Science.gov

Sample records for hydrogen production technologies

  1. Systematic Discrimination of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, in concert with industry, is developing a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate high temperature heat applications to produce hydrogen and electricity or to support other industrial applications. A key part of this program is the production of hydrogen from water that would significantly reduce carbon emissions compared to current production using natural gas. In 2009 the INL led the methodical evaluation of promising advanced hydrogen production technologies in order to focus future resources on the most viable processes. This paper describes how the evaluation process was systematically planned and executed. As a result, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis was selected as the most viable near-term technology to deploy as a part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project.

  2. Hydrogen energy for tomorrow: Advanced hydrogen production technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The future vision for hydrogen is that it will be cost-effectively produced from renewable energy sources and made available for widespread use as an energy carrier and a fuel. Hydrogen can be produced from water and when burned as a fuel, or converted to electricity, joins with oxygen to again form water. It is a clean, sustainable resource with many potential applications, including generating electricity, heating homes and offices, and fueling surface and air transportation. To achieve this vision, researchers must develop advanced technologies to produce hydrogen at costs competitive with fossil fuels, using sustainable sources. Hydrogen is now produced primarily by steam reforming of natural gas. For applications requiring extremely pure hydrogen, production is done by electrolysis. This is a relatively expensive process that uses electric current to dissociate, or split, water into its hydrogen and oxygen components. Technologies with the best potential for producing hydrogen to meet future demand fall into three general process categories: photobiological, photoelectrochemical, and thermochemical. Photobiological and photoelectrochemical processes generally use sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Thermochemical processes, including gasification and pyrolysis systems, use heat to produce hydrogen from sources such as biomass and solid waste.

  3. Hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  4. Hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Chirivella, J. E.; Fujita, T.; Jeffe, R. E.; Lawson, D.; Manvi, R.

    1975-01-01

    The state of hydrogen production technology is evaluated. Specific areas discussed include: hydrogen production fossil fuels; coal gasification processes; electrolysis of water; thermochemical production of hydrogen; production of hydrogen by solar energy; and biological production of hydrogen. Supply options are considered along with costs of hydrogen production.

  5. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  6. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  7. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  8. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    SciTech Connect

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-22

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  9. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  10. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  11. A Technical and Economic Review of Solar Hydrogen Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Erik; Fowler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen energy systems are being developed to replace fossil fuels-based systems for transportation and stationary application. One of the challenges facing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy vector is the lack of an efficient, economical, and sustainable method of hydrogen production. In the short term, hydrogen produced from…

  12. A Technical and Economic Review of Solar Hydrogen Production Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Erik; Fowler, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen energy systems are being developed to replace fossil fuels-based systems for transportation and stationary application. One of the challenges facing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy vector is the lack of an efficient, economical, and sustainable method of hydrogen production. In the short term, hydrogen produced from…

  13. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  14. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    SciTech Connect

    Tamhankar, Satish; Gulamhusein, Ali; Boyd, Tony; DaCosta, David; Golben, Mark

    2011-06-30

    The project was started in April 2005 with the objective to meet the DOE target of delivered hydrogen of <$1.50/gge, which was later revised by DOE to $2-$3/gge range for hydrogen to be competitive with gasoline as a fuel for vehicles. For small, on-site hydrogen plants being evaluated at the time for refueling stations (the 'forecourt'), it was determined that capital cost is the main contributor to the high cost of delivered hydrogen. The concept of this project was to reduce the cost by combining unit operations for the entire generation, purification, and compression system (refer to Figure 1). To accomplish this, the Fluid Bed Membrane Reactor (FBMR) developed by MRT was used. The FBMR has hydrogen selective, palladium-alloy membrane modules immersed in the reformer vessel, thereby directly producing high purity hydrogen in a single step. The continuous removal of pure hydrogen from the reformer pushes the equilibrium 'forward', thereby maximizing the productivity with an associated reduction in the cost of product hydrogen. Additional gains were envisaged by the integration of the novel Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor (MHC) developed by Ergenics, which compresses hydrogen from 0.5 bar (7 psia) to 350 bar (5,076 psia) or higher in a single unit using thermal energy. Excess energy from the reformer provides up to 25% of the power used for driving the hydride compressor so that system integration improved efficiency. Hydrogen from the membrane reformer is of very high, fuel cell vehicle (FCV) quality (purity over 99.99%), eliminating the need for a separate purification step. The hydride compressor maintains hydrogen purity because it does not have dynamic seals or lubricating oil. The project team set out to integrate the membrane reformer developed by MRT and the hydride compression system developed by Ergenics in a single package. This was expected to result in lower cost and higher efficiency compared to conventional hydrogen production technologies. The

  15. Hydrogen technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    To the non-nonsense engineer, any talk of a hydrogen economy may seem like so much hot air. This paper reports that as legislative, safety and environmental issues continue to tighten, they're promoting hydrogen's chances as an energy source and, more immediately, its prospects as a chemical feedstock. Paradoxically, the environmental demands that are stimulating hydrogen demand are also inhibiting the gas's production. Previously, gasoline was made with benzene, which means that H{sub 2} was rejected. But now that the laws mandate lower aromatic and higher oxygenate levels in gasolines, there's less H{sub 2} available as byproduct. At the same time, H{sub 2} demand is rising in hydrodesulfurization units, since the same laws require refiners to cut sulfur levels in fuels. Supplementary sources for the gas are also shrinking. In the chlor-alkali industry, H{sub 2} output is dropping, as demand for its coproduct chlorine weakens. At the same time, H{sub 2} demand for the making of hydrogen peroxide is growing, as that environmentally safer bleach gains chlorine's market share.

  16. Microalgal hydrogen production: prospects of an essential technology for a clean and sustainable energy economy.

    PubMed

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2017-02-26

    Modern energy production is required to undergo a dramatic transformation. It will have to replace fossil fuel use by a sustainable and clean energy economy while meeting the growing world energy needs. This review analyzes the current energy sector, available energy sources, and energy conversion technologies. Solar energy is the only energy source with the potential to fully replace fossil fuels, and hydrogen is a crucial energy carrier for ensuring energy availability across the globe. The importance of photosynthetic hydrogen production for a solar-powered hydrogen economy is highlighted and the development and potential of this technology are discussed. Much successful research for improved photosynthetic hydrogen production under laboratory conditions has been reported, and attempts are underway to develop upscale systems. We suggest that a process of integrating these achievements into one system to strive for efficient sustainable energy conversion is already justified. Pursuing this goal may lead to a mature technology for industrial deployment.

  17. Estimating Hydrogen Production Potential in Biorefineries Using Microbial Electrolysis Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are devices that use a hybrid biocatalysis-electrolysis process for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Future biofuel and bioproducts industries are expected to generate significant volumes of waste streams containing easily degradable organic matter. The emerging MEC technology has potential to derive added- value from these waste streams via production of hydrogen. Biorefinery process streams, particularly the stillage or distillation bottoms contain underutilized sugars as well as fermentation and pretreatment byproducts. In a lignocellulosic biorefinery designed for producing 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, up to 7200 m3/hr of hydrogen can be generated. The hydrogen can either be used as an energy source or a chemical reagent for upgrading and other reactions. The energy content of the hydrogen generated is sufficient to meet 57% of the distillation energy needs. We also report on the potential for hydrogen production in existing corn mills and sugar-based biorefineries. Removal of the organics from stillage has potential to facilitate water recycle. Pretreatment and fermentation byproducts generated in lignocellulosic biorefinery processes can accumulate to highly inhibitory levels in the process streams, if water is recycled. The byproducts of concern including sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furans and phenolics can also be converted to hydrogen in MECs. We evaluate hydrogen production from various inhibitory byproducts generated during pretreatment of various types of biomass. Finally, the research needs for development of the MEC technology and aspects particularly relevant to the biorefineries are discussed.

  18. National hydrogen technology competitiveness analysis with an integrated fuzzy AHP and TOPSIS approaches: In case of hydrogen production and storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seongkon; Mogi, Gento

    2017-02-01

    The demand of fossil fuels, including oil, gas, and coal has been increasing with the rapid development of developing countries such as China and India. U.S., Japan, EU, and Korea have been making efforts to transfer to low carbon and green growth economics for sustainable development. And they also have been measuring to cope with climate change and the depletion of conventional fuels. Advanced nations implemented strategic energy technology development plans to lead the future energy market. Strategic energy technology development is crucial alternative to address the energy issues. This paper analyze the relative competitiveness of hydrogen energy technologies in case of hydrogen production and storage technologies from 2006 to 2010. Hydrogen energy technology is environmentally clean technology comparing with the previous conventional energy technologies and will play a key role to solve the greenhouse gas effect. Leading nations have increasingly focused on hydrogen technology R&D. This research is carried out the relative competitiveness of hydrogen energy technologies employed by an integrated fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (Fuzzy AHP) and The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) approaches. We make four criteria, accounting for technological status, R&D budget, R&D human resource, and hydrogen infra. This research can be used as fundamental data for implementing national hydrogen energy R&D planning for energy policy-makers.

  19. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debajyoti; De, Debojyoti; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-12-21

    The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical), Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  20. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debajyoti; De, Debojyoti; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-01-01

    The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical), Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source. PMID:16371161

  1. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy – TechnologySummary

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; M. S. Sohal; K. G. Condie

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  2. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  3. Capabilities to Support Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine if Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has the skilled staff, instrumentation, specialized equipment, and facilities required to take on work in thermochemical research, development, and demonstration currently being performed by the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). This study outlines the beneficial collaborations between INL and other national laboratories, universities, and industries to strengthen INL's thermochemical efforts, which should be developed to achieve the goals of the NHI in the most expeditious, cost effective manner. Taking on this work supports INL's long-term strategy to maintain leadership in thermochemical cycle development. This report suggests a logical path forward to accomplish this transition.

  4. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  5. Pre-treatment technologies for dark fermentative hydrogen production: Current advances and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rafieenia, Razieh; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Pivato, Alberto

    2017-05-18

    Hydrogen is regarded as a clean and non-carbon fuel and it has a higher energy content compared to carbon fuels. Dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes is the most promising technology for commercialization among chemical and biological methods. Using mixed microflora is favored in terms of easier process control and substrate conversion efficiencies instead of pure cultures. However, mixed cultures should be first pre-treated in order to select sporulating hydrogen producing bacteria and suppress non-spore forming hydrogen consumers. Various inoculum pre-treatments have been used to enhance hydrogen production by dark fermentation including heat shock, acid or alkaline treatment, chemical inhibition, aeration, irradiation and inhibition by long chain fatty acids. Regarding substrate pre-treatment, that is performed with the aim of enhanced substrate biodegradability, thermal pre-treatment, pH adjustment using acid or base, microwave irradiation, sonication and biological treatment are the most commonly studied technologies. This article reviews the most investigated pre-treatment technologies applied for either inoculum or substrate prior to dark fermentation, the long-term effects of varying pre-treatment methods and the subsequently feasibility of each method for commercialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent insights into the cell immobilization technology applied for dark fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Nagarajan, Dillirani; Ghimire, Anish; Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-11-01

    The contribution and insights of the immobilization technology in the recent years with regards to the generation of (bio)hydrogen via dark fermentation have been reviewed. The types of immobilization practices, such as entrapment, encapsulation and adsorption, are discussed. Materials and carriers used for cell immobilization are also comprehensively surveyed. New development of nano-based immobilization and nano-materials has been highlighted pertaining to the specific subject of this review. The microorganisms and the type of carbon sources applied in the dark hydrogen fermentation are also discussed and summarized. In addition, the essential components of process operation and reactor configuration using immobilized microbial cultures in the design of varieties of bioreactors (such as fixed bed reactor, CSTR and UASB) are spotlighted. Finally, suggestions and future directions of this field are provided to assist the development of efficient, economical and sustainable hydrogen production technologies.

  7. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  8. Study of Systems and Technology for Liquid Hydrogen Production Independent of Fossil Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprafka, R. J.; Escher, W. J. D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Shingleton, J.; Moore, J. S.; Baker, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Based on Kennedy Space Center siting and logistics requirements and the nonfossil energy resources at the Center, a number of applicable technologies and system candidates for hydrogen production were identified and characterized. A two stage screening of these technologies in the light of specific criteria identified two leading candidates as nonfossil system approaches. Conceptual design and costing of two solar-operated, stand alone systems, one photovoltaic based on and the other involving the power tower approach reveals their technical feasibility as sited as KSC, and the potential for product cost competitiveness with conventional supply approaches in the 1990 to 1210 time period. Conventional water hydrolysis and hydrogen liquefaction subsystems are integrated with the solar subsystems.

  9. Biological hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  10. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E.

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  11. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  12. Technology status of hydrogen road vehicles. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement of the production and utilization of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, T.A.

    1998-01-31

    The report was commissioned under the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and examines the state of the art in the evolving field of hydrogen-fueled vehicles for road transport. The first phase surveys and analyzes developments since 1989, when a comprehensive review was last published. The report emphasizes the following: problems, especially backfiring, with internal combustion engines (ICEs); operational safety; hydrogen handling and on-board storage; and ongoing demonstration projects. Hydrogen vehicles are receiving much attention, especially at the research and development level. However, there has been a steady move during the past 5 years toward integral demonstrations of operable vehicles intended for public roads. Because they emit few, or no greenhouse gases, hydrogen vehicles are beginning to be taken seriously as a promising solution to the problems of urban air quality. Since the time the first draft of the report was prepared (mid-19 96), the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference took place in Stuttgart, Germany. This biennial conference can be regarded as a valid updating of the state of the art; therefore, the 1996 results are included in the current version. Sections of the report include: hydrogen production and distribution to urban users; on-board storage and refilling; vehicle power units and drives, and four appendices titled: 'Safety questions of hydrogen storage and use in vehicles', 'Performance of hydrogen fuel in internal production engines for road vehicles, 'Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles', and 'Summaries of papers on hydrogen vehicles'. (refs., tabs.)

  13. Hydrogen production from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, John J.

    Biomass energy encompasses a broad category of energy derived from plants and animals as well as the residual materials from each. Hydrogen gas is an effective energy carrier which burns cleanly producing water as the only product. Hydrogen produced from a renewable source such as biomass provides a domestically available, CO2 neutral, non-polluting form of energy. The goal of the work presented in this thesis was to develop two different methods to produce hydrogen gas using biomass as a renewable energy source. The first method was to produce hydrogen using photosynthetic algae. C. reinhardtii has been shown to produce hydrogen using light as an energy source. The objective of this work was to increase hydrogen production by (a) manipulating process variables such as cell concentration, light intensity, and reactor design and (b) immobilizing the algal cells to increase photosynthetic efficiency and address production limitations. The second method of hydrogen production explored was gasification of biomass using supercritical water (SCW). A continuous SCW reactor was constructed to increase capacity and understand the optimum conditions necessary to gasify model compounds. Increasing the capacity of SCW reactors and understanding how basic components of biomass react may lead to further development of this technology.

  14. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  15. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  16. Hydrogen tomorrow: Demands and technology requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    National needs for hydrogen are projected and the technologies of production, handling, and utilization are evaluated. Research and technology activities required to meet the projected needs are determined.

  17. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  18. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  19. Slush Hydrogen Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, Edwin C.

    1994-01-01

    A slush hydrogen (SH2) technology facility (STF) was designed, fabricated, and assembled by a contractor team of McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), Martin Marietta Aerospace Group (MMAG), and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI). The STF consists of a slush generator which uses the freeze-thaw production process, a vacuum subsystem, a test tank which simulates the NASP vehicle, a triple point hydrogen receiver tank, a transfer subsystem, a sample bottle, a pressurization system, and a complete instrumentation and control subsystem. The STF was fabricated, checked-out, and made ready for testing under this contract. The actual SH2 testing was performed under the NASP consortium following NASP teaming. Pre-STF testing verified SH2 production methods, validated special SH2 instrumentation, and performed limited SH2 pressurization and expulsion tests which demonstrated the need for gaseous helium pre-pressurized of SH2 to control pressure collapse. The STF represents cutting-edge technology development by an effective Government-Industry team under very tight cost and schedule constraints.

  20. Maintaining a Technology-Neutral Approach to Hydrogen Production Process Development through Conceptual Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Patterson

    2008-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), tasking the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with demonstrating High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology. The demonstration is to include the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of HTGR technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), a component of the DOE Hydrogen Program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy, is also investigating multiple approaches to cost effective hydrogen production from nuclear energy. The objective of NHI is development of the technology and information basis for a future decision on commercial viability. The initiatives are clearly intertwined. While the objectives of NGNP and NHI are generally consistent, NGNP has progressed to the project definition phase and the project plan has matured. Multiple process applications for the NGNP require process heat, electricity and hydrogen in varied combinations and sizes. Coupling these processes to the reactor in multiple configurations adds complexity to the design, licensing and demonstration of both the reactor and the hydrogen production process. Commercial viability of hydrogen production may depend on the specific application and heat transport configuration. A component test facility (CTF) is planned by the NGNP to support testing and demonstration of NGNP systems, including those for hydrogen production, in multiple configurations. Engineering-scale demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start in 2012 to support scheduled design and licensing activities leading to subsequent construction and operation. Engineering-scale demonstrations planned by NHI are expected to start at least two years later. Reconciliation of these schedules is recommended to successfully complete both initiatives. Hence, closer and earlier integration of hydrogen process development and heat transport systems is sensible

  1. Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of food waste and sewage sludge treated using various pretreatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjin; Choi, Kwangkeun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Chung, Jinwook

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic co-digestion with sewage sludge using pretreatment technologies and food waste. We studied the effects of various pretreatment methods (thermal, chemical, ultrasonic, and their combination) on hydrogen production and the characteristics of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) using sewage sludge alone and a mixture of sewage sludge and food waste. The pretreatment combination of alkalization and ultrasonication performed best, effecting a high solubilization rate and high hydrogen production (13.8 mL H2/g VSSconsumed). At a food waste:pretreated sewage sludge ratio of 2:1 in the mixture, the peak hydrogen production value was 5.0 L H2/L/d. As the production of hydrogen increased, propionate levels fell but butyrate concentrations rose gradually.

  2. Economics of hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Much of the current interest in hydrogen (H/sub 2/) centers around its potential to displace oil and gas as a fuel. The results of this study should be useful to research and development managers making funding decisions, and they should also be of interest to energy analysts, economists, and proponents of a hydrogen economy. We examined the current costs of H/sub 2/ produced by commercially available technologies (from fossil fuels and by electrolysis) and projected these costs to 2010, to set cost goals for H/sub 2/ produced via new technologies. We also examined the sensitivity of H/sub 2/ costs to varying energy price forecasts, capital costs and the required rate of return on investment, and by-product credits. We find that conventionally produced H/sub 2/ will not break into the fuel market before 2010. 23 references, 19 figures, 12 tables.

  3. Hydrogen Technology Research at SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, E.

    2011-02-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including membrane filters for H2 separation, doped carbon nanotubes

  4. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  5. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  6. Development of a Nuclear Hydrogen Production System by Dimethyl Ether (DME) Steam Reforming and Related Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Oota, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Kazuya; Makino, Shinichi; Yagyu, Motoshige; Ikeda, Tatsumi; Asayama, Masahiro; Ogawa, Takashi; Yoshino, Masato

    Targeting a hydrogen production system using heat produced by a nuclear reactor at about 300°C, we are developing a dimethyl ether (DME) steam reformer and hydrogen purification systems as well as catalysts for DME reforming. The use of heat from a nuclear reactor suppresses the CO2 concentration change in the atmosphere. In our developments, a catalyst, consisting of mixed oxides, produced hydrogen at a rate of about 1.9 Nm3/h per catalyst volume (m3) at about 300°C. Subsequently, the DME steam reformer achieved a hydrogen production rate of approximately, at least, 1.4 Nm3/h at about 300°C, by absorbing heat from the supplied steam. The aforementioned hydrogen production system via DME steam reforming is to be demonstrated using a thermal power plant. DME steam reforming by using waste heat and the utilization of the produced hydrogen within a combined cycle power plant can reduce fuel consumption, for instance, by about 17% compared to the case of direct DME combustion. The total system, with the use of DME, was compared with the methane case. If necessary, the byproduced CO2 may be injected into coal seams, increasing CH4 production via the substitution of CO2 for CH4 on coal, where CO2 adsorption is expected to be stronger than the CH4 adsorption.

  7. Hydrogen and electricity production from a food processing wastewater using fermentation and microbial fuel cell technologies.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Eun; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from fermentation of sugars in wastewaters, but much of the organic matter remains in solution. We demonstrate here that hydrogen production from a food processing wastewater high in sugar can be linked to electricity generation using a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to achieve more effective wastewater treatment. Grab samples were taken from: plant effluent at two different times during the day (Effluents 1 and 2; 735+/-15 and 3250+/-90 mg-COD/L), an equalization tank (Lagoon; 1670+/-50mg-COD/L), and waste stream containing a high concentration of organic matter (Cereal; 8920+/-150 mg-COD/L). Hydrogen production from the Lagoon and effluent samples was low, with 64+/-16 mL of hydrogen per liter of wastewater (mL/L) for Effluent 1, 21+/-18 mL/L for Effluent 2, and 16+/-2 mL/L for the Lagoon sample. There was substantially greater hydrogen production using the Cereal wastewater (210+/-56 mL/L). Assuming a theoretical maximum yield of 4 mol of hydrogen per mol of glucose, hydrogen yields were 0.61-0.79 mol/mol for the Cereal wastewater, and ranged from 1 to 2.52 mol/mol for the other samples. This suggests a strategy for hydrogen recovery from wastewater based on targeting high-COD and high-sugar wastewaters, recognizing that sugar content alone is an insufficient predictor of hydrogen yields. Preliminary tests with the Cereal wastewater (diluted to 595 mg-COD/L) in a two-chambered MFC demonstrated a maximum of 81+/-7 mW/m(2) (normalized to the anode surface area), or 25+/-2 mA per liter of wastewater, and a final COD of <30 mg/L (95% removal). Using a one-chambered MFC and pre-fermented wastewater, the maximum power density was 371+/-10 mW/m(2) (53.5+/-1.4 mA per liter of wastewater). These results suggest that it is feasible to link biological hydrogen production and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy production.

  8. Commercializing solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.T.; Prairie, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a government-supported program to commercialize hydrogen production methods which use solar energy as the main source of energy. Current methods use hydrocarbons and generate large amounts of carbon dioxide. The paper describes results from a literature survey performed to identify technologies using direct solar energy that were likely to succeed on an industrial scale in the near term. Critical parameters included calculated efficiencies, measured efficiencies, and development status. The cost of solar collectors is cited as the reason most promising solar hydrogen research is not taken to the pilot plant stage. The author recommends use of existing DOE facilities already in operation for pilot plant testing. 14 refs. (CK)

  9. Sustainable hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  10. Conceptual Design of Low-Temperature Hydrogen Production and High-Efficiency Nuclear Reactor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Ogawa, Takashi

    Hydrogen, a potential alternative energy source, is produced commercially by methane (or LPG) steam reforming, a process that requires high temperatures, which are produced by burning fossil fuels. However, as this process generates large amounts of CO2, replacement of the combustion heat source with a nuclear heat source for 773-1173K processes has been proposed in order to eliminate these CO2 emissions. In this paper, a novel method of nuclear hydrogen production by reforming dimethyl ether (DME) with steam at about 573K is proposed. From a thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of DME steam reforming, the authors identified conditions that provide high hydrogen production fraction at low pressure and temperatures of about 523-573K. By setting this low-temperature hydrogen production process upstream from a turbine and nuclear reactor at about 573K, the total energy utilization efficiency according to equilibrium mass and heat balance analysis is about 50%, and it is 75%for a fast breeder reactor (FBR), where turbine is upstream of the reformer.

  11. Microalgal hydrogen production - A review.

    PubMed

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Lindblad, Peter; Madamwar, Datta; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Bio-hydrogen from microalgae including cyanobacteria has attracted commercial awareness due to its potential as an alternative, reliable and renewable energy source. Photosynthetic hydrogen production from microalgae can be interesting and promising options for clean energy. Advances in hydrogen-fuel-cell technology may attest an eco-friendly way of biofuel production, since, the use of H2 to generate electricity releases only water as a by-product. Progress in genetic/metabolic engineering may significantly enhance the photobiological hydrogen production from microalgae. Manipulation of competing metabolic pathways by modulating the certain key enzymes such as hydrogenase and nitrogenase may enhance the evolution of H2 from photoautotrophic cells. Moreover, biological H2 production at low operating costs is requisite for economic viability. Several photobioreactors have been developed for large-scale biomass and hydrogen production. This review highlights the recent technological progress, enzymes involved and genetic as well as metabolic engineering approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production from microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen production costs -- A survey

    SciTech Connect

    Basye, L.; Swaminathan, S.

    1997-12-04

    Hydrogen, produced using renewable resources, is an environmentally benign energy carrier that will play a vital role in sustainable energy systems. The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports the development of cost-effective technologies for hydrogen production, storage, and utilization to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen in the energy infrastructure. International interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier is high. Research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of hydrogen energy systems are in progress in many countries. Annex 11 of the International Energy Agency (IEA) facilitates member countries to collaborate on hydrogen RD and D projects. The United States is a member of Annex 11, and the US representative is the Program Manager of the DOE Hydrogen R and D Program. The Executive Committee of the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in its June 1997 meeting decided to review the production costs of hydrogen via the currently commercially available processes. This report compiles that data. The methods of production are steam reforming, partial oxidation, gasification, pyrolysis, electrolysis, photochemical, photobiological, and photoelectrochemical reactions.

  13. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  14. Dynamic electrochemical investigations of hydrogen oxidation and production by enzymes and implications for future technology.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Fraser A; Belsey, Natalie A; Cracknell, James A; Goldet, Gabrielle; Parkin, Alison; Reisner, Erwin; Vincent, Kylie A; Wait, Annemarie F

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial review describes studies of hydrogen production and oxidation by biological catalysts--metalloenzymes known as hydrogenases--attached to electrodes. It explains how the electrocatalytic properties of hydrogenases are studied using specialised electrochemical techniques and how the data are interpreted to allow assessments of catalytic rates and performance under different conditions, including the presence of O2, CO and H2S. It concludes by drawing some comparisons between the enzyme active sites and platinum catalysts and describing some novel proof-of-concept applications that demonstrate the high activities and selectivities of these 'alternative' catalysts for promoting H2 as a fuel.

  15. PROGRESS IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING PLANAR SOFC TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, J. E.; Herring, J. S.; Stoots, C. M.; Hawkes, G. L.; Hartvigsen, J., J.; Mehrdad Shahnam

    2005-04-01

    A research program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The research program includes both experimental and modeling activities. Selected results from both activities are presented in this paper. Experimental results were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, fabricated by Ceramatec , Inc. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was also created to model high-temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The model represents a single cell as it would exist in the experimental electrolysis stack. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT1. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the SOEC mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Mean model results are shown to compare favorably with

  16. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan, Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    This project was a collaborative effort involving researchers from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), drawing on the experience and expertise of both research organizations. The goal of this study was to assess selected hydrogen technologies for potential application to transportation and power generation. Specifically, this study evaluated scenarios for deploying hydrogen technologies and infrastructure in the Southeast. One study objective was to identify the most promising near-term and long-term hydrogen vehicle technologies based on performance, efficiency, and emissions profiles and compare them to traditional vehicle technologies. Hydrogen vehicle propulsion may take many forms, ranging from hydrogen or hythane fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) to fuel cells and fuel cell hybrid systems. This study attempted to developed performance and emissions profiles for each type (assuming a light duty truck platform) so that effective deployment strategies can be developed. A second study objective was to perform similar cost, efficiency, and emissions analysis related to hydrogen infrastructure deployment in the Southeast. There will be many alternative approaches for the deployment of hydrogen fueling infrastructure, ranging from distributed hydrogen production to centralized production, with a similar range of delivery options. This study attempted to assess the costs and potential emissions associated with each scenario. A third objective was to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen fuel cell technologies for stationary power generation and to identify the advantages and limits of different technologies. Specific attention was given to evaluating different fuel cell membrane types. A final objective was to promote the use and deployment of hydrogen technologies in the Southeast. This effort was to include establishing partnerships with industry as well promoting educational and outreach efforts to public

  17. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A.

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  18. Enhanced hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rice straw pretreated by hydrothermal technology.

    PubMed

    He, Leilei; Huang, He; Lei, Zhongfang; Liu, Chunguang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-11-01

    This study tested the effect of hydrothermal treatment (HTT) at different peak temperatures (150 °C and 210 °C, i.e. HTT150 and HTT210, respectively) and holding time (0-30 min) on the solubilization of rice straw at total solids (TS) of 20% and then subsequent H2 production from resultant substrates. No obvious degradation was detected in lignin content under all tested HTT conditions which did open up the surface structure and have efficient solubilization effect on rice straw. Soluble carbohydrates produced from straw particles during HTT210 was found to have strongly (r=0.9987) positive correlation with the subsequent H2 yield. The maximum soluble carbohydrates, 80 mg per gram of volatile solids (VS) was achieved under HTT210 and 0 min of holding condition, correspondingly yielding the highest hydrogen production (28 ml/g-VS), about 93-fold higher than the control. Results suggest that holding time is crucial for HTT pretreatment when taking subsequent H2 production into consideration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrogen arcjet technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.; Hamley, John A.; Haag, Thomas W.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1960's, a substantial research effort was centered on the development of arcjets for space propulsion applications. The majority of the work was at the 30 kW power level with some work at 1-2 kW. At the end of the research effort, the hydrogen arcjet had demonstrated over 700 hours of life in a continuous endurance test at 30 kW, at a specific impulse over 1000 s, and at an efficiency of 0.41. Another high power design demonstrated 500 h life with an efficiency of over 0.50 at the same specific impulse and power levels. At lower power levels, a life of 150 hours was demonstrated at 2 kW with an efficiency of 0.31 and a specific impulse of 935 s. Lack of a space power source hindered arcjet acceptance and research ceased. Over three decades after the first research began, renewed interest exists for hydrogen arcjets. The new approach includes concurrent development of the power processing technology with the arcjet thruster. Performance data were recently obtained over a power range of 0.3-30 kW. The 2 kW performance has been repeated; however, the present high power performance is lower than that obtained in the 1960's at 30 kW, and lifetimes of present thrusters have not yet been demonstrated. Laboratory power processing units have been developed and operated with hydrogen arcjets for the 0.1 kW to 5 kW power range. A 10 kW power processing unit is under development and has been operated at design power into a resistive load.

  20. Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2002-12-01

    This document outlines activities for educating key target audiences, as suggested by workshop participants. Held December 4-5, 2002, the Hydrogen Technology Education Workshop kicked off a new education effort coordinated by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  1. Benefits of hydrogen production research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.; Rossen, W.; Jacobs, C.

    1976-01-01

    An economic analysis of total monetary benefits arising from increased volume and efficiency of hydrogen production from various primary energy sources is carried out. The analysis is based on NASA's projections of future hydrogen demand in terms of both established industrial-chemical uses and new energy system applications, along with the mix of primary energy sources needed to meet this demand. A cost methodology model is worked out with the basic cost elements being plant construction costs, feedstock and energy costs, and operating and labor-related costs. A computer simulation technique was developed and a set of model calculations was performed. Some representative outputs of the computer analysis are displayed and conclusions are drawn on major factors determining the overall savings possible in hydrogen production and on its technological and economic impact.

  2. Benefits of hydrogen production research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.; Rossen, W.; Jacobs, C.

    1976-01-01

    An economic analysis of total monetary benefits arising from increased volume and efficiency of hydrogen production from various primary energy sources is carried out. The analysis is based on NASA's projections of future hydrogen demand in terms of both established industrial-chemical uses and new energy system applications, along with the mix of primary energy sources needed to meet this demand. A cost methodology model is worked out with the basic cost elements being plant construction costs, feedstock and energy costs, and operating and labor-related costs. A computer simulation technique was developed and a set of model calculations was performed. Some representative outputs of the computer analysis are displayed and conclusions are drawn on major factors determining the overall savings possible in hydrogen production and on its technological and economic impact.

  3. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  4. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  5. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.

    2007-04-06

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads to

  6. Bioreactor design for photofermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Uyar, Basar

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen will become a significant fuel in the near future. Photofermentative production of hydrogen is a promising and sustainable process. The design, construction and successful operation of the photobioreactors are of critical importance for photofermentative hydrogen production and became a major field of research where novel technologies are developed and adapted frequently. This paper gives an overview of the design aspects related to photobioreactors giving particular attention to design limitations, construction material, type, operating mode and scale-up. Sub-components of the overall system setup such as mixing, temperature control and hydrogen collection are also discussed. Recent achievements in the photobioreactor technologies are described.

  7. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this mission-oriented research program is the production of renewable hydrogen for fossil fuel processing. This program will build upon promising results that have been obtained in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the utilization of intact microalgae for photosynthetic water splitting. In this process, specially adapted algae are used to perform the light-activated cleavage of water into its elemental constituents, molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of their hydrogen-producing capability. These are: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the original development of an evacuated photobiological reactor for real-world engineering applications; (6) the potential for using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. The significance of each of these points in the context of a practical system for hydrogen production is discussed. This program will be enhanced by collaborative research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and senior faculty members at Duke University, the University of Chicago, and Iowa State University. The special contribution that these organizations and faculty members will make is access to strains and mutants of unicellular algae that will potentially have useful properties for hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting.

  8. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J.

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  9. The Hydrogen Technology Center at Wyle Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, H.; Smith, D.; Frazier, J.

    1990-10-01

    A deactivated storable propellant test area with numerous test cells, large open concrete pads of up to 65-ft length, and two enclosed metal storage buildings, has been converted into a Hydrogen Technology Center. The conversion strategy involved extensive use of modified surplus equipment, well established testing technologies, and innovative engineering to obviate long-delivery time items. Simple, high heat flux water-to-cryogen heat exchangers are used to generate ambient temperature H2 and N gas. Hydrogen-fueled combustors were designed and fabricated to power the specialized heat exchangers required to support high-temperature hydrogen experiments. The facility has operated productively and safely since October, 1988.

  10. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  11. Hydrogen as a fuel - Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C.

    Methods for the production of hydrogen as a fuel using different technologies are evaluated from a technical and economical point of view. The main characteristics of hydrogen are considered, and its properties are compared to those of methane and gasoline. Electrolysis is viewed as the most likely process for practical large-scale H2 production and offers the greatest potential for meeting necessary capital requirements. Thermochemical production of H2 offers the best efficiency (all by-products can be reinjected into the process), but lacks practical experience. Chemical production of H2 using coal as a primary raw material would be practical for countries with large resources of cheap coal. The low boiling point (-433 F), low gaseous density (0.005 lb/cu ft), and low energy requirements of H2 make its storage and transport the most difficult of all synthetic fuels. Moreover, the price of H2 is not competitive with the present price of petroleum. The production of synthetic natural gas and hydrogen is expected to have economical advantages in the near future.

  12. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Zhang, Z.

    1995-09-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Photoelectrochemical devices-direct photoconversion systems utilizing a photovoltaic-type structure coated with water-splitting catalysts-represent a promising option to meet this goal. Direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies greater than 7% and photoelectrode lifetimes of up to 30 hours in 1 molar KOH have been demonstrated in our laboratory using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Loss analysis models indicate that the DOE`s goal of 10% solar-to-chemical conversion can be met with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, we describe recent progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, improvements in photoelectrode efficiency and stability, and designs for higher efficiency and greater stability.

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, E

    2008-02-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists, and it is believed to be the largest such staff in the U.S. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including

  14. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  15. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

  16. Hydrogen production through photoelectrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, G.; Rao, N. N.; Srivastava, O. N.

    The prospects for solar energy-based photoelectrolysis of water for hydrogen production are discussed, with emphasis on the materials problems that arise in such photoelectrochemical processes. The semiconducting photoelectrode material should be optimized with respect to three different parameters: band gap, flat band potential, and stability. Attention is given to the results thus far experimentally obtained through the use of n-TiO2 and n-WSe2 semiconducting photoelectrodes. The photoelectrical properties of TiO2 will have to be modified so that the solar spectral response comes to yield conversion efficiencies greater than about 1 percent.

  17. Hydrogen technology: Foreign, change 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busi, J. D.; Greenbaum, P.

    1980-04-01

    Hydrogen is both a promising medium for the efficient storage and transmission of energy and a potential alternate fuel. Hydrogen is not a primary energy source, however, since its production is dependent upon other energy sources (thermal, electrical, and radiant). To be practicable as a fuel, hydrogen must be produced in bulk quantities with a standardized purity that will satisfy consumer specifications. In addition, improved distribution systems must make hydrogen widely available to military, industrial, and domestic consumers if the successful evolution of a hydrogen economy is to occur. The greatest potential military impact of hydrogen lies in its use as an aviation fuel. Because of its high specific energy (124 kJ/kg--2.7 times greater than conventional aviation fuels), hydrogen has potential use as a fuel for subsonic transports, supersonic aircraft, and helicopters; however, safety measures, logistics, and storage and handling systems must be developed and standardized before this capability can be achieved. Initial experimental use of hydrogen in military aircraft may occur in the 1980s. A followup conversion and modification of aircraft and airports to hydrogen will require an additional 10 to 15 years. Secondary military interests include the use of hydrogen fuel cells for portable and transportable power generation, and its use as a propellant in aerospace applications.

  18. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was

  19. Biomimetic Production of Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gust, Devens

    2004-03-01

    The basic reaction for hydrogen generation is formation of molecular hydrogen from two electrons and two protons. Although there are many possible sources for the protons and electrons, and a variety of mechanisms for providing the requisite energy for hydrogen synthesis, the most abundant and readily available source of protons and electrons is water, and the most attractive source of energy for powering the process is sunlight. Not surprisingly, living systems have evolved to take advantage of these sources for materials and energy. Thus, biology provides paradigms for carrying out the reactions necessary for hydrogen production. Photosynthesis in green plants uses sunlight as the source of energy for the oxidation of water to give molecular oxygen, protons, and reduction potential. Some photosynthetic organisms are capable of using this reduction potential, in the form of the reduced redox protein ferredoxin, to reduce protons and produce molecular hydrogen via the action of an hydrogenase enzyme. A variety of other organisms metabolize the reduced carbon compounds that are ultimately the major products of photosynthesis to produce molecular hydrogen. These facts suggest that it might be possible to use light energy to make molecular hydrogen via biomimetic constructs that employ principles similar to those used by natural organisms, or perhaps with hybrid "bionic" systems that combine biomimetic materials with natural enzymes. It is now possible to construct artificial photosynthetic systems that mimic some of the major steps in the natural process.(1) Artificial antennas based on porphyrins, carotenoids and other chromophores absorb light at various wavelengths in the solar spectrum and transfer the harvested excitation energy to artificial photosynthetic reaction centers.(2) In these centers, photoinduced electron transfer uses the energy from light to move an electron from a donor to an acceptor moiety, generating a high-energy charge-separated state

  20. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  1. Status and applicability of solid polymer electrolyte technology to electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titterington, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysis technology is presented as a potential energy conversion method for wind driven generator systems. Electrolysis life and performance data are presented from laboratory sized single cells (7.2 sq in active area) with high cell current density selected (1000 ASF) for normal operation.

  2. Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Grant

    2012-03-15

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., is developing the sour pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology which can be used to reject acid gas components (hydrogen sulfide [H{sub 2}S] and carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}]) from sour syngas streams such as coal gasification syngas. In the current work, tests were conducted to investigate the impact of continuous exposure of real sour syngas and dilute levels of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) on the preferred adsorbent of that process. The results show a modest (~10%–15%) decrease in CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity after sour syngas exposure, as well as deposition of metals from carbonyl decomposition. Continuous exposure to HCl and NH{sub 3} yield a higher degree of CO{sub 2} capacity degradation (up to 25%). These tests represent worst-case approaches since the exposure is continuous and the HCl and NH{sub 3} levels are relatively high compare to an industrial sour syngas stream. Long-term PSA tests are needed to unequivocally evaluate the impact of cyclic exposure to these types of streams.

  3. Microwave production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A waste-treatment process is being developed that uses cold'' microwave plasma-chemical reactions to split hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. A clean sulfur product can be recovered and sold, while product gases are purified and separated into seams containing hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide at 0.5 to 1.5 L/min flow rates and microwave powers of 400 to 1000 W confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass at process energy requirements approaching 5 kcal/mol are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery waste hydrogen sulfide streams have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and that they do not create new waste treatment problems. This technology has a long-term potential for saving 40 to 70 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu/yr in the refining industry, for an economic savings of $500 million to $1000 million annually. Although the microwave process should show particular advantages for the petroleum refining industry, the low capital costs and modular nature of the new process should make it economically attractive in connection with the small-scale waste-treatment technologies currently used in the natural gas industry. Currently, in the U.S.S.R., a 500-kW demonstration microwave hydrogen sulfide treatment unit operating at near atmospheric pressure is being tested at the natural gas fields in Orenberg. 3 refs.

  4. Microwave production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A waste-treatment process is being developed that uses ``cold`` microwave plasma-chemical reactions to split hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. A clean sulfur product can be recovered and sold, while product gases are purified and separated into seams containing hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide at 0.5 to 1.5 L/min flow rates and microwave powers of 400 to 1000 W confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass at process energy requirements approaching 5 kcal/mol are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery waste hydrogen sulfide streams have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and that they do not create new waste treatment problems. This technology has a long-term potential for saving 40 to 70 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu/yr in the refining industry, for an economic savings of $500 million to $1000 million annually. Although the microwave process should show particular advantages for the petroleum refining industry, the low capital costs and modular nature of the new process should make it economically attractive in connection with the small-scale waste-treatment technologies currently used in the natural gas industry. Currently, in the U.S.S.R., a 500-kW demonstration microwave hydrogen sulfide treatment unit operating at near atmospheric pressure is being tested at the natural gas fields in Orenberg. 3 refs.

  5. Utilization of domestic fuels for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabal, S.T.; Ingley, H.A.; Goel, N.; Goswami, D.Y.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the present status of the conventional hydrogen production technologies and some of recent developments in the production of hydrogen using solar energy resources. The authors outline the technological status for commercial and near-commercial technologies using both fossil-based and renewable energy sources such as electrolysis using PV and solar thermal power. The conversion of fossil fuels and electrolysis of water using solar conversion technologies are some of the most important methods of H{sub 2} production. An economic analysis for hydrogen production costs is presented comparing steam reformation, partial oxidation, coal gasification, and electrolysis via photovoltaic and solar thermal power. Although fossil fuels are currently the cheapest and most widely used sources of hydrogen production, it is argued from an economic standpoint that renewable sources of hydrogen, such as biomass and solar, are the most promising options for the future. Further, solar hydrogen represents a storable fuel that is produced from this nonstorable and intermittent source of energy. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  7. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    Waste/By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...By‐product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable...TCF ( 82 Million cars) � Biogas fuels approximately 210 Million cars Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association

  8. Validation Testing of Hydrogen Generation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Barton; Toops, Todd J

    2007-12-01

    This report describes the results of testing performed by ORNL for Photech Energies, Inc. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the efficacy of Photech's hydrogen generation reactor technology, which produces gaseous hydrogen through electrolysis. Photech provided several prototypes of their proprietary reactor for testing and the ancillary equipment, such as power supplies and electrolyte solutions, required for proper operation of the reactors. ORNL measured the production of hydrogen gas (volumetric flow of hydrogen at atmospheric pressure) as a function of input power and analyzed the composition of the output stream to determine the purity of the hydrogen content. ORNL attempted measurements on two basic versions of the prototype reactors-one version had a clear plastic outer cylinder, while another version had a stainless steel outer cylinder-but was only able to complete measurements on reactors in the plastic version. The problem observed in the stainless steel reactors was that in these reactors most of the hydrogen was produced near the anodes along with oxygen and the mixed gases made it impossible to determine the amount of hydrogen produced. In the plastic reactors the production of hydrogen gas increased monotonically with input power, and the flow rates increased faster at low input powers than they did at higher input powers. The maximum flow rate from the cathode port measured during the tests was 0.85 LPM at an input power of about 1100 W, an electrolyte concentration of 20%. The composition of the flow from the cathode port was primarily hydrogen and water vapor, with some oxygen and trace amounts of carbon dioxide. An operational mode that occurs briefly during certain operating conditions, and is characterized by flashes of light and violent bubbling near the cathode, might be attributable to the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen in the electrolyte solution.

  9. Hydrogen Research for Spaceport and Space-Based Applications: Hydrogen Production, Storage, and Transport. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Tim; Balaban, Canan

    2008-01-01

    The activities presented are a broad based approach to advancing key hydrogen related technologies in areas such as fuel cells, hydrogen production, and distributed sensors for hydrogen-leak detection, laser instrumentation for hydrogen-leak detection, and cryogenic transport and storage. Presented are the results from research projects, education and outreach activities, system and trade studies. The work will aid in advancing the state-of-the-art for several critical technologies related to the implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Activities conducted are relevant to a number of propulsion and power systems for terrestrial, aeronautics and aerospace applications. Hydrogen storage and in-space hydrogen transport research focused on developing and verifying design concepts for efficient, safe, lightweight liquid hydrogen cryogenic storage systems. Research into hydrogen production had a specific goal of further advancing proton conducting membrane technology in the laboratory at a larger scale. System and process trade studies evaluated the proton conducting membrane technology, specifically, scale-up issues.

  10. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

  11. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications-Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address.

  12. Hydrogen production by photoprocesses

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, S.R.

    1988-10-01

    The concept of producing hydrogen fuel from sunlight is inherently appealing and has captured the imagination of many scientists, innovators, and decision makers. In fact, there are numerous routes to produce hydrogen from solar energy through photoprocesses. Generally, they can be grouped into four processes: electric conversion, thermal conversion, indirect conversion, and direct photon conversion. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given

  14. NFPA's Hydrogen Technologies Code Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C. H.

    2008-12-01

    This article discusses the development of National Fire Protection Association 2 (NFPA), a comprehensive hydrogen safety code. It analyses the contents of this document with particular attention focused on new requirements for setting hydrogen storage systems. These new requirements use computational fluid dynamic modeling and risk assessment procedures to develop requirements that are based on both technical analyses and defined risk criteria. The intent is to develop requirements based on procedures that can be replicated based on the information provided in the code document. This code will require documentation of the modeling inputs and risk criteria and analyses in the supporting information. This article also includes a description of the codes and standards that address hydrogen technologies in general.

  15. Recent review of thermochemical hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghi, G. E.

    A survey is presented on the development to date of thermochemical water decomposition methods for the production of hydrogen. It is shown that: (1) both the technological feasibility of thermochemical processes and their competitiveness with water electrolysis have been demonstrated; (2) the scaling up of thermochemical methods to industrial production levels may proceed with existing technology; (3) the slowing down of programs concerned with the development of high temperature nuclear reactors could delay the scaling up of thermochemical hydrogen production to industrial levels; (4) this delay could, however, increase interest in such water decomposition processes as those employing photoreactions; and (5) the efficiency of thermochemical hydrogen production is highest in the case of systems with dedicated heat sources rated above 1000 MWth.

  16. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  17. Register of hydrogen technology experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    This register presents the names of approximately 235 individuals who are considered experts, or very knowledgeable, in various fields of technology related to hydrogen. Approximately 90 organizations are represented. Each person is listed by organizational affiliation, address, and principal area of expertise. The criteria for selection of names for the register are extensive experience in a given field of work, participation in or supervision of relevant research programs, contributions to the literature, or being recognized as an expert in a particular field. The purpose of the register is to present, in easy form, sources of dependable information regarding highly technical areas of hydrogen technology, with particular emphasis on safety. The register includes two indexes: an alphabetical listing of the experts and an alphabetical listing of the organizations with which they are affiliated.

  18. Biological Processes for Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    van Niel, Ed W J

    Methane is produced usually from organic waste in a straightforward anaerobic digestion process. However, hydrogen production is technically more challenging as more stages are needed to convert all biomass to hydrogen because of thermodynamic constraints. Nevertheless, the benefit of hydrogen is that it can be produced, both biologically and thermochemically, in more than one way from either organic compounds or water. Research in biological hydrogen production is booming, as reflected by the myriad of recently published reviews on the topic. This overview is written from the perspective of how to transfer as much energy as possible from the feedstock into the gaseous products hydrogen, and to a lesser extent, methane. The status and remaining challenges of all the biological processes are concisely discussed.

  19. Chemical/hydrogen energy systems analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, M.

    1982-12-01

    Four hydrogen energy technologies are addressed including: hydrogen recovery from hydrogen separation using hydride technology, photochemical hydrogen production, anode depolarization in electrolytic hydrogen production.

  20. Using plants for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this program is to make a quantitative assessment of the potential for using marine algae for producing hydrogen and oxygen from sea water. The approach is to screen selected species of green algae for simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen. Six marine green algae have been identified as having this property. The limiting step of algal hydrogen production is turnover time. This report contains data on the first simultaneous measurement of the turnover times of steady-state photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production. An instrument for measuring the absolute yield of hydrogen or oxygen per saturating single-turnover flash of light has been designed and built as part of this research program.

  1. Microwave Hydrogen Production from Methane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    demonstration of MW technology removing and destroying hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and siloxanes from biogas produced by Sacramento Regional Wastewater...running on biogas and is currently conducting the field demonstration of the unit at Tollenaar Dairy in Elk Grove, CA. SMUD, California Air Resources...Small Grant (EISG) project to produce hydrogen (H2) from biogas for the pre-combustion NOx control for the biogas engine. The CEC sponsors this

  2. Thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-07-13

    A thermochemical reaction cycle for the generation of hydrogen from water comprising the following sequence of reactions wherein M represents a metal and Z represents a metalloid selected from the arsenic-antimony-bismuth and selenium-tellurium subgroups of the periodic system: 2MO + Z + SO.sub.2 .fwdarw. MZ + MSO.sub.4 (1) mz + h.sub.2 so.sub.4 .fwdarw. mso.sub.4 + h.sub.2 z (2) 2mso.sub.4 .fwdarw. 2mo + so.sub.2 + so.sub.3 + 1/20.sub.2 (3) h.sub.2 z .fwdarw. z + h.sub.2 (4) h.sub.2 o + so.sub.3 .fwdarw. h.sub.2 so.sub.4 (5) the net reaction is the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  3. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  4. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  5. Standalone ethanol micro-reformer integrated on silicon technology for onboard production of hydrogen-rich gas.

    PubMed

    Pla, D; Salleras, M; Morata, A; Garbayo, I; Gerbolés, M; Sabaté, N; Divins, N J; Casanovas, A; Llorca, J; Tarancón, A

    2016-08-07

    A novel design of a silicon-based micro-reformer for onboard hydrogen generation from ethanol is presented in this work. The micro-reactor is fully fabricated with mainstream MEMS technology and consists of an active low-thermal-mass structure suspended by an insulating membrane. The suspended structure includes an embedded resistive metal heater and an array of ca. 20k vertically aligned through-silicon micro-channels per square centimetre. Each micro-channel is 500 μm in length and 50 μm in diameter allowing a unique micro-reformer configuration that presents a total surface per projected area of 16 cm(2) cm(-2) and per volume of 320 cm(2) cm(-3). The walls of the micro-channels become the active surface of the micro-reformer when coated with a homogenous thin film of Rh-Pd/CeO2 catalyst. The steam reforming of ethanol under controlled temperature conditions (using the embedded heater) and using the micro-reformer as a standalone device are evaluated. Fuel conversion rates above 94% and hydrogen selectivity values of ca. 70% were obtained when using operation conditions suitable for application in micro-solid oxide fuel cells (micro-SOFCs), i.e. 750 °C and fuel flows of 0.02 mlL min(-1) (enough to feed a one watt power source).

  6. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  7. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  8. Solar-thermal hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Since hydrogen is not only an eventual and attractive fuel but is also a prime intermediate in the production of many fuels and chemicals, one extremely valuable utilization of a solar thermal facility would be its operation as a system for hydrogen production. Such a use would also fulfill the important requirement for energy storage. Solar thermal systems appear to offer the only practical method for significant hydrogen production from solar energy. The production could utilize advanced methods of water electrolysis if highly efficient generation of solar electricity were developed. Thermochemical cycles for water decomposition appear to be more promising if cycles that match the characteristics of solar heat sources can be developed. Advanced cycles based on solid sulfate or solid oxide decomposition reactions should interface advantageously with solar thermal systems. Sulfuric acid cycles can serve as standards of comparison for these new cycles as they are discovered and developed.

  9. Solar Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, C.; Sutin, N.; Turner, J.

    1996-09-01

    This panel addressed different methods for the photoassisted dissociation of water into its component parts, hydrogen and oxygen. Systems considered include PV-electrolysis, photoelectrochemical cells, and transition-metal based microheterogeneous and homogeneous systems. While none of the systems for water splitting appear economically viable at the present time, the panel identified areas of basic research that could increase the overall efficiency and decrease the costs. Common to all the areas considered was the underlying belief that the water-to-hydrogen half reaction is reasonably well characterized, while the four-electron oxidation of water-to-oxygen is less well understood and represents a significant energy loss. For electrolysis, research in electrocatalysis to reduce overvoltage losses was identified as a key area for increased efficiency. Non-noble metal catalysts and less expensive components would reduce capital costs. While potentially offering higher efficiencies and lower costs, photoelectrochemical-based direct conversion systems undergo corrosion reactions and often have poor energetics for the water reaction. Research is needed to understand the factors that control the interfacial energetics and the photoinduced corrosion. Multi-photon devices were identified as promising systems for high efficiency conversion.

  10. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal

  11. Solar hydrogen production demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, K.; Hahn, D.; Marion, B.

    The status of a parabolic trough concentrating photovoltaic system (PTCPS) is described. The electrical output of the PTCPS is direct-coupled to an electrolyzer to produce hydrogen. The rationale behind the project is to overcome the well-documented problems with PTCPS by configuring the receiver for a nonconventional load. The single-crystal silicon PV cells are wired in parallel-series combination to produce 200 A at 2 to 2.5 V. This powers an individual electrolyzer cell. The electrolyzers are distributed among the collector field rather than combined in a conventional stack. Preliminary I-V curves are taken and the original expectations for the system appear to be achievable.

  12. Enzymatic Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2007-01-01

    A novel enzymatic reaction was conducted for producing hydrogen from starch and water at 30oC. The overall reaction comprised of 13 enzymes, 1 cofactor (NADP+), and phosphate was driven by energy stored in carbohydrate starch according to the overall stoichiometry stoichiometric reaction of C6H10O5 (l) + 7 H2O (l) --> 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g). It is spontaneous and unidirectional because of negative Gibbs free energy and the removal of gaseous products from the aqueous reaction solution. With technology improvement and integration with fuel cells, this technology would be suitable for mobile applications and also solve the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in a hydrogen economy.

  13. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-09-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields, including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process in which photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allows the production of greater than 10/sup 18/ polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed.

  14. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short

  15. Enzymatic production of hydrogen from glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this research is to optimize conditions for the enzymatic production of hydrogen gas from biomass-derived glucose. This new project is funded at 0.5 PY level of effort for FY 1995. The rationale for the work is that cellulose is, potentially, a vast source of hydrogen and that enzymes offer a specific and efficient method for its extraction with minimal environmental impact. This work is related to the overall hydrogen program goal of technology development and validation. The approach is based on knowledge that glucose is oxidized by the NADP{sup +} requiring enzyme glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and that the resulting NADPH can donate its electrons to hydrogenase (H{sub 2}ase) which catalyzes the evolution of H{sub 2}. Thus hydrogen production from glucose was achieved using calf liver GDH and Pyrococcus furiosus H{sub 2}ase yielding 17% of theoretical maximum expected. The cofactor NADP{sup +} for this reaction was regenerated and recycled. Current and future work includes understanding the rate limiting steps of this process and the stabilization/immobilization of the enzymes for long term hydrogen production. Cooperative interactions with the Universities of Georgia and Bath for obtaining thermally stable enzymes are underway.

  16. Microbial hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.; Maness, P.C.; Martin, S.

    1995-09-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria inhabit an anaerobic or microaerophilic world where H{sub 2} is produced and consumed as a shared intermediary metabolite. Within a given bacterial isolate there are as many as 4 to 6 distinct enzymes that function to evolve or consume H{sub 2}. Three of the H{sub 2}-evolving physiologies involving three different enzymes from photosynthetic bacteria have been examined in detail for commercial viability. Nitrogenase-mediated H{sub 2} production completely dissimilates many soluble organic compounds to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at rates up to 131 {mu}mol H{sub 2}{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1} and can remain active for up to 20 days. This metabolism is very energy intensive, however, which limits solar conversion efficiencies. Fermentative hydrogenase can produce H{sub 2} at rates of 440 {mu}mol{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1} at low levels of irradiation over indefinite periods. The equilibrium for this activity is low (<0.15 atmospheres), thereby requiring gas sparging, vacuuming, or microbial scavenging to retain prolonged activity. Microbial H{sub 2} production from the CO component of synthesis or producer gases maximally reaches activities of 1.5 mmol{sm_bullet}min{sup -1}{sm_bullet}g cdw{sup -1}. Mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension is the rate-limiting step. Increased gas pressure strongly accelerates these rates. Immobilized bacteria on solid supports at ambient pressures also show enhanced shift activity when the bulk water is drained away. Scaled-up bioreactors with 100-200 cc bed volume have been constructed and tested. The near-term goal of this portion of the project is to engineer and economically evaluate a prototype system for the biological production of H{sub 2} from biomass. The CO shift enables a positive selection technique for O{sub 2}-resistant, H{sub 2}-evolving bacterial enzymes from nature.

  17. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Anastasios

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  18. Nuclear hydrogen : an assessment of product flexibility and market viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A.; Yildiz, B.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

  19. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Biris, A. S.; Mazumder, M. K.; Karabacak, T.; Kannarpady, Ganesh; Sharma, R.

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  20. Advanced hydrogen utilization technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J C; Winsor, R E

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study done by Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). DDC used a 6V-92TA engine for experiments with hydrogen fuel. The engine was first baseline tested using methanol fuel and methanol unit injectors. One cylinder of the engine was converted to operate on hydrogen fuel, and methanol fueled the remaining five cylinders. This early testing with only one hydrogen-fueled cylinder was conducted to determine the operating parameters that would later be implemented for multicylinder hydrogen operation. Researchers then operated three cylinders of the engine on hydrogen fuel to verify single-cylinder idle tests. Once it was determined that the engine would operate well at idle, the engine was modified to operate with all six cylinders fueled with hydrogen. Six-cylinder operation on hydrogen provided an opportunity to verify previous test results and to more accurately determine the performance, thermal efficiency, and emissions of the engine.

  1. Hydrogen production and catalyst demetallization process

    SciTech Connect

    Elvin, F.J.

    1989-05-09

    A process is described for the production of molecular hydrogen and demetallization of solid particles comprising: (a) contacting hydrogen sulfide with solid particles at conditions effective to convert the hydrogen sulfide into molecular hydrogen, the solid particles comprising at least one metallic component effective to promote the hydrogen sulfide conversion; (b) separating the molecular hydrogen from elemental sulfur formed in step (a) and unconverted hydrogen sulfide and recovering a product enriched in molecular hydrogen; and (c) demetallizing at least a portion of the solid particles from step (a) to produce demetallized solid particles having a reduced content of the metallic component.

  2. Low-cost hydrogen sensors: Technology maturation progress

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Rogers, J.E.; Lauf, R.J.; Egert, C.M.; Haberman, D.P.

    1998-04-01

    The authors are developing a low-cost, solid-state hydrogen sensor to support the long-term goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program to encourage acceptance and commercialization of renewable energy-based technologies. Development of efficient production, storage, and utilization technologies brings with it the need to detect and pinpoint hydrogen leaks to protect people and equipment. The solid-state hydrogen sensor, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is potentially well-suited to meet cost and performance objectives for many of these applications. Under a cooperative research and development Agreement and license agreement, they are teaming with a private company, DCH Technology, Inc., to develop the sensor for specific market applications related to the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. This report describes the current efforts to optimize materials and sensor performance to reach the goals of low-cost fabrication and suitability for relevant application areas.

  3. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production.

    PubMed

    RenNanqi; GuoWanqian; LiuBingfeng; CaoGuangli; DingJie

    2011-06-01

    Among different technologies of hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production exhibits perhaps the greatest potential to replace fossil fuels. Based on recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, this article reviews the following aspects towards scaled-up application of this technology: bioreactor development and parameter optimization, process modeling and simulation, exploitation of cheaper raw materials and combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation. Bioreactors are necessary for dark-fermentation hydrogen production, so the design of reactor type and optimization of parameters are essential. Process modeling and simulation can help engineers design and optimize large-scale systems and operations. Use of cheaper raw materials will surely accelerate the pace of scaled-up production of biological hydrogen. And finally, combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation holds considerable promise, and has successfully achieved maximum overall hydrogen yield from a single substrate. Future development of bio-hydrogen production will also be discussed.

  4. Energy saving system using by-product hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Hirofumi; Yamarnoto, Hirotaka; Ganke, Toshihiko; Satake, Ichirou; Nogi, Toshihide; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    The authors in conjunction with Shikoku Electric Power and Toagosei have been developing a new energy saving system using by-product hydrogen assisted by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AISI) of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) since 1993. The main unit of the system is a 100-kW class phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) utilizing by-product hydrogen. The development technology of this hydrogen PAFC system include the following items; (1) recycling technology for using unreacted exhaust hydrogen at the anode outlet (2) safe processing technology of exhaust hydrogen. The system was constructed at the Tokushima plant of Toagosei and has operated from December 1996. The total operating time reached over 3000 h as of June 1997. The demonstration test will be conducted from 1996 through FY 1998.

  5. Hydrogen technology survey: Thermophysical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic functions, transport properties, and physical properties of both liquid and gaseous hydrogen are presented. The low temperature regime is emphasized. The tabulation of the properties of normal hydrogen in both Si and engineering units is given along with the tabulation of parahydrogen.

  6. Hydrogen by water electrolysis as basis for small scale ammonia production - A comparison with hydrocarbon based technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundt, T.; Christiansen, K.

    The Norsk Hydro elctrolyzer technology is described, along with comparisons of ammonia production using different feedstocks and inherent costs and efficiencies. The electrolyzers are bipolar filter press types with electrodes, diaphragm, and gaskets sandwiched together in each cell with an area of 2.1 sq m. A one-cell load is 1700 A/sq m for a total load of 3600 A, and 235 cells are placed in each electrolyzer. An electrolyte composed of 25% KOH is used, and electrolyzer units have initial efficiencies of 98%, falling off at the rate of 1% every 4 yr, due to stray-currents in the lye and gas ducts and some recombination. The production of 1/2 ton of NH3 is noted to require 1970 cu m of H2 and 657 cu m of N, and the formation process is reviewed. The use of hydrocarbon feedstocks such as natural gas, naphtha, fuel oil, and coal is considered, especially for the gasification of coal, and NH3 formation is shown to be competitive with reforming and partial oxidation processes.

  7. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  8. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  9. Startech Hydrogen Production Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Startech Engineering Department

    2007-11-27

    The assigned work scope includes the modification and utilization of the Plasma Converter System, Integration of a StarCell{trademark} Multistage Ceramic Membrane System (StarCell), and testing of the integrated systems towards DOE targets for gasification and membrane separation. Testing and evaluation was performed at the Startech Engineering and Demonstration Test Center in Bristol, CT. The Objectives of the program are as follows: (1) Characterize the performance of the integrated Plasma Converter and StarCell{trademark} Systems for hydrogen production and purification from abundant and inexpensive feedstocks; (2) Compare integrated hydrogen production performance to conventional technologies and DOE benchmarks; (3) Run pressure and temperature testing to baseline StarCell's performance; and (4) Determine the effect of process contaminants on the StarCell{trademark} system.

  10. Photofermentative hydrogen production from wastes.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Tugba; Abo-Hashesh, Mona; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2011-09-01

    In many respects, hydrogen is an ideal biofuel. However, practical, sustainable means of its production are presently lacking. Here we review recent efforts to apply the capacity of photosynthetic bacteria to capture solar energy and use it to drive the nearly complete conversion of substrates to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This process, called photofermentation, has the potential capacity to use a variety of feedstocks, including the effluents of dark fermentations, leading to the development of various configurations of two-stage systems, or various industrial and agricultural waste streams rich in sugars or organic acids. The metabolic and enzymatic properties of this system are presented and the possible waste streams that might be successfully used are discussed. Recently, various immobilized systems have been developed and their advantages and disadvantages are examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L.; Saur, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.

  12. The production and use of hydrogen in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsec, Jurij

    2017-07-01

    Efficient and sustainable methods of clean fuel production are needed in all countries of the world in the face of depleting oil reserves and the need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. With hydrogen technology we can significantly reduce harmful emissions in air and water. However, a key missing element is a large-scale method of hydrogen production from water. As a carbon-based technology, the predominant existing process (steam-methane reforming (SMR)) is unsuitable regarding global warming, icreased world population, etc. This paper focuses on a production of hydrogen in connection with a thermal power plant. We will show the technologies which allow the coupling between a thermal power plant and hydrogen technologies.

  13. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  14. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensively utilizing a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives database, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen-induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings are presented relating the status of air liquefaction technology, both as a singular technical area, and also that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sink; liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket-type combustion devices; air collection and enrichment systems (ACES); and technically related engine concepts.

  15. The hydrogen technology assessment, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, Addison

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this phase 1 report is to begin to form the information base of the economics and energy uses of hydrogen-related technologies on which the members of the National Hydrogen Association (NHA) can build a hydrogen vision of the future. The secondary goal of this report is the development of NHA positions on national research, development, and demonstration opportunities. The third goal, with the aid of the established hydrogen vision and NHA positions, is to evaluate ongoing federal research goals and activities. The evaluations will be performed in a manner that compares the costs associated with using systems that achieve those goals against the cost of performing those tasks today with fossil fuels. From this ongoing activity should emerge an NHA information base, one or more hydrogen visions of the future, and cost and performance targets for hydrogen applications to complete in the market place.

  16. HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, E

    2009-03-02

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists, and it is believed to be the largest such staff in the U.S. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including

  17. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  19. System for thermochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, R.W.; Galloway, T.R.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1981-05-22

    Method and apparatus are described for joule boosting a SO/sub 3/ decomposer using electrical instead of thermal energy to heat the reactants of the high temperature SO/sub 3/ decomposition step of a thermochemical hydrogen production process driven by a tandem mirror reactor. Joule boosting the decomposer to a sufficiently high temperature from a lower temperature heat source eliminates the need for expensive catalysts and reduces the temperature and consequent materials requirements for the reactor blanket. A particular decomposer design utilizes electrically heated silicon carbide rods, at a temperature of 1250/sup 0/K, to decompose a cross flow of SO/sub 3/ gas.

  20. Recent trends in refinery hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Aitani, A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.B.

    1996-12-31

    Refiners are experiencing a rise in hydrogen requirements to improve product quality and process heavy sour crudes. Fuel reformulation has disrupted refinery hydrogen balance in two ways: more hydrogen is needed for hydroprocessing and less hydrogen is coproduced from catalytic naphtha reforming. The purpose of this paper is to review trends in maximizing refinery hydrogen production by modifications and alternatives to the conventional steam methane reforming, recovery from refinery off gases and {open_quote}across-the-fence{close_quote} hydrogen supply. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  2. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  3. An assessment on hydrogen production using central receiver solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgen, C.; Bilgen, E.

    An assessment is presented on hydrogen production using a dedicated central receiver solar system concept coupled to two types of hydrogen producing processes, electrolysis and thermochemical. The study on solar electrolytic hydrogen was carried out using solar electricity and four different electrolytic technologies, namely, industrial unipolar 1980 and 1983 technologies, industrial bipolar and solid polymer electrolyte technology. The thermochemical process was the sulphur/iodine cycle, which is being developed by General Atomic Co. Systems, which is capable of producing about one-million GJ hydrogen per year, was developed at the conceptual level, and site specific computations were carried out. A general mathematical model was developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the central receiver system coupled directly to the chemical plant. Cost models were developed for each subsystem based on the database published in the literature. Levelized and delevelized costs of solar hydrogen were then computed.

  4. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    DOEpatents

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    The Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies report documents the first training course ever developed and made available to the transportation community and general public on the use hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The course is designed to train a new generation of technicians in gaining a more complete understanding of the concepts, procedures, and technologies involved with hydrogen fuel cell use in transportation purposes. The manual contains 11 modules (chapters). The first eight modules cover (1) hydrogen properties, use and safety; and (2) fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine design and safety, and design and maintenance of a heavy duty fuel cell bus engine. The different types of fuel cells and hybrid electric vehicles are presented, however, the system descriptions and maintenance procedures focus on proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells with respect to heavy duty transit applications. Modules 9 and 10 are intended to provide a better understanding of the acts, codes, regulations and guidelines concerning the use of hydrogen, as well as the safety guidelines for both hydrogen maintenance and fueling facilities. Module 11 presents a glossary and conversions.

  6. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  7. Concepts for solar production of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Some basic technical approaches to producing hydrogen from solar energy are surveyed. Solar energy forms are divided into: (1) direct solar radiation and (2) indirect forms such as wind and ocean thermal gradient. Technical approaches are separated into: (1) direct hydrogen production from the action of sunlight on some substrate, (2) hydrogen production from sunlight via an intermediate form of energy such as heat and electricity, and (3) hydrogen production from indirect solar energy via an intermediate energy form. It is concluded that while hydrogen from solar energy will be expensive by present standards, the depletion of fossil fuels will cause solar hydrogen to emerge as one of the few alternatives to a nuclear-electric or nuclear-electric-hydrogen energy system.

  8. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L.; Marsen, B.; Paluselli, D.; Rocheleau, R.

    2004-11-17

    The scope of this photoelectrochemical hydrogen research project is defined by multijunction photoelectrode concepts for solar-powered water splitting, with the goal of efficient, stable, and economic operation. From an initial selection of several planar photoelectrode designs, the Hybrid Photoelectrode (HPE) has been identified as the most promising candidate technology. This photoelectrode consists of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) junction and a solid-state photovoltaic (PV) junction. Immersed in aqueous electrolyte and exposed to sunlight, these two junctions provide the necessary voltage to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The efficiency of the conversion process is determined by the performance of the PEC- and the PV-junctions and on their spectral match. Based on their stability and cost effectiveness, iron oxide (Fe2O3) and tungsten oxide (WO3) films have been studied and developed as candidate semiconductor materials for the PEC junction (photoanode). High-temperature synthesis methods, as reported for some high-performance metal oxides, have been found incompatible with multijunction device fabrication. A low-temperature reactive sputtering process has been developed instead. In the parameter space investigated so far, the optoelectronic properties of WO3 films were superior to those of Fe2O3 films, which showed high recombination of photo-generated carriers. For the PV-junction, amorphous-silicon-based multijunction devices have been studied. Tandem junctions were preferred over triple junctions for better stability and spectral matching with the PEC junction. Based on a tandem a-SiGe/a-SiGe device and a tungsten trioxide film, a prototype hybrid photoelectrode has been demonstrated at 0.7% solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency. The PEC junction performance has been identified as the most critical element for higher-efficiency devices. Research into sputter-deposited tungsten trioxide films has yielded samples with higher photocurrents of

  9. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  10. Characterizations of Hydrogen Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Energetics Inc

    2003-04-01

    In 1996, Dr. Ed Skolnik of Energetics, Incorporated, began a series of visits to the locations of various projects that were part of the DOE Hydrogen Program. The site visits/evaluations were initiated to help the DOE Program Management, which had limited time and limited travel budgets, to get a detailed snapshot of each project. The evaluations were soon found to have other uses as well: they provided reviewers on the annual Hydrogen Program Peer Review Team with an in-depth look at a project--something that is lacking in a short presentation--and also provided a means for hydrogen stakeholders to learn about the R&D that the Hydrogen Program is sponsoring. The visits were conducted under several different contract mechanisms, at project locations specified by DOE Headquarters Program Management, Golden Field Office Contract Managers, or Energetics, Inc., or through discussion by some or all of the above. The methodology for these site-visit-evaluations changed slightly over the years, but was fundamentally as follows: Contact the Principal Investigator (PI) and arrange a time for the visit; Conduct a literature review. This would include a review of the last two or three years of Annual Operating Plan submittals, monthly reports, the paper submitted with the last two or three Annual Peer Review, published reviewers' consensus comments from the past few years, publications in journals, and journal publications on the same or similar topics by other researchers; Send the PI a list of questions/topics about a week ahead of time, which we would discuss during the visit. The types of questions vary depending on the project, but include some detailed technical questions that delve into some fundamental scientific and engineering issues, and also include some economic and goal-oriented topics; Conduct the site-visit itself including--Presentations by the PI and/or his staff. This would be formal in some cases, informal in others, and merely a ''sit around the table

  11. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  12. Redirection of metabolism for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, Caroline S.

    2011-11-28

    This project is to develop and apply techniques in metabolic engineering to improve the biocatalytic potential of the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris for nitrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen gas production. R. palustris, is an ideal platform to develop as a biocatalyst for hydrogen gas production because it is an extremely versatile microbe that produces copious amounts of hydrogen by drawing on abundant natural resources of sunlight and biomass. Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, such as R. palustris, generate hydrogen and ammonia during a process known as biological nitrogen fixation. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme nitrogenase and normally consumes nitrogen gas, ATP and electrons. The applied use of nitrogenase for hydrogen production is attractive because hydrogen is an obligatory product of this enzyme and is formed as the only product when nitrogen gas is not supplied. Our challenge is to understand the systems biology of R. palustris sufficiently well to be able to engineer cells to produce hydrogen continuously, as fast as possible and with as high a conversion efficiency as possible of light and electron donating substrates. For many experiments we started with a strain of R. palustris that produces hydrogen constitutively under all growth conditions. We then identified metabolic pathways and enzymes important for removal of electrons from electron-donating organic compounds and for their delivery to nitrogenase in whole R. palustris cells. For this we developed and applied improved techniques in 13C metabolic flux analysis. We identified reactions that are important for generating electrons for nitrogenase and that are yield-limiting for hydrogen production. We then increased hydrogen production by blocking alternative electron-utilizing metabolic pathways by mutagenesis. In addition we found that use of non-growing cells as biocatalysts for hydrogen gas production is an attractive option, because cells divert all resources away from growth and

  13. Exploring Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brus, David; Hotek, Doug

    2010-01-01

    One of the most significant technological issues of the 21st Century is finding a way to fulfill the energy demands without destroying the environment through global warming and climate change. Worldwide human population is on the rise, and with it, the demand for more energy in pursuit of a higher quality of life. In the meantime, as people use…

  14. Exploring Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brus, David; Hotek, Doug

    2010-01-01

    One of the most significant technological issues of the 21st Century is finding a way to fulfill the energy demands without destroying the environment through global warming and climate change. Worldwide human population is on the rise, and with it, the demand for more energy in pursuit of a higher quality of life. In the meantime, as people use…

  15. Project plan hydrogen energy systems technology. Phase 1: Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the potential need for hydrogen as a source of energy in the future was presented in order to identify and define the technology requirements for the most promising approaches to meet that need. The following study objectives were discussed: (1) determination of the future demand for hydrogen, based on current trends and anticipated new uses, (2) identification of the critical research and technology advances required to meet this need considering, to the extent possible, raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects, and (3) definition and recommendation of the scope and space of a National Hydrogen Energy Systems Technology Program and outline of a Program Development Plan.

  16. Hydrogen Production by Water Biophotolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, Maria L.; King, Paul W.; Mulder, David W.; Eckert, Carrie; Dubini, Alexandra; Maness, Pin-Ching; Yu, Jianping

    2014-01-22

    The use of microalgae for production of hydrogen gas from water photolysis has been studied for many years, but its commercialization is still limited by multiple challenges. Most of the barriers to commercialization are attributed to the existence of biological regulatory mechanisms that, under anaerobic conditions, quench the absorbed light energy, down-regulate linear electron transfer, inactivate the H2-producing enzyme, and compete for electrons with the hydrogenase. Consequently, the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons into H2 is significantly lower than its estimated potential of 12–13 %. However, extensive research continues towards addressing these barriers by either trying to understand and circumvent intracellular regulatory mechanisms at the enzyme and metabolic level or by developing biological systems that achieve prolonged H2 production albeit under lower than 12–13 % solar conversion efficiency. This chapter describes the metabolic pathways involved in biological H2 photoproduction from water photolysis, the attributes of the two hydrogenases, [FeFe] and [NiFe], that catalyze biological H2 production, and highlights research related to addressing the barriers described above. These highlights include: (a) recent advances in improving our understanding of the O2 inactivation mechanism in different classes of hydrogenases; (b) progress made in preventing competitive pathways from diverting electrons from H2 photoproduction; and (c) new developments in bypassing the non-dissipated proton gradient from down-regulating photosynthetic electron transfer. As an example of a major success story, we mention the generation of truncated-antenna mutants in Chlamydomonas and Synechocystis that address the inherent low-light saturation of photosynthesis. In addition, we highlight the rationale and progress towards coupling biological hydrogenases to non-biological, photochemical charge-separation as a means to bypass the barriers of photobiological

  17. Studies of the use of heat from high temperature nuclear sources for hydrogen production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Future uses of hydrogen and hydrogen production processes that can meet the demand for hydrogen in the coming decades were considered. To do this, a projection was made of the market for hydrogen through the year 2000. Four hydrogen production processes were selected, from among water electrolysis, fossil based and thermochemical water decomposition systems, and evaluated, using a consistent set of ground rules, in terms of relative performance, economics, resource requirements, and technology status.

  18. Hydrogen Production from Liquid Hydrocarbons Demonstration Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Production Syngas Production Fuel Cell Power Plant Diesel Feedstock Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell-_ 89 INIC auat ama o"Go".o a" in#* of move** some"U Thi-s...to naphtha. These hydrogen plant feedstocks have nil sulfur content. End uses for hydrogen include ammonia and methanol manufacture, hydrocracking...Hydrogen 54.9 Carbon monoxide 0.6 Carbon dioxide 22.4 Methane 0.1 Argon 0.3 Nitrogen 21.8 Hydrogen sulfide 1.6 ppmv Carbonyl sulfide 0.5 ppmv Ammonia 0.5

  19. Hydrogen Production and Delivery Research

    SciTech Connect

    Iouri Balachov, PhD

    2007-10-15

    In response to DOE's Solicitation for Grant Applications DE-PS36-03GO93007, 'Hydrogen Production and Delivery Research', SRI International (SRI) proposed to conduct work under Technical Topic Area 5, Advanced Electrolysis Systems; Sub-Topic 5B, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis. We proposed to develop a prototype of a modular industrial system for low-cost generation of H{sub 2} (<$2/kg) by steam electrolysis with anodic depolarization by CO. Water will be decomposed electrochemically into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} on the cathode side of a high-temperature electrolyzer. Oxygen ions will migrate through an oxygen-ion-conductive solid oxide electrolyte. Gas mixtures on the cathode side (H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O) and on the anode side (CO + CO{sub 2}) will be reliably separated by the solid electrolyte. Depolarization of the anodic process will decrease the electrolysis voltage, and thus the electricity required for H{sub 2} generation and the cost of produced H{sub 2}. The process is expected to be at least 10 times more energy-efficient than low-temperature electrolysis and will generate H{sub 2} at a cost of approximately $1-$1.5/kg. The operating economics of the system can be made even more attractive by deploying it at locations where waste heat is available; using waste heat would reduce the electricity required for heating the system. Two critical targets must be achieved: an H{sub 2} production cost below $2/kg, and scalable design of the pilot H{sub 2} generation system. The project deliverables would be (1) a pilot electrolysis system for H{sub 2} generation, (2) an economic analysis, (3) a market analysis, and (4) recommendations and technical documentation for field deployment. DOE was able to provide only 200K out of 1.8M (or about 10% of awarded budget), so project was stopped abruptly.

  20. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  1. Immobilized algal cells used for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, John J.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Jacoby, William A.

    2007-10-01

    This paper explores the use of the photosynthetic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii bound to solid support particles to produce hydrogen in a two-step cycle. Bound cells are more easily cycled between growth mode and hydrogen production mode. The data indicate that the presence of silica particles does not inhibit the growth of the algae in the sulfur rich growth media. Filtration experiments reveal that the algae effectively bind to the silica particles, as high removal efficiencies are observed. The silica particles appear to approach saturation algae at a mass-loading ratio of about 0.035. In hydrogen production mode, the bound algae perform about as well as free-floating algae in terms of cumulative hydrogen production. A full-factorial experiment is described in which algae concentration was deemed to have a significant effect on cumulative hydrogen production.

  2. Hydrogen fuel production by transgenic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Melis, Anastasios; Seibert, Michael; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2007-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the state-of-art in the field of green algal H2-production and examines physiological and genetic engineering approaches by which to improve the hydrogen metabolism characteristics of these microalgae. Included in this chapter are emerging topics pertaining to the application of sulfur-nutrient deprivation to attenuate O2-evolution and to promote H2-production, as well as the genetic engineering of sulfate uptake through manipulation of a newly reported sulfate permease in the chloroplast of the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Application of the green algal hydrogenase assembly genes is examined in efforts to confer H2-production capacity to other commercially significant unicellular green algae. Engineering a solution to the O2 sensitivity of the green algal hydrogenase is discussed as an alternative approach to sulfur nutrient deprivation, along with starch accumulation in microalgae for enhanced H2-production. Lastly, current efforts aiming to optimize light utilization in transgenic microalgae for enhanced H2-production under mass culture conditions are presented. It is evident that application of genetic engineering technologies and the use of transgenic green algae will improve prospects for commercial exploitation of these photosynthetic micro-organisms in the generation of H2, a clean and renewable fuel.

  3. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  4. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K.

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  5. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  6. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meeting on October 8 and 9, 2008. This document reports the initial selection process for development investment in STCH projects, the evaluation process meant to reduce the number of projects as a means to focus resources on development of a few most-likely-to-succeed efforts, the obstacles encountered in project inventory reduction and the outcomes of the evaluation process. Summary technical status of the projects under evaluation is reported and recommendations identified to improve future project planning and selection activities.

  7. Metal Dichalcogenides Monolayers: Novel Catalysts for Electrochemical Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Catalyst-driven electrolysis of water is considered as a “cleanest” way for hydrogen production. Finding cheap and abundant catalysts is critical to the large-scale implementation of the technology. Two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides nanostructures have attracted increasing attention because of their catalytic performances in water electrolysis. In this work, we systematically investigate the hydrogen evolution reduction of metal dichalcogenides monolayers based on density-functional-theory calculations. We find that metal disulfide monolayers show better catalytic performance on hydrogen production than other metal dichalcogenides. We show that their hydrogen evolution reduction strongly depends on the hydrogen coverage and the catalytic performance reduces with the increment of coverage because of hydrogenation-induced lower conductivity. We further show that the catalytic performance of vanadium disulfide monolayer is comparable to that of Pt at lower hydrogen coverage and the performance at higher coverage can be improved by hybridizing with conducting nanomaterials to enhance conductivity. These metal disulfide monolayers with lower overpotentials may apply to water electrolysis for hydrogen production. PMID:24967679

  8. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  9. Fusion reactors for hydrogen production via electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  10. Hydrogen Production from Remote Power Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzina, A.; Grimes, G.; Reeves, R.; Wiley, R.

    1980-02-01

    The basic concept for adopting small existing dams to hydrogen production entails the energy conversion steps: hydropower-to-shaft-power via a hydraulic turbine; shaft-power-to-electrical power via a generator; and electrical power-to-hydrogen (and oxygen) via a water electrolyzer. The resource availability is discussed. The concept implementation in Potsdan, New York is mentioned.

  11. Photobiological production of hydrogen using cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Borthakur, D.; McKinley, K.R.; Bylina, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of generating hydrogen using sunlight and water. In both Spirulina and Anabaena, there is a soluble reversible hydrogenase that is involved in hydrogen evolution under anaerobic conditions in the dark. In addition, the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena produces hydrogen as a by-product of nitrogen fixation. Most of this hydrogen is recaptured by a membrane-bound uptake hydrogenase present in Anabaena cells. Experiments have continued to develop a gene transfer system in Spirulina in preparation for improved hydrogen production via genetic manipulation of the reversible hydrogenase. We have identified and characterized four restriction enzymes in Spirulina and cloned the genes for two methylases that protect their own DNA from cleavage by restriction enzymes. We have also cloned and sequenced parts of hupB and hupM genes involved in the synthesis of uptake hydrogenase in Anabaena. Successful cloning of these hup genes represents an important and necessary step in our project because this will enable us to construct Anabaena strains with enhanced hydrogen production ability by disrupting the hup genes involved in hydrogen uptake. We are also setting up a bio-reactor to determine the amount of hydrogen released by different Spirulina and Anabaena strains under different physiological conditions.

  12. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey is provided of hydrogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N (1500 lbf) to 440 mN (0.1 lbf) thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high temperature, oxidation resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  13. Hydrogen Production from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. Patterson; C. Park

    2008-03-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor that will be capable of producing hydrogen, electricity and/or high temperature process heat for industrial use. The project has initiated the conceptual design phase and when completed will demonstrate the viability of hydrogen generation using nuclear produced process heat. This paper explains how industry and the U.S. Government are cooperating to advance nuclear hydrogen technology. It also describes the issues being explored and the results of recent R&D including materials development and testing, thermal-fluids research, and systems analysis. The paper also describes the hydrogen production technologies being considered (including various thermochemical processes and high-temperature electrolysis).

  14. Surfactant-induced hydrogen production in cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Famiglietti, M.; Luisi, P.L. ); Hochkoeppler, A. . Dept. di Biologia)

    1993-10-01

    Addition of Tween 85 to aqueous suspensions of Anabaena variabilis induced photosynthetic evolution of hydrogen over a time span of several weeks: as much as 148 nmol H[sub 2]/h [center dot] mg dry weight was produced in the first week by a suspension containing 4.2 mg dry weight of cells and 77 mM Tween 85. The chemical structure of Tween 85 was a necessary prerequisite for inducing hydrogen production, as compounds such as Tween 20, 60, and 80 had a quite different effect. There was a coupling between photosynthetic oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution: Hydrogen evolution started to be effective only when oxygen evolution subdued. The presence of heterocysts in A. variabilis was also required for the Tween-induced hydrogen production. Based on these observations, possible mechanisms for the photosynthetic effect of Tween 85 are advanced and discussed.

  15. Surfactant-Induced hydrogen production in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Famiglietti, M; Hochkoeppler, A; Luisi, P L

    1993-10-01

    Addition of Tween 85 to aqueous suspensions of Anabaena variabilis induced photosynthetic evolution of hydrogen over a time span of several weeks: As much as 148 nmol H(2)/h . mg dry weight was produced in the first week by a suspension containing 4.2 mg dry weight of cells and 77 mM Tween 85. The chemical structure of Tween 85 was a necessary prerequisite for inducing hydrogen production, as compounds such as Tween 20, 60, and 80 had a quite different effect. There was a coupling between photosynthetic oxygen evolution and hydrogen evolution: Hydrogen evolution started to be effective only when oxygen evolution subdued. The presence of heterocysts in A. variabilis was also required for the Tween-induced hydrogen production. Based on these observations, possible mechanisms for the photosynthetic effect of Tween 85 are advanced and discussed. (c) 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  17. Hydrogen production using ammonia borane

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, Charles W; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy A; Shrestha, Roshan P

    2013-12-24

    Hydrogen ("H.sub.2") is produced when ammonia borane reacts with a catalyst complex of the formula L.sub.nM-X wherein M is a base metal such as iron, X is an anionic nitrogen- or phosphorus-based ligand or hydride, and L is a neutral ancillary ligand that is a neutral monodentate or polydentate ligand.

  18. Enhancing fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that fermentative hydrogen production from organic-rich feedstock could be enhanced by supplementing with waste materials such as cattle manure that could provide nutritional needs, buffering capacity, and native hydrogen-producing organisms. This hypothesis was tested in batch reactors fed with sucrose blended with cattle manure run at 25 degrees C without any nutrient supplements, pH adjustments, buffering, or gas-sparging. Hydrogen production rates in these reactors ranged 16-30 mL H(2)/g DeltaCOD-day, while hydrogen content in the biogases ranged 50-59%. Compared to literature studies conducted at higher temperatures, hydrogen yields found in this study at 25 degrees C were higher in the range of 3.8-4.7 mol H(2)/mol sucrose added, with higher positive net energy yields (>14 kJ/L). This study demonstrated that cattle manure as a supplement could not only provide hydrogen-producing seed, nutritional needs, and buffering capacity, but also increase hydrogen yield by approximately 10%, improving the economic viability of fermentative biohydrogen production from sugary wastes.

  19. Technology's Impact on Production

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Amann; Ellis Deweese; Deborah Shipman

    2009-06-30

    As part of a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) - entitled Technology's Impact on Production: Developing Environmental Solutions at the State and National Level - the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has been tasked with assisting state governments in the effective, efficient, and environmentally sound regulation of the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil, specifically in relation to orphaned and abandoned wells and wells nearing the end of productive life. Project goals include: (1) Developing (a) a model framework for prioritization and ranking of orphaned or abandoned well sites; (b) a model framework for disbursement of Energy Policy Act of 2005 funding; and (c) a research study regarding the current status of orphaned wells in the nation. (2) Researching the impact of new technologies on environmental protection from a regulatory perspective. Research will identify and document (a) state reactions to changing technology and knowledge; (b) how those reactions support state environmental conservation and public health; and (c) the impact of those reactions on oil and natural gas production. (3) Assessing emergent technology issues associated with wells nearing the end of productive life. Including: (a) location of orphaned and abandoned well sites; (b) well site remediation; (c) plugging materials; (d) plug placement; (e) the current regulatory environment; and (f) the identification of emergent technologies affecting end of life wells. New Energy Technologies - Regulating Change, is the result of research performed for Tasks 2 and 3.

  20. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  1. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  2. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 1 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Morever, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be of major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  3. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, Harold T. Wight, Gregory Dreier, Ken Borland, Nicholas

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  4. NREL Supports Development of New National Code for Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    On December 14, 2010, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) issued a new national code for hydrogen technologies - NFPA 2 Hydrogen Technologies Code - which covers critical applications and operations such as hydrogen dispensing, production, and storage. The new code consolidates existing hydrogen-related NFPA codes and standards requirements into a single document and also introduces new requirements. This consolidation makes it easier for users to prepare code-compliant permit applications and to review/approve these applications. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory helped support the development of NFPA 2 on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program.

  5. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  6. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  7. Final Report: Hydrogen Production Pathways Cost Analysis (2013 – 2016)

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brian David; DeSantis, Daniel Allan; Saur, Genevieve

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes work conducted under a three year Department of Energy (DOE) funded project to Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) to analyze multiple hydrogen (H2) production technologies and project their corresponding levelized production cost of H2. The analysis was conducted using the H2A Hydrogen Analysis Tool developed by the DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project was led by SA but conducted in close collaboration with the NREL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In-depth techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five different H2 production methods was conducted. These TEAs developed projections for capital costs, fuel/feedstock usage, energy usage, indirect capital costs, land usage, labor requirements, and other parameters, for each H2 production pathway, and use the resulting cost and system parameters as inputs into the H2A discounted cash flow model to project the production cost of H2 ($/kgH2). Five technologies were analyzed as part of the project and are summarized in this report: Proton Exchange Membrane technology (PEM), High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cell technology (SOEC), Dark fermentation of biomass for H2 production, H2 production via Monolithic Piston-Type Reactors with rapid swing reforming and regeneration reactions, and Reformer-Electrolyzer-Purifier (REP) technology developed by Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. (FCE).

  8. Pathways to Commercial Success. Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report identifies the commercial and near-commercial (emerging) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  9. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sircar, S.; Anand, M.; Carvill, B.

    1995-09-01

    Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) is a novel process that is being developed for the production of lower cost hydrogen by steam-methane reforming (SMR). In this process, the reaction of methane with steam is carried out in the presence of an admixture of a catalyst and a selective adsorbent for carbon dioxide. The consequences of SER are: (1) reformation reaction at a significantly lower temperature (300-500{degrees}C) than conventional SMR (800-1100{degrees}C), while achieving the same conversion of methane to hydrogen, (2) the product hydrogen is obtained at reactor pressure (200-400 psig) and at 99+% purity directly from the reactor (compared to only 70-75% H{sub 2} from conventional SMR reactor), (3) downstream hydrogen purification step is either eliminated or significantly reduced in size. The early focus of the program will be on the identification of an adsorbent/chemisorbent for CO{sub 2} and on the demonstration of the SER concept for SMR in our state-of-the-art bench scale process. In the latter stages, a pilot plant will be built to scale-up the technology and to develop engineering data. The program has just been initiated and no significant results for SMR will be reported. However, results demonstrating the basic principles and process schemes of SER technology will be presented for reverse water gas shift reaction as the model reaction. If successful, this technology will be commercialized by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) and used in its existing hydrogen business. APCI is the world leader in merchant hydrogen production for a wide range of industrial applications.

  10. Solar photochemical production of HBr for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, H.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a unique and innovative hydrogen production concept utilizing renewable (Solar) energy and incorporating energy storage. The concept is based on a solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy, and supplemental electrical power. The process consumes only water, sunlight and off-peak electricity, and produces only hydrogen, oxygen, and peaking electrical power. No pollutants are emitted, and fossil fuels are not consumed. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT) under the auspices of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  11. Environmental and economic aspects of hydrogen production and utilization in fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    A smooth transition from gasoline-powered internal combustion engine vehicles to ecologically clean hydrogen fuel cell vehicles depends on the process used for hydrogen production. Three technologies for hydrogen production are considered here: traditional hydrogen production via natural gas reforming, and the use of two renewable technologies (wind and solar electricity generation) to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis. It is shown that a decrease of environmental impact (air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions) as a result of hydrogen implementation as a fuel is accompanied by a decline in the economic efficiency (as measured by capital investments effectiveness). A mathematical procedure is proposed to obtain numerical estimates of environmental and economic criteria interactions in the form of sustainability indexes. On the basis of the obtained sustainability indexes, it is concluded that hydrogen production from wind energy via electrolysis is more advantageous for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and traditional natural gas reforming is more favorable for reducing air pollution.

  12. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch; the reaction mixture also comprising an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; (b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and (c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture. 8 figs.

  13. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, Jonathan; Mattingly, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch. The reaction mixture further comprises an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture.

  14. Biophotolysis systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.K.; Adams, M.W.W.; Gisby, P.E.; Morris, P.; Hall, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    Model systems containing natural and synthetic catalysts were constructed for the production of H/sub 2/ from water using visible solar radiation as the energy source. The authors have investigated the use of aqueous systems with proflavine as the light activator and artificial electron donors for subsequent production of H/sub 2/ when coupled to electron mediators and hydrogenase (or Pt). The characteristics, relative merits and defects of these systems are discussed. 22 refs.

  15. Oil-free centrifugal hydrogen compression technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, Hooshang

    2014-05-31

    One of the key elements in realizing a mature market for hydrogen vehicles is the deployment of a safe and efficient hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure on a scale that can compete economically with current fuels. The challenge, however, is that hydrogen, being the lightest and smallest of gases with a lower viscosity and density than natural gas, readily migrates through small spaces and is difficult to compresses efficiently. While efficient and cost effective compression technology is crucial to effective pipeline delivery of hydrogen, the compression methods used currently rely on oil lubricated positive displacement (PD) machines. PD compression technology is very costly, has poor reliability and durability, especially for components subjected to wear (e.g., valves, rider bands and piston rings) and contaminates hydrogen with lubricating fluid. Even so called “oil-free” machines use oil lubricants that migrate into and contaminate the gas path. Due to the poor reliability of PD compressors, current hydrogen producers often install duplicate units in order to maintain on-line times of 98-99%. Such machine redundancy adds substantially to system capital costs. As such, DOE deemed that low capital cost, reliable, efficient and oil-free advanced compressor technologies are needed. MiTi’s solution is a completely oil-free, multi-stage, high-speed, centrifugal compressor designed for flow capacity of 500,000 kg/day with a discharge pressure of 1200 psig. The design employs oil-free compliant foil bearings and seals to allow for very high operating speeds, totally contamination free operation, long life and reliability. This design meets the DOE’s performance targets and achieves an extremely aggressive, specific power metric of 0.48 kW-hr/kg and provides significant improvements in reliability/durability, energy efficiency, sealing and freedom from contamination. The multi-stage compressor system concept has been validated through full scale

  16. Hydrogen production from banyan leaves using an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Jhang, Syu-Ruei; Yang, Po-Ming; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing

    2014-06-01

    Growth of the hydrogen market has motivated increased study of hydrogen production. Understanding how biomass is converted to hydrogen gas can help in evaluating opportunities for reducing the environmental impact of petroleum-based fuels. The microwave power used in the reaction is found to be proportional to the rate of production of hydrogen gas, mass of hydrogen gas produced per gram of banyan leaves consumed, and amount of hydrogen gas formed with respect to the H-atom content of banyan leaves decomposed. Increase the microwave power levels results in an increase of H2 and decrease of CO2 concentrations in the gaseous products. This finding may possibly be ascribed to the water-gas shift reaction. These results will help to expand our knowledge concerning banyan leaves and hydrogen yield on the basis of microwave-assisted pyrolysis, which will improve the design of hydrogen production technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Muradov, N.

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  18. Probing green algal hydrogen production.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Melis, Anastasios

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed two-stage photosynthesis and H(2)-production protocol with green algae is further investigated in this work. The method employs S deprivation as a tool for the metabolic regulation of photosynthesis. In the presence of S, green algae perform normal photosynthesis, carbohydrate accumulation and oxygen production. In the absence of S, normal photosynthesis stops and the algae slip into the H(2)-production mode. For the first time, to our knowledge, significant amounts of H(2) gas were generated, essentially from sunlight and water. Rates of H(2) production could be sustained continuously for ca. 80 h in the light, but gradually declined thereafter. This work examines biochemical and physiological aspects of this process in the absence or presence of limiting amounts of S nutrients. Moreover, the effects of salinity and of uncouplers of phosphorylation are investigated. It is shown that limiting levels of S can sustain intermediate levels of oxygenic photosynthesis, in essence raising the prospect of a calibration of the rate of photosynthesis by the S content in the growth medium of the algae. It is concluded that careful titration of the supply of S nutrients in the green alga medium might permit the development of a continuous H(2)-production process. PMID:12437889

  19. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gronich, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  20. Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

  1. Method for the continuous production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Getty, John Paul; Orr, Mark T.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

  2. Assessment of methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, G.; Blake, D.; Showalter, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy. The results of this work can be used to guide future work in the application of concentrated solar energy to hydrogen production. Specifically, the objectives were to: (1) determine the cost of hydrogen produced from methods that use concentrated solar thermal energy, (2) compare these costs to those of hydrogen produced by electrolysis using photovoltaics and wind energy as the electricity source. This project had the following scope of work: (1) perform cost analysis on ambient temperature electrolysis using the 10 MWe dish-Stirling and 200 MWe power tower technologies; for each technology, sue two cases for projected costs, years 2010 and 2020 the dish-Stirling system, years 2010 and 2020 for the power tower, (2) perform cost analysis on high temperature electrolysis using the 200 MWe power tower technology and projected costs for the year 2020, and (3) identify and describe the key technical issues for high temperature thermal dissociation and the thermochemical cycles.

  3. Biophotolysis systems for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. K.; Adams, M. W. W.; Morris, P.; Hall, D. O.; Gisby, P. E.

    Model systems containing natural and sythetic catalysts were constructed for the production of H2 from water using visible solar radiation as the energy source. Chloroplast membranes were used for light absorption and photodecomposition of water, ferredoxin, flavodoxin, cytochrome, viologen dyes, 'Jeevanu' particles or synthetic clusters containing Fe-Mo-S centers were used as electron transfer catalysts, and hydrogenase or PtO2 served as the proton activator. We have also investigated the use of aqueous systems with proflavine as the light activator and artificial electron donors for subsequent production of H2 when coupled to electron mediators and hydrogenase (or Pt). The characteristics, relative merits and defects of these systems are discussed.

  4. Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production from Wind: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Levene, J. I.

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the cost of using wind energy to produce hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel. This analysis assumes that a market exists for 50,000 kg of hydrogen per day produced from wind at the wind site; only production costs to the front gate are included, no delivery or dispensing costs are included. Three different scenarios are examined: near term, which represents 2005 currently available technology; mid term, which represents technological improvements and price reductions in the next 5-10 years; and long term, which is representative of the best technology gains and price reductions surmised by industry at this point, and represents the next 10-25 years.

  5. Silicon Nanowire Photocathodes for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Nann, Thomas; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of silicon for water oxidation and hydrogen production can be improved by exploiting the antireflective properties of nanostructured silicon substrates. In this work, silicon nanowires were fabricated by metal-assisted electroless etching of silicon. An enhanced photocurrent density of −17 mA/cm2 was observed for the silicon nanowires coated with an iron sulphur carbonyl catalyst when compared to bare silicon nanowires (−5 mA/cm2). A substantial amount of 315 µmol/h hydrogen gas was produced at low bias potentials for the silicon nanowires coated with an iron sulphur carbonyl catalyst. PMID:28335272

  6. Thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikorian, O. H.; Brown, L. C.

    1982-06-01

    Conceptual design studies were carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing heat at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide heat electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen production costs.

  7. Modeling of a Hydrogenic Pellet Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachman, J. W.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.; Nellis, G. F.

    2010-04-01

    Solid hydrogenic pellets are used as fuel for fusion energy machines like the ITER device. This paper discusses the numerical modeling of a Pellet Production System (PPS) that is used to generate these pellets. The PPS utilizes a source of supercritical helium to provide the cooling that is necessary to precool, liquefy, and solidify hydrogenic material that is ultimately extruded and cut into fuel pellets. The specific components within the PPS include a pre-cooling heat exchanger, a liquefier, and a twin-screw solidifying extruder. This paper presents numerical models of each component. These numerical models are used as design tools to predict the performance of the respective devices. The performance of the PPS is dominated by the heat transfer coefficient and viscous dissipation associated with the solidifying hydrogenic fluid in the twin-screw extruder. This observation motivates experimental efforts aimed at precise measurement of these quantities.

  8. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOEpatents

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  9. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  10. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  11. Hydrogen Education Curriculum Path at Michigan Technological University

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, Jason; Crowl, Daniel; Caspary, David; Naber, Jeff; Allen, Jeff; Mukerjee, Abhijit; Meng, Desheng; Lukowski, John; Solomon, Barry; Meldrum, Jay

    2012-01-03

    The objective of this project was four-fold. First, we developed new courses in alternative energy and hydrogen laboratory and update existing courses in fuel cells. Secondly, we developed hydrogen technology degree programs. Thirdly, we developed hydrogen technology related course material for core courses in chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. Finally, we developed fuel cell subject material to supplement the Felder & Rousseau and the Geankoplis chemical engineering undergraduate textbooks.

  12. Renewable hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1998-06-01

    This mission-oriented research project is focused on the production of renewable hydrogen. The authors have demonstrated that certain unicellular green algae are capable of sustained simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen by light-activated photosynthetic water splitting. It is the goal of this project to develop a practical chemical engineering system for the development of an economic process that can be used to produce renewable hydrogen. There are several fundamental problems that need to be solved before the application of this scientific knowledge can be applied to the development a practical process: (I) maximizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into hydrogen energy, (2) development of oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase-containing mutants, and (3) development of bioreactors that can be used in a real-world chemical engineering process. The authors are addressing each of these problems here at ORNL and in collaboration with their research colleagues at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii. This year the authors have focused on item 1 above. In particular, they have focused on the question of how many light reactions are required to split water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

  13. Hydrogen production from liquid hydrocarbons demonstration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, J. B.; Chow, T. K.; Ling, J. K.

    1986-09-01

    The Air Force now uses diesel engine generators as sources of heat and electricity at selected remote sites. Simultaneously, it has investigated alternative cogeneration candidates that offer improved reliability, maintain ability, and economics. One system that shows high potential is a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant consisting of a fuel conditioner to convert logistic fuels such as DEF-2, DF-a and JP-4 to a hydrogen-rich gas, and a power conditioner to convert the direct current power to alternating current. The objective was to define, and demonstrate, a fuel conditioner to meet performance criteria estabilished for the Air Force Remote Site Fuel Cell Power Plant program. Key criteria included high fuel-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, rapid startup and load following capability, and minimum water consumption during operations. A process configuration which has the potential to produce a minimum of 0.365 pound of hydrogen per pound of feed diesel consumed is described. The hydrogen-containing product is suitable for phosphoric acid fuel 1 cell power plant. A 2 mole per hour (hydrogen) demonstration plant was designed, constructed and started up.

  14. Future production of hydrogen from solar energy and water - A summary and assessment of U.S. developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines technologies of hydrogen production. Its delivery, distribution, and end-use systems are reviewed, and a classification of solar energy and hydrogen production methods is suggested. The operation of photoelectric processes, biophotolysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrolysis, and of photovoltaic systems are reviewed, with comments on their possible hydrogen production potential. It is concluded that solar hydrogen derived from wind energy, photovoltaic technology, solar thermal electric technology, and hydropower could supply some of the hydrogen for air transport by the middle of the next century.

  15. Future production of hydrogen from solar energy and water - A summary and assessment of U.S. developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, J. A.; Escher, W. J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines technologies of hydrogen production. Its delivery, distribution, and end-use systems are reviewed, and a classification of solar energy and hydrogen production methods is suggested. The operation of photoelectric processes, biophotolysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrolysis, and of photovoltaic systems are reviewed, with comments on their possible hydrogen production potential. It is concluded that solar hydrogen derived from wind energy, photovoltaic technology, solar thermal electric technology, and hydropower could supply some of the hydrogen for air transport by the middle of the next century.

  16. Projected Cost, Energy Use, and Emissions of Hydrogen Technologies for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M. J.; Timbario, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Each combination of technologies necessary to produce, deliver, and distribute hydrogen for transportation use has a corresponding levelized cost, energy requirement, and greenhouse gas emission profile depending upon the technologies' efficiencies and costs. Understanding the technical status, potential, and tradeoffs is necessary to properly allocate research and development (R&D) funding. In this paper, levelized delivered hydrogen costs, pathway energy use, and well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions are reported for multiple hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways. Technologies analyzed include both central and distributed reforming of natural gas and electrolysis of water, and central hydrogen production from biomass and coal. Delivery options analyzed include trucks carrying liquid hydrogen and pipelines carrying gaseous hydrogen. Projected costs, energy use, and emissions for current technologies (technology that has been developed to at least the bench-scale, extrapolated to commercial-scale) are reported. Results compare favorably with those for gasoline, diesel, and E85 used in current internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and flexible fuel vehicles. Sensitivities of pathway cost, pathway energy use, WTW energy use, and WTW emissions to important primary parameters were examined as an aid in understanding the benefits of various options. Sensitivity studies on production process energy efficiency, total production process capital investment, feed stock cost, production facility operating capacity, electricity grid mix, hydrogen vehicle market penetration, distance from the hydrogen production facility to city gate, and other parameters are reported. The Hydrogen Macro-System Model (MSM) was used for this analysis. The MSM estimates the cost, energy use, and emissions trade offs of various hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways under consideration. The MSM links the H2

  17. Assessment of biological Hydrogen production processes: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafpour, G. D.; Shahavi, M. H.; Neshat, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Energy crisis created a special attention on renewable energy sources. Among these sources; hydrogen through biological processes is well-known as the most suitable and renewable energy sources. In terms of process yield, hydrogen production from various sources was evaluated. A summary of microorganisms as potential hydrogen producers discussed along with advantages and disadvantages of several bioprocesses. The pathway of photo-synthetic and dark fermentative organisms was discussed. In fact, the active enzymes involved in performance of biological processes for hydrogen generation were identified and their special functionalities were discussed. The influential factors affecting on hydrogen production were known as enzymes assisting liberation specific enzymes such as nitrogenase, hydrogenase and uptake hydrogenase. These enzymes were quite effective in reduction of proton and form active molecular hydrogen. Several types of photosynthetic systems were evaluated with intension of maximum hydrogen productivities. In addition dark fermentative and light intensities on hydrogen productions were evaluated. The hydrogen productivities of efficient hydrogen producing strains were evaluated.

  18. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  19. High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C6H10O5 (l)+7 H2O (l)→12 H2 (g)+6 CO2 (g). The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. Conclusions Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30°C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H2/glucose) of anaerobic fermentations. Significance The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30°C and atmospheric pressure), high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($∼2/kg H2), and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H2-based mass%), provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy. PMID:17520015

  20. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 6 Report Promoting a Southeast Hydrogen Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project task was to establish a technical consortium to promote the deployment of hydrogen technologies and infrastructure in the Southeast. The goal was to partner with fuel cell manufacturers, hydrogen fuel infrastructure providers, electric utilities, energy service companies, research institutions, and user groups to improve education and awareness of hydrogen technologies in an area that is lagging behind other parts of the country in terms of vehicle and infrastructure demonstrations and deployments. This report documents that effort.

  1. Formation and hydrogen production of photosynthetic bacterial biofilm under various illumination conditions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiang; Wang, Ye-Jun; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Zhu, Xun; Tian, Xin; Li, Jun

    2010-07-01

    The application of immobilized-cell technology in photobioreactor for hydrogen production could offer improvements in photo-hydrogen production rate and light utilization efficiency. Indigenous Rhodopseudomonas palustris CQK 01 was attached to the surface of a cover glass slide in a flat-panel photobioreactor, to form biofilm under illumination with a range of intensities and wavelengths. The morphology and structure of mature photosynthetic bacterial (PSB) biofilm were determined to elucidate the relationship between biofilm formation and hydrogen production performance. The effects of operation conditions on hydrogen production performance of the biofilms formed under various illumination conditions were experimentally investigated. The results showed that illumination wavelength and intensity substantially influenced the morphology and structure of the biofilm, and the hydrogen production performance of mature biofilm varied significantly with the illumination conditions that were used for biofilm formation. Biofilm formed under 590 nm and 5000 lx illumination showed the highest hydrogen production performance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen production via urea electrolysis using a gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Rebecca L.; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2011-03-01

    A technology was demonstrated for the production of hydrogen and other valuable products (nitrogen and clean water) through the electrochemical oxidation of urea in alkaline media. In addition, this process remediates toxic nitrates and prevents gaseous ammonia emissions. Improvements to urea electrolysis were made through replacement of aqueous KOH electrolyte with a poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte. A small volume of poly(acrylic acid) gel electrolyte was used to accomplish the electrochemical oxidation of urea improving on the previous requirement for large amounts of aqueous potassium hydroxide. The effect of gel composition was investigated by varying polymer content and KOH concentrations within the polymer matrix in order to determine which is the most advantageous for the electrochemical oxidation of urea and production of hydrogen.

  3. Hydrogen production: two stage processes for waste degradation.

    PubMed

    Gómez, X; Fernández, C; Fierro, J; Sánchez, M E; Escapa, A; Morán, A

    2011-09-01

    The dark fermentation process generates hydrogen by biological means. It presents two main advantages: fulfilling requirements for mild operational conditions and gaining benefit from the residual biomass. The process itself may be seen as a pre-treatment step in a complete stabilisation chain, with the aim of attaining the valorisation of residual biomass. However, increasing the yield of H2 production is an imperative task. In this manuscript, a review of recent work in the field of fermentative hydrogen production is presented. As dark fermentation has a maximum yield of 33% (on sugars), a description is also presented of possible second stage processes for the degradation of dark fermentation effluents. Alternatives considered were photofermentation and bioelectrochemical systems (BES) as processes capable of converting fermentation sub-products into H2. Anaerobic digestion as a final stabilisation stage was also considered owing to the wide application of this technology in the treatment of bio-wastes.

  4. Flood Resilient Technological Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Monnot, J. V.; Marquez Paniagua, P.; Pámpanas, P.; Paz Abuín, S.; Prendes, P.; Videra, O.; U. P. M. Smartest Team

    2012-04-01

    As a consequence of the paradigm shift of the EU water policy (Directive 2007/60/EC, EC 2003) from defense to living with flood, floods shall be faced in the future through resilient solutions, seeking to improve the permanence of flood protection, and getting thus beyond traditional temporary and human-relying solutions. But the fact is that nowadays "Flood Resilient (FRe) Building Technological Products" is an undefined concept, and concerned FRe solutions cannot be even easily identified. "FRe Building Technological materials" is a wide term involving a wide and heterogeneous range of solutions. There is an interest in offering an identification and classification of the referred products, since it will be useful for stakeholders and populations at flood risk for adopting the most adequate protections when facing floods. Thus, a previous schematic classification would enable us at least to identify most of them and to figure out autonomous FRe Technological Products categories subject all of them to intense industrial innovative processes. The flood resilience enhancement of a given element requires providing it enough water-repelling capacity, and different flood resilient solutions can be sorted out: barriers, waterproofing and anticorrosive. Barriers are palliative solutions that can be obtained either from traditional materials, or from technological ones, offering their very low weight and high maneuverability. Belonging barriers and waterproofing systems to industrial branches clearly different, from a conceptual point of view, waterproofing material may complement barriers, and even be considered as autonomous barriers in some cases. Actually, they do not only complement barriers by their application to barriers' singular weak points, like anchors, joints, but on the other hand, waterproofing systems can be applied to enhance the flood resilience of new building, as preventive measure. Anticorrosive systems do belong to a clearly different category

  5. Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes the opportunities and challenges for low-cost renewable hydrogen production from wind and hydropower. The Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower was held September 9-10, 2003.

  6. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael A.; Page, Richard A.

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  7. Space-based bacterial production of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennakoon, C. L.; Bhardwaj, R. C.; Bockris, J. O.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical production of hydrogen by depolarizing the oxygen evolution reaction using human feces and urine, which contains 30-40% bacteria and yeast. The electroactivity of graphite, tungsten carbide, perovskite and RuO2-coated Ebonex (Ti4O7) as anode materials are compared. The scale-up of the process in a laboratory-scale three-dimensional packed bed cell is discussed.

  8. Space-based bacterial production of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennakoon, C. L.; Bhardwaj, R. C.; Bockris, J. O.; Henninger, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical production of hydrogen by depolarizing the oxygen evolution reaction using human feces and urine, which contains 30-40% bacteria and yeast. The electroactivity of graphite, tungsten carbide, perovskite and RuO2-coated Ebonex (Ti4O7) as anode materials are compared. The scale-up of the process in a laboratory-scale three-dimensional packed bed cell is discussed.

  9. Photoelectrolytic production of hydrogen using semiconductor electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Walker, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental data for the photoelectrolytic production of hydrogen using GaAs photoanodes was presented. Four types of GaAs anodes were investigated: polished GaAs, GaAs coated with gold, GaAs coated with silver, and GaAs coated with tin. The maximum measured efficiency using a tungsten light source was 8.9 percent for polished GaAs electrodes and 6.3 percent for tin coated GaAs electrodes.

  10. Analysis of Hydrogen Production from Renewable Electricity Sources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Levene, J. I.; Mann, M. K.; Margolis, R.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-09-01

    To determine the potential for hydrogen production via renewable electricity sources, three aspects of the system are analyzed: a renewable hydrogen resource assessment, a cost analysis of hydrogen production via electrolysis, and the annual energy requirements of producing hydrogen for refueling. The results indicate that ample resources exist to produce transportation fuel from wind and solar power. However, hydrogen prices are highly dependent on electricity prices.

  11. Solar hydrogen production with cerium oxides thermochemical cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binotti, Marco; Di Marcoberardino, Gioele; Biassoni, Mauro; Manzolini, Giampaolo

    2017-06-01

    This paper discusses the hydrogen production using a solar driven thermochemical cycle. The thermochemical cycle is based on nonstoichiometric cerium oxides redox and the solar concentration system is a solar dish. Detailed optical and redox models were developed to optimize the hydrogen production performance as function of several design parameters (i.e. concentration ratio, reactor pressures and temperatures) The efficiency of the considered technology is compared against two commercially available technologies namely PV + electrolyzer and Dish Stirling + electrolyzer. Results show that solar-to-fuel efficiency of 21.2% can be achieved at design condition assuming a concentration ratio around 5000, reduction and oxidation temperatures of 1500°C and 1275 °C. When moving to annual performance, the annual yield of the considered approach can be as high as 16.7% which is about 43% higher than the best competitive technology. The higher performance implies that higher installation costs around 40% can be accepted for the innovative concept to achieve the same cost of hydrogen.

  12. Photocatalytic production of hydrogen from fixed titanium dioxide thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoye, Njideka Helen

    This thesis is focused on further developing of an efficient method for the photocatalytic hydrogen production. The research aimed to use thin films deposited with TiO2 and doped with Pt in order to substitute slurry solutions that are currently being used. A new depositing experimental approach to manufacture the thin films was proposed and tested for both physical properties and chemical reactivity. Therefore, the experiment was designed into two parts: The first part was on the manufacturing and the physical characterization of titanium dioxide deposited on glass surfaces and the second part was focused on the ability of the thin film to produce hydrogen. For the second part, a photochemical reactor vessel was used to properly place the glass slides to UV-irradiation. This was yielded by a mercury lamp located at the centre of the reactor. The thesis is organized into five different chapters including introduction, literature review, characterization of TiO2 coated surface, experimental design and hydrogen production, finally conclusive observations and future work. Hydrogen production by photodecomposition of water into H2 and O2 has a very low efficiency due to rapid reverse reaction and, as mentioned above, it usually requires a slurry type of solution. This needs additional processing steps such as filtration and recycling of particles. Therefore, it is important to develop an efficient process for hydrogen production. TiO2 coated surfaces could be an excellent technological alternative. In this study, a sol-gel method was used to produce a transparent TiO 2 thin film which was deposited on a glass substrate by using a new coating technique introduced in this work for H2 production. The TiO2 deposited film on a glass substrate by using the spraying method of coating was characterized for physical analysis (surface characteristics, size of nanoparticles and distribution, etc.) by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission

  13. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, J.J.; Eyer, J.M.; Horgan, S.A.; Schoenung, S.M. |

    1997-05-01

    In this project, the authors show the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This technical analysis provides estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies have been matched to their most viable (high quality and quantity) regional resources (e.g., examining wind electricity production in high wind resource areas only). The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which is instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity is used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for use later in the day, week or year. The hydrogen production from renewables and hydrogen storage use are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 20% of electric load). Renewable production/utility load/hydrogen storage coupling models have been developed for wind, photovoltaics, and solar thermal. Hydro power (which normally has its own inherent storage capability) has been analyzed separately.

  14. Technology issues associated with using densified hydrogen for space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Whalen, Margaret V.

    1992-01-01

    Slush hydrogen and triple-point hydrogen offer the potential for reducing the size and weight of future space vehicles because these fluids have greater densities than normal-boiling-point liquid hydrogen. In addition, these fluids have greater heat capacities, which make them attractive fuels for such applications as the National Aerospace Plane and cryogenic depots. Some of the benefits of using slush hydrogen and triple-point hydrogen for space missions are quantified. Some of the major issues associated with using these densified cryogenic fuels for space applications are examined, and the technology efforts that have been made to address many of these issues are summarized.

  15. Biochemical and genetic engineering strategies to enhance hydrogen production in photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Srirangan, Kajan; Pyne, Michael E; Perry Chou, C

    2011-09-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen gas is a promising substitute to carbonaceous fuels owing to its superb conversion efficiency, non-polluting nature, and high energy content. At present, hydrogen is predominately synthesized via chemical reformation of fossil fuels. While various biological methods have been extensively explored, none of them is justified as economically feasible. A sustainable platform for biological production of hydrogen will certainly impact the biofuel market. Among a selection of biological systems, algae and cyanobacteria have garnered major interests as potential cell factories for hydrogen production. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms utilize inexpensive inorganic substrates and solar energy for simultaneous biosynthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, the hydrogen yield associated with these organisms remains far too low to compete with the existing chemical systems. This article reviews recent advances of biochemical, bioprocess, and genetic engineering strategies in circumventing technological limitations to hopefully improve the applicative potential of these photosynthetic hydrogen production systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to

  17. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection: Process Performance Package

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-06-01

    This document describes the details of implementing a Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) hydrogen production plant to deploy with the Next General Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP). Technical requirements and specifications are included, and a conceptual plant design is presented. The following areas of interest are outlined in particular as a baseline for the various technology comparisons: (1) Performance Criteria - (a) Quantity of hydrogen produced, (b) Purity of hydrogen produced, (c) Flexibility to serve various applications, (d) Waste management; (2) Economic Considerations - (a) Cost of hydrogen, (b) Development costs; and (3) Risk - (a) Technical maturity of the S-I process, (b) Development risk, (c) Scale up options.

  18. Hydrogen production through solar energy water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, D.

    Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Hydrogen energy production from direct solar energy conversion facilities located on the shores of oceans and lakes is discussed. The electrolysis interface is shown to be conveniently adapted to direct solar energy conversion; this, however, will depend on technical and economic feasibility aspects as they emerge from the research phases. The basic requirements for relatively immense solar collection areas for large-scale central conversion facilities, with widely variable electricity charges, are outlined. The operation of electrolysis and photovoltaic array combination is verified at various insolation levels. It is pointed out that solar cell arrays and electrolyzers are producing the expected results with solar energy inputs that are continuously varying.

  19. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer

  20. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies - Task 1 Report Technology Evaluation of Hydrogen Light Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Rousseau, Aymeric

    2007-12-01

    This task analyzes the candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles for near-term use in the Southeastern U.S. The purpose of this work is to assess their potential in terms of efficiency and performance. This report compares conventional, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with gasoline and hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (ICEs) as well as fuel cell and fuel cell hybrids from a technology as well as fuel economy point of view. All the vehicles have been simulated using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). First, some background information is provided on recent American automotive market trends and consequences. Moreover, available options are presented for introducing cleaner and more economical vehicles in the market in the future. In this study, analysis of various candidate hydrogen-fueled vehicles is performed using PSAT and, thus, a brief description of PSAT features and capabilities are provided. Detailed information on the simulation analysis performed is also offered, including methodology assumptions, fuel economic results, and conclusions from the findings.

  1. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High-Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.; O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Lessing, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    High-temperature electrolytic water-splitting supported by nuclear process heat and electricity has the potential to produce H{sub 2} with an overall system efficiency near those of the hydrocarbon and thermochemical processes, but without the corrosive conditions of thermochemical processes and without the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with hydrocarbon processes. Specifically, a high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%. A research program is under way at INEEL to develop a conceptual design for large-scale nuclear production of hydrogen via planar solid oxide electrolysis technology. The design effort is addressing solid oxide cell materials and configuration, performance, durability, operating conditions, economics, and safety. Single and multiple cell experimental studies are being conducted. Interim results indicate that this technology performs close to theoretical predictions and remains a viable means for hydrogen production using nuclear energy. (authors)

  2. Materials for Hydrogen Production with Integrated CO2 Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Brink, Ruud W.; de Bruijn, Frank A.

    2009-09-01

    Palladium-based membrane reactors and sorption-enhanced water-gas shift are two promising technologies for efficient production of hydrogen with integrated CO2 capture. This paper discusses material issues of the two crucial materials of these technologies: the membrane and the CO2 sorbent. For Pd and Pd-alloy membranes the major issues concern the stability of the membrane and the poisoning of the membrane surface by compound such as sulfur and carbon monoxide. Both issues are addressed by research into novel Pd-alloys. For the potassium-promoted hydrotalcite CO2 sorbents used in sorption-enhanced water gas shift, the main challenges are a high CO2 adsorption capacity, chemical and mechanical stability, and low steam use for sorbent regeneration. Promising results have recently been reported for several of these challenges. For both hydrogen-selective membranes and CO2 sorbents, the interaction of the materials with sulfur is an import issue to enable their use in the production of hydrogen from coal.

  3. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.; Heimiller, D.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  4. Hydrogen Production via a Commercially Ready

    SciTech Connect

    Paul K. T. Liu

    2007-03-31

    The commercial stainless steel (SS) porous substrate (i.e., ZrO{sub 2}/SS from Pall Corp.) was evaluated comprehensively as substrate for the deposition of the CMS membrane for hydrogen separation. The CMS membrane synthesis protocol we developed originally for the ceramic substrate was adapted here for the stainless steel substrate. Unfortunately no successful hydrogen selective membranes had been prepared during Yr I of this project. The characterization results indicated two major sources of defect present in the stainless steel substrate, which may contribute to the poor CMS membrane quality. They include (i) leaking from the crimp boundary of the stainless steel substrate, and (ii) the delamination of the ZrO{sub 2} layer deposited on the stainless steel substrate during CMS membrane preparation. Recently a new batch of the stainless steel substrate (as the 2nd generation product) was received from the supplier. Our characterization results confirm that leaking of the crimp boundary no longer exists. The thermal stability of the ZrO{sub 2}/stainless steel substrate under the CMS membrane preparation condition will be evaluated during the remaining period of the project. Our goal here is to determine the suitability of the 2nd generation ZrO{sub 2}/SS as substrate for the preparation of the CMS membrane for hydrogen separation by the end of this project period.

  5. 40 CFR 415.410 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen production subcategory. 415.410 Section 415.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.410 Applicability; description of the hydrogen production... hydrogen as a refinery by-product....

  6. 40 CFR 415.410 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen production subcategory. 415.410 Section 415.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.410 Applicability; description of the hydrogen production... hydrogen as a refinery by-product....

  7. 40 CFR 415.410 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen production subcategory. 415.410 Section 415.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.410 Applicability; description of the hydrogen production... hydrogen as a refinery by-product....

  8. 40 CFR 415.410 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen production subcategory. 415.410 Section 415.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.410 Applicability; description of the hydrogen production... hydrogen as a refinery by-product....

  9. 40 CFR 415.410 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen production subcategory. 415.410 Section 415.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.410 Applicability; description of the hydrogen production... hydrogen as a refinery by-product....

  10. Hydrogen production by a PEM electrolyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.; González-Huerta, R.; Rivera Camacho, J. M.; Uribe-Salazar, M.

    2015-01-01

    A PEM electrolyser for hydrogen production was evaluated. It was fed with water and a 400 mA, 3.5 V cc electrical power source. The electrolyser was built with two acrylic plates to form the anode and the cathode, two meshes to distribute the current, two seals, two gas diffusers and an assembly membrane-electrode. A small commercial neoprene sheet 1.7 mm thin was used to provide for the water deposit in order to avoid the machining of the structure. For the assembly of the proton interchange membrane a thin square 50 mm layer of Nafion 115 was used.

  11. Hydrogen Production in the U.S. and Worldwide - 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the different categories of hydrogen production (captive, by-product, and merchant) and presents production data for 2013 by industry within these categories. Merchant production data is provided for the top-four industrial gas companies.

  12. Production of hydrogen using an anaerobic biological process

    DOEpatents

    Kramer, Robert; Pelter, Libbie S.; Patterson, John A.

    2016-11-29

    Various embodiments of the present invention pertain to methods for biological production of hydrogen. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention pertain to a modular energy system and related methods for producing hydrogen using organic waste as a feed stock.

  13. Production of hydrogen from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, S.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) includes gasification and the process for producing a gasificable slurry from raw MSW by using high pressures of steam. A potential energy source, MSW is a composite of organic materials such as: paper, wood, food waste, etc. There are different paper grades producing different results with low-quality paper forming better slurries than high-quality papers; making MSW a difficult feedstock for gasification. The objective of the bench-scale laboratory work has been to establish operating conditions for a hydrothermal pre-processing scheme for municipal solid waste (MSW) that produces a good slurry product that can be pumped and atomized to the gasifier for the production of hydrogen. Batch reactors are used to determine product yields as a function of hydrothermal treatment conditions. Various ratios of water-to-paper were used to find out solid product, gas product, and soluble product yields of MSW. Experimental conditions covered were temperature, time, and water to feed ratio. Temperature had the strongest effect on product yields.

  14. Sorption enhanced reaction process for production of hydrogen. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorga, S.G.; Hufton, J.R.; Sircar, S.; Gaffney, T.R.

    1997-07-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most suitable energy sources from both technological and environmental perspectives for the next century, especially in the context of a sustainable global energy economy. The most common industrial process to produce high-purity (99.99+ mol%) hydrogen is to reform natural gas by a catalytic reaction with steam at a high temperature. Conventional steam-methane reforming (SMR) contributed to approximately 2.4 billion standard cubic feet per day (SCFD) of hydrogen production in the US. By 1998, the growth of SMR-produced hydrogen in the US is expected to reach 3.4 billion SCFD, with the increased demand attributed to hydrogen`s use in reformulated gasolines required by the Clean Air Act. The goal of this work is to develop an even more efficient process for reforming steam and methane to hydrogen product than the conventional SMR process. The application of Sorption Enhanced Reaction (SER) technology to SMR has the potential to markedly reduce the cost of hydrogen through lower capital and energy requirements. The development of a more cost-effective route to hydrogen production based on natural gas as the primary energy source will accelerate the transition to a more hydrogen-based economy in the future. The paper describes the process, which includes a sorbent for CO{sub 2} removal, and the various tasks involved in its development.

  15. Microsystems: from technologies to products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryser, Peter

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we outline the process leading from technologies to successful products in the MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) and MST (Microsystems Technology) field. The development of new products involves a lot of factors, such as mature technologies, interdisciplinary team, identifying the right business potential and long term oriented investors. The paper summarizes a survey of different technologies and point out that packaging, test and calibration are still major shortcomings for the concerned industries.

  16. Hydrogen: its production and energy uses. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production, and the Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications, of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, June 25, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This hearing contains the testimony presented to the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production and Energy Development and Applications on the production of hydrogen and it's energy uses. Production methods discussed are thermochemical processes and direct solar hydrogen production from renewable sources such as biomass and water using photobiological, photoelectrolytic, and photochemical means. Current and future uses of hydrogen are covered.

  17. Hydrogen Water Chemistry Technology in Boiling Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien C

    2000-04-15

    Modification of coolant chemistry by feedwater hydrogen addition in boiling water reactors (BWRs), generally called hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), is a viable option to mitigate the intergranular stress corrosion cracking problems for operating BWRs. Some fundamentals in HWC technologies as known today are reviewed. Several full-scale HWC test results are analyzed, and the roles that hydrogen plays in HWC technology are identified and quantitatively evaluated. Some deficiencies in water radiolysis modeling for BWR applications under HWC conditions and the impact of {sup 16}N radiation field increase in the main steam line are also discussed.

  18. Microbial production of hydrogen: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nandi, R; Sengupta, S

    1998-01-01

    Production of hydrogen by anaerobes, facultative anaerobes, aerobes, methylotrophs, and photosynthetic bacteria is possible. Anaerobic Clostridia are potential producers and immobilized C. butyricum produces 2 mol H2/mol glucose at 50% efficiency. Spontaneous production of H2 from formate and glucose by immobilized Escherichia coli showed 100% and 60% efficiencies, respectively. Enterobactericiae produces H2 at similar efficiency from different monosaccharides during growth. Among methylotrophs, methanogenes, rumen bacteria, and thermophilic archae, Ruminococcus albus, is promising (2.37 mol/mol glucose). Immobilized aerobic Bacillus licheniformis optimally produces 0.7 mol H2/mol glucose. Photosynthetic Rhodospirillum rubrum produces 4, 7, and 6 mol of H2 from acetate, succinate, and malate, respectively. Excellent productivity (6.2 mol H2/mol glucose) by co-cultures of Cellulomonas with a hydrogenase uptake (Hup) mutant of R. capsulata on cellulose was found. Cyanobacteria, viz., Anabaena, Synechococcus, and Oscillatoria sp., have been studied for photoproduction of H2. Immobilized A. cylindrica produces H2 (20 ml/g dry wt/h) continually for 1 year. Increased H2 productivity was found for Hup mutant of A. variabilis. Synechococcus sp. has a high potential for H2 production in fermentors and outdoor cultures. Simultaneous productions of oxychemicals and H2 by Klebseilla sp. and by enzymatic methods were also attempted. The fate of H2 biotechnology is presumed to be dictated by the stock of fossil fuel and state of pollution in future.

  19. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  20. Cryogenic hydrogen-induced air-liquefaction technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, William J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive use of a special advanced airbreathing propulsion archives data base, as well as direct contacts with individuals who were active in the field in previous years, a technical assessment of cryogenic hydrogen induced air liquefaction, as a prospective onboard aerospace vehicle process, was performed and documented in 1986. The resulting assessment report is summarized. Technical findings relating the status of air liquefaction technology are presented both as a singular technical area, and also as that of a cluster of collateral technical areas including: Compact lightweight cryogenic heat exchangers; Heat exchanger atmospheric constituents fouling alleviation; Para/ortho hydrogen shift conversion catalysts; Hydrogen turbine expanders, cryogenic air compressors and liquid air pumps; Hydrogen recycling using slush hydrogen as heat sinks; Liquid hydrogen/liquid air rocket type combustion devices; Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES); and Technically related engine concepts.

  1. Hydrogen in the Methanol Production Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralj, Anita Kovac; Glavic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very important industrial gas in chemical processes. It is very volatile; therefore, it can escape from the process units and its mass balance is not always correct. In many industrial processes where hydrogen is reacted, kinetics are often related to hydrogen pressure. The right thermodynamic properties of hydrogen can be found for…

  2. Hydrogen in the Methanol Production Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralj, Anita Kovac; Glavic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very important industrial gas in chemical processes. It is very volatile; therefore, it can escape from the process units and its mass balance is not always correct. In many industrial processes where hydrogen is reacted, kinetics are often related to hydrogen pressure. The right thermodynamic properties of hydrogen can be found for…

  3. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ghirardi, Maria L

    2006-08-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms are capable of absorbing light and storing up to 10-13% of its energy into the H-H bond of hydrogen gas. This process, which takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms to convert sunlight into chemical energy, could conceivably be harnessed for production of significant amounts of energy from a renewable resource, water. The harnessed energy could then be coupled to a fuel cell for electricity generation and recycling of water molecules. In this review, current biochemical understanding of this reaction in green algae, and some of the major challenges facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production have been discussed.

  4. Challenges and opportunities for hydrogen production from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Oey, Melanie; Sawyer, Anne Linda; Ross, Ian Lawrence; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-07-01

    The global population is predicted to increase from ~7.3 billion to over 9 billion people by 2050. Together with rising economic growth, this is forecast to result in a 50% increase in fuel demand, which will have to be met while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions by 50-80% to maintain social, political, energy and climate security. This tension between rising fuel demand and the requirement for rapid global decarbonization highlights the need to fast-track the coordinated development and deployment of efficient cost-effective renewable technologies for the production of CO2 neutral energy. Currently, only 20% of global energy is provided as electricity, while 80% is provided as fuel. Hydrogen (H2 ) is the most advanced CO2 -free fuel and provides a 'common' energy currency as it can be produced via a range of renewable technologies, including photovoltaic (PV), wind, wave and biological systems such as microalgae, to power the next generation of H2 fuel cells. Microalgae production systems for carbon-based fuel (oil and ethanol) are now at the demonstration scale. This review focuses on evaluating the potential of microalgal technologies for the commercial production of solar-driven H2 from water. It summarizes key global technology drivers, the potential and theoretical limits of microalgal H2 production systems, emerging strategies to engineer next-generation systems and how these fit into an evolving H2 economy.

  5. Methanol Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Daniel R.; Dagle, Robert A.; Holladay, Jamie D.

    2007-09-11

    Review article covering developments in methanol steam reforming in the context of PEM fuel cell power systems. Subjects covered include methanol background, use, and production, comparison to other fuels, power system considerations, militrary requirements, competing technologies, catalyst development, and reactor and system development and demonstration.

  6. Hydrogen delivery technology rRoadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen holds the long-term potential to solve two critical problems related to the energy infrastructure: U.S. dependence on foreign oil and U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The U.S. transportation sector is almost completely reliant on petroleum, over half of which is currently imported, and tailpipe emissions remain one of the country’s key air quality concerns. Fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen produced from domestically available resources – including renewable resources, coal with carbon sequestration, or nuclear energy – would dramatically decrease greenhouse gases and other emissions, and would reduce dependence on oil from politically volatile regions of the world. Clean, domestically-produced hydrogen could also be used to generate electricity in stationary fuel cells at power plants, further extending national energy and environmental benefits.

  7. Hydrogen Production via a Commerically Ready Inorganic membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Liu

    2007-06-30

    It has been known that use of the hydrogen selective membrane as a reactor (MR) could potentially improve the efficiency of the water shift reaction (WGS), one of the least efficient unit operations for production of high purity hydrogen from syngas. However, no membrane reactor technology has been reduced to industrial practice thus far, in particular for a large-scale operation. This implementation and commercialization barrier is attributed to the lack of a commercially viable hydrogen selective membrane with (1) material stability under the application environment and (2) suitability for large-scale operation. Thus, in this project, we have focused on (1) the deposition of the hydrogen selective carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane we have developed on commercially available membranes as substrate, and (2) the demonstration of the economic viability of the proposed WGS-MR for hydrogen production from coal-based syngas. The commercial stainless steel (SS) porous substrate (i.e., ZrO{sub 2}/SS from Pall Corp.) was evaluated comprehensively as the 1st choice for the deposition of the CMS membrane for hydrogen separation. The CMS membrane synthesis protocol we developed previously for the ceramic substrate was adapted here for the stainless steel substrate. Unfortunately no successful hydrogen selective membranes had been prepared during Yr I of this project. The characterization results indicated two major sources of defect present in the SS substrate, which may have contributed to the poor CMS membrane quality. Near the end of the project period, an improved batch of the SS substrate (as the 2nd generation product) was received from the supplier. Our characterization results confirm that leaking of the crimp boundary no longer exists. However, the thermal stability of the ZrO{sub 2}/SS substrate through the CMS membrane preparation condition must be re-evaluated in the future. In parallel with the SS membrane activity, the preparation of the CMS membranes

  8. Integrated analysis of transportation demand pathway options for hydrogen production, storage, and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.S.

    1996-10-01

    Directed Technologies, Inc. has begun the development of a computer model with the goal of providing guidance to the Hydrogen Program Office regarding the most cost effective use of limited resources to meet national energy security and environmental goals through the use of hydrogen as a major energy carrier. The underlying assumption of this programmatic pathway model is that government and industry must work together to bring clean hydrogen energy devices into the marketplace. Industry cannot provide the long term resources necessary to overcome technological, regulatory, institutional, and perceptual barriers to the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, and government cannot provide the substantial investments required to develop hydrogen energy products and increased hydrogen production capacity. The computer model recognizes this necessary government/industry partnership by determining the early investments required by government to bring hydrogen energy end uses within the time horizon and profitability criteria of industry, and by estimating the subsequent investments required by industry. The model then predicts the cost/benefit ratio for government, based on contributions of each hydrogen project to meeting societal goals, and it predicts the return on investment for industry. Sensitivity analyses with respect to various government investments such as hydrogen research and development and demonstration projects will then provide guidance as to the most cost effective mix of government actions. The initial model considers the hydrogen transportation market, but this programmatic pathway methodology will be extended to other market segments in the future.

  9. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  10. A review of nickel hydrogen battery technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Odonnell, Patricia M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper on nickel hydrogen batteries is an overview of the various nickel hydrogen battery design options, technical accomplishments, validation test results and trends. There is more than one nickel hydrogen battery design, each having its advantage for specific applications. The major battery designs are individual pressure vessel (IPV), common pressure vessel (CPV), bipolar and low pressure metal hydride. State-of-the-art (SOA) nickel hydrogen batteries are replacing nickel cadmium batteries in almost all geosynchronous orbit (GEO) applications requiring power above 1 kW. However, for the more severe low earth orbit (LEO) applications (greater than 30,000 cycles), the current cycle life of 4000 to 10,000 cycles at 60 percent DOD should be improved. A NASA Lewis Research Center innovative advanced design IPV nickel hydrogen cell led to a breakthrough in cycle life enabling LEO applications at deep depths of discharge (DOD). A trend for some future satellites is to increase the power level to greater than 6 kW. Another trend is to decrease the power to less than 1 kW for small low cost satellites. Hence, the challenge is to reduce battery mass, volume and cost. A key is to develop a light weight nickel electrode and alternate battery designs. A common pressure vessel (CPV) nickel hydrogen battery is emerging as a viable alternative to the IPV design. It has the advantage of reduced mass, volume and manufacturing costs. A 10 Ah CPV battery has successfully provided power on the relatively short lived Clementine Spacecraft. A bipolar nickel hydrogen battery design has been demonstrated (15,000 LEO cycles, 40 percent DOD). The advantage is also a significant reduction in volume, a modest reduction in mass, and like most bipolar designs, features a high pulse power capability. A low pressure aerospace nickel metal hydride battery cell has been developed and is on the market. It is a prismatic design which has the advantage of a significant reduction in volume and a

  11. Towards efficient solar hydrogen production by intercalated carbon nitride photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Gao, Honglin; Yan, Shicheng; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Yu An; Wang, Peng; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-11-07

    The development of efficient photocatalytic material for converting solar energy to hydrogen energy as viable alternatives to fossil-fuel technologies is expected to revolutionize energy shortage and environment issues. However, to date, the low quantum yield for solar hydrogen production over photocatalysts has hindered advances in the practical applications of photocatalysis. Here, we show that a carbon nitride intercalation compound (CNIC) synthesized by a simple molten salt route is an efficient polymer photocatalyst with a high quantum yield. We found that coordinating the alkali metals into the C-N plane of carbon nitride will induce the un-uniform spatial charge distribution. The electrons are confined in the intercalated region while the holes are in the far intercalated region, which promoted efficient separation of photogenerated carriers. The donor-type alkali metal ions coordinating into the nitrogen pots of carbon nitrides increase the free carrier concentration and lead to the formation of novel nonradiative paths. This should favor improved transport of the photogenerated electron and hole and decrease the electron-hole recombination rate. As a result, the CNIC exhibits a quantum yield as high as 21.2% under 420 nm light irradiation for solar hydrogen production. Such high quantum yield opens up new opportunities for using cheap semiconducting polymers as energy transducers.

  12. High-yield hydrogen production by catalytic gasification of coal or biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    Gasification of coal or wood, catalyzed by soluble metallic cations to maximize reaction rates and hydrogen yields, offers a potential for large-scale, economical hydrogen production with near-commercial technology. With optimum reaction conditions and catalysts, product gas rich in both hydrogen and methane can be used in fuel cells to produce electricity at efficiencies nearly double those of conventional power plant. If plantation silvaculture techniques can produce wood at a raw energy cost competitive with coal, further enhancement of product gas yields may be possible, with zero net contribution of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere.

  13. Method for low temperature catalytic production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2003-07-22

    The invention provides a process for the catalytic production of a hydrogen feed by exposing a hydrogen feed to a catalyst which promotes a base-catalyzed water-gas-shift reaction in a liquid phase. The hydrogen feed can be provided by any process known in the art of making hydrogen gas. It is preferably provided by a process that can produce a hydrogen feed for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The step of exposing the hydrogen feed takes place preferably from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C.

  14. U-GAS process for production of hydrogen from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.J.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Today, hydrogen is produced mainly from natural gas and petroleum fractions. Tomorrow, because reserves of natural gas and oil are declining while demand continues to increase, they cannot be considered available for long-term, large-scale production of hydrogen. Hydrogen obtained from coal is expected to be the lowest cost, large-scale source of hydrogen in the future. The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of hydrogen is discussed. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of hydrogen manufactured are presented.

  15. Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

    2010-06-01

    This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

  16. Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

    2007-07-31

    IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

  17. The USDOE Hydrogen Program: Status and Performance Gaps of On-board Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordaz, Grace; Gardiner, Monterey; Read, Carole; Stetson, Ned

    2009-03-01

    The USDOE Hydrogen Program's mission is to reduce oil use and carbon emissions in the US transportation sector and to enable clean, reliable energy for stationary and portable power generation. The requirements for vehicular hydrogen storage continue to be one of the most technically challenging barriers to the widespread commercialization of hydrogen fueled vehicles. The DOE applied hydrogen storage activity focuses primarily on the research and development of low-pressure, materials-based technologies to allow for a North American market driving range of more than 300 miles (500 km) while meeting packaging, cost, safety, and performance requirements to be competitive with current vehicles. This presentation summarizes the status, recent accomplishments and current performance gaps of hydrogen storage technologies primarily for transportation applications. Materials projects are focused in three main areas: metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage materials, and hydrogen sorbents. A new effort is the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence which will provide a coordinated approach to the engineering research and development of on-board storage and refueling systems. The presentation will especially highlight topics emphasized in the session theme.

  18. A New Hydrogen-Producing Strain and Its Characterization of Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingxing; Lv, Yongkang; Liu, Yuxiang

    2015-12-01

    A newly isolated photo non-sulfur (PNS) bacterium was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris PB-Z by sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes and phylogenetic analysis. Under vigorous stirring (240 rpm), the hydrogen production performances were greatly improved: The maximum hydrogen production rate and cumulative hydrogen production increased by 188.9 ± 0.07 % and 83.0 ± 0.06 %, respectively, due to the hydrogen bubbles were immediately removed from the culture medium. The effects of different wavelength of light on hydrogen production with stirring were much different from that without stirring. The ranking on the photo-hydrogen production performance was white > yellow > green > blue > red without stirring and white > yellow > blue > red > green under stirring. The best light source for hydrogen production was tungsten filament lamp. The optimum temperature was 35 °C. The maximal hydrogen production rate and cumulative hydrogen production reached 78.7 ± 2.3 ml/l/h and 1728.1 ± 92.7 mol H2/l culture, respectively, under 35 °C, 240 rpm, and illumination of 4000 lux. Pyruvate was one of the main sources of CO2 and has a great impact on the gas composition.

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of different options for the production of hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Amos, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    To determine their technical and economic viability and to provide insight into where each technology is in its development cycle, different options to produce hydrogen from sunlight, wind, and biomass were studied. Additionally, costs for storing and transporting hydrogen were determined for different hydrogen quantities and storage times. The analysis of hydrogen from sunlight examined the selling price of hydrogen from two technologies: direct photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of sunlight and photovoltaic (PV)-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. The wind analysis was based on wind-generated electricity production followed by electrolysis. In addition to the base case analyses, which assume that hydrogen is the sole product, three alternative scenarios explore the economic impact of integrating the PV- and wind-based systems with the electric utility grid. Results show that PEC hydrogen production has the potential to be economically feasible. Additionally, the economics of the PV and wind electrolysis systems are improved by interaction with the grid. The analysis of hydrogen from biomass focused on three gasification technologies. The systems are: low pressure, indirectly-heated gasification followed by steam reforming; high pressure, oxygen-blown gasification followed by steam reforming; and pyrolysis followed by partial oxidation. For each of the systems studied, the downstream process steps include shift conversion followed by hydrogen purification. Only the low pressure system produces hydrogen within the range of the current industry selling prices (typically $0.7--$2/kg, or $5--14/GJ on a HHV basis). A sensitivity analysis showed that, for the other two systems, in order to bring the hydrogen selling price down to $2/kg, negative-priced feedstocks would be required.

  20. The sulfur thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokiya, M.

    1981-07-01

    Results of research on sulfur-cycle hydrogen production are presented. An H2S cycle using MoS2 as a catalyst is mentioned as showing promise for thermochemical water splitting, with an equilibrium reaction yield of 7%. Use of I or Pt as catalysts raised efficiencies to 16 and 12%, respectively, and further studies employing hybrid cycles with CO2-S and noble metals are reviewed. Thermal decomposition reactions with sulfuric acid are examined, noting a potential 30% thermal efficiency, and sulfur cycle research being undertaken at various industrial laboratories is outlined. It is noted that experiments with sulfuric acid salts for water electrolysis at Los Alamos will probably use solar collectors as a heat source.

  1. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Chang H [Idaho Falls, ID; Kim, Eung S [Ammon, ID; Sherman, Steven R [Augusta, GA

    2012-03-13

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  2. Recent work in advanced hydrogen production concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogen photoelectrolytic conversion activity investigated the practicability of semiconductor electrolytic devises that use solar energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an apparent single step process. The photocatalytic decomposition of inorganic hydrogen compounds; i.e., hydrobromic and hydriodic acids using rhodium organic bridge complexes were also studied. The feasibility of direct high temperature thermal decompositions of water with diffusion processes for separation of the equilibrium mixture of hydrogen and oxygen into usable energy sources was examined.

  3. Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    contribute to understanding of some basic surface physics problems such as adsorption , atomic scattering, desorption mechanisms * and electron transfer in atom...atomic hydrogen and insensitive to molecular hydrogen. Its cisadvantage is easy saturation with hydrogen occurring at higher hydrogen fluxes. It is...should be able to model the dynamic process, and we plan to study this in the future. When the surface is exposed to the cesium beam for a long enough

  4. Recent work in advanced hydrogen production concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogen photoelectrolytic conversion activity investigated the practicability of semiconductor electrolytic devises that use solar energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an apparent single step process. The photocatalytic decomposition of inorganic hydrogen compounds; i.e., hydrobromic and hydriodic acids using rhodium organic bridge complexes were also studied. The feasibility of direct high temperature thermal decompositions of water with diffusion processes for separation of the equilibrium mixture of hydrogen and oxygen into usable energy sources was examined.

  5. Recent work in advanced hydrogen production concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1981-03-01

    The hydrogen photoelectrolytic conversion activity investigated the practicability of semiconductor electrolytic devises that use solar energy to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an apparent single step process. The photocatalytic decomposition of inorganic hydrogen compounds; i.e., hydrobromic and hydriodic acids using rhodium organic bridge complexes were also studied. The feasibility of direct high temperature thermal decompositions of water with diffusion processes for separation of the equilibrium mixture of hydrogen and oxygen into usable energy sources was examined.

  6. Critical Research for Cost-Effective Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liwei; Deng, Xunming; Abken, Anka; Cao, Xinmin; Du, Wenhui; Vijh, Aarohi; Ingler, William; Chen, Changyong; Fan, Qihua; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Yan, Yanfa; Giolando, Dean; Turner, John

    2014-10-29

    The objective of this project is to develop critical technologies required for cost-effective production of hydrogen from sunlight and water using a-Si triple junction solar cell based photo-electrodes. In this project, Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE) and its collaborating organizations utilize triple junction a-Si thin film solar cells as the core element to fabricate photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells. Triple junction a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe solar cell is an ideal material for making cost-effective PEC system which uses sun light to split water and generate hydrogen. It has the following key features: 1) It has an open circuit voltage (Voc ) of ~ 2.3V and has an operating voltage around 1.6V. This is ideal for water splitting. There is no need to add a bias voltage or to inter-connect more than one solar cell. 2) It is made by depositing a-Si/a-SiGe/aSi-Ge thin films on a conducting stainless steel substrate which can serve as an electrode. When we immerse the triple junction solar cells in an electrolyte and illuminate it under sunlight, the voltage is large enough to split the water, generating oxygen at the Si solar cell side (for SS/n-i-p/sunlight structure) and hydrogen at the back, which is stainless steel side. There is no need to use a counter electrode or to make any wire connection. 3) It is being produced in large rolls of 3ft wide and up to 5000 ft long stainless steel web in a 25MW roll-to-roll production machine. Therefore it can be produced at a very low cost. After several years of research with many different kinds of material, we have developed promising transparent, conducting and corrosion resistant (TCCR) coating material; we carried out extensive research on oxygen and hydrogen generation catalysts, developed methods to make PEC electrode from production-grade a-Si solar cells; we have designed and tested various PEC module cases and carried out extensive outdoor testing; we were able to obtain a solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH

  7. Hydrogen from algal biomass: A review of production process.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Archita; Arya, Shailendra Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels. Algal biomass has been considered as an enticing raw material for biofuel production, these days photobioreactors and open-air systems are being used for hydrogen production from algal biomass. The formers allow the careful cultivation control whereas the latter ones are cheaper and simpler. A contemporary, encouraging optimization access has been included called algal cell immobilization on various matrixes which has resulted in marked increase in the productivity per volume of a reactor and addition of the hydrogen-production phase.

  8. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more

  9. Insect mass production technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects provide a very promising alternative for the future production of animal protein. Their nutritional value in conjunction with their food conversion efficiency and low water requirements, make them a more sustainable choice for the production of food and animal origin. However, to realize the...

  10. Fuel for Life: Aluminum Energy Technologies for Electricity Generation by Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenak, P.; Shani, E.

    The novel energy generation, by means of a unique hydrogen production method, creates an opportunity to tackle some important social and environmental factors that determine our sustainable development and personal health. Hydrogen can be produced from a spontaneous chemical reaction in an Al-water system, at a relatively low cost, by bringing aluminum and water into contact, with sodium hydroxide as the catalyst and using an energy source derived from aluminum waste. In our experiments, hydrogen of extremely high-purity was obtained and was used in commercial fuel cell facilities to produce electricity. The hydrogen was produced from recyclable material without supplementary energy and with almost no air pollution. We propose that aluminum technologies for fuel cells could become an integral part of the solution for an economical, clean, low-polluting source of energy. The process is lightweight and largely recyclable and offers opportunities for the commercialization of multiple technologies.

  11. Thermal management technology for hydrogen storage: Fullerene option

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Chen, F.C.; Murphy, R.W.

    1996-10-01

    Fullerenes are selected as the first option for investigating advanced thermal management technologies for hydrogen storage because of their potentially high volumetric and gravimetric densities. Experimental results indicate that about 6 wt% of hydrogen (corresponding to C{sub 60}H{sub 48}) can be added to and taken out of fullerenes. A model assuming thermally activated hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes was developed to explain the experimental findings. The activation energies were estimated to be 100 and 160 kJ/mole (1.0 and 1.6 eV/H{sub 2}) for the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes, respectively. The difference is interpreted as the heat released during hydrogenation. There are indications that the activation energies and the heat of hydrogenation can be modified by the use of catalysts. Preliminary hydrogen storage simulations for a conceptually simple device were performed. A 1-m long hollow metal cylinder with an inner diameter of 0.02 m was assumed to be filled with fullerene powders. The results indicate that the thermal diffusivity of the fullerenes controls the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation rates. The rates can be significantly modified by changing the thermal diffusivity of the material inside the cylinder, e.g., by incorporating a metal mesh. Results from the simulation suggest that thermal management is essential for efficient hydrogen storage devices using fullerenes. While the preliminary models developed in this study explain some of the observation, more controlled experiments, rigorous model development, and physical property determinations are needed for the development of practical hydrogen storage devices. The use of catalysts to optimize the hydrogen storage characteristics of fullerenes also needs to be pursued. Future cooperative work between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Material & Electrochemical Research Corporation (MER) is planned to address these needs.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3 < 7 mm) and 35% had severe periodontal breakdown (CAL > 7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket.

  13. A microBio reactor for hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect

    Volponi, Joanne V.; Walker, Andrew William

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the potential of developing a microfluidic reactor capable of enzymatically converting glucose and other carbohydrates to hydrogen. This aggressive project was motivated by work in enzymatic hydrogen production done by Woodward et al. at OWL. The work reported here demonstrated that hydrogen could be produced from the enzymatic oxidation of glucose. Attempts at immobilizing the enzymes resulted in reduced hydrogen production rates, probably due to buffer compatibility issues. A novel in-line sensor was also developed to monitor hydrogen production in real time at levels below 1 ppm. Finally, a theoretical design for the microfluidic reactor was developed but never produced due to the low production rates of hydrogen from the immobilized enzymes. However, this work demonstrated the potential of mimicking biological systems to create energy on the microscale.

  14. Microfabricated hydrogen sensor technology for aerospace and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1994-08-01

    Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

  15. Microfabricated hydrogen sensor technology for aerospace and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, Randall L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, Darby B.; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, William T.

    1994-10-01

    Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

  16. Microfabricated Hydrogen Sensor Technology for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

  17. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  18. Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1996-06-28

    We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

  19. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Bell, C.M.; Chow, P.; Louie, J.; Mohr, J.M.; Peinemann, K.V.; Pinnau, I.; Wijmans, J.G.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L.

    1990-10-01

    The production of hydrogen from synthesis gas made by gasification of coal is expensive. The separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas is a major cost element in the total process. In this report we describe the results of a program aimed at the development of membranes and membrane modules for the separation and purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The performance properties of the developed membranes were used in an economic evaluation of membrane gas separation systems in the coal gasification process. Membranes tested were polyetherimide and a polyamide copolymer. The work began with an examination of the chemical separations required to produce hydrogen from synthesis gas, identification of three specific separations where membranes might be applicable. A range of membrane fabrication techniques and module configurations were investigated to optimize the separation properties of the membrane materials. Parametric data obtained were used to develop the economic comparison of processes incorporating membranes with a base-case system without membranes. The computer calculations for the economic analysis were designed and executed. Finally, we briefly investigated alternative methods of performing the three separations in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The three potential opportunities for membranes in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas are: (1) separation of hydrogen from nitrogen as the final separation in a air-blown or oxygen-enriched air-blown gasification process, (2) separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to reduce or eliminate the conventional ethanolamine acid gas removal unit, and (3) separation of hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide form carbon monoxide prior to the shift reactor to influence the shift reaction. 28 refs., 54 figs., 40 tabs.

  20. Production of low-cost hydrogen. Final report, September 1989--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Significant technical progress has been made over the last decade to develop efficient processes for upgrading coal resources to distillable hydrocarbons which may be used to displace petroleum-derived fuels. While several different direct coal liquefaction routes are under investigation, each of them have in common the need for large quantities of hydrogen to convert the aromatic coal matrix to liquid products in the normal distillation range, and for hydrotreating to improve liquid product quality. In fact, it has been estimated that the production, recovery, and efficient use of hydrogen accounts for over 50 percent of the capital cost of the liquefaction facility. For this reason, improved methods for producing low-cost hydrogen are essential to the operating economics of the liquefaction process. This Final Report provides an assessment of the application of the MTCI indirect gasification technology for the production of low-cost hydrogen from coal feedstocks. The MTCI gasification technology is unique in that it overcomes many of the problems and issues associated with direct and other indirectly heated coal gasification systems. Although the MTCI technology can be utilized for producing hydrogen from almost any carbonaceous feedstock (fossil, biomass and waste), this report presents the results of an experimental program sponsored by the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center, to demonstrate the production of hydrogen from coal, mild gasification chars, and liquefaction bottoms.

  1. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

  2. A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

    2001-02-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

  3. Hydrogen Production by the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Zürrer, Hans; Bachofen, Reinhard

    1979-01-01

    Continuous photosynthetic production of hydrogen by Rhodospirillum rubrum in batch cultures was observed up to 80 days with the hydrogen donor, pure lactate or lactic acid-containing wastes, supplied periodically. Hydrogen was produced at an average rate of 6 ml/h per g (dry weight) of cells with whey as a hydrogen donor. In continuous cultures with glutamate as a growth-limiting nitrogen source and lactate as a hydrogen donor, hydrogen was evolved at a rate of 20 ml/h per g (dry weight). The composition of the gas evolved remained practically constant (70 to 75% H2, 25 to 30% CO2). Photosynthetic bacteria processing specific organic wastes could be an advantage in large-scale production of hydrogen together with food protein of high value, compared to other biological systems. Images PMID:16345375

  4. Sustainable production of green feed from carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Landau, Miron V; Vidruk, Roxana; Herskowitz, Moti

    2014-03-01

    Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form hydrocarbons was conducted on two iron-based catalysts, prepared according to procedures described in the literature, and on a new iron spinel catalyst. The CO2 conversion measured in a packed-bed reactor was limited to about 60% because of excessive amounts of water produced in this process. Switching to a system of three packed-bed reactors in series with interim removal of water and condensed hydrocarbons increased CO2 conversion to as much as 89%. The pure spinel catalyst displayed a significantly higher activity and selectivity than those of the other iron catalysts. This process produces a product called green feed, which is similar in composition to the product of a high-temperature, iron-based Fischer–Tropsch process from syngas. The green feed can be readily converted into renewable fuels by well-established technologies.

  5. Advanced supersonic technology concept study: Hydrogen fueled configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of hydrogen fueled supersonic transport configurations for the 1990 time period were developed and compared with equivalent technology Jet A-1 fueled vehicles to determine the economic and performance potential of liquid hydrogen as an alternate fuel. Parametric evaluations of supersonic cruise vehicles with varying design and transport mission characteristics established the basis for selecting a preferred configuration which was then studied in greater detail. An assessment was made of the general viability of the selected concept including an evaluation of costs and environmental considerations, i.e., exhaust emissions and sonic boom characteristics. Technology development requirements and suggested implementation schedules are presented.

  6. Process for the thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Norman, John H.; Russell, Jr., John L.; Porter, II, John T.; McCorkle, Kenneth H.; Roemer, Thomas S.; Sharp, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen is thermochemically produced from water in a cycle wherein a first reaction produces hydrogen iodide and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 by the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water under conditions which cause two distinct aqueous phases to be formed, i.e., a lighter sulfuric acid-bearing phase and a heavier hydrogen iodide-bearing phase. After separation of the two phases, the heavier phase containing most of the hydrogen iodide is treated, e.g., at a high temperature, to decompose the hydrogen iodide and recover hydrogen and iodine. The H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is pyrolyzed to recover sulfur dioxide and produce oxygen.

  7. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  8. Fermentative hydrogen production from agroindustrial lignocellulosic substrates

    PubMed Central

    Reginatto, Valeria; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    To achieve economically competitive biological hydrogen production, it is crucial to consider inexpensive materials such as lignocellulosic substrate residues derived from agroindustrial activities. It is possible to use (1) lignocellulosic materials without any type of pretreatment, (2) lignocellulosic materials after a pretreatment step, and (3) lignocellulosic materials hydrolysates originating from a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the current literature data on fermentative H2 production presented in this review, thermophilic conditions produce H2 in yields approximately 75% higher than those obtained in mesophilic conditions using untreated lignocellulosic substrates. The average H2 production from pretreated material is 3.17 ± 1.79 mmol of H2/g of substrate, which is approximately 50% higher compared with the average yield achieved using untreated materials (2.17 ± 1.84 mmol of H2/g of substrate). Biological pretreatment affords the highest average yield 4.54 ± 1.78 mmol of H2/g of substrate compared with the acid and basic pretreatment - average yields of 2.94 ± 1.85 and 2.41 ± 1.52 mmol of H2/g of substrate, respectively. The average H2 yield from hydrolysates, obtained from a pretreatment step and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.78 ± 1.92 mmol of H2/g), was lower compared with the yield of substrates pretreated by biological methods only, demonstrating that it is important to avoid the formation of inhibitors generated by chemical pretreatments. Based on this review, exploring other microorganisms and optimizing the pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions can make the use of lignocellulosic substrates a sustainable way to produce H2. PMID:26273246

  9. Fermentative hydrogen production from agroindustrial lignocellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Valeria; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos

    2015-06-01

    To achieve economically competitive biological hydrogen production, it is crucial to consider inexpensive materials such as lignocellulosic substrate residues derived from agroindustrial activities. It is possible to use (1) lignocellulosic materials without any type of pretreatment, (2) lignocellulosic materials after a pretreatment step, and (3) lignocellulosic materials hydrolysates originating from a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. According to the current literature data on fermentative H2 production presented in this review, thermophilic conditions produce H2 in yields approximately 75% higher than those obtained in mesophilic conditions using untreated lignocellulosic substrates. The average H2 production from pretreated material is 3.17 ± 1.79 mmol of H2/g of substrate, which is approximately 50% higher compared with the average yield achieved using untreated materials (2.17 ± 1.84 mmol of H2/g of substrate). Biological pretreatment affords the highest average yield 4.54 ± 1.78 mmol of H2/g of substrate compared with the acid and basic pretreatment - average yields of 2.94 ± 1.85 and 2.41 ± 1.52 mmol of H2/g of substrate, respectively. The average H2 yield from hydrolysates, obtained from a pretreatment step and enzymatic hydrolysis (3.78 ± 1.92 mmol of H2/g), was lower compared with the yield of substrates pretreated by biological methods only, demonstrating that it is important to avoid the formation of inhibitors generated by chemical pretreatments. Based on this review, exploring other microorganisms and optimizing the pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions can make the use of lignocellulosic substrates a sustainable way to produce H2.

  10. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  11. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office - 2015

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-01-08

    This FY 2015 report updates the results of an effort to identify and document the commercial and emerging (projected to be commercialized within the next 3 to 5 years) hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products that resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support through the Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  12. System for the co-production of electricity and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Anderson, Brian Lee

    2007-10-02

    Described herein is a system for the co-generation of hydrogen gas and electricity, wherein the proportion of hydrogen to electricity can be adjusted from 0% to 100%. The system integrates fuel cell technology for power generation with fuel-assisted steam-electrolysis. A hydrocarbon fuel, a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, or a partially reformed hydrocarbon fuel can be fed into the system.

  13. Advanced hydrogen/methanol utilization technology demonstration. Phase II: Hydrogen cold start of a methanol vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the Phase 11 Final Report on NREL Subcontract No. XR-2-11175-1 {open_quotes}Advanced Hydrogen/Methane Utilization Demonstration{close_quotes} between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, Golden, Colorado and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. (HCI), Littleton, Colorado. Mr. Chris Colucci was NREL`s Technical Monitor. Colorado State University`s (CSU) Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was HCI`s subcontractor. Some of the vehicle test work was carried out at the National Center for Vehicle Emissions Control and Safety (NCVECS) at CSU. The collaboration of the Colorado School of Mines is also gratefully acknowledged. Hydrogen is unique among alternative fuels in its ability to burn over a wide range of mixtures in air with no carbon-related combustion products. Hydrogen also has the ability to burn on a catalyst, starting from room temperature. Hydrogen can be made from a variety of renewable energy resources and is expected to become a widely used energy carrier in the sustainable energy system of the future. One way to make a start toward widespread use of hydrogen in the energy system is to use it sparingly with other alternative fuels. The Phase I work showed that strong affects could be achieved with dilute concentrations of hydrogen in methane (11). Reductions in emissions greater than the proportion of hydrogen in the fuel provide a form of leverage to stimulate the early introduction of hydrogen. Per energy unit or per dollar of hydrogen, a greater benefit is derived than simply displacing fossil-fueled vehicles with pure hydrogen vehicles.

  14. [Continuous bio-hydrogen production by mesophilic and thermophilic cultures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-E; Cui, Long-Tao; Xing, Wei; Yang, Yang

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic biological hydrogen productions were achieved successfully in two lab-scale anaerobic hydrogen production reactors under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions, respectively. The mesophilic reactor, a CSTR, was operated over 4 months by seeding with river sediments and feeding with glucose solution, in which the highest hydrogen production rate was 8.6 L/(L x d) and the substrate hydrogen production molar ratio (H2/glucose) was 1.98. After seeded with anaerobic methanogenic granules, a UASB reactor was thermophilically operated by feeding with sucrose solution and during its steady operation period, the hydrogen production rate was 6.8 L/(L x d) and the substrate hydrogen production molar ratio (H2/sucrose) was 3.6. Within the produced gas, the H2 percentages were about 43% and others were CO2, no methane could be detected. Thermophilic hydrogen-producing granules were successfully cultivated in the UASB reactor, which were grey-white in color, the diameters were about 0.8 - 1.2 mm, and typical settling velocities were about 30 - 40 m/h. Through SEM a great number of bacilli could be found on the surface of the granules which made the surface rough. Total DNA of these two hydrogen production sludges were extracted and purified, and the PCR and DGGE process were conducted, the results indicate that most of the eubacteria in two sludges are the same, but the dominant species are obviously different with each other.

  15. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia

  16. Hydrogen/oxygen auxiliary propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of hydogen/oxygen (H/O) auxiliary propulsion system (APS) concepts and low thrust H/O rocket technology. A review of H/O APS studies performed for the Space Shuttle, Space Tug, Space Station Freedom, and Advanced Manned Launch System programs is given. The survey also includes a review of low thrust H/O rocket technology programs, covering liquid H/O and gaseous H/O thrusters, ranging from 6600 N to 440 mN thrust. Ignition concepts for H/O thrusters and high-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials are also reviewed.

  17. Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Bockris, John O’M.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech. PMID:28824125

  18. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Datta, R.; Randhava, S.S.; Tsai, S.P.

    1997-09-02

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} laden permeate. 1 fig.

  19. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Rathin; Randhava, Sarabjit S.; Tsai, Shih-Perng

    1997-01-01

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H.sub.2 O.sub.2 laden permeate.

  20. Fluidic hydrogen detector production prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, G. W.; Wright, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen gas sensor that can replace catalytic combustion sensors used to detect leaks in the liquid hydrogen transfer systems at Kennedy Space Center was developed. A fluidic sensor concept, based on the principle that the frequency of a fluidic oscillator is proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of its operating fluid, was utilized. To minimize sensitivity to pressure and temperature fluctuations, and to make the sensor specific for hydrogen, two oscillators are used. One oscillator operates on sample gas containing hydrogen, while the other operates on sample gas with the hydrogen converted to steam. The conversion is accomplished with a small catalytic converter. The frequency difference is taken, and the hydrogen concentration computed with a simple digital processing circuit. The output from the sensor is an analog signal proportional to hydrogen content. The sensor is shown to be accurate and insensitive to severe environmental disturbances. It is also specific for hydrogen, even with large helium concentrations in the sample gas.

  1. [Electrochemically active microorganisms and electrolytically assisted fermentative hydrogen production--a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Jianchang; Zhang, Wudi; Yin, Fang; Xu, Rui; Chen, Yubao

    2009-06-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production can be improved by electrolysis and electrochemically active microorganisms which are capable of using an electrode as an electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic matter, in particular, volatile acids produced after fermentation. Firstly volatile acids can be completely converted into CO2, electrons and protons on the surface of anode. Then the electrons flow to cathode through anode and wires, and at the same time the protons move to cathode through cation membrane between anode chamber and cathode chamber. Finally the electrons and the protons combine into hydrogen when they meet at the surface of cathode. In such a process, the fermentation barrier and the product inhibition can be avoided to improve the conversion of hydrogen. 8-9 mol H2/mol glucose of hydrogen potential can be obtained when glucose is used as substrate. This technology is very likely to be applied to produce hydrogen high efficiently from any energy crops, organic waste and wastewater.

  2. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a “hydrogen economy.” The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  3. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    A process is described for the production of hydrogen from water by a sulfuric acid process employing electrolysis and thermo-chemical decomposition. The water containing SO/sub 2/ is electrolyzed to produce H/sub 2/ at the cathode and to oxidize the SO/sub 2/ to form H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at the anode. After the H/sub 2/ has been separated, a compound of the type M/sub r/X/sub s/ is added to produce a water insoluble sulfate of M and a water insoluble oxide of the metal in the radical X. In the compound M/sub r/X/sub s/, M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, La/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; X is at least one radical selected from the group consisting of molybdate (MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), tungstate (WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and metaborate (BO/sub 2//sup 1 -/); and r and s are either 1, 2, or 3 depending upon the valence of M and X. The precipitated mixture is filtered and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to form SO/sub 3/ gas and to reform M/sub r/X/sub s/. The SO/sub 3/ is dissolved in a small amount of H/sub 2/O to produce concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the M/sub r/X/sub s/ is recycled to the process. Alternatively, the SO/sub 3/ gas can be recycled to the beginning of the process to provide a continuous process for the production of H/sub 2/ in which only water need be added in a substantial amount. (BLM)

  4. Oxygen/hydrogen technology test bed status update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    An overview is provided of the Hydrogen/Oxygen Technology Test Bed program. The status of the program, the program direction, plans for testing, and plans for technology implementation within the program are delineated. Test Bed goals and objectives are defined and the current status of the Test Bed engine is provided. A test facility status and a summary of the test facility capabilities are given.

  5. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  6. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xihong; Xie, Shilei; Yang, Hao; Tong, Yexiang; Ji, Hongbing

    2014-11-21

    Hydrogen, a clean energy carrier with high energy capacity, is a very promising candidate as a primary energy source for the future. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water is one of the most promising approaches to producing green chemical fuel. Compared to water splitting, hydrogen production from renewable biomass derivatives and water through a PEC process is more efficient from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. Additionally, the carbon dioxide formed can be re-transformed into carbohydrates via photosynthesis in plants. In this review, we focus on the development of photoanodes and systems for PEC hydrogen production from water and renewable biomass derivatives, such as methanol, ethanol, glycerol and sugars. We also discuss the future challenges and opportunities for the design of the state-of-the-art photoanodes and PEC systems for hydrogen production from biomass derivatives and water.

  7. Application of molecular techniques on heterotrophic hydrogen production research.

    PubMed

    Li, R Y; Zhang, T; Fang, H H P

    2011-09-01

    This paper reviews the application of molecular techniques in heterotrophic hydrogen production studies. Commonly used molecular techniques are introduced briefly first, including cloning-sequencing after polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative real-time PCR. Application of the molecular techniques in heterotrophic hydrogen production studies are discussed in details, focusing on identification of new isolates for hydrogen production, characterization of microbial compositions in bioreactors, monitoring microbial diversity variation, visualization of microbial distribution in hydrogen-producing granular sludge, and quantification of various microbial populations. Some significant findings in recent hydrogen production studies with the application of molecular techniques are discussed, followed by a research outlook of the heterotrophic biohydrogen field.

  8. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  9. Hydrogen production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides DSM 158 under intense irradiation.

    PubMed

    Krujatz, Felix; Härtel, Paul; Helbig, Karsten; Haufe, Nora; Thierfelder, Simone; Bley, Thomas; Weber, Jost

    2015-01-01

    To identify optimal hydrogen production conditions using growing cultures of Rhodobacter sphaeroides DSM 158 the effects of varying the reactor's volumetric power input (0.01-1.4kWm(-3)) and irradiation intensity (5-2500Wm(-2)) were investigated in batch and continuous production modes. Irradiation intensity had a greater effect on hydrogen production than volumetric power input. Hydrogen production and photofermentative biomass formation were maximized by irradiation at 2250Wm(-2) with a volumetric power input of 0.55kWm(-3). The bacterial dry weight (2.64gL(-1)) and rate of hydrogen production (195mLL(-1)h(-1)) achieved under these conditions were greater than any that have previously been reported for batch-mode hydrogen production by R. sphaeroides. Continuous mode experiments (D=0.1h(-1)) yielded a bacterial dry weight, hydrogen production rate, productivity and hydrogen yield of 2.35±0.18gL(-1), 165±6.2mLL(-1)h(-1), 3.96LL(-1)d(-1) and 36.6%, respectively.

  10. Faecal hydrogen production in vitro as an indicator for in vivo hydrogen producing capability in the breath hydrogen test.

    PubMed

    Robb, T A; Goodwin, D A; Davidson, G P

    1985-11-01

    In the assessment of carbohydrate malabsorption, it is important to determine if a flat breath hydrogen test is a false negative result. Currently, the only reliable way to do this is with a lactulose test. We determined the reliability of assessing faecal hydrogen production as an indicator of an adequate in vivo hydrogen producing colonic bacterial flora. Unfortunately, the results clearly show that the incidence of falsely positive and negative faecal hydrogen production, when compared with in vivo lactulose testing, is so high that the simple faeces screening test is unsuitable for routine use. Until a simpler alternative is found, centres using the breath hydrogen test to determine carbohydrate malabsorption must continue to rely on lactulose breath testing when it is necessary to exclude potential false negative results.

  11. Hydrogen production with coal using a pulverization device

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing hydrogen from coal is described wherein high temperature steam is brought into contact with coal in a pulverizer or fluid energy mill for effecting a steam-carbon reaction to provide for the generation of gaseous hydrogen. The high temperature steam is utilized to drive the coal particles into violent particle-to-particle contact for comminuting the particulates and thereby increasing the surface area of the coal particles for enhancing the productivity of the hydrogen.

  12. Process for the production of hydrogen from water

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Maroni, Victor A.; Willit, James L.

    2010-05-25

    A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

  13. Cost Analysis of a Concentrator Photovoltaic Hydrogen Production System

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J. R.; McConnell, R. D.; Mosleh, M.

    2005-08-01

    The development of efficient, renewable methods of producing hydrogen are essential for the success of the hydrogen economy. Since the feedstock for electrolysis is water, there are no harmful pollutants emitted during the use of the fuel. Furthermore, it has become evident that concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems have a number of unique attributes that could shortcut the development process, and increase the efficiency of hydrogen production to a point where economics will then drive the commercial development to mass scale.

  14. Hydrogen production from dimethyl ether using corona discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Yue-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jun

    Dimethyl ether (DME), with its non-toxic character, high H/C ratio and high-energy volumetric density, is an ideal resource for hydrogen production. In this work, hydrogen production from the decomposition of DME using corona discharge has been studied. The corona discharge plasma decomposition was conducted at ambient conditions. The effects of dilution gas (argon), flow rate, frequency and waveforms on the DME decomposition were investigated. The addition of dilution gas can significantly increase the hydrogen production rate. The highest hydrogen production rate with the lowest energy consumption presents at the flow rate of 27.5 Nml min -1. AC voltage is more favored than DC voltage for the production of hydrogen with less energy input. The optimal frequency is 2.0 kHz. The hydrogen production rate is also affected by the input waveform and decreases as following: sinusoid triangular > sinusoid > ramp > square, whereas the sinusoid waveform shows the highest energy efficiency. The corona discharge decomposition of DME is leading to a simple, easy and convenient hydrogen production with no needs of catalyst and external heating.

  15. Advances of zeolite based membrane for hydrogen production via water gas shift reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen is considered as a promising energy vector which can be obtained from various renewable sources. However, an efficient hydrogen production technology is still challenging. One technology to produce hydrogen with very high capacity with low cost is through water gas shift (WGS) reaction. Water gas shift reaction is an equilibrium reaction that produces hydrogen from syngas mixture by the introduction of steam. Conventional WGS reaction employs two or more reactors in series with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given volume of catalyst. Membrane reactor as new technology can cope several drawbacks of conventional reactor by removing reaction product and the reaction will favour towards product formation. Zeolite has properties namely high temperature, chemical resistant, and low price makes it suitable for membrane reactor applications. Moreover, it has been employed for years as hydrogen selective layer. This review paper is focusing on the development of membrane reactor for efficient water gas shift reaction to produce high purity hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Development of membrane reactor is discussed further related to its modification towards efficient reaction and separation from WGS reaction mixture. Moreover, zeolite framework suitable for WGS membrane reactor will be discussed more deeply.

  16. Potential application of anaerobic extremophiles for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-11-01

    In processes of the substrate fermentation most anaerobes produce molecular hydrogen as a waste end product, which often controls the culture growth as an inhibitor. Usually in nature the hydrogen is easily removed from an ecosystem, due to its physical features, and an immediate consumption by the secondary anaerobes that sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors; a classical example of this kind of substrate competition in anaerobic microbial communities is the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur-reducers. Previously, on the mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH, it was demonstrated that bacterial hydrogen production could provide a good alternative energy source. At neutral pH the original cultures could easily contaminated by methanogens, and the most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and furthermore, the cultivation with pathogenic contaminants on an industrial scale would create an unsafe situation. In our laboratory the experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria producing hydrogen as an end metabolic product were performed at different conditions. The mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic and obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirochaeta americana ASpG1T was studied and various cultivation regimes were compared for the most effective hydrogen production. In a highly mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many known methanogens are capable of growth, and the probability of developing pathogenic contaminants is theoretically is close to zero (in medicine carbonate- saturated solutions are applied as antiseptics). Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as a safe and economical process for large-scale industrial bio-hydrogen production in the future. Here we present and discuss the experimental data

  17. Thermochemical Production of Hydrogen from Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberger, C. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the possible advantages of decomposing water by means of thermochemical cycles. Explains that, if energy consumption can be minimized, this method is capable of producing hydrogen more efficiently than electrolysis. (GA)

  18. Process for the production of hydrogen cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwin, M.B.; Su, J.L.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of hydrogen cyanide. It comprises passing a gaseous reaction mixture of methanol or formaldehyde or a mixture thereof, formamide, ammonia and oxygen under reactive conditions over a metal oxide catalyst.

  19. Thermochemical Production of Hydrogen from Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamberger, C. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the possible advantages of decomposing water by means of thermochemical cycles. Explains that, if energy consumption can be minimized, this method is capable of producing hydrogen more efficiently than electrolysis. (GA)

  20. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J.

    2017-06-20

    A method is provided for extracting hydrogen from lithium hydride. The method includes (a) heating lithium hydride to form liquid-phase lithium hydride; (b) extracting hydrogen from the liquid-phase lithium hydride, leaving residual liquid-phase lithium metal; (c) hydriding the residual liquid-phase lithium metal to form refined lithium hydride; and repeating steps (a) and (b) on the refined lithium hydride.

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production in anaerobic membrane bioreactors: A review.

    PubMed

    Bakonyi, P; Nemestóthy, N; Simon, V; Bélafi-Bakó, K

    2014-03-01

    Reactor design considerations are crucial aspects of dark fermentative hydrogen production. During the last decades, many types of reactors have been developed and used in order to drive biohydrogen technology towards practicality and economical-feasibility. In general, the ultimate aim is to improve the key features of the process, namely the H2 yields and generation rates. Among the various configurations, the traditional, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) are still the most routinely employed ones. However, due to their limitations, there is a progress to develop more reliable alternatives. One of the research directions points to systems combining membranes, which are called as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). The aim of this paper is to summarize and highlight the recent biohydrogen related work done on AnMBRs and moreover to evaluate their performances and potentials in comparison with their conventional CSTR counterparts.

  2. Hydrogen production from biodiesel byproduct by immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinmi; Lee, Dohoon; Cho, Jinku; Lee, Jeewon; Kim, Sangyong

    2012-01-01

    The recent rapid growth of the biodiesel industry has generated a significant amount of glycerol as a byproduct. As a result, the price of glycerol is currently relatively low, making it an attractive starting material for the production of chemicals with higher values. Crude glycerol can be directly converted through microbial fermentation into various chemicals such as hydrogen. In this study, we optimized immobilization of a facultative hydrogen producing microorganism, Enterobacter aerogenes, with the goal of developing biocatalysts that was appropriate for the continuous hydrogen production from glycerol. Several carriers were tested and agar was found to be the most effective. In addition, it was clearly shown that variables such as the carrier content and cell loading should be controlled for the immobilization of biocatalysts with high hydrogen productivity, stability, and reusability. After optimization of these variables, we were able to obtain reusable biocatalysts that could directly convert the byproduct stream from biodiesel processes into hydrogen in continuous processes.

  3. Electrolytic production and dispensing of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is undoubtedly the only option that can meet both the California zero emission vehicle (ZEV) standard and the President`s goal of tripling automobile efficiency without sacrificing performance in a standard 5-passenger vehicle. The three major automobile companies are designing and developing FCEVs powered directly by hydrogen under cost-shared contracts with the Department of Energy. Once developed, these vehicles will need a reliable and inexpensive source of hydrogen. Steam reforming of natural gas would produce the least expensive hydrogen, but funding may not be sufficient initially to build both large steam reforming plants and the transportation infrastructure necessary to deliver that hydrogen to geographically scattered FCEV fleets or individual drivers. This analysis evaluates the economic feasibility of using small scale water electrolysis to provide widely dispersed but cost-effective hydrogen for early FCEV demonstrations. We estimate the cost of manufacturing a complete electrolysis system in large quantities, including compression and storage, and show that electrolytic hydrogen could be cost competitive with fully taxed gasoline, using existing residential off-peak electricity rates.

  4. The latest developments and outlook for hydrogen liquefaction technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlig, K.; Decker, L.

    2014-01-29

    Liquefied hydrogen is presently mainly used for space applications and the semiconductor industry. While clean energy applications, for e.g. the automotive sector, currently contribute to this demand with a small share only, their demand may see a significant boost in the next years with the need for large scale liquefaction plants exceeding the current plant sizes by far. Hydrogen liquefaction for small scale plants with a maximum capacity of 3 tons per day (tpd) is accomplished with a Brayton refrigeration cycle using helium as refrigerant. This technology is characterized by low investment costs but lower process efficiency and hence higher operating costs. For larger plants, a hydrogen Claude cycle is used, characterized by higher investment but lower operating costs. However, liquefaction plants meeting the potentially high demand in the clean energy sector will need further optimization with regard to energy efficiency and hence operating costs. The present paper gives an overview of the currently applied technologies, including their thermodynamic and technical background. Areas of improvement are identified to derive process concepts for future large scale hydrogen liquefaction plants meeting the needs of clean energy applications with optimized energy efficiency and hence minimized operating costs. Compared to studies in this field, this paper focuses on application of new technology and innovative concepts which are either readily available or will require short qualification procedures. They will hence allow implementation in plants in the close future.

  5. Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is thermodynamically limited. The reaction also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases (CO and CO{sub 2}) because of the direct contact between carbon and steam. Argonne has demonstrated a new way to make ethylene via ethane dehydrogenation using a dense hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to drive the unfavorable equilibrium conversion. Preliminary experiments show that the new approach can produce ethylene yields well above existing pyrolysis technology and also significantly above the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, while completely eliminating the production of greenhouse gases. With Argonne's approach, a disk-type dense ceramic/metal composite (cermet) membrane is used to produce ethylene by dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 C. The gas-transport membrane reactor combines a reversible chemical reaction with selective separation of one product species and leads to increased reactant conversion to the desired product. In an experiment ethane was passed over one side of the HTM membrane and air over the other side. The hydrogen produced by the dehydrogenation of ethane was removed and transported through the HTM to the air side. The air provided the driving force required for the transport of hydrogen through the HTM. The reaction between transported hydrogen and oxygen in air can provide the energy needed for the dehydrogenation reaction. At 850 C and 1-atm pressure, equilibrium conversion of ethane normally limits the ethylene yield to 64%, but Argonne has shown that an ethylene yield of 69% with a selectivity of 88% can be obtained under the same conditions. Coking was not a problem in runs extending over several weeks. Further improved HTM materials will lower the temperature required for high conversion at a reasonable residence time, while the lower temperature will suppress unwanted side

  6. Simulation of electrocatalytic hydrogen production by a bioinspired catalyst anchored to a pyrite electrode.

    PubMed

    Zipoli, Federico; Car, Roberto; Cohen, Morrel H; Selloni, Annabella

    2010-06-30

    The possibility of using the active site, the [FeFe](H) cluster, of the bacterial di-iron hydrogenases as a catalyst for hydrogen production from water by electro- or photocatalysis is of current scientific and technological interest. We present here a theoretical study of hydrogen production by a modified [FeFe](H) cluster stably linked to a pyrite electrode immersed in acidified water. We employed state-of-the-art electronic-structure and first-principles molecular-dynamics methods. We found that a stable sulfur link of the cluster to the surface analogous to that linking the cluster to its enzyme environment cannot be made. However, we have discovered a modification of the cluster which does form a stable, tridentate link to the surface. The pyrite electrode readily produces hydrogen from acidified water when functionalized with the modified cluster, which remains stable throughout the hydrogen production cycle.

  7. Carbon dioxide free production of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppel, L.; Fehling, T.; Geißler, T.; Baake, E.; Wetzel, T.

    2017-07-01

    The present report summarizes the theoretical modelling and experimental investigation results of the study on the direct thermal methane cracking. This work is a part of the LIMTECH-Project (Liquid Metal Technologies) funded of Helmholtz Alliance and was carried out from 2012 to 2017. The Project-part B5 “CO2-free production of hydrogen” focused on experimental testing and particularly on modelling the novel methane cracking method based on liquid metal technology. The new method uses a bubble column reactor, filled with liquid metal, where both the chemical reaction of methane decomposition and the separation of gas fraction from solid carbon occur. Such reactor system was designed and built in the liquid metal laboratory (KALLA) at KIT. The influences of liquid metal temperature distribution in reactor and feed gas flow rate on methane conversion ratio were investigated experimentally at the temperature range from 930°C to 1175 °C and methane flow rate at the reactor inlet from 50 to 200 mLn/min. In parallel with experimental investigations, a thermochemical model, giving insight in the influence of the above mentioned parameters has been developed at KIT and a CFD model was developed at LUH to get an overview about the bubble dynamics in the reaction system. The influence of different bubble sizes and shapes, multi-inlet coalescence effects as well as the potential of electromagnetic stirring have been investigated.

  8. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Basic, Amina; Blomqvist, Susanne; Carlén, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways. PMID:26130377

  9. Liquid hydrogen production and economics for NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, D. L.

    1985-12-01

    Detailed economic analyses for the production of liquid hydrogen used to power the Space Shuttle are presented. The hydrogen production and energy needs of the NASA Kennedy Space Center are reviewed, and steam reformation, polygeneration, and electrolysis for liquid hydrogen production are examined on an equal economic basis. The use of photovoltaics as an electrolysis power source is considered. The 1985 present worth is calculated based on life cycle costs over a 21-year period beginning with full operation in 1990. Two different sets of escalation, inflation, and discount rates are used, with revenue credit being given for energy or other products of the hydrogen production process. The results show that the economic analyses are very dependent on the escalation rates used. The least net present value is found for steam reformation of natural gas, while the best net present value is found for the electrolysis process which includes the phasing of photovoltaics.

  10. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Jack L [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis, Jr, Benjamin E [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  11. Comparison of electrolytic, thermochemical, and other hydrogen-production processes

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, R.; Whaley, T.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of the following six hydrogen production process categories: catalytic steam reforming of light hydrocarbons; partial oxidation of less-reactive feedstocks such as coal and heavy oil; reaction of active metals or metal hydrides with water or acids; electrolysis of water; thermochemical hydrogen cycles; and photolysis of water. These processes are compared technically, and to the extent possible, economically.

  12. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  13. Carbonate Thermochemical Cycle for the Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, Juan J; Collins, Jack Lee; Dole, Leslie Robert; Forsberg, Charles W; Haire, Marvin Jonathan; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Lewis Jr, Benjamin E; Wymer, Raymond; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  14. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and

  15. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and

  16. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center is Helping to Facilitate the Transition to a New Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    The Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center (HTSC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses a systems engineering and integration approach to hydrogen research and development to help the United States make the transition to a new energy future - a future built on diverse and abundant domestic renewable resources and integrated hydrogen systems. Research focuses on renewable hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; fuel cells and fuel cell manufacturing; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; analysis; education; and market transformation. Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to power vehicles and to provide electricity and heat for homes and offices. This flexibility, combined with our increasing demand for energy, opens the door for hydrogen power systems. HTSC collaborates with DOE, other government agencies, industry, communities, universities, national laboratories, and other stakeholders to promote a clean and secure energy future.

  17. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  18. Solar photoproduction of hydrogen. IEA technical report of the IEA Agreement of the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, J.R.

    1996-09-30

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Hydrogen Program and represents the result of subtask C, Annex 10 - Photoproduction of Hydrogen. The concept of using solar energy to drive the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen has been examined, from the standpoints of potential and ideal efficiencies, measurement of (and how to calculate) solar hydrogen production efficiencies, a survey of the state-of-the-art, and a technological assessment of various solar hydrogen options. The analysis demonstrates that the ideal limit of the conversion efficiency for 1 sun irradiance is {approximately}31% for a single photosystem scheme and {approximately}42% for a dual photosystem scheme. However, practical considerations indicate that real efficiencies will not likely exceed {approximately}10% and {approximately}16% for single and dual photosystem schemes, respectively. Four types of solar photochemical hydrogen systems have been identified: photochemical systems, semiconductor systems, photobiological systems, and hybrid and other systems. A survey of the state-of-the-art of these four types is presented. The four types (and their subtypes) have also been examined in a technological assessment, where each has been examined as to efficiency, potential for improvement, and long-term functionality. Four solar hydrogen systems have been selected as showing sufficient promise for further research and development: (1) Photovoltaic cells plus an electrolyzer; (2) Photoelectrochemical cells with one or more semiconductor electrodes; (3) Photobiological systems; and (4) Photodegradation systems. The following recommendations were presented for consideration of the IEA: (1) Define and measure solar hydrogen conversion efficiencies as the ratio of the rate of generation of Gibbs energy of dry hydrogen gas (with appropriate corrections for any bias power) to the incident solar power (solar irradiance times the irradiated area); (2) Expand support for pilot

  19. Thermophysical properties and modeling of a hydrogenic pellet production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachman, Jacob William

    A fusion energy experiment that is under construction, the ITER machine, has the mission to be the first device to demonstrate the technological feasibility of fusion energy and serve as the primary step towards commercialization of fusion reactors. The ITER machine and future fusion energy machines will require a continuous supply of hydrogenic fuel pellets for sustained operation. The purpose of this research is to provide the fundamental visco-plastic flow measurements as well as the numerical models that are necessary to design a hydrogenic pellet production system (PPS) to meet the ITER fueling specifications. A numerical model of a PPS for the ITER machine is presented and used to design a system that precools, liquefies, and solidifies hydrogenic material that is ultimately extruded and cut into fuel pellets. The specific components modeled within the PPS include a precooling heat exchanger, a liquefier, and a twin-screw solidifying extruder. Numerical models of these components are developed and used as design tools. The modeling results suggest that the performance of the PPS will be dictated by the heat transfer and viscous dissipation associated with the solid and solidifying hydrogen in the twin-screw extruder. This observation motivates experimental efforts that are aimed at precise measurement of these quantities. Steady-state measurements are presented of the dynamic shear stress and heat transfer during flow of solid hydrogen, deuterium, and neon in a Couette type viscometer cell. Thermal conductivity measurements in the stationary condition are compared with those reported in the literature. The measurements span a range of shear rates and extend from temperatures associated with the onset of solidification to sub-cooled solid states. The viscous dissipation is found to vary directly with the applied heat load from the onset of solidification to the point at which the solid begins to sub-cool. Flow of the sub-cooled solid exhibits behavior that is

  20. Optimal control strategies for hydrogen production when coupling solid oxide electrolysers with intermittent renewable energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qiong; Adjiman, Claire S.; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2014-12-01

    The penetration of intermittent renewable energies requires the development of energy storage technologies. High temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOECs) as a potential energy storage technology, provides the prospect of a cost-effective and energy efficient route to clean hydrogen production. The development of optimal control strategies when SOEC systems are coupled with intermittent renewable energies is discussed. Hydrogen production is examined in relation to energy consumption. Control strategies considered include maximizing hydrogen production, minimizing SOEC energy consumption and minimizing compressor energy consumption. Optimal control trajectories of the operating variables over a given period of time show feasible control for the chosen situations. Temperature control of the SOEC stack is ensured via constraints on the overall temperature difference across the cell and the local temperature gradient within the SOEC stack, to link materials properties with system performance; these constraints are successfully managed. The relative merits of the optimal control strategies are analyzed.

  1. Improving The Efficiency Of Ammonia Electrolysis For Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Ramasamy

    Given the abundance of ammonia in domestic and industrial wastes, ammonia electrolysis is a promising technology for remediation and distributed power generation in a clean and safe manner. Efficiency has been identified as one of the key issues that require improvement in order for the technology to enter the market phase. Therefore, this research was performed with the aim of improving the efficiency of hydrogen production by finding alternative materials for the cathode and electrolyte. 1. In the presence of ammonia the activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) followed the trend Rh>Pt>Ru>Ni. The addition of ammonia resulted in lower rates for HER for Pt, Ru, and Ni, which have been attributed to competition from the ammonia adsorption reaction. 2. The addition of ammonia offers insight into the role of metal-hydrogen underpotential deposition (M-Hupd) on HER kinetics. In addition to offering competition via ammonia adsorption it resulted in fewer and weaker M-Hupd bonds for all metals. This finding substantiates the theory that M-Hupd bonds favor HER on Pt electrocatalyst. However, for Rh results suggest that M-Hupd bond may hinder the HER. In addition, the presence of unpaired valence shell electrons is suggested to provide higher activity for HER in the presence of ammonia. 3. Bimetals PtxM1-x (M = Ir, Ru, Rh, and Ni) offered lower overpotentials for HER compared to the unalloyed metals in the presence of ammonia. The activity of HER in the presence of ammonia follows the trend Pt-Ir>Pt-Rh>Pt-Ru>Pt-Ni. The higher activity of HER is attributed to the synergistic effect of the alloy, where ammonia adsorbs onto the more electropositive alloying metal leaving Pt available for Hupd formation and HER to take place. Additionally, this supports the theory that the presence of a higher number of unpaired electrons favors the HER in the presence of ammonia. 4. Potassium polyacrylate (PAA-K) was successfully used as a substitute for aqueous KOH for ammonia

  2. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  3. Development of a hydrogen gas sensor using microfabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Qinghai; Stuczynski, Matthew; Madzsar, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Microfabrication and micromachining technologies are used to produce a hydrogen gas sensor based on a palladium-silver film. The sensor uses a heater that is fabricated by diffusing p-type borones into the substrate, forming a resistance heater. A diode for temperature measurement is produced using p-type boron and n-type phosphor diffused into the substrate. A thickness of the palladium-silver film is approximately 300 arcsec. The hydrogen gas sensor employs the proven palladium-silver diode structure and is surrounded by a phosphor doped resistance heater which can be heated up to a temperature of 250 C. Experimental results show that the sensor is capable of operating over a wide range of hydrogen concentration levels between 0-95 percent without any hysteresis effects.

  4. Development of a hydrogen gas sensor using microfabrication technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Qinghai; Stuczynski, Matthew; Madzsar, George C.

    1992-01-01

    Microfabrication and micromachining technologies are used to produce a hydrogen gas sensor based on a palladium-silver film. The sensor uses a heater that is fabricated by diffusing p-type borones into the substrate, forming a resistance heater. A diode for temperature measurement is produced using p-type boron and n-type phosphor diffused into the substrate. A thickness of the palladium-silver film is approximately 300 arcsec. The hydrogen gas sensor employs the proven palladium-silver diode structure and is surrounded by a phosphor doped resistance heater which can be heated up to a temperature of 250 C. Experimental results show that the sensor is capable of operating over a wide range of hydrogen concentration levels between 0-95 percent without any hysteresis effects.

  5. Mitigation technologies for hydrogen storage systems based on reactive solids.

    SciTech Connect

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Khalil, Y. F.; Pratt, Joseph William; Reeder, Craig; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes mitigation technologies that are intended to enable the deployment of advanced hydrogen storage technologies for early market and automotive fuel cell applications. Solid State hydrogen storage materials provide an opportunity for a dramatic increase in gravimetric and volumetric energy storage density. Systems and technologies based on the advanced materials have been developed and demonstrated within the laboratory [1,2], and in some cases, integrated with fuel cell systems. The R&D community will continue to develop these technologies for an ever increasing market of fuel cell technologies, including, forklift, light-cart, APU, and automotive systems. Solid state hydrogen storage materials are designed and developed to readily release, and in some cases, react with diatomic hydrogen. This favorable behavior is often accomplished with morphology design (high surface area), catalytic additives (titanium for example), and high purity metals (such as aluminum, Lanthanum, or alkali metals). These favorable hydrogen reaction characteristics often have a related, yet less-desirable effect: sensitivity and reactivity during exposure to ambient contamination and out-of-design environmental conditions. Accident scenarios resulting in this less-favorable reaction behavior must also be managed by the system developer to enable technology deployment and market acceptance. Two important accident scenarios are identified through hazards and risk analysis methods. The first involves a breach in plumbing or tank resulting from a collision. The possible consequence of this scenario is analyzed though experimentally based chemical kinetic and transport modeling of metal hydride beds. An advancing reaction front between the metal hydride and ambient air is observed to proceed throughout the bed. This exothermic reaction front can result in loss of structural integrity of the containing vessel and lead to un-favorable overheating events. The second important

  6. Hydrogen production econometric studies. [hydrogen and fossil fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. R.; Bannerot, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The current assessments of fossil fuel resources in the United States were examined, and predictions of the maximum and minimum lifetimes of recoverable resources according to these assessments are presented. In addition, current rates of production in quads/year for the fossil fuels were determined from the literature. Where possible, costs of energy, location of reserves, and remaining time before these reserves are exhausted are given. Limitations that appear to hinder complete development of each energy source are outlined.

  7. Process for the production of 1:4 butanediol from maleic anhydride via ester hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, R.G.; Harris, N.; McKee, D.

    1986-01-01

    A process has been developed for the production of 1:4 butanediol (1:4 BDO from maleic anhydride (MA). The three process steps are:- a) Esterifiction of MA to produce a dialkyl maleate ester based on a modification of commercially proven esterification technology; b) Hydrogenation of the ester, at moderate temperatures and pressures, to 1:4 BD using novel low pressure ester hydrogenation technology. Gamma-Butyrolactone (gamma-BL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) are produced as co-products. The 1:4 BD/Gamma-BL product ratio can be adjusted to respond to market requirements by recycle of the less desirable product, and THF productivity controlled over wide limits by variation of process parameters; c) Product separation by distillation.

  8. Long-term biological hydrogen production by agar immobilized Rhodobacter capsulatus in a sequential batch photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Elkahlout, Kamal; Alipour, Siamak; Eroglu, Inci; Gunduz, Ufuk; Yucel, Meral

    2017-04-01

    In this study, agar immobilization technique was employed for biological hydrogen production using Rhodobacter capsulatus DSM 1710 (wild type) and YO3 (hup-mutant) strains in sequential batch process. Different agar and glutamate concentrations were tested with defined nutrient medium. Agar concentration 4% (w/v) and 4 mM glutamate were selected for bacterial immobilization in terms of rate and longevity of hydrogen production. Acetate concentration was increased from 40 to 60-100 and 60 mM gave best results with both bacterial strains immobilized in 4% (w/v) agar. Cell concentration was increased from 2.5 to 5 mg dcw mL(-1) agar and it was found that increasing cell concentration of wild-type strain caused decrease in yield and productivity while these parameters improved by increasing cell concentration of mutant strain. Also, the hydrogen production time has extended from 17 days up to 60 days according to the process conditions and parameters. Hydrogen production by immobilized photosynthetic bacteria is a convenient technology for hydrogen production as it enables to produce hydrogen with high organic acid concentrations comparing to suspended cultures. Besides, immobilization increases the stability of the system and allowed sequential batch operation for long-term application.

  9. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  10. Enhanced hydrogen production from formic acid by formate hydrogen lyase-overexpressing Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihito; Nishimura, Taku; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2005-11-01

    Genetic recombination of Escherichia coli in conjunction with process manipulation was employed to elevate the efficiency of hydrogen production in the resultant strain SR13 2 orders of magnitude above that of conventional methods. The formate hydrogen lyase (FHL)-overexpressing strain SR13 was constructed by combining FHL repressor (hycA) inactivation with FHL activator (fhlA) overexpression. Transcription of large-subunit formate dehydrogenase, fdhF, and large-subunit hydrogenase, hycE, in strain SR13 increased 6.5- and 7.0-fold, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain. On its own, this genetic modification effectively resulted in a 2.8-fold increase in hydrogen productivity of SR13 compared to the wild-type strain. Further enhancement of productivity was attained by using a novel method involving the induction of the FHL complex with high-cell-density filling of a reactor under anaerobic conditions. Continuous hydrogen production was achieved by maintaining the reactor concentration of the substrate (free formic acid) under 25 mM. An initial productivity of 23.6 g hydrogen h(-1) liter(-1) (300 liters h(-1) liter(-1) at 37 degrees C) was achieved using strain SR13 at a cell density of 93 g (dry weight) cells/liter. The hydrogen productivity reported in this work has great potential for practical application.

  11. Analysis of near-term production and market opportunities for hydrogen and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mauro, R.; Leach, S.

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes current and planned activities in the areas of hydrogen production and use, near-term venture opportunities, and codes and standards. The rationale for these efforts is to assess industry interest and engage in activities that move hydrogen technologies down the path to commercialization. Some of the work presented in this document is a condensed, preliminary version of reports being prepared under the DOE/NREL contract. In addition, the NHA work funded by Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation (WSRC) to explore the opportunities and industry interest in a Hydrogen Research Center is briefly described. Finally, the planned support of and industry input to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel (HTAP) on hydrogen demonstration projects is discussed.

  12. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  13. Improved metal hydride technology for the storage of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Ramachandran, S.

    1995-09-01

    Low cost, high density storage of hydrogen will remove the most serious barrier to large-scale utilization of hydrogen as a non-polluting, zero-emission fuel. An important challenge for the practical use of Mg-based, high capacity hydrogen storage alloys has been the development of a low-cost, bulk production technique. Two difficulties in preparation of Mg-based alloys are the immiscibility of Mg with many transition metals and the relatively high volatility of Mg compared to many transition metals. These factors preclude the use of conventional induction melting techniques for the Mg-based alloy preparation. A mechanical alloying technique, in which Mg immiscibility and volatility do not present a problem, was developed and shows great promise for production of Mg-based alloys. A number of Mg-based alloys were prepared via modified induction melting and mechanical alloying methods. The alloys were tested for gas phase hydrogen storage properties, composition, structure and morphology. The mechanically alloyed samples are multi-component, multi-phase, highly disordered materials in their as-prepared state. These unoptimized alloys have shown reversible H-storage capacity of more than 5 wt.% hydrogen. After 2000 absorption/desorption cycles, the alloys show no decline in storage capacity or desorption kinetics. The alloys have also demonstrated resistance to CH{sub 4} and CO poisoning in preliminary testing. Upon annealing, with an increase in crystallinity, the H-storage capacity decreases, indicating the importance of disorder.

  14. [Study on the Emission Spectrum of Hydrogen Production with Microwave Discharge Plasma in Ethanol Solution].

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Xiao-mei; Yan, Zhi-yu; Liu, Yong-jun; Liu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a kind of clean energy with high caloricity and non-pollution, which has been studied by many experts and scholars home and abroad. Microwave discharge plasma shows light future in the area of hydrogen production from ethanol solution, providing a new way to produce hydrogen. In order to further improve the technology and analyze the mechanism of hydrogen production with microwave discharge in liquid, emission spectrum of hydrogen production by microwave discharge plasma in ethanol solution was being studied. In this paper, plasma was generated on the top of electrode by 2.45 GHz microwave, and the spectral characteristics of hydrogen production from ethanol by microwave discharge in liquid were being studied using emission spectrometer. The results showed that a large number of H, O, OH, CH, C2 and other active particles could be produced in the process of hydrogen production from ethanol by microwave discharge in liquid. The emission spectrum intensity of OH, H, O radicals generated from ethanol is far more than that generated from pure water. Bond of O-H split by more high-energy particles from water molecule was more difficult than that from ethanol molecule, so in the process of hydrogen production by microwave discharge plasma in ethanol solution; the main source of hydrogen was the dehydrogenation and restructuring of ethanol molecules instead of water decomposition. Under the definite external pressure and temperature, the emission spectrum intensity of OH, H, O radicals increased with the increase of microwave power markedly, but the emission spectrum intensity of CH, C2 active particles had the tendency to decrease with the increase of microwave power. It indicated that the number of high energy electrons and active particles high energy electron energy increased as the increase of microwave power, so more CH, C2 active particles were split more thoroughly.

  15. HyTech - The Hydrogen Technology Laboratory at Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, T.; Knight, J.R.; Heung, L.K.; Lee, M.W.

    1995-12-31

    SRS recently announced the formation of the Hydrogen Technology Laboratory (HyTech) to work with industry and government in developing technologies based on the site`s four decades of experience with tritium and other forms of H. HyTech will continue to sustain the site`s ongoing role in H technology applications for defense programs. In addition, the laboratory will work with the chemical, transportation, power, medical, and other industries to develop and test related technologies. HyTech, which is located in the Savannah River Technology Center, will make use of its facilities and staff, as well as the infrastructure within the site`s Tritium Facilities. More than 80 SRS scientists, engineers, and technical professionals with backgrounds in chemistry, engineering, materials science, metallurgy, physics, and computer science will work with the laboratory. This paper describes some of HyTech`s current initiatives in the area of H storage, transportation, and energy applications.

  16. FERMENTATIVE AND PHOTOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN IN ALGAE

    PubMed Central

    Gaffron, Hans; Rubin, Jack

    1942-01-01

    1.. After 2 hours of fermentation in nitrogen the metabolism of those algae which were found capable of photoreduction with hydrogen changes in such a way that molecular hydrogen is released from the cell in addition to carbon dioxide. 2. The amount of hydrogen formed anaerobically in the dark depends on the amount of some unknown reserve substance in the cell. More hydrogen is formed in presence of added glucose, but no proportionality has been found between the amount of substrate added and that of hydrogen formed. This is probably due to the fact that two types of fermentation reactions exist, with little or no connection between them. Whereas mainly unknown organic acids are formed during the autofermentation, the addition of glucose causes a considerable increase in the production of lactic acid. 3. Algae which have been fermenting for several hours in the dark produce upon illumination free hydrogen at several times the rate observed in the dark, provided carbon dioxide is absent. 4. Certain concentrations of dinitrophenol strongly inhibit the evolution of hydrogen in the dark. Fermentation then continues mainly as a reaction leading to lactic acid. In such poisoned algae the photochemical liberation of hydrogen still continues. 5. If the algae are poisoned with dinitrophenol the presence of carbon dioxide will not interfere with the photochemical evolution of hydrogen. 6. The amount of hydrogen released in this new photochemical reaction depends on the presence of an unknown hydrogen donor in the cell; it can be increased by the addition of glucose but not in proportion to the amount added. 7. The results obtained allow for a more correct explanation of the anaerobic induction period previously described for Scenedesmus and similar algae. The possibility of a photochemical evolution of hydrogen had not been taken into account in the earlier experiments. 8. The origin of the hydrogen released under the influence of light is discussed. PMID:19873339

  17. COLD-SAT - An orbital cryogenic hydrogen technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, Joseph P.; Powers, Albert G.

    1989-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft will perform subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and transfer experiments under low-gravity conditions to provide engineering data for future space transportation missions. Consisting of an experiment module mated to a spacecraft bus, COLD-SAT will be placed in an initial 460 km circular orbit by an Atlas I commercial launch vehicle. After deployment, the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus will provide electric power, experiment control and data management, communications, and attitude control along with propulsive acceleration levels ranging from 10 (-6) to 10(-4) g. These accelerations are an important aspect of some of the experiments, as it is desired to know the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved. The experiment module will contain the three liquid hydrogen tanks, valves, pressurization equipment, and instrumentation. At launch all the hydrogen will be in the largest tank, which has helium-purged MLI and is loaded and topped off by the hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas. The two smaller tanks will be utilized in orbit for performing some of the experiments. The experiments are grouped into two classes on the basis of their priority, and include six regarded as enabling technology and nine regarded as enhancing technology.

  18. COLD-SAT: An orbital cryogenic hydrogen technology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Wachter, Joseph P.; Powers, Albert G.

    1989-01-01

    The COLD-SAT spacecraft will perform subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and transfer experiments under low-gravity conditions to provide engineering data for future space transportation missions. Consisting of an experiment module mated to a spacecraft bus, COLD-SAT will be placed in an initial 460 km circular orbit by an Atlas I commercial launch vehicle. After deployment, the three-axis-controlled spacecraft bus will provide electric power, experiment control and data management, communications, and attitude control along with propulsive acceleration levels ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4)g. These accelerations are an important aspect of some of the experiments, as it is desired to know the effects that low gravity levels might have on the heat and mass transfer processes involved. The experiment module will contain the three liquid hydrogen tanks, valves, pressurization equipment, and instrumentation. At launch all the hydrogen will be in the largest tank, which has helium-purged MLI and is loaded and topped off by the hydrogen tanking system used for the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas. The two smaller tanks will be utilized in orbit for performing some of the experiments. The experiments are grouped into two classes on the basis of their priority, and include six regarded as enabling technology and nine regarded as enhancing technology.

  19. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rawls, G

    2006-04-27

    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  20. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  1. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa

    2003-11-01

    The demand for hydrogen will increase within the next decades as a result of the necessity to produce clean and environmentally and economically accepted fuels from natural and renewable energy resources. In principle, hydrogen has the potential to play an important role in future energy systems because of the diversity of its applications, the variety of ways in which it can be stored, its general environmental advantages, and especially because of the possibility of producing hydrogen by splitting water using photocatalysts and solar energy. Methods and techniques of photocatalytic reactions are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, many times in instructional settings, little attention is given to how it is used for the production of hydrogen. In the present investigation a photocatalytic hydrogen production experiment suitable for use in undergraduate chemistry laboratories is described. The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.

  2. Light irradiance and spectral distribution effects on cyanobacterial hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatihah Salleh, Siti; Kamaruddin, Azlina; Hekarl Uzir, Mohamad; Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Halim Shamsuddin, Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Light is an essential energy source for photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Changes in both light irradiance and spectral distribution will affect their photosynthetic productivity. Compared to the light irradiance, little investigations have been carried out on the effect of light spectra towards cyanobacterial hydrogen production. Hence, this work aims to investigate the effects of both light quantity and quality on biohydrogen productivity of heterocystous cyanobacterium, A.variabilis. Under white light condition, the highest hydrogen production rate of 31 µmol H2 mg chl a -1 h-1 was achieved at 70 µE m-2 s-1. When the experiment was repeated at the same light irradiance but different light spectra of blue, red and green, the accumulations of hydrogen were significantly lower than the white light except for blue light. As the light irradiance was increased to 350 µE m-2 s-1, the accumulated hydrogen under the blue light doubled that of the white light. Besides that, an unusual prolongation of the hydrogen production up to 120 h was observed. The results obtained suggest that blue light could be the most desirable light spectrum for cyanobacterial hydrogen production.

  3. Production cost comparisons of hydrogen from fossil and nuclear fuel and water decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekman, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    The comparative costs entailed in producing hydrogen by major technologies that rely on petroleum, natural gas, coal, thermochemical cycles, and electrolysis are examined. Techniques were developed for comparing these processes by formulating the process data and economic assessments on a uniform and consistent basis. These data were normalized to permit a meaningful comparative analysis of product costs of these processes.

  4. Production cost comparisons of hydrogen from fossil and nuclear fuel and water decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, K. R.

    1981-03-01

    The comparative costs entailed in producing hydrogen by major technologies that rely on petroleum, natural gas, coal, thermochemical cycles, and electrolysis are examined. Techniques were developed for comparing these processes by formulating the process data and economic assessments on a uniform and consistent basis. These data were normalized to permit a meaningful comparative analysis of product costs of these processes.

  5. Production cost comparisons of hydrogen from fossil and nuclear fuel and water decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekman, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    The comparative costs entailed in producing hydrogen by major technologies that rely on petroleum, natural gas, coal, thermochemical cycles, and electrolysis are examined. Techniques were developed for comparing these processes by formulating the process data and economic assessments on a uniform and consistent basis. These data were normalized to permit a meaningful comparative analysis of product costs of these processes.

  6. Advances in nickel hydrogen technology at Yardney Battery Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, J. G.; Hall, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The current major activites in nickel hydrogen technology being addressed at Yardney Battery Division are outlined. Five basic topics are covered: an update on life cycle testing of ManTech 50 AH NiH2 cells in the LEO regime; an overview of the Air Force/industry briefing; nickel electrode process upgrading; 4.5 inch cell development; and bipolar NiH2 battery development.

  7. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Muradov, N.Z.

    1995-09-01

    It is universally accepted that in the next few decades hydrogen production will continue to rely on fossil fuels (primarily, natural gas). On the other hand, the conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming) are complex multi-step processes. These processes also result in the emission of large quantities of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere that produce adverse ecological effects. One alternative is the one-step thermocatalytic cracking (TCC) (or decomposition) of natural gas into hydrogen and carbon. Preliminary analysis indicates that the cost of hydrogen produced by thermal decomposition of natural gas is somewhat lower than the conventional processes after by-product carbon credit is taken. In the short term, this process can be used for on-site production of hydrogen-methane mixtures in gas-filling stations and for CO{sub x}-free production of hydrogen for fuel cell driven prime movers. The experimental data on the thermocatalytic cracking of methane over various catalysts and supports in a wide range of temperatures (500-900{degrees}C) are presented in this paper. Two types of reactors were designed and built at FSEC: continuous flow and pulse fix bed catalytic reactors. The temperature dependence of the hydrogen production yield using oxide type catalysts was studied. Alumina-supported Ni- and Fe-catalysts demonstrated relatively high efficiency in the methane cracking reaction at moderate temperatures (600-800{degrees}C). Kinetic curves of hydrogen production over metal and metal oxide catalysts at different temperatures are presented in the paper. Fe-catalyst demonstrated good stability (for several hours), whereas alumina-supported Pt-catalyst rapidly lost its catalytic activity.

  8. Large Scale Production of Densified Hydrogen to the Triple Point and Below

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanger, A. M.; Notardonato, W. U.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent demonstration of advanced liquid hydrogen storage techniques using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage technology at NASA Kennedy Space Center led to the production of large quantities of densified liquid and slush hydrogen in a 125,000 L tank. Production of densified hydrogen was performed at three different liquid levels and LH2 temperatures were measured by twenty silicon diode temperature sensors. Overall densification performance of the system is explored, and solid mass fractions are calculated. Experimental data reveal hydrogen temperatures dropped well below the triple point during testing, and were continuing to trend downward prior to system shutdown. Sub-triple point temperatures were seen to evolve in a time dependent manner along the length of the horizontal, cylindrical vessel. The phenomenon, observed at two fill levels, is detailed herein. The implications of using IRAS for energy storage, propellant densification, and future cryofuel systems are discussed.

  9. Electrolytic hydrogen production infrastructure options evaluation. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles have the potential to provide the range, acceleration, rapid refueling times, and other creature comforts associated with gasoline-powered vehicles, but with virtually no environmental degradation. To achieve this potential, society will have to develop the necessary infrastructure to supply hydrogen to the fuel-cell vehicles. Hydrogen could be stored directly on the vehicle, or it could be derived from methanol or other hydrocarbon fuels by on-board chemical reformation. This infrastructure analysis assumes high-pressure (5,000 psi) hydrogen on-board storage. This study evaluates one approach to providing hydrogen fuel: the electrolysis of water using off-peak electricity. Other contractors at Princeton University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen by steam reforming natural gas, probably the least expensive hydrogen infrastructure alternative for large markets. Electrolytic hydrogen is a possible short-term transition strategy to provide relatively inexpensive hydrogen before there are enough fuel-cell vehicles to justify building large natural gas reforming facilities. In this study, the authors estimate the necessary price of off-peak electricity that would make electrolytic hydrogen costs competitive with gasoline on a per-mile basis, assuming that the electrolyzer systems are manufactured in relatively high volumes compared to current production. They then compare this off-peak electricity price goal with actual current utility residential prices across the US.

  10. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC®) Barrier Application At The North Of Basin F Site, Rocky Mountain Arsenal; Innovative Technology Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the hydrogen release compound (HRC®) barrier technology developed by Regenesis Bioremediation Products, Inc., of San Clemente, California. HRC® is a proprietary, food-q...

  11. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC®) Barrier Application At The North Of Basin F Site, Rocky Mountain Arsenal; Innovative Technology Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Innovative Technology Evaluation Report documents the results of a demonstration of the hydrogen release compound (HRC®) barrier technology developed by Regenesis Bioremediation Products, Inc., of San Clemente, California. HRC® is a proprietary, food-q...

  12. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  13. Hydrogen production by nitrogen-starved cultures of Anabaena cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J C; Benemann, J R

    1977-01-01

    Nitrogen-starved cultures of the alga Anabaena cylindrica 629 produced hydrogen and oxygen continuously for 7 to 19 days. Hydrogen production attained a maximum level after 1 to 2 days of starvation and was followed by a slow decline. The maximum rates were 30 ml of H2 evolved per liter of culture per h or 32 mul of H2 per mg of dry weight per h. In 5 to 7 days the rate of H2 evolution by the more productive cultures fell to one-half its maximum value. The addition of 10(-4) to 5 X 10(-4) M ammonium increased the rate of oxygen evolution and the total hydrogen production of the cultures. H2-O2 ratios were 4:1 under conditions of complete nitrogen starvation and about 1.7:1 after the addition of ammonium. Thus, oxygen evolution was affected by the extent of the nitrogen starvation. Thermodynamic efficiencies of converting incident light energy to free energy of hydrogen via algal photosynthesis were 0.4%. Possible factors limiting hydrogen production were decline of reductant supply and filament breakage. Hydrogen production by filamentous, heterocystous blue-green algae could be used for development of a biophotolysis system.

  14. IEA implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on the production of hydrogen from water

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzina, A. ); Struck, B.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Research programs on hydrogen production from USA, Canada, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany, are described. The programs are in the areas of electrolyte hydrogen production, thermochemical hydrogen production, and photocatalytic hydrogen production. (CBS)

  15. Synergistic Hydrogen Production in a Biorefinery via Bioelectrochemical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A. P.; Hamilton, C. Y.; Schell, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells are devices that use biocatalysis and electrolysis for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Biorefinery process streams contain fermentation by products and inhibitors which accumulate in the process stream if the water is recycled. These molecules also affect biomass to biofuel yields if not removed from the recycle water. The presence of sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furfural, vanillic acid and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde has been shown to reduce fermentation yields. In this work, we calculate the potential for hydrogen production using microbial electrolysis cells from these molecules as substrates. Conversion of these substrates to electricity is demonstrated in microbial fuel cells and will also be presented.

  16. Efficient photothermal catalytic hydrogen production over nonplasmonic Pt metal supported on TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Rui; Luo, Bing; Jing, Dengwei

    2016-10-01

    Most of the traditional photocatalytic hydrogen productions were conducted under room temperature. In this work, we selected nonplasmonic Pt metal anchored on TiO2 nanoparticles with photothermal activity to explore more efficient hydrogen production technology over the whole solar spectrum. Photothermal experiments were carried out in a carefully designed top irradiated photocatalytic reactor that can withstand high temperature and relatively higher pressure. Four typical organic materials, i.e., methyl alcohol (MeOH), trielthanolamne (TEOA), formic acid (HCOOH) and glucose, were investigated. Formic acid, a typical hydrogen carrier, was found to show the best activity. In addition, the effects of different basic parameters such as sacrificial agent concentration and the temperature on the activity of hydrogen generation were systematically investigated for understanding the qualitative and quantitative effects of the photothermal catalytic reaction process. The hydrogen yields at 90 °C of the photothermal catalytic reaction with Pt/TiO2 are around 8.1 and 4.2 times higher than those of reactions carried out under photo or thermal conditions alone. We can see that the photothermal hydrogen yield is not the simple sum of the photo and thermal effects. This result indicated that the Pt/TiO2 nanoparticles can efficiently couple photo and thermal energy to more effectively drive hydrogen production. As a result, the excellent ability makes it superior to other conventional semiconductor photocatalysts and thermal catalysts. Future works could concentrate on exploring photothermal catalysis as well as the potential synergism between photo and thermal effects to find more efficient hydrogen production technology using the whole solar spectrum.

  17. Aerobic Hydrogen Production via Nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii CA6.

    PubMed

    Noar, Jesse; Loveless, Telisa; Navarro-Herrero, José Luis; Olson, Jonathan W; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2015-07-01

    The diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii possesses three distinct nitrogenase isoenzymes, all of which produce molecular hydrogen as a by-product. In batch cultures, A. vinelandii strain CA6, a mutant of strain CA, displays multiple phenotypes distinct from its parent: tolerance to tungstate, impaired growth and molybdate transport, and increased hydrogen evolution. Determining and comparing the genomic sequences of strains CA and CA6 revealed a large deletion in CA6's genome, encompassing genes related to molybdate and iron transport and hydrogen reoxidation. A series of iron uptake analyses and chemostat culture experiments confirmed iron transport impairment and showed that the addition of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) resulted in cessation of hydrogen production. Additional chemostat experiments compared the hydrogen-producing parameters of different strains: in iron-sufficient, tungstate-free conditions, strain CA6's yields were identical to those of a strain lacking only a single hydrogenase gene. However, in the presence of tungstate, CA6 produced several times more hydrogen. A. vinelandii may hold promise for developing a novel strategy for production of hydrogen as an energy compound. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Aerobic Hydrogen Production via Nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii CA6

    PubMed Central

    Noar, Jesse; Loveless, Telisa; Navarro-Herrero, José Luis; Olson, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii possesses three distinct nitrogenase isoenzymes, all of which produce molecular hydrogen as a by-product. In batch cultures, A. vinelandii strain CA6, a mutant of strain CA, displays multiple phenotypes distinct from its parent: tolerance to tungstate, impaired growth and molybdate transport, and increased hydrogen evolution. Determining and comparing the genomic sequences of strains CA and CA6 revealed a large deletion in CA6's genome, encompassing genes related to molybdate and iron transport and hydrogen reoxidation. A series of iron uptake analyses and chemostat culture experiments confirmed iron transport impairment and showed that the addition of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) resulted in cessation of hydrogen production. Additional chemostat experiments compared the hydrogen-producing parameters of different strains: in iron-sufficient, tungstate-free conditions, strain CA6's yields were identical to those of a strain lacking only a single hydrogenase gene. However, in the presence of tungstate, CA6 produced several times more hydrogen. A. vinelandii may hold promise for developing a novel strategy for production of hydrogen as an energy compound. PMID:25911479

  19. USE OF THE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ,KR

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 A significant ''Hydrogen Economy'' is predicted that will reduce our dependence on petroleum imports and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels, but contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels. The author has recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-slitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen, and to select one for further detailed consideration. They selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this report.

  20. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Hollabaugh, Charles M.; Bowman, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.

  1. Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

    2005-01-01

    Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed.

  2. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

    In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active

  3. Solar hydrogen production using epitaxial SrTiO3 on a GaAs photovoltaic

    DOE PAGES

    Kornblum, L.; Fenning, D. P.; Faucher, J.; ...

    2016-12-22

    We demonstrate an oxide-stabilized III–V photoelectrode architecture for solar fuel production from water in neutral pH. For this tunable architecture we demonstrate 100% Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen evolution, and incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE) exceeding 50%. High IPCE for hydrogen evolution is a consequence of the low-loss interface achieved via epitaxial growth of a thin oxide on a GaAs solar cell. Developing optimal energetic alignment across the interfaces of the photoelectrode using well-established III–V technology is key to obtaining high performance. This advance constitutes a critical milestone towards efficient, unassisted fuel production from solar energy.

  4. Hydrogen production from small hyropower sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A synergistic relationship was not found to exist between low-head hydropower and electrolytic hydrogen production. The storageability of hydrogen was expected to mitigate problems of hydrogen generation variability associated with the use of low-head hydropower as the power source. The expense of gaseous hydrogen storage equipment effectively eliminates storage as a means to decouple hydrogen demand and power/hydrogen production. From the opposite perspective, the availability of a low and stable cost of power from low-head hydro was expected to improve the competitiveness of electrolysis. In actuality, the results indicated that hydroelectric power from small dams would be comparatively expensive by current grid power standards (mid-1979). Electrolysis, in the capacity range considered here, is less sensitive to the cost of the power than originally presumed. Other costs including depreciation and capital related charges are more significant. Due to power generation variability, sole reliance on low-head hydropower to provide electricity to the cells would reduce the utilization of the hydrogen production investment, resulting in an increase in unit production costs. These factors were paramount in the Air Products recommendation to discontinue the study before continuing to more detailed stages of analysis, including an analysis of a site specific facility and the construction of a demonstration facility. Another major factor was the unavailability of a pipeline hydrogen supply situation which, because of lower distribution and capital costs, could have been commercially viable. An unfavorable judgment on the combined facility should not be misinterpreted and extended to the component systems. Although a detailed analysis of the individual prospects for electrolysis and low-head hydropower was beyond the study scope, the reader will realize, as the study is reviewed, that each is worthy of individual consideration.

  5. Nuclear-Driven Copper-Based Hybrid Thermo/Electro Chemical Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Rostkowski, Katherine H.

    2006-07-01

    With a worldwide need for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, hydrogen gas has become a primary focus of energy researchers as a promising substitute of nonrenewable energy sources. For instance, use of hydrogen gas in fuel cells has received special technological interest particularly from the transportation sector, which is presently dominated by fuel oil. It is not only gaseous hydrogen that is in demand, but the need for liquid hydrogen is growing as well. For example, the aerospace industry uses liquid hydrogen as fuel for space shuttles. The use of liquid hydrogen during a single space shuttle launch requires about 15,000 gallons per minute, which is equivalent to about forty-five hydrogen trailers, each with 13,000 gallons capacity. The hydrogen required to support a single Mars mission would be at least ten times that required for one space shuttle launch. In this work, we provide mass and energy balances, major equipment sizing, and costing of a hybrid CuO-CuSO{sub 4} plant with 1000 MW (30,240 kg/hr) H{sub 2} production capacity. With a 90% annual availability factor, the estimated hydrogen production rate is about 238,412 tons annually, the predicted plant efficiency is about 36%, and the estimated hydrogen production cost is about $4.0/kg (not including storage and transportation costs). In addition to hydrogen production, the proposed plant generates oxygen gas as a byproduct with an estimated flowrate of about 241,920 kg/hr (equivalent to 1,907,297 tons annually). We also propose a novel technology for separating SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} from O{sub 2} using a battery of redundant fixed-bed reactors containing CuO impregnated in porous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). This technology accommodates online regeneration of the CuO. Other practical approaches for gaseous separation are also examined including use of ceramic membranes, liquefaction, and regenerable wet scrubbing with slurried magnesium oxide or solutions of sodium salts such as sodium sulfite

  6. Sulfur Iodine Process Summary for the Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Russ

    2009-05-01

    This report summarizes the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process for the purpose of supporting the process for evaluating and recommending a hydrogen production technology to deploy with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). This package provides the baseline process description as well as a comparison with the process as it was implemented in the Integrated Lab Scale (ILS) experiment conducted at General Atomics from 2006-2009.

  7. Sodium acetate enhances hydrogen peroxide production in Weissella cibaria.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Futagawa-Endo, Y; Kawasaki, S; Dicks, L M T; Niimura, Y; Okada, S

    2009-07-01

    To investigate hydrogen peroxide production by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to determine the key factors involved. Six strains of Weissella cibaria produced large amounts (2.2-3.2 mmol l(-1)) of hydrogen peroxide in GYP broth supplemented with sodium acetate, but very low accumulations in glucose yeast peptone broth without sodium acetate. Increased production of hydrogen peroxide was also recorded when strains of W. cibaria were cultured in the presence of potassium acetate, sodium isocitrate and sodium citrate. Oxidases and peroxidases were not detected, or were present at low levels in W. cibaria. However, strong nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase activity was recorded, suggesting that the enzyme plays a key role in production of hydrogen peroxide by W. cibaria. Weissella cibaria produces large quantities of hydrogen peroxide in aerated cultures, in a process that is dependent on the presence of acetate in the culture medium. NADH oxidase is likely the key enzyme in this process. This is the first study showing that sodium acetate, normally present in culture media of LAB, is a key factor for hydrogen peroxide production by W. cibaria. The exact mechanisms involved are not known.

  8. [Hydrogen production by the cyanobacterium Anabaena variablis in the light].

    PubMed

    Gogotov, I N; Kosiak, A V; Krupenko, A N

    1976-01-01

    Light of low intensity (less than or equal to 25-10(5) erg-cm(-2)-sec(-1)) stimulates hydrogen production by cell suspensions of Anabaena variabilis in the presence of glucose, pyruvate or formate. The maximum rate of hydrogen production in the presence of these substrates was observed at light intensities of 650, 1400 and 2250 erg-cm(-2)-sec(-1), respectively. The rate of oxygen production by the cells increases while the rate of hydrogen evolution decreases with increase in light intensity (2.5-6.0-10(3) erg-cm(-2)-sec(-1)). In the presence of DCMU (10(-5)-10(-4) M), hydrogen evolution is not inhibited in the presence of pyruvate or formiate and is inhibited to a less extent in the presence of glucose. According to the results obtained, hydrogen evolution by A. variabilis in the light does not require the action of two photosystems. Inhibition of hydrogen production at significant light intensities is due to the action of oxygen on this process; the rate of oxygen evolution increases with light intensity.

  9. Bacterial bioaugmentation for improving methane and hydrogen production from microalgae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recalcitrant cell walls of microalgae may limit their digestibility for bioenergy production. Considering that cellulose contributes to the cell wall recalcitrance of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, this study investigated bioaugmentation with a cellulolytic and hydrogenogenic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, at different inoculum ratios as a possible method to improve CH4 and H2 production of microalgae. Results Methane production was found to increase by 17?~?24% with the addition of C. thermocellum, as a result of enhanced cell disruption and excess hydrogen production. Furthermore, addition of C. thermocellum enhanced the bacterial diversity and quantities, leading to higher fermentation efficiency. A two-step process of addition of C. thermocellum first and methanogenic sludge subsequently could recover both hydrogen and methane, with a 9.4% increase in bioenergy yield, when compared with the one-step process of simultaneous addition of C. thermocellum and methanogenic sludge. The fluorescence peaks of excitation-emission matrix spectra associated with chlorophyll can serve as biomarkers for algal cell degradation. Conclusions Bioaugmentation with C. thermocellum improved the degradation of C. vulgaris biomass, producing higher levels of methane and hydrogen. The two-step process, with methanogenic inoculum added after the hydrogen production reached saturation, was found to be an energy-efficiency method for hydrogen and methane production. PMID:23815806

  10. Decontamination technologies for meat products.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, T; Picouet, P A; Monfort, J M

    2008-01-01

    Consumers demand high quality, natural, nutritious, fresh appearance and convenient meat products with natural flavour and taste and an extended shelf-life. To match all these demands without compromising safety, in the last decades alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as HHP, irradiation, light pulses, natural biopreservatives together with active packaging have been proposed and further investigated. They are efficient to inactivate the vegetative microorganisms, most commonly related to food-borne diseases, but not spores. The combination of several non-thermal and thermal preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated in order to increase their efficiency. Quick thermal technologies such as microwave and radiofrequency tunnels or steam pasteurization bring new possibilities to the pasteurization of meat products especially in ready to eat meals. Their application after final packaging will prevent further cross-contamination during post-processing handling. The benefits of these new technologies and their limitations in an industrial application will be presented and discussed.

  11. Iron-catalyzed hydrogen production from formic acid.

    PubMed

    Boddien, Albert; Loges, Björn; Gärtner, Felix; Torborg, Christian; Fumino, Koichi; Junge, Henrik; Ludwig, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2010-07-07

    Hydrogen represents a clean energy source, which can be efficiently used in fuel cells generating electricity with water as the only byproduct. However, hydrogen generation from renewables under mild conditions and efficient hydrogen storage in a safe and reversible manner constitute important challenges. In this respect formic acid (HCO(2)H) represents a convenient hydrogen storage material, because it is one of the major products from biomass and can undergo selective decomposition to hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the presence of suitable catalysts. Here, the first light-driven iron-based catalytic system for hydrogen generation from formic acid is reported. By application of a catalyst formed in situ from inexpensive Fe(3)(CO)(12), 2,2':6'2''-terpyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline, and triphenylphosphine, hydrogen generation is possible under visible light irradiation and ambient temperature. Depending on the kind of N-ligands significant catalyst turnover numbers (>100) and turnover frequencies (up to 200 h(-1)) are observed, which are the highest known to date for nonprecious metal catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid. NMR, IR studies, and DFT calculations of iron complexes, which are formed under reaction conditions, confirm that PPh(3) plays an active role in the catalytic cycle and that N-ligands enhance the stability of the system. It is shown that the reaction mechanism includes iron hydride species which are generated exclusively under irradiation with visible light.

  12. Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. ); Linkous, C.A. )

    2000-01-01

    This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an

  13. Protons and pleomorphs: aerobic hydrogen production in Azotobacters.

    PubMed

    Noar, Jesse D; Bruno-Bárcena, José M

    2016-02-01

    As obligate aerobic soil organisms, the ability of Azotobacter species to fix nitrogen is unusual given that the nitrogenase complex requires a reduced cellular environment. Molecular hydrogen is an unavoidable byproduct of the reduction of dinitrogen; at least one molecule of H2 is produced for each molecule of N2 fixed. This could be considered a fault in nitrogenase efficiency, essentially a waste of energy and reducing equivalents. Wild-type Azotobacter captures this hydrogen and oxidizes it with its membrane-bound uptake hydrogenase complex. Strains lacking an active hydrogenase complex have been investigated for their hydrogen production capacities. What is the role of H2 in the energy metabolism of nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter? Is hydrogen production involved in Azotobacter species' protection from or tolerance to oxygen, or vice versa? What yields of hydrogen can be expected from hydrogen-evolving strains? Can the yield of hydrogen be controlled or increased by changing genetic, environmental, or physiological conditions? We will address these questions in the following mini-review.

  14. Enhanced hydrogen production from glucose by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez-Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K

    2007-12-01

    To utilize fermentative bacteria for producing the alternative fuel hydrogen, we performed successive rounds of P1 transduction from the Keio Escherichia coli K-12 library to introduce multiple, stable mutations into a single bacterium to direct the metabolic flux toward hydrogen production. E. coli cells convert glucose to various organic acids (such as succinate, pyruvate, lactate, formate, and acetate) to synthesize energy and hydrogen from formate by the formate hydrogen-lyase (FHL) system that consists of hydrogenase 3 and formate dehydrogenase-H. We altered the regulation of FHL by inactivating the repressor encoded by hycA and by overexpressing the activator encoded by fhlA, removed hydrogen uptake activity by deleting hyaB (hydrogenase 1) and hybC (hydrogenase 2), redirected glucose metabolism to formate by using the fdnG, fdoG, narG, focA, focB, poxB, and aceE mutations, and inactivated the succinate and lactate synthesis pathways by deleting frdC and ldhA, respectively. The best of the metabolically engineered strains, BW25113 hyaB hybC hycA fdoG frdC ldhA aceE, increased hydrogen production 4.6-fold from glucose and increased the hydrogen yield twofold from 0.65 to 1.3 mol H(2)/mol glucose (maximum, 2 mol H(2)/mol glucose).

  15. Inorganic membranes for hydrogen production and purification: a critical review and perspective.

    PubMed

    Lu, G Q; Diniz da Costa, J C; Duke, M; Giessler, S; Socolow, R; Williams, R H; Kreutz, T

    2007-10-15

    Hydrogen as a high-quality and clean energy carrier has attracted renewed and ever-increasing attention around the world in recent years, mainly due to developments in fuel cells and environmental pressures including climate change issues. In thermochemical processes for hydrogen production from fossil fuels, separation and purification is a critical technology. Where water-gas shift reaction is involved for converting the carbon monoxide to hydrogen, membrane reactors show great promises for shifting the equilibrium. Membranes are also important to the subsequent purification of hydrogen. For hydrogen production and purification, there are generally two classes of membranes both being inorganic: dense phase metal and metal alloys, and porous ceramic membranes. Porous ceramic membranes are normally prepared by sol-gel or hydrothermal methods, and have high stability and durability in high temperature, harsh impurity and hydrothermal environments. In particular, microporous membranes show promises in water gas shift reaction at higher temperatures. In this article, we review the recent advances in both dense phase metal and porous ceramic membranes, and compare their separation properties and performance in membrane reactor systems. The preparation, characterization and permeation of the various membranes will be presented and discussed. We also aim to examine the critical issues in these membranes with respect to the technical and economical advantages and disadvantages. Discussions will also be made on the relevance and importance of membrane technology to the new generation of zero-emission power technologies.

  16. Tritiated Water on Molecular Sieve without Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.T.

    2001-09-10

    Several molecular sieve beds loaded with tritiated water failed to generate hydrogen gas from tritium self-radiolysis at the expected rate. Preliminary gamma-ray irradiation experiments of 4A molecular sieve with varying amounts of oxygen in the over-gas evoke a quenching mechanism. The data suggest that the gas phase rate constant for the production of hydrogen gas is several orders of magnitude smaller than the third order rate constant for scavenging of radical fragments by oxygen.

  17. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOEpatents

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  18. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOEpatents

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  19. Hydrogen Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  20. A Nonmitochondrial Hydrogen Production in Naegleria gruberi

    PubMed Central

    Tsaousis, Anastasios D.; Nývltová, Eva; Šuták, Robert; Hrdý, Ivan; Tachezy, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Naegleria gruberi is a free-living heterotrophic aerobic amoeba well known for its ability to transform from an amoeba to a flagellate form. The genome of N. gruberi has been recently published, and in silico predictions demonstrated that Naegleria has the capacity for both aerobic respiration and anaerobic biochemistry to produce molecular hydrogen in its mitochondria. This finding was considered to have fundamental implications on the evolution of mitochondrial metabolism and of the last eukaryotic common ancestor. However, no actual experimental data have been shown to support this hypothesis. For this reason, we have decided to investigate the anaerobic metabolism of the mitochondrion of N. gruberi. Using in vivo biochemical assays, we have demonstrated that N. gruberi has indeed a functional [FeFe]-hydrogenase, an enzyme that is attributed to anaerobic organisms. Surprisingly, in contrast to the published predictions, we have demonstrated that hydrogenase is localized exclusively in the cytosol, while no hydrogenase activity was associated with mitochondria of the organism. In addition, cytosolic localization displayed for HydE, a marker component of hydrogenase maturases. Naegleria gruberi, an obligate aerobic organism and one of the earliest eukaryotes, is producing hydrogen, a function that raises questions on the purpose of this pathway for the lifestyle of the organism and potentially on the evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:24682152

  1. Discovery of Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    D. Brent MacQueen

    2006-10-01

    This project for DOE was designed to address these materials-related issues through a combination of high-throughput screening of semiconductor candidates and theoretical modeling of nanostructures. High-throughput screening is an effective and economical way to examine a large number of candidates and identify those worthy of further study. Unfortunately, in the course of this project, we discovered no semiconductor candidates that can meet the DOE’s stringent requirements for an economically feasible photoelectrochemical process. However, some of our results indicated that several systems may have potential if further optimized. In particular, the published theoretical modeling work indicates that core-shell nanorod structures, if properly engineered, have the potential to overcome the shortfalls of current semiconductors. Although the synthesis of the designed core-shell nanorod structures proved to be beyond the current capabilities of our laboratories, recent advances in the synthesis of core-shell nanorod structures imply that the designed structures can be synthesized. SRI is confident that once these materials are made they will validate our models and lead to economical and environmentally friendly hydrogen from sunlight and water. The high-throughput photolysis analysis module developed at SRI will also have utility in applications such as identifying catalysts for photo-assisted chemical detoxification, as well as non-photolytic applications such as hydrogen storage, which can take advantage of the ability of the analysis module to monitor pressure over time.

  2. Technology issues associated with fueling the national aerospace plane with slush hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, Ned P.

    1988-01-01

    The National Aerospace Plane is a horizontal takeoff and landing, single stage-to-orbit vehicle using hydrogen fuel. The first flights are planned for the mid 1990's. The success of this important national program requires advances in virtually every discipline associated with both airbreathing and space flight. The high heating value, cooling capacity, and combustion properties make hydrogen the fuel of choice, but low density results in a large vehicle. Both fuel cooling capacity and density are increased with the use of slush hydrogen and result in significant reductions in vehicle size. A national program to advance this technology and to find engineering solutions to the many design issues is now under way. The program uses the expertise of the cryogenics production and services industry, the instrumentation industry, universities and governments. The program will be discussed to highlight the major issues and display progress to date.

  3. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

  4. Engineering analysis of potential photosynthetic bacterial hydrogen-production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M. E.

    1982-06-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) are capable of generating hydrogen from organics in effluents from food processing, pulp and paper, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Hydrogen evolution takes place under light in the absence of air. The rate of hydrogen production is expected to range between 300 to 600 scf of hydrogen per 1000 galloons of waste stream treated per hour. This hydrogen production system has been demonstrated at a bench-scale level and is ready for engineering development. A conceptual design for a PSB hydrogen production system is described. The system is expected to be sited adjacent to a waste stream source which will be pretreated by fermentation and pH adjustment, innoculated with bacteria, and then passed into the reactor. The reactor effluent can either be discharged into a rapid infiltration system, an irrigation ditch, and/or recycled back into the reactor. Several potential reactor designs have been developed, analyzed, and costed. A large covered pond appears to be the most economical design approach.

  5. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  8. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The...

  10. Advancing the Technology Base for High Temperature Hydrogen Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, Robert C.; Moss, Thomas S.

    1997-12-31

    High purity hydrogen is a critical component for at least two major industrial processes: 1) the refining of conventional steels and raw pig iron into low carbon steels and high purity iron used for high performance magnets in motors, generators, alternators, transformers, and etc.; and 2) refining metallurgical grade silicon to the high- purity, polycrystalline silicon used in fabricating single crystal silicon wafers for semiconductor manufacturing. In the process of producing low carbon iron products, CO and CO2 impurities prevent efficient removal of the carbon already in the raw iron. In the refining of metallurgical grade silicon, the presence of any impurity above the part-per- million level prevents the ultimate fabrication of the large scale single crystals that are essential to the semiconductor device. In a lesser magnitude role, high quality hydrogen is used in a variety of other processes, including specialty metals refining (e.g., iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, and ruthenium) and R{ampersand}D in areas such as organic synthesis and development of certain types of fuel cells. In all of these applications, a high-temperature hydrogen membrane can provide a method for achieving a very high purity level of hydrogen in a manner that is more economical and/or more rugged than existing techniques.

  11. Iridium-catalyzed hydrogen production from monosaccharides, disaccharide, cellulose, and lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sponholz, Peter; Nielsen, Martin; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen constitutes an important feedstock for clean-energy technologies as well as for production of bulk and fine chemicals. Hence, the development of novel processes to convert easily available biomass into H2 is of general interest. Herein, we demonstrate a one-pot protocol hydrogen generation from monosaccharides, disaccharide, and extremely demanding cellulose and lignocellulose substrates by using a pincer-type iridium catalyst. Applying ppm amounts of this catalyst, hydrogen is produced at temperatures lower than 120 °C. More specifically, catalyst turnover numbers (TONs) for lignocellulose from bamboo reached up to about 3000. Interestingly, even (used) cigarette filters, which are composed of cellulose acetate, produce hydrogen under optimized conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fermentative Hydrogen Production From Food Waste Without Inocula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Mizuno, O.; Kameda, T.; Yoshioka, T.

    2008-02-01

    The kind of seed microorganisms and its growth conditions are important factors for the hydrogen fermentation. However, there are many kinds of bacteria in food waste, and it is necessary to know their behavior if it is used as a substrate. Therefore, hydrogen fermentation of food waste was investigated in the absence of inocula with an initial pH varying from 5 to 9 and in a temperature range between 22 to 50 °C. Hydrogen production occurred when the initial pH of the solution containing the food waste was adjusted to 7-9 and the temperature was adjusted to 22 or 35 °C (maximum production was 40 ml-H2/g-TS at an initial pH of 9 and a temperature of 35 °C). However, the hydrogen production stopped when the pH decreased due to the accumulation of organic acids. In the next step, the pH was controlled by the addition of a NaOH solution between 5.0 and 9.0. When the pH was controlled between 5.0-6.0, the hydrogen production increased to a maximum of 90 ml-H2/g-TS at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 35 °C; more than 4 times more than for the sample without pH adjustment, due to the acceleration of butyrate fermentation.

  13. Evaluation of the Potential Environmental Impacts from Large-Scale Use and Production of Hydrogen in Energy and Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Dubey, M.K., Edmonds, J.; Layzell, D.; Olsen, S.; Rahn, T.; Rocket, A.; Wang, D.; Jia, W.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to systematically identify and examine possible near and long-term ecological and environmental effects from the production of hydrogen from various energy sources based on the DOE hydrogen production strategy and the use of that hydrogen in transportation applications. This project uses state-of-the-art numerical modeling tools of the environment and energy system emissions in combination with relevant new and prior measurements and other analyses to assess the understanding of the potential ecological and environmental impacts from hydrogen market penetration. H2 technology options and market penetration scenarios will be evaluated using energy-technology-economics models as well as atmospheric trace gas projections based on the IPCC SRES scenarios including the decline in halocarbons due to the Montreal Protocol. Specifically we investigate the impact of hydrogen releases on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the long-term stability of the ozone layer due to changes in hydrogen emissions, the impact of hydrogen emissions and resulting concentrations on climate, the impact on microbial ecosystems involved in hydrogen uptake, and criteria pollutants emitted from distributed and centralized hydrogen production pathways and their impacts on human health, air quality, ecosystems, and structures under different penetration scenarios

  14. Extended Operations of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Pilot-Scale Compact Reformer: Year 6 - Activity 3.2 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Almlie, Jay

    2011-10-01

    U.S. and global demand for hydrogen is large and growing for use in the production of chemicals, materials, foods, pharmaceuticals, and fuels (including some low-carbon biofuels). Conventional hydrogen production technologies are expensive, have sizeable space requirements, and are large carbon dioxide emitters. A novel sorbent-based hydrogen production technology is being developed and advanced toward field demonstration that promises smaller size, greater efficiency, lower costs, and reduced to no net carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production technology. Development efforts at the pilot scale have addressed materials compatibility, hot-gas filtration, and high-temperature solids transport and metering, among other issues, and have provided the basis for a preliminary process design with associated economics. The process was able to achieve a 93% hydrogen purity on a purge gasfree basis directly out of the pilot unit prior to downstream purification.

  15. Room Temperature Nanoimprint Technology Using Hydrogen Silsequioxane (HSQ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igaku, Yutaka; Matsui, Shinji; Ishigaki, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Ishida, Masahiko; Ochiai, Yukinori; Namatsu, Hideo; Komuro, Masanori; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2002-06-01

    Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography (RT-NIL) technology has been developed to overcome critical dimensions and pattern placement error due to thermal expansion in the conventional nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process. We propose RT-NIL using hydrogen silsequioxane (HSQ) instead of PMMA used in conventional NIL, and demonstrate HSQ replicated patterns with 90 nm hole diameter and 50 nm linewidth realized by room-temperature replications. We performed step-and-repeat replications using HSQ on a 1.5 in. wafer and evaluated the uniformity of the imprinted HSQ patterns.

  16. Effects of formate on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Tatsuo; Tanisho, Shigeharu

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of formate on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes by way of batch culture. When 20 mM formate was added to pH 6.3 and pH 5.8 E. aerogenes glucose cultures (formate culture) at the beginning of cultivation, hydrogen evolution through both glucose consumption and decomposition of the extrinsic formate occurred together, while hydrogen evolution occurred only through glucose consumption in the control cultures. The hydrogen evolution rates in the formate cultures were faster than in the control cultures, although cell growth and glucose consumption rates in the formate cultures were slower than the control cultures'. The decomposition rate of the extrinsic formate in the pH 5.8 formate culture was faster than in the pH 6.3 formate culture. The hydrogen yield from glucose in the pH 6.3 formate culture increased due to the increasing amount of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for hydrogen production.

  17. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  18. Analysis of Hydrogen and Competing Technologies for Utility-Scale Energy Storage (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.

    2010-02-11

    Presentation about the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's analysis of hydrogen energy storage scenarios, including analysis framework, levelized cost comparison of hydrogen and competing technologies, analysis results, and conclusions drawn from the analysis.

  19. Hydrogen Technology Validation as a "Learning Demonstration" that Feeds the R&D Process (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Gronich, S.; Hooker, D.

    2004-04-01

    This presentation, which provides information about how hydrogen technology validation is used as a learning demonstration that feeds the research and development process, was given at a National Hydrogen Association meeting in April 2004.

  20. Engineering aspects of hydrogen production from photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M.

    1982-02-01

    Certain photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), for example, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, evolve hydrogen when placed in an anaerobic environment with light and a suitable organic substrate. An engineering effort to use such bacteria for large-scale hydrogen production from sunlight is described. A system to produce 28,000 m/sup 3//day (1 x 10/sup 6/ ft/sup 3//day) of hydrogen has been designed on a conceptual level and includes hydrogen cleanup, substrate storage, and waste disposal. The most critical component in the design is the solar bacterial reactor. Several designs were developed and analyzed. A large covered pond concept appears most attractive. Cost estimates for the designs show favorable economics.

  1. Production of hydrogen in a conventional microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Mukasa, Shinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Kawashima, Ayato

    2009-10-01

    Hydrogen is produced by generating in-liquid plasma in a conventional microwave oven. A receiving antenna unit consisting of seven copper rods is placed at the bottom of the reactor furnace in the microwave oven. 2.45 GHz microwave in-liquid plasma can be generated at the tips of the electrodes in the microwave oven. When the n-dodecane is decomposed by plasma, 74% pure hydrogen gas can be achieved with this device. The hydrogen generation efficiency for a 750 W magnetron output is estimated to be approximately 56% of that of the electrolysis of water. Also, in this process up to 4 mg/s of solid carbon can be produced at the same time. The present process enables simultaneous production of hydrogen gas and the carbide in the hydrocarbon liquid.

  2. Design of nanocatalysts for green hydrogen production from bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Bion, Nicolas; Duprez, Daniel; Epron, Florence

    2012-01-09

    Bioethanol is an interesting feedstock that may be used for hydrogen production by steam or autothermal reforming. However, the impurities (heavy alcohols, esters, acids, N compounds) contained in the raw feedstock require a costly purification, as they have a dramatic impact on catalyst activity and stability. Thus, a method that can utilize the raw feedstock without severe degradation of the catalyst would be desirable. In this Minireview, the composition of bioethanol from first and second generation biomass, the reactions involved in the catalytic ethanol steam reforming process and the design of catalysts adapted for hydrogen production from a real bioethanol feed are surveyed.

  3. CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    George R. Gavalas

    2001-11-27

    The present project is devoted to developing hydrogen permselective silica membranes supported on composite supports to achieve high flux and selectivity. The supports consist of a thin zeolite silicalite layer coated on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes of mean pore size 1 {micro}m. The zeolite layer is grown by reaction in a suitable silicate solution at 95 C. After two or three reaction periods a layer of silicalite crystals about 20 {micro}m thick grows inside the pores of alumina. In addition to the zeolitic pores, this layer contains voids of a few nanometer diameter that remain between the crystals or between the crystals and the pore walls. The quality of the silicalite/alumina composites was evaluated by gas permeation measurements and by nitrogen adsorption and it was found that the residual voids were below 5 nm in diameter. Three techniques were investigated for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of the silica layer on the silicalite/alumina composite support. The first was TEOS pyrolysis at approximately one millibar partial pressure and 650 C. After 8 h reaction the fluxes of hydrogen and nitrogen at ambient temperature had declined by a factor of approximately 100 indicating sealing of defects and zeolitic pores alike. The second CVD technique investigated was SiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis at 90 C. Deposition in this case was conducted in a series of cycles, each cycle comprising two half reactions, i.e. exposure to SiCl{sub 4} followed by exposure to water vapor. The deposition was interrupted every five cycles to measure the permeation properties of the nascent membrane at 120 C. After a few cycles the membrane pores were sealed, but the silica layer was not thermally stable when the temperature was raised to 400 C. In the third technique investigated, silica deposition was carried out by SiCl{sub 4} hydrolysis at 400 C, again in a sequence of half reaction cycles. After 15 cycles the membrane pores were well sealed by a layer stable to at least 400 C.

  4. Electrochemical production of ozone and hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganisms and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  5. Thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Dang, V.D.

    Two-step processes for the preparation of hydrogen are described: CrCl/sub 3/(g) ..-->.. CrCl/sub 2/(g) + 1/2Cl/sub 2/(g) and CrCl/sub 2/(s) + HCl(g) reversible CrCl/sub 3/(s) + 1/2H/sub 2/(g); UCl/sub 4/(g) ..-->.. UCl/sub 3/(g) + 1/2Cl/sub 2/(g) and UCl/sub 3/(s) + HCl(g) ..-->.. UCl/sub 4/(s) + 1/2H/sub 2/(g); and CaSO/sub 4/(s) ..-->.. CaO(s) + SO/sub 2/(g) + 1/2O/sub 2/(g) and CaO(s) + SO/sub 2/(g) + H/sub 2/O(l) ..-->.. CaSO/sub 4/(s) + H/sub 2/(g). The high temperature available from solar collectors, high temperature gas reactors or fusion reactors is utilized in the first step in which the reaction is endothermic. The efficiency is at least 60% and with process heat recovery, the efficiency may be increased up to 74.4%. An apparatus fr carrying out the process in conjunction with a fusion reactor, is described.

  6. NASA Lewis advanced IPV nickel-hydrogen technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Britton, Doris L.

    1993-01-01

    Individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology was advanced at NASA Lewis and under Lewis contracts. Some of the advancements are as follows: to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life and performance, to modify the state of the art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes and further improve cycle life, and to develop a lightweight nickel electrode to reduce battery mass, hence reduce launch and/or increase satellite payload. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 accelerated LEO cycles at 80 percent DOD compared to 3,500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. Results of the boiler plate cell tests have been validated at NWSC, Crane, Indiana. Forty-eight ampere-hour flight cells containing 26 and 31 percent KOH have undergone real time LEO cycle life testing at an 80 percent DOD, 10 C. The three cells containing 26 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 19,500. The three cells containing 31 percent KOH failed on the average at cycle 6,400. Validation testing of NASA Lewis 125 Ah advanced design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells is also being conducted at NWSC, Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis contract. This consists of characterization, storage, and cycle life testing. There was no capacity degradation after 52 days of storage with the cells in the discharged state, on open circuit, 0 C, and a hydrogen pressure of 14.5 psia. The catalyzed wall wick cells have been cycled for over 22,694 cycles with no cell failures in the continuing test. All three of the non-catalyzed wall wick cells failed (cycles 9,588; 13,900; and 20,575). Cycle life test results of the Fibrex nickel electrode has demonstrated the feasibility of an improved nickel electrode giving a higher specific energy nickel-hydrogen cell. A nickel-hydrogen boiler plate cell using an 80

  7. Hydrogen production in single chamber microbial electrolysis cells with different complex substrates.

    PubMed

    Montpart, Nuria; Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The use of synthetic wastewater containing carbon sources of different complexity (glycerol, milk and starch) was evaluated in single chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for hydrogen production. The growth of an anodic syntrophic consortium between fermentative and anode respiring bacteria was operationally enhanced and increased the opportunities of these complex substrates to be treated with this technology. During inoculation, current intensities achieved in single chamber microbial fuel cells were 50, 62.5, and 9 A m⁻³ for glycerol, milk and starch respectively. Both current intensities and coulombic efficiencies were higher than other values reported in previous works. The simultaneous degradation of the three complex substrates favored power production and COD removal. After three months in MEC operation, hydrogen production was only sustained with milk as a single substrate and with the simultaneous degradation of the three substrates. The later had the best results in terms of current intensity (150 A m⁻³), hydrogen production (0.94 m³ m⁻³ d⁻¹) and cathodic gas recovery (91%) at an applied voltage of 0.8 V. Glycerol and starch as substrates in MEC could not avoid the complete proliferation of hydrogen scavengers, even under low hydrogen retention time conditions induced by continuous nitrogen sparging.

  8. Analytical approaches to photobiological hydrogen production in unicellular green algae.

    PubMed

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Melis, Anastasios; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several species of unicellular green algae, such as the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can operate under either aerobic photosynthesis or anaerobic metabolism conditions. A particularly interesting metabolic condition is that of "anaerobic oxygenic photosynthesis", whereby photosynthetically generated oxygen is consumed by the cell's own respiration, causing anaerobiosis in the culture in the light, and induction of the cellular "hydrogen metabolism" process. The latter entails an alternative photosynthetic electron transport pathway, through the oxygen-sensitive FeFe-hydrogenase, leading to the light-dependent generation of molecular hydrogen in the chloroplast. The FeFe-hydrogenase is coupled to the reducing site of photosystem-I via ferredoxin and is employed as an electron-pressure valve, through which electrons are dissipated, thus permitting a sustained electron transport in the thylakoid membrane of photosynthesis. This hydrogen gas generating process in the cells offers testimony to the unique photosynthetic metabolism that can be found in many species of green microalgae. Moreover, it has attracted interest by the biotechnology and bioenergy sectors, as it promises utilization of green microalgae and the process of photosynthesis in renewable energy production. This article provides an overview of the principles of photobiological hydrogen production in microalgae and addresses in detail the process of induction and analysis of the hydrogen metabolism in the cells. Furthermore, methods are discussed by which the interaction of photosynthesis, respiration, cellular metabolism, and H(2) production in Chlamydomonas can be monitored and regulated.

  9. Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1999-08-22

    Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

  10. Integrated hydrogen/oxygen technology applied to auxiliary propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhardt, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Integrated Hydrogen/Oxygen Technology (IHOT) study was to determine if the vehicle/mission needs and technology of the 1990's support development of an all cryogenic H2/O2 system. In order to accomplish this, IHOT adopted the approach of designing Integrated Auxiliary Propulsion Systems (IAPS) for a representative manned vehicle; the advanced manned launch system. The primary objectives were to develop IAPS concepts which appeared to offer viable alternatives to state-of-the-art (i.e., hypergolic, or earth-storable) APS approaches. The IHOT study resulted in the definition of three APS concepts; two cryogenic IAPS, and a third concept utilizing hypergolic propellants.

  11. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

  12. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  13. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, I A; Bakker, R R; Budde, M A W; de Vrije, T; Claassen, P A M; Koukios, E G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet extract (SB) were comparatively evaluated for fermentative hydrogen production. Pretreatments and/or enzymatic hydrolysis led to 27, 37, 56, 74 and 45 g soluble sugars/100 g dry BS, CS, BG, CG and SB, respectively. A rapid test was applied to evaluate the fermentability of the hydrolysates and SB extract. The thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus showed high hydrogen production on hydrolysates of mild-acid pretreated BS, hydrolysates of BG and CG, and SB extract. Mild-acid pretreated CS showed limited fermentability, which was partially due to inhibitory products released in the hydrolysates, implying the need for the employment of a milder pretreatment method. The difference in the fermentability of BS and CS is in strong contrast to the similarity of the composition of these two feedstocks. The importance of performing fermentability tests to determine the suitability of a feedstock for hydrogen production was confirmed.

  14. Potential of biogenic hydrogen production for hydrogen driven remediation strategies in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-09-25

    Fermentative production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) from organic residues has emerged as a promising alternative for providing the required electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Unlike the widely used production of H2 by bacteria in fresh water systems, few reports are available regarding the generation of biogenic H2 and optimisation processes in marine systems. The present research aims to optimise the capability of an indigenous marine bacterium for the production of bio-H2 in marine environments and subsequently develop this process for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Fermentative conversion of organics in marine media to H2 using a marine isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BH11, was determined. A Taguchi design of experimental methodology was employed to evaluate the optimal nutritional composition in batch tests to improve bio-H2 yields. Further optimisation experiments showed that alginate-immobilised bacterial cells were able to produce bio-H2 at the same rate as suspended cells over a period of several weeks. Finally, bio-H2 was used as electron donor to successfully dehalogenate trichloroethylene (TCE) using biogenic palladium nanoparticles as a catalyst. Fermentative production of bio-H2 can be a promising technique for concomitant generation of an electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies and treatment of organic residue in marine ecosystems.

  15. Hydrogen production in single chamber microbial electrolysis cells with stainless steel fiber felt cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Min; Wei, Liling; Qiu, Zhaozheng; Wang, Gang; Shen, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) is a promising technology for sustainable production of hydrogen from biodegradable carbon sources. Employing a low-cost and high efficient cathode to replace platinum catalyzed cathode (Pt/C) for hydrogen generation is a challenge for commercialization of MEC. Here we show that a 3D macroporous stainless steel fiber felt (SSFF) with high electrochemical active surface area has an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen generation, which is comparable to Pt/C cathode and superior to stainless steel mesh (SSM) cathode in the single-chamber MEC. The SSFF cathode (mean filter rating 100 μm) produces hydrogen at a rate of 3.66 ± 0.43 m3 H2 m-3d-1 (current density of 17.29 ± 1.68 A m-2), with a hydrogen recovery of 76.37 ± 15.04% and overall energy efficiency of 79.61 ± 13.07% at an applied voltage of 0.9 V. The performance of SSFF cathode improves over time due to a decrease in overpotential which caused by corrosion. These results demonstrate that SSFF can be a promising alternative for Pt catalytic cathode in MEC for hydrogen production.

  16. An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhicheng Wang

    2007-03-15

    The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.

  17. Hydrogen production via photolytic oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfite solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cunping; Linkous, Clovis A; Adebiyi, Olawale; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. The conventional treatment of SO(2)-contaminated air consists of two steps: SO(2) absorption using an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, forming aqueous sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), and Na(2)SO(3) oxidation via air purging to produce sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)). In this process, the potential energy of SO(2) is lost. This paper presents a novel ultraviolet (UV) photolytic process for production of hydrogen from aqueous Na(2)SO(3) solutions. The results show that the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production can reach 14.4% under illumination from a low pressure mercury lamp. The mechanism occurs via two competing reaction pathways that involve oxidation of SO(3)(2-) to SO(4)(2-) directly and through the dithionate (S(2)O(6)(2-)) ion intermediate. The first route becomes dominant once a photostationary state for S(2)O(6)(2-) is established. The initial pH of Na(2)SO(3) solution plays an important role in determining both the hydrogen production rate and the final products of the photolytic oxidation. At initial solution pH of 9.80 Na(2)SO(3) photo-oxidation generates Na(2)SO(4) as the final reaction product, while Na(2)S(2)O(6) is merely a reaction intermediate. The highest hydrogen production rate occurs when the initial solution pH is 7.55. Reduction in the initial solution pH to 5.93 results in disproportionation of HSO(3)(-) to elemental sulfur and SO(4)(2-) but no hydrogen production.

  18. CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect

    George R. Gavalas

    2004-04-01

    The preparation and performance of membranes for application to hydrogen separation from coal-derived gas is described. The membrane material investigated was dense amorphous silica deposited on a suitable support by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Two types of support materials were pursued. One type consisted of a two-layer composite, zeolite silicalite/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the form of tubes approximately 0.7 cm in diameter. The other type was porous glass tubes of diameter below 0.2 cm. The first type of support was prepared starting from {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes of 1{micro}m mean pore diameter and growing by hydrothermal reaction a zeolite silicalite layer inside the pores of the alumina at the OD side. After calcination to remove the organic template used in the hydrothermal reaction, CVD was carried out to deposit the final silica layer. CVD was carried out by alternating exposure of the surface with silicon tetrachloride and water vapor. SEM and N2 adsorption measurements were employed to characterize the membranes at several stages during their preparation. Permeation measurements of several gases yielded H{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ideal selectivity of 150-200 at room temperature declining to 110 at 250 C. The second type of support pursued was porous glass tubes prepared by a novel extrusion technique. A thick suspension of borosilicate glass powder in a polyethersulfone solution was extruded through a spinneret and after gelation the glass-polymer tube was heat treated to obtain a gas-tight glass tube. Leaching of the glass tube in hot water yielded connected pores with diameter on the order of 100 nm. CVD of the final silica layer was not carried out on these tubes on account of their large pore size.

  19. Modeling of the process of electrolysis production of caustic, chlorine and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulaeva, E. A.; Shulaev, N. S.; Kovalenko, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    The present work describes the modeling parameters of an electrolyzer in production of caustic, hydrogen and chlorine by electrolysis. The dependence of temperature on the current-voltage characteristics of the electolyzer and the ratio that determines the current as a function of the design parameters were found. It is shown that an increase in the current in the electrolyzer with increased temperature is due to decreasing viscosity of the electrolyte and reducing the radii of solvated ions and sodium chloride. The yield of sodium hydroxide, chlorine and hydrogen was determined based on the technological and construction parameters of the cell. These relations are used in the developed simulation and modeling software.

  20. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  1. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  2. Catalytic carbon membranes for hydrogen production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.S.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial carbon composite microfiltration membranes may be modified for gas separation applications by providing a gas separation layer with pores in the 1- to 10-nm range. Several organic polymeric precursors and techniques for depositing a suitable layer were investigated in this project. The in situ polymerization technique was found to be the most promising, and pure component permeation tests with membrane samples prepared with this technique indicated Knudsen diffusion behavior. The gas separation factors obtained by mixed-gas permeation tests were found to depend strongly on gas temperature and pressure indicating significant viscous flow at high-pressure conditions. The modified membranes were used to carry out simultaneous water gas shift reaction and product hydrogen separation. These tests indicated increasing CO conversions with increasing hydrogen separation. A simple process model was developed to simulate a catalytic membrane reactor. A number of simulations were carried out to identify operating conditions leading to product hydrogen concentrations over 90 percent. (VC)

  3. Improvements in fermentative biological hydrogen production through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Hallenbeck, Patrick C; Ghosh, Dipankar

    2012-03-01

    Replacement of fossil fuels with alternative energies is increasingly imperative in light of impending climate change and fossil fuel shortages. Biohydrogen has several potential advantages over other biofuels. Dark fermentation as a means of producing biohydrogen is attractive since a variety of readily available waste streams can be used. However, at present its practical application is prevented by the low yields obtained. Here the basic metabolisms leading to hydrogen production are outlined and current research to increase yields, either through modification of existing pathways, or by metabolic engineering to create new, higher yielding, pathways, is discussed. Inactivation of competing reactions and manipulation of culture conditions has lead to higher hydrogen yields, near those predicted by metabolic schemes. However, to be useful, hydrogen production must be increased beyond present limits. Several possibilities for surpassing those limits using metabolic engineering are presented.

  4. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  5. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect

    O.N. Dogan; B.H. Howard; D.E. Alman

    2012-02-26

    The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced green house gas emissions; (3) High tech job creation; and (4) Reduced energy costs. The goals of the Hydrogen from Coal Program are: (1) Prove the feasibility of a 40% efficient, near zero emissions IGCC plant that uses membrane separation technology and other advanced technologies to reduce the cost of electricity by at least 35%; and (2) Develop H{sub 2} production and processing technologies that will contribute {approx}3% in improved efficiency and 12% reduction in cost of electricity.

  6. Electrolytic hydrogen production: An analysis and review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evangelista, J.; Phillips, B.; Gordon, L.

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamics of water electrolysis cells is presented, followed by a review of current and future technology of commercial cells. The irreversibilities involved are analyzed and the resulting equations assembled into a computer simulation model of electrolysis cell efficiency. The model is tested by comparing predictions based on the model to actual commercial cell performance, and a parametric investigation of operating conditions is performed. Finally, the simulation model is applied to a study of electrolysis cell dynamics through consideration of an ideal pulsed electrolyzer.

  7. A preliminary systems-engineering study of an advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.; Tison, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    An advanced nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen-production facility concept was synthesized at a conceptual level with the objective of minimizing estimated hydrogen-production costs. The concept is a closely-integrated, fully-dedicated (only hydrogen energy is produced) system whose components and subsystems are predicted on ''1985 technology.'' The principal components are: (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating a helium-Brayton/ammonia-Rankine binary cycle with a helium reactor-core exit temperature of 980 C, (2) acyclic d-c generators, (3) high-pressure, high-current-density electrolyzers based on solid-polymer electrolyte technology. Based on an assumed 3,000 MWt HTGR the facility is capable of producing 8.7 million std cu m/day of hydrogen at pipeline conditions, 6,900 kPa. Coproduct oxygen is also available at pipeline conditions at one-half this volume. It has further been shown that the incorporation of advanced technology provides an overall efficiency of about 43 percent, as compared with 25 percent for a contemporary nuclear-electric plant powering close-coupled contemporary industrial electrolyzers.

  8. Heat Pre-Treatment of Beverages Wastewater on Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyub, S. Z.; Mohd, N. S.; Ibrahim, S.

    2017-06-01

    At present, a large variety of alternative fuels have been investigated and hydrogen gas is considered as the possible solution for the future due to its unique characteristics. Through dark fermentation process, several factors were found to have significant impact on the hydrogen production either through process enhancement or inhibition and degradation rates or influencing parameters. This work was initiated to investigate the optimum conditions for heat pre-treatment and initial pH for the dark fermentative process under mesophilic condition using a central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM). Different heat treatment conditions and pH were performed on the seed sludge collected from the anaerobic digester of beverage wastewater treatment plant. Heat treatment of inoculum was optimized at different exposure times (30, 90, 120 min), temperatures (80, 90 and 100°C) and pH (4.5, 5.5, 6.5) in order to maximize the biohydrogen production and methanogens activity inhibition. It was found that the optimum heat pre-treatment condition and pH occurred at 100°C for 50 min and the pH of 6.00. At this optimum condition the hydrogen yield was 63.0476 ml H2/mol glucose (H2 Yield) and the COD removal efficiency was 90.87%. In conclusion, it can be hypothesized that different heat treatment conditions led to differences in the initial microbial communities (hydrogen producing bacteria) which resulted in the different hydrogen yields.

  9. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  10. Sorption enhanced reaction process (SERP) for the production of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hufton, J.; Mayorga, S.; Gaffney, T.; Nataraj, S.; Rao, M.; Sircar, S.

    1998-08-01

    The novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process has the potential to decrease the cost of hydrogen production by steam methane reforming. Current effort for development of this technology has focused on adsorbent development, experimental process concept testing, and process development and design. A preferred CO{sub 2} adsorbent, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted hydrotalcite, satisfies all of the performance targets and it has been scaled up for process testing. A separate class of adsorbents has been identified which could potentially improve the performance of the H{sub 2}-SER process. Although this material exhibits improved CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity compared to the HTC adsorbent, its hydrothermal stability must be improved. Single-step process experiments (not cyclic) indicate that the H{sub 2}-SER reactor performance during the reaction step improves with decreasing pressure and increasing temperature and steam to methane ratio in the feed. Methane conversion in the H{sub 2}-SER reactor is higher than for a conventional catalyst-only reactor operated at similar temperature and pressure. The reactor effluent gas consists of 90+% H{sub 2}, balance CH{sub 4}, with only trace levels (< 50 ppm) of carbon oxides. A best-case process design (2.5 MMSCFD of 99.9+% H{sub 2}) based on the HTC adsorbent properties and a revised SER process cycle has been generated. Economic analysis of this design indicates the process has the potential to reduce the H{sub 2} product cost by 25--31% compared to conventional steam methane reforming.

  11. Process development for hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on growth and product formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Florian; Morweiser, Michael; Rosello Sastre, Rosa; Kruse, Olaf; Posten, Clemens

    2012-11-30

    Certain strains of microalgae are long known to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase enzyme recombines electrons from the chloroplast electron transport chain with protons to form molecular hydrogen directly inside the chloroplast. A sustained hydrogen production can be obtained under low sulfur conditions in C. reinhardtii, reducing the net oxygen evolution by reducing the photosystem II activity and thereby overcoming the inhibition of the hydrogenases. The development of specially adapted hydrogen production strains led to higher yields and optimized biological process preconditions. So far sustainable hydrogen production required a complete exchange of the growth medium to establish sulfur-deprived conditions after biomass growth. In this work we demonstrate the transition from the biomass growth phase to the hydrogen production phase in a single batch culture only by exact dosage of sulfur. This eliminates the elaborate and energy intensive solid-liquid separation step and establishes a process strategy to proceed further versus large scale production. This strategy has been applied to determine light dependent biomass growth and hydrogen production kinetics to assess the potential of H₂ production with C. reinhardtii as a basis for scale up and further process optimization.

  12. Production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis. Task 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    The report presents results of a cooperative effort among the Florida Energy Office, NASA/Kennedy Space Center, the US Department of Energy and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). It reports on a task to evaluate hydrogen production from photovoltaic (PV)-powered electrolysis. The resulting activities covered five years of effort funded at a total of $216,809. The results represent a successful, coordinated effort among two state agencies and two federal agencies. Results are reported on two separate investigations. The first investigation looked at the use of line focus concentrating photovoltaics coupled with single-cell electrolyzers to produce gaseous hydrogen. The concept, and its design, construction and operation, are presented. The objectives of the line focusing PV system are to reduce overall system cost under the assumptions that lenses and mirrors are cheaper to deploy than are PV cells, and that low-voltage, high-current dc electricity can efficiently power a single-cell elctrolyzer to produce hydrogen. The second investigation evaluated a base case cost of PV electrolysis hydrogen production based on present-day PV and electrolyzer costs and efficiencies. A second step analyzed the hydrogen costs based on a best prediction of where PV costs and efficiencies will be in 10 years. These results set the minimum cost standards that other renewable production technologies must meet or better.

  13. Development of a sterilizing in-place application for a production machine using Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mau, T; Hartmann, V; Burmeister, J; Langguth, P; Häusler, H

    2004-01-01

    The use of steam in sterilization processes is limited by the implementation of heat-sensitive components inside the machines to be sterilized. Alternative low-temperature sterilization methods need to be found and their suitability evaluated. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) technology was adapted for a production machine consisting of highly sensitive pressure sensors and thermo-labile air tube systems. This new kind of "cold" surface sterilization, known from the Barrier Isolator Technology, is based on the controlled release of hydrogen peroxide vapour into sealed enclosures. A mobile VHP generator was used to generate the hydrogen peroxide vapour. The unit was combined with the air conduction system of the production machine. Terminal vacuum pumps were installed to distribute the gas within the production machine and for its elimination. In order to control the sterilization process, different physical process monitors were incorporated. The validation of the process was based on biological indicators (Geobacillus stearothermophilus). The Limited Spearman Karber Method (LSKM) was used to statistically evaluate the sterilization process. The results show that it is possible to sterilize surfaces in a complex tube system with the use of gaseous hydrogen peroxide. A total microbial reduction of 6 log units was reached.

  14. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi

    2011-09-26

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  15. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi

    2011-09-01

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  16. Lighting Up Enzymes for Solar Hydrogen Production (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have combined quantum dots, which are spherical nanoparticles that possess unique size-tunable photophysical properties, with the high substrate selectivity and fast turnover of hydrogenase enzymes to achieve light-driven hydrogen (H2) production. They found that quantum dots of cadmium telluride coated in carboxylic acids easily formed highly stable complexes with the hydrogenase and that these hybrid assemblies functioned to catalyze H2 production using the energy of sunlight.

  17. Appendix G - GPRA06 hydrogen, fuel cells, and infrastructure technologies (HFCIT) program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target markets for the Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program include transportation (cars and light trucks) and stationary (particularly residential and commercial) applications.

  18. Extremophile mediated hydrogen production for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjom, Mouzhgun

    Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from production of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 production from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological production of H2 as an end product or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 production by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass production, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 production was pH dependent but addition of simple, non-toxic physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 production and (4) H2 production rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068

  19. Hydrogen production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 in a serial photobioreactor fed with hydrogen fermentation effluent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Mei; Hung, Guo-Jan; Yang, Chu-Fang

    2011-09-01

    In this study, a lab-scale serial photobioreactor composed of three column reactors was constructed and continuously operated to investigate several parameters influencing photohydrogen production when using the synthetic wastewater and the anaerobic hydrogen fermentation effluents as the influents. The results indicated that better hydrogen production rate was obtained when the serial photobioreactor was operated under cellular recycling at a short HRT of 8h. The serial photobioreactor maintained high hydrogen content ca. 80% in the produced gas and 0.4× dilution ratio was the suitable ratio for hydrogen production. When the photobioreactor fed with the real wastewater (Effluent 1) containing 100 mg/L NH4Cl, Column 1 reactor successfully reduced ammonia concentration to about 60 mg/L for cell synthesis, resulting in a steady hydrogen production in the following two column reactors. The average hydrogen production rate was 205 mL-H2/L/d.

  20. Thermochemical hydrogen production studies at LLNL: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1982-06-08

    Currently, studies are underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) on thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and solar central receivers as heat sources. These areas of study were described earlier at the previous IEA Annex I Hydrogen Workshop (Juelich, West Germany, September 23-25, 1981), and a brief update will be given here. Some basic research has also been underway at LLNL on the electrolysis of water from fused phosphate salts, but there are no current results in that area, and the work is being terminated.

  1. Production of Excited Atomic Hydrogen from Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Landers, A. L.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the production of Lyα and Hα fluorescence from atomic H for the photodissociation of CH4 by linearly-polarized photons with energies between 20 and 65 eV. Comparison between our Lyα relative cross section and that previously reported [1] show different peak height ratios. This also occurs in the Hα cross section when compared to previous data [2]. We do not observe as significant a drop in either cross section above 35 eV. Our measurements were taken with pressures two orders of magnitude lower than those used in ref. [1]. We present comparisons between data sets and a discussion of possible systematic effects. [1] H. Fukuzawa et al., J. Phys. B. 38, 565 (2005). [2] M. Kato et al., J. Phys. B. 35, 4383 (2002). Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0653379), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  2. Hydrogen production via the KBW gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, H.J.; Cannon, J.F.; Probert, P.B.

    1982-03-01

    In October, 1981, Koppers Company, Inc. and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (an operating unit of McDermott, Inc.) formed a joint venture, KBW Gasification Systems, Inc. to serve the expanding synthetic fuels market. KBW is offering commercially an atmospheric pressure, oxygen blown, slagging type entrained flow gasification system. The KBW coal gasification system was designed to offer the synthetic fuels industry an efficient, reliable and advanced system that uses proven modern technology. It can gasify any rank of coal. This includes both Eastern and Western U.S. Coals. Caking properties of the coal do not affect the gasification process. The KBW gasifier can handle wide variations in ash quantity, ash fusion temperature, and sulfur content. It can gasify 100 percent of the mine output. It has major environmental advantages. Tar, phenols, and heavy hydrocarbons are not produced in the KBW gasifier because of the high gasification temperature. It does not produce methane. This eliminates the need for costly and energy intensive steam reforming. It is based on design data, knowledge, and experience possessed by Koppers and Babcock and Wilcox in the areas of coal preparation and handling, mass transfer, heat transfer equipment fabrication, and plant construction. The KBW gasifier has a larger internal volume than existing entrained flow gasifiers. This results in high throughput rates. Both the KBW gasifier and heat recovery boiler use components that have been proven through years of fabrication and service. Membrane walls constructed of vertical, water cooled tubes (which have been widely used in boilers) are used in the KBW gasifier and heat recovery boiler. This feature enables the gasifier to produce high pressure saturated steam that is subsequently superheated in the heat recovery boiler. The water cooled tubes can withstand much higher heat fluxes than jacket type cooling systems while assuring nucleate boiling.

  3. Temperature-sensitive PSII: a novel approach for sustained photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Bayro-Kaiser, Vinzenz; Nelson, Nathan

    2016-12-01

    The need for energy and the associated burden are ever growing. It is crucial to develop new technologies for generating clean and efficient energy for society to avoid upcoming energetic and environmental crises. Sunlight is the most abundant source of energy on the planet. Consequently, it has captured our interest. Certain microalgae possess the ability to capture solar energy and transfer it to the energy carrier, H2. H2 is a valuable fuel, because its combustion produces only one by-product: water. However, the establishment of an efficient biophotolytic H2 production system is hindered by three main obstacles: (1) the hydrogen-evolving enzyme, [FeFe]-hydrogenase, is highly sensitive to oxygen; (2) energy conversion efficiencies are not economically viable; and (3) hydrogen-producing organisms are sensitive to stressful conditions in large-scale production systems. This study aimed to circumvent the oxygen sensitivity of this process with a cyclic hydrogen production system. This approach required a mutant that responded to high temperatures by reducing oxygen evolution. To that end, we randomly mutagenized the green microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to generate mutants that exhibited temperature-sensitive photoautotrophic growth. The selected mutants were further characterized by their ability to evolve oxygen and hydrogen at 25 and 37 °C. We identified four candidate mutants for this project. We characterized these mutants with PSII fluorescence, P700 absorbance, and immunoblotting analyses. Finally, we demonstrated that these mutants could function in a prototype hydrogen-producing bioreactor. These mutant microalgae represent a novel approach for sustained hydrogen production.

  4. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  5. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Peterson, M.; Arent, D.

    1996-10-01

    Photon driven, direct conversion systems consist of a light absorber and a water splitting catalyst as a monolithic system; water is split directly upon illumination. This one-step process eliminates the need to generate electricity externally and subsequently feed it to an electrolyzer. These configurations require only the piping necessary for transport of hydrogen to an external storage system or gas pipeline. This work is focused on multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices for production of hydrogen directly using sunlight and water. Two types of multijunction cells, one consisting of a-Si triple junctions and the other GaInP{sub 2}/GaAs homojunctions, were studied for the photoelectrochemical decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen from an aqueous electrolyte solution. To catalyze the water decomposition process, the illuminated surface of the device was modified either by addition of platinum colloids or by coating with ruthenium dioxide. These colloids have been characterized by gel electrophoresis.

  6. Photoautotrophic hydrogen production by eukaryotic microalgae under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Choi, Jeong-A; Abou-Shanab, R A I; Dempsey, Brian A; Regan, John M; Kim, Jung Rae; Song, Hocheol; Nam, In-Hyun; Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Woojung; Park, Donghee; Kim, Yongje; Choi, Jaeyoung; Ji, Min-Kyu; Jung, Woosik; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria produce hydrogen under anaerobic and limited aerobic conditions. Here we show that novel microalgal strains (Chlorella vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16) upregulate the expression of the hydrogenase gene (HYDA) and simultaneously produce hydrogen through photosynthesis, using CO2 as the sole source of carbon under aerobic conditions with continuous illumination. We employ dissolved oxygen regimes that represent natural aquatic conditions for microalgae. The experimental expression of HYDA and the specific activity of hydrogenase demonstrate that C. vulgaris YSL01 and YSL16 enzymatically produce hydrogen, even under atmospheric conditions, which was previously considered infeasible. Photoautotrophic H2 production has important implications for assessing ecological and algae-based photolysis.

  7. Sequestration of carbon dioxide with hydrogen to useful products

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.; Hawkins, Aaron B.; Menon, Angeli Lal; Lipscomb, Gina Lynette Pries; Schut, Gerrit Jan

    2017-03-07

    Provided herein are genetically engineered microbes that include at least a portion of a carbon fixation pathway, and in one embodiment, use molecular hydrogen to drive carbon dioxide fixation. In one embodiment, the genetically engineered microbe is modified to convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof at levels greater than a control microbe. Other products may also be produced. Also provided herein are cell free compositions that convert acetyl CoA, molecular hydrogen, and carbon dioxide to 3-hydroxypropionate, 4-hydroxybutyrate, acetyl CoA, or the combination thereof. Also provided herein are methods of using the genetically engineered microbes and the cell free compositions.

  8. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz

    2009-07-31

    This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide production during decomposition of landfill inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Fairweather, R.J.; Barlaz, M.A.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a number of landfill inputs on hydrogen sulfide production and on competition between methane production and sulfate reduction during refuse decomposition. Tests were conducted in four-liter reactors that contained residential municipal waste; decomposed refuse as a seed; and various mixtures of anaerobically digested polymer-treated sludge, anaerobically digested lime-stabilized sludge, and wallboard (calcium sulfate) simulating construction and demolition waste. Tests demonstrated that wallboard was the major cause of hydrogen sulfide production and that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction occur concurrently during refuse decomposition. Additionally, both polymer- and lime-treated sludge enhanced refuse decomposition. Despite the presence of excess sulfate, 2.9 to 7.0 times more organic carbon was biodegraded through methanogenesis than through sulfate reduction.

  10. NASA Technologies for Product Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Fred, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1975 bar codes on products at the retail counter have been accepted as the standard for entering product identity for price determination. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Data Matrix symbol has become accepted as the bar code format that is marked directly on a part, assembly or product that is durable enough to identify that item for its lifetime. NASA began the studies for direct part marking Data Matrix symbols on parts during the Return to Flight activities after the Challenger Accident. Over the 20 year period that has elapsed since Challenger, a mountain of studies, analyses and focused problem solutions developed by and for NASA have brought about world changing results. NASA Technical Standard 6002 and NASA Handbook 6003 for Direct Part Marking Data Matrix Symbols on Aerospace Parts have formed the basis for most other standards on part marking internationally. NASA and its commercial partners have developed numerous products and methods that addressed the difficulties of collecting part identification in aerospace operations. These products enabled the marking of Data Matrix symbols in virtually every situation and the reading of symbols at great distances, severe angles, under paint and in the dark without a light. Even unmarkable delicate parts now have a process to apply a chemical mixture called NanocodesTM that can be converted to a Data Matrix. The accompanying intellectual property is protected by 10 patents, several of which are licensed. Direct marking Data Matrix on NASA parts virtually eliminates data entry errors and the number of parts that go through their life cycle unmarked, two major threats to sound configuration management and flight safety. NASA is said to only have people and stuff with information connecting them. Data Matrix is one of the most significant improvements since Challenger to the safety and reliability of that connection. This presentation highlights the accomplishments of NASA in its efforts to develop

  11. Spontaneous high-yield hydrogen production from cellulosic materials and water catalyzed by enzyme cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Xinhao; Wang, Yiran; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Evans, Barbara R; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Zhang, Y.-H. Percival

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-neutral hydrogen gas is a compelling energy carrier, especially for the transportation section. Low-cost hydrogen can be produced from abundant renewable lignocellulosic biomass through a number of methods employing chemical catalysis, biocatalysis or a combination of both, but these technologies suffer from low hydrogen yields (well below the theoretical yield of 12 H2 per glucose), undesired side-products and/or required severe reaction conditions. Here we present a novel in vitro synthetic biology approach for producing near theoretical hydrogen yields from cellulosic materials (cellodextrins) and water at 32oC and 1 atm. These non-natural catabolic pathways containing up to 14 enzymes and one coenzyme degrade cellodextrins initially to glucose-1-phosphate and eventually to CO2, split water and finally release the chemical energy in the form of hydrogen gas. Up to 11.2 H2 per anhydroglucose was produced in a batch reaction. This spontaneous endothermic reaction is driven by entropy gain, suggesting that the thermal energy is adsorbed for generating more chemical energy (hydrogen gas) than that in cellodextrins, i.e., output/input of chemical energy > 1, with an input of ambient-temperature thermal energy.

  12. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  13. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  14. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  15. The U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and Opinions about Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Christy; Truett, Lorena Faith; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    Data were collected in surveys of four component populations. The purpose was to serve as a reference for designing a hydrogen education program and as a baseline for measuring changes in understanding and awareness over time. Comparisons of the baseline data with future results will be made when the survey is fielded again (2008 and 2011). The methodology was successful in measuring knowledge levels and opinions of the target populations. Because the survey instruments were very similar, comparisons could be made among the target populations. These comparisons showed wide differences in knowledge levels between the government agencies and the other populations. General public, students, and potential large scale end user respondents had a general lack of knowledge about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. There was a correlation between technical knowledge of hydrogen fuel cell technologies and opinions about the safe use of hydrogen. Respondents who demonstrated a greater understanding of the concepts of a hydrogen economy and hydrogen fuel cell technology expressed less fear about the safe use of hydrogen.

  16. Evaluation of hydrogen production by clostridium strains on beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Avci, Ayşe; Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönöl; Dönmez, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 and two newly isolated bacteria defined as the members of genus Clostridium - based on the 16S rRNA analysis and biochemical traits - were characterized with regard to their hydrogen production in media containing increasing beet molasses concentrations. The highest hydrogen yield was observed for C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 with a yield of 2.8 mol H2 mol-1 hexose in medium including 60 g L-1 molasses. This bacterium also produced the maximum amount of hydrogen (5908.8 mL L-1) at the same molasses concentration. A slightly lower hydrogen yield was measured for C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 (2.5 mol H2 mol-1 hexose) when grown on 40 g L-1 molasses. The new isolates Clostridium roseum C and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum PF produced hydrogen with yields of 2.0 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 and 60 g L-1 molasses and 2.1 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 gL-1 molasses, respectively.

  17. Substrate and product inhibition of hydrogen production by the extreme thermophile, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus.

    PubMed

    van Niel, Ed W J; Claassen, Pieternel A M; Stams, Alfons J M

    2003-02-05

    Substrate and product inhibition of hydrogen production during sucrose fermentation by the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was studied. The inhibition kinetics were analyzed with a noncompetitive, nonlinear inhibition model. Hydrogen was the most severe inhibitor when allowed to accumulate in the culture. Concentrations of 5-10 mM H(2) in the gas phase (identical with partial hydrogen pressure (pH(2)) of (1-2) x 10(4) Pa) initiated a metabolic shift to lactate formation. The extent of inhibition by hydrogen was dependent on the density of the culture. The highest tolerance for hydrogen was found at low volumetric hydrogen production rates, as occurred in cultures with low cell densities. Under those conditions the critical hydrogen concentration in the gas phase was 27.7 mM H(2) (identical with pH(2) of 5.6 x 10(4) Pa); above this value hydrogen production ceased completely. With an efficient removal of hydrogen sucrose fermentation was mainly inhibited by sodium acetate. The critical concentrations of sucrose and acetate, at which growth and hydrogen production was completely inhibited (at neutral pH and 70 degrees C), were 292 and 365 mM, respectively. Inorganic salts, such as sodium chloride, mimicked the effect of sodium acetate, implying that ionic strength was responsible for inhibition. Undissociated acetate did not contribute to inhibition of cultures at neutral or slightly acidic pH. Exposure of exponentially growing cultures to concentrations of sodium acetate or sodium chloride higher than ca. 175 mM caused cell lysis, probably due to activation of autolysins. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 255-262, 2003.

  18. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  19. Production of Hydrogen for Clean and Renewable Source of Energy for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xunming; Ingler, William B, Jr.; Abraham, Martin; Castellano, Felix; Coleman, Maria; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Giolando, Dean; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya. H.; Stuart, Thomas; Vonderembse, Mark

    2008-10-31

    This was a two-year project that had two major components: 1) the demonstration of a PV-electrolysis system that has separate PV system and electrolysis unit and the hydrogen generated is to be used to power a fuel cell based vehicle; 2) the development of technologies for generation of hydrogen through photoelectrochemical process and bio-mass derived resources. Development under this project could lead to the achievement of DOE technical target related to PEC hydrogen production at low cost. The PEC part of the project is focused on the development of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation devices and systems using thin-film silicon based solar cells. Two approaches are taken for the development of efficient and durable photoelectrochemical cells; 1) An immersion-type photoelectrochemical cells (Task 3) where the photoelectrode is immersed in electrolyte, and 2) A substrate-type photoelectrochemical cell (Task 2) where the photoelectrode is not in direct contact with electrolyte. Four tasks are being carried out: Task 1: Design and analysis of DC voltage regulation system for direct PV-to-electrolyzer power feed Task 2: Development of advanced materials for substrate-type PEC cells Task 3: Development of advanced materials for immersion-type PEC cells Task 4: Hydrogen production through conversion of biomass-derived wastes

  20. The U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Baseline Survey: Assessing Knowledge and opinions about Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Christy; Truett, Lorena Faith; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    To design and maintain its education program, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program conducted a statistically-valid national survey to measure knowledge and opinions of hydrogen among key target audiences. The Hydrogen Baseline Knowledge Survey provides a reference for designing the DOE hydrogen education strategy and will be used in comparisons with future surveys to measure changes in knowledge and opinions over time. The survey sampled four U.S. populations: (1) public; (2) students; (3) state and local government officials; and (4) potential large-scale hydrogen end-users in three business categories Questions measured technical understanding of hydrogen and opinions about hydrogen safety. Other questions assessed visions of the likelihood of future hydrogen applications and sources of energy information. Several important findings were discovered, including a striking lack of technical understanding across all survey groups, as well as a strong correlation between technical knowlege and opinions about safety: those who demonstrated an understanding of hydrogen technologies expressed the least fear of its safe use.