrogen-peroxide-induced injury conditions to simulate the osteoarthritic micro-environment. Chondrocytes were differentiated in vitro from WJMSCs. The cultured WJMSCs expressed CD90 (84.07%), CD105 (80.84%), OCT4 (26.90%), CD45 (0.42%) and CD34 (0.48%) as determined by flow cytometry. Increased aggregation of proteoglycans observed by Safranin-O staining accompanied by increased expression of COL2A1, ACAN, SOX9 and BGN shown by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the chondrogenic differentiation of the WJMSCs. The in vitro differentiated chondrocytes were subjected to oxidative stress by exposure to 200 μM hydrogen peroxide, either in the presence or absence of Lovastatin (2 μM) for 5 h. Lovastatin treatment resulted in decreased apoptosis, senescence and LDH release and in increased viability and proliferation of WJMSC-derived chondrocytes. Real time PCR analysis showed markedly up-regulated expression of prosurvival, proliferation and chondrogenic genes (BCL2L1, BCL2, AKT, PCNA, COL2A1, ACAN, SOX9 and BGN) and significantly down-regulated expression of pro-apoptotic genes (BAX, FADD) in the Lovastatin-treated group in comparison with injured cells. The reduced expression of VEGF and p53 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR suggests the suitability of the use of Lovastatin in adjunct to WJMSC-derived chondrocytes for the treatment of osteoarthritis. We conclude that Lovastatin protects WJMSC-derived chondrocytes from hydrogen-peroxide-induced in vitro injury.

  2. Skeletal muscle contractions induce acute changes in cytosolic superoxide, but slower responses in mitochondrial superoxide and cellular hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Timothy; Kabayo, Tabitha; Ng, Rainer; Chamberlain, Jeffrey; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is increased following contractile activity and these species interact with multiple signaling pathways to mediate adaptations to contractions. The sources and time course of the increase in ROS during contractions remain undefined. Confocal microscopy with specific fluorescent probes was used to compare the activities of superoxide in mitochondria and cytosol and the hydrogen peroxide content of the cytosol in isolated single mature skeletal muscle (flexor digitorum brevis) fibers prior to, during, and after electrically stimulated contractions. Superoxide in mitochondria and cytoplasm were assessed using MitoSox red and dihydroethidium (DHE) respectively. The product of superoxide with DHE, 2-hydroxyethidium (2-HE) was acutely increased in the fiber cytosol by contractions, whereas hydroxy-MitoSox showed a slow cumulative increase. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthases increased the contraction-induced formation of hydroxy-MitoSox only with no effect on 2-HE formation. These data indicate that the acute increases in cytosolic superoxide induced by contractions are not derived from mitochondria. Data also indicate that, in muscle mitochondria, nitric oxide (NO) reduces the availability of superoxide, but no effect of NO on cytosolic superoxide availability was detected. To determine the relationship of changes in superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, an alternative specific approach was used where fibers were transduced using an adeno-associated viral vector to express the hydrogen peroxide probe, HyPer within the cytoplasmic compartment. HyPer fluorescence was significantly increased in fibers following contractions, but surprisingly followed a relatively slow time course that did not appear directly related to cytosolic superoxide. These data demonstrate for the first time temporal and site specific differences in specific ROS that occur in skeletal muscle fibers during and after contractile activity.

  3. Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Patrick I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water has been developed. The apparatus is a prototype of H2O2 generators for the safe and effective sterilization of water, sterilization of equipment in contact with water, and other applications in which there is need for hydrogen peroxide at low concentration as an oxidant. Potential applications for electrolytic H2O2 generators include purification of water for drinking and for use in industrial processes, sanitation for hospitals and biotechnological industries, inhibition and removal of biofouling in heat exchangers, cooling towers, filtration units, and the treatment of wastewater by use of advanced oxidation processes that are promoted by H2O2.

  4. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with chemiluminescent micelles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwon; Erigala, Venkata R; Dasari, Madhuri; Yu, Junhua; Dickson, Robert M; Murthy, Niren

    2008-01-01

    The overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is implicated in the progress of numerous life-threatening diseases and there is a great need for the development of contrast agents that can detect hydrogen peroxide in vivo. In this communication, we present a new contrast agent for hydrogen peroxide, termed peroxalate micelles, which detect hydrogen peroxide through chemiluminescence, and have the physical/chemical properties needed for in vivo imaging applications. The peroxalate micelles are composed of amphiphilic peroxalate based copolymers and the fluorescent dye rubrene, they have a 'stealth' polyethylene glycol (PEG) corona to evade macrophage phagocytosis, and a diameter of 33 nm to enhance extravasation into permeable tissues. The peroxalate micelles can detect nanomolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>50 nM) and thus have the sensitivity needed to detect physiological concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. We anticipate numerous applications of the peroxalate micelles for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide, given their high sensitivity, small size, and biocompatible PEG corona.

  5. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Ronald; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation is to provide the current status of NASA's efforts in the development of hydrogen peroxide in both mono-propellant and bi-propellant applications, consistent with the Space Launch Initiative goals of pursuing low toxicity and operationally simpler propellants for application in the architectures being considered for the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle, also known as the Space Launch Initiative, or SLI.

  6. Occupational skin injury by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Izu, K; Yamamoto, O; Asahi, M

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is widely used in products such as rocket fuel, bleaching preparations and topical disinfectants. Contact of hydrogen peroxide with the skin can cause severe skin damage. In this report, we describe a case of skin injury induced by hydrogen peroxide. The patient was a 34-year-old man working in a dry cleaning shop. While he was pouring 35% hydrogen peroxide, some of it accidentally splashed over his left shoulder and back, and then an erythema, purpura and vacuolar eruption, similar to bubble wrap, appeared on his left shoulder and down the left side of his back. Histologically, numerous vacuolar structures were observed in the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Coupled with the clinical features, these vacuolar structures were considered as 'oxygen bubbles'. Subcutaneous emphysema was detected by chest X-ray examination. All skin eruptions rapidly healed without scarring by using a steroid ointment. As far as we know, this is the first time such clinical and histological features have been described Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the fusaric acid-induced programmed cell death in tobacco cells.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiao; Sun, Ling; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Hao, Yu; Zhu, Xiaoping; Liang, Yuancun

    2014-08-15

    Fusaric acid (FA), a non-specific toxin produced mainly by Fusarium spp., can cause programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. The mechanism underlying the FA-induced PCD was not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the roles of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitochondrial function in the FA-induced PCD. Tobacco suspension cells were treated with 100 μM FA and then analyzed for H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial functions. Here we demonstrate that cells undergoing FA-induced PCD exhibited H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and a decrease of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Pre-treatment of tobacco suspension cells with antioxidant ascorbic acid and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium significantly reduced the rate of FA-induced cell death as well as the caspase-3-like protease activity. Moreover, FA treatment of tobacco cells decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content. Oligomycin and cyclosporine A, inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATP synthase and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, respectively, could also reduce the rate of FA-induced cell death significantly. Taken together, the results presented in this paper demonstrate that H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are the crucial events during the FA-induced PCD in tobacco suspension cells.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikes, Brian G.; Miller, William L.; Lee, Meehye

    1991-05-01

    Aqueous fluorescence and chemiluminescence methods have been used to measure hydrogen peroxide in natural waters and in the atmosphere. Ambient hydrogen peroxide and soluble organic peroxide data is presented from the EMEX, MLOPEX and SAGA-3 experimental programs, experiments conducted in the remote marine environment. Methods to measure organic peroxide using conventional collection strategies and direct analysis by chemiluminescence or fluorescence method is approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the fluorescence method. Species specific measurements of organic peroxides are also in development using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence or chemiluminescence detection.

  9. Protective Effect of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhao, Y M; Zhang, B; Guo, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration.

  10. 2-Methoxyestradiol induces apoptosis in Ewing sarcoma cells through mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan; Wietzerbin, Juana; Besançon, Françoise

    2003-05-01

    The Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone tumor in children and young adults. Despite the advances in therapy, the 5-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease is poor, indicating the need for alternative treatments. Here, we report that 2-methoxy-estradiol (2-Me), a natural estrogen metabolite, induced a caspase-dependent apoptosis of Ewing sarcoma-derived cells independently of their p53 status. 2-Me-induced apoptosis occurred through the mitochondrial death pathway as evidenced by reduction of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Treatment of cells with 2-Me resulted in generation of intracellular H(2)O(2), which occurred earlier than caspase-9 activation. The H(2)O(2)-reducing agent Ebselen and the lipid peroxidation inhibitor vitamin E decreased both 2-Me-induced caspase-9 activation and cell death, thus providing evidence for a role of H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxides in the initiation of this process. Rotenone, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, abolished both apoptosis and H(2)O(2) production, thereby identifying mitochondria as the source of H(2)O(2). Moreover, we observed that treatment of cells with 2-Me or H(2)O(2) induced activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of JNK1 reduced 2-Me-induced apoptosis indicating that JNK participates in this process. Altogether, our results provide evidence that 2-Me triggers apoptosis of Ewing sarcoma cells through induction of a mitochondria redox-dependent mechanism and suggest that this compound or other agents that selectively increase the level of reactive oxygen species may prove useful to the development of novel strategies for treatment of Ewing tumors.

  11. Characterization of the neuroprotective effects of estrogens on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in hippocampal HT22 cells: time and dose-dependency.

    PubMed

    Vedder, H; Teepker, M; Fischer, S; Krieg, J C

    2000-01-01

    Time and dose-dependency of the effects of estrogens (17-beta estradiol, estrone) and non-estrogenic steroids (progesterone, dexamethasone and methylprednisolone) on the toxicity of hydrogen peroxide were examined in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Hydrogen peroxide, an important intermediate of various disease-relevant oxidative stressors, induced cell death in HT22 cells in extracellular concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5 mM in a dose-dependent manner (EC50=0.95 mM). Regarding the underlying mechanisms of toxicity, incubation with hydrogen peroxide did not induce lipid peroxidation in living HT22 cells under these conditions. After preincubation with estrogens and non-estrogenic steroids for 22 hours, estrogen compounds protected the cells against hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Estrogens showed a maximal protective effect at 60-70% of hydrogen peroxide toxicity which diminished at higher and lower concentrations of the toxic challenge. Dose-dependency studies of estrogens revealed that concentrations of 1 microM already exerted a significant cytoprotective effect. Co- and postincubation with 17-beta estradiol and estrone also resulted in significant cell protection even if the estrogens were added 30 min after the initiation of the challenge with hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, preincubation with other steroids like progesterone, a physiological gonadal steroid, dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid and methylprednisolone, a glucocorticoid with radical scavenging properties, did not protect the cells against hydrogen peroxide toxicity but resulted in a dose-related decrease of HT22 cell survival in the course of the toxic challenge.

  12. Effects on gastric mucosa induced by dental bleaching – an experimental study with 6% hydrogen peroxide in rats

    PubMed Central

    PAULA, Anabela Baptista; DIAS, Maria Isabel; FERREIRA, Manuel Marques; CARRILHO, Teresa; MARTO, Carlos Miguel; CASALTA, João; CABRITA, António Silvério; CARRILHO, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    The value of aesthetic dentistry has precipitated several developments in the investigation of dental materials related to this field. The free marketing of these products is a problem and it is subject to various interpretations regarding its legality. There are several techniques for tooth whitening, the most used one being the external bleaching. It is the later version of such technique that poses the greatest danger of ingesting the product. The present study analysed the systemic effect of these products when they are swallowed. Objective This experimental study aimed to observe the effects of a tooth whitening product, whose active agent is 6% hydrogen peroxide, on the gastric mucosa of healthy and non-tumour gastric pathology animals. Material and Methods Fifty Wistar-Han rats were used and then distributed into 5 groups, one for control and four test groups in which the bleaching product was administered in animals with and without non-tumour gastric pathology (induced by the administration of 1 sample of 50% ethanol and 5% of drinking water during 6 days) at different times of study by gavage. There was a decrease in body weight in animals of groups handled during the study period, which was most pronounced in IV and VA groups. Changes in spleen weight relative to body weight revealed no statistically significant changes. An analysis of the frequency was performed on the results of macroscopic observation of the gastric mucosa. Results The gastric mucosa revealed lesions in all manipulated groups, being more frequent in groups III and IV. It appears that there is a synergism when using hydrogen peroxide and 50% ethanol in the same group. Conclusion Therefore, it seems that there are some signs of toxicity 3 to 4 days after administration of 6% hydrogen peroxide. The prescription of these therapies must be controlled by the clinician and the risks must be minimized. PMID:26537721

  13. Carvedilol protects bone marrow stem cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death via PI3K-AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meihui; Chen, Shudong; Lin, Dingkun

    2016-03-01

    Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor blocker, has been reported to exert potent anti-oxidative activities. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carvedilol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) death, which imitate the microenvironment surrounding transplanted cells in the injured spinal cord in vitro. Carvedilol significantly reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis and subsequent cell death. LY294002, the PI3K inhibitor, blocked the protective effects and up-regulation of Akt phosphorylation of carvedilol. Together, our results showed that carvedilol protects H2O2-induced BMSCs cell death partly through PI3K-Akt pathway, suggesting carvedilol could be used in combination with BMSCs for the treatment of spinal cord injury by improving the cell survival and oxidative stress microenvironments.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells: possible relation to neurodegenerative diseases and strokes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Li, Wenyan; Su, Jialin; Liu, Weimin; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2003-12-15

    Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested as important mediators of brain damage in a number of disease states, including traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases and strokes. Apoptosis has been suggested to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury and strokes. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (CVSMCs) undergo apoptosis following treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that H2O2 can induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in primary cultured CVSMCs, as measured by several morphological and biochemical criteria. H2O2-induced apoptosis may be initiated by stimulating Ca2+-dependent endonuclease activity. The present new data suggest that apoptosis in cerebral VSMCs, induced by ROS, such as H2O2, could play important roles in neruodegenerative processes, traumatic brain injury and strokes.

  15. Nitric oxide protects macrophages from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by inducing the formation of catalase.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Tatsuya; Kishino, Takashi; Yamamuro, Akiko; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2006-04-15

    We investigated the cytoprotective effect of NO on H2O2-induced cell death in mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264. H2O2-treated cells showed apoptotic features, such as activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, nuclear fragmentation, and DNA fragmentation. These apoptotic features were significantly inhibited by pretreatment for 24 h with NO donors, sodium nitroprusside and 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3,3-bis-(2-aminoethyl)-1-triazene, at a low nontoxic concentration. The cytoprotective effect of NO was abrogated by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole but was not affected by a glutathione synthesis inhibitor, L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine. NO donors increased the level of catalase and its activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, inhibited both the NO-induced increase in the catalase level and the cytoprotective effect of NO. These results indicate that NO at a low concentration protects macrophages from H2O2-induced apoptosis by inducing the production of catalase.

  16. Cu-ZSM-5 catalyzed low-temperature hydrogen peroxide-induced methane-to-methanol conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Zhenglong; Allard, Jr., Lawrence Frederick; Kidder, Michelle; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We report that Cu-ZSM-5 is an effective catalyst for methane oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. We find that synthesis via ion-exchage and reaction conditions are important factors for the observed efficiency of Cu-ZSM-5.

  17. Hydroxyl radical consumption following photolysis of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide at 266 nm: Implications for photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence measurements of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, O.; Bood, J.; Aldén, M.; Lindblad, U.

    2009-10-01

    The decay of OH concentration following photolysis of room-temperature vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide is studied as a function of photolysis fluence at 266 nm in an open air environment. The rate of decay is found to increase with increasing photolysis fluence, i.e., with increasing number of photodissociated H2O2(g) molecules. Single-exponential functions approximate the OH concentration decay rather well, even for higher photolysis levels, and the decay time is shown to be inversely proportional to the H2O2(g) concentration. For fluences of about 450 mJ/cm2 the difference between a single-exponential decay and measured data is becoming evident after approximately 150 μs. Calculations based on a chemical kinetics model agree well with experimental data also for times >150 μs. By combining the model with measurements, the actual photolysis levels used in experiments are estimated. The best fit between measured data and the model suggests that about 1.1% of the H2O2(g) molecules are dissociated with a photolysis fluence of ˜450 mJ/cm2, in reasonable agreement with a Beer-Lambert based estimation. Excitation scans did not unfold any differences between OH spectra recorded at different photolysis fluences.

  18. Catalases Induction in High Virulence Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus under Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Cláudia S. L.; Ikuyo, Yoriko; Shinya, Ryoji; Mota, Manuel; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Considered an EPPO A2 quarantine pest, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causal agent of the pine wilt disease and the most devastating plant parasitic nematode attacking coniferous trees in the world. In the early stages of invasion, this nematode has to manage host defence mechanisms, such as strong oxidative stress. Only successful, virulent nematodes are able to tolerate the basal plant defences, and furthermore migrate and proliferate inside of the host tree. In this work, our main objective was to understand to what extent B. xylophilus catalases are involved in their tolerance to oxidative stress and virulence, using as oxidant agent the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). After 24 hours of exposure, high virulence isolates of B. xylophilus could withstand higher H2O2 concentrations in comparison with low virulence B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus, corroborating our observation of Bxy-ctl-1 and Bxy-ctl-2 catalase up-regulation under the same experimental conditions. Both catalases are expressed throughout the nematode intestine. In addition, transgenic strains of Caenorhabditis elegans overexpressing B. xylophilus catalases were constructed and evaluated for survival under similar conditions as previously. Our results suggest that catalases of high virulence B. xylophilus were crucial for nematode survival under prolonged exposure to in vitro oxidative stress, highlighting their adaptive response, which could contribute to their success in host conditions. PMID:25894519

  19. Acetate induced enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide production from oxalic acid and dioxygen.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yusuke; Nomura, Akifumi; Miyahigashi, Takamitsu; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-05-09

    The addition of acetate ion to an O2-saturated mixed solution of acetonitrile and water containing oxalic acid as a reductant and 2-phenyl-4-(1-naphthyl)quinolinium ion (QuPh(+)-NA) as a photocatalyst dramatically enhanced the turnover number of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. In this photocatalytic H2O2 production, a base is required to facilitate deprotonation of oxalic acid forming oxalate dianion, which acts as an actual electron donor, whereas a Brønsted acid is also necessary to protonate O2(•-) for production of H2O2 by disproportionation. The addition of acetate ion to a reaction solution facilitates both the deprotonation of oxalic acid and the protonation of O2(•-) owing to a pH buffer effect. The quantum yield of the photocatalytic H2O2 production under photoirradiation (λ = 334 nm) of an O2-saturated acetonitrile-water mixed solution containing acetate ion, oxalic acid and QuPh(+)-NA was determined to be as high as 0.34, which is more than double the quantum yield obtained by using oxalate salt as an electron donor without acetate ion (0.14). In addition, the turnover number of QuPh(+)-NA reached more than 340. The reaction mechanism and the effect of solvent composition on the photocatalytic H2O2 production were scrutinized by using nanosecond laser flash photolysis.

  20. Astaxanthin protects steroidogenesis from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jyun-Yuan; Lee, Yue-Jia; Chou, Mei-Chia; Chang, Renin; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Liang, Yao-Jen; Wu, Leang-Shin

    2015-03-16

    Androgens, especially testosterone produced in Leydig cells, play an essential role in development of the male reproductive phenotype and fertility. However, testicular oxidative stress may cause a decline in testosterone production. Many antioxidants have been used as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers to eliminate oxidative stress to protect steroidogenesis. Astaxanthin (AST), a natural extract from algae and plants ubiquitous in the marine environment, has been shown to have antioxidant activity in many previous studies. In this study, we treated primary mouse Leydig cells or MA-10 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to cause oxidative stress. Testosterone and progesterone production was suppressed and the expression of the mature (30 kDa) form of StAR protein was down-regulated in MA-10 cells by H2O2 and cAMP co-treatment. However, progesterone production and expression of mature StAR protein were restored in MA-10 cells by a one-hour pretreatment with AST. AST also reduced ROS levels in cells so that they were lower than the levels in untreated controls. These results provide additional evidence of the potential health benefits of AST as a potential food additive to ease oxidative stress.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide-induced pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit in association with energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yifen; Lin, Yixiong; Lin, Hetong; Ritenour, Mark A; Shi, John; Zhang, Shen; Chen, Yihui; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-15

    Energy metabolism of "Fuyan" longan fruit treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the most stable of the reactive oxygen, and its relationship to pericarp browning were investigated in this work. The results displayed that H2O2 significantly decreased contents of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It also inhibited activities of H(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in membranes of plasma, vacuole and mitochondria during the early-storage and mid-storage (except for mitochondrial membrane Mg(2+)-ATPase). These results gave convincing evidence that the treatment of H2O2 accelerating pericarp browning in harvested longans was due to a decrease of ATPase activity and available ATP content. This might break the ion homeostasis and the integrity of mitochondria, which might reduce energy charge and destroy the function and compartmentalization of cell membrane. These together aggravated browning incidence in pericarp of harvested longan fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective Effect of Quercetin on the Development of Preimplantation Mouse Embryos against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin-hua; Yan, Zhi-guang; Liang, Hong-xing; Chai, Wei-ran; Yan, Zheng; Kuang, Yan-ping; Qi, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid in Chinese herbs, fruits and wine, displays antioxidant properties in many pathological processes associated with oxidative stress. However, the effect of quercetin on the development of preimplantation embryos under oxidative stress is unclear. The present study sought to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanism of action of quercetin against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in mouse zygotes. H2O2 treatment impaired the development of mouse zygotes in vitro, decreasing the rates of blastocyst formation and hatched, and increasing the fragmentation, apoptosis and retardation in blastocysts. Quercetin strongly protected zygotes from H2O2-induced oxidative injury by decreasing the reactive oxygen species level, maintaining mitochondrial function and modulating total antioxidant capability, the activity of the enzymatic antioxidants, including glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity to keep the cellular redox environment. Additionally, quercetin had no effect on the level of glutathione, the main non-enzymatic antioxidant in embryos. PMID:24586844

  3. Coating for components requiring hydrogen peroxide compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yousefiani, Ali (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a heretofore-unknown use for zirconium nitride as a hydrogen peroxide compatible protective coating that was discovered to be useful to protect components that catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide or corrode when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. A zirconium nitride coating of the invention may be applied to a variety of substrates (e.g., metals) using art-recognized techniques, such as plasma vapor deposition. The present invention further provides components and articles of manufacture having hydrogen peroxide compatibility, particularly components for use in aerospace and industrial manufacturing applications. The zirconium nitride barrier coating of the invention provides protection from corrosion by reaction with hydrogen peroxide, as well as prevention of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

  4. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide on the surface of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Anderson, M.S.; Johnson, R.E.; Smythe, W.D.; Hendrix, A.R.; Barth, C.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Hansen, G.B.; McCord, T.B.; Dalton, J.B.; Clark, R.N.; Shirley, J.H.; Ocampo, A.C.; Matson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Spatially resolved infrared and ultraviolet wavelength spectra of Europa's leading, anti-jovian quadrant observed from the Galileo spacecraft show absorption features resulting from hydrogen peroxide. Comparisons with laboratory measurements indicate surface hydrogen peroxide concentrations of about 0.13 percent, by number, relative to water ice. The inferred abundance is consistent with radiolytic production of hydrogen peroxide by intense energetic particle bombardment and demonstrates that Europa's surface chemistry is dominated by radiolysis.

  6. High Temperature Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydropemxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide on the surface of Europa.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R W; Anderson, M S; Johnson, R E; Smythe, W D; Hendrix, A R; Barth, C A; Soderblom, L A; Hansen, G B; McCord, T B; Dalton, J B; Clark, R N; Shirley, J H; Ocampo, A C; Matson, D L

    1999-03-26

    Spatially resolved infrared and ultraviolet wavelength spectra of Europa's leading, anti-jovian quadrant observed from the Galileo spacecraft show absorption features resulting from hydrogen peroxide. Comparisons with laboratory measurements indicate surface hydrogen peroxide concentrations of about 0.13 percent, by number, relative to water ice. The inferred abundance is consistent with radiolytic production of hydrogen peroxide by intense energetic particle bombardment and demonstrates that Europa's surface chemistry is dominated by radiolysis.

  8. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  9. High Temperature Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydropemxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide mechanosynthesis in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Tavazzi, Silvia; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Cozza, Federica; Pastori, Valentina; Lecchi, Marzia; Farris, Stefano; Borghesi, Alessandro

    2014-11-26

    Drug-loaded contact lenses are emerging as the preferred treatment method for several ocular diseases, and efforts are being directed to promote extended and controlled delivery. One strategy is based on delivery induced by environmental triggers. One of these triggers can be hydrogen peroxide, since many platforms based on drug-loaded nanoparticles were demonstrated to be hydrogen-peroxide responsive. This is particularly interesting when hydrogen peroxide is the result of a specific pathophysiological condition. Otherwise, an alternative route to induce drug delivery is here proposed, namely the mechano-synthesis. The present work represents the proof-of-concept of the mechanosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses as a consequence of the cleavage of siloxane bonds at the interface between the polymer and water in aqueous phase. Their spongy morphology makes contact lenses promising systems for mechanical-to-chemical energy conversion, since the amount of hydrogen peroxide is expected to scale with the interfacial area between the polymer and water. The eyelid pressure during wear is sufficient to induce the hydrogen peroxide synthesis with concentrations which are biocompatible and suitable to trigger the drug release through hydrogen-peroxide-responsive platforms. For possible delivery on demand, the integration of piezoelectric polymers in the siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses could be designed, whose mechanical deformation could be induced by an applied wireless-controlled voltage.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide is involved in the cold acclimation-induced chilling tolerance of tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jian; Shi, Kai; Xia, Xiao Jian; Zhou, Yan Hong; Yu, Jing Quan

    2012-11-01

    Cold acclimation increases plant tolerance to a more-severe chilling and in this process an accumulation of H(2)O(2) in plants is often observed. To examine the role of H(2)O(2) in cold acclimation in plants, the accumulation of H(2)O(2), antioxidant metabolism, the glutathione redox state, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were analyzed after cold acclimation at 12/10 °C and during the subsequent chilling at 7/4 °C in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Cold acclimation modestly elevated the levels of H(2)O(2), the gene expression of respiratory burst oxidase homolog 1 (Rboh1) and NADPH oxidase activity, leading to the up-regulation of the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. In non-acclimated plants chilling caused a continuous rise in the H(2)O(2) content, an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and in the oxidized redox state of glutathione, followed by reductions in the CO(2) assimilation rate and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)). However, in cold-acclimated plants chilling-induced photoinhibition, membrane peroxidation and reductions in the CO(2) assimilation rate were significantly alleviated. Furthermore, a treatment with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor or H(2)O(2) scavenger before the plants subjected to the cold acclimation abolished the cold acclimation-induced beneficial effects on photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism, leading to a loss of the cold acclimation-induced tolerance against chilling. These results strongly suggest that the H(2)O(2) generated by NADPH oxidase in the apoplast of plant cells plays a crucial role in cold acclimation-induced chilling tolerance. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Streptococcus sanguinis induces neutrophil cell death by production of hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Ryuichi; Nakata, Masanobu; Okahashi, Nobuo; Li, Yixuan; Wada, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Hayashi, Mikako; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus is the dominant bacterial genus in the human oral cavity and a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Streptococcus sanguinis belongs to the mitis group of streptococci and produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by the action of SpxB, a pyruvate oxidase. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SpxB in survival of S. sanguinis in human blood and whether bacterial H2O2 exhibits cytotoxicity against human neutrophils. Results of a bactericidal test with human whole blood revealed that the spxB mutation in S. sanguinis is detrimental to its survival in blood. When S. sanguinis strains were exposed to isolated neutrophils, the bacterial survival rate was significantly decreased by spxB deletion. Furthermore, human neutrophils exposed to the S. sanguinis wild-type strain, in contrast to those exposed to an spxB mutant strain, underwent cell death with chromatin de-condensation and release of web-like extracellular DNA, reflecting induction of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Since reactive oxygen species-mediated NET induction requires citrullination of arginine residues in histone proteins and subsequent chromatin de-condensation, we examined citrullination levels of histone in infected neutrophils. It is important to note that the citrullinated histone H3 was readily detected in neutrophils infected with the wild-type strain, as compared to infection with the spxB mutant strain. Moreover, decomposition of streptococcal H2O2 with catalase reduced NET induction. These results suggest that H2O2 produced by S. sanguinis provokes cell death of neutrophils and NET formation, thus potentially affecting bacterial survival in the bloodstream. PMID:28222125

  13. Modulatory effects of Moringa oleifera extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Padma, P R

    2011-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the induction of oxidative stress may be involved in oxidative DNA damage. The present study examined and assessed the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-mediated DNA damage in human tumor KB cells and also assessed the ability of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts to inhibit the oxidative damage. H(2)O(2) imposed a stress on the membrane lipids which was quantified by the extent of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formed. The leaf extracts caused a very significant inhibition of the extent of LPO formation and enhanced the activity of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in KB cells. The comet assay was employed to study the DNA damage and its inhibition by the leaf extracts. H(2)O(2) caused a significant increase in the number of cells bearing comets, resulting in significant DNA damage. The leaf extracts significantly reduced the incidence of comets in the oxidant stressed cells. The extent of cytotoxicity of H(2)O(2) in the presence and the absence of leaf extracts studied in KB tumor cells by the MTT assay showed that H(2)O(2) caused a marked decrease in the viability of KB cells where as the leaf extracts effectively increased the viability of assaulted KB cells. The observed cytoprotective activity is probably due to the antioxidant properties of its constituents, mainly phenolics. Total phenolics showed higher correlation with antioxidant activity. The leaf extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the reference compound. These results suggest that the inhibition by the leaf extracts on oxidative DNA damage could be attributed to their free radical scavenging activities and the effect evidenced in KB cells can be in part correlated to a modulation of redox-sensitive mechanisms.

  14. Growth and Detachment of Oxygen Bubbles Induced by Gold-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Whereas bubble growth out of gas-oversatured solutions has been quite well understood, including the formation and stability of surface nanobubbles, this is not the case for bubbles forming on catalytic surfaces due to catalytic reactions, though it has important implications for gas evolution reactions and self-propulsion of micro/nanomotors fueled by bubble release. In this work we have filled this gap by experimentally and theoretically examining the growth and detachment dynamics of oxygen bubbles from hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyzed by gold. We measured the bubble radius R(t) as a function of time by confocal microscopy and find R(t) ∝ t1/2. This diffusive growth behavior demonstrates that the bubbles grow from an oxygen-oversaturated environment. For several consecutive bubbles detaching from the same position in a short period of time, a well-repeated growing behavior is obtained from which we conclude the absence of noticeable depletion effect of oxygen from previous bubbles or increasing oversaturation from the gas production. In contrast, for two bubbles far apart either in space or in time, substantial discrepancies in their growth rates are observed, which we attribute to the variation in the local gas oversaturation. The current results show that the dynamical evolution of bubbles is influenced by comprehensive effects combining chemical catalysis and physical mass transfer. Finally, we find that the size of the bubbles at the moment of detachment is determined by the balance between buoyancy and surface tension and by the detailed geometry at the bubble’s contact line. PMID:28983387

  15. Growth and Detachment of Oxygen Bubbles Induced by Gold-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Lv, Pengyu; Le The, Hai; Eijkel, Jan; Van den Berg, Albert; Zhang, Xuehua; Lohse, Detlef

    2017-09-28

    Whereas bubble growth out of gas-oversatured solutions has been quite well understood, including the formation and stability of surface nanobubbles, this is not the case for bubbles forming on catalytic surfaces due to catalytic reactions, though it has important implications for gas evolution reactions and self-propulsion of micro/nanomotors fueled by bubble release. In this work we have filled this gap by experimentally and theoretically examining the growth and detachment dynamics of oxygen bubbles from hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyzed by gold. We measured the bubble radius R(t) as a function of time by confocal microscopy and find R(t) ∝ t(1/2). This diffusive growth behavior demonstrates that the bubbles grow from an oxygen-oversaturated environment. For several consecutive bubbles detaching from the same position in a short period of time, a well-repeated growing behavior is obtained from which we conclude the absence of noticeable depletion effect of oxygen from previous bubbles or increasing oversaturation from the gas production. In contrast, for two bubbles far apart either in space or in time, substantial discrepancies in their growth rates are observed, which we attribute to the variation in the local gas oversaturation. The current results show that the dynamical evolution of bubbles is influenced by comprehensive effects combining chemical catalysis and physical mass transfer. Finally, we find that the size of the bubbles at the moment of detachment is determined by the balance between buoyancy and surface tension and by the detailed geometry at the bubble's contact line.

  16. Combination Treatment of Hydrogen Peroxide and X-Rays Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kariya, Shinji Sawada, Ken; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Karashima, Takashi; Shuin, Taro; Nishioka, Akihito; Ogawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Methods and Materials: At 4h before the irradiation, PC-3 cells were exposed to 10mM ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) concentrations. Subsequently, cells were exposed to 0.1mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} just before the irradiations, which were administered with 10-MV X-rays at doses of 10Gy. Results: The percentage of apoptotic cells at 48h after X-irradiation alone, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} alone, and combined X-irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was 1.85%, 4.85%, and 28.4%, respectively. With use of combined X-irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred 4h after the irradiation. This resulted in lysosomal rupturing, mitochondrial fragmentation, and the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm from the mitochondria. In contrast, when cells were exposed to NH{sub 4}Cl before the X-irradiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} administration, apoptosis was almost completely suppressed, ROS production did not occur, lysosomal rupture and mitochondrial fragmentation were blocked, and cytochrome c was not released. Conclusions: Hydrogen peroxide strongly enhanced lysosome-dependent radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. A combined use of X-rays and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can also injure the mitochondrial cytoplasmic organelles and lead to the production of ROS that in and of itself might possibly induce apoptosis.

  17. Ethylene mediates UV-B-induced stomatal closure via peroxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide synthesis in Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    He, Junmin; Yue, Xiaozhen; Wang, Ruibin; Zhang, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is an important environmental signal for plant growth and development, but its signal transduction mechanism is unclear. UV-B is known to induce stomatal closure via hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and to affect ethylene biosynthesis. As ethylene is also known to induce stomatal closure via H(2)O(2) generation, the possibility of UV-B-induced stomatal closure via ethylene-mediated H(2)O(2) generation was investigated in Vicia faba by epidermal strip bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy, and assays of ethylene production. It was found that H(2)O(2) production in guard cells and subsequent stomatal closure induced by UV-B radiation were inhibited by interfering with ethylene biosynthesis as well as ethylene signalling, suggesting that ethylene is epistatic to UV-B radiation in stomatal movement. Ethylene production preceded H(2)O(2) production upon UV-B radiation, while exogenous ethylene induced H(2)O(2) production in guard cells and subsequent stomatal closure, further supporting the conclusion. Inhibitors for peroxidase but not for NADPH oxidase abolished H(2)O(2) production upon UV-B radiation in guard cells, suggesting that peroxidase is the source of UV-B-induced H(2)O(2) production. Taken together, our results strongly support the idea that ethylene mediates UV-B-induced stomatal closure via peroxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) generation.

  18. Constituents from the stem barks of Canarium bengalense with cytoprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoang Thi; Ha, Do Thi; Minh, Chau Thi Anh; Kim, Tae Hoon; Van Kiem, Phan; Thuan, Nguyen Duy; Na, Minkyun

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stem barks of Canarium bengalense (Burseraceace) resulted in the isolation of a new flavone glycoside (5) together with six known compounds (1-4, 6, and 7). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated as 3'-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone-5-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and MS analyses. To evaluate the in vitro cytoprotective effect, the isolates (1-7) were tested against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced damage in primary cultured hepatocytes. The viability of hepatocytes was increased by treatment with each compound, except compound 1. Compounds 3, 4, and 7 exerted cytoprotective effects comparable to curcumin, the positive control. Our results suggest that the cytoprotective constituents of C. bengalense may contribute to its traditional use in the treatment of tumor and liver damage.

  19. Catalase plays a key role in salt stress acclimation induced by hydrogen peroxide pretreatment in maize.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Franklin Aragão; Gomes-Filho, Enéas; Costa, José Hélio; Mendes Alencar, Nara Lídia; Prisco, José Tarquinio

    2012-07-01

    Pretreatment in plants is recognized as a valuable strategy to stimulate plant defenses, leading to better plant development. This study evaluated the effects of H₂O₂ leaf spraying pretreatment on plant growth and investigated the antioxidative mechanisms involved in the response of maize plants to salt stress. It was found that salinity reduced maize seedling growth when compared to control conditions, and H₂O₂ foliar spraying was effective in minimizing this effect. Analysis of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.1) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) revealed that H₂O₂ spraying increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Catalase (CAT) was the most responsive of these enzymes to H₂O₂, with higher activity early (48 h) in the treatment, while guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were responsive only at later stages (240 h) of treatment. Increased CAT activity appears linked to gene expression regulation. Lower malondialdehyde levels were detected in plants with higher CAT activity, which may result from the protective function of this enzyme. Overall, we can conclude that pretreatment with H₂O₂ leaf spraying was able to reduce the deleterious effects of salinity on seedling growth and lipid peroxidation. These responses could be attributed to the ability of H₂O₂ to induce antioxidant defenses, especially CAT activity.

  20. Protective effect of erdosteine metabolite I against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative DNA-damage in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Marabini, Laura; Calò, Rossella; Braga, Pier Carlo

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that the mucolytic agent erdosteine (N-carboxymethylthio-acetyl-homocysteine thiolactone, CAS 84611-23-4) has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, and an active metabolite I (MET I) containing pharmacologically active sulphydryl group has been found to have a free radical scavenging activity. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of erdosteine metabolite I to protect A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage. When A549 cells were pre-treated with the active metabolite I (2.5-5-10 microg/ml) for 10-30 min and then exposed to H2O2 (1-4 mM) for two additional hours at 37 degrees C, 5% at CO2, the intracellular peroxide production, reflected by dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence, decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, using a comet assay as an indicator for oxidative DNA damage, it was found that the metabolite I prevented damage to cells exposed to shortterm H2O2 treatment. The data suggest that this compound is effective in preventing H2O2-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in A549 cells. The underlying mechanisms involve the scavenging of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  1. N-Acetyl-Serotonin Protects HepG2 Cells from Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiying; Yu, Shuna; Jiang, Zhengchen; Liang, Cuihong; Yu, Wenbo; Li, Jin; Du, Xiaodong; Wang, Hailiang; Gao, Xianghong; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. N-Acetyl-serotonin (NAS) has been reported to protect against oxidative damage, though the mechanisms by which NAS protects hepatocytes from oxidative stress remain unknown. To determine whether pretreatment with NAS could reduce hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, we investigated the H2O2-induced oxidative damage to HepG2 cells with or without NAS using MTT, Hoechst 33342, rhodamine 123, Terminal dUTP Nick End Labeling Assay (TUNEL), dihydrodichlorofluorescein (H2DCF), Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining, immunocytochemistry, and western blot. H2O2 produced dramatic injuries in HepG2 cells, represented by classical morphological changes of apoptosis, increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increased activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3, release of cytochrome c (Cyt-C) and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, and loss of membrane potential (ΔΨm). NAS significantly inhibited H2O2-induced changes, indicating that it protected against H2O2-induced oxidative damage by reducing MDA levels and increasing SOD activity and that it protected the HepG2 cells from apoptosis through regulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, involving inhibition of mitochondrial hyperpolarization, release of mitochondrial apoptogenic factors, and caspase activity. PMID:25013541

  2. Molecular Association and Structure of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giguere, Paul A.

    1983-01-01

    The statement is sometimes made in textbooks that liquid hydrogen peroxide is more strongly associated than water, evidenced by its higher boiling point and greater heat of vaporization. Discusses these and an additional factor (the nearly double molecular mass of the peroxide), focusing on hydrogen bonds and structure of the molecule. (JN)

  3. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the...

  4. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  6. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  7. Molecular Association and Structure of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giguere, Paul A.

    1983-01-01

    The statement is sometimes made in textbooks that liquid hydrogen peroxide is more strongly associated than water, evidenced by its higher boiling point and greater heat of vaporization. Discusses these and an additional factor (the nearly double molecular mass of the peroxide), focusing on hydrogen bonds and structure of the molecule. (JN)

  8. 7 CFR 58.431 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 58.431 Section 58.431 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.431 Hydrogen peroxide. The solution shall comply with the specification of the U.S...

  9. Fundamentals of ISCO Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide is a common oxidant that has been applied extensively with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Because of its widespread use in this and other fields, it has been extensively researched. This research has revealed that hydrogen peroxide has very complex chemistry...

  10. Fundamentals of ISCO Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen peroxide is a common oxidant that has been applied extensively with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). Because of its widespread use in this and other fields, it has been extensively researched. This research has revealed that hydrogen peroxide has very complex chemistry...

  11. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  12. Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Mediate Wounding-Induced Freezing Tolerance through Modifications in Photosystem and Antioxidant System in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Si, Tong; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Lin; Zhao, Chunzhao; Zhang, Lini; Huang, Mei; Cai, Jian; Zhou, Qin; Dai, Tingbo; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Jiang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical wounding is a common stress caused by herbivores or manual and natural manipulations, whereas its roles in acclimation response to a wide spectrum of abiotic stresses remain unclear. The present work showed that local mechanical wounding enhanced freezing tolerance in untreated systemic leaves of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.), and meanwhile the signal molecules hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) were accumulated systemically. Pharmacological study showed that wounding-induced NO synthesis was substantially arrested by pretreatment with scavengers of reactive oxygen species and an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (respiratory burst oxidase homolog, RBOH). On the contrary, wounding-induced H2O2 accumulation was not sensitive to NO synthetic inhibitors or scavenger, indicating that H2O2 acts upstream of NO in wounding signal transduction pathways. Cytochemical and vascular tissues localizations approved that RBOH-dependent H2O2 acts as long-distance signal in wounding response. Transcriptome analysis revealed that 279 genes were up-regulated in plants treated with wounding and freezing, but not in plants treated with freezing alone. Importantly, freezing- and wounding-induced genes were significantly enriched in the categories of "photosynthesis" and "signaling." These results strongly supported that primary mechanical wounding can induce freezing tolerance in wheat through the systemic accumulation of NO and H2O2, and further modifications in photosystem and antioxidant system.

  13. Neuroprotective activity of Viola mandshurica extracts on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and cell death in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Gyeong-Im; Yoon, Mi-Young; Park, Hae-Ryoung; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Park, Eunju

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of acetone extracts from Viola mandshurica (VME). The effect of VME on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced DNA damage in PC12 cells was evaluated by the comet assay where VME (100 and 250 microg/mL) was a dose-dependent inhibitor of DNA damage induced by 500 micromol/L of H(2)O(2). The protective effect of VME against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage on PC12 cells was investigated by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] reduction assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays. After 3 h of cell exposure to 500 micromol/L of H(2)O(2), a marked reduction in cell survival was observed. However, the reduction was significantly prevented by 100 and 250 microg/mL of VME. H(2)O(2) also induced severe apoptosis of the PC12 cells, which was indicated by Hoechst 33342 staining. Interestingly, the H(2)O(2)-stressed PC12 cells that were incubated with 100 and 250 microg/mL of VME had greatly suppressed apoptosis. The results suggest that VME could be a new antioxidant candidate against neuronal diseases.

  14. Protective effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin pretreatment against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Zahid; Ahmad, Ejaz; Aksoy, Melih; Küçük, Niyazi; Serin, İlker; Ceylan, Ahmet; Boyacıoğlu, Murat; Kum, Cavit

    2015-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the protective effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cryo-induced damage in ram sperm. In Experiment 1, the fresh ejaculates were either treated with CLC or remained untreated. Both CLC treated and untreated samples were then incubated with 0, 250 or 500 μM H2O2 at 35°C for 12 h. After incubation period of 12 h, the motility, viability and membrane integrity remained higher in CLC treated sperm even in the presence of 250 or 500 μM H2O2. The H2O2 treatment affected all the sperm parameters adversely (P<0.05). However, compared to CLC untreated counterpart, the motility, viability and membrane integrity remained higher (P<0.05) in treated sperm, even in the presence of 250 or 500 μM H2O2 during 12 h of incubation. In Experiment 2, semen was cryopreserved in the presence or absence of CLC. The post-thaw results revealed that CLC treated sperm has higher (P<0.05) motility, viability and membrane integrity compared to the control. In Experiment 3, lipid peroxidation levels were assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations during the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in CLC treated and untreated sperm. However, no difference (P>0.05) in MDA level was observed among the groups at any stage of incubation. In conclusion, the CLC incorporation in ram sperm membrane may protects it against H2O2 or cryo-induced oxidative damage. The cryoprotective influence of CLC on ram sperm might be resulted from, at least partly, its antioxidative property.

  15. Protective Effect of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium on Hydrogen Peroxide-induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhang, B.; Guo, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inula helenium has been reported to contain a large amount of phenolic compounds, which have shown promise in scavenging free radicals and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of total phenolic compounds from I. helenium on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y cells. Antioxidant capacity of total phenolic compounds was determined by radical scavenging activity, the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase activity. The cytotoxicity of total phenolic compounds was determined using a cell counting kit-8 assay. The effect of total phenolic compounds on cell apoptosis due to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage was detected by Hoechst 33258 and Annexin-V/PI staining using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Mitochondrial function was evaluated using the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by JC-1 dye and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. It was shown that hydrogen peroxide significantly induced the loss of cell viability, increment of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate production. On the other hand, total phenolic compounds dose-dependently reversed these effects. This study suggests that total phenolic compounds exert neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage via blocking reactive oxygen species production and improving mitochondrial function. The potential of total phenolic compounds and its neuroprotective mechanisms in attenuating hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress-related cytotoxicity is worth further exploration. PMID:26009648

  16. Neuroprotective effect of Citrus unshiu immature peel and nobiletin inhibiting hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HT22 murine hippocampal neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Woo; Jung, Su Young; Lee, Gyeong Hwan; Cho, Jung Hee; Choi, In Young

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress-induced cell damage is common in the etiology of several neurobiological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In a case study, nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata peels could prevent the progression of cognitive impairment in donepezil-preadministered Alzheimer's disease patients. Objective: In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanism of nobiletin and Citrus unshiu immature peel (CUIP) water extract, which contains nobiletin as a major compound, on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal neuronal model. Materials and Methods: HT22 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of various concentrations of CUIP and nobiletin. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic protein levels were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Western blotting. Results: Pretreatment with CUIP and nobiletin inhibited cell death due to hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide-induced the expression of phospho-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) and p-p38 proteins in HT22 cells; however CUIP and nobiletin suppressed p-JNK and p-p38 without changing JNK or p38. Regarding apoptosis, caspase 3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Bax protein expression was determined. CUIP and nobiletin suppressed caspase 3 and Bax expression, but they induced Bcl-2 expression in HT22 cells. Conclusion: These results show that CUIP and nobiletin can protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in HT22 neurons via mitogen-activated protein kinases and apoptotic pathways. PMID:26664016

  17. 3',4',7-Trihydroxyflavone prevents apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Hong, Sa-Ik; Ma, Shi-Xun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (THF) protection of neuronal cells from neuronal cell death induced by the oxidative stress-related neurotoxin hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment with THF significantly elevated cell viability, reduced H2O2-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) loss. Western blot data demonstrated that THF inhibited the H2O2-induced up- or down-regulation of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL, and attenuated the H2O2-induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. In addition, pretreatment with THF attenuated H2O2-induced rapid and significant phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt. THF also inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation to the nucleus induced by H2O2, down-stream of H2O2-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs and PI3K/Akt. These data provide the first evidence that THF protects neuronal cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress, possibly through ROS reduction, mitochondria protection, and NF-κB modulation via MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways. The neuroprotective effects of THF make it a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Role and interrelationship of MEK1-MPK6 cascade, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in darkness-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng-Yue; Li, Feng-Chen; Fan, Cai-Ming; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Fang-Fang; He, Jun-Min

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacological data have suggested the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) cascades in dark-induced stomatal closure, but which specific MPK cascade participates in the darkness guard cell signaling and its relationship with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) remain unclear. In this paper, we observed that darkness induced activation of MPK6 in leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and mutants for nitrate reductase 1 (NIA1), but this effect was inhibited in mutants for MPK Kinase 1 (MEK1) and ATRBOHD/F. Mutants for MEK1, MPK6 and NIA1 showed defect of dark-induced NO production in guard cells and stomatal closure, but were normal in the dark-induced H2O2 generation, while stomata of mutant AtrbohD/F showed defect of dark-induced H2O2 and NO production and subsequent closure. Moreover, exogenous NO rescued the defect of dark-induced stomatal closure in mutants of AtrbohD/F, mek1 and mpk6, while exogenous H2O2 could not rescue the defect of dark-induced stomatal closure in mutants of mek1, mpk6 and nia1. These genetic and biochemical evidences not only show that MEK1-MPK6 cascade, AtRBOHD/F-dependent H2O2 and NIA1-dependent NO are all involved in dark-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis, also indicate that MEK1-MPK6 cascade functions via working downstream of H2O2 and upstream of NO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective effects of isocampneoside II on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Shen, Ting; Jiang, Yun-Yao; Wu, Lei; Yu, Guo-Jing; Ren, Xiao-Dan; Xu, Guang-Hui; Hu, Wei-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress has been considered as a major cause of cell damage in various neurodegenerative disorders. One of the reasonable strategies for delaying the disease's progression is to prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated cellular injury by dietary or pharmaceutical augmentation of free radical scavengers. Isocampneoside II (ICD) is an active phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the medicinal hardwood genus Paulownia. This study was designed to explore free radical scavenging potential of ICD in different in vitro systems and its protective role in hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic death in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The results showed ICD eliminated approximately 80.75% superoxide radical at the concentration of 0.1mg/ml and inhibited metal chelating by 22.07% at 8 mg/ml. Additionally, ICD showed a strong ability on reducing power and provided protection against oxidative protein damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with ICD prior to H₂O₂ exposure elevated cell viability, enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decreased levels of malondialdehyde and intracellular ROS. Furthermore, ICD inhibited cell apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio induced by H₂O₂. These findings suggested ICD may be considered as a potential antioxidant agent and should encourage for further research in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect of Hypericum perforatum Linn (St. John's wort) against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis on human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Hyeon; Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Shin, Min-Chul; Bahn, Geon-Ho; Kim, Jong-Woo; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Ee-Hwa; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2002-08-30

    The medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum Linn, commonly known as St. John's wort, has been used as an antidepressant. To investigate whether St. John's wort possesses a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, flow cytometry analysis, DNA fragmentation assay, and caspase-3 enzyme assay were performed on SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells. Cells treated with H(2)O(2) exhibited several apoptotic features, while those pre-treated with St. John's wort prior to H(2)O(2) exposure showed a decreased occurrence of apoptotic features. In addition, pre-treatment with St. John's wort inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. These results suggest that St. John's wort may exert a protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  1. Resveratrol Protects C6 Astrocyte Cell Line against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress through Heme Oxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Quincozes-Santos, André; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Latini, Alexandra; Wajner, Moacir; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Gottfried, Carmem

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol presents in grapes and wine, displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cytoprotective effect in brain pathologies associated to oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. In previous work, we demonstrated that resveratrol exerts neuroglial modulation, improving glial functions, mainly related to glutamate metabolism. Astrocytes are a major class of glial cells and regulate neurotransmitter systems, synaptic processing, energy metabolism and defense against oxidative stress. This study sought to determine the protective effect of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in C6 astrocyte cell line, an astrocytic lineage, on neurochemical parameters and their cellular and biochemical mechanisms. H2O2 exposure increased oxidative-nitrosative stress, iNOS expression, cytokine proinflammatory release (TNFα levels) and mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction and decreased antioxidant defenses, such as SOD, CAT and creatine kinase activity. Resveratrol strongly prevented C6 cells from H2O2-induced toxicity by modulating glial, oxidative and inflammatory responses. Resveratrol per se increased heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) expression and extracellular GSH content. In addition, HO1 signaling pathway is involved in the protective effect of resveratrol against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in astroglial cells. Taken together, these results show that resveratrol represents an important mechanism for protection of glial cells against oxidative stress. PMID:23691207

  2. Antioxidant activity of herbaceous plant extracts protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants containing antioxidants can protect against DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances, antioxidant activity, and protection of DNA from oxidative damage in human lymphocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our methods used acidic methanol and water extractions from six herbaceous plants, including Bidens alba (BA), Lycium chinense (LC), Mentha arvensis (MA), Plantago asiatica (PA), Houttuynia cordata (HC), and Centella asiatica (CA). Methods Antioxidant compounds such as flavonol and polyphenol were analyzed. Antioxidant activity was determined by the inhibition percentage of conjugated diene formation in a linoleic acid emulsion system and by trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Their antioxidative capacities for protecting human lymphocyte DNA from H2O2-induced strand breaks was evaluated by comet assay. Results The studied plants were found to be rich in flavonols, especially myricetin in BA, morin in MA, quercetin in HC, and kaemperol in CA. In addition, polyphenol abounded in BA and CA. The best conjugated diene formation inhibition percentage was found in the acidic methanolic extract of PA. Regarding TEAC, the best antioxidant activity was generated from the acidic methanolic extract of HC. Water and acidic methanolic extracts of MA and HC both had better inhibition percentages of tail DNA% and tail moment as compared to the rest of the tested extracts, and significantly suppressed oxidative damage to lymphocyte DNA. Conclusion Quercetin and morin are important for preventing peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, and the leaves of MA and HC extracts may have excellent potential as functional ingredients representing potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:24279749

  3. Effects of various chemical compounds on spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide-induced reversion in strain TA104 of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Han, J S

    1992-04-01

    In experiments designed to determine which active oxygen species contribute to hydrogen peroxide (HP)-induced reversion in strain TA104 of Salmonella typhimurium, 1,10-phenanthroline (an iron chelator, which prevents the formation of hydroxyl radicals from HP and DNA-bound iron by the Fenton reaction), sodium azide (a singlet oxygen scavenger), and potassium iodide (an hydroxyl radical scavenger) inhibited HP-induced reversion. These results indicate that hydroxyl radicals generated from HP by the Fenton reaction, and perhaps singlet oxygen, contribute to HP-induced reversion in TA104. However, reduced glutathione (reduces Fe3+ to Fe2+ and/or HP to water), diethyldithiocarbamic acid (an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase), diethyl maleate (a glutathione scavenger), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (an inhibitor of catalase) did not inhibit HP-induced reversion in TA104. Thus, superoxide radical anions and HP itself do not appear to be the cause of HP-induced reversion in this strain. In experiments on the effect of 5 common dietary compounds (beta-carotene, retinoic acid, and vitamins A, C and E), chlorophyllin (CHL), and ergothioneine, the frequency of revertants in TA104 increased above the spontaneous frequency in the presence of beta-carotene or vitamin C (about 2-fold) or vitamin A (about 3-fold). The 5 dietary antimutagens and CHL did not inhibit HP-induced reversion in TA104. However, L-ergothioneine inhibited HP-induced reversion in this strain. Therefore, it is likely that L-ergothioneine is a scavenger of hydroxyl radicals or an inhibitor of their formation, and perhaps of singlet oxygen, at the concentrations tested in TA104.

  4. Salvianolic Acid B Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis through Regulating PI3K/Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-Li; Xie, Li-Xia; Li, Min; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Goto, Shinya; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Background Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most bioactive components of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been commonly used for prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disorders. However, the mechanism responsible for such protective effects remains largely unknown. It has been considered that cerebral endothelium apoptosis caused by reactive oxygen species including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disorders. Methodology and Principal Findings By examining the effect of Sal B on H2O2-induced apoptosis in rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMECs), we found that Sal B pretreatment significantly attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis in rCMECs. We next examined the signaling cascade(s) involved in Sal B-mediated anti-apoptotic effects. We showed that H2O2 induces rCMECs apoptosis mainly through the PI3K/ERK pathway, since a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) blocked ERK activation caused by H2O2 and a specific inhibitor of MEK (U0126) protected cells from apoptosis. On the other hand, blockage of the PI3K/Akt pathway abrogated the protective effect conferred by Sal B and potentated H2O2-induced apoptosis, suggesting that Sal B prevents H2O2-induced apoptosis predominantly through the PI3K/Akt (upstream of ERK) pathway. Significance Our findings provide the first evidence that H2O2 induces rCMECs apoptosis via the PI3K/MEK/ERK pathway and that Sal B protects rCMECs against H2O2-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:18091994

  5. Detection of hydrogen peroxide with chemiluminescent micelles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Erigala, Venkata R; Dasari, Madhuri; Yu, Junhua; Dickson, Robert M; Murthy, Niren

    2008-01-01

    The overproduction of hydrogen peroxide is implicated in the progress of numerous life-threatening diseases and there is a great need for the development of contrast agents that can detect hydrogen peroxide in vivo. In this communication, we present a new contrast agent for hydrogen peroxide, termed peroxalate micelles, which detect hydrogen peroxide through chemiluminescence, and have the physical/chemical properties needed for in vivo imaging applications. The peroxalate micelles are composed of amphiphilic peroxalate based copolymers and the fluorescent dye rubrene, they have a ‘stealth’ polyethylene glycol (PEG) corona to evade macrophage phagocytosis, and a diameter of 33 nm to enhance extravasation into permeable tissues. The peroxalate micelles can detect nanomolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>50 nM) and thus have the sensitivity needed to detect physiological concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. We anticipate numerous applications of the peroxalate micelles for in vivo imaging of hydrogen peroxide, given their high sensitivity, small size, and biocompatible PEG corona. PMID:19337415

  6. Hydrogen peroxide generated by NADPH oxidase is involved in high blue-light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements in Arabidopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Xing, Da; Zhang, Lingrui

    2009-08-01

    One of the most important functions of blue light is to induce chloroplast movements by reducing the damage to photosynthetic machinery under excess light. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated by various environmental stimuli, can act as a signaling molecule that regulates a number of developmental processes and environmental responses. To investigate whether H2O2 is involved in high blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements, we use luminescence spectrometer to observe H2O2 generation with the assistance of the fluorescence probe dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA). After treatment with high blue light, a large quantity of H2O2 indicated by the fluorescence intensity of DCF is produced in a dose-dependent manner in leaf strip of Arabidopsis. Enzymatic assay shows that the activity of NADPH oxidase, which is a major site for H2O2 generation, also rapidly increases in treated strips. Exogenously applied H2O2 can promote the high blue light-induced chloroplast movements. Moreover, high blue light-induced H2O2 generation can be abolished completely by addition of exogenous catalase (CAT), and partly by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and dichlorophenyl dimethylurea (DCMU), which are an NADPH oxidase inhibitor and a blocker of electron transport chain. And subsequent chloroplast movements can be abolished by CAT and DPI, but not by DCMU. These results presented here suggested that high blue light can induce oxidative burst, and NADPH oxidase as a major producer for H2O2 is involved in blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance movements.

  7. Nitric oxide reduces hydrogen peroxide accumulation involved in water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant defense in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jianrong; Jiang, Mingyi; Lin, Fan; Xu, Shucheng; Zhang, Aying; Tan, Mingpu

    2008-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule involved in many biological events, and has been reported as pro-oxidant as well as anti-oxidant in plants. In the present study, the sources of NO production under water stress, the role of NO in water stress-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and subcellular activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants were investigated. Water stress induced defense increases in the generation of NO in maize mesphyll cells and the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions of maize leaves. Water stress-induced defense increases in the production of NO were blocked by pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and nitrate reductase (NR), suggesting that NO is produced from NOS and NR in leaves of maize plants exposed to water stress. Water stress also induced increases in the activities of the chloroplastic and cytosolic anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and the increases in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes were reduced by pretreatments with inhibitors of NOS and NR. Exogenous NO increases the activities of water stress-induced subcellular anti-oxidant enzymes, which decreases accumulation of H2O2. Our results suggest that NOS and NR are involved in water stress-induced NO production and NOS is the major source of NO. The potential ability of NO to scavenge H2O2 is, at least in part, due to the induction of a subcellular anti-oxidant defense.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of germinated brown rice against hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in human SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  9. Effect of standardized fruit extract of Luffa cylindrica on oxidative stress markers in hydrogen peroxide induced cataract

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Suchita; Saha, Sudipta; Kaithwas, Gaurav; Saraf, Shubhini A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The ability of Luffa cylindrica Roem fruit extract (LCE) to modulate biochemical parameters was investigated by in vitro studies for its role in hydrogen peroxide induced cataract on isolated goat lenses which were incubated for 72 h at 37°C. Materials and Methods: Test groups contained 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 µg/ml of LCE along with 1 ml of H2O2 (0.5 mM) as cataract inducer. Lenses were examined for morphological variation and transparency periodically during the incubation. Biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein content (TPC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated. Results: SOD, GSH, and TPC levels were found to increase proportionally with the concentration of LCE. However, MDA levels were found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of LCE. Opacity was graded as per “lens opacities classification system III.” Morphological examination suggested that LCE (25 µg/ml) maintained a vision for 44 h. No lens in LCE dose groups developed dense nuclear opacity after 24 h as opposed to 80% in negative control. Conclusion: The results suggest that LCE can delay the onset and/or prevent the progression of cataract which can be attributed to the presence of adequate phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin A and its high nutritional value. This preliminary study can be further synergized by testing LCE against other in vivo and in vitro models of cataract. PMID:26729957

  10. Effect of standardized fruit extract of Luffa cylindrica on oxidative stress markers in hydrogen peroxide induced cataract.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Suchita; Saha, Sudipta; Kaithwas, Gaurav; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Luffa cylindrica Roem fruit extract (LCE) to modulate biochemical parameters was investigated by in vitro studies for its role in hydrogen peroxide induced cataract on isolated goat lenses which were incubated for 72 h at 37°C. Test groups contained 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 µg/ml of LCE along with 1 ml of H2O2 (0.5 mM) as cataract inducer. Lenses were examined for morphological variation and transparency periodically during the incubation. Biochemical parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein content (TPC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated. SOD, GSH, and TPC levels were found to increase proportionally with the concentration of LCE. However, MDA levels were found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of LCE. Opacity was graded as per "lens opacities classification system III." Morphological examination suggested that LCE (25 µg/ml) maintained a vision for 44 h. No lens in LCE dose groups developed dense nuclear opacity after 24 h as opposed to 80% in negative control. The results suggest that LCE can delay the onset and/or prevent the progression of cataract which can be attributed to the presence of adequate phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin A and its high nutritional value. This preliminary study can be further synergized by testing LCE against other in vivo and in vitro models of cataract.

  11. Effects of phenolics in Empire apples on hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Sang Jun; Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Chang Yong; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated antioxidant and antitumor-promoting activities of major phenolic phytochemicals of apples. The contents of each antioxidant in Empire apples was quantified and their contributions to total antioxidant activity of apples were determined using assay for inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced superoxide radical generation in cell culture model and expressed in vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The estimated contribution of major phenolics and vitamin C to total anitoxidant capacity of 100 g fresh Empire apples is as follows: quercetin (60.05 VCEAC) > chlorogenic acid (12.32) > phloretin (7.41) > procyanidin B2 (7.22) > vitamin C (6.61) > epicatechin (5.10) in superoxide radical scavenging assay. Recent reports suggest that the mechanism of carcinogenic process of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be associated with the inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which is involved in tumor promotion process. Apple extracts showed the protective effects against the inhibition of GJIC by H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin exerted the strongest protective effects among major antioxidants in apples on H2O2-induced inhibition of GJIC, following epicatechin, procyanidin B2, and vitamin C, while chlorogenic acid and phloretin had no effects. Our results indicate that cancer chemopreventive activity of apples is associated with the combined antioxidant capacity and antitumor-promoting activities of diverse antioxidants.

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22949825

  13. The sigma-1 receptor-Zinc finger protein 179 pathway protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lee, Pin-Tse; Yeh, Shiu-Hwa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chou, Szu-Yi; Su, Tsung-Ping; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chuang, Jian-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, hence protecting neurons against ROS is very important. In this study, we focused on sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a chaperone at endoplasmic reticulum, and investigated its protective functions. Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation model, we verified that apoptosis-signaling pathways were elicited by H2O2 treatment. However, the Sig-1R agonists, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), reduced the activation of apoptotic pathways significantly. By performing protein-protein interaction assays and shRNA knockdown of Sig-1R, we identified the brain Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) as a downstream target of Sig-1R regulation. The neuroprotective effect of Znf179 overexpression was similar to that of DHEAS treatment, and likely mediated by affecting the levels of antioxidant enzymes. We also quantified the levels of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the hippocampi of wild-type and Znf179 knockout mice, and found both enzymes to be reduced in the knockout versus the wild-type mice. In summary, these results reveal that Znf179 plays a novel role in neuroprotection, and Sig-1R agonists may be therapeutic candidates to prevent ROS-induced damage in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. PMID:26792191

  14. The sigma-1 receptor-zinc finger protein 179 pathway protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury.

    PubMed

    Su, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Shu-Hui; Lee, Pin-Tse; Yeh, Shiu-Hwa; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Chou, Szu-Yi; Su, Tsung-Ping; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Yi-Chao; Chuang, Jian-Ying

    2016-06-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have implicated the pathogenesis of several human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury, hence protecting neurons against ROS is very important. In this study, we focused on sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R), a chaperone at endoplasmic reticulum, and investigated its protective functions. Using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced ROS accumulation model, we verified that apoptosis-signaling pathways were elicited by H2O2 treatment. However, the Sig-1R agonists, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), reduced the activation of apoptotic pathways significantly. By performing protein-protein interaction assays and shRNA knockdown of Sig-1R, we identified the brain Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179) as a downstream target of Sig-1R regulation. The neuroprotective effect of Znf179 overexpression was similar to that of DHEAS treatment, and likely mediated by affecting the levels of antioxidant enzymes. We also quantified the levels of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) in the hippocampi of wild-type and Znf179 knockout mice, and found both enzymes to be reduced in the knockout versus the wild-type mice. In summary, these results reveal that Znf179 plays a novel role in neuroprotection, and Sig-1R agonists may be therapeutic candidates to prevent ROS-induced damage in neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hydrogen peroxide induces oxidative stress and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in RAT intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6)].

    PubMed

    Xu, L; He, S S; Li, D Y; Mei, C; Hou, X L; Jiang, L S; Liu, F H

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), IEC-6 cells were subjected to 20 μmol/L H(2)O(2) and cell proliferation activity was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Cell morphology was observed by microscopy and cell apoptosis was detected by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining and the portion of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Genes and proteins related to cell apoptosis were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by fluorescence probes. Significant morphology damage was caused by exposure to H(2)O(2), and results showed that ROS generation significantly increased (P < 0.01). The activity of superoxide dismutase decreased significantly (P < 0.05), malondialdehyde content increased (P < 0.05), and expression of both catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the H(2)O(2) treatment group. Mitochondrion membrane potential was reduced, cytochrome released into the cytoplasm and caspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly increased (P < 0.01) after treatment with H(2)O(2). Moreover, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and apoptosis were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the H(2)O(2) group. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the mitochondrial pathway plays a vital role in H(2)O(2) induced IEC-6 cell apoptosis.

  16. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  17. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  18. Excess copper induces accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increases lipid peroxidation and total activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in roots of Elsholtzia haichowensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxiao; Xia, Yan; Wang, Guiping; Shen, Zhenguo

    2008-01-01

    The effects of excess copper (Cu) on the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidant enzyme activities in roots of the Cu accumulator Elsholtzia haichowensis Sun were investigated. Copper at 100 and 300 microM significantly increased the concentrations of malondialdehyde and H2O2, and the activities of catalase (E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (E.C. 1.11.1.11), guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD, E.C. 1.11.1.7) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). Isoenzyme pattern and inhibitor studies showed that, among SOD isoforms, only copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) increased. Excess Cu greatly increased the accumulation of superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) and H2O2 in E. haichowensis roots. This study also provides the first cytochemical evidence of an accumulation of H2O2 in the root cell walls as a consequence of Cu treatments. Experiments with diphenyleneiodonium as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulphonic acid as an O2 (.-) scavenger, and N-N-diethyldithiocarbamate as an inhibitor of SOD showed that the source of H2O2 in the cell walls could partially be NADPH oxidase. The enzyme can use cytosolic NADPH to produce O2 (.-), which rapidly dismutates to H2O2 by SOD. Apoplastic GPOD and CuZn-SOD activities were induced in roots of E. haichowensis with 100 microM Cu suggesting that these two antioxidant enzymes may be responsible for H2O2 accumulation in the root apoplast.

  19. s-Ethyl Cysteine and s-Methyl Cysteine Protect Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Te-chun; Yin, Mei-chin

    2015-09-01

    Protective effects and actions from s-ethyl cysteine (SEC) and s-methyl cysteine (SMC) for BEAS-2B cells were examined. BEAS-2B cells were pretreated with SEC or SMC at 4, 8, or 16 μmol/L, and followed by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) treatment. Data showed that H2 O2 enhanced Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression, and declined Bcl-2 expression. However, SEC or SMC dose-dependently decreased caspase-3 expression and reserved Bcl-2 expression. H2 O2 increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lowered glutathione level, glutathione peroxide, and glutathione reductase activities in BEAS-2B cells. SEC or SMC pretreatments reduced ROS generation, and maintained glutathione redox cycle in those cells. H2 O2 upregulated the expression of both p47(phox) and gp91(phox) . SEC and SMC downregulated p47(phox) expression. SEC or SMC at 8 and 16 μmol/L decreased H2 O2 -induced release of inflammatory cytokines. H2 O2 stimulated the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase. SEC and SMC pretreatments dose-dependently downregulated NF-κB p65 and p-p38 expression. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate or SB203580 inhibited NF-κB activation and p38 phosphorylation; thus, SEC or SMC pretreatments failed to affect protein expression of these factors. These novel findings suggest that SEC or SMC could protect bronchial cells and benefit respiratory epithelia stability and functions.

  20. Curcumin Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Premature Senescence via the Activation of SIRT1 in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yueliu; Hu, Xiaorong; Hu, Gangying; Xu, Changwu; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial senescence has been proposed to be involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. Curcumin, a natural phenol, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on endothelial senescence is unclear. This study explores the effect of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced endothelial premature senescence and the mechanisms involved. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured, and premature senescence was induced with 100 µM H2O2. Results showed that pretreatment with curcumin significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced HUVECs' premature senescence, which was evidenced by a decreased percentage of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells, improved cell division and decreased expression of senescence-associated protein p21 (all p<0.05). Pretreatment with curcumin decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis in H2O2-treated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with H2O2 also down-regulated the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), decreased the level of nitric oxide in the culture medium, and inhibited the protein expression and enzymatic activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), while pretreatment with curcumin partly reversed these effects (all p<0.05). Treatment with curcumin alone enhanced the enzymatic activity of SIRT1, but didn't affect cellular senescence, cell growth or apoptosis compared to the Control. The inhibition of SIRT1 using SIRT1 short interfering RNA (siRNA) could decrease the expression and phosphorylation of eNOS and abrogate the protective effect of curcumin on H2O2-induced premature senescence. These findings suggest that curcumin could attenuate oxidative stress-induced HUVECs' premature senescence via the activation of SIRT1.

  1. No protective effect of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Xu, Zengtao; Chen, Lidian; Wang, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Scavenging of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the potential mechanisms contributing to the protective effects of many antioxidants. Curcumin, a natural product, is an effective ROS scavenger. However, the role of its ROS scavenging ability in its cytoprotective action remains to be clarified. Herein, the protective effects of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)- and tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced ROS formation and HepG2 cell injury were determined. HepG2 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 30 min and then treated with H₂O₂ (500 μM) or tert-butyl hydroperoxide (200 μM) for 24 h. Curcumin pretreatment dramatically decreased H₂O₂- and tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced ROS production, but failed to suppress cytotoxicity of those compounds. H₂O₂ induced decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and increases in DNA fragmentation could not be reversed by curcumin. Furthermore, curcumin enhanced expression of H₂O₂-induced pro-apoptotic protein Bax expression and inhibited expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In addition, curcumin significantly decreased p38MAPK and phospho-CDC-2 protein expression and increased phospho-p38MAPK, p42/44MAPK, and phospho-p42/44MAPK protein expression. These results suggest that short pretreatment and subsequent longer co-treatment of low concentrations of curcumin showed no obvious protective effect on H₂O₂-induced HepG₂ cell injury.

  2. Activation of rho is involved in the mechanism of hydrogen-peroxide-induced lung edema in isolated perfused rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Y; Ishii, Y; Kitamura, S; Sugiyama, Y

    2001-09-01

    Acute lung injury is attributed primarily to increased vascular permeability caused by reactive oxygen species derived from neutrophils, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Increased permeability is accompanied by the contraction and cytoskeleton reorganization of endothelial cells, resulting in intercellular gap formation. The Rho family of Ras-like GTPases is implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell contraction. We examined the role of Rho in H2O2-induced pulmonary edema with the use of isolated perfused rabbit lungs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of Rho in increased vascular permeability induced by H2O2 in perfused lungs. Vascular permeability was evaluated on the basis of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc, ml/min/cm H2O/100 g). We found that H2O2 (300 microM) increased lung weight, Kfc, and pulmonary capillary pressure. These effects of H2O2 were abolished by treatment with Y-27632 (50 microM), an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160 ROCK. In contrast, the muscular relaxant papaverine inhibited the H2O2-induced rise in pulmonary capillary pressure, but did not suppress the increases in lung weight and Kfc. These findings indicate that H2O2 causes pulmonary edema by elevating hydrostatic pressure and increasing vascular permeability. Y-27632 inhibited the formation of pulmonary edema by blocking both of these H2O2-induced effects. Our results suggest that Rho-related pathways have a part in the mechanism of H2O2-induced pulmonary edema. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Protective effects of farrerol against hydrogen-peroxide-induced apoptosis in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Kuan; Ge, Rui; Tang, Li; Li, Qing-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Vascular endothelium plays an important role in the physiological homeostasis of blood vessels. Endothelial injury is considered to be implicated in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Farrerol, a flavonoid considered to be the major bioactive component in a traditional Chinese herb, "Man-shan-hong", which is the dried leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L., displays many bioactive properties, including antibechic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and the inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. In this study, the protective effects of farrerol on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells were investigated. The results showed that farrerol significantly inhibited the loss of cell viability and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells. Meanwhile, farrerol inhibited H2O2-induced elevation in the levels of intracellular malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species, as well as cell apoptosis. Furthermore, real time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that farrerol significantly decreased the expression of Bax mRNA, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and phosph-p38 MAPK, while increasing the exporession of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bcl-2 in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells. These results are the first demonstration that farrerol has protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells, and suggests that farrerol is a potential candidate for the intervention of endothelial-injury-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Microcalorimetric Measurements of Hydrogen Peroxide Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D.; Hornung, Steven D.; Baker, Dave L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent interest in propellants with nontoxic reaction products has led to a resurgence of interest in hydrogen peroxide for various propellant applications. Because hydrogen peroxide is sensitive to contaminants and materials interactions, stability and shelf life are issues. A relatively new, ultrasensitive heat measurement technique, isothermal microcalorimetry, is being used at the White Sands Test Facility to monitor the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at near ambient temperatures. Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the beat flow from a reaction vessel into a surrounding heat sink. In these applications, microcalorimetry is approximately 1,000 times more sensitive than accelerating rate calorimetry or differential scanning calorimetry for measuring thermal events. Experimental procedures have been developed for the microcalorimetric measurement of the ultra-small beat effects caused by incompatible interactions of hydrogen peroxide. The decomposition rates of hydrogen peroxide at the picomole/sec/gram level have been measured showing the effects of stabilizers and peroxide concentration. Typical measurements are carried out at 40 C over a 24-hour period, This paper describes a method for the conversion of the heat flow measurements to chemical reaction rates based on thermochemical considerations. The reaction rates are used in a study of the effects of stabilizer levels on the decomposition of propellant grade hydrogen peroxide.

  5. Microcalorimetric Measurements of Hydrogen Peroxide Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D.; Hornung, Steven D.; Baker, Dave L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent interest in propellants with nontoxic reaction products has led to a resurgence of interest in hydrogen peroxide for various propellant applications. Because hydrogen peroxide is sensitive to contaminants and materials interactions, stability and shelf life are issues. A relatively new, ultrasensitive heat measurement technique, isothermal microcalorimetry, is being used at the White Sands Test Facility to monitor the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at near ambient temperatures. Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the beat flow from a reaction vessel into a surrounding heat sink. In these applications, microcalorimetry is approximately 1,000 times more sensitive than accelerating rate calorimetry or differential scanning calorimetry for measuring thermal events. Experimental procedures have been developed for the microcalorimetric measurement of the ultra-small beat effects caused by incompatible interactions of hydrogen peroxide. The decomposition rates of hydrogen peroxide at the picomole/sec/gram level have been measured showing the effects of stabilizers and peroxide concentration. Typical measurements are carried out at 40 C over a 24-hour period, This paper describes a method for the conversion of the heat flow measurements to chemical reaction rates based on thermochemical considerations. The reaction rates are used in a study of the effects of stabilizer levels on the decomposition of propellant grade hydrogen peroxide.

  6. [Hydrogen peroxide in the troposphere].

    PubMed

    Pehnec, Gordana

    2007-06-01

    The past few decades saw a rising interest in the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in atmospheric chemistry and its contribution to the formation of free radicals. Free radicals (oxidants) are formed by photochemical reactions between ozone and H2O2. Free radicals formed within cells can oxidise biomolecules, and this may lead to cell death and tissue injury. For this reason, free radicals are believed to cause more than 100 diseases. H2O2 has been suggested as a better indicator of atmospheric oxidation capacity than ozone. Atmospheric H2O2 can appear in the gas phase or in the aqueous phase. It shows typical diurnal and seasonal variations. However, measurements of H2O2 with expensive and sophisticated equipment are rare and limited to but a few sites in the world. Measurements in Greenland ice cores showed that H2O2 concentrations increased over the last 200 years and most of the increase has occurred over the last 20 years. Evaluations show that concentrations will still rise as a result of decreasing SO2 emission. H2O2 measurements have not been carried out in Croatia until now, and, accompanied by the existing longterm measurements of ozone and nitrogen oxides, they will provide an idea of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and its influence on oxidative stress.

  7. Oxidative stress response of filamentous fungi induced by hydrogen peroxide and paraquat.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Maria B; Pashova, Svetlana B; Spasova, Boryana K; Vassilev, Spassen V; Slokoska, Lyudmila S

    2005-02-01

    Although, oxidative stress response, which protects organisms from deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been extensively studied in pro- and eukaryotes, the information about filamentous fungi is fragmentary. We investigated the effect of two ROS-generating agents (paraquat, PQ, and H2O2) on cellular growth and antioxidant enzyme induction in 12 fungal species. Our results indicate that exposure of fungal spores or mycelia to PQ and H2O2 promoted oxidative stress, as evidenced by remarkable inhibition of spore germination and biomass production; stimulation of cyanide-resistant respiration; accumulation of oxidative modified proteins. Cell responses against both superoxide and peroxide stresses include enhanced expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, however, the extent was different: treatment with PQ increased mainly SOD, whereas exogenous H2O2 led to enhanced catalase. We also found that G6PD has a role in the mechanism of protection against superoxide and peroxide stresses. The activation of antioxidant enzyme defence was blocked by the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that there was de novo enzyme synthesis.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil.

  9. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2012-11-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O2-reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O2, which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells.

  10. Hydrogen Peroxide as a Sustainable Energy Carrier: Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide and the Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Yamada, Yusuke; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This review describes homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic reduction of dioxygen with metal complexes focusing on the catalytic two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide. Whether two-electron reduction of dioxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide or four-electron O2-reduction to produce water occurs depends on the types of metals and ligands that are utilized. Those factors controlling the two processes are discussed in terms of metal-oxygen intermediates involved in the catalysis. Metal complexes acting as catalysts for selective two-electron reduction of oxygen can be utilized as metal complex-modified electrodes in the electrocatalytic reduction to produce hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide thus produced can be used as a fuel in a hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. A hydrogen peroxide fuel cell can be operated with a one-compartment structure without a membrane, which is certainly more promising for the development of low-cost fuel cells as compared with two compartment hydrogen fuel cells that require membranes. Hydrogen peroxide is regarded as an environmentally benign energy carrier because it can be produced by the electrocatalytic two-electron reduction of O2, which is abundant in air, using solar cells; the hydrogen peroxide thus produced could then be readily stored and then used as needed to generate electricity through the use of hydrogen peroxide fuel cells. PMID:23457415

  11. Piper sarmentosum as an antioxidant on oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by hydrogen peroxide*

    PubMed Central

    Hafizah, Abdul Hamid; Zaiton, Zakaria; Zulkhairi, Amom; Mohd Ilham, Adenan; Nor Anita, Megat Mohd Nordin; Zaleha, Abdullah Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H2O2 (0–1000 µmol/L) and it was observed that 180 µmol/L H2O2 reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H2O2-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 µg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H2O2-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HUVECs. PMID:20443214

  12. Augmented oxidative stress and preserved vasoconstriction induced by hydrogen peroxide in coronary arteries in obesity: role of COX-2.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Elvira; Martínez, Maria Pilar; Climent, Belén; Muñoz, Mercedes; Briones, Ana María; Salaices, Mercedes; García-Sacristán, Albino; Rivera, Luis; Prieto, Dolores

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the vascular and metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Herein, we assessed whether obesity can increase coronary vasoconstriction induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and the signalling pathways involving COX-2 and superoxide (O2(.-) ) generation. Contractile responses to H2 O2 and O2(.-) generation were measured in coronary arteries from genetically obese Zucker rats (OZR) and compared to lean Zucker rats (LZR). Both basal and H2 O2 -stimulated O2(.-) production were enhanced in coronary arteries from OZR, but H2 O2 -induced vasoconstriction was unchanged. The selective COX-2 inhibitor NS398 significantly reduced H2 O2 -induced contractions in endothelium-denuded arteries from LZR and OZR, but only in endothelium-intact arteries from LZR. PGI2 (IP) receptor antagonism modestly reduced the vasoconstrictor action of H2 O2 while antagonism of the PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4 ) enhanced H2 O2 contractions in arteries from OZR but not LZR. Basal release of COX-2-derived PGE2 was higher in coronary arteries from OZR where the selective agonist of EP4 receptors TCS 2519 evoked potent relaxations. COX-2 was up-regulated after acute exposure to H2 O2 in coronary endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and inhibition of COX-2 markedly reduced H2 O2 -elicited O2(.-) generation in coronary arteries and myocardium. Expression of Nox subunits in VSM and NADPH-stimulated O2(.-) generation was enhanced and contributed to H2 O2 vasoconstriction in arteries from obese rats. COX-2 contributes to cardiac oxidative stress and to the endothelium-independent O2(.-) -mediated coronary vasoconstriction induced by H2 O2 in obesity, which is offset by the release of COX-2-derived endothelial PGE2 acting on EP4 vasodilator receptors. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide and monoethanolamine are the key causative ingredients for hair dye-induced dermatitis and hair loss.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung-A; Bae, Il-Hong; Jang, Won-Hee; Kim, Jong-Hyub; Bak, Seok-Yun; Han, Sang-Hun; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2012-04-01

    Hair dyes are being commonly used to change the color of hair for cosmetic reason. However, concern is growing over the dermatitis and subsequent hair loss associated with the repeated use of hair dye products, yet the causative ingredients have not been elucidated. Here we investigated hair dye-induced dermatitis and hair loss using in vivo mouse model to uncover the causative ingredients. Commercially available hair dye products or combination of the ingredients of hair dye product were applied topically for 3 days on the dorsum of the female C57BL/6 mice and, dermatitis and hair loss were examined. The mice treated with hair dye products exhibited unequivocal signs of hair loss and dermatitis. To find out causative ingredients, combinations of the representative components of hair dye including reducing agents, the mixture of dye and monoethanolamine (MEA), ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) were applied and thereafter, hair loss and dermatitis were evaluated. All the groups treated with the combinations containing H(2)O(2) and neutralized dye mixture manifested hair loss and dermatitis. Subsequent experiments revealed that H(2)O(2) and MEA synergistically induced hair loss and dermatitis. Histological examination showed that oxidative stress may be the mechanism underlying hair-dye induced dermatitis. Consistently, H(2)O(2) and MEA synergistically induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) and MEA may be the key causative ingredients for hair dye-associated dermatitis and hair loss. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Suppressive effects of genomic imprinted gene PEG10 on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Huang, Huanjun; Lin, Jusheng; Zhang, Qiang; Tan, Jinquan; Ren, Jinghua

    2009-12-01

    The effects of PEG10 on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in human normal liver cell line L02 were investigated. The PEG10 gene was transfected into L02 cells by lipofectamine, the positive clone was screened by G418 and defined as L02/PEG10, while the cell transfected with empty expression vector (pEGFP-N1) was defined as L02/vector. L02/vector and parental L02 cells served as control. RT-PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the expression of target genes. H2O2 (50-400 mmol/L) was administered to induce the apoptosis of L02 cells. Cells viability was measured by MTT and the morphological changes of apoptotic cells were determined by fluorescence microscopy using hoechst33342 nuclei staining. DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PEG10 mRNA and protein levels in L02/PEG10 cells were significantly increased as compared with those in the control cells. After treatment with 400 mmol/L H2O2 for 24 h, the cellular growth inhibition rate of L02/PEG10 cells was significantly lower (58.2%) than that of L02 (92.5%) and L02/vector (88%). Distinct morphological changes characteristic of cell apoptosis such as karyopyknosis and conglomeration were not observed in L02/PEG10. Ladder-like DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner was observed in both L02 and L02/vector cell lines, but not in L02/PEG10. PEG10 over-expression significantly inhibited cytotoxicity induced by H2O2 on human normal liver cell line L02 by antagonizing H2O2-induced apoptosis.

  15. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant Hazards Technical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David L.; Greene, Ben; Frazier, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Fire, Explosion, Compatibility and Safety Hazards of Hydrogen Peroxide NASA technical manual was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility. NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2004-213151 covers topics concerning high concentration hydrogen peroxide including fire and explosion hazards, material and fluid reactivity, materials selection information, personnel and environmental hazards, physical and chemical properties, analytical spectroscopy, specifications, analytical methods, and material compatibility data. A summary of hydrogen peroxide-related accidents, incidents, dose calls, mishaps and lessons learned is included. The manual draws from art extensive literature base and includes recent applicable regulatory compliance documentation. The manual may be obtained by United States government agencies from NASA Johnson Space Center and used as a reference source for hazards and safe handling of hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Isothermal Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Dihydrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method of growing pure solid hydrogen peroxide in an ultra high vacuum environment and apply it to determine thermal stability of the dihydrate compound that forms when water and hydrogen peroxide are mixed at low temperatures. Using infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, we quantified the isothermal decomposition of the metastable dihydrate at 151.6 K. This decomposition occurs by fractional distillation through the preferential sublimation of water, which leads to the formation of pure hydrogen peroxide. The results imply that in an astronomical environment where condensed mixtures of H2O2 and H2O are shielded from radiolytic decomposition and warmed to temperatures where sublimation is significant, highly concentrated or even pure hydrogen peroxide may form.

  17. Isothermal Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide Dihydrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new method of growing pure solid hydrogen peroxide in an ultra high vacuum environment and apply it to determine thermal stability of the dihydrate compound that forms when water and hydrogen peroxide are mixed at low temperatures. Using infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, we quantified the isothermal decomposition of the metastable dihydrate at 151.6 K. This decomposition occurs by fractional distillation through the preferential sublimation of water, which leads to the formation of pure hydrogen peroxide. The results imply that in an astronomical environment where condensed mixtures of H2O2 and H2O are shielded from radiolytic decomposition and warmed to temperatures where sublimation is significant, highly concentrated or even pure hydrogen peroxide may form.

  18. Isothermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A

    2011-06-02

    We present a new method of growing pure solid hydrogen peroxide in an ultra high vacuum environment and apply it to determine thermal stability of the dihydrate compound that forms when water and hydrogen peroxide are mixed at low temperatures. Using infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, we quantified the isothermal decomposition of the metastable dihydrate at 151.6 K. This decomposition occurs by fractional distillation through the preferential sublimation of water, which leads to the formation of pure hydrogen peroxide. The results imply that in an astronomical environment where condensed mixtures of H(2)O(2) and H(2)O are shielded from radiolytic decomposition and warmed to temperatures where sublimation is significant, highly concentrated or even pure hydrogen peroxide may form. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in safingol-induced endonuclease G-mediated apoptosis of squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Ken; Masui, Atsushi; Iwai, Soichi; Imai, Tomoaki; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2014-02-17

    Safingol, a L-threo-dihydrosphingosine, induced the nuclear translocation of a mitochondrial apoptogenic mediator--endonuclease G (endo G)--and apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Upstream mediators remain largely unknown. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in cultured oral SCC cells were measured. Treatment with safingol increased intracellular H2O2 levels but not extracellular H2O2 levels, indicating the production of H2O2. The cell killing effect of safingol and H2O2 was diminished in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Dual staining of cells with annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) revealed that apoptotic cell death occurred by treatment with H2O2 and safingol. The number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the presence of NAC. In untreated cells, endo G distributed in the cytoplasm and an association of endo G with mitochondria was observed. After treatment with H2O2 and safingol, endo G was distributed to the nucleus and cytoplasm, indicating the nuclear translocation of the mitochondrial factor. NAC prevented the increase of apoptotic cells and the translocation of endo G. Knock down of endo G diminished the cell killing effect of H2O2 and safingol. These results suggest that H2O2 is involved in the endo G-mediated apoptosis of oral SCC cells by safingol.

  20. Enhanced neuroprotective effects of resveratrol delivered by nanoparticles on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaowei; Xu, Huae; Sun, Bo; Zhu, Zhenshu; Zheng, Donghui; Li, Xiaolin

    2013-05-06

    Resveratrol (RES) has recently been reported as a potential antioxidant in treatment of ischemia/reperfusion injury through attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, application of RES is limited for its insolubility and short half-time. Latest evidence raises the possibility of developing nanoparticle-based delivery systems with improved solubility, stability and cytotoxicity of lipophilic drug. Here, we reported first a simple way to produce RES-loaded nanoparticles (RES-NPs) based on poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) polymer and further evaluated the protective effect of RES-NPs on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat cortical cell culture. The controlled release pattern of RES-loaded nanoparticles was characterized by in vitro release experiments. Cytotoxicity tests proved cytocompatibility of these nanoparticles with neurons. Shown by coumarin-6 loaded nanoparticles, the uptake of nanoparticles by neurons was considered through endocytosis, which could lead to higher uptake efficiency at lower concentration. Thereby, the hypothesis is raised that RES-NPs could demonstrate enhanced neuroprotection compared to an equivalent dose of free RES at lower concentration, especially. It was further supported by enhanced reduction of LDH release, elimination of ROS and MDA, and attenuation of apoptosis signal (ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, activation of caspase-3). RES-NPs could be a potential treatment needing intensive research for ischemia/reperfusion related disorder including stroke.

  1. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces leukemic but not normal hematopoietic cell death in a dose-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in the regulation of hematopoietic cell homeostasis. In particular, the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) range from hematopoietic cell proliferation to cell death, depending on its concentration in the intracellular milieu. In this work, we evaluated the effects of an oxidative environment on normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells by stimulating normal human (umbilical cord blood) and murine (bone marrow) hematopoietic cells, as well as human myeloid leukemic cells (HL-60 lineage), upon H2O2 stimulus. Total cell populations and primitive subsets were evaluated for each cell type. H2O2 stimulus induces HL-60 cell death, whereas the viability of human and murine normal cells was not affected. The effects of H2O2 stimulus on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell subsets were examined and the normal primitive cells were found to be unaffected; however, the percentage of leukemic stem cells (LSC) increased in response to H2O2, while clonogenic ability of these cells to generate myeloid clones was inhibited. In addition, H2O2 stimulus caused a decrease in the levels of p-AKT in HL-60 cells, which most likely mediates the observed decrease of viability. In summary, we found that at low concentrations, H2O2 preferentially affects both the LSC subset and total HL-60 cells without damage normal cells. PMID:24365069

  2. Hesperidin upregulates heme oxygenase-1 to attenuate hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage in hepatic L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Cang; Ye, Yi-Yi; Ji, Guang; Liu, Jian-Wen

    2010-03-24

    Hesperidin, a naturally occurring flavonoid presents in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic, and anticarcinogenic actions. However, the cytoprotection and mechanism of hesperidin to neutralize oxidative stress in human hepatic L02 cells remain unclear. In this work, we assessed the capability of hesperidin to attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cell damage by augmenting the cellular antioxidant defense. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme activity assay demonstrated that hesperidin upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression to protect hepatocytes against oxidative stress. In addition, hesperidin also promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). What's more, hesperidin exhibited activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Besides, ERK1/2 inhibitor significantly inhibited hesperidin-mediated HO-1 upregulation and Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, the above findings suggested that hesperidin augmented cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the induction of HO-1 via ERK/Nrf2 signaling. Therefore, hesperidin has potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of oxidative stress-related hepatocyte injury and liver dysfunctions.

  3. Nitric oxide attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced barrier disruption and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in monolayers of intestinal epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Katsube, Takanori; Tsuji, Hideo; Onoda, Makoto

    2007-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium provides a barrier to the transport of harmful luminal molecules into the systemic circulation. A dysfunctional epithelial barrier is closely associated with the pathogenesis of a variety of intestinal and systemic disorders. We investigated here the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on the barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2. When treated with H(2)O(2), Caco-2 cell monolayers grown on permeable supports exhibited several remarkable features of barrier dysfunction as follows: a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance, an increase in paracellular permeability to dextran, and a disruption of the intercellular junctional localization of the scaffolding protein ZO-1. In addition, an induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous cellular proteins including ZO-1, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin, components of tight and adherens junctions, was observed. On the other hand, combined treatment of Caco-2 monolayers with H(2)O(2) and an NO donor (NOC5 or NOC12) relieved the damage to the barrier function and suppressed the protein tyrosine phosphorylation induced by H(2)O(2) alone. These results suggest that NO protects the barrier function of intestinal epithelia from oxidative stress by modulating some intracellular signaling pathways of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in epithelial cells.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide induces premature acrosome reaction in rat sperm and reduces their penetration of the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, P C; Hsu, C C; Guo, Y L

    1999-11-29

    Recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian sperm are capable of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that this activity is significantly accelerated in subfertile subjects. The observed decrease in penetration of zona-intact oocyte might be explained by chemical-induced ROS-related early onset of capacitation and premature acrosome reaction, but the mechanism is not clear. We determine whether zona-intact oocyte penetration capability in rat epididymal sperm was affected by premature acrosome reaction in rat sperm treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ionophore A23187 or H2O2 and lysophosphatidyl choline. Chlortetracycline fluorescence assay was used to study the status of acrosome reaction on epididymal sperm. The sperm-oocyte binding and penetration assay was used to evaluate the capability for zona pellucida penetration. There was a positive linear correlation between the frequency of acrosome-reacted sperm and capability of sperm-oocyte binding and penetration in zona-free oocytes. In the zona-intact oocytes, the sperm-oocyte penetration rate was suppressed as the proportions of acrosome-reacted sperm increased. In summary, this study showed that premature acrosome reaction reduced rat sperm's capability of penetrating zona-intact oocytes. However, this reduction is not seen in zona-free oocytes. These findings may provide a basis for understanding the effects of sperm ROS generation on zona pellucida penetration in male reproductive toxicology.

  5. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  6. NOX4-dependent Hydrogen peroxide promotes shear stress-induced SHP2 sulfenylation and eNOS activation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Calvo, Enrique; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Anilkumar, Narayana; Shah, Ajay M; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P; Vázquez, Jesús; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Laminar shear stress (LSS) triggers signals that ultimately result in atheroprotection and vasodilatation. Early responses are related to the activation of specific signaling cascades. We investigated the participation of redox-mediated modifications and in particular the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the sulfenylation of redox-sensitive phosphatases. Exposure of vascular endothelial cells to short periods of LSS (12 dyn/cm(2)) resulted in the generation of superoxide radical anion as detected by the formation of 2-hydroxyethidium by HPLC and its subsequent conversion to H2O2, which was corroborated by the increase in the fluorescence of the specific peroxide sensor HyPer. By using biotinylated dimedone we detected increased total protein sulfenylation in the bovine proteome, which was dependent on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated generation of peroxide. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed us to identify the phosphatase SHP2 as a protein susceptible to sulfenylation under LSS. Given the dependence of FAK activity on SHP2 function, we explored the role of FAK under LSS conditions. FAK activation and subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation were promoted by LSS and both processes were dependent on NOX4, as demonstrated in lung endothelial cells isolated from NOX4-null mice. These results support the idea that LSS elicits redox-sensitive signal transduction responses involving NOX4-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide, SHP2 sulfenylation, and ulterior FAK-mediated eNOS activation.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-hong; Xia, Xiao-jian; Mao, Wei-hua; Shi, Kai; Chen, Zhi-xiang; Yu, Jing-quan

    2012-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2) treatment induced increases in CO(2) assimilation whilst inhibition of the H(2)O(2) accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H(2)O(2)-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)). EBR and H(2)O(2) both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO(2) response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H(2)O(2) increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H(2)O(2). However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H(2)O(2) generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H(2)O(2) functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H(2)O(2) mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H(2)O(2) regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.

  8. Can Melatonin Act as an Antioxidant in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress Model in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Emamgholipour, Solaleh; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Ansari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of melatonin on gene expressions and activities of MnSOD and catalase under conditions of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Materials and Methods. PBMCs were isolated from healthy subjects and treated as follows: (1) control (only with 0.1% DMSO for 12 h); (2) melatonin (1 mM) for 12 h; (3) H2O2 (250 μM) for 2 h; (4) H2O2 (250 μM) for 2 h following 10 h pretreatment with melatonin (1 mM). The gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. MnSOD and catalase activities in PBMCs were determined by colorimetric assays. Results. Pretreatment of PBMCs with melatonin significantly augmented expression and activity of MnSOD which were diminished by H2O2. Melatonin treatment of PBMCs caused a significant upregulation of catalase by almost 2-fold in comparison with untreated cells. However, activity and expression of catalase increased by 1.5-fold in PBMCs under H2O2-induced oxidative stress compared with untreated cell. Moreover, pretreatment of PBMCs with melatonin resulted in a significant 1.8-fold increase in catalase expression compared to PBMCs treated only with H2O2. Conclusion. It seems that melatonin could prevent from undesirable impacts of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on MnSOD downregulation. Moreover, melatonin could promote inductive effect of H2O2 on catalase mRNA expression. PMID:26881079

  9. The Octadecaneuropeptide ODN Protects Astrocytes against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis via a PKA/MAPK-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hamdi, Yosra; Kaddour, Hadhemi; Vaudry, David; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Douiri, Salma; Leprince, Jérôme; Castel, Helene; Vaudry, Hubert; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes synthesize and release endozepines, a family of regulatory peptides, including the octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) an endogenous ligand of both central-type benzodiazepine (CBR) and metabotropic receptors. We have recently shown that ODN exerts a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in astrocytes. The purpose of the present study was to determine the type of receptor and the transduction pathways involved in the protective effect of ODN in cultured rat astrocytes. We have first observed a protective activity of ODN at very low concentrations that was abrogated by the metabotropic ODN receptor antagonist cyclo1–8[DLeu5]OP, but not by the CBR antagonist flumazenil. We have also found that the metabotropic ODN receptor is positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase in astrocytes and that the glioprotective action of ODN upon H2O2-induced astrocyte death is PKA- and MEK-dependent, but PLC/PKC-independent. Downstream of PKA, ODN induced ERK phosphorylation, which in turn activated the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and blocked the stimulation by H2O2 of the pro-apoptotic gene Bax. The effect of ODN on the Bax/Bcl-2 balance contributed to abolish the deleterious action of H2O2 on mitochondrial membrane integrity and caspase-3 activation. Finally, the inhibitory effect of ODN on caspase-3 activity was shown to be PKA and MEK-dependent. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the potent glioprotective action of ODN against oxidative stress involves the metabotropic ODN receptor coupled to the PKA/ERK-kinase pathway to inhibit caspase-3 activation. PMID:22927932

  10. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus *

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-hong; Xia, Xiao-jian; Mao, Wei-hua; Shi, Kai; Chen, Zhi-xiang; Yu, Jing-quan

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO2 assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H2O2 treatment induced increases in CO2 assimilation whilst inhibition of the H2O2 accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO2 assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H2O2-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q P). EBR and H2O2 both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO2 response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H2O2 increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H2O2. However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H2O2 generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H2O2 functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H2O2 mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H2O2 regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops. PMID:23024048

  11. Inhibitory effect of FSLLRY-NH2 on inflammatory responses induced by hydrogen peroxide in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Kim, Su Jin; Kwon, Kyoung Wan; Lee, Won Mo; Im, Wi Joon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2017-07-01

    Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2), which is localized in the GI tract, the respiratory system, and the kidney tubules is a G protein-coupled receptor associated with inflammation, metabolism, and disease. The aim of this study was to explore the role of PAR2 in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced HepG2 cells by using FSLLRY-NH2 a PAR2 antagonist. H2O2 treatment resulted in induction of PAR2 in esophageal, gastric, and liver cells, with the most robust response being in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, this effect was dose-dependent in HepG2 cells. Treatment with H2O2 at concentrations above 400 μM for 24 h also reduced HepG2 cell viability. H2O2 treatment increased both the protein and mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α, as well as those of SAPK/JNK. The increased levels of these pro-inflammatory genes and SAPK/JNK induced by H2O2 were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner when cells were co-treated with H2O2 and FSLLRY-NH2. In summary, the PAR2 antagonist peptide, FSLLRY-NH2, reduces the level of the pro-inflammatory genes IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α induced by H2O2, through the SAPK/JNK pathways in HepG2 cells. These data suggest that a PAR2 antagonist could be an anti-inflammatory agent in HepG2 cells.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide inhibition of bicupin oxalate oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, John M.; Rana, Hassan; Ndungu, Joan; Chakrabarti, Gaurab

    2017-01-01

    Oxalate oxidase is a manganese containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx) is the first fungal and bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. Potential applications of oxalate oxidase for use in pancreatic cancer treatment, to prevent scaling in paper pulping, and in biofuel cells have highlighted the need to understand the extent of the hydrogen peroxide inhibition of the CsOxOx catalyzed oxidation of oxalate. We apply a membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) assay to directly measure initial rates of carbon dioxide formation and oxygen consumption in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide. This work demonstrates that hydrogen peroxide is both a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor of the CsOxOx catalyzed oxidation of oxalate and an irreversible inactivator. The build-up of the turnover-generated hydrogen peroxide product leads to the inactivation of the enzyme. The introduction of catalase to reaction mixtures protects the enzyme from inactivation allowing reactions to proceed to completion. Circular dichroism spectra indicate that no changes in global protein structure take place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, we show that the CsOxOx catalyzed reaction with the three carbon substrate mesoxalate consumes oxygen which is in contrast to previous proposals that it catalyzed a non-oxidative decarboxylation with this substrate. PMID:28486485

  13. Hydrogen peroxide inhibition of bicupin oxalate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, John M; Rana, Hassan; Ndungu, Joan; Chakrabarti, Gaurab; Moomaw, Ellen W

    2017-01-01

    Oxalate oxidase is a manganese containing enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide in a reaction that is coupled with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx) is the first fungal and bicupin enzyme identified that catalyzes this reaction. Potential applications of oxalate oxidase for use in pancreatic cancer treatment, to prevent scaling in paper pulping, and in biofuel cells have highlighted the need to understand the extent of the hydrogen peroxide inhibition of the CsOxOx catalyzed oxidation of oxalate. We apply a membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) assay to directly measure initial rates of carbon dioxide formation and oxygen consumption in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide. This work demonstrates that hydrogen peroxide is both a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor of the CsOxOx catalyzed oxidation of oxalate and an irreversible inactivator. The build-up of the turnover-generated hydrogen peroxide product leads to the inactivation of the enzyme. The introduction of catalase to reaction mixtures protects the enzyme from inactivation allowing reactions to proceed to completion. Circular dichroism spectra indicate that no changes in global protein structure take place in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, we show that the CsOxOx catalyzed reaction with the three carbon substrate mesoxalate consumes oxygen which is in contrast to previous proposals that it catalyzed a non-oxidative decarboxylation with this substrate.

  14. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in...)(1) of this section. (a) Identity. For the purpose of this section, hydrogen peroxide solution is an...

  15. Oxygen and hydrogen peroxide enhance light-induced carotenoid synthesis in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Iigusa, Hideo; Yoshida, Yusuke; Hasunuma, Kohji

    2005-07-18

    Previously, we found that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) affect photomorphogenesis in Neurospora crassa. In this study, we investigated the physiological roles of ROS in the response to light and found that the exposure of mycelia to air was important for the light-induced carotenogenesis. Mycelia treated with a high concentration of O(2) gas and H(2)O(2) to release ROS showed an enhancement of light-induced carotenoid accumulation and the expression of gene related to light-inducible carotenogenesis. These results suggested that stimuli caused by the exposure of the mycelia to air containing O(2) gas triggered the light-induced carotenoid synthesis.

  16. Ethylene mediates brassinosteroid-induced stomatal closure via Gα protein-activated hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chenyu; Qi, Cheng; Ren, Hongyan; Huang, Aixia; Hei, Shumei; She, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, whether and how they promote stomatal closure is not fully clear. In this study, we report that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering a signal transduction pathway including ethylene synthesis, the activation of Gα protein, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production. EBR initiated a marked rise in ethylene, H(2)O(2) and NO levels, necessary for stomatal closure in the wild type. These effects were abolished in mutant bri1-301, and EBR failed to close the stomata of gpa1 mutants. Next, we found that both ethylene and Gα mediate the inductive effects of EBR on H(2)O(2) and NO production. EBR-triggered H(2)O(2) and NO accumulation were canceled in the etr1 and gpa1 mutants, but were strengthened in the eto1-1 mutant and the cGα line (constitutively overexpressing the G protein α-subunit AtGPA1). Exogenously applied H(2)O(2) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) rescued the defects of etr1-3 and gpa1 or etr1 and gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure, whereas the stomata of eto1-1/AtrbohF and cGα/AtrbohF or eto1-1/nia1-2 and cGα/nia1-2 constructs had an analogous response to H(2)O(2) or SNP as those of AtrbohF or Nia1-2 mutants. Moreover, we provided evidence that Gα plays an important role in the responses of guard cells to ethylene. Gα activator CTX largely restored the lesion of the etr1-3 mutant, but ethylene precursor ACC failed to rescue the defects of gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure. Lastly, we demonstrated that Gα-activated H(2)O(2) production is required for NO synthesis. EBR failed to induce NO synthesis in mutant AtrbohF, but it led to H(2)O(2) production in mutant Nia1-2. Exogenously applied SNP rescued the defect of AtrbohF in EBR-induced stomatal closure, but H(2)O(2) did not reverse the lesion of EBR-induced stomatal closure in Nia1-2. Together, our

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid rescues bone mesenchymal stem cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Yun; Fan, Xue-Song; Cai, Lin; Liu, Si; Cong, Xiang-Feng; Chen, Xi

    2015-03-01

    The increase of reactive oxygen species in infracted heart significantly reduces the survival of donor mesenchymal stem cells, thereby attenuating the therapeutic efficacy for myocardial infarction. In our previous study, we demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) protects bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) against hypoxia and serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. However, whether LPA protects BMSCs from H2O2-induced apoptosis was not examined. In this study, we report that H2O2 induces rat BMSC apoptosis whereas LPA pre-treatment effectively protects BMSCs from H2O2-induced apoptosis. LPA protection of BMSC from the induced apoptosis is mediated mostly through LPA3 receptor. Furthermore, we found that membrane G protein Gi2 and Gi3 are involved in LPA-elicited anti-apoptotic effects through activation of ERK1/2- and PI3 K-pathways. Additionally, H2O2 increases levels of type II of light chain 3B (LC3B II), an autophagy marker, and H2O2-induced autophagy thus protected BMSCs from apoptosis. LPA further increases the expression of LC3B II in the presence of H2O2. In contrast, autophagy flux inhibitor bafilomycin A1 has no effect on LPA's protection of BMSC from H2O2-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that LPA rescues H2O2-induced apoptosis mainly by interacting with Gi-coupled LPA3, resulting activation of the ERK1/2- and PI3 K/AKT-pathways and inhibition caspase-3 cleavage, and LPA protection of BMSCs against the apoptosis is independent of it induced autophagy.

  18. Inhibition of Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Aging by Allicin Depends on Sirtuin1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yuanbo; Liu, Mihua; Hu, HuiJun; Pan, Yongquan; Fan, Xiao-Juan; Hu, Xue-Mei; Zou, Wei-Wen

    2017-01-31

    BACKGROUND The abnormal activity of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is closely related to the aging of vascular endothelial cells. As a bioactive molecule, allicin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-regulating mechanisms. However, few reports about the relationship of allicin and Sirt1 have been published. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of allicin on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) aging induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the role of Sirt1 in this phenomenon. MATERIAL AND METHODS HUVEC were exposed to H2O2 to establish the aging model. The expression of protein and RNA were detected by Western blot and Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess cell viability. Sirt1 enzyme activity assay was used to analyze enzymatic activity. Reactive oxygen species was detected by dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Cell aging was detected by Senescence β-Galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. RESULTS Results of this study revealed that pretreating HUVECs with 5 ng/mL allicin before exposure to H2O2 resulted in increased cell viability and reduced reactive oxygen species generation. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that H2O2 attenuated the phosphorylation and activation of Sirt1 and increased the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) protein. Moreover, H2O2 also promoted HUVEC aging. These effects were significantly alleviated by 5 ng/mL allicin co-treatment. Furthermore, the anti-aging effects of allicin were abolished by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM). CONCLUSIONS Overall, the results demonstrated that allicin protects HUVECs from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and aging via the activation of Sirt1.

  19. Protective effect of Cymbopogon citratus on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in the reproductive system of male rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Saleh M; Taha, Ekhlass M; Mubark, Zaid M; Aziz, Salam S; Simon, K D; Mazlan, A G

    2013-12-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus) has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemoprotective properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of C. citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and injury in the reproductive system of male rats. The twenty-five rats used in this study were divided into five groups, comprised of five rats each. The control group received standard food and drink. The H2O2 group received standard food and water with 0.5% H2O2. The rats in the H2O2 + C. citratus group and H2O2 + vitamin E group received standard food, H2O2, and C. citratus [100 mg·kg(-1) body weight (bw)], or vitamin E as an antioxidant reference (500 mg·kg(-1) bw), respectively. The C. citratus group was given C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) bw) in addition to the standard food and drink. The treatments were administered for 30 days. The H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased body, testicular, and epididymal weight, as well as glutathione (GSH) level, but markedly increased malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and testes homogenates. The rats treated with H2O2 exhibited testicular degeneration and significant reduction in sperm viability, motility, count, and rate of normal sperm. The C. citratus, vitamin E, and H2O2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased the body, testicular, and epididymal weight, testosterone level, the values of the various sperm characteristics, and GSH. However, this treatment markedly reduced MDA in serum and testes homogenates, as well as testicular histopathological alterations in the H2O2-treated rats. The C. citratus aqueous extract reduced oxidative stress and protected male rats against H2O2-induced reproductive system injury.

  20. Inhibition of Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Aging by Allicin Depends on Sirtuin1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao-Long; Liu, Yuanbo; Liu, Mihua; Hu, Huijun; Pan, Yongquan; Fan, Xiao-Juan; Hu, Xue-Mei; Zou, Wei-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Background The abnormal activity of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is closely related to the aging of vascular endothelial cells. As a bioactive molecule, allicin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-regulating mechanisms. However, few reports about the relationship of allicin and Sirt1 have been published. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effect of allicin on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) aging induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the role of Sirt1 in this phenomenon. Material/Methods HUVEC were exposed to H2O2 to establish the aging model. The expression of protein and RNA were detected by Western blot and Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess cell viability. Sirt1 enzyme activity assay was used to analyze enzymatic activity. Reactive oxygen species was detected by dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Cell aging was detected by Senescence β-Galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Results Results of this study revealed that pretreating HUVECs with 5 ng/mL allicin before exposure to H2O2 resulted in increased cell viability and reduced reactive oxygen species generation. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that H2O2 attenuated the phosphorylation and activation of Sirt1 and increased the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) protein. Moreover, H2O2 also promoted HUVEC aging. These effects were significantly alleviated by 5 ng/mL allicin co-treatment. Furthermore, the anti-aging effects of allicin were abolished by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM). Conclusions Overall, the results demonstrated that allicin protects HUVECs from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and aging via the activation of Sirt1. PMID:28139552

  1. Endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus regulates neurohormonal excitation in high salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Qin, Da-Nian; Suo, Yu-Ping; Su, Qing; Li, Hong-Bao; Miao, Yu-Wang; Guo, Jing; Feng, Zhi-Peng; Qi, Jie; Gao, Hong-Li; Mu, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2015-06-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain plays an important role in the progression of hypertension and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major component of ROS. The aim of this study is to explore whether endogenous H2O2 changed by polyethylene glycol-catalase (PEG-CAT) and aminotriazole (ATZ) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) regulates neurotransmitters, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and cytokines, and whether subsequently affects the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in high salt-induced hypertension. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl) or a normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl) for 10 weeks. Then rats were treated with bilateral PVN microinjection of PEG-CAT (0.2 i.u./50nl), an analog of endogenous catalase, the catalase inhibitor ATZ (10nmol/50nl) or vehicle. High salt-fed rats had significantly increased MAP, RSNA, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs). In addition, rats with high-salt diet had higher levels of NOX-2, NOX-4 (subunits of NAD(P)H oxidase), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), glutamate and NE, and lower levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the PVN than normal diet rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of PEG-CAT attenuated the levels of RAS and restored the balance of neurotransmitters and cytokines, while microinjection of ATZ into the PVN augmented those changes occurring in hypertensive rats. Our findings demonstrate that ROS component H2O2 in the PVN regulating MAP and RSNA are partly due to modulate neurotransmitters, renin-angiotensin system, and cytokines within the PVN in salt-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced liver injury in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Saleh Muhammad; Taha, Ekhlass Muhi; Al-janabi, Muneef Saeb; Al-douri, Bushra Ismael; Simon, Kumar Das; Mazlan, Abd Gaffar

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) a tropical perennial herb plant that is widely cultivated to be eaten either fresh with food or dried in tea or soft drink has been reported to possess a number of medicinal and aromatic properties. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of C. citratus aqueous extract against liver injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in male rats. Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg(-1) b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations. C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (p<0.05), in the elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TB, and MDA in serum and liver homogenates; increase in TP and GSH levels in serum and liver homogenates; and improvement of liver histo-pathological changes. These effects of the extract were similar to that of vitamin C which used as antioxidant reference. C. citratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.

  3. Nitric oxide and protein S-nitrosylation are integral to hydrogen peroxide-induced leaf cell death in rice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Aihong; Wang, Yiqin; Tang, Jiuyou; Xue, Peng; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Linchuan; Hu, Bin; Yang, Fuquan; Loake, Gary J; Chu, Chengcai

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key redox-active, small molecule involved in various aspects of plant growth and development. Here, we report the identification of an NO accumulation mutant, nitric oxide excess1 (noe1), in rice (Oryza sativa), the isolation of the corresponding gene, and the analysis of its role in NO-mediated leaf cell death. Map-based cloning revealed that NOE1 encoded a rice catalase, OsCATC. Furthermore, noe1 resulted in an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the leaves, which consequently promoted NO production via the activation of nitrate reductase. The removal of excess NO reduced cell death in both leaves and suspension cultures derived from noe1 plants, implicating NO as an important endogenous mediator of H(2)O(2)-induced leaf cell death. Reduction of intracellular S-nitrosothiol (SNO) levels, generated by overexpression of rice S-nitrosoglutathione reductase gene (GSNOR1), which regulates global levels of protein S-nitrosylation, alleviated leaf cell death in noe1 plants. Thus, S-nitrosylation was also involved in light-dependent leaf cell death in noe1. Utilizing the biotin-switch assay, nanoliquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry, S-nitrosylated proteins were identified in both wild-type and noe1 plants. NO targets identified only in noe1 plants included glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and thioredoxin, which have been reported to be involved in S-nitrosylation-regulated cell death in animals. Collectively, our data suggest that both NO and SNOs are important mediators in the process of H(2)O(2)-induced leaf cell death in rice.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress responses in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aifen; He, Zhili; Redding-Johanson, Alyssa M; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Luo, Feng; Deng, Ye; Bender, Kelly S; He, Qiang; Keasling, Jay D; Stahl, David A; Fields, Matthew W; Hazen, Terry C; Arkin, Adam P; Wall, Judy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-10-01

    To understand how sulphate-reducing bacteria respond to oxidative stresses, the responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to H(2)O(2)-induced stresses were investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. H(2)O(2) and induced chemical species (e.g. polysulfide, ROS) and redox potential shift increased the expressions of the genes involved in detoxification, thioredoxin-dependent reduction system, protein and DNA repair, and decreased those involved in sulfate reduction, lactate oxidation and protein synthesis. A gene coexpression network analysis revealed complicated network interactions among differentially expressed genes, and suggested possible importance of several hypothetical genes in H(2)O(2) stress. Also, most of the genes in PerR and Fur regulons were highly induced, and the abundance of a Fur regulon protein increased. Mutant analysis suggested that PerR and Fur are functionally overlapped in response to stresses induced by H(2)O(2) and reaction products, and the upregulation of thioredoxin-dependent reduction genes was independent of PerR or Fur. It appears that induction of those stress response genes could contribute to the increased resistance of deletion mutants to H(2)O(2)-induced stresses. In addition, a conceptual cellular model of D. vulgaris responses to H(2)O(2) stress was constructed to illustrate that this bacterium may employ a complicated molecular mechanism to defend against the H(2)O(2)-induced stresses.

  5. Dimethyl sulfoxide attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in cardiomyocytes via heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Man, Wang; Ming, Ding; Fang, Du; Chao, Liang; Jing, Cang

    2014-06-01

    The antioxidant property of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was formerly attributed to its direct effects. Our former study showed that DMSO is able to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in endothelial cells, which is a potent antioxidant enzyme. In this study, we hypothesized that the antioxidant effects of DMSO in cardiomyocytes are mediated or partially mediated by increased HO-1 expression. Therefore, we investigated whether DMSO exerts protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage in cardiomyocytes, and whether HO-1 is involved in DMSO-imparted protective effects, and we also explore the underlying mechanism of DMSO-induced HO-1 expression. Our study demonstrated that DMSO pretreatment showed a cytoprotective effect against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage (impaired cell viability, increased apopototic cells rate and caspase-3 level, and increased release of LDH and CK) and this process is partially mediated by HO-1 upregulation. Furthermore, our data showed that the activation of p38 MAPK and Nrf2 translocation are involved in the HO-1 upregulation induced by DMSO. This study reports for the first time that the cytoprotective effect of DMSO in cardiomyocytes is partially mediated by HO-1, which may further explain the mechanisms by which DMSO exerts cardioprotection on H2 O2 injury. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 1159-1165, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. PKCα and HMGB1 antagonistically control hydrogen peroxide-induced poly-ADP-ribose formation

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Anneli; Bluwstein, Andrej; Kumar, Nitin; Teloni, Federico; Traenkle, Jens; Baudis, Michael; Altmeyer, Matthias; Hottiger, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Harmful oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids is observed when reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced excessively and/or the antioxidant capacity is reduced, causing ‘oxidative stress’. Nuclear poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) formation is thought to be induced in response to oxidative DNA damage and to promote cell death under sustained oxidative stress conditions. However, what exactly triggers PAR induction in response to oxidative stress is incompletely understood. Using reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and in-depth analysis of key stress signaling components, we observed that PAR formation induced by H2O2 was mediated by the PLC/IP3R/Ca2+/PKCα signaling axis. Mechanistically, H2O2-induced PAR formation correlated with Ca2+-dependent DNA damage, which, however, was PKCα-independent. In contrast, PAR formation was completely lost upon knockdown of PKCα, suggesting that DNA damage alone was not sufficient for inducing PAR formation, but required a PKCα-dependent process. Intriguingly, the loss of PAR formation observed upon PKCα depletion was overcome when the chromatin structure-modifying protein HMGB1 was co-depleted with PKCα, suggesting that activation and nuclear translocation of PKCα releases the inhibitory effect of HMGB1 on PAR formation. Together, these results identify PKCα and HMGB1 as important co-regulators involved in H2O2-induced PAR formation, a finding that may have important relevance for oxidative stress-associated pathophysiological conditions. PMID:27198223

  7. Hydrogen-peroxide-induced oxidative stress responses in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, A.; He, Z.; Redding-Johanson, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Joachimiak, M.P.; Bender, K.S.; Keasling, J.D.; Stahl, D.A.; Fields, M.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Arkin, A.P.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Luo, F.; Deng, Y.; He, Q.

    2010-07-01

    To understand how sulphate-reducing bacteria respond to oxidative stresses, the responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stresses were investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and induced chemical species (e.g. polysulfide, ROS) and redox potential shift increased the expressions of the genes involved in detoxification, thioredoxin-dependent reduction system, protein and DNA repair, and decreased those involved in sulfate reduction, lactate oxidation and protein synthesis. A gene coexpression network analysis revealed complicated network interactions among differentially expressed genes, and suggested possible importance of several hypothetical genes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress. Also, most of the genes in PerR and Fur regulons were highly induced, and the abundance of a Fur regulon protein increased. Mutant analysis suggested that PerR and Fur are functionally overlapped in response to stresses induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and reaction products, and the upregulation of thioredoxin-dependent reduction genes was independent of PerR or Fur. It appears that induction of those stress response genes could contribute to the increased resistance of deletion mutants to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stresses. In addition, a conceptual cellular model of D. vulgaris responses to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress was constructed to illustrate that this bacterium may employ a complicated molecular mechanism to defend against the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced stresses.

  8. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Datta, R.; Randhava, S.S.; Tsai, S.P.

    1997-09-02

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} laden permeate. 1 fig.

  9. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Rathin; Randhava, Sarabjit S.; Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H.sub.2 O.sub.2 laden permeate.

  10. 21 CFR 173.356 - Hydrogen peroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide. 173.356 Section 173.356 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.356 Hydrogen...

  11. [Hydrogen peroxide in artificial photosynthesizing systems].

    PubMed

    Lobanov, A V; Komissarov, G G

    2014-01-01

    From the point of view of the concepts of hydrogen peroxide as a source of photosynthetic oxygen (hydrogen) coordination and photochemical properties of chlorophyll and its aggregates towards hydrogen peroxide were considered. The binding energy of H2O and H2O2 with chlorophyll and chlorophyllide depending on their form (monomers, dimers and trimers) was estimated by quantum chemical calculations. It is shown that at an increase of the degree of the pigment aggregation binding energy of H2O2 was more than the energy of H2O. Analysis of experimental results of the photochemical decomposition of hydrogen peroxide using chlorophyll was carried out. Estimates of the thermodynamic parameters (deltaG degrees and deltaH degrees) of the formation of organic compounds from CO2 with water and hydrogen peroxide were compared. The interaction of CO2 with H2O2 requires much less energy consumption than with water for all considered cases. The formation of organic products (formaldehyde, alcohols, carboxylic and carbonylic compounds) and simultaneous production of O2 under the influence of visible light in the systems of inorganic carbon--hydrogen peroxide--chlorophyll (phthalocyanine) is detected by GC/MS method, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis.

  12. Ethylene and hydrogen peroxide are involved in brassinosteroid-induced salt tolerance in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Deng, Xingguang; Zhou, Xue; Zhu, Lisha; Zou, Lijuan; Li, Pengxu; Zhang, Dawei; Lin, Honghui

    2016-01-01

    Crosstalk between phytohormone pathways is essential in plant growth, development and stress responses. Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ethylene are both pivotal plant growth regulators, and the interaction between these two phytohormones in the tomato response to salt stress is still unclear. Here, we explored the mechanism by which BRs affect ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in tomato seedlings under salt stress. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), an ethylene synthesis enzyme, and the ethylene signaling pathway were activated in plants pretreated with BRs. Scavenging of ethylene production or silencing of ethylene signaling components inhibited BR-induced salt tolerance and blocked BR-induced activities of several antioxidant enzymes. Previous studies have reported that BRs can induce plant tolerance to a variety of environmental stimuli by triggering the generation of H2O2 as a signaling molecule. We also found that H2O2 might be involved in the crosstalk between BRs and ethylene in the tomato response to salt stress. Simultaneously, BR-induced ethylene production was partially blocked by pretreated with a reactive oxygen species scavenger or synthesis inhibitor. These results strongly demonstrated that ethylene and H2O2 play important roles in BR-dependent induction of plant salt stress tolerance. Furthermore, we also investigated the relationship between BR signaling and ethylene signaling pathways in plant processes responding to salt stress. PMID:27739520

  13. ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ARSENICALS SENSITIZE HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS TO HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lungs are a target organ for arsenic carcinogenesis, however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inorganic arsenic (iAs) can potentiate DNA damage induced by other agents. Once inside the human body iAs generally undergoes two ...

  14. Ethylene and hydrogen peroxide are involved in brassinosteroid-induced salt tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tong; Deng, Xingguang; Zhou, Xue; Zhu, Lisha; Zou, Lijuan; Li, Pengxu; Zhang, Dawei; Lin, Honghui

    2016-10-14

    Crosstalk between phytohormone pathways is essential in plant growth, development and stress responses. Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ethylene are both pivotal plant growth regulators, and the interaction between these two phytohormones in the tomato response to salt stress is still unclear. Here, we explored the mechanism by which BRs affect ethylene biosynthesis and signaling in tomato seedlings under salt stress. The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), an ethylene synthesis enzyme, and the ethylene signaling pathway were activated in plants pretreated with BRs. Scavenging of ethylene production or silencing of ethylene signaling components inhibited BR-induced salt tolerance and blocked BR-induced activities of several antioxidant enzymes. Previous studies have reported that BRs can induce plant tolerance to a variety of environmental stimuli by triggering the generation of H2O2 as a signaling molecule. We also found that H2O2 might be involved in the crosstalk between BRs and ethylene in the tomato response to salt stress. Simultaneously, BR-induced ethylene production was partially blocked by pretreated with a reactive oxygen species scavenger or synthesis inhibitor. These results strongly demonstrated that ethylene and H2O2 play important roles in BR-dependent induction of plant salt stress tolerance. Furthermore, we also investigated the relationship between BR signaling and ethylene signaling pathways in plant processes responding to salt stress.

  15. ORGANIC AND INORGANIC ARSENICALS SENSITIZE HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS TO HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-INDUCED DNA DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The lungs are a target organ for arsenic carcinogenesis, however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inorganic arsenic (iAs) can potentiate DNA damage induced by other agents. Once inside the human body iAs generally undergoes two ...

  16. Hydrogen peroxide responsive miR153 targets Nrf2/ARE cytoprotection in paraquat induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Riar, Amanjot Kaur; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Vedpathak, Dhanashree; Henderson, George; Mahimainathan, Lenin

    2014-08-04

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that environmental toxins including paraquat (PQ) increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) by damaging nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. We previously showed that overexpression of a group of microRNAs (miRs) affects the antioxidant promoting factor, Nrf2 and related glutathione-redox homeostasis in SH-SY5Y dopaminergic neurons. Although, dysregulation of redox balance by PQ is well documented, the role for miRs and their impact have not been elucidated. In the current study we investigated whether PQ impairs Nrf2 and its related cytoprotective machinery by misexpression of specific fine tune miRs in SH-SY5Y neurons. Real time PCR analysis revealed that PQ significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression of brain enriched miR153 with an associated decrease in Nrf2 and its function as revealed by decrease in 4× ARE activity and expression of GCLC and NQO1. Also, PQ and H2O2-induced decrease in Nrf2 3' UTR activity was restored on miR153 site mutation suggesting a 3' UTR interacting role. Overexpression of either anti-miR153 or Nrf2 cDNA devoid of 3' UTR prevented PQ and H2O2-induced loss in Nrf2 activity confirming that PQ could cause miR153 to bind to and target Nrf2 3' UTR thereby weakening the cellular antioxidant defense. Adenovirus mediated overexpression of cytoplasmic catalase (Ad cCAT) confirmed that PQ induced miR153 is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dependent. In addition, Ad cCAT significantly (p<0.05) negated the PQ induced dysregulation of Nrf2 and function along with minimizing ROS, caspase 3/7 activation and neuronal death. Altogether, these results suggest a critical role for oxidant mediated miR153-Nrf2/ARE pathway interaction in paraquat neurotoxicity. This novel finding facilitates the understanding of molecular mechanisms and to develop appropriate management alternatives to counteract PQ-induced neuronal pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogen Peroxide responsive miR153 targets Nrf2/ARE cytoprotection in paraquat induced dopaminergic neurotoxicitya

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Riar, Amanjot Kaur; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Vedpathak, Dhanashree; Henderson, George; Mahimainathan, Lenin

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that environmental toxins including paraquat (PQ) increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) by damaging nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. We previously showed that overexpression of a group of microRNAs (miRs) affects the antioxidant promoting factor, Nrf2 and related glutathione-redox homeostasis in SH-SY5Y dopaminergic neurons. Although, dysregulation of redox balance by PQ is well documented, the role for miRs and their impact have not been elucidated. In the current study we investigated whether PQ impairs Nrf2 and its related cytoprotective machinery by misexpression of specific fine tune miRs in SH-SY5Y neurons. Real time PCR analysis revealed that PQ significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression of brain enriched miR153 with an associated decrease in Nrf2 and its function as revealed by decrease in 4× ARE activity and expression of GCLC and NQO1. Also, PQ and H2O2-induced decrease in Nrf2 3′ UTR activity was restored on miR153 site mutation suggesting a 3′ UTR interacting role. Overexpression of either anti-miR153 or Nrf2 cDNA devoid of 3′ UTR prevented PQ and H2O2-induced loss in Nrf2 activity confirming that PQ could cause miR153 to bind to and target Nrf2 3′ UTR thereby weakening the cellular antioxidant defense. Adenovirus mediated overexpression of cytoplasmic catalase (Ad cCAT) confirmed that PQ induced miR153 is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dependent. In addition, Ad cCAT significantly (p<0.05) negated the PQ induced dysregulation of Nrf2 and function along with minimizing ROS, caspase 3/7 activation and neuronal death. Altogether, these results suggest a critical role for oxidant mediated miR153-Nrf2/ARE pathway interaction in paraquat neurotoxicity. This novel finding facilitates the understanding of molecular mechanisms and to develop appropriate management alternatives to counteract PQ-induced neuronal pathogenesis. PMID:24866057

  18. Edgeless Ag-Pt Bimetallic Nanocages: In Situ Monitor Plasmon-Induced Suppression of Hydrogen Peroxide Formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Shuo; Chiu, Shih-Yun; Liao, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Hao Ming

    2017-02-15

    Improvements in the performance of electrocatalysts, along with continuing advances in selective pathway for target reaction, have great potential to offer opportunities in designing competitive reactions especially for using a photophysical process owing to its tunable properties. Herein, we demonstrated a first empirical evidence of suppressing the formation of undesired peroxide intermediate through plasmonic effects, in which plasmonic Ag-Pt bimetallic nanocages were synthesized with an edgeless feature, and a custom-made RDE/RRDE working station was designed to provide unique means by which to in situ realize the plasmon-induced effects toward the target reaction. The edgeless Ag-Pt bimetallic nanocages with hollow interior performed newly plasmon-induced effects, which was characteristic of photodependent nature to suppress the formation of undesired peroxide intermediate. We concluded that the plasmon-induced hot electron transfer governed the suppression of peroxide formation instead of plasmon-induced heating that would cause a negative effect (i.e., increase of peroxide yield), in which the hot electron transfer of Ag nanostructure offered a sufficient energy to populate the antibonding orbital of O2 as illustrated by in situ X-ray absorption approach. This rapid light-dependent nature corresponding to localized surface plasmon resonance in present nanocages can potentially offer synergetic strategies toward altering the chemical reactions or reaction pathways in various fields.

  19. The Antiapoptosis Effect of Glycyrrhizate on HepG2 Cells Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Su, Miao; Yu, Tengfei; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrated that glycyrrhizate (GAS) could protect HEPG2 cells against damage and apoptosis induced by H2O2 (1600 μM, 4 h). Cell viability assay revealed that GAS was noncytotoxity at concentration 125 µg/mL, and GAS (5 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, and 125 μg/mL) protected HepG2 cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. H2O2 induced the HepG2 cells apoptosis, obvious morphologic changes were observed after Hochest 33258 staining, and more apoptotic cells were counted in flow cytometry assay compared to that of the natural group. Pretreatment GAS (5 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, and 125 μg/mL) prior to H2O2 reverses the morphologic changes and reduced the apoptotic cells in HepG2 cells. GAS reduced the release of MDA, increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, and diminished the release of ALT and AST during oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. After Elisa kit detecting, GAS inhibited the caspase activity induced by H2O2, GAS decreased the level of caspase-3 and caspase-9 from mitochondria in dose-dependent manner. Western blot results showed that pretreatment GAS upregulated the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. These results reveal that GAS has the cytoprotection in HepG2 cells during ROS exposure by inhibiting the caspase activity in the mitochondria and influencing apoptogenic factors of the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. PMID:27891207

  20. Steady-State Hydrogen Peroxide Induces Glycolysis in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xin; Liang, Haihua; Ulanovskaya, Olesya A.; Ji, Quanjiang; Zhou, Tianhong; Sun, Fei; Lu, Zhike; Hutchison, Alan L.; Lan, Lefu; Wu, Min; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be readily inhibited by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated direct oxidation of their catalytic active cysteines. Because of the rapid degradation of H2O2 by bacterial catalase, only steady-state but not one-dose treatment with H2O2 rapidly induces glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). We conducted transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses to globally profile the bacterial transcriptomes in response to a steady level of H2O2, which revealed profound transcriptional changes, including the induced expression of glycolytic genes in both bacteria. Our results revealed that the inactivation of GAPDH by H2O2 induces metabolic levels of glycolysis and the PPP; the elevated levels of fructose 1,6-biphosphate (FBP) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) lead to dissociation of their corresponding glycolytic repressors (GapR and HexR, respectively) from their cognate promoters, thus resulting in derepression of the glycolytic genes to overcome H2O2-stalled glycolysis in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Both GapR and HexR may directly sense oxidative stresses, such as menadione. PMID:24769698

  1. Hydrogen peroxide-induced chlorophyll a bleaching in the cytochrome b6f complex: a simple and effective assay for stability of the complex in detergent solutions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Xiao-Hui; Zhu, Yi; Gong, Yan-Dao; Li, Liang-Bi; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Kuang, Ting-Yun

    2006-12-01

    The instability of cytochrome b ( 6 ) f complex in detergent solutions is a well-known problem that has been studied extensively, but without finding a satisfactory solution. One of the important reasons can be short of the useful method to verify whether the complex suspended in different detergent is in an intact state or not. In this article, a simple and effective assay for stability of the complex was proposed based on the investigation on the different effects of the two detergents, n-octyl-beta-D: -glucopyranoside (OG) and dodecyl-beta-D: -maltoside (DDM), on the properties of the complex. DDM stabilizes the complex preparation more effectively whereas OG denatures the interactions of the heme groups and pigment molecules with the protein environment, leading to the bleaching of chlorophyll a induced by addition of hydrogen peroxide. The assay of the use of hydrogen peroxide to characterize the complex by studying the bleaching of chlorophyll induced by hydrogen peroxide and the peroxidase activity of the complex was discussed. This simple method will probably be useful to study the stability of the complex.

  2. High light-induced hydrogen peroxide production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is increased by high CO2 availability.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Na, Chae Sun; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an unavoidable part of photosynthesis. Stress that accompanies high light levels and low CO2 availability putatively includes enhanced ROS production in the so-called Mehler reaction. Such conditions are thought to encourage O2 to become an electron acceptor at photosystem I, producing the ROS superoxide anion radical (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). In contrast, here it is shown in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that CO2 depletion under high light levels lowered cellular H2 O2 production, and that elevated CO2 levels increased H2 O2 production. Using various photosynthetic and mitochondrial mutants of C. reinhardtii, the chloroplast was identified as the main source of elevated H2 O2 production under high CO2 availability. High light levels under low CO2 availability induced photoprotective mechanisms called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, including state transitions (qT) and high energy state quenching (qE). The qE-deficient mutant npq4 produced more H2 O2 than wild-type cells under high light levels, although less so under high CO2 availability, whereas it demonstrated equal or greater enzymatic H2 O2 -degrading capacity. The qT-deficient mutant stt7-9 produced the same H2 O2 as wild-type cells under high CO2 availability. Physiological levels of H2 O2 were able to hinder qT and the induction of state 2, providing an explanation for why under high light levels and high CO2 availability wild-type cells behaved like stt7-9 cells stuck in state 1. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide induces La cytoplasmic shuttling and increases hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shiu-Wan

    2016-09-01

    We have previously shown that physio/pathological levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulate translation from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element in tissue-cultured cells. Here, using in vitro translation, we further show that H2O2 upregulates HCV IRES-dependent mRNA translation and correlates with an increase in intracellular oxidant level. Using Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, microscopy and affinity pulldown, we show that H2O2 stimulates HCV IRES-dependent translation and correlates with nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of the La autoantigen, resulting in enhanced binding of cytoplasmic La to HCV IRES RNA. The role of the La protein in H2O2-stimulated IRES-dependent translation is further confirmed by the ability of an anti-La antibody to suppress H2O2-activated IRES-dependent translation in vitro. This is further supported by the ability of an ectopically expressed dominant, negative La mutant protein to suppress H2O2-inducible IRES-mediated translation in Huh7 cells, transiently transfected with a bicistronic reporter and in a sub-genomic replicon cell line resembling a persistent infection. On the other hand, translation from the encephalomyocarditis virus IRES is diminished in the presence of H2O2, suggesting that H2O2 translational responsiveness is a specific property of the HCV IRES and is not a general phenomenon for all viral IRESs. Altogether, these results suggest that HCV adapts to physio/pathological oxidative stress in the host cell by mediating La cytoplasmic shuttling to enhance its IRES-dependent translation.

  4. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide reversibly inhibits root gravitropism and induces horizontal curvature of primary root during grass pea germination.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinglong; Su, Miao; Wang, Liyan; Jiao, Chengjin; Sun, Zhengxi; Cheng, Wei; Li, Fengmin; Wang, Chongying

    2012-04-01

    During germination in distilled water (dH(2)O) on a horizontally positioned Petri dish, emerging primary roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) grew perpendicular to the bottom of the Petri dish, due to gravitropism. However, when germinated in exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the primary roots grew parallel to the bottom of the Petri dish and asymmetrically, forming a horizontal curvature. Time-course experiments showed that the effect was strongest when H(2)O(2) was applied prior to the emergence of the primary root. H(2)O(2) failed to induce root curvature when applied post-germination. Dosage studies revealed that the frequency of primary root curvature was significantly enhanced with increased H(2)O(2) concentrations. This curvature could be directly counteracted by dimethylthiourea (DMTU), a scavenger of H(2)O(2), but not by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and pyridine, inhibitors of H(2)O(2) production. Exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment caused both an increase in the activities of H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzymes [including ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7)] and a reduction in endogenous H(2)O(2) levels and root vitality. Although grass pea seeds absorbed exogenous H(2)O(2) during seed germination, DAB staining of paraffin sections revealed that exogenous H(2)O(2) only entered the root epidermis and not inner tissues. These data indicated that exogenously applied H(2)O(2) could lead to a reversible loss of the root gravitropic response and a horizontal curvature in primary roots during radicle emergence of the seedling.

  5. Chlorella protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced pancreatic β-cell damage.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Huang, Pei-Jane; Chao, Che-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Studies have shown that chlorella could be important in health promotion or disease prevention through its antioxidant capacity. However, whether chlorella has a cytoprotective effect in pancreatic β-cells remains to be elucidated. We investigated the protective effects of chlorella on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in INS-1 (832/13) cells. Chlorella partially restored cell viability after H2O2 toxicity. To further investigate the effects of chlorella on mitochondria function and cellular oxidative stress, we analyzed mitochondria membrane potential, ATP concentrations, and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chlorella prevented mitochondria disruption and maintained cellular ATP levels after H2O2 toxicity. It also normalized intracellular levels of ROS to that of control in the presence of H2O2. Chlorella protected cells from apoptosis as indicated by less p-Histone and caspase 3 activation. In addition, chlorella not only enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but also partially restored the reduced GSIS after H2O2 toxicity. Our results suggest that chlorella is effective in amelioration of cellular oxidative stress and destruction, and therefore protects INS-1 (832/13) cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis and increases insulin secretion. Chlorella should be studied for use in the prevention or treatment of diabetes.

  6. Mussel oligopeptides protect human fibroblasts from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Dong, Ying; Xu, Qing-Gang; Zhu, Shu-Yun; Tian, Shi-Lei; Huo, Jing-jing; Hao, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Mussel bioactive peptides have been viewed as mediators to maximize the high quality of life. In this study, the anti-aging activities of mussel oligopeptides were evaluated using H2O2-induced prematurely senescent MRC-5 fibroblasts. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry displayed that exposure to H2O2 led to the loss of cell viability and cell cycle arrest. In addition, H2O2 caused the elevation of senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity and formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). It was found that pretreatment with mussel oligopeptides could significantly attenuate these properties associated with cellular senescence. Mussel oligopeptides also led to the increase of glutathione (GSH) level and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) recovery. In addition, mussel oligopeptides resulted in an improvement in transcriptional activity of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1), nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). This study revealed that mussel oligopeptides could protect against cellular senescence induced by H2O2, and the effects were closely associated with redox cycle modulating and potentiating the SIRT1 pathway. These findings provide new insights into the beneficial role of mussel bioactive peptides on retarding senescence process. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Induces Tumoricidal Effects on Lymphoma Cells Through Hydrogen Peroxide Mediation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao Daniel; Fong, Chui-Yee; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Bongso, Ariff

    2016-09-01

    Several groups have reported that human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) possess unique tumoricidal properties against many cancers. However, the exact mechanisms as to how hWJSCs inhibit tumor growth are not known. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of cancer cells to high hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels from H2 O2 -releasing drugs causes their death. We therefore explored whether the tumoricidal effect of hWJSCs on lymphoma cells was mediated via H2 O2 . We first exposed lymphoma cells to six different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) concentrates of hWJSC-conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM) (3, 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 kDa) for 48 h. Since, the 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate showed the greatest cell inhibition we then investigated whether the tumoricidal effect of the specific 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate on two different lymphoma cell lines (Ramos and Toledo) was mediated via accumulation of H2 O2 . We used a battery of assays (MTT, propidium iodide, mitochondria membrane potential, apoptosis, cell cycle, oxidative stress enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation) to test this mechanism. The hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate significantly decreased cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cell death and apoptosis in both lymphoma cell lines. There were significant increases in superoxide dismutase with concomitant decreases in glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and thioredoxin peroxidase activities. H2 O2 levels, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation were also significantly increased in both lymphoma cell lines. The results suggested that the hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate regulates cellular H2 O2 leading to a tumoricidal effect and may thus be a promising anti-lymphoma agent. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2045-2055, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide induces oxidation and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W; Banerjee, Sami; Bae, Hongbeom; Friggeri, Arnaud; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Abraham, Edward

    2010-10-22

    Although metabolic conditions associated with an increased AMP/ATP ratio are primary factors in the activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a number of recent studies have shown that increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species can stimulate AMPK activity, even without a decrease in cellular levels of ATP. We found that exposure of recombinant AMPKαβγ complex or HEK 293 cells to H(2)O(2) was associated with increased kinase activity and also resulted in oxidative modification of AMPK, including S-glutathionylation of the AMPKα and AMPKβ subunits. In experiments using C-terminal truncation mutants of AMPKα (amino acids 1-312), we found that mutation of cysteine 299 to alanine diminished the ability of H(2)O(2) to induce kinase activation, and mutation of cysteine 304 to alanine totally abrogated the enhancing effect of H(2)O(2) on kinase activity. Similar to the results obtained with H(2)O(2)-treated HEK 293 cells, activation and S-glutathionylation of the AMPKα subunit were present in the lungs of acatalasemic mice or mice treated with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole, conditions in which intracellular steady state levels of H(2)O(2) are increased. These results demonstrate that physiologically relevant concentrations of H(2)O(2) can activate AMPK through oxidative modification of the AMPKα subunit. The present findings also imply that AMPK activation, in addition to being a response to alterations in intracellular metabolic pathways, is directly influenced by cellular redox status.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide inhibits exercise-induced increase of circulating stem cells with endothelial progenitor capacity.

    PubMed

    Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kumpf, Stephanie; Rauch, Bernhard H; Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Adams, Volker; Kojda, Georg

    2010-02-01

    The number of circulating stem cells with endothelial progenitor capacity (EPCs) inversely correlates with the number of cardiovascular risk factors. In this study we sought to investigate the effects of vascular H(2)O(2) on circulating EPC levels. In C57BL/6 mice 3 weeks of freely moving or forced physical activity or voluntary exercise failed to increase circulating EPCs defined as double positive for Flk-1 and CD34, CD133 or Sca-1. Likewise, neither insertion of additional genes encoding for catalase (cat(++)) or eNOS nor eNOS knock-out changed EPCs in resting mice. In striking contrast, inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole strongly reduced circulating EPCs in sedentary cat(++) and their transgen-negative littermates (cat(n)), while forced or voluntary exercise training of cat(++) mice significantly increased the number of circulating EPCs. The latter effect was completely inhibitable by aminotriazole. These data suggest that endogenous vascular H(2)O(2) likely contributes to the impairment of important stem cell-induced vascular repair mechanisms in cardiovascular disease.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes impart tolerance to high temperature induced oxidative stress in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Pathak, Ashwini Dutt; Gupta, Prashant Shekhar; Shrivastava, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Arun Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Seventy-one genotypes of sugarcane from diverse agro-climatic zones of India viz. peninsular, northwest, north-central and eastern zones, were screened for their tolerance to high temperature stress based on the damage to leaf biomass i.e. necrosis of leaf-tips and margins, and rolling of leaves. Nine selected genotypes showing variable response to heat injury were tested for activity pattern of isoforms of two H2O2-scavenging enzymes; ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT), under high temperature induced oxidative stress. Changes in the activity of APX and CAT isozymes in leaves corresponded to the level of tolerance of genotypes towards heat injury which was substantiated by the highly negative correlation coefficients of heat injury levels of leaves vs. integrated density of APX and CAT isozyme bands. This indicated that the criteria of higher expression of CATs' andAPXs', the two major reactive oxygen species scavenging proteins in leaves may be used to screen large seedling populations and germplasm for high temperature tolerance.

  11. A copper-hydrogen peroxide redox system induces dityrosine cross-links and chemokine oligomerisation.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Helen J; Kato, Yoji; Marshall, Lindsay J; Nevell, Thomas G; Shute, Janis K

    2011-12-01

    The activity of the chemoattractant cytokines, the chemokines, in vivo is enhanced by oligomerisation and aggregation on glycosaminoglycan (GAG), particularly heparan sulphate, side chains of proteoglycans. The chemokine RANTES (CCL5) is a T-lymphocyte and monocyte chemoattractant, which has a minimum tetrameric structure for in vivo activity and a propensity to form higher order oligomers. RANTES is unusual among the chemokines in having five tyrosine residues, an amino acid susceptible to oxidative cross-linking. Using fluorescence emission spectroscopy, Western blot analysis and LCMS-MS, we show that a copper/H2O2 redox system induces the formation of covalent dityrosine cross-links and RANTES oligomerisation with the formation of tetramers, as well as higher order oligomers. Amongst the transition metals tested, namely copper, nickel, mercury, iron and zinc, copper appeared unique in this respect. At high (400 μM) concentrations of H2O2, RANTES monomers, dimers and oligomers are destroyed, but heparan sulphate protects the chemokine from oxidative damage, promoting dityrosine cross-links and multimer formation under oxidative conditions. Low levels of dityrosine cross-links were detected in copper/H2O2-treated IL-8 (CXCL8), which has one tyrosine residue, and none were detected in ENA-78 (CXCL5), which has none. Redox-treated RANTES was fully functional in Boyden chamber assays of T-cell migration and receptor usage on activated T-cells following RANTES oligomerisation was not altered. Our results point to a protective, anti-oxidant, role for heparan sulphate and a previously unrecognised role for copper in chemokine oligomerisation that may offer an explanation for the known anti-inflammatory effect of copper-chelators such as penicillamine and tobramycin.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide induced by the fungicide prothioconazole triggers deoxynivalenol (DON) production by Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fusarium head blight is a very important disease of small grain cereals with F. graminearum as one of the most important causal agents. It not only causes reduction in yield and quality but from a human and animal healthcare point of view, it produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which can accumulate to toxic levels. Little is known about external triggers influencing DON production. Results In the present work, a combined in vivo/in vitro approach was used to test the effect of sub lethal fungicide treatments on DON production. Using a dilution series of prothioconazole, azoxystrobin and prothioconazole + fluoxastrobin, we demonstrated that sub lethal doses of prothioconazole coincide with an increase in DON production 48 h after fungicide treatment. In an artificial infection trial using wheat plants, the in vitro results of increased DON levels upon sub lethal prothioconazole application were confirmed illustrating the significance of these results from a practical point of view. In addition, further in vitro experiments revealed a timely hyperinduction of H2O2 production as fast as 4 h after amending cultures with prothioconazole. When applying H2O2 directly to germinating conidia, a similar induction of DON-production by F. graminearum was observed. The effect of sub lethal prothioconazole concentrations on DON production completely disappeared when applying catalase together with the fungicide. Conclusions These cumulative results suggest that H2O2 induced by sub lethal doses of the triazole fungicide prothioconazole acts as a trigger of DON biosynthesis. In a broader framework, this work clearly shows that DON production by the plant pathogen F. graminearum is the result of the interaction of fungal genomics and external environmental triggers. PMID:20398299

  13. Exposure to Hydrogen Peroxide Induces Oxidation and Activation of AMP-activated Protein Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.; Banerjee, Sami; Bae, Hongbeom; Friggeri, Arnaud; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Abraham, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Although metabolic conditions associated with an increased AMP/ATP ratio are primary factors in the activation of 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a number of recent studies have shown that increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species can stimulate AMPK activity, even without a decrease in cellular levels of ATP. We found that exposure of recombinant AMPKαβγ complex or HEK 293 cells to H2O2 was associated with increased kinase activity and also resulted in oxidative modification of AMPK, including S-glutathionylation of the AMPKα and AMPKβ subunits. In experiments using C-terminal truncation mutants of AMPKα (amino acids 1–312), we found that mutation of cysteine 299 to alanine diminished the ability of H2O2 to induce kinase activation, and mutation of cysteine 304 to alanine totally abrogated the enhancing effect of H2O2 on kinase activity. Similar to the results obtained with H2O2-treated HEK 293 cells, activation and S-glutathionylation of the AMPKα subunit were present in the lungs of acatalasemic mice or mice treated with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole, conditions in which intracellular steady state levels of H2O2 are increased. These results demonstrate that physiologically relevant concentrations of H2O2 can activate AMPK through oxidative modification of the AMPKα subunit. The present findings also imply that AMPK activation, in addition to being a response to alterations in intracellular metabolic pathways, is directly influenced by cellular redox status. PMID:20729205

  14. Differential role of ethylene and hydrogen peroxide in dark-induced stomatal closure.

    PubMed

    Kar, R K; Parvin, N; Laha, D

    2013-12-15

    Regulation of stomatal aperture is crucial in terrestrial plants for controlling water loss and gaseous exchange with environment. While much is known of signaling for stomatal opening induced by blue light and the role of hormones, little is known about the regulation of stomatal closing in darkness. The present study was aimed to verify their role in stomatal regulation in darkness. Epidermal peelings from the leaves of Commelina benghalensis were incubated in a defined medium in darkness for 1 h followed by a 1 h incubation in different test solutions [H2O2, propyl gallate, ethrel (ethylene), AgNO3, sodium orthovanadate, tetraethyl ammonium chloride, CaCl2, LaCl3, separately and in combination] before stomatal apertures were measured under the microscope. In the dark stomata remained closed under treatments with ethylene and propyl gallate but opened widely in the presence of H2O2 and AgNO3. The opening effect was largely unaffected by supplementing the treatment with Na-vanadate (PM H+ ATPase inhibitor) and tetraethyl ammonium chloride (K(+)-channel inhibitor) except that opening was significantly inhibited by the latter in presence of H2O2. On the other hand, H2O2 could not override the closing effect of ethylene at any concentrations while a marginal opening of stomata was found when Ag NO3 treatment was given together with propyl gallate. CaCl2 treatment opened stomata in the darkness while LaCl3 maintained stomata closed. A combination of LaCl3 and propyl gallate strongly promoted stomatal opening. A probable action of ethylene in closing stomata of Commelina benghalensis in dark has been proposed.

  15. Peroxide-induced cell death and lipid peroxidation in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Linden, Arne; Gülden, Michael; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund; Seibert, Hasso

    2008-08-01

    Peroxides are often used as models to induce oxidative damage in cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of lipid peroxidation in peroxide-induced cell death. To this end (i) the ability to induce lipid peroxidation in C6 rat astroglioma cells of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) and t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) (ii) the relation between peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death in terms of time and concentration dependency and (iii) the capability of the lipid peroxidation chain breaking alpha-tocopherol to prevent peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and/or cell death were investigated. Lipid peroxidation was characterised by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and, by HPLC, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and hexanal. Within 2 h CHP, t-BuOOH and H2O2 induced cell death with EC50 values of 59+/-9 microM, 290+/-30 microM and 12+/-1.1 mM, respectively. CHP and t-BuOOH, but not H2O2 induced lipid peroxidation in C6 cells with EC50 values of 15+/-14 microM and 130+/-33 microM, respectively. The TBARS measured almost exclusively consisted of MDA. 4-HNE was mostly not detectable. The concentration of hexanal slightly increased with increasing concentrations of organic peroxides. Regarding time and concentration dependency lipid peroxidation preceded cell death. Pretreatment with alpha-tocopherol (10 microM, 24 h) prevented both, peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and cell death. The results strongly indicate a major role of lipid peroxidation in the killing of C6 cells by organic peroxides but also that lipid peroxidation is not involved in H2O2 induced cell death.

  16. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and enhance neuroprotective effects in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Xu, Nuo; Xu, Wei; Xu, Guoxing

    2017-04-01

    The apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells leads to visual impairment and blindness in ocular neurodegenerative diseases, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Mounting evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we investigated whether bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have protective ability to relieve hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury on retinal ganglion cells in vitro. An immortalized retinal ganglion cells, RGC-5 cells, were exposed to an indicated concentration of H2O2 for 24 h. Cell viability was analyzed by CCK-8 assay to find out a certain concentration to build H2O2 oxidative damage model. Morphological changes in RGC-5 cells were observed under optical microscope, and cell apoptosis was detected with Hoechst fluorescence staining. Then, BMSCs were co-cultured with RGC-5 cells in a transwell culture system for 24 h and 48 h. Flow cytometry was performed to qualify the apoptosis rate of RGC-5 cells. Conditioned medium was collected for evaluation the inflammatory cytokines by ELISA. The content of intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was assayed by thiobarbituric acid and xanthine oxidase method, respectively. qRT-PCR and ELISA were conducted for analysis of the expression changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), respectively. After H2O2 exposure, the morphological varieties were observed as cytoplasm shrinking and paramorphia together with nuclear gathering. Meanwhile, the apoptotic cells had hyperfluorescence with Hoechst 33258 staining. Co-culture with BMSCs significantly inhibited retinal cell death. It was found that BMSCs reduced H2O2-induced inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α, down-regulated intracellular oxidant factor MDA, up-regulated intracellular antioxidant factor SOD, and increased neurotrophins BDNF and CNTF expression. BMSCs may enhance protective effect of RGC-5 cells in H2O2-induced

  17. Catalyst Development for Hydrogen Peroxide Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morlan, P. W.; Wu, P.-K.; Ruttle, D. W.; Fuller, R. P.; Nejad, A. S.; Anderson, W. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of various catalysts of hydrogen peroxide was conducted for the applications of liquid rocket engines. The catalyst development includes silver screen technology, solid catalyst technology, and homogeneous catalyst technology. The silver screen technology development was performed with 85% (by weight) hydrogen peroxide. The results of this investigation were used as the basis for the catalyst design of a pressure-fed liquid-fueled upper stage engine. Both silver-plated nickel 200 screens and pure silver screens were used as the active metal catalyst during the investigation, The data indicate that a high decomposition efficiency (greater than 90%) of 85% hydrogen peroxide can be achieved at a bed loading of 0.5 lbm/sq in/sec with both pure silver and silver plated screens. Samarium oxide coating, however, was found to retard the decomposition process and the catalyst bed was flooded at lower bed loading. A throughput of 200 lbm of hydrogen peroxide (1000 second run time) was tested to evaluate the catalyst aging issue and performance degradation was observed starting at approximately 400 seconds. Catalyst beds of 3.5 inch in diameter was fabricated using the same configuration for a 1,000-lbf rocket engine. High decomposition efficiency was obtained with a low pressure drop across the bed. Solid catalyst using precious metal was also developed for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide from 85% to 98% by weight. Preliminary results show that the catalyst has a strong reactivity even after 15 minutes of peroxide decomposition. The development effort also includes the homogeneous catalyst technology. Various non-toxic catalysts were evaluated with 98% peroxide and hydrocarbon fuels. The results of open cup drop tests indicate an ignition delay around 11 ms.

  18. Catalyst Development for Hydrogen Peroxide Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morlan, P. W.; Wu, P.-K.; Ruttle, D. W.; Fuller, R. P.; Nejad, A. S.; Anderson, W. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of various catalysts of hydrogen peroxide was conducted for the applications of liquid rocket engines. The catalyst development includes silver screen technology, solid catalyst technology, and homogeneous catalyst technology. The silver screen technology development was performed with 85% (by weight) hydrogen peroxide. The results of this investigation were used as the basis for the catalyst design of a pressure-fed liquid-fueled upper stage engine. Both silver-plated nickel 200 screens and pure silver screens were used as the active metal catalyst during the investigation, The data indicate that a high decomposition efficiency (greater than 90%) of 85% hydrogen peroxide can be achieved at a bed loading of 0.5 lbm/sq in/sec with both pure silver and silver plated screens. Samarium oxide coating, however, was found to retard the decomposition process and the catalyst bed was flooded at lower bed loading. A throughput of 200 lbm of hydrogen peroxide (1000 second run time) was tested to evaluate the catalyst aging issue and performance degradation was observed starting at approximately 400 seconds. Catalyst beds of 3.5 inch in diameter was fabricated using the same configuration for a 1,000-lbf rocket engine. High decomposition efficiency was obtained with a low pressure drop across the bed. Solid catalyst using precious metal was also developed for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide from 85% to 98% by weight. Preliminary results show that the catalyst has a strong reactivity even after 15 minutes of peroxide decomposition. The development effort also includes the homogeneous catalyst technology. Various non-toxic catalysts were evaluated with 98% peroxide and hydrocarbon fuels. The results of open cup drop tests indicate an ignition delay around 11 ms.

  19. Mechanism of toxicity of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Imlay, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    We examined the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to injure E. coli. Externally applied hydrogen peroxide rapidly permeates the bacterial cell and causes at least two classes of potentially lethal damage. These classes were initially distinguished by the kinetics of their production. Additional distinctions have been made regarding the chemistry of cell injury and the details of the cell response. One class of cell damage consists of DNA lesions; if unrepaired, mode one killing results. Hydrogen peroxide does not directly attack the DNA. Instead, ferrous iron reduces the peroxide to generate a hydroxyl-radical-like species, which acts as a DNA oxidant. The peculiar kinetics of mode-one killing may reflect an high reaction rate between this radical and peroxide itself. Interestingly, NADH may chemically reduce ferric iron in order to start and maintain the sequence of redox reactions. The target of the other class of cell damage is unknown. This damage, unlike that associated with mode-one killing, does not rely upon Fenton chemistry. Scavenging enzymes, such as catalase and superoxide dismutase, contribute to resisting oxidative stress. Increases in catalase titer accelerate detoxification of peroxide and are responsible for the protective effects of oxyR induction. When oxidants elude this defense and nick DNA, a variety of enzymes-exonuclease III, endonuclease IV, and DNA polymerase I-repair the damage.

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide - Material Compatibility Studied by Microcalorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homung, Steven D.; Davis, Dennis D.; Baker, David; Popp, Christopher G.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental and toxicity concerns with current hypergolic propellants have led to a renewed interest in propellant grade hydrogen peroxide (HP) for propellant applications. Storability and stability has always been an issue with HP. Contamination or contact of HP with metallic surfaces may cause decomposition, which can result in the evolution of heat and gas leading to increased pressure or thermal hazards. The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility has developed a technique to monitor the decompositions of hydrogen peroxide at temperatures ranging from 25 to 60 C. Using isothermal microcalorimetry we have measured decomposition rates at the picomole/s/g level showing the catalytic effects of materials of construction. In this paper we will present the results of testing with Class 1 and 2 materials in 90 percent hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Reaction of chromium(VI) with glutathione or with hydrogen peroxide: Identification of reactive intermediates and their role in chromium(VI)-induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Aiyar, J.; Berkovits, H.J.; Wetterhahn, K.E. ); Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    The types of reactive intermediates generated upon reduction of chromium (VI) by glutathione or hydrogen peroxide and the resulting DNA damage have been determined. In vitro, reaction of chromium (VI) with glutathione led to formation of two chromium (V) complexes and the glutathione thiyl radical. When chromium (VI) was reacted with DNA in the presence of glutathione, chromium-DNA adducts were obtained, with no DNA strand breakage. The level of chromium-DNA adduct formation correlated with chromium (V) formation. Reaction of chromium (VI) with hydrogen peroxide led to formation of hydroxyl radical. No chromium (V) was detectable at 24 C (297 K); however, low levels of the tetraperoxochromium (V) complex were detected at 77 K. Reaction of chromium (VI) with DNA in the presence of hydrogen peroxide produced significant DNA strand breakage and the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine adduct, whose formation correlated with hydroxyl radical production. No significant chromium-DNA adduct formation was detected. Thus, the nature of chromium (VI)-induced DNA damage appears to be dependent on the reactive intermediates, i.e., chromium (V) or hydroxyl radical, produced during the reduction of chromium (VI).

  2. Hydrogen peroxide induces G:C to T:A and G:C to C:G transversions in the supF gene of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, S; Yamamoto, K

    1994-06-03

    A vector plasmid, pZ189, carrying an Escherichia coli supF gene as a target for mutations, was treated with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and Fe3+/EDTA complex and propagated in E. coli host cells that had been induced for SOS functions by ultraviolet irradiation. The mutations frequency increased by up to 30-fold over spontaneous background levels with increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. The increase in mutation frequency correlated with an increase in the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in the pZ189 DNA. Sequence analysis of 82 independent supF mutant plasmids revealed that 70 mutants contained base substitutions, with 63 of the 70 involving a G:C base pair, and with G:C-->C:G (28 cases) and G:C-->T:A (26 cases) transversions predominating. Investigation of the influence of the local DNA sequence on the transversions revealed that the guanine at the center of the triplet 5'-PuGA-3' was five times more likely to mutate after treatment with hydrogen peroxide than that at the center of 5'PyGN3'. G:C-->T:A transversions presumably resulted from mispairing of an altered G (probably 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) with deoxyadenosine. The origin of the G:C-->C:G transversions may be an as yet unidentified lesion generated by hydrogen peroxide. Mutagenic hotspots for base substitutions were found at positions 133, 160 and 168. Mutation spectra and the positions of mutagenic hotspots, when compared with a previously determined spontaneous mutagenesis spectrum, also provide information on the mechanism of spontaneous mutagenesis.

  3. Improvement of adventitious root formation in flax using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Takáč, Tomáš; Obert, Bohuš; Rolčík, Jakub; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-09-25

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important crop for the production of oil and fiber. In vitro manipulations of flax are used for genetic improvement and breeding while improvements in adventitious root formation are important for biotechnological programs focused on regeneration and vegetative propagation of genetically valuable plant material. Additionally, flax hypocotyl segments possess outstanding morphogenetic capacity, thus providing a useful model for the investigation of flax developmental processes. Here, we investigated the crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and auxin with respect to reprogramming flax hypocotyl cells for root morphogenetic development. Exogenous auxin induced the robust formation of adventitious roots from flax hypocotyl segments while the addition of hydrogen peroxide further enhanced this process. The levels of endogenous auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) were positively correlated with increased root formation in response to exogenous auxin (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA). Histochemical staining of the hypocotyl segments revealed that hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase, but not superoxide, were positively correlated with root formation. Measurements of antioxidant enzyme activities showed that endogenous levels of hydrogen peroxide were controlled by peroxidases during root formation from hypocotyl segments. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide positively affected flax adventitious root formation by regulating the endogenous auxin levels. Consequently, this agent can be applied to increase flax regeneration capacity for biotechnological purposes such as improved plant rooting.

  4. Probing skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonios, George; Dimou, Aikaterini; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important oxidizing agent in biological systems. In dermatology, it is frequently used as topical antiseptic, it has a haemostatic function, it can cause skin blanching, and it can facilitate skin tanning. In this work, we investigated skin interaction with hydrogen peroxide, non-invasively, using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. We observed transient changes in the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin concentrations as a result of topical application of dilute H2O2 solutions to the skin, with changes in deoxyhaemoglobin concentration being more pronounced. Furthermore, we did not observe any appreciable changes in melanin absorption properties as well as in the skin scattering properties. We also found no evidence for production of oxidized haemoglobin forms. Our observations are consistent with an at least partial decomposition of hydrogen peroxide within the stratum corneum and epidermis, with the resulting oxygen and/or remaining hydrogen peroxide inducing vasoconstriction to dermal blood vessels and increasing haemoglobin oxygen saturation. An assessment of the effects of topical application of hydrogen peroxide to the skin may serve as the basis for the development of non-invasive techniques to measure skin antioxidant capacity and also may shed light onto skin related disorders such as vitiligo.

  5. Paraquat toxicity and effect of hydrogen peroxide on thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Allgood, G S; Perry, J J

    1985-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ++) increased cyanide-resistant univalent respiration in cell suspensions of five strains of obligately thermophilic bacteria. PQ++ was reduced by an NADH: or NADPH:paraquat diaphorase and selectivity for NADH, NADPH, or both electron donors varied among the thermophiles. Superoxide anion production that was dependent on the presence of PQ++ was shown by following the superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome c. In addition, the PQ++-dependent formation of hydrogen peroxide from superoxide anion was evident in two of the thermophilic strains. Catalase synthesis was induced by adding hydrogen peroxide to the growth medium of the thermophiles. The induction of catalase to eliminate hydrogen peroxide appears to be an important response of these thermophilic bacteria to oxygen toxicity.

  6. Involvement of SDF-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in hydrogen peroxide-induced extracellular matrix degradation in human dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, D-S; Kang, S I; Lee, S-Y; Noh, K-T; Kim, E-C

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether chemokines such as SDF-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) are responsible for hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and to identify the underlying mechanism in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Human dental pulp cells were exposed to 0.4 mmol H2 O2 for 48 h. mRNA expression and protein expression were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The mRNA expression of chemokine (SDF-1 and MCP-1), their receptors (CXCR4 and CXCR2) and extracellular matrix proteins was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The production of SDF-1, MCP-1, CXCR4 and CCR2 in the culture medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Signal transduction pathway was examined by Western blotting. Hydrogen peroxide provoked the activation of MCP-1 and SDF-1 mRNA and their respective receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR2. H2 O2 treatment concomitantly downregulated the expression of ECM molecules, such as type I collagen, elastin and fibronectin, and upregulated the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-2, MMP-8 and MMP-9. Hydrogen peroxide-induced ECM degradation and MMP upregulation were blocked by neutralizing antibodies and siRNAs directed against SDF-1 and MCP-1. Inhibition of SDF-1 and MCP-1 blocked the H2 O2 -induced activation of Akt, p38, ERK and NF-kB. Inhibition of SDF and MCP-1 is a potent component of reducing release reactive oxygen species-induced ECM degradation in HDPCs and may play an important role in pulpal and periapical inflammation. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of epithelial sodium channel through a PTEN/PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianing; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Huibin; Zhang, Bingkun; Zhao, Ying; Ma, Ke; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Qiushi; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Zhiren

    2013-01-01

    Sodium reabsorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) at the distal segment of the kidney plays an important role in salt-sensitive hypertension. We reported previously that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulates ENaC in A6 distal nephron cells via elevation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) in the apical membrane. Here we report that H2S can antagonize H2O2-induced activation of ENaC in A6 cells. Our cell-attached patch-clamp data show that ENaC open probability (PO ) was significantly increased by exogenous H2O2, which is consistent with our previous finding. The aberrant activation of ENaC induced by exogenous H2O2 was completely abolished by H2S (0.1 mM NaHS). Pre-treatment of A6 cells with H2S slightly decreased ENaC P(O); however, in these cells H2O2 failed to elevate ENaC PO . Confocal microscopy data show that application of exogenous H2O2 to A6 cells significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and induced accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3 in the apical compartment of the cell membrane. These effects of exogenous H2O2 on intracellular ROS levels and on apical PI(3,4,5)P3 levels were almost completely abolished by treatment of A6 cells with H2S. In addition, H2S significantly inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) which is a negative regulator of PI(3,4,5)P3. Moreover, BPV(pic), a specific inhibitor of PTEN, elevated PI(3,4,5)P3 and ENaC activity in a manner similar to that of H2O2 in A6 cells. Our data show, for the first time, that H2S prevents H2O2-induced activation of ENaC through a PTEN-PI(3,4,5)P3 dependent pathway.

  8. Oregano Essential Oil Induces SOD1 and GSH Expression through Nrf2 Activation and Alleviates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Damage in IPEC-J2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Wang, Jun; Peng, Jian; Wei, Hongkui

    2016-01-01

    Oregano essential oil (OEO) has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly their intestinal health. The health benefits of OEO are generally attributed to antioxidative actions, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the antioxidative effects of OEO and their underlying molecular mechanisms in porcine small intestinal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells. We found that OEO treatment prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure increased cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the medium. H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were remarkably suppressed by OEO. OEO dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) target genes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and g-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC, GLCM), as well as intracellular concentrations of SOD1 and glutathione. OEO also increased intranuclear expression of Nrf2 and the activity of an antioxidant response element reporter plasmid in IPEC-J2 cells. The OEO-induced expression of Nrf2-regulated genes and increased SOD1 and glutathione concentrations in IPEC-J2 cells were reduced by Nrf2 small interfering (si) RNAs, counteracting the protective effects of OEO against oxidative stress in IPEC-J2 cells. Our results suggest that OEO protects against H2O2-induced IPEC-J2 cell damage by inducing Nrf2 and related antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Oregano Essential Oil Induces SOD1 and GSH Expression through Nrf2 Activation and Alleviates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Damage in IPEC-J2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Wang, Jun; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Oregano essential oil (OEO) has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly their intestinal health. The health benefits of OEO are generally attributed to antioxidative actions, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the antioxidative effects of OEO and their underlying molecular mechanisms in porcine small intestinal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells. We found that OEO treatment prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure increased cell viability and prevented lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release into the medium. H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were remarkably suppressed by OEO. OEO dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) target genes Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and g-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC, GLCM), as well as intracellular concentrations of SOD1 and glutathione. OEO also increased intranuclear expression of Nrf2 and the activity of an antioxidant response element reporter plasmid in IPEC-J2 cells. The OEO-induced expression of Nrf2-regulated genes and increased SOD1 and glutathione concentrations in IPEC-J2 cells were reduced by Nrf2 small interfering (si) RNAs, counteracting the protective effects of OEO against oxidative stress in IPEC-J2 cells. Our results suggest that OEO protects against H2O2-induced IPEC-J2 cell damage by inducing Nrf2 and related antioxidant enzymes. PMID:28105249

  10. Nucleotides protect rat brain astrocytes against hydrogen peroxide toxicity and induce antioxidant defense via P2Y receptors.

    PubMed

    Förster, Daniel; Reiser, Georg

    2016-03-01

    Consequences of neurodegenerative diseases or stroke also depend on astroglial survival during oxidative stress. P2Y receptors that are widely distributed in the central nervous system are suggested to be involved in cytoprotection. However, knowledge about the efficacy of protection by P2Y receptors and their involvement in antioxidant protective pathways is scarce. Here, we investigate the viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after exposure of rat astrocytes to hydrogen peroxide. We determined the influence of treatment with the P2Y1 receptor-specific agonist 2-methyl-thio-ADP (2MeSADP) and the broad range P2Y receptor agonist adenosine 5'-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS). Preincubation (24-h before hydrogen peroxide application) and incubation with ATPγS and 2MeSADP protected astrocytes. The ROS production in hydrogen peroxide-treated astrocytes was reduced by pre- and co-incubation with ATPγS or 2MeSADP. Changes of levels of expression of antioxidant defense systems in astrocytes by treatment with P2Y receptor agonists were analyzed. Incubation with ATPγS and 2MeSADP increased mRNA levels of CAT encoding catalase and SOD2, encoding mitochondrial manganese dependent superoxide dismutase. ATPγS additionally increased mRNA levels of SOD3, encoding extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD). Levels of total glutathione (GSH) increased in ATPγS/2MeSADP-treated astrocytes. mRNA levels of genes involved in GSH synthesis and in import of GSH precursors were analyzed after treatment with ATPγS and 2MeSADP. Both agonists significantly increased mRNA levels of a subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and a subunit of antiporter system xc(-). Changes in mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and genes of GSH metabolism depend on rise of intracellular Ca(2+) by P2Y receptor and basal activity of protein kinase A (PKA). SOD3 induction is suggested to depend on increased intracellular Ca(2+), increased cyclic AMP levels and PKA activity. Thus, we confirm a

  11. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOEpatents

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  12. Involvement of heat shock protein-70 in the mechanism of hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage: the role of lysosomes and iron.

    PubMed

    Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Kotoglou, Polychronis; Tenopoulou, Margarita; Keramisanou, Dimitra; Tzavaras, Theodore; Brunk, Ulf; Galaris, Dimitrios; Angelidis, Charalampos

    2007-02-15

    Heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70) is the main heat-inducible member of the 70-kDa family of chaperones that assist cells in maintaining proteins functional under stressful conditions. In the present investigation, the role of Hsp70 in the molecular mechanism of hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage to HeLa cells in culture was examined. Stably transfected HeLa cell lines, overexpressing or lacking Hsp70, were created by utilizing constitutive expression of plasmids containing the functional hsp70 gene or hsp70-siRNA, respectively. Compared to control cells, the Hsp70-overexpressing ones were significantly resistant to hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage, while Hsp70-depleted cells showed an enhanced sensitivity. In addition, the "intracellular calcein-chelatable iron pool" was determined in the presence or absence of Hsp70 and found to be related to the sensitivity of nuclear DNA to H(2)O(2). It seems likely that the main action of Hsp70, at least in this system, is exerted at the lysosomal level, by protecting the membranes of these organelles against oxidative stress-induced destabilization. Apart from shedding additional light on the mechanistic details behind the action of Hsp70 during oxidative stress, our results indicate that modulation of cellular Hsp70 may represent a way to make cancer cells more sensitive to normal host defense mechanisms or chemotherapeutic drug treatment.

  13. Activation of ERK1/2 by protein kinase C-alpha in response to hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio; Arroyo-Cruz, Rita; Villeda-Navarro, Mónica; Méndez-Mejía, José Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increases protein tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Two main proteins, with an apparent molecular weight of 44 and 42kDa, were phosphorylated after hydrogen peroxide stimulation of the human gingival fibroblasts. Further analysis identified these two proteins as ERK1/2. Maximum phosphorylation was detected at 10min post-H(2)O(2) treatment. Pretreatment with an MEK inhibitor, PD98059, inhibited H(2)O(2)-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with H(2)O(2) also induced phosphorylation of protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha). Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, blocked ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by H(2)O(2). In addition, H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was prevented by PD98059, SB203580, and calphostin C, which are MEK, p38 and PKC inhibitors, respectively. These results suggest that H(2)O(2) leads to the phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 in a PKC-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that the MAPK signaling pathway plays an active role in mediating the H(2)O(2)-induced decrease in HGF cell viability and ATP depletion.

  14. PED/PEA-15 Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Ins-1E Pancreatic Beta-Cells via PLD-1

    PubMed Central

    Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Zatterale, Federica; Nigro, Cecilia; Mirra, Paola; Falco, Roberta; Ulianich, Luca; Di Jeso, Bruno; Formisano, Pietro; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The small scaffold protein PED/PEA-15 is involved in several different physiologic and pathologic processes, such as cell proliferation and survival, diabetes and cancer. PED/PEA-15 exerts an anti-apoptotic function due to its ability to interfere with both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in different cell types. Recent evidence shows that mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 present larger pancreatic islets and increased beta-cells mass. In the present work we investigated PED/PEA-15 role in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E beta-cells. In pancreatic islets isolated from TgPED/PEA-15 mice hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA fragmentation was lower compared to WT islets. TUNEL analysis showed that PED/PEA-15 overexpression increases the viability of Ins-1E beta-cells and enhances their resistance to apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide exposure. The activity of caspase-3 and the cleavage of PARP-1 were markedly reduced in Ins-1E cells overexpressing PED/PEA-15 (Ins-1EPED/PEA-15). In parallel, we observed a decrease of the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes Bcl-xS and Bad. In contrast, the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xL was enhanced. Accordingly, DNA fragmentation was higher in control cells compared to Ins-1EPED/PEA-15 cells. Interestingly, the preincubation with propranolol, an inhibitor of the pathway of PLD-1, a known interactor of PED/PEA-15, responsible for its deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, abolishes the antiapoptotic effects of PED/PEA-15 overexpression in Ins-1E beta-cells. The same results have been obtained by inhibiting PED/PEA-15 interaction with PLD-1 in Ins-1EPED/PEA-15. These results show that PED/PEA-15 overexpression is sufficient to block hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in Ins-1E cells through a PLD-1 mediated mechanism. PMID:25489735

  15. Efficacy, efficiency and safety aspects of hydrogen peroxide vapour and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide room disinfection systems.

    PubMed

    Fu, T Y; Gent, P; Kumar, V

    2012-03-01

    This was a head-to-head comparison of two hydrogen-peroxide-based room decontamination systems. To compare the efficacy, efficiency and safety of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV; Clarus R, Bioquell, Andover, U.K.) and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (aHP; SR2, Sterinis, now supplied as Glosair, Advanced Sterilization Products (ASP), Johnson & Johnson Medical Ltd, Wokingham, U.K.) room disinfection systems. Efficacy was tested using 4- and 6-log Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicators (BIs) and in-house prepared test discs containing approximately 10(6) meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile and Acinetobacter baumannii. Safety was assessed by detecting leakage of hydrogen peroxide using a hand-held detector. Efficiency was assessed by measuring the level of hydrogen peroxide using a hand-held sensor at three locations inside the room, 2 h after the start of the cycles. HPV generally achieved a 6-log reduction, whereas aHP generally achieved less than a 4-log reduction on the BIs and in-house prepared test discs. Uneven distribution was evident for the aHP system but not the HPV system. Hydrogen peroxide leakage during aHP cycles with the door unsealed, as per the manufacturer's operating manual, exceeded the short-term exposure limit (2 ppm) for more than 2 h. When the door was sealed with tape, as per the HPV system, hydrogen peroxide leakage was <1 ppm for both systems. The mean concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the room 2 h after the cycle started was 1.3 [standard deviation (SD) 0.4] ppm and 2.8 (SD 0.8) ppm for the four HPV and aHP cycles, respectively. None of the readings were <2 ppm for the aHP cycles. The HPV system was safer, faster and more effective for biological inactivation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Changes in Energy Status and Respiration Metabolism of Harvested Longan Fruit in Relation to Pericarp Browning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Xiong; Lin, Yi-Fen; Chen, Yi-Hui; Wang, Hui; Shi, John; Lin, He-Tong

    2016-06-08

    Energy status and respiration metabolism of "Fuyan" longan fruit treated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their relationship to pericarp browning were studied. The results displayed that H2O2 significantly increased the respiration rate, increased activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), decreased NAD kinase activity, maintained lower contents of NADP and NADPH as well as higher amounts of NAD and NADH, and accelerated the decrease of energy charge. These results gave convincing evidence that the treatment of H2O2 for accelerating longan pericarp browning was due to an increase of energy deficiency, an increase of respiratory metabolic pathways of Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, a decrease of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) of respiratory pathway, and an increase of activities of respiratory terminal oxidases like CCO and AAO.

  17. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  18. An upper limit for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Traub, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    It has been postulated that hydrogen peroxide is important in stratospheric chemistry as a reservoir and sink for odd hydrogen species, and for its ability to interconvert them. The present investigation is concerned with an altitude dependent upper limit curve for stratospheric hydrogen peroxide, taking into account an altitude range from 21.5 to 38.0 km for January 23, 1983. The data employed are from balloon flight No. 1316-P, launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF) in Palestine, Texas. The obtained upper limit curve lies substantially below the data reported by Waters et al. (1981), even though the results are from the same latitude and are both wintertime measurements.

  19. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric...

  20. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric...

  1. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric food...

  2. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogen peroxide solution. 178.1005 Section 178... SANITIZERS Substances Utilized To Control the Growth of Microorganisms § 178.1005 Hydrogen peroxide solution. Hydrogen peroxide solution identified in this section may be safely used to sterilize polymeric food...

  3. Impact of hydrogen peroxide as a soil amendment on nasturtiums

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is a highly reactive oxidizing agent naturally occurring in plants and animals. Plants produce hydrogen peroxide to destroy either their infected plant cells or the pathogens within their cells. Hydrogen peroxide also acts as a stress signal to plants. It is approved for c...

  4. Stabilization of native amyloid β-protein oligomers by Copper and Hydrogen peroxide Induced Cross-linking of Unmodified Proteins (CHICUP).

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas L; Serpell, Louise C; Urbanc, Brigita

    2016-03-01

    Oligomeric assemblies are postulated to be proximate neurotoxic species in human diseases associated with aberrant protein aggregation. Their heterogeneous and transient nature makes their structural characterization difficult. Size distributions of oligomers of several amyloidogenic proteins, including amyloid β-protein (Aβ) relevant to Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been previously characterized in vitro by photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Due to non-physiological conditions associated with the PICUP chemistry, Aβ oligomers cross-linked by PICUP may not be representative of in vivo conditions. Here, we examine an alternative Copper and Hydrogen peroxide Induced Cross-linking of Unmodified Proteins (CHICUP), which utilizes naturally occurring divalent copper ions and hydrogen peroxide and does not require photo activation. Our results demonstrate that CHICUP and PICUP applied to the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, result in similar oligomer size distributions. Thioflavin T fluorescence data and atomic force microscopy images demonstrate that both CHICUP and PICUP stabilize Aβ oligomers and attenuate fibril formation. Relative to noncross-linked peptides, CHICUP-treated Aβ40 and Aβ42 cause prolonged disruption to biomimetic lipid vesicles. CHICUP-stabilized Aβ oligomers link the amyloid cascade, metal, and oxidative stress hypotheses of AD into a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of AD pathology. Because copper and hydrogen peroxide are elevated in the AD brain, CHICUP-stabilized Aβ oligomers are biologically relevant and should be further explored as a new therapeutic target.

  5. Protective Effects of Bacopa Monnieri on Hydrogen Peroxide and Staurosporine: Induced Damage of Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Łojewski, Maciej; Pomierny, Bartosz; Muszyńska, Bożena; Krzyżanowska, Weronika; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Szewczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Many herbs, and recently their biomass from in vitro cultures, are essential for the treatment of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal growth of Bacopa monnieri (water hyssop) in an in vitro culture and to examine if extracts of the B. monnieri biomass from the in vitro culture would affect hydrogen peroxide- and staurosporine-induced injury of the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. It has been found that B. monnieri at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL inhibited both hydrogen peroxide-induced efflux of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged cells to culture medium and increased cell viability determined by an MTT assay. Moreover, B. monnieri at concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 µg/mL decreased staurosporine-induced activity of an executive apoptotic enzyme-caspase-3 and protected mitochondrial membrane potential. The obtained data indicate that the biomass from the in vitro culture of B. monnieri prevented SH-SY5Y cell damage related to oxidative stress and had the ability to inhibit the apoptotic process. Thus, this study supports the traditional use of B. monnieri as a neuroprotective therapy, and further in vivo studies on the effects of this preparation on morphology and function of nerve cells could lead to its wider application.

  6. Revisiting the mesosome as a novel site of hydrogen peroxide accumulation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xin, Li; Lipeng, Yang; Jiaju, Qiao; Hanqing, Feng; Yunhong, Liu; Min, Zhang; Yuxian, Zhang; Hongyu, Li

    2014-10-01

    The major source of endogenous hydrogen peroxide is generally thought to be the respiratory chain of bacteria and mitochondria. In our previous works, mesosome structure was induced in cells during rifampicin effect, and the mesosome formation is always accompanied by excess hydrogen peroxide accumulation in bacterial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide production and the rationale behind it remain still unknown. Here we report that hydrogen peroxide can specifically accumulate in the mesosome in vitro. Mesosomes were interpreted earlier as artifacts of specific cells under stress through TEM preparation, while, in the current study, mesosomes were shown as intracellular compartments with specific roles and features by using quickly freezing preparation of TEM. Formation of hydrogen peroxide was observed in suspension of mesosomal vesicles by using either a fluorescence-based reporter assay or a histochemical method, respectively. Our investigation provides experimental evidence that mesosomes can be a novel site of hydrogen peroxide accumulation.

  7. Experimental investigation of hydrogen peroxide RF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barni, R.; Decina, A.; Zanini, S.; D'Orazio, A.; Riccardi, C.

    2016-04-01

    This work reports a detailed experimental study of the plasma properties in low pressure RF discharges in hydrogen peroxide and a comparison with argon under the same operating conditions. H2O2 plasmas have been proposed for sterilization purposes. Electrical properties of the discharge were shown to be similar, as for the RF and DC voltages of the driving electrode. Bulk plasma volume remains stable, concentrated in an almost cylindrical region between the two facing electrodes. It was found that the electron temperature is almost uniform across the plasma and independent of the power level. This is higher than in argon discharges: T e  =  4.6  ±  0.9 eV versus T e  =  3.3  ±  1.1 eV. The plasma density increases almost linearly with the power level and a substantial negative ion component has been ruled out in hydrogen peroxide. Dissociation in the plasma gas phase was revealed by atomic hydrogen and hydroxyl radical emission in the discharge spectra. Emission from hydroxyl and atomic oxygen demonstrates that oxidizing radicals are produced by hydrogen peroxide discharges, revealing its usefulness for plasma processing other than sterilization, for instance to increase polymer film surface energy. On the other hand, argon could be considered as a candidate for the sterilization purposes due to the intense production of UV radiation.

  8. Synergy between sulforaphane and selenium in the up-regulation of thioredoxin reductase and protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yujuan; Barrera, Lawrence N; Howie, Alexander F; Beckett, Geoffrey J; Wu, Kun; Bao, Yongping

    2012-07-15

    Dietary isothiocyanates and selenium are chemopreventive agents and potent inducers of antioxidant enzymes. It has been previously shown that sulforaphane and selenium have a synergistic effect on the upregulation of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR-1) in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In this paper, further evidence is presented to show that sulforaphane and selenium synergistically induce TrxR-1 expression in immortalised human hepatocytes. Sulforaphane was found to be more toxic toward hepatocytes than HepG2 cells with IC50=25.1 and 56.4 μM, respectively. Sulforaphane can protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and this protection was enhanced by co-treatment with selenium. Using siRNA to knock down TrxR-1 or Nrf2, sulforaphane (5 μM)-protected cell viability was reduced from 73% to 46% and 34%, respectively, suggesting that TrxR-1 is an important enzyme in protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. Sulforaphane-induced TrxR-1 expression was positively associated with significant levels of Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus, but co-treatment with selenium showed no significant increase in Nrf2 translocation. Moreover, MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38) and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways were found to play no significant role in sulforaphane-induced Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus. However, blocking ERK and JNK signalling pathways decreased sulforaphane-induced TrxR-1 mRNA by about 20%; whereas blocking p38 and PI3K/AKT increased TrxR-1 transcription. In summary, a combination of sulforaphane and selenium resulted in a synergistic upregulation of TrxR-1 that contributed to the enhanced protection against free radical-mediated oxidative damage in human hepatocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How do porosity-inducing techniques affect antibiotic elution from bone cement? An in vitro comparison between hydrogen peroxide and a mechanical mixer

    PubMed Central

    Lovric, V.; Leung, A.; Walsh, W. R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Increasing the porosity of an antibiotic-loaded cement spacer increases the antibiotic elution, but the correlation between porosity and antibiotic elution is not well documented. The purposes of this study was to attempt new porosity-increasing methods and to investigate the correlation between antibiotic elution and both total and surface porosity. Materials and methods Five types of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) using 2 g cefazolin and 40 g cement were prepared. Other than manual mixing, hydrogen peroxide was used as a foaming agent and a mixing drill piece was used as a mechanical device to try to induce porosity when mixing the cement. Elution of antibiotic into phosphate-buffered saline was measured from 1 h to 1 week. Surface porosity was calculated from density values which were measured with a density kit and an electronic balance, while total porosity was quantified using micro-computed tomography. Results When a mixing drill piece was used to induce porosity, we observed a significant increasin antibiotic elution compared to a manually mixed ALBC. On the other hand, hydrogen peroxide reduced the elution significantly. Mild correlation between the total amount of cluted in 1 week antibiotic elution and total porosity was observed. Conclusions In terms of improving elution, the mixing drill piece seemed to be efficient. A relationship between surface porosity and elution efficacy was not observed. PMID:19384476

  10. Fisetin attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced cell damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species and activating protective functions of cellular glutathione system.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Cha, Ji Won; Zheng, Jian; Yao, Cheng Wen; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can induce cell damage by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in DNA damage and cell death. The aim of this study is to elucidate the protective effects of fisetin (3,7,3',4',-tetrahydroxy flavone) against H2O2-induced cell damage. Fisetin reduced the level of superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical in cell free system, and intracellular ROS generated by H2O2. Moreover, fisetin protected against H2O2-induced membrane lipid peroxidation, cellular DNA damage, and protein carbonylation, which are the primary cellular outcomes of H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, fisetin increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, which is decreased by H2O2. Conversely, a GSH inhibitor abolished the cytoprotective effect of fisetin against H2O2-induced cells damage. Taken together, our results suggest that fisetin protects against H2O2-induced cell damage by inhibiting ROS generation, thereby maintaining the protective role of the cellular GSH system.

  11. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. roots against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury and potential mechanisms in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xing; Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Long; Huang, Jin; Fan, Yan-Hua; Ren, Tian-Shu; Zhao, Qing-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in neuronal cell death related with various chronic neurodegenerative disorders. This study was designed to explore neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of Arctium lappa L. roots (EAL) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability was significantly decreased after exposure to 200 μM H2O2, whereas pretreatment with different concentrations of EAL attenuated the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that EAL reversed nuclear condensation in H2O2-treated cells. Meanwhile, TUNEL assay with DAPI staining showed that EAL attenuated apoptosis was induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with EAL also markedly elevated activities of antioxidant enzyme (GSH-Px and SOD), reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA) production, prevented ROS formation, and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, EAL showed strong radical scavenging ability in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. Furthermore, EAL inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis by increases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreases in cytochrome c release, and attenuation of caspase-3, caspase-9 activities, and expressions. These findings suggest that EAL may be regarded as a potential antioxidant agent and possess potent neuroprotective activity against H2O2-induced injury.

  12. Fluorometric determination of hydrogen peroxide in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, T.R.; George, G.K.; Barcelona, M.J.

    1987-02-15

    The fluorometric scopoletin-horseradish peroxidase method has been modified for field determinations of hydrogen peroxide concentrations in groundwaters. Standard additions calibration compensates for background fluorescence and inconsistent stoichiometry of the fluorescence quenching reaction due to interferences by the matrix. The detection limit, defined as the blank plus three standard deviations, ranged from 3.6 to 44.6 nM. However, this limit was more an indication of the difficulty of preparing peroxide-free water than the actual limit imposed by the sensitivity of the method for the peroxide contamination introduced with the reagents. For 111 field determinations the weighted average (uncorrected) hydrogen peroxide concentration was 20.2 nM and the pooled standard deviation was 7.7 nM. The average of 45 field blanks was 7.8 nM with a pooled standard deviation of 5.2 nM. At nanomolar concentration levels, it is essential that samples are analyzed for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the field. Storage periods exceeding 1 h caused serious errors and irreproducible results.

  13. Materials Compatibility in High Test Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    1999-01-01

    Previous ratings of the compatibility of high test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) with materials are not adequate for current needs. The goal of this work was to develop a new scheme of evaluation of compatibility of HTP with various materials. Procedures were developed to enrich commercially available hydrogen peroxide to 90% concentration and to assay the product. Reactivity testing, accelerated aging of materials and calorimetry studies were done on HTP with representative metallic and non-metallic materials. It was found that accelerated aging followed by concentration determination using refractive index effectively discriminated between different Class 2 metallic materials. Preliminary experiments using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) suggest that a calorimetry experiment is the most sensitive means to assay the compatibility of HTP with materials.

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide: A Potential Wound Therapeutic Target.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanya; Wang, Qi; Lu, Shuliang; Niu, Yiwen

    2017-04-05

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a topical antiseptic used in wound cleaning which kills pathogens through oxidation burst and local oxygen production. Hydrogen peroxide had been reported to be a reactive biochemical molecule synthesized by various cells which influences biological behavior through multiple mechanisms: alterations of membrane potential, generation of new molecules and changing intracellular redox balance which results in activation or inactivation of different signaling transduction pathways. Contrary to the traditional viewpoint that H2O2 probably impairs tissue through its high oxidative property, however, a proper level of H2O2 is considered as an important requirement for normal wound healing. Although the present clinical use of H2O2 is still limited to the elimination of microbial contamination and sometimes hemostasis, better understanding towards the sterilization ability and cell behavior regulatory function of H2O2 within wound will enhance the potential to exogenously augment and manipulate healing.

  15. Materials Compatibility in High Test Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    1999-01-01

    Previous ratings of the compatibility of high test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) with materials are not adequate for current needs. The goal of this work was to develop a new scheme of evaluation of compatibility of HTP with various materials. Procedures were developed to enrich commercially available hydrogen peroxide to 90% concentration and to assay the product. Reactivity testing, accelerated aging of materials and calorimetry studies were done on HTP with representative metallic and non-metallic materials. It was found that accelerated aging followed by concentration determination using refractive index effectively discriminated between different Class 2 metallic materials. Preliminary experiments using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) suggest that a calorimetry experiment is the most sensitive means to assay the compatibility of HTP with materials.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide contributes to the ultraviolet-B (280-315 nm) induced oxidative stress of plant leaves through multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Czégény, Gyula; Wu, Min; Dér, András; Eriksson, Leif A; Strid, Åke; Hideg, Éva

    2014-06-27

    Solar UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation is a developmental signal in plants but may also cause oxidative stress when combined with other environmental factors. Using computer modeling and in solution experiments we show that UV-B is capable of photosensitizing hydroxyl radical production from hydrogen peroxide. We present evidence that the oxidative effect of UV-B in leaves is at least twofold: (i) it increases cellular hydrogen peroxide concentrations, to a larger extent in pyridoxine antioxidant mutant pdx1.3-1 Arabidopsis and; (ii) is capable of a partial photo-conversion of both 'natural' and 'extra' hydrogen peroxide to hydroxyl radicals. As stress conditions other than UV can increase cellular hydrogen peroxide levels, synergistic deleterious effects of various stresses may be expected already under ambient solar UV-B. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Taurine chloramine protects RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by increasing antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shuyu; Cha, Young-Nam; Kim, Chaekyun

    2011-07-01

    Taurine chloramine is the major chloramine generated in activated neutrophils via the reaction between the overproduced hypochlorous acid and the stored taurine. Taurine chloramine has anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects in inflamed tissues by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators. Taurine chloramine increases heme oxygenase activity and also protects against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-derived necrosis in macrophages. In this study, we examined further whether taurine chloramine could protect RAW 264.7 macrophages from apoptosis caused by H(2)O(2). Macrophages treated with 0.4 mM H(2)O(2) underwent apoptosis without showing immediate signs of necrosis, and the cells pretreated with taurine chloramine were protected from the H(2)O(2)-derived apoptosis. Taurine chloramine increased heme oxygenase-1 expression and heme oxygenase activity. The taurine chloramine-derived upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression was blocked by inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Taurine chloramine decreased cellular glutathione (GSH) levels initially, but the GSH level increased above the control level by 10 h. Taurine chloramine also increased catalase expression and protected macrophages from the apoptotic effect of H(2)O(2). Combined, these results indicate that the taurine chloramine, produced and released endogenously by the activated neutrophils, can protect the macrophages in inflamed tissues from the H(2)O(2)-derived apoptosis not only by increasing the expression of cytoprotective enzymes like heme oxygenase-1 and catalase, but also by increasing the intracellular antioxidant GSH level.

  18. Gentiana asclepiadea exerts antioxidant activity and enhances DNA repair of hydrogen peroxide- and silver nanoparticles-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Hudecová, Alexandra; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Hašplová, Katarína; Huk, Anna; Magdolenová, Zuzana; Miadoková, Eva; Gálová, Eliška; Dušinská, Mária

    2012-09-01

    Exposure to high levels of different environmental pollutants is known to be associated with induction of DNA damage in humans. Thus DNA repair is of great importance in preventing mutations and contributes crucially to the prevention of cancer. In our study we have focused on quantitative analysis of Gentiana asclepiadea aqueous or methanolic extracts obtained from flower and haulm, their antioxidant potency in ABTS post-column derivatisation, and their potential ability to enhance DNA repair in human lymphocytes after hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) treatment (250 μM, 5 min). We also studied DNA repair in human kidney HEK 293 cells after exposure to 20 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) (100 μg/ml, 30 min) in the presence and absence of the plant extract. We have found that mangiferin along with unidentified polar compounds are the most pronounced antioxidants in the studied extracts. Extract from haulm exhibited slightly stronger antioxidant properties compared to flower extracts. However, all four extracts showed significant ability to enhance DNA repair in both cell types after H(2)O(2) and AgNP treatments.

  19. Temperature-induced bifurcations in the Cu(II)-catalyzed and catalyst-free hydrogen peroxide-thiosulfate oscillating reaction.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ling; Gao, Qingyu; Zhao, Yuemin; Tang, Xiaodong; Epstein, Irving R

    2010-07-08

    We study the oxidation dynamics of thiosulfate ions by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of trace amounts of copper(II) using the reaction temperature as a control parameter in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor. The system displays period-doubling, aperodic, and mixed-mode oscillations at different temperatures. We are able to simulate these complex dynamics with a model proposed by Kurin-Csorgei et al. The model suggests that the Cu(2+)-containing term is not essential for the observed oscillations. We find small-amplitude and high-frequency oscillations in the catalyst-free experimental system. The reaction between H(2)O(2) and S(2)O(3)(2-) contains the core mechanism of the H(2)O(2)-S(2)O(3)(2-)-Cu(2+) and H(2)O(2)-S(2)O(3)(2-)-SO(3)(2-) oscillatory systems, while the Cu(2+) and SO(3)(2-) modulate the feedback loops so as to strengthen the oscillatory dynamics.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins of normal human dermal fibroblasts are the major targets for oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed Central

    van der Vlies, Dennis; Pap, Eward H W; Post, Jan Andries; Celis, Julio E; Wirtz, Karel W A

    2002-01-01

    The membrane-permeable fluorescein-labelled tyramine conjugate (acetylTyrFluo) was used to identify the proteins of normal human dermal fibroblasts most susceptible to oxidation by hydrogen peroxide [Van der Vlies, Wirtz and Pap (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7783-7788]. By exposing the cells to H(2)O(2) (0.1 mM for 10 min), TyrFluo was covalently linked to target proteins. TyrFluo-labelled and [(35)S]Met-labelled cell lysates were mixed and subjected to two-dimensional PAGE. After Western blotting the (35)S-labelled proteins were visualized by autoradiography and the TyrFluo-labelled proteins by using anti-fluorescein antibody. The TyrFluo-labelled proteins were matched with the (35)S-labelled proteins and identified by comparison with our mastermap of proteins. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), IgG-binding protein (BiP), calnexin, endoplasmin and glucose-regulated protein 58 (endoplasmic reticulum protein 57/GRP58) were identified as targets of oxidation. All these proteins reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and are part of the protein folding machinery. In agreement, confocal laser scanning microscopy showed co-localization of TyrFluo-labelled proteins and the KDEL receptor ERD-2, a marker for the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12071860

  1. The inhibitory effect of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole on relaxation induced by hydroxylamine and sodium azide but not hydrogen peroxide or glyceryl trinitrate in rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Mian, K. B.; Martin, W.

    1995-01-01

    1. In this study we investigated the role of catalase in relaxation induced by hydroxylamine, sodium azide, glyceryl trinitrate and hydrogen peroxide in isolated rings of rat aorta. 2. Hydrogen peroxide (1 microM-1 mM)-induced concentration-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (PE)-induced tone in endothelium-containing rings. In endothelium-denuded rings, however, higher concentrations (30 microM-1 mM) of hydrogen peroxide were required to produce relaxation. The endothelium-dependent component of hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation was abolished following pretreatment with N(O)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM). L-NAME (30 microM) had no effect, however, on hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings. 3. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with catalase (1000 u ml-1) blocked relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM). The ability of catalase to inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced relaxation was partially blocked following incubation with 3-amino-1,2, 4-triazole (AT, 50 mM) for 30 min and completely blocked at 90 min. 4. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with methylene blue (MeB, 30 microM) inhibited relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM), sodium azide (1-300 nM), hydroxylamine (1-300 nM) and glyceryl trinitrate (1-100 nM) suggesting that each acted by stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase. 5. Pretreatment of endothelium-denuded rings with AT (1-50 mM, 90 min) to inhibit endogenous catalase blocked relaxation induced by sodium azide (1-300 nM) and hydroxylamine (1-300 nM) but had no effect on relaxation induced by hydrogen peroxide (10 microM-1 mM) or glyceryl trinitrate (1-100 nM). 6. In a cell-free system, incubation of sodium azide (10 microM-3 mM) and hydroxylamine (10 microM-30 mM) but not glyceryl trinitrate (10 microM-1 mM) with catalase (1000 u ml-1) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM) led to production of nitrite, a major breakdown product of nitric oxide. AT (1

  2. Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced red blood cells lysis by Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extract: participation of phenolic and xanthine compounds.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Ignacio N; Cogoi, Laura; Filip, Rosana; Anesini, Claudia

    2013-02-01

    The fresh leaves and stems of Ilex paraguariensis (Aquifoliaceae) are employed to prepare the commercial product used in North-eastern Argentina, Southern Brazil and Eastern Paraguay named yerba maté. The presence of polyphenols and xanthines, which present antioxidant activity, has been described in I. paraguariensis. In living organism, reactive oxygen species can cause tissue damage affecting erythrocyte membranes leading to hemolysis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of an aqueous extract of I. paraguariensis (green leaves) on the hemolysis of red blood cells induced by hydrogen peroxide and to correlate this activity with the enzymatic activity related to hydrogen peroxide metabolism. The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid and caffeine was also analysed to evaluate their contribution to the activity of the crude extract. The extract as well as the isolated compounds protected red blood cells from hemolysis. This effect was related to a catalase-like activity. This study could contribute to the knowledge of the antioxidant activity of I. paraguariensis in view of the great quantities of yerba maté consumed by the population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Potential Protective Effects of Bioactive Constituents from Chinese Propolis against Acute Oxidative Stress Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Cardiac H9c2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Wang, Kai; Xu, Xiang; Ge, Miaomiao; Chen, Yifan; Hu, Fuliang

    2017-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP) is known as a health food but its beneficial effects in protecting cardiomyocytes remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of CP and its active compounds on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced rats cardiomyocytes (H9c2) oxidative injury. Cell viability decreases induced by H2O2 were mitigated by different CP extracts using various solvents. From these active fractions, six active compounds were separated and identified. Among tested isolated compound, the cytoprotective activities of three caffeates, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), benzyl caffeate (BZC), and cinnamyl caffeate (CNC), exerted stronger effects than chrysin, pinobanksin, and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA). These three caffeates also increased H9c2 cellular antioxidant potential, decreased intracellular calcium ion ([Ca(2+)]i) level, and prevented cell apoptosis. Overall, the cardiovascular protective effects of the CP might be attributed to its caffeates constituents (CAPE, BZC, and CNC) and provide evidence for its usage in complementary and alternative medicine.

  4. Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia-Le; Choi, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jae-Hoon; Kil, Jeung-Ha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of fermented sesame sauce (FSeS) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in renal proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and H2O2 scavenging assay was used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of FSeS. To investigate the cytoprotective effect of FSeS against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells, the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and endogenous antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) were measured. RESULTS The ability of FSeS to scavenge DPPH, •OH and H2O2 was greater than that of FSS and AHSS. FSeS also significantly inhibited H2O2-induced (500 µM) oxidative damage in the LLC-PK1 cells compared to FSS and AHSS (P < 0.05). Following treatment with 100 µg/mL of FSeS and FSS to prevent H2O2-induced oxidation, cell viability increased from 56.7% (control) to 83.7% and 75.6%, respectively. However, AHSS was not able to reduce H2O2-induced cell damage (viability of the AHSS-treated cells was 54.6%). FSeS more effectively suppressed H2O2-induced ROS generation and lipid peroxidation compared to FSS and AHSS (P < 0.05). Compared to the other sauces, FSeS also significantly increased cellular CAT, SOD, and GSH-px activities and mRNA expression (P < 0.05). CONCULUSIONS These results from the present study suggest that FSeS is an effective radical scavenger and protects against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 cells by reducing ROS levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and stimulating antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:24741396

  5. Nelumbo nucifera leaves protect hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant enzymes and HO-1/Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Je, Jae-Young; Lee, Da-Bin

    2015-06-01

    Naturally occurring phenolic compounds are widely found in plants. Here, the phenolic composition and hepatoprotective effect of the butanolic extract (BE) from Nelumbo nucifera leaves against H2O2-induced hepatic damage in cultured hepatocytes were investigated. BE showed high total phenol and flavonoid contents, and major phenolic compounds are quercetin, catechin, ferulic acid, rutin, and protocatechuic acid by HPLC analysis. BE effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation radicals (IC50 values of 5.21 μg mL(-1) for DPPH and 6.22 μg mL(-1) for ABTS(+)) and showed strong reducing power. Pretreatment of BE prior to 650 μM H2O2 exposure markedly increased cell viability and suppressed H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and AAPH-induced cell membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, BE up-regulated intracellular glutathione levels under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Notably, the hepatoprotective effect of BE was directly correlated with the increased expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) by 0.62-fold, catalase (CAT) by 0.42-fold, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by 2.4-fold. Pretreatment of BE also increased the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8.1-fold indicating that increased SOD-1, CAT, and HO-1 expressions are Nrf2-mediated.

  6. Heat and chilling induced disruption of redox homeostasis and its regulation by hydrogen peroxide in germinating rice seeds (Oryza sativa L., Cultivar Ratna).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Soumen

    2013-04-01

    Extremes of temperature (both heat and chilling) during early inbibitional phase of germination caused disruption of redox-homeostasis by increasing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) and significant reduction of antioxidative defense (assessed in terms of total thiol content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in germinating tissues of rice (Oryza sativa L., cultivar Ratna). Imbibitional heat and chilling stress also induced oxidative damage to newly assembled membrane system by aggravating membrane lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation [measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), free carbonyl content (C = O groups) and membrane protein thiol level (MPTL)]. Treatment with standardized low titer hydrogen peroxide during early imbibitional phase of germination caused significant reversal in oxidative damages to the newly assembled membrane system imposed by heat and chilling stress [evident from the data of TBARS, C = O, MPTL, ROS accumulation, membrane permeability status, membrane injury index and oxidative stress index] in seedlings of experimental rice cultivar. Imbibitional H2O2 pretreatment also caused up-regulation of antioxidative defense (activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and total thiol content) in the heat and chilling stress-raised rice seedlings. When the parameters of early growth performances were assessed (in terms of relative growth index, biomass accumulation, relative germination performance, mean daily germination, T50 value), it clearly exhibited significant improvement of early growth performances of the experimental rice cultivar. The result proposes that an 'inductive pulse' of H2O2 is required to switch on some stress acclimatory metabolism through which plant restores redox homeostasis and prevents or repairs oxidative damages to newly assembled membrane

  7. Glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production by rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jesina, P; Kholová, D; Bolehovská, R; Cervinková, Z; Drahota, Z; Houstek, J

    2004-01-01

    We studied the extent to which hormonally-induced mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) activity contributes to the supply of reducing equivalents to the mitochondrial respiratory chain in the rat liver. The activity of glycerophosphate oxidase was compared with those of NADH oxidase and/or succinate oxidase. It was found that triiodothyronine-activated mGPDH represents almost the same capacity for the saturation of the respiratory chain as Complex II. Furthermore, the increase of mGPDH activity induced by triiodothyronine correlated with an increase of capacity for glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production. As a result of hormonal treatment, a 3-fold increase in glycerophosphate-dependent hydrogen peroxide production by liver mitochondria was detected by polarographic and luminometric measurements.

  8. Zingerone protects against stannous chloride-induced and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative DNA damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Iyappan; Narayanan, Nithya; Rabindran, Remitha; Jayasree, P R; Manish Kumar, P R

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we report the dose-dependent antioxidant activity and DNA protective effects of zingerone. At 500 μg/mL, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of zingerone and ascorbic acid as a standard was found to be 86.7 and 94.2 % respectively. At the same concentration, zingerone also showed significant reducing power (absorbance 0.471) compared to that of ascorbic acid (absorbance 0.394). The in vitro toxicity of stannous chloride (SnCl2) was evaluated using genomic and plasmid DNA. SnCl2-induced degradation of genomic DNA was found to occur at a concentration of 0.8 mM onwards with complete degradation at 1.02 mM and above. In the case of plasmid DNA, conversion of supercoiled DNA into the open circular form indicative of DNA nicking activity was observed at a concentration of 0.2 mM onwards; complete conversion was observed at a concentration of 1.02 mM and above. Zingerone was found to confer protection against SnCl2-induced oxidative damage to genomic and plasmid DNA at concentrations of 500 and 750 μg/mL onwards, respectively. This protective effect was further confirmed in the presence of UV/H2O2-a known reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system-wherein protection by zingerone against ROS-mediated DNA damage was observed at a concentration of 250 μg/mL onwards in a dose-dependent manner. This study clearly indicated the in vitro DNA protective property of zingerone against SnCl2-induced, ROS-mediated DNA damage.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.

    2011-09-01

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jeremy T; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-25

    Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H(2)O(2) propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.

  11. Flavonoid Fraction of Orange and Bergamot Juices Protect Human Lung Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Smeriglio, Antonella; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Campiglia, Pietro; Di Pietro, Angela; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance triggers cell damage that in turn causes a number of lung diseases. Flavonoids are known for their health benefits, and Citrus fruits juices are one of the main food sources of these secondary plant metabolites. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the flavonoid fraction of bergamot and orange juices, on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells. First we tested the antioxidant properties of both extracts in cell-free experimental models and then we assayed their capability to prevent the cytotoxic effects induced by H2O2. Our results demonstrated that both Citrus juice extracts reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improve mitochondrial functionality, and prevent DNA-oxidative damage in A549 cells incubated with H2O2. Our data indicate that the mix of flavonoids present in both bergamot and orange juices may be of use in preventing oxidative cell injury and pave the way for further research into a novel healthy approach to avoid lung disorders. PMID:26221182

  12. Flavonoid Fraction of Orange and Bergamot Juices Protect Human Lung Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Visalli, Giuseppa; Smeriglio, Antonella; Cirmi, Santa; Lombardo, Giovanni Enrico; Campiglia, Pietro; Di Pietro, Angela; Navarra, Michele

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that oxidant/antioxidant imbalance triggers cell damage that in turn causes a number of lung diseases. Flavonoids are known for their health benefits, and Citrus fruits juices are one of the main food sources of these secondary plant metabolites. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the flavonoid fraction of bergamot and orange juices, on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human lung epithelial A549 cells. First we tested the antioxidant properties of both extracts in cell-free experimental models and then we assayed their capability to prevent the cytotoxic effects induced by H2O2. Our results demonstrated that both Citrus juice extracts reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species and membrane lipid peroxidation, improve mitochondrial functionality, and prevent DNA-oxidative damage in A549 cells incubated with H2O2. Our data indicate that the mix of flavonoids present in both bergamot and orange juices may be of use in preventing oxidative cell injury and pave the way for further research into a novel healthy approach to avoid lung disorders.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide-induced antioxidant activities and cardiotonic glycoside accumulation in callus cultures of endemic Digitalis species.

    PubMed

    Cingoz, Gunce Sahin; Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Gurel, Ekrem

    2014-09-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on callus cultures of four Digitalis species (Digitalis lamarckii, Digitalis trojana, Digitalis davisiana and Digitalis cariensis) increased catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total phenolic, proline activity and cardiotonic glycoside production. Callus derived from hypocotyl explants was cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ). After a month of culture, callus was transferred to MS medium containing 10 mM H2O2 and then incubated for 6 h. The amount of five cardenolides (Lanatoside C, Digitoxin, Digoxigenin, Gitoxigenin and Digoxin) as well as CAT, SOD, total phenolic, proline activity from Digitalis species were compared. No digoxin was detected in all treatments and control groups. The total cardenolides estimated were in the order of D. lamarckii (586.65  μg g(-1) dw), D. davisiana (506.79 μg g(-1) dw), D. cariensis (376.60 μg g(-1) dw) and D. trojana (282.39 μg g(-1) dw). It was clear that H2O2 pre-treatment resulted in an increase in enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. However, a significant negative relationship between cardenolides production and overall activities of CAT, SOD, total phenolic and proline was evident. The described protocol here will be useful for the development of new strategies for a large-scale production of cardenolides.

  14. Metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using an LC-MS-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ruili; Jin, Song; Chen, Yihui; Fan, Meizhen; Huang, Bo; Li, Zengzhi; Hu, Fenglin

    2016-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, is commonly used as a biological agent for pest control. Environmental and biological factors expose the fungus to oxidative stress; as a result, B. bassiana has adopted a number of anti-oxidant mechanisms. In this study, we investigated metabolites of B. bassiana that are formed in response to oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed differences between the control and the H2O2-treated groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed 18 up-regulated metabolites and 25 down-regulated metabolites in the H2O2-treated fungus. Pathway analysis indicated that B. bassiana may be able to alleviate oxidative stress by enhancing lipid catabolism and glycometabolism, thus decreasing membrane polarity and preventing polar H2O2 or ROS from permeating into fungal cells and protecting cells against oxidative injury. Meanwhile, most of the unsaturated fatty acids that are derived from glycerophospholipids hydrolysis can convert into oxylipins through autoxidation, which can prevent the reactive oxygen of H2O2 from attacking important macromolecules of the fungus. Results showed also that H2O2 treatment can enhance mycotoxins production which implies that oxidative stress may be able to increase the virulence of the fungus. In comparison to the control group, citric acid and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine were down-regulated, which suggested that metabolic flux was occurring to the TCA cycle and enhancing carbohydrate metabolism. The findings from this study will contribute to the understanding of how the molecular mechanisms of fungus respond to environmental and biological stress factors as well as how the manipulation of such metabolisms may lead to selection of more effective fungal strains for pest control.

  15. Protective Effect of Crocodile Hemoglobin and Whole Blood Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Damage in Human Lung Fibroblasts (MRC-5) and Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Phosri, Santi; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Patramanon, Rina; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2017-02-01

    A putative protective effect of cHb and cWb against H2O2-induced oxidative damage was evaluated in detail using MRC-5 cells. In addition, the carrageenan (Carr)-induced mouse paw edema model and the cotton pellet-induced granuloma model were employed to examine the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of cHb and cWb in mice. It was demonstrated that both cHb and cWb treatments significantly increased cell viability and inhibited morphology alterations in MRC-5 cells exposed to H2O2. Orally administered cHb and cWb significantly reduced Carr-induced paw edema volume and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation. Moreover, cHb and cWb decreased the expression levels of important pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α), while only cWb was found to increase the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 significantly. Finally, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx) in the liver improved after cHb and cWb treatment under acute and chronic inflammation. Taken collectively, the results of this study suggest that both cHb and cWb protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in fibroblast cells. Moreover, cHb and cWb were found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in both the acute and chronic stages of inflammation and appear to enhance antioxidant enzyme activity and decrease lipid peroxidation in the livers of mice. Therefore, this study indicates that cHb and cWb have great potential to be used in the development of dietary supplements for the prevention of oxidative stress related to inflammatory disorders.

  16. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  17. Hazard Assessment of Personal Protective Clothing for Hydrogen Peroxide Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Ben; McClure, Mark B.; Johnson, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Selection of personal protective equipment (PPE) for hydrogen peroxide service is an important part of the hazard assessment process. But because drip testing of chemical protective clothing for hydrogen peroxide service has not been reported for about 40 years, it is of great interest to test new protective clothing materials with new, high-concentration hydrogen peroxide following similar procedures. The suitability of PPE for hydrogen peroxide service is in part determined by observations made when hydrogen peroxide is dripped onto swatches of protective clothing material. Protective clothing material was tested as received, in soiled condition, and in grossly soiled condition. Materials were soiled by pretreating the material with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution then drying to promote a reaction. Materials were grossly soiled with solid KMnO4 to greatly promote reaction. Observations of results including visual changes to the hydrogen peroxide and materials, times to ignition, and self-extinguishing characteristics of the materials are reported.

  18. Oxygen from Hydrogen Peroxide: An Experimental Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burness, James H.

    1996-09-01

    A common experiment, performed at the high school and college levels, is the generation of a gas to explore molar mass and molar volume relationships. In one version of this experiment, hydrogen peroxide is decomposed by yeast to generate oxygen gas. This paper describes a simple modification to this experiment which eliminates the need for a pencil coated with petroleum jelly and dry yeast. This elimination not only prevents falling pieces of yeast from prematurely starting the reaction, but at the same time makes the reaction faster and simplifies cleanup. The modification also reduces the likelihood of cuts from broken tubing.

  19. Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-2 via NF-{kappa}B in H1299 human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Mi Ran; Nam, Hyo-Jung; Kim, So-Young; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2009-04-03

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gi proteins) mediate a variety of signaling pathways by coupling receptors and effectors to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the role of Gi proteins in the modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of Gi proteins on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in H1299 human lung cancer cells. The stable expression of constitutively active alpha subunits of Gi1 (G{alpha}i1QL), Gi2, or Gi3 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The expression of G{alpha}i1QL up-regulated Bcl-2 expression, and the knockdown of Bcl-2 with siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of G{alpha}i1QL. G{alpha}i1 induced the transcription of Bcl-2 by activation of NF-{kappa}B, which resulted from an increase in NF-{kappa}B p50 protein. We conclude that G{alpha}i1 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of H1299 lung cancer cells by up-regulating the transcription of Bcl-2 through a p50-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation.

  20. Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bcl-2 via NF-kappaB in H1299 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Miran; Nam, Hyo-Jung; Kim, So-Young; Juhnn, Yong-Sung

    2009-04-03

    Inhibitory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gi proteins) mediate a variety of signaling pathways by coupling receptors and effectors to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, the role of Gi proteins in the modulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of Gi proteins on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in H1299 human lung cancer cells. The stable expression of constitutively active alpha subunits of Gi1 (Galphai1QL), Gi2, or Gi3 inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. The expression of Galphai1QL up-regulated Bcl-2 expression, and the knockdown of Bcl-2 with siRNA abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Galphai1QL. Galphai1 induced the transcription of Bcl-2 by activation of NF-kappaB, which resulted from an increase in NF-kappaB p50 protein. We conclude that Galphai1 inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of H1299 lung cancer cells by up-regulating the transcription of Bcl-2 through a p50-mediated NF-kappaB activation.

  1. The Arabidopsis Prohibitin Gene PHB3 Functions in Nitric Oxide-Mediated Responses and in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Nitric Oxide Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Ries, Amber; Wu, Kati; Yang, Albert; Crawford, Nigel M

    2010-01-01

    To discover genes involved in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, a genetic screen was employed to identify mutants defective in NO accumulation after treatment with the physiological inducer hydrogen peroxide. In wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, NO levels increase eightfold in roots after H(2)O(2) treatment for 30 min. A mutant defective in H(2)O(2)-induced NO accumulation was identified, and the corresponding mutation was mapped to the prohibitin gene PHB3, converting the highly conserved Gly-37 to an Asp in the protein's SPFH domain. This point mutant and a T-DNA insertion mutant were examined for other NO-related phenotypes. Both mutants were defective in abscisic acid-induced NO accumulation and stomatal closure and in auxin-induced lateral root formation. Both mutants were less sensitive to salt stress, showing no increase in NO accumulation and less inhibition of primary root growth in response to NaCl treatment. In addition, light-induced NO accumulation was dramatically reduced in cotyledons. We found no evidence for impaired H(2)O(2) metabolism or signaling in the mutants as H(2)O(2) levels and H(2)O(2)-induced gene expression were unaffected by the mutations. These findings identify a component of the NO homeostasis system in plants and expand the function of prohibitin genes to include regulation of NO accumulation and NO-mediated responses.

  2. Feruloylserotonin inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced melanogenesis and apoptosis in B16F10 and SK-Mel-2 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyejoung; Kim, Okjoon; Lee, Younghee; Kang, Li-Jung; Nguyen, Cam Ngoc; Ishihara, Atsushi; Kim, Hye-Eun

    2017-09-30

    Feruloylserotonin (FS) is a major bioactive component of safflower seeds, with documented strong antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and free radical scavenging activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can strongly induce melanogenesis and cell apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of FS in preventing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced melanogenesis and cell apoptosis. Melanogenesis and apoptotic cell death were induced by transient exposure to H2O2 in B16F10 and SK-Mel-2 melanoma cells. FS significantly inhibited melanogenesis and cell death in both cell lines. FS inhibited H2O2-induced melanin production by down-regulating CREB/MITF/TYR signaling via inhibited intracellular cAMP accumulation. Additionally, FS induced extracellular regulated kinase activation, which led to the degradation of MITF and consequently decreased TYR expression and melanin production in H2O2-stimulated cells. Furthermore, FS inhibited H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, FS might have potential use for cosmetic whitening and as a therapeutic agent for hyperpigmentation disorder. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Modified Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Carlos Alexander

    2005-06-01

    A safer and cheaper version of the popular catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide demonstration commonly called the “Elephants’ Toothpaste” is presented. Hydrogen peroxide is decomposed in the presence of a surfactant by the enzyme catalase producing foam. Catalase has a higher activity compared with the traditional iodide and permits the use of diluted hydrogen peroxide solutions. The demonstration can be made with household products with similar amazing effects.

  4. Localized surface plasmon resonance sensor for simultaneous kinetic determination of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Tashkhourian, Javad; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Khodaveisi, Javad; Dashti, Razieh

    2013-01-31

    A new sensor for simultaneous determination of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as a chromogenic reagent is introduced. The silver nanoparticles have the catalytic ability for the decomposition of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide; then the decomposition of them induces the degradation of silver nanoparticles. Hence, a remarkable change in the localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance strength could be observed. Spectra-kinetic approach and artificial neural network was applied for the simultaneous determination of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Linear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of (8.20×10(-5) to 2.00×10(-3) mol L(-1)) for peroxyacetic acid and (2.00×10(-5) to 4.80×10(-3) mol L(-1)) for hydrogen peroxide. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of simultaneous determination of peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in real samples.

  5. [Carbamide peroxide as source of hydrogen peroxide for the luminol application at crime scenes].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lothar; Hermanowski, Mona-Lena

    2009-01-01

    The solution of hydrogen peroxide is a critical ingredient of the Weber luminol application for blood detection at the crime scene. An ideal alternative to the unstable hydrogen peroxide is a solid compound which is easy to transport, stable and quick to solve in water at the crime scene. Carbamide peroxide (urea peroxide) is one of these solid hydrogen peroxide carriers which is easy to obtain as one gram tablets. At dry conditions it is stable over a long period at room temperature and even for a short time at higher temperatures. But at 70 degrees C (180 degrees F) the tablets go out of shape and cake after one hour. In the application of luminol there are no differences between the use of hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide.

  6. Development of a highly sensitive fluorescence probe for hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Abo, Masahiro; Urano, Yasuteru; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Terai, Takuya; Komatsu, Toru; Nagano, Tetsuo

    2011-07-13

    Hydrogen peroxide is believed to play a role in cellular signal transduction by reversible oxidation of proteins. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a novel fluorescence probe for hydrogen peroxide, utilizing a photoinduced electron transfer strategy based on benzil chemistry to control the fluorescence. The practical value of this highly sensitive and selective fluorescence probe, NBzF, was confirmed by its application to imaging of hydrogen peroxide generation in live RAW 264.7 macrophages. NBzF was also employed for live cell imaging of hydrogen peroxide generated as a signaling molecule in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells.

  7. Use of Hydrogen Peroxide to Disinfect Hydroponic Plant Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative to conventional bleach and rinsing methods to disinfect hydroponic plant growth systems. A concentration of 0.5% hydrogen peroxide was found to be effective. Residual hydrogen peroxide can be removed from the system by repeated rinsing or by flowing the solution through a platinum on aluminum catalyst. Microbial populations were reduced to near zero immediately after treatment but returned to pre-disinfection levels 2 days after treatment. Treating nutrient solution with hydrogen peroxide and planting directly into trays being watered with the nutrient solution without replenishment, was found to be detrimental to lettuce germination and growth.

  8. TRIM4; a novel mitochondrial interacting RING E3 ligase, sensitizes the cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dhanendra; Prajapati, Paresh; Lavie, Julie; Singh, Kritarth; Lakshmi, Sripada; Bhatelia, Khyati; Roy, Milton; Singh, Rochika; Bénard, Giovanni; Singh, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    The emerging evidences suggest that posttranslational modification of target protein by ubiquitin (Ub) not only regulate its turnover through ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) but is a critical regulator of various signaling pathways. During ubiquitination, E3 ligase recognizes the target protein and determines the topology of ubiquitin chains. In current study, we studied the role of TRIM4, a member of the TRIM/RBCC protein family of RING E3 ligase, in regulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell death. TRIM4 is expressed differentially in human tissues and expressed in most of the analyzed human cancer cell lines. The subcellular localization studies showed that TRIM4 forms distinct cytoplasmic speckle like structures which transiently interacts with mitochondria. The expression of TRIM4 induces mitochondrial aggregation and increased level of mitochondrial ROS in the presence of H2O2. It sensitizes the cells to H2O2 induced death whereas knockdown reversed the effect. TRIM4 potentiates the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cytochrome c release in the presence of H2O2. The analysis of TRIM4 interacting proteins showed its interaction with peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1), including other proteins involved in regulation of mitochondrial and redox homeostasis. TRIM4 interaction with PRX1 is critical for the regulation of H2O2 induced cell death. Collectively, the evidences in the current study suggest the role of TRIM4 in regulation of oxidative stress induced cell death.

  9. Allicin protects rat cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative injury through inhibiting the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jackie Yan-Yan; Tsui, Hei-Tung; Chung, Ivan Ying-Ming; Chan, Robbie Yat-Kan; Kwan, Yiu-Wa; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered an important factor that promotes cell death in response to a variety of pathophysiological conditions. This study investigated the antioxidant properties of allicin, the principle ingredient of garlic, on preventing oxidative stress-induced injury. The antioxidant capacities of allicin were measured by using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced cell damage on H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Allicin (0.3-10 μM) pre-incubation could concentration-dependently attenuate the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase induced by H(2)O(2) on H9c2 cells. It could also protect H9c2 cells against H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage. However, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of allicin was shown to be low. Therefore, it is believed that the protective effect of allicin on H9c2 cells could inhibit intracellular ROS production instead of scavenging extracellular H(2)O(2) or free radicals. For the observed protective effect on H9c2 cells, allicin might also be effective in reducing free radical-induced myocardial cell death in ischemic condition.

  10. Water-soluble fractions from defatted sesame seeds protect human neuroblast cells against peroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kitayama, Akemi; Fujimura, Makoto; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Yabe, Tomio

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of aging-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary antioxidants that can protect neuronal cells from oxidative damage play an important role in preventing such diseases. Previously, we reported that water-soluble fractions purified from defatted sesame seed flour exhibit good antioxidant activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of white and gold sesame seed water-soluble fractions (WS-wsf and GS-wsf, respectively) against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in human neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with WS-wsf and GS-wsf did not protect cells against AAPH-induced cytotoxicity, while simultaneous co-treatment with AAPH significantly improved cell viability and inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that WS-wsf and GS-wsf protect cells from AAPH-induced extracellular oxidative damage via direct scavenging of peroxyl radicals. When oxidative stress was induced by H2O2, pretreatment WS-wsf and GS-wsf significantly enhanced cell viability. These results suggest that in addition to radical scavenging, WS-wsf and GS-wsf enhance cellular resistance to intracellular oxidative stress by activation of the Nrf-2/ARE pathway as confirmed by the increased Nrf2 protein level in the nucleus and increased heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA expression. The roles of ferulic and vanillic acids as bioactive antioxidants in these fractions were also confirmed. In conclusion, our results indicated that WS-wsf and GS-wsf, which showed antioxidant activity in vitro, are also efficient antioxidants in a cell system protecting SH-SY5Y cells against both extracellular and intracellular oxidative stress.

  11. Monolithic Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyst Bed Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponzo, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    With recent increased industry and government interest in rocket grade hydrogen peroxide as a viable propellant, significant effort has been expended to improve on earlier developments. This effort has been predominately centered in improving heterogeneous. typically catalyst beds; and homogeneous catalysts, which are typically solutions of catalytic substances. Heterogeneous catalyst beds have traditionally consisted of compressed wire screens plated with a catalytic substance, usually silver, and were used m many RCS applications (X-1, Mercury, and Centaur for example). Aerojet has devised a heterogeneous catalyst design that is monolithic (single piece), extremely compact, and has pressure drops equal to or less than traditional screen beds. The design consists of a bonded stack of very thin, photoetched metal plates, silver coated. This design leads to a high surface area per unit volume and precise flow area, resulting in high, stable, and repeatable performance. Very high throughputs have been demonstrated with 90% hydrogen peroxide. (0.60 lbm/s/sq in at 1775-175 psia) with no flooding of the catalyst bed. Bed life of over 900 seconds has also been demonstrated at throughputs of 0.60 lbm/s/sq in across varying chamber pressures. The monolithic design also exhibits good starting performance, short break-in periods, and will easily scale to various sizes.

  12. PROPULSE 980: A Hydrogen Peroxide Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, Robert; Bromley, G.; Wanger, Robert; Pauls, Dan; Maynard, Bryon; McNeal, Curtis; Dumbacher, D. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The PROPULSE 980 unit is a transportable processing plant that enriches aerospace grade hydrogen peroxide from 90% to 98% final concentration. The unit was developed by Degussa-H Is, in cooperation with Orbital, NASA Marshall Space Center, and NASA Stennis Space Center. The system is a self-contained unit that houses all of the process equipment, instrumentation and controls to perform the concentration operation nearly autonomously. It is designed to produce non-bulk quantities of 98% hydrogen peroxide. The enrichment unit design also maintains system, personnel and environmental safety during all aspects of the enrichment process and final product storage. As part of the Propulse 980 checkout and final buyoff, it will be disassembled at the Degussa-H Is Corporation plant in Theodore, AL, transported to the Stennis Space Center, reassembled and subjected to a series of checkout tests to verify design objectives have been met. This paper will summarize the basic project elements and provide an update on the present status of the project.

  13. Involvement of two-pore channels in hydrogen peroxide-induced increase in the level of calcium ions in the cytoplasm of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Avdonin, P V; Nadeev, A D; Tsitrin, E B; Tsitrina, A A; Avdonin, P P; Mironova, G Yu; Zharkikh, I L; Goncharov, N V

    2017-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide at concentrations below cytotoxic ones causes an increase in the cytoplasmic calcium concentration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells as a result of calcium release from intracellular stores. Two-pore calcium channel blocker trans-NED19 partially suppresses the increase in the level of calcium ions in the cells in response to the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The staining of endothelial cells with the fluorescent stereoisomer cis-NED19 and LysoTracker confirmed the localization of two-pore calcium channels in lysosomes and endolysosomal vesicles.

  14. Lycopene protects human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced death via inhibition of oxidative stress and mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    FENG, CHUNSHENG; LUO, TIANFEI; ZHANG, SHUYAN; LIU, KAI; ZHANG, YANHONG; LUO, YINAN; GE, PENGFEI

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is characterized by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a common pathway that results in neuronal injury or death due to various types of pathological stress. Although lycopene has been identified as a potent antioxidant, its effect on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage remains unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with lycopene was observed to protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells against H2O2-induced death via inhibition of apoptosis resulting from activation of caspase-3 and translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus. Furthermore, the over-produced ROS, as well as the reduced activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were demonstrated to be alleviated by lycopene. Additionally, lycopene counteracted H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, which was evidenced by suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, attenuation of the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibition of the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 levels within the mitochondria. The release of cytochrome c and AIF from the mitochondria was also reduced. These results indicate that lycopene is a potent neuroprotectant against apoptosis, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and could be administered to prevent neuronal injury or death. PMID:27035331

  15. Manganese Potentiates LPS-Induced Heme-Oxygenase 1 in Microglia but not Dopaminergic Cells: Role in Controlling Microglial Hydrogen Peroxide and Inflammatory Cytokine Output

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Celia A.; Filipov, Nikolay M.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) exposure increases output of glial-derived inflammatory products, which may indirectly contribute to the neurotoxic effects of this essential metal. In microglia, Mn increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release and potentiates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO). Inducible heme-oxygenase (HO-1) plays a role in the regulation of inflammation and its expression is upregulated in response to oxidative stressors, including metals and LPS. Because Mn can oxidatively affect neurons both directly and indirectly, we investigated the effect of Mn exposure on the induction of HO-1 in resting and LPS-activated microglia (N9) and dopaminergic neurons (N27). In microglia, 24 h exposure to Mn (up to 250 μM) had minimal effects on its own, but it markedly potentiated LPS (100 ng/ml)-induced HO-1protein and mRNA. Inhibition of microglial HO-1 activity with two different inhibitors indicated that HO-1 is a positive regulator of the Mn-potentiated cytokine output and a negative regulator of the Mn-induced H2O2 output. Mn enhancement of LPS-induced HO-1 does not appear to be dependent on H2O2 or NO, as Mn+LPS-induced H2O2 release was not greater than the increase induced by Mn alone and inhibition of iNOS did not change Mn potentiation of HO-1. However, because Mn exposure potentiated the LPS-induced nuclear expression of small Maf proteins, this may be one mechanism Mn uses to affect the expression of HO-1 in activated microglia. Finally, the potentiating effects of Mn on HO-1 appear to be glia-specific for Mn, LPS, or Mn+LPS did not induce HO-1 in N27 neuronal cells. PMID:21963524

  16. Simple, field portable colorimetric detection device for organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carman, M. Leslie; Reynolds, John G.; Nunes, Peter; Shields, Sharon J.

    2010-11-09

    A simple and effective system for the colorimetric determination of organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide. A peroxide pen utilizing a swipe material attached to a polyethylene tube contains two crushable vials. The two crushable vials contain a colorimetric reagent separated into dry ingredients and liquid ingredients. After swiping a suspected substance or surface the vials are broken, the reagent is mixed thoroughly and the reagent is allowed to wick into the swipe material. The presence of organic peroxides or hydrogen peroxide is confirmed by a deep blue color.

  17. Switching off hydrogen peroxide hydrogenation in the direct synthesis process.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jennifer K; Solsona, Benjamin; N, Edwin Ntainjua; Carley, Albert F; Herzing, Andrew A; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2009-02-20

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important disinfectant and bleach and is currently manufactured from an indirect process involving sequential hydrogenation/oxidation of anthaquinones. However, a direct process in which H2 and O2 are reacted would be preferable. Unfortunately, catalysts for the direct synthesis of H2O2 are also effective for its subsequent decomposition, and this has limited their development. We show that acid pretreatment of a carbon support for gold-palladium alloy catalysts switches off the decomposition of H2O2. This treatment decreases the size of the alloy nanoparticles, and these smaller nanoparticles presumably decorate and inhibit the sites for the decomposition reaction. Hence, when used in the direct synthesis of H2O2, the acid-pretreated catalysts give high yields of H2O2 with hydrogen selectivities greater than 95%.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tianju; Chen, Tingjun; Li, Peng; Ye, Zi; Zhai, Wei; Jia, Liang; Chen, Wenqian; Sun, Ang; Huang, Yang; Wei, Shihui; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (hLEC; SRA01/04). SRA01/04 cells were exposed to a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration gradient and inducers of HO-1 such as cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), respectively. In addition, an RNA silencing experiment was conducted to investigate the HO-1 function in this study. A Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure cell viability. Western blot and ELISA were used to detect the level of HO-1 expression. In our study, hLECs were exposed to 400 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 h with or without pretreatment with 10μΜ CoPP or 10μΜ ZnPP, respectively. Double immunofluorescence staining was used for cell identification and the qualitative expression of HO-1. Expression of HO-1 was monitored using Western blot and ELISA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry analyses; commercial enzymatic kits were used to measure the levels of glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The proportion of cell apoptosis was quantified by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The expression of caspase family (-8, -3) proteins was measured by Western blot analysis. HO-1 significantly restored the cell viability under H2O2 injury via reducing the generation of ROS and increasing the levels of SOD and GSH activity. Moreover, HO-1 also inhibited H2O2-induced caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins, thus significantly reducing the apoptosis of SRA01/04. An RNA silencing experiment demonstrated the increased resistance of LECs to oxidative stress specifically for increased levels of HO-1. These findings suggested that HO-1 protects human lens epithelial cells from H2O2-induced oxidant stress by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing ROS generation, and thus inhibiting caspase family

  19. Selective detection of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide with phthalocyanine chemiresistors.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Forest I; Colesniuc, Corneliu N; Park, Jeongwon; Schuller, Ivan K; Kummel, Andrew C; Trogler, William C

    2008-03-26

    The use of hydrogen peroxide as a precursor to improvised explosives has made its detection a topic of critical importance. Chemiresistor arrays comprised of 50 nm thick films of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) are redox selective vapor sensors of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is shown to decrease currents in cobalt phthalocyanine sensors while it increases currents in nickel, copper, and metal-free phthalocyanine sensors; oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide via catalysis at the phthalocyanine surface are consistent with the pattern of sensor responses. This represents the first example of MPc vapor sensors being oxidized and reduced by the same analyte by varying the metal center. Consequently, differential analysis by redox contrast with catalytic amplification using a small array of sensors may be used to uniquely identify peroxide vapors. Metallophthalocyanine chemiresistors represent an improvement over existing peroxide vapor detection technologies in durability and selectivity in a greatly decreased package size.

  20. Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Alfred R. Jr.; Kessinger, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Describes a demonstration known as Elephant's Toothpaste in which the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by iodide. Oxygen is released and soap bubbles are produced. The foam produced is measured, and results show a good relationship between the amount of foam and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. (DDR)

  1. A Volumetric Method for Titrimetric Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-06

    side it necessary and iden~tify by block nambet) *Hydrogen Peroxide Quantitative Analysis *Potassium Dichromate * Volumetrie Analysis,~ Ferrous Ammonium ...report describes a titrimetric method (using ferrous- dichromate oxidation reduction) of analysis for hydrogen peroxide. The concept is theoretically...2 COMPARISON OF FERROUS SOLUTION TO DICHROMATE SOLUTION . . . . . . . . .. 3 PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CALCULATIONS

  2. Demonstration of the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Alfred R. Jr.; Kessinger, Angela

    1996-01-01

    Describes a demonstration known as Elephant's Toothpaste in which the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by iodide. Oxygen is released and soap bubbles are produced. The foam produced is measured, and results show a good relationship between the amount of foam and the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. (DDR)

  3. Salidroside protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in cardiac H9c2 cells via PI3K-Akt dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ye; Shi, Ya-Ping; Wu, Dan; Ji, Ya-Jing; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hua-Li; Wu, Si-Si; Huang, De-Jia; Jiang, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Oxidative stress induces serious tissue injury in cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside, with its strong antioxidative and cytoprotective actions, is of particular interest in the development of antioxidative therapies for oxidative injury in cardiac diseases. We examined the pharmacological effects of salidroside on H9c2 rat cardiomyoblast cells under conditions of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) challenge. Salidroside attenuated H2O2-impaired cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, and effectively inhibited cellular malondialdehyde production, lethal sarcolemmal disruption, cell necrosis, and apoptosis induced by H2O2 insult. Salidroside significantly augmented Akt phosphorylation at Serine 473 in the absence or presence of H2O2 stimulation; wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, abrogated salidroside protection. Salidroside increased the intracellular mRNA expression and activities of catalase and Mn-superoxide dismutases in a PI3K-dependent manner. Our results indicated that salidroside protected cardiomyocytes against oxidative injury through activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and increasing the expression and activities of endogenous PI3K dependent antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Akt attenuates apoptotic death through phosphorylation of H2A under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hye; Kim, Chung Kwon; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Jee-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Although the essential role of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt in cell survival signaling has been clearly established, the mechanism by which Akt mediates the cellular response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress remains unclear. We demonstrated that Akt attenuated neuronal apoptosis through direct association with histone 2A (H2A) and phosphorylation of H2A at threonine 17. At early time points during H2O2 exposure of PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons, when the cells can tolerate the level of DNA damage, Akt was activated and phosphorylated H2A, leading to inhibition of apoptotic death. At later time points, Akt delivered the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase Sirtuin 2 (Sirt 2) to the vicinity of phosphorylated H2A in response to irreversible DNA damage, thereby inducing H2A deacetylation and subsequently leading to apoptotic death. Ectopically expressed T17A-substituted H2A minimally interacted with Akt and failed to prevent apoptosis under oxidative stress. Thus Akt-mediated H2A phosphorylation has an anti-apoptotic function in conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in neurons and PC12 cells. PMID:26899247

  5. Literature review of the role of hydroxyl radicals in chemically-induced mutagenicity and carcinogenicity for the risk assessment of a disinfection system utilizing photolysis of hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Taro; Nakamura, Keisuke; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kikuchi, Katsushi; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new disinfection system for oral hygiene, proving that hydroxyl radicals generated by the photolysis of 1 M hydrogen peroxide could effectively kill oral pathogenic microorganisms. Prior to any clinical testing, the safety of the system especially in terms of the risk of carcinogenicity is examined by reviewing the literature. Previous studies have investigated indirectly the kinds of reactive oxygen species involved in some sort of chemically-induced mutagenicity in vitro by using reactive oxygen species scavengers, suggesting the possible involvement of hydroxyl radicals. Similarly, possible involvement of hydroxyl radicals in some sort of chemically-induced carcinogenicity has been proposed. Notably, it is suggested that the hydroxyl radical can play a role in heavy metal-induced carcinogenicity that requires chronic exposure to the carcinogen. In these cases, hydroxyl radicals produced by Fenton-like reactions may be involved in the carcinogenicity. Meanwhile, potential advantages have been reported on the use of the hydroxyl radical, being included in host immune defense by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and medical applications such as for cancer treatment and antibiotics. From these, we conclude that there would seem to be little to no risk in using the hydroxyl radical as a disinfectant for short-term treatment of the oral cavity. PMID:22798706

  6. Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide mediated cold- and dehydration-induced myo-inositol phosphate synthase that confers multiple resistances to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiali; Wang, Congying; Xiang, Bin; Han, Ruihong; Guo, Zhenfei

    2013-02-01

    myo-Inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) is the key enzyme of myo-inositol synthesis, which is a central molecule required for cell metabolism and plant growth as a precursor to a large variety of compounds. A full-length fragment of MfMIPS1 cDNA was cloned from Medicago falcata that is more cold-tolerant than Medicago sativa. While MfMIPS1 transcript was induced in response to cold, dehydration and salt stress, MIPS transcript and myo-inositol were maintained longer and at a higher level in M. falcata than in M. sativa during cold acclimation at 5 °C. MfMIPS1 transcript was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO), but was not responsive to abscisic acid (ABA). Pharmacological experiments revealed that H(2) O(2) and NO are involved in the regulation of MfMIPS1 expression by cold and dehydration, but not by salt. Overexpression of MfMIPS1 in tobacco increased the MIPS activity and levels of myo-inositol, galactinol and raffinose, resulting in enhanced resistance to chilling, drought and salt stresses in transgenic tobacco plants. It is suggested that MfMIPS1 is induced by diverse environmental factors and confers resistance to various abiotic stresses.

  7. Protective effect of polypeptides from larva of housefly (Musca domestica) on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Wang, Pan; Qin, Qi-Lian; Zhang, Huan; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Housefly (Musca domestica) is an important medical insect and its larva is an ideal high protein food source. We isolated from housefly larvae the polypeptides hydrolyzed by neutral protease (PHNP), and investigated the protective effect of PHNP on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Cells exposed to H₂O₂ showed a marked decrease in proliferation and intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. H₂O₂ also caused apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction including mitochondrial fragmentation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with PHNP at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 μg/mL blocked these H₂O₂-induced cellular events in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of PHNP at 10 μg/mL is equal to that of ascorbic acid at 10 μM. In summary, PHNP has a protective effect against H₂O₂-induced oxidative injury in cells due to its ability to decrease intracellular ROS and elevate antioxidant enzyme activities.

  8. Cocktail of Four Active Components Derived from Sheng Mai San Inhibits Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced PC12 Cell Apoptosis Linked with the Caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kai; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Huana; Song, Yunfei; Cao, Zhengyu; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2015-12-01

    SMXZF, a combination of four active components including ginsenoside Rb1, ginsenoside Rg1, schizandrin, and DT-13 (6:9:5:4) that is derived from Sheng Mai San, has previously been shown to exhibit a neuroprotective effect against focal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Due to the key role of oxidative stress-induced neuronal apoptosis in the pathogenesis of stroke, we examined the effect of SMXZF in oxidative stress responses and related signaling pathways in differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our results showed that incubation with 100 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 12 hr could reduce cell viability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity with an increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). In contrast, SMXZF alleviated oxidative stress by reducing the over-production of ROS and MDA in parallel to concentration dependently increasing SOD activity. In addition, SMXZF significantly attenuated H2O2-induced caspase-3 cleavage, Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase-1 (ROCK1) activation, and myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Inhibiting either caspase-3 or ROCK1 mimicked the effect. Consequently, our results suggest that SMXZF inhibits H2O2-induced neuronal apoptosis linked with the caspase-3/ROCK1/MLC pathway, which has also been confirmed to be a positive feedback loop in oxidative stress-injured PC12 cells. These findings support the pharmacological potential of SMXZF for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke.

  9. Bioenergetics dysfunction, mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and lipid peroxidation induced by hydrogen sulfide as relevant pathomechanisms underlying the neurological dysfunction characteristic of ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gabriela Miranda Fernandez; Pletsch, Julia Tauana; Parmeggiani, Belisa; Grings, Mateus; Glanzel, Nícolas Manzke; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian

    2017-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide) accumulates at high levels in brain of patients with ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE). In the present study, we evaluated whether sulfide could disturb energy and redox homeostasis, and induce mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore opening in rat brain aiming to better clarify the neuropathophysiology of EE. Sulfide decreased the activities of citrate synthase and aconitase in rat cerebral cortex mitochondria, and of creatine kinase (CK) in rat cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus supernatants. Glutathione prevented sulfide-induced CK activity decrease in the cerebral cortex. Sulfide also diminished mitochondrial respiration in cerebral cortex homogenates, and dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and induced swelling in the presence of calcium in brain mitochondria. Alterations in ΔΨm and swelling caused by sulfide were prevented by the combination of ADP and cyclosporine A, and by ruthenium red, indicating the involvement of mPT in these effects. Furthermore, sulfide increased the levels of malondialdehyde in cerebral cortex supernatants, which was prevented by resveratrol and attenuated by glutathione, and of thiol groups in a medium devoid of brain samples. Finally, we verified that sulfide did not alter cell viability and DCFH oxidation in cerebral cortex slices, primary cortical astrocyte cultures and SH-SY5Y cells. Our data provide evidence that bioenergetics disturbance and lipid peroxidation along with mPT pore opening are involved in the pathophysiology of brain damage observed in EE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Baicalein protects C6 glial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis through regulation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ok; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Park, Cheol; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye-Jin; Cho, Eun-Ju; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Baicalein, a flavonoid originally obtained from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been reported to possess various biological properties. Although several studies have demonstrated the anti-oxidative activity of baicalein, its neuroprotective mechanisms have not been clearly established. The present study aimed to detect the effects of baicalein against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal damage in C6 glial cells and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. The results demonstrated that baicalein effectively inhibited H2O2-induced growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We noted that Baicalein also attenuated the H2O2‑induced formation of comet tail, phosphorylation of p-γH2A.X, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP or ΔΨm), and changes to apoptosis‑related protein expression, which suggests that it can prevent H2O2‑induced cellular DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, treatment with baicalein effectively induced the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the protective effects of baicalein against H2O2‑induced DNA damage and apoptosis were abolished by zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, and auranofin, a TrxR inhibitor. In addition, we noted that the cytoprotective effects of baicalein were attenuated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The findings of our present study suggest that baicalein enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the inhibition of ROS generation and the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, thus protecting C6 cells from H2O2-induced neuronal damage.

  11. Activation of AMPK protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced osteoblast apoptosis through autophagy induction and NADPH maintenance: new implications for osteonecrosis treatment?

    PubMed

    She, Chang; Zhu, Lun-qing; Zhen, Yun-fang; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dong, Qi-rong

    2014-01-01

    Elevated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, serving as an important contributor to the development of osteonecrosis. Here we aimed to understand the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the process. We observed a high level of AMPK activation in surgery isolated patients' osteonecrosis tissues. In cultured osteoblastoma MG63 cells, H2O2 stimulation induced significant AMPK activation, oxidative stress, cell death and apoptosis. Inhibition of AMPK by its inhibitor (compound C) or by shRNA-mediated knockdown dramatically enhanced H2O2-induced MG63 cell apoptosis, while over-expression of AMPK in HEK-293 cells alleviated H2O2-induced cell damage. These results confirmed that H2O2-activated AMPK is pro-cell survival. We observed that H2O2 induced protective autophagy in MG63 cells, and AMPK-dependent Ulk1 activation and mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) inactivation might involve autophagy activation. Further, AMPK activation inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative stress, probably through inhibiting NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) depletion, since more NADPH depletion and oxidative stress were induced by H2O2 in AMPK deficient MG63 cells. Finally, we observed a significant AMPK activation in H2O2-treated primary cultured and transformed (MC3T3-E1) osteoblasts, and AMPK inhibitor compound C enhanced death by H2O2 in these cells. Based on these results, we concluded that H2O2-induced AMPK activation is pro-survival and anti-apoptosis in osteoblasts. Autophagy induction and NADPH maintenance are involved in AMPK-mediated pro-survival effects. AMPK might represent a novel molecular target for osteonecrosis treatment.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide in the human body.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, B; Clement, M V; Long, L H

    2000-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is widely regarded as a cytotoxic agent whose levels must be minimized by the action of antioxidant defence enzymes. In fact, H(2)O(2) is poorly reactive in the absence of transition metal ions. Exposure of certain human tissues to H(2)O(2) may be greater than is commonly supposed: substantial amounts of H(2)O(2) can be present in beverages commonly drunk (especially instant coffee), in freshly voided human urine, and in exhaled air. Levels of H(2)O(2) in the human body may be controlled not only by catabolism but also by excretion, and H(2)O(2) could play a role in the regulation of renal function and as an antibacterial agent in the urine. Urinary H(2)O(2) levels are influenced by diet, but under certain conditions might be a valuable biomarker of 'oxidative stress'.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide measurements in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, P.; Klockow, D.

    1992-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, one of the key compounds in multiphase atmospheric chemistry, was measured on an Atlantic cruise (ANT VII/1) of the German research vessel Polarstern from 15 September to 9 October 1988, in rain and ambient air by a chemiluminescence technique. For gas-phase H2O2 cryogenic sampling was employed. The presented results show an increase of gas-phase mixing ratios of about 45 pptv per degree latitude between 50 deg N and 0 deg, and a maximum of 3.5 ppbv around the equator. Generally higher mixing ratios were observed in the Southern Hemisphere, with a clear diurnal variation. The H2O2 mixing ratio is correlated to the UV radiation intensity and to the temperature difference between air and ocean surface water.

  14. Measurement of hydrogen peroxide from aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) is an important species in both the homogeneous and the heterogeneous chemistry of the troposphere. Measurement of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ from aircraft provides information on the distribution of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the troposphere and provides a great deal of additional information which cannot be obtained from ground-based measurements. Three analytical techniques for atmospheric H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ are available. Two of these are colorimetric methods involving the formation of a colored complex with titanium salt. In 1978, a chemiluminescent method for the determination of atmospheric H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was introduced. This method involves the reaction of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ with luminol in the presence of a copper catalyst, with the chemiluminescence serving as the basis of the analytical reaction.

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) Potential for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafwallner, F.

    2004-10-01

    Low toxicity or "green" propellants are now under study by organizations around the world. Especially ultra high concentrated hydrogen peroxide (HP) may be a significant step toward less toxic, storable und safer operation of upper stages and spacecrafts. HP can be used as a monopropellant, when catalytically decomposed or as a bipropellant constituting the propellant combination`s oxidizer. Serving as a monopropellant, catalytic decomposition will result in exhaust of superheated steam and oxygen which can be used to drive gas turbines and feed life support systems or provide thrust as a monopropellant, provide the oxidizer, or function as an igniter for bipropellant engines. HP can be used in fuel cells to produce electrical power, heat and water.

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-10-20

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results.

  17. Bactericidal effect of hydrogen peroxide on spacecraft isolates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardle, M. D.; Renninger, G. M.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study designed to assess the effect of hydrogen peroxide on both sporeforming and nonsporeforming spacecraft isolates as an initial step in determining its suitability for microbiological decontamination of certain United States spacecraft. Survivor data were obtained for eight bacterial isolates (six sporeformers and two nonsporeformers) recovered before launch Mariner 9 and exposed to concentrations of 3, 10, and 15% hydrogen peroxide. The effects of various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide on the spores are presented in tabular form, along with the percentage of survival of nonsporeformers exposed to hydrogen peroxide. No viable vegetative cells were recovered after a 10-min exposure time to any of the three concentration of hydrogen peroxide.

  18. Farrerol regulates occludin expression in hydrogen peroxide-induced EA.hy926 cells by modulating ERK1/2 activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiankuan; Ge, Rui; Zhao, Chengxiao; Tang, Li; Li, Jianguo; Li, Qingshan

    2014-07-05

    Endothelial tight junction is a crucial intracellular junctional structure that controls paracellular permeability across vascular endothelium. Oxidative stress-mediated elevation in endothelial permeability is associated with pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. In the present research, the regulation of farrerol on occludin, a transmembrane proteins associated with endothelial tight junction, was investigated in hydrogen peroxide-induced human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that H2O2 exposure caused a significant decrease in occludin expression, but had little effect on ZO-1 expression, and the decrease of occludin expression was significantly attenuated by farrerol in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, immunofluorescent staining assay also demonstrated that the loss of occludin expression induced by H2O2 exposure was restored by farrerol pretreatment. Further investigations showed that farrerol prevented H2O2-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in a dose-dependent manner. The use of U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, proved that H2O2-induced decrease of occludin in EA.hy926 cells was likely associated with activation of ERK1/2, which indicated that the regulation of farrerol on occludin expression in H2O2-induced EA.hy926 cells was likely related to the modulation of ERK1/2 activation. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that farrerol has potential effects on oxidative stress-induced endothelial tight junction disruption and suggests that farrerol is a potential candidate for the intervention of endothelial permeability-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Carbocisteine attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced inflammatory injury in A549 cells via NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shao-Xuan; Guan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Mao; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2015-02-01

    Carbocisteine is a mucolytic drug with anti-oxidative effect, we had previously proved that carbocisteine remarkably reduced the rate of acute exacerbations and improved the quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however, very little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of carbocisteine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A549 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with H2O2 as damaged cell models, carbocisteine was administered 24h prior to or after H2O2 exposure, and the protective effects of carbocisteine were determined by MTT, qRT-PCR, ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assays. The results showed that carbocisteine could increase cell viability and decrease LDH, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the supernatant. Additionally, carbocisteine decreased IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IP-10 and MIP-1β mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, carbocisteine could attenuate phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and ERK1/2 and inhibit the nuclear translocation of pNF-κB p65 induced by H2O2. In conclusion, carbocisteine inhibited H2O2-induced inflammatory injury in A549 cells, NF-κB and ERK1/2 MAPK were the target pathways.

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Taurine-Rich Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Extract Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Shin, Woen-Bin; Dong, Xin; Nawarathna, Weligala Pahalagedara Amila Srilal; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress mediates the cell damage in several neurodegenerative diseases, some of which are Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated whether the taurine-rich cuttlefish extract could exert a protective effect on damaged human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our results revealed that pre-treatment with cuttlefish extract effectively increased the cell viability by protecting the cells from intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 exposure. Furthermore, apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax were investigated by western-blot analysis and results indicated that cuttlefish extract promoted the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein while inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Therefore, cuttlefish extract containing the ability of scavenging excessive ROS, the capacity of anti-oxidative stress, could be employed in neurodegenerative disease prevention. In conclusion, the results suggest that cuttlefish extract could be used as a potential candidate for preventing several human neurodegenerative and other disorders caused by oxidative stress.

  1. Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6 overexpression confers protection against hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity and reduces tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luqi; Bahety, Priti; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel

    2015-08-01

    Emerging studies have suggested the involvement of dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin cascade in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, genetic variations in Wnt co-receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 6 causing reduced Wnt signaling has been linked to late-onset AD. Here, we hypothesized that overexpression of Wnt co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 would serve as an effective new approach in reducing neurotoxicity induced by oxidative stress and decreasing tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results showed that overexpression of LRP5 and LRP6 in SH-SY5Y cells activates Wnt signaling and downstream proliferation genes, whereas knockdown of the co-receptors represses Wnt signaling and the transcription of proliferative markers. We further demonstrated that overexpression of LRP5 and LRP6 protects SH-SY5Y from cell death caused by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, inhibits GSK3β activity and subsequently reduces tau phosphorylation. Together, our findings suggest that rescuing LRP5/6-mediated Wnt signaling improves neuronal cell survival and reduces tau phosphorylation, which support the hypothesis that Wnt signaling might be an attractive therapeutic strategy for managing AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential Protective Effects of Bioactive Constituents from Chinese Propolis against Acute Oxidative Stress Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Cardiac H9c2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Ge, Miaomiao

    2017-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP) is known as a health food but its beneficial effects in protecting cardiomyocytes remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effects of CP and its active compounds on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced rats cardiomyocytes (H9c2) oxidative injury. Cell viability decreases induced by H2O2 were mitigated by different CP extracts using various solvents. From these active fractions, six active compounds were separated and identified. Among tested isolated compound, the cytoprotective activities of three caffeates, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), benzyl caffeate (BZC), and cinnamyl caffeate (CNC), exerted stronger effects than chrysin, pinobanksin, and 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid (DMCA). These three caffeates also increased H9c2 cellular antioxidant potential, decreased intracellular calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) level, and prevented cell apoptosis. Overall, the cardiovascular protective effects of the CP might be attributed to its caffeates constituents (CAPE, BZC, and CNC) and provide evidence for its usage in complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:28337227

  3. Activity of grape extracts from Greek varieties of Vitis vinifera against mutagenicity induced by bleomycin and hydrogen peroxide in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102.

    PubMed

    Stagos, Demetrios; Kazantzoglou, Georgios; Theofanidou, Demetra; Kakalopoulou, Georgia; Magiatis, Prokopios; Mitaku, Sofia; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2006-10-30

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that grape extracts could prevent certain steps in carcinogenesis and a few mechanisms have been proposed for this activity. In this study, the potential antimutagenic activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from two Greek grape varieties of Vitis vinifera against DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assessed as a potential novel chemopreventive mechanism, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. The two grape varieties were Assyrtiko (white grapes) and Mandilaria (red grapes), while the oxidant mutagens used were bleomycin (BLM) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Since it has been considered that polyphenols present in grapes are their most potent biologically active compounds, we also tested the effects of polyphenol-rich fractions as well as some of the more common grape polyphenols on the activity of the two test mutagens. These polyphenols were quercetin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, gallic acid and protocatechuic acid. Almost all extracts showed inhibitory activity against both mutagens. On the other hand, polyphenol-rich fractions as well as individual polyphenols at concentrations found in the extracts either did not diminish or did enhance the activity of the mutagens. These results suggest that the protection of DNA from mutations induced by ROS may be one of the mechanisms accounting for the chemopreventive activity of grape extracts. However, it seems that this protective activity may not be attributed to polyphenols but rather to a synergism of many compounds in the grapes.

  4. Protective effects of (E)-2-(1-hydroxyl-4-oxocyclohexyl) ethyl caffeine against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyang; Yue, Rongcai; Yang, Yongge; Zeng, Huawu; Chang, Wanlin; Gao, Na; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Weidong; Shan, Lei

    2015-03-01

    (E)-2-(1-hydroxyl-4-oxocyclohexyl) ethyl caffeine (HOEC), a naturally caffeic ester isolated from Incarvillea mairei, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity by targeting 5-lipoxygenase. However, its other potential activities have yet to be explored. In this study, we measured antioxidant activity of HOEC using the DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. Then, we exposed rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced damage and investigated the antioxidant activity of HOEC. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cellular morphology, Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining, and apoptosis of the PC12 cells were assessed after treatment with 0.3-10 μM HOEC for 2 h and exposure to 600 μM H2O2. Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were assayed after the PC12 cells were exposed to H2O2. To investigate mechanism, apoptosis-related protein were evaluated, including cleaved caspase 3/7, cleaved PARP, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and cytochrome c. The results showed that HOEC possessed potent antioxidant activity and pre-treatment with HOEC prior to H2O2 exposure significantly increased cell viability, reduced the release of LDH, ameliorated changes in cell morphology, and inhibited apoptosis. Further, HOEC did the following: reduced intracellular accumulation of ROS and MDA; rescued loss of SOD and GR activities; inhibited activated caspase-3 and caspase-7, cleaved PARP, and cytochrome c release; up-regulated the antiapoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL; and down-regulated the apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bad. These findings suggested that HOEC may be a therapeutic agent for treating oxidative stress-derived neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Salidroside protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in HUVECs via the regulation of REDD1 and mTOR activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mao-Chun; Shi, Hai-Ming; Wang, Hao; Gao, Xiu-Fang

    2013-07-01

    Antioxidative therapy is considered an effective strategy for treating oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside has been used as an antioxidative therapy for oxidative injury in cardiac diseases. However, the mechanism underlying its antioxidant effect is poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the pharmacological effects of salidroside on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under conditions of oxidative injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. HUVECs pretreated with or without salidroside for 24 h were exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress conditions for 6 h and then cell viability, apoptosis, HIF-1α, regulated in development and DNA damage responses-1 (REDD1) and the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were investigated. The results demonstrated that salidroside effectively attenuated H2O2-impaired cell viability and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner. Reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis and activation of the cellular PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were demonstrated in HUVECs pretreated with salidroside. Furthermore, the level of REDD1, a direct regulator of mitochondrial metabolism, significantly increased in parallel with the level of HIF-1α following pretreatment with salidroside. The antioxidative effect of salidroside was abrogated in REDD1 knockdown cells. However, LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of salidroside and blocked the increase of Akt and mTOR; however, did not affect the antioxidative effect of salidroside. These findings suggested that salidroside was capable of protecting HUVECs against H2O2-induced apoptosis by activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent pathway and inhibiting ROS production by activating REDD1.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-07-12

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway.

  7. Protective Effect of 2,4',5'-Trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone, a New Halophenol, against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced EA.hy926 Cells Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianguo; Feng, Xiue; Ge, Rui; Li, Jiankuan; Li, Qingshan

    2015-08-05

    Vascular endothelial cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the process of energy metabolism in aerobic respiration. A growing body of evidence indicates that excessive ROS is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. The newly synthesized halophenol, 2,4',5'-trihydroxyl-5,2'-dibromo diphenylmethanone (TDD), exhibits antioxidative and cytoprotective activities in vitro. In this study, the protective effect of TDD against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while the effect of TDD on the transcription profile of EA.hy926 cells subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative injury was evaluated by microarray analysis. Several signaling pathways, including apoptosis, were significantly associated with TDD. Flow cytometric analysis was used to evaluate anti-apoptotic effect of TDD. Subsequently, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expressions of the apoptosis-associated protein, Bcl-2 and Bax. Meanwhile the expression of cleaved caspase-3, an executioner of apoptosis, was also detected by Western blot. The results showed that pretreatment of EA.hy926 cells with TDD prevented the decrease of cell viability induced by H2O2, and attenuated H2O2-induced elevation of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 while increased Bcl-2 expressions. In summary, TDD inhibited H2O2-induced oxidative injury of EA.hy926 cells through negative regulation of apoptosis. These findings suggest that TDD is a potential candidate for therapeutic intervention in oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 interact to mediate UV-B-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish sprouts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Su, Nana; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Cui, Jin; Liang, Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. The results showed that UV-B irradiation significantly increased the anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of UVR8, and a similar trend appeared in radish sprouts subjected to cadmium, chilling and salt stresses regardless of light source. However, these responses disappeared under dark exposure. These results suggest that abiotic stress-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were light-dependent. Moreover, abiotic stresses all enhanced the production of H2O2 and exogenous H2O2 addition significantly increased the anthocyanin concentration and UVR8 transcription, while these increases were severely inhibited by addition of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a chemical trap for H2O2). It seems to suggest that H2O2 played an important role in the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO-releasing compound) substantially induced the anthocyanin accumulation, and H2O2-induced anthocyanin accumulation and UVR8 expression were significantly suppressed by co-treatment with 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO, a NO scavenger), which was parallel with the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related transcription factors and structural genes. All these results demonstrate that both H2O2 and NO are involved in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation, and there is a crosstalk between them as well as a classical UVR8 pathway. PMID:27404993

  9. Esculetin-induced protection of human hepatoma HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide is associated with the Nrf2-dependent induction of the NAD(P)H: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, Sudhakar R.; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-15

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy coumarin), is a potent antioxidant that is present in several plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of protection of esculetin in human hepatoma HepG2 cells against reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, cell integrity, intracellular glutathione levels, generation of reactive oxygen species and expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers to measure cellular oxidative stress and response to ROS. The protective effect of esculetin was compared to a well-characterized chemoprotective compound quercetin. Pre-treatment of HepG2 cells with sub-lethal (10-25 {mu}M) esculetin for 8 h prevented cell death and maintained cell integrity following exposure to 0.9 mM hydrogen peroxide. An increase in the generation of ROS following hydrogen peroxide treatment was significantly attenuated by 8 h pre-treatment with esculetin. In addition, esculetin ameliorated the decrease in intracellular glutathione caused by hydrogen peroxide exposure. Moreover, treatment with 25 {mu}M esculetin for 8 h increased the expression of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) at both protein and mRNA levels significantly, by 12-fold and 15-fold, respectively. Esculetin treatment also increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8-fold indicating that increased NQO1 expression is Nrf2-mediated. These results indicate that esculetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury and that this protection is provided through the induction of protective enzymes as part of an adaptive response mediated by Nrf2 nuclear accumulation.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates cell motile activity through LPA receptor-3 in liver epithelial WB-F344 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Ayano; Tanabe, Eriko; Inoue, Serina; Kitayoshi, Misaho; Okimoto, Souta; Hirane, Miku; Araki, Mutsumi; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •Hydrogen peroxide stimulates cell motility of WB-F344 cells. •LPA{sub 3} is induced by hydrogen peroxide in WB-F344 cells. •Cell motility by hydrogen peroxide is inhibited in LPA{sub 3} knockdown cells. •LPA signaling is involved in cell migration by hydrogen peroxide. -- Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide which is one of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediates a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation and migration. In the present study, we investigated whether lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling is involved in cell motile activity stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. The rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide at 0.1 or 1 μM for 48 h. In cell motility assays, hydrogen peroxide treated cells showed significantly high cell motile activity, compared with untreated cells. To measure the expression levels of LPA receptor genes, quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis was performed. The expressions of LPA receptor-3 (Lpar3) in hydrogen peroxide treated cells were significantly higher than those in control cells, but not Lpar1 and Lpar2 genes. Next, to assess the effect of LPA{sub 3} on cell motile activity, the Lpar3 knockdown cells from WB-F344 cells were also treated with hydrogen peroxide. The cell motile activity of the knockdown cells was not stimulated by hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, in liver cancer cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly activated cell motility of Lpar3-expressing cells, but not Lpar3-unexpressing cells. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA{sub 3} may be mainly involved in cell motile activity of WB-F344 cells stimulated by hydrogen peroxide.

  11. Marine Photochemistry of Hydrogen Peroxide in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Shiller, A. M.

    2002-12-01

    A systematical study of hydrogen peroxide in seawater, rainwater, and marine air in the Northwest Pacific Ocean was conducted during a transect from Osaka, Japan, to Hawaii, USA, in May and June of 2002. During the transect, surface seawater samples were analyzed continuously for peroxide which showed the effects of photochemical production, wet deposition, and terrestrial impact. In the surface waters, hydrogen peroxide decreased with latitude from a little over 25 nM in the north (50°N) to more than 150 nM in the south (22°N). This latitudinal variation of hydrogen peroxide followed a trend similar to shipboard measurement of ultraviolet radiation. Diel variations of surface hydrogen peroxide were observed at several locations, with surface water concentrations increasing during the day and decreasing at night. The concentration of surface water peroxide increased to over 200 nM following rain events. Higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (>150 nM) were also observed near Asia. The profiles of hydrogen peroxide were obtained at 10 stations that exhibited surface maxima of 24 to 120 nM. The rate constant of dark decay varied from 0.08 d-1 to 0.22 d-1. Rate of photo-production decreased from 10 nM hr-1 at noon to 0 at night. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide varied from 16 μM to 526 μM in rainwater. The data set permits a systematical analysis and modeling of factors regulating the dynamics of hydrogen peroxide in marine environment.

  12. Kinetics of Platinum-Catalyzed Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Tiffany A.; Colombo, D. Philip, Jr.

    2003-07-01

    CIBA Vision Corporation markets a contact lens cleaning system that consists of an AOSEPT disinfectant solution and an AOSEPT lens cup. The disinfectant is a buffered 3.0% m/v hydrogen peroxide solution and the cup includes a platinum-coated AOSEPT disc. The hydrogen peroxide disinfects by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses found on the contact lenses. Because the concentration of hydrogen peroxide needed to disinfect is irritating to eyes, the hydrogen peroxide needs to be neutralized, or decomposed, before the contact lenses can be used again. A general chemistry experiment is described where the kinetics of the catalyzed decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide are studied by measuring the amount of oxygen generated as a function of time. The order of the reaction with respect to the hydrogen peroxide, the rate constant, and the energy of activation are determined. The integrated rate law is used to determine the time required to decompose the hydrogen peroxide to a concentration that is safe for eyes.

  13. Aloperine attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced injury via anti-apoptotic activity and suppression of the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dongliang; Ma, Weisong; Guo, Baozhen; Wang, Shunyi

    2017-01-01

    Aloperine is an alkaloid that exerts significant inhibitive effects on acute inflammation and Type III and IV hypersensitivity caused by a variety of inflammatory agents. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the protective effect of aloperine attenuates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury, and to identify the underlying mechanisms involved. Nucleus pulposus cells were extracted from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, and incubated with fresh medium containing 200 µM H2O2 for 24 h. In the study, treatment with aloperine significantly increased cell viability and suppressed apoptosis in H2O2-treated nucleus pulposus cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, 10 and 100 nM aloperine significantly inhibited H2O2-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 activities, and significantly increased the H2O2-reduced superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in nucleus pulposus cells (all P<0.01). However, aloperine treatment (10 and 100 nM) significantly reduced the H2O2-induced caspase-9 activity in nucleus pulposus cells. Furthermore, addition of 10 and 100 nM aloperine significantly suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylated-protein kinase B expression levels in H2O2-treated nucleus pulposus cells. In conclusion, the protective effect of aloperine attenuated H2O2-induced injury via hyperproliferation, its anti-apoptotic activity and suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:28123508

  14. Protective efficacy of carnosic acid against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative injury in HepG2 cells through the SIRT1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Fan, Qing; Lin, Musen; Zhang, Ce; Fan, Guangjun; Zhai, Xiaohan; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Zhao; Yao, Jihong

    2015-08-01

    Carnosic acid (CA), found in rosemary, has been reported to have antioxidant and antiadipogenic properties. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism by which CA inhibits hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in HepG2 cells. Cells were pretreated with 2.5-10 μmol/L CA for 2 h and then exposed to 3 mmol/L H2O2 for an additional 4 h. CA dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activities. Pretreatment with CA completely attenuated the inhibited expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), and reduced glutathione activity caused by H2O2, whereas it reversed reactive oxygen species accumulation and the increase in cleaved caspase-3. Importantly, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, was significantly increased by CA. Considering the above results, we hypothesized that SIRT1 may play important roles in the protective effects of CA in injury induced by H2O2. As expected, SIRT1 suppression by Ex527 (6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide) and siRNA-mediated SIRT1 silencing (si-SIRT1) significantly aggravated the H2O2-induced increased level of cleaved caspase-3 but greatly reduced the decreased expression of MnSOD and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, the positive regulatory effect of CA was inhibited by si-SIRT1. Collectively, the present study indicated that CA can alleviate H2O2-induced hepatocyte damage through the SIRT1 pathway.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide mediates EGF-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin expression via p38 MAPK and snail in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2010-08-01

    In ovarian cancer, it has been shown that E-cadherin is down-regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) activation, and that cells with low E-cadherin expression are particularly invasive. Although it is generally believed that reactive oxygen species play important roles in intracellular signal transduction, the role of reactive oxygen species in EGF-mediated reductions in E-cadherin remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that EGF treatment down-regulated E-cadherin by up-regulating its transcriptional repressors, Snail and Slug, in human ovarian cancer cells. Using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester staining, we found that intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production was increased in EGF-treated cells and could be inhibited by treatment with an EGFR inhibitor, AG1478, or an H(2)O(2) scavenger, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase. In addition, PEG-catalase diminished EGF-induced p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase, phosphorylation. PEG-catalase and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 abolished EGF-induced Snail, but not Slug, expression and E-cadherin down-regulation. Furthermore, the involvement of p38 MAPK in the down-regulation of E-cadherin was confirmed using specific p38alpha MAPK small interfering RNA. Finally, we also show that EGF-induced cell invasion was abolished by treatment with PEG-catalase and SB203580, as well as p38alpha MAPK small interfering RNA, and that forced expression of E-cadherin diminished intrinsic invasiveness as well as EGF-induced cell invasion. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism in which EGF down-regulates E-cadherin expression through production of H(2)O(2), activation of p38 MAPK, and up-regulation of Snail in human ovarian cancer cells.

  16. Protective effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HaCaT human skin keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Jeh; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Choi, Eun Ok; Kim, Min Ju; Hwang-Bo, Hyun; Kim, Hong Jae; Hong, Su Hyun; Park, Cheol; Lee, Dong Hee; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress due to excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Scutellaria baicalensis rhizome ethanol extract (SBRE) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in the HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line. Our results revealed that treatment with SBRE prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure significantly increased viability of HaCaT cells. SBRE also effectively attenuated H2O2-induced comet tail formation and inhibited the H2O2-induced phosphorylation levels of the histone γH2AX, as well as the number of apoptotic bodies and Annexin V-positive cells. In addition, SBRE exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS generation and restored the mitochondrial membrane potential loss by H2O2. Moreover, H2O2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-3 and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase, a typical substrate protein of activated caspase-3, as well as DNA fragmentation; however, these events were almost totally reversed by pretreatment with SBRE. Furthermore, SBRE increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is a potent antioxidant enzyme, associated with the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). According to our data, SBRE is able to protect HaCaT cells from H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis through blocking cellular damage related to oxidative stress through a mechanism that would affect ROS elimination and activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  17. Protective effects of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HaCaT human skin keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Jeh; Jeong, Jin-Woo; Choi, Eun Ok; Kim, Min Ju; Hwang-Bo, Hyun; Kim, Hong Jae; Hong, Su Hyun; Park, Cheol; Lee, Dong Hee; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress due to excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the risk factors for the development of several chronic diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Scutellaria baicalensis rhizome ethanol extract (SBRE) against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in the HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cell line. Our results revealed that treatment with SBRE prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure significantly increased viability of HaCaT cells. SBRE also effectively attenuated H2O2-induced comet tail formation and inhibited the H2O2-induced phosphorylation levels of the histone γH2AX, as well as the number of apoptotic bodies and Annexin V-positive cells. In addition, SBRE exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular ROS generation and restored the mitochondrial membrane potential loss by H2O2. Moreover, H2O2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-3 and degradation of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase, a typical substrate protein of activated caspase-3, as well as DNA fragmentation; however, these events were almost totally reversed by pretreatment with SBRE. Furthermore, SBRE increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is a potent antioxidant enzyme, associated with the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). According to our data, SBRE is able to protect HaCaT cells from H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis through blocking cellular damage related to oxidative stress through a mechanism that would affect ROS elimination and activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. PMID:28694748

  18. FOXO1 and LXRα downregulate the apolipoprotein A-I gene expression during hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Oleinikova, Galina N; Lapikov, Ivan A; Tanyanskiy, Dmitry A; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species damage various cell components including DNA, proteins, and lipids, and these impairments could be a reason for severe human diseases including atherosclerosis. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), an important metabolic transcription factor, upregulates antioxidant and proapoptotic genes during oxidative stress. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) forms high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that are responsible for cholesterol transfer from peripheral tissues to liver for removal in bile in vertebrates. The main sources for plasma ApoA-I in mammals are liver and jejunum. Hepatic apoA-I transcription depends on a multitude of metabolic transcription factors. We demonstrate that ApoA-I synthesis and secretion are decreased during H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Here, we first show that FOXO1 binds to site B of apoA-I hepatic enhancer and downregulates apoA-I gene activity in HepG2 cells. Moreover, FOXO1 and LXRα transcription factors participate in H2O2-triggered downregulation of apoA-I gene together with Src, JNK, p38, and AMPK kinase cascades. Mutations of sites B or C as well as the administration of siRNAs against FOXO1 or LXRα to HepG2 cells abolished the hydrogen peroxide-mediated suppression of apoA-I gene.

  19. Nitric oxide is involved in the oxytetracycline-induced suppression of root growth through inhibiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the root meristem

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing-Xiang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Yunlong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Use of antibiotic-contaminated manure in crop production poses a severe threat to soil and plant health. However, few studies have studied the mechanism by which plant development is affected by antibiotics. Here, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and fluorescent dyes to study the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC), a widely used antibiotic in agriculture, on root meristem activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the root tips of tomato seedlings. We found that OTC caused cell cycle arrest, decreased the size of root meristem and inhibited root growth. Interestingly, the inhibition of root growth by OTC was associated with a decline in H2O2 levels but an increase in NO levels in the root tips. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2O2 production, showed similar effects on root growth as those of OTC. However, exogenous H2O2 partially reversed the effects on the cell cycle, meristem size and root growth. Importantly, cPTIO (the NO scavenger) and tungstate (an inhibitor of nitrate reductase) significantly increased H2O2 levels in the root tips and reversed the inhibition of root growth by OTC. Out results suggest that OTC-induced NO production inhibits H2O2 accumulation in the root tips, thus leading to cell cycle arrest and suppression of root growth. PMID:28220869

  20. Neurodegeneration through oxidative stress: monitoring hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in primary cells from the subventricular zone of BALB/c mice using field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Koppenhöfer, D; Kettenbaum, F; Susloparova, A; Law, J K Y; Vu, X T; Schwab, T; Schäfer, K H; Ingebrandt, S

    2015-05-15

    Dementia is one of the big medical challenges of our time with Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's disease among its most common forms. In year 2000, 4.5 million people were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in the United States. In the case of Alzheimer's disease one of many contributing factors is a metabolic imbalance that leads to elevated oxidative stress levels. Consequences of this imbalance can be symptoms like apraxia, agnosia or sundowning. The use of field-effect transistors is a novel approach to study the effects of external stimuli on cells in vitro to provide researchers with a new tool for high resolution and high throughput studies to better understand cellular interaction and the effects of pharmacological compounds. In our study we use ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (FETs) to analyze the apoptosis inducing effects of hydrogen peroxide treatment on primary cells obtained from the subventricular zone of postnatal BALB/c mice. Upon apoptosis, the cell-substrate adhesion of the neurons is gradually weakened until complete detachment. In former studies we used our FET devices to conduct Electrical Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) experiments on the single cell level using morphologically different cell lines. Here we demonstrate that our novel approach of ECIS using FET devices can be expanded to primary neuronal tissue with high prospects for further studies in the field of pharmacological research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitric oxide is involved in the oxytetracycline-induced suppression of root growth through inhibiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the root meristem.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing-Xiang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Yunlong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Jian

    2017-02-21

    Use of antibiotic-contaminated manure in crop production poses a severe threat to soil and plant health. However, few studies have studied the mechanism by which plant development is affected by antibiotics. Here, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and fluorescent dyes to study the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC), a widely used antibiotic in agriculture, on root meristem activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the root tips of tomato seedlings. We found that OTC caused cell cycle arrest, decreased the size of root meristem and inhibited root growth. Interestingly, the inhibition of root growth by OTC was associated with a decline in H2O2 levels but an increase in NO levels in the root tips. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2O2 production, showed similar effects on root growth as those of OTC. However, exogenous H2O2 partially reversed the effects on the cell cycle, meristem size and root growth. Importantly, cPTIO (the NO scavenger) and tungstate (an inhibitor of nitrate reductase) significantly increased H2O2 levels in the root tips and reversed the inhibition of root growth by OTC. Out results suggest that OTC-induced NO production inhibits H2O2 accumulation in the root tips, thus leading to cell cycle arrest and suppression of root growth.

  2. Modulation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Neuronal Cells by Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction and Thymoquinone via Transcriptomic Regulation of Antioxidant and Apoptotic Signaling Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Abu Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus; Basri, Hamidon; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa Linn. (N. sativa) and its bioactive constituent Thymoquinone (TQ) have demonstrated numerous pharmacological attributes. In the present study, the neuroprotective properties of Thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) and TQ against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced neurotoxicity in differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. TQRF was extracted using supercritical fluid extraction while TQ was acquired commercially, and their effects on H2O2 were evaluated using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, morphological observation, and multiplex gene expression. Both TQRF and TQ protected the cells against H2O2 by preserving the mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, reducing intracellular ROS levels, preserving morphological architecture, and modulating the expression of genes related to antioxidants (SOD1, SOD2, and catalase) and signaling genes (p53, AKT1, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κβ). In conclusion, the enhanced efficacy of TQRF over TQ was likely due to the synergism of multiple constituents in TQRF. The efficacy of TQRF was better than that of TQ alone when equal concentrations of TQ in TQRF were compared. In addition, TQRF also showed comparable effects to TQ when the same concentrations were tested. These findings provide further support for the use of TQRF as an alternative to combat oxidative stress insults in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26823946

  3. Modulation of Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Neuronal Cells by Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction and Thymoquinone via Transcriptomic Regulation of Antioxidant and Apoptotic Signaling Genes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Abu Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus; Basri, Hamidon; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa Linn. (N. sativa) and its bioactive constituent Thymoquinone (TQ) have demonstrated numerous pharmacological attributes. In the present study, the neuroprotective properties of Thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) and TQ against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced neurotoxicity in differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. TQRF was extracted using supercritical fluid extraction while TQ was acquired commercially, and their effects on H2O2 were evaluated using cell viability assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, morphological observation, and multiplex gene expression. Both TQRF and TQ protected the cells against H2O2 by preserving the mitochondrial metabolic enzymes, reducing intracellular ROS levels, preserving morphological architecture, and modulating the expression of genes related to antioxidants (SOD1, SOD2, and catalase) and signaling genes (p53, AKT1, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κβ). In conclusion, the enhanced efficacy of TQRF over TQ was likely due to the synergism of multiple constituents in TQRF. The efficacy of TQRF was better than that of TQ alone when equal concentrations of TQ in TQRF were compared. In addition, TQRF also showed comparable effects to TQ when the same concentrations were tested. These findings provide further support for the use of TQRF as an alternative to combat oxidative stress insults in neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Frozen fruit pulp of Euterpe oleraceae Mart. (Acai) prevents hydrogen peroxide-induced damage in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Spada, Patricia D S; Dani, Caroline; Bortolini, Giovana V; Funchal, Claudia; Henriques, João A P; Salvador, Mirian

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in several human illnesses, including neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Acai is largely consumed in Brazil and contains high levels of antioxidant compounds. This work aims to study the antioxidant activity of acai frozen fruit pulp in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated with the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Pretreatment of tissue with acai decreased H(2)O(2)-induced damage of both lipids and proteins in all tissues tested. This fruit was also able to reduce the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase to basal levels. We observed a negative correlation between the polyphenol content of acai and the levels of lipid (r = -0.689; P

  5. Enzyme-Treated Asparagus Extract Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Murine Skin Fibroblast L929 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Ken; Takanari, Jun; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Sakurai, Takuya; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako

    2016-05-01

    Enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) exerts a wide variety of beneficial biological actions including facilitating anti-cortisol stress and neurological anti-aging responses. However, the anti-skin aging effects of ETAS remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play pivotal roles in skin aging. Increased ROS levels in fibroblasts in response to ultraviolet irradiation activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the resultant gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) isoforms accelerates collagen breakdown in the dermis. Therefore, we explored whether ETAS has anti-skin aging effects by attenuating the oxidative stress responses in fibroblasts. Simultaneous treatment of murine skin L929 fibroblasts with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and either ETAS or dextrin showed that ETAS significantly suppressed H2O2-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA as measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. ETAS also clearly suppressed H2O2-stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun (AP-1 subunit) and JNK as determined by Western blot. However, ETAS did not affect the increased amounts of carbonyl proteins in response to H2O2, also as determined by Western blotting. These results suggest that ETAS diminishes cellular responsiveness to ROS but does not scavenge ROS. Thus, ETAS has the potential to prevent skin aging through attenuating the oxidative stress responses in dermal fibroblasts.

  6. Nitric oxide is involved in the oxytetracycline-induced suppression of root growth through inhibiting hydrogen peroxide accumulation in the root meristem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qing-Xiang; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Yunlong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Jian

    2017-02-01

    Use of antibiotic-contaminated manure in crop production poses a severe threat to soil and plant health. However, few studies have studied the mechanism by which plant development is affected by antibiotics. Here, we used microscopy, flow cytometry, gene expression analysis and fluorescent dyes to study the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC), a widely used antibiotic in agriculture, on root meristem activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the root tips of tomato seedlings. We found that OTC caused cell cycle arrest, decreased the size of root meristem and inhibited root growth. Interestingly, the inhibition of root growth by OTC was associated with a decline in H2O2 levels but an increase in NO levels in the root tips. Diphenyliodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of H2O2 production, showed similar effects on root growth as those of OTC. However, exogenous H2O2 partially reversed the effects on the cell cycle, meristem size and root growth. Importantly, cPTIO (the NO scavenger) and tungstate (an inhibitor of nitrate reductase) significantly increased H2O2 levels in the root tips and reversed the inhibition of root growth by OTC. Out results suggest that OTC-induced NO production inhibits H2O2 accumulation in the root tips, thus leading to cell cycle arrest and suppression of root growth.

  7. Protective effect of the ultra-filtration extract from Xin Mai Jia on human aortic smooth muscle cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    WAN, JIA; YIN, YALING; SUN, RUILI; PAN, GUOPIN; LI, PENG; JIA, YANLONG; WAN, GUANGRUI; LIU, ZHANG-SUO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether an ultra-filtration extract from Xin Mai Jia (XMJ), a Chinese medicinal formulation, has a protective effect on human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) injury models induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and to consider the mechanism and efficacy of the therapeutic action of XMJ on atherosclerosis. HASMCs were injured by H2O2 and then exposed to various concentrations of XMJ. The morphological changes, growth, proliferation, migration and cytokine release of HASMCs were detected using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a scratch adhesion test. H2O2 significantly promoted the proliferation of HASMCs. The ultra-filtration extract from XMJ was observed to significantly attenuate the morphological changes of injured HASMCs, reduce the expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and increase the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). XMJ has clear anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and significantly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. PMID:24348756

  8. Hydrogen peroxide-and fetal bovine serum-induced DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells: positive and negative regulation by protein kinase C isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, M; Cantoni, O; Tasinato, A; Boscoboinik, D; Azzi, A

    1995-10-19

    Hydrogen peroxide and fetal bovine serum stimulate DNA synthesis in growth-arrested smooth muscle cells with remarkably similar kinetics and cell density dependence. However, while stimulation with fetal bovine serum results in cell proliferation, that by H2O2 is followed by cell death. Depletion of conventional and novel protein kinase C isoforms, resulting from a long treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, further increases H2O2-induced DNA synthesis. On the other hand, the specific protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C abolished the increased DNA synthesis promoted by fetal bovine serum or H2O2. H2O2 increases protein kinase C activity in smooth muscle cells. This effect is markedly reduced, but not abolished, by down-regulation of the alpha, delta and epsilon protein kinase C isoforms. Thus, the zeta isoform of protein kinase C, which is not down-regulated, may be responsible for the residual H2O2 stimulation of protein kinase C. In conclusion, the results obtained show that H2O2 stimulates protein kinase C activity and DNA synthesis in growth-arrested smooth muscle cells: these events are not followed by cell proliferation but rather by cell death. This H2O2 stimulated DNA synthesis appears to be negatively controlled by alpha, delta and epsilon isoforms and positively controlled by the zeta isoform of protein kinase C.

  9. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael F.; Gurung, Sushma; Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. We hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission. PMID:26217368

  10. miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit(+) Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenwen; Wang, Yan; Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Zhenglong; Liu, Zhijiang; Cao, Song; Shi, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the infarcted myocardium hampers cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and one of its target proteins, PTEN, contribute to the survival and proliferation of many cell types, but their prosurvival effects in c-kit(+) CSC remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 reduces hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis in c-kit(+) CSC and estimated the contribution of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to this oxidative circumstance. miR-21 mimics efficiently reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in c-kit(+) CSC, as evidenced by the downregulation of the proapoptosis proteins caspase-3 and Bax and upregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the gain of function of miR-21 in c-kit(+) CSC downregulated the protein level of PTEN although its mRNA level changed slightly; in the meantime, miR-21 overexpression also increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt). The antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 were comparable with Phen (bpV), the selective inhibitor of PTEN, while miR-21 inhibitor or PI3K's inhibitor LY294002 efficiently attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of miR-21. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-H2O2-induced apoptosis effect of miR-21 in c-kit(+) CSC is contributed by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. miR-21 could be a potential molecule to facilitate the c-kit(+) CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium.

  11. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    DOE PAGES

    Cohen, Michael F.; Gurung, Sushma; Birarda, Giovanni; ...

    2015-07-09

    In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated inmore » medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. Lastly, we hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.« less

  12. 1,4-Benzenediboronic-Acid-Induced Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles: Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Detection and Biotin-Avidin-Mediated Immunoassay with Naked-Eye Detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Chun; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-05-17

    Hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth of small-sized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is often implemented for H2O2 sensing and plasmonic immunoassay. In contrast, there is little-to-no information in the literature regarding the application of H2O2-inhibited aggregation of citrate-capped AuNPs. This study discloses that benzene-1,4-diboronic acid (BDBA) was effective in driving the aggregation of citrate-capped AuNPs through an interaction between α-hydroxycarboxylate of citrate and boronic acids of BDBA. The H2O2-mediated oxidation of BDBA resulted in the conversion of boronic acid groups to phenol groups. The oxidized BDBA was incapable of triggering the aggregation of citrate-capped AuNPs. Thus, the presence of H2O2 prohibited BDBA-induced aggregation of citrate-capped AuNPs. The BDBA-induced aggregation of citrate-capped AuNPs can be paired with the glucose oxidase (GOx)-glucose system to design a colorimetric probe for glucose. Moreover, a H2O2·BDBA·AuNP probe was integrated with sandwich immunoassay, biotinylated antibody, and avidin-conjugated GOx for the selective naked-eye detection of rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) and human-prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The lowest detectable concentrations of rabbit IgG and human PSA by the naked eye were down to 0.1 and 4 ng/mL, respectively. More importantly, the proposed plasmonic immunoassay allowed the naked-eye quantification of 0-10 ng/mL PSA at an interval of 2 ng/mL in plasma samples.

  13. Bimodal effect of hydrogen peroxide and oxidative events in nitrite-induced rapid root abscission by the water fern Azolla pinnata

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Michael F.; Gurung, Sushma; Birarda, Giovanni; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2015-07-09

    In the genus Azolla rapid abscission of roots from floating fronds occurs within minutes in response to a variety of stresses, including exposure to nitrite. We found that hydrogen peroxide, though itself not an inducer of root abscission, modulates nitrite-induced root abscission by Azolla pinnata in a dose-dependent manner, with 2 mM H2O2 significantly diminishing the responsiveness to 2 mM NaNO2, and 10 mM H2O2 slightly enhancing it. Hypoxia, which has been found in other plants to result in autogenic production of H2O2, dramatically stimulated root abscission of A. pinnata in response to nitrite, especially for plants previously cultivated in medium containing 5 mM KNO3 compared to plants cultivated under N2-fixing conditions without combined nitrogen. Plants, including Azolla, produce the small signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite using nitrate reductase. We found Azolla plants to display dose-dependent root abscission in response to the NO donor spermine NONOate. Treatment of plants with the thiol-modifying agents S-methyl methanethiosulfonate or glutathione inhibited the nitrite-induced root abscission response. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy revealed higher levels of carbonylation in the abscission zone of dropped roots, indicative of reaction products of polysaccharides with potent free radical oxidants. Lastly, we hypothesize that metabolic products of nitrite and NO react with H2O2 in the apoplast leading to free-radical-mediated cleavage of structural polysaccharides and consequent rapid root abscission.

  14. β-Carotene and lutein inhibit hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of NF-κB and IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngha; Seo, Ji Hye; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric inflammation. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent mediator of the inflammatory response by activating and recruiting neutrophils to the site of infection. Oxidant-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB regulates the expression of IL-8 in the immune and inflammatory events. Carotenoids (carotenes and oxygenated carotenoids) show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Low intake of β-carotene leads to high risk of gastric cancer. Oxygenated carotenoid lutein inhibited NF-κB activation in experimental uveitis. The present study aims to investigate whether β-carotene and lutein inhibit H(2)O(2)-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of IL-8 in gastric epithelial AGS cells. The cells were treated with carotenoids 2 h prior to the treatment of H(2)O(2). mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR analyses. IL-8 level in the medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-κB activation was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. ROS levels of the cells were detected by confocal microscopic analysis for fluorescent dichlorofluorescein. As a result, H(2)O(2 )induced the activation of NF-κB and expression of IL-8 in AGS cells time-dependently. β-Carotene and lutein showed inhibitory effects on H(2)O(2)-induced increase in intracellular ROS levels, activation of NF-κB, and IL-8 expression in AGS cells. In conclusion, supplementation of carotenoids such as β-carotene and lutein may be beneficial for the treatment of oxidative stress-mediated gastric inflammation.

  15. The mechanisms underlying the anti-aging activity of the Chinese prescription Kangen-karyu in hydrogen peroxide-induced human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akiko; Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Young Ae; Cho, Eun Ju; Okamoto, Takuya; Sei, Yasuo

    2005-10-01

    Our previous study showed that Kangen-karyu extract protected against cellular senescence by reducing oxidative damage through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation and regulation of the antioxidative status. Although these findings suggest that Kangen-karyu could delay the aging process, the mechanisms responsible for protection against aging have rarely been elucidated. Therefore, this study was focussed on the mechanisms responsible for the anti-aging activity of Kangen-karyu extract using hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced human diploid fibroblasts, a well-established experimental model of cellular aging. Kangen-karyu extract exerted a protective effect against the morphological changes induced by H(2)O(2) treatment and inhibited senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity. In addition, the beneficial effects of Kangen-karyu extract on cell viability and lifespan indicated that Kangen-karyu extract could delay the cellular aging process. The observation that Kangen-karyu extract prevented nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) translocation in response to oxidative stress suggested that Kangen-karyu exerted its anti-aging effect through NF-kappaB modulation and prevention of H(2)O(2)-induced overexpression of haem oxygenase-1 protein. Moreover, pretreatment with Kangen-karyu extract reduced overexpression of bax protein and prevented the mitochondrial membrane potential decline, suggesting that Kangen-karyu extract may protect mitochondria from mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction. These findings indicate that Kangen-karyu is a promising potential anti-aging agent that may delay, or normalize, the aging process by virtue of its protective activity against oxidative stress-related conditions.

  16. Protective effects of Semiaquilegia adoxoides n-butanol extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Jianta; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Ran; Wu, Fei; Xiao, Haitao; Tang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    Context Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced damage in the lens epithelium leads to cell death and cataract. Semiaquilegia adoxoides (DC.) Makino (Ranunculaceae), a folk medicine of Hmong (an ethnic group of China), has been traditionally used to treat cataract; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is yet to be uncovered. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether the n-butanol extract of S. adoxoides (nSA) is effective against the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human lens epithelial (HLE) cells. Materials and methods Human lens epithelial (SRA 01/04) cells were stimulated by H2O2 (250 μM) in the presence or absence of nSA. The antioxidant effects of nSA were determined in terms of cell viability (MTT assay), apoptosis (AnnexinV/PI staining), radical scavenging capability (various enzymatic assays), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine 123 staining), expression of apoptotic markers including caspase-3 and caspase-9 and the change of Bcl-2/Bax ratio (western blot) in the HLE cells. Results The results showed that pretreatment of nSA (250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL) markedly reduced H2O2-induced cellular apoptosis and malondialdehyde accumulation, but elevated the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase. Thus, the total antioxidative capability was enhanced upon the nSA treatment meanwhile the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was prevented. Moreover, nSA at concentrations of 250, 500 and 1000 μg/mL also significantly suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and -9, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in the HLE cells. Discussion and conclusion Our findings suggested that nSA is a potential prophylactic agent in the prevention of cataractogeneis.

  17. Hydrogen peroxide and coffee induce G:C-->T:A transversions in the lacI gene of catalase-defective Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Laguna, J; Pueyo, C

    1999-01-01

    The mutagenicity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was compared with that of coffee, a complex mixture which generates H2O2. An Escherichia coli strain defective in catalase activity (katG katE double mutant) and carrying a single copy mucAB (pRW144) plasmid was constructed to enhance the mutagenic response to oxidants. The ability of the mucAB genes to influence the type, frequency and distribution of H2O2-induced mutations was also investigated in isogenic bacteria lacking pRW144. Induced mutational spectra were characterized and compared with that of spontaneous mutagenesis. A total of 444 independent forward mutations affecting the first 210 bp of the lacI gene were identified by DNA sequence analysis. The spontaneous mutation spectrum showed no bias (P = 0.52) for substitutions at G:C base pairs. In contrast, in the H2O2-induced spectrum substitutions occurred preferentially at G:C base pairs (P < 0.0001) with a preponderance of G:C-->T:A transversions (43.4% of H2O2-induced mutants versus 17.3% of spontaneous mutants). These data support the view that 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine is the main premutagenic lesion induced by H2O2 and that catalase-defective bacteria have elevated levels of 8-oxoguanine in chromosome DNA after H2O2 exposure. Coffee produced a similar distribution of mutational events as H2O2 (P > 0.05), suggesting that this compound may be the main cause of the coffee-induced mutagenesis. The presence of plasmid pRW144 did not affect the frequency of H2O2-induced G:C-->T:A transversions, but caused an increase in A:T-->T:A transversions and a decrease in -1 base frameshifts. Although the frequencies of G:C-->T:A transversions were similar in all three induced spectra (H2O2 and coffee +/- pRW144), differences were observed in location of mutations throughout the target gene.

  18. Efficient repair of hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage by Escherichia coli requires SOS induction of RecA and RuvA proteins.

    PubMed

    Konola, J T; Sargent, K E; Gow, J B

    2000-04-28

    The survival of Escherichia coli following treatment with a low dose (1-3 mM) of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that causes extensive mode-one killing of DNA repair mutants is stimulated by the induction of the SOS regulon. Results for various mutants indicate that induction of recA and RecA protein-mediated recombination are critical factors contributing to the repair of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative DNA damage. However, because DNA damage activates RecA protein's coprotease activity essential to cleavage of LexA repressor protein and derepression of all SOS genes, it is unclear to what extent induction of RecA protein stimulates this repair. To make this determination, we examined mode-one killing of DeltarecA cells carrying plasmid-borne recA (P(tac)-recA(+)) and constitutively expressing a fully induced level of wild-type RecA protein when SOS genes other than recA are non-inducible in a lexA3 (Ind(-)) genetic background or inducible in a lexA(+) background. At a H(2)O(2) dose resulting in maximal killing, DeltarecA lexA3 (Ind(-)) cells with P(tac)-recA(+) show 40-fold greater survival than lexA3 (Ind(-)) cells with chromosomal recA having a low, non-induced level of RecA protein. However, they still show 10- to 15-fold lower survival than wild-type cells and DeltarecA lexA(+) cells with P(tac)-recA(+). To determine if the inducible RuvA protein stimulates survival, we examined a ruvA60 mutant that is defective for the repair of UV-induced DNA damage. This mutant also shows 10- to 15-fold lower survival than wild-type cells. We conclude that while induction of RecA protein has a pronounced stimulatory effect on the recombinational repair of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative DNA damage, the induction of other SOS proteins such as RuvA is essential for wild-type repair.

  19. One-pot hydrogen peroxide and hydrohalic acid induced ring closure and selective aromatic halogenation to give new ring-fused benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Gurry, Michael; Sweeney, Martin; McArdle, Patrick; Aldabbagh, Fawaz

    2015-06-05

    A new series of selectively dichlorinated and dibrominated five- to eight-membered-ring [1,2-a]-fused benzimidazoles and [1,4]oxazino[4,3-a]benzimidazoles are synthesized in mostly high yields of >80% using the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and hydrohalic acid with commercially available o-cyclic amine substituted anilines. Domestic bleach with HCl can also be used for a one-pot ring closure and chlorination.

  20. Involvement of hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of senescence in pear.

    PubMed

    Brennan, T; Frenkel, C

    1977-03-01

    Endogenous peroxide levels in pear fruit (Pyrus communis) were measured using a titanium assay method, and were found to increase during senescence in both Bartlett and Bosc varieties. Application of glycolic acid or xanthine, serving as substrates for the formation of H(2)O(2), increased the peroxide content of the tissue and accelerated the onset of ripening, as measured by increased softening and ethylene evolution. Application of ethylene also induced increased peroxide levels. Ripening processes were similarly promoted when peroxides were conserved by inhibiting the activity of catalase with hydroxylamine or potassium cyanide. By comparison, the inhibition of glycolate oxidase with alphahydroxy-2-pyridinemethanesulfonic acid decreased the peroxide content of the tissue and delayed the onset of ripening. These results indicate that the onset of ripening correlates with the peroxide content of fruit tissues as occurring under normal conditions or as influenced by the treatments. Hydrogen peroxide may be involved in oxidative processes required in the initiation and the promotion of ripening.

  1. Materials Compatibility Testing in Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boxwell, R.; Bromley, G.; Mason, D.; Crockett, D.; Martinez, L.; McNeal, C.; Lyles, G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Materials test methods from the 1960's have been used as a starting point in evaluating materials for today's space launch vehicles. These established test methods have been modified to incorporate today's analytical laboratory equipment. The Orbital test objective was to test a wide range of materials to incorporate the revolution in polymer and composite materials that has occurred since the 1960's. Testing is accomplished in 3 stages from rough screening to detailed analytical tests. Several interesting test observations have been made during this testing and are included in the paper. A summary of the set-up, test and evaluation of long-term storage sub-scale tanks is also included. This sub-scale tank test lasted for a 7-month duration prior to being stopped due to a polar boss material breakdown. Chemical evaluations of the hydrogen peroxide and residue left on the polar boss surface identify the material breakdown quite clearly. The paper concludes with recommendations for future testing and a specific effort underway within the industry to standardize the test methods used in evaluating materials.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide mediated transvaginal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Fatakdawala, Hussain; Uhland, Scott A

    2011-05-16

    Simple, safe and effective permeability enhancers are crucial for successful non-invasive drug delivery methods. We seek local permeability augmentation mechanisms for integration into passive or active architectures in order to enable novel therapeutic delivery routes of the target drug while minimizing drug formulation challenges. This study explores the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (HP) as a permeability enhancer for transmucosal delivery of macromolecules. HP at low concentrations (2–8 mM) is an effective permeability enhancer that is locally metabolized and safe. HP improves drug permeation through mucosa by altering tight junctions (TJ) between cells and oxidizing enzymes that function to degrade the foreign species. Results from trans-epithelial electrical resistance measurements and cell viability assay show reversible disassembly of TJ with minimal cell damage demonstrating the feasibility of HP as a safe permeability enhancer for drug delivery. Permeation studies show that HP treatment of cell cultured vaginal mucosa significantly enhances the permeability to insulin by more than an order of magnitude. This work lays foundation for the development of a drug delivery platform that administers drug doses by enhancing the permeability of local epithelial tissue via a separate HP treatment step.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide diffusion dynamics in dental tissues.

    PubMed

    Ubaldini, A L M; Baesso, M L; Medina Neto, A; Sato, F; Bento, A C; Pascotto, R C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diffusion dynamics of 25% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through enamel-dentin layers and to correlate it with dentin's structural alterations. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (MRS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) were used to measure the spectra of specimens before and during the bleaching procedure. H2O2 was applied to the outer surface of human enamel specimens for 60 minutes. MRS measurements were performed on the inner surface of enamel or on the subsurface dentin. In addition, H2O2 diffusion dynamics from outer enamel to dentin, passing through the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) was obtained with Raman transverse scans. FTIR-PAS spectra were collected on the outer dentin. MRS findings revealed that H2O2 (O-O stretching µ-Raman band) crossed enamel, had a more marked concentration at DEJ, and accumulated in dentin. FTIR-PAS analysis showed that H2O2 modified dentin's organic compounds, observed by the decrease in amides I, II, and III absorption band intensities. In conclusion, H2O2 penetration was demonstrated to be not merely a physical passage through enamel interprismatic spaces into the dentinal tubules. H2O2 diffusion dynamics presented a concentration gradient determined by the chemical affinity of the H2O2 with each specific dental tissue.

  4. Locating bomb factories by detecting hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Romolo, Francesco Saverio; Connell, Samantha; Ferrari, Carlotta; Suarez, Guillaume; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-11-01

    The analytical capability to detect hydrogen peroxide vapour can play a key role in localizing a site where a H2O2 based Improvised Explosive (IE) is manufactured. In security activities it is very important to obtain information in a short time. For this reason, an analytical method to be used in security activity needs portable devices. The authors have developed the first analytical method based on a portable luminometer, specifically designed and validated to locate IE manufacturing sites using quantitative on-site vapour analysis for H2O2. The method was tested both indoor and outdoor. The results demonstrate that the detection of H2O2 vapours could allow police forces to locate the site, while terrorists are preparing an attack. The collected data are also very important in developing new sensors, able to give an early alarm if located at a proper distance from a site where an H2O2 based IE is prepared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of hydrogen peroxide for treating saprolegniasis in channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Gingerich, W.H.; Dawson, V.K.; Olson, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hatchery-reared fish and their eggs are commonly afflicted with saprolegniasis, a fungal disease that can cause significant losses in production. Fish culturists need safe and effective fungicides to minimize losses and meet production demands. The efficacy of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated for preventing or controlling mortality associated with saprolegniasis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Saprolegniasis was systematically induced in channel catfish so various therapies could be evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Both prophylactic and therapeutic hydrogen peroxide bath treatments of 50, 100, and 150 ??L/L for 1 h were administered every other day for seven total treatments. All untreated positive control fish died of saprolegniasis during the prophylactic and therapeutic tests. Hydrogen peroxide treatments of 150 ??L/L were harmful (relative to lower concentrations) to test fish and resulted in 73-95% mortality. Mortality was attributed to a combination of abrasion, temperature, chemical treatment, and disease stressors. Treatments of 100 ??L/L were less harmful (relatively) but also appeared to contribute to mortality (60-79%). These treatments, however, significantly reduced the incidence of mortality and infection compared with those observed for fish of the positive control or 150-??L/L treatment groups. Overall, treatments of 50 ??L/L were found to be the most safe and effective of those tested. Mortality with this concentration ranged from 16% in therapeutic tests to 41% in prophylactic tests. The statistical model employed estimated that the optimum treatment concentration for preventing or controlling mortality, reducing the incidence of infections, and enhancing the recovery of infected fish was 75 ??L H2O2/L.

  6. Titrimetric determination of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, W H; Bell, H F

    1966-07-01

    Direct titration of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline bromide media has been accomplished with sodium hypochlorite. The relative standard deviation is 0.2%. A photometric end-point is recommended for the determination of 0.10-1.0 mequiv of peroxide. Larger samples are evaluated by use of Bordeaux Red as visual indicator. The hypochlorite procedure compares favourably with iodometry and permanganate in the analysis of commercial peroxides.

  7. THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BY HIGH OXYGEN PRESSURES

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Daniel L.; Gerschman, Rebeca; Ruhm, K. Barclay; Price, William E.

    1958-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is formed in solutions of glutathione exposed to oxygen. This hydrogen peroxide or its precursors will decrease the viscosity of polymers like desoxyribonucleic acid and sodium alginate. Further knowledge of the mechanism of these chemical effects of oxygen might further the understanding of the biological effects of oxygen. This study deals with the rate of solution of oxygen and with the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in chemical systems exposed to high oxygen pressures. At 6 atmospheres, the absorption coefficient for oxygen into water was about 1 cm./hour and at 143 atmospheres, it was about 2 cm./hour; the difference probably being due to the modus operandi. The addition of cobalt (II), manganese (II), nickel (II), or zinc ions in glutathione (GSH) solutions exposed to high oxygen pressure decreased the net formation of hydrogen peroxide and also the reduced glutathione remaining in the solution. Studies on hydrogen peroxide decomposition indicated that these ions act probably by accelerating the hydrogen perioxide oxidation of glutathione. The chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt, inhibited the oxidation of GSH exposed to high oxygen pressure for 14 hours. However, indication that oxidation still occurred, though at a much slower rate, was found in experiments lasting 10 weeks. Thiourea decomposed hydrogen peroxide very rapidly. When GSH solutions were exposed to high oxygen pressure, there was oxidation of the GSH, which became relatively smaller with increasing concentrations of GSH. PMID:13525677

  8. Bioremediation of chlorobenzene-contaminated ground water in an in situ reactor mediated by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Carsten; Alfreider, Albin; Lorbeer, Helmut; Hoffmann, Doreen; Wuensche, Lothar; Babel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    New in situ reactive barrier technologies were tested nearby a local aquifer in Bitterfeld, Saxonia-Anhalt, Germany, which is polluted mainly by chlorobenzene (CB), in concentrations up to 450 microM. A reactor filled with original aquifer sediment was designed for the microbiological remediation of the ground water by indigenous bacterial communities. Two remediation variants were examined: (a) the degradation of CB under anoxic conditions in the presence of nitrate; (b) the degradation of CB under mixed electron acceptor conditions (oxygen+nitrate) using hydrogen peroxide as the oxygen-releasing compound. Under anoxic conditions, no definite degradation of CB was observed. Adding hydrogen peroxide (2.94 mM) and nitrate (2 mM) led to the disappearance of CB (ca. 150 microM) in the lower part of the reactor, accompanied by a strong increase of the number of cultivable aerobic CB degrading bacteria in reactor water and sediment samples, indicating that CB was degraded mainly by productive bacterial metabolism. Several aerobic CB degrading bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus, were isolated from reactor water and sediments. In laboratory experiments with reactor water, oxygen was rapidly released by hydrogen peroxide, whereas biotic-induced decomposition reactions of hydrogen peroxide were almost four times faster than abiotic-induced decomposition reactions. A clear chemical degradation of CB mediated by hydrogen peroxide was not observed. CB was also completely degraded in the reactor after reducing the hydrogen peroxide concentration to 880 microM. The CB degradation completely collapsed after reducing the hydrogen peroxide concentration to 440 microM. In the following, the hydrogen peroxide concentrations were increased again (to 880 microM, 2.94 mM, and 880 microM, respectively), but the oxygen demand for CB degradation was higher than observed before, indicating a shift in the bacterial population. During the whole experiment

  9. [Teeth whitening with 6% hydrogen peroxide vs. 35% hydrogen peroxide, a comparative controlled study].

    PubMed

    Zuabi, O

    2015-01-01

    In light of the lately changes in regulations regarding teeth whitening in Europe, the use of 6% hydrogen peroxide using a dedicated device becomes the first choice treatment option. The purpose of this controlled, randomized, parallel, blinded six months prospective study was to compare this method of teeth whitening treatment with that of in-office method using 35% hydrogen peroxide. 75 healthy american individuals, ages 18-62, participated in this study. The participants were divided into 3 groups: a 6% hydrogenperoxide group, a 35% hydrogen peroxide group and a placebo control group. Whitening procedures were performed on intact frontal teeth with color shade of A3 or higher. A controlled color measurement was performed before, immediately after, three and six months post treatment. Clinical periodontal indices, oral mucosa changes, side effects and participant satisfaction, were recorded. In the 6% group, the change in color shades immediately after treatment, three and six months after treatment were 2.37, 2.17 and 1.95, respectively. Tooth color changes in 35% group immediately after completion of treatment, three and six months after treatment were 3.68, 2.60 and 1.70, respectively. Statistical significant differences were found in both treatment groups between the baseline color shade and the post treatment color shade. The results were stable three and six months after treatment. Statistically significant difference between the groups immediately after treatment (p < 0.0001). No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups three and six months after treatment (p > 0.5000). Side effects such as oral mucosa irritation, burns or sensitive teeth were mild and resolved without intervention. A high satisfaction level was recorded. Tooth color shade can be substantially improved using a dedicated device with 6% hydrogen peroxide only. This whitening method can be helpful for the dentist in: home continuing treatment post in- office

  10. Diffusion of hydrogen peroxide across DPPC large unilamellar liposomes.

    PubMed

    Abuin, Elsa; Lissi, Eduardo; Ahumada, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by catalase entrapped in the pool of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline unilamellar liposomes has been studied. The rate of the process was evaluated by following the production of oxygen as a function of time. Under the experimental conditions employed the rate of oxygen production was controlled by the diffusion of hydrogen peroxide, allowing for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen peroxide across the liposome bilayer. The rate of diffusion across the bilayer increases with the temperature and the presence of fluidizers (n-nonanol), according with changes in the bilayer fluidity, as sensed by 1,6-diphenyl hexatriene (DPH) fluorescence anisotropy. A peculiar aspect of the data is the fast hydrogen peroxide diffusion observed at the bilayer phase transition temperature. This fast diffusion is associated to rafts fluctuations that take place in the partially melted bilayer. These fluctuations have no effect on the microviscosity sensed by DPH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical Visualization of Intracellular Hydrogen Peroxide at Single Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiqin; Tang, Huifen; Jiang, Dechen; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2016-02-16

    In this Letter, the electrochemical visualization of hydrogen peroxide inside one cell was achieved first using a comprehensive Au-luminol-microelectrode and electrochemiluminescence. The capillary with a tip opening of 1-2 μm was filled with the mixture of chitosan and luminol, which was coated with the thin layers of polyvinyl chloride/nitrophenyloctyl ether (PVC/NPOE) and gold as the microelectrode. Upon contact with the aqueous hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen peroxide and luminol in contact with the gold layer were oxidized under the positive potential resulting in luminescence for the imaging. Due to the small diameter of the electrode, the microelectrode tip was inserted into one cell and the bright luminescence observed at the tip confirmed the visualization of intracellular hydrogen peroxide. The further coupling of oxidase on the electrode surface could open the field in the electrochemical imaging of intracellular biomolecules at single cells, which benefited the single cell electrochemical detection.

  12. [Risks of hydrogen peroxide irrigation in military surgery].

    PubMed

    Saïssy, J M; Guignard, B; Pats, B; Lenoir, B; Rouvier, B

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of severe complications due to injection of hydrogen peroxide under pressure into areas of muscular attrition in war wounds are reported. In both cases the administration of hydrogen peroxide was associated with tachypnoea, with major arterial desaturation and a precordial "mill-wheel" murmur was heard. In one case, these symptoms were followed by hemiplegia caused by paradoxical arterial gas embolism, and in the other case by a pulmonary oedema confirmed by computerized tomography. Both patients recovered under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The release of gaseous oxygen under the effect of tissue catalase and the membrane peroxydasic activity of hydrogen peroxide initiate such complications. The injection of hydrogen peroxide under pressure into a closed or partially closed cavity should therefore be strictly prohibited.

  13. The contribution of hydrogen peroxide to atmospheric liquid phase chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Klockow, D.; Jacob, P.; Bambauer, A.

    1986-04-01

    The most frequently investigated and best understood atmospheric liquid phase process is the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide. The relevant reactions are controlled either by restricted solubilities of the respective species or by high activation energies. The most favorable properties as an oxidant for SO/sub 2/ (aq) under atmospheric conditions are exhibited by hydrogen peroxide: It is highly soluble in water and reacts fast with dissolved sulfur dioxide even at low pH values. In this talk new methodology for determination of hydrogen peroxide in liquid and gas phase is presented. Furthermore results of measurement of hydrogen peroxide in condensed phases (rain, snow, polar ice) as well as in the gas phase are discussed. Finally laboratory and field studies related to formation of hydrogen peroxide in the liquid phase and its reaction with dissolved reduced species ((HSO/sub 3/, NO/sub 2/) under the influence of light are described.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide-Regulated Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Reveals a High Light-Induced Transcriptional Cluster Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis1[w

    PubMed Central

    Vanderauwera, Sandy; Zimmermann, Philip; Rombauts, Stéphane; Vandenabeele, Steven; Langebartels, Christian; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Inzé, Dirk; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2005-01-01

    In plants, reactive oxygen species and, more particularly, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) play a dual role as toxic by-products of normal cell metabolism and as regulatory molecules in stress perception and signal transduction. Peroxisomal catalases are an important sink for photorespiratory H2O2. Using ATH1 Affymetrix microarrays, expression profiles were compared between control and catalase-deficient Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Reduced catalase levels already provoked differences in nuclear gene expression under ambient growth conditions, and these effects were amplified by high light exposure in a sun simulator for 3 and 8 h. This genome-wide expression analysis allowed us to reveal the expression characteristics of complete pathways and functional categories during H2O2 stress. In total, 349 transcripts were significantly up-regulated by high light in catalase-deficient plants and 88 were down-regulated. From this data set, H2O2 was inferred to play a key role in the transcriptional up-regulation of small heat shock proteins during high light stress. In addition, several transcription factors and candidate regulatory genes involved in H2O2 transcriptional gene networks were identified. Comparisons with other publicly available transcriptome data sets of abiotically stressed Arabidopsis revealed an important intersection with H2O2-deregulated genes, positioning elevated H2O2 levels as an important signal within abiotic stress-induced gene expression. Finally, analysis of transcriptional changes in a combination of a genetic (catalase deficiency) and an environmental (high light) perturbation identified a transcriptional cluster that was strongly and rapidly induced by high light in control plants, but impaired in catalase-deficient plants. This cluster comprises the complete known anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic pathway, together with genes encoding unknown proteins. PMID:16183842

  15. Methanol extracts from Cystoseira tamariscifolia and Cystoseira nodicaulis are able to inhibit cholinesterases and protect a human dopaminergic cell line from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Luísa; Silvestre, Laura; Rocha, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Maria João; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Pereira, Hugo; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2016-09-01

    Context Marine macroalgae contain several bioactive molecules that may be developed as functional foods, but information about their neuroprotective potential is scarce. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the in vitro antioxidant and neuroprotective features of marine algae from the southern coast of Portugal and to assess the total content of different types of bioactives. Materials and methods Methanol extracts from 21 macroalgal species from the southern Portugal were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Active extracts were further evaluated for inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and tyrosinase (TYRO), and for their ability to attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. The total contents of different phenolic groups were determined for the most active extracts. Results Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss (Sargassaceae) had the highest antiradical activity (92%, 1 mg/mL). Cystoseira nodicaulis (Withering) M. Roberts (Sargassaceae) (75%) and Cystoseira humilis Schousboe ex Kützing (Sargassaceae) (70%) had the highest iron-chelating activity at 10 mg/mL. Cystoseira baccata (S.G. Gmelin) P.C. Silva (Sargassaceae) was more active towards copper (66%, 10 mg/mL). Cystoseira tamariscifolia had the highest AChE inhibitory capacity (85%, 10 mg/mL). Cystoseira tamariscifolia and C. nodicaulis were also active against BuChE and TYRO, and were able to protect SH-SY5Y cells against oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Cystoseira tamariscifolia had the highest content of all the groups of phenolics, and was particularly enriched in hydroxycinnamic acids (106 mg CAE/g DW). Discussion and conclusion Results indicate that C. tamariscifolia and C. nodicaulis are important sources of nutraceutical compounds and may be considered functional foods that could improve cognitive functions.

  16. Ac-cel, a novel antioxidant, protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in PC12 cells via attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xianjun; Chen, Yuting; Liu, Qunfang; Wu, Jian; Wang, Luoyi; Tang, Xican; Zhao, Weimin; Zhang, Haiyan

    2013-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases (ND) and increased oxidative stress is closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. As a result, looking for potent antioxidants, especially those targeting mitochondria, has become an attractive strategy in ND therapy. In this study, we explored protective effects and potential mechanism of Ac-cel, a novel compound, against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced injury in PC12 cells. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with Ac-cel prior to 24 h of H(2)O(2) exposure markedly attenuated cytotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2) as evidenced by morphological changes and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Ac-cel also exhibited potent antiapoptotic effect demonstrated by results of annexin V and PI staining. The above beneficial effects of Ac-cel were accompanied by improved mitochondrial function, reduced caspase-3 cleavage as well as upregulated ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression. Moreover, Ac-cel pretreatment markedly reversed intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation following 30 min of H(2)O(2) exposure in PC12 cells. Further, subcellular investigation indicated that Ac-cel significantly reduced production of mitochondrial ROS in isolated rat cortical mitochondria. Taken together, the present study, for the first time, reports that Ac-cel pretreatment inhibits H(2)O(2)-stimulated early accumulation of intracellular ROS possibly via reducing mitochondrial ROS production directly and leads to subsequent preservation of mitochondrial function. These results indicate that Ac-cel is a potential drug candidate for treatment of oxidative stress-associated ND.

  17. NADPH oxidase-dependent hydrogen peroxide production, induced by salinity stress, may be involved in the regulation of total calcium in roots of wheat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yingli; Xu, Shijian; An, Lizhe; Chen, Nianlai

    2007-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is often generated by cells and tissues under environmental stress. In this work, we provide evidence that plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) production might act as an intermediate step in the NaCl-induced elevation of calcium (Ca) in roots of wheat. Remarkable increases in the content of total Ca were observed not only in roots exposed to NaCl but also in roots of seedlings exposed to exogenous H(2)O(2). In roots, H(2)O(2) production increased upon exposure to salt stress. PM vesicles were isolated from roots, and NADPH oxidase activity was determined by measuring superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production. NADPH oxidase-dependent O(2)(-) production was 11.6nmolmg(-1)proteinmin(-1) in control vesicles, but 19.6nmol after NaCl treatment (24h), indicating that salt stress resulted in the activation of the PM NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, the NaCl-induced increase in total Ca was partially abolished by the addition of 150U/mL catalase (CAT), a H(2)O(2) scavenger, and also by 10microM diphenylane iodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. This data suggest that NADPH oxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) production might be involved in the modulation of the Ca content in wheat roots. In conclusion, our results show that salinity stress increases the total Ca content of wheat roots, which is partly due to PM NADPH oxidase-dependent H(2)O(2) generation.

  18. Beta-nodavirus B2 protein induces hydrogen peroxide production, leading to Drp1-recruited mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death via mitochondrial targeting.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu C; Chiu, Hsuan W; Hung,