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  1. Hydrogen sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 03 / 005 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE ( CAS No . 7783 - 06 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been

  2. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Ageing Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Cui-Lan; Wang, Ming-Jie; Sun, Chen; Huang, Yong; Jin, Sheng; Mu, Xue-Pan; Chen, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The study aimed to examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation changed in the kidney of the ageing mouse and its relationship with impaired kidney function. Results. H2S levels in the plasma, urine, and kidney decreased significantly in ageing mice. The expression of two known H2S-producing enzymes in kidney, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), decreased significantly during ageing. Chronic H2S donor (NaHS, 50 μmol/kg/day, 10 weeks) treatment could alleviate oxidative stress levels and renal tubular interstitial collagen deposition. These protective effects may relate to transcription factor Nrf2 activation and antioxidant proteins such as HO-1, SIRT1, SOD1, and SOD2 expression upregulation in the ageing kidney after NaHS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of H2S-producing enzymes changed with exogenous H2S administration and contributed to elevated H2S levels in the ageing kidney. Conclusions. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in the ageing kidney is insufficient. Exogenous H2S can partially rescue ageing-related kidney dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress, decreasing collagen deposition, and enhancing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Recovery of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production may also contribute to the beneficial effects of NaHS treatment. PMID:27882191

  3. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Ageing Kidney.

    PubMed

    Hou, Cui-Lan; Wang, Ming-Jie; Sun, Chen; Huang, Yong; Jin, Sheng; Mu, Xue-Pan; Chen, Ying; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The study aimed to examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation changed in the kidney of the ageing mouse and its relationship with impaired kidney function. Results. H2S levels in the plasma, urine, and kidney decreased significantly in ageing mice. The expression of two known H2S-producing enzymes in kidney, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), decreased significantly during ageing. Chronic H2S donor (NaHS, 50 μmol/kg/day, 10 weeks) treatment could alleviate oxidative stress levels and renal tubular interstitial collagen deposition. These protective effects may relate to transcription factor Nrf2 activation and antioxidant proteins such as HO-1, SIRT1, SOD1, and SOD2 expression upregulation in the ageing kidney after NaHS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of H2S-producing enzymes changed with exogenous H2S administration and contributed to elevated H2S levels in the ageing kidney. Conclusions. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in the ageing kidney is insufficient. Exogenous H2S can partially rescue ageing-related kidney dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress, decreasing collagen deposition, and enhancing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Recovery of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production may also contribute to the beneficial effects of NaHS treatment.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide as a potent cardiovascular protective agent.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Hua; Cui, Li-Bao; Wu, Kai; Zheng, Xi-Long; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2014-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known toxic gas with the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. It is synthesized endogenously in mammals from the sulfur-containing amino acid l-cysteine by the action of several distinct enzymes: cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). In particular, CSE is considered to be the major H2S-producing enzyme in the cardiovascular system. As the third gasotransmitter next to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), H2S plays an important role in the regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Growing evidence has demonstrated that this gas exerts a significant protective effect against the progression of cardiovascular diseases by a number of mechanisms such as vasorelaxation, inhibition of cardiovascular remodeling and resistance to form foam cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological functions of H2S and its protection against several major cardiovascular diseases, and to explore its potential health and therapeutic benefits. A better understanding will help develop novel H2S-based therapeutic interventions for these diseases.

  5. Extracellular transsulfuration generates hydrogen sulfide from homocysteine and protects endothelium from redox stress

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Richard S.; Pfau, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Homocysteine, a cardiovascular and neurocognitive disease risk factor, is converted to hydrogen sulfide, a cardiovascular and neuronal protectant, through the transsulfuration pathway. Given the damaging effects of free homocysteine in the blood and the importance of blood homocysteine concentration as a prognosticator of disease, we tested the hypotheses that the blood itself regulates homocysteine-hydrogen sulfide metabolism through transsulfuration and that transsulfuration capacity and hydrogen sulfide availability protect the endothelium from redox stress. Here we show that the transsulfuration enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase, are secreted by microvascular endothelial cells and hepatocytes, circulate as members of the plasma proteome, and actively produce hydrogen sulfide from homocysteine in human blood. We further demonstrate that extracellular transsulfuration regulates cell function when the endothelium is challenged with homocysteine and that hydrogen sulfide protects the endothelium from serum starvation and from hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. These novel findings uncover a unique set of opportunities to explore innovative clinical diagnostics and therapeutic strategies in the approach to homocysteine-related conditions such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and dementia. PMID:20817827

  6. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on hyperbaric hyperoxia-induced lung injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenwu; Liu, Kehuan; Ma, Chunqing; Yu, Jiangang; Peng, Zhaoyun; Huang, Guoyang; Cai, Zhiyu; Li, Runping; Xu, Weigang; Sun, Xuejun; Liu, Kan; Zheng, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is one of the most widely used clinical interventions to counteract insufficient pulmonary oxygen delivery in patients with severe lung injury. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to inflammation and acute lung injury. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide on hyperbaric hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Rats were intraperitoneally treated with sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) at 28 μmol/kg immediately before hyperoxia exposure and then exposed to pure oxygen at 2.5 atmospheres absolute (atm abs) with continuous ventilation for six hours, Immediately after hyperoxia exposure, rats were sacrificed via anesthesia. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was harvested for the detection of protein concentration and IL-1 content, and the lungs were collected for HE staining, TUNEL staining and detection of wet/dry weight ratio. Our results showed hyperbaric hyperoixa exposure could significantly damage the lung (HE staining), increase the protein and IL-13 in the BALF, elevate the wet/dry Weight ratio and raise the TUNEL positive cells. However, pre-treatment with hydrogen sulfide improved the lung morphology, reduced the TUNEL positive cells and attenuated the lung inflammation (reduction in IL-13 of BALF and HE staining). Taken together, our findings indicate that hydrogen sulfide pretreatment may exert protective effects on hyperbaric hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  7. Interstellar hydrogen sulfide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Kutner, M. L.; Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Jefferts, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has been detected in seven Galactic sources by observation of a single line corresponding to the rotational transition from the 1(sub 10) to the 1(sub 01) levels at 168.7 GHz. The observations show that hydrogen sulfide is only a moderately common interstellar molecule comparable in abundance to H2CO and CS, but somewhat less abundant than HCN and much less abundant than CO.

  8. Interstellar hydrogen sulfide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Kutner, M. L.; Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Jefferts, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has been detected in seven Galactic sources by observation of a single line corresponding to the rotational transition from the 1(sub 10) to the 1(sub 01) levels at 168.7 GHz. The observations show that hydrogen sulfide is only a moderately common interstellar molecule comparable in abundance to H2CO and CS, but somewhat less abundant than HCN and much less abundant than CO.

  9. Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide anions against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Isao; Kamata, Shotaro; Hagiya, Yoshifumi; Abiko, Yumi; Kasahara, Tadashi; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    The key mechanism for hepatotoxicity resulting from acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is cytochrome P450-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a potent electrophilic metabolite that forms protein adducts. The fundamental roles of glutathione in the effective conjugation/clearance of NAPQI have been established, giving a molecular basis for the clinical use of N-acetylcysteine as a sole antidote. Recent evidence from in vitro experiments suggested that sulfide anions (S(2-)) to yield hydrogen sulfide anions (HS(-)) under physiological pH could effectively react with NAPQI. This study evaluated the protective roles of HS(-) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We utilized cystathionine γ-lyase-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice that are highly sensitive to acetaminophen toxicity. Intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen (150 mg/kg) into Cth(-/-) mice resulted in highly elevated levels of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase associated with marked increases in oncotic hepatocytes; all of which were significantly inhibited by intraperitoneal preadministration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS preadministration significantly suppressed APAP-induced serum malondialdehyde level increases without abrogating APAP-induced rapid depletion of hepatic glutathione. These results suggest that exogenous HS(-) protects hepatocytes by directly scavenging reactive NAPQI rather than by increasing cystine uptake and thereby elevating intracellular glutathione levels, which provides a novel therapeutic approach against acute APAP poisoning.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya C; Wang, Xiao J; Yu, Le; Chan, Francis K L; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Wu, William K K; Cho, Chi H

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2)S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC) and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116) were exposed to H(2)S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2)S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2)S was accompanied by G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip). Moreover, exposure to H(2)S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+) autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2)S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2)S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2)S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2)S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide increases survival during sepsis: Protective effect of CHOP inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ferlito, Marcella; Wang, Qihong; Fulton, William B; Colombani, Paul; Marchionni, Luigi; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Paolocci, Nazareno; Steenbergen, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality, and dysregulation of the immune response plays a central role in this syndrome. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a recently discovered gaso-transmitter, is endogenously generated by many cell types, regulating a number of physiologic processes and pathophysiologic conditions. Here we report that H2S increased survival after experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. Exogenous H2S decreased the systemic inflammatory response, reduced apoptosis in the spleen, and accelerated bacterial eradication. We found that CHOP, a mediator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, was elevated in several organs after CLP and its expression was inhibited by H2S treatment. Using CHOP knockout (KO) mice, we demonstrated for the first time that genetic deletion of Chop increased survival after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection or CLP. CHOP KO mice displayed diminished splenic caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, decreased cytokine production and augmented bacterial clearance. Furthermore, septic CHOP KO mice treated with H2S showed no additive survival benefit compared to septic CHOP KO mice. Finally, we showed that H2S inhibited CHOP expression in macrophages by a mechanism involving Nrf2 activation. In conclusion, our findings show a protective effect of H2S treatment afforded, at least partially, by inhibition of CHOP expression. The data reveal a major negative role for the transcription factor CHOP in overall survival during sepsis and suggest a new target for clinical intervention as well potential strategies for treatment. PMID:24403532

  12. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the protection of dietary restriction against renal senescence in aged F344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-juan; Cai, Guang-yan; Ning, Yi-chun; Cui, Jing; Hong, Quan; Bai, Xue-yuan; Xu, Xiao-meng; Bu, Ru; Sun, Xue-feng; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2016-01-01

    Renal aging is always accompanied by increased oxidative stress. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can be up-regulated by 50% dietary restriction (DR) for 7-day and can block mitochondrial oxidative stress. H2S production exerts a critical role in yeast, worm, and fruit fly models of DR-mediated longevity. In this study, we found that renal aging could be attenuated by 30% DR for 6-month (DR-6M) and life-long (DR-LL), but not for 6-week (DR-6W). The expressions of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CGL) and cystathionine-β- synthase (CBS) were improved by DR-6M and DR-LL. Endogenous H2S production shared the same trend with CBS and CGL, while glutathione (GSH) didn’t. When comparing efficiencies of DR for different durations, more evident production of H2S was found in DR-6M and DR-LL than in DR-6W. Finally the level of oxidative stress was improved by DR-6M and DR-LL rather than by DR-6W. It concluded that aged rats had the ability to produce enough H2S on 30% DR interventions protecting against renal aging, and the effect of DR for long-term were more significant than that of DR for short-term. PMID:27456368

  13. Protective effect of hydrogen sulfide against cold restraint stress-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aboubakr, Esam M; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A; Hassan, Magdy K

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator plays a potential role in modulating gastric inflammatory responses. However, its putative protective role remains to be defined. The present study aimed to evaluate role of the exogenously released and endogenously synthesized H2S in cold restraint stress (CRS)-induced oxidative gastric damage in rats. Rats were restrained, and maintained at 4 °C for 3 h. The H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (60 μmol/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) before CRS. Our results revealed that NaHS pretreatment significantly attenuated ulcer index, free and total acid output, and pepsin activity in gastric juice along with decreased gastric mucosal carbonyl content and reactive oxygen species production. This was accompanied by increased gastric juice pH and mucin concentration in addition to restoring the deficits in the gastric reduced glutathione, catalase as well as superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. NaHS pretreatment markedly reduced the serum level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase activity compared to CRS-non-treated. Moreover, NaHS preadministration significantly abrogated the inflammatory and the deleterious responses of gastric mucosa in CRS. The protective effects of H2S were confirmed by gastric histopathological examination. However, pretreatment with the H2S-synthesizing enzyme, cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor, beta-cyano-L-alanine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the gastroprotection afforded by the endogenous H2S. Collectively, our results suggest that H2S can protect rat gastric mucosa against CRS-induced gastric ulceration possibly through mechanisms that involve anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions alongside enhancement of gastric mucosal barrier and reduction in acid secretory parameters.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide replacement therapy protects the vascular endothelium in hyperglycemia by preserving mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kunihiro; Olah, Gabor; Modis, Katalin; Coletta, Ciro; Kulp, Gabriella; Gerö, Domokos; Szoleczky, Petra; Chang, Tuanjie; Zhou, Zongmin; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2011-08-16

    The goal of the present studies was to investigate the role of changes in hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) homeostasis in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemic endothelial dysfunction. Exposure of bEnd3 microvascular endothelial cells to elevated extracellular glucose (in vitro "hyperglycemia") induced the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which resulted in an increased consumption of endogenous and exogenous H(2)S. Replacement of H(2)S or overexpression of the H(2)S-producing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced enhancement of ROS formation, attenuated nuclear DNA injury, reduced the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and improved cellular viability. In vitro hyperglycemia resulted in a switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, an effect that was partially corrected by H(2)S supplementation. Exposure of isolated vascular rings to high glucose in vitro induced an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, which was prevented by CSE overexpression or H(2)S supplementation. siRNA silencing of CSE exacerbated ROS production in hyperglycemic endothelial cells. Vascular rings from CSE(-/-) mice exhibited an accelerated impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations in response to in vitro hyperglycemia, compared with wild-type controls. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats resulted in a decrease in the circulating level of H(2)S; replacement of H(2)S protected from the development of endothelial dysfunction ex vivo. In conclusion, endogenously produced H(2)S protects against the development of hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesize that, in hyperglycemic endothelial cells, mitochondrial ROS production and increased H(2)S catabolism form a positive feed-forward cycle. H(2)S replacement protects against these alterations, resulting in reduced ROS formation, improved endothelial metabolic state, and maintenance of normal endothelial function.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide replacement therapy protects the vascular endothelium in hyperglycemia by preserving mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kunihiro; Olah, Gabor; Modis, Katalin; Coletta, Ciro; Kulp, Gabriella; Gerö, Domokos; Szoleczky, Petra; Chang, Tuanjie; Zhou, Zongmin; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Szabo, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present studies was to investigate the role of changes in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) homeostasis in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemic endothelial dysfunction. Exposure of bEnd3 microvascular endothelial cells to elevated extracellular glucose (in vitro “hyperglycemia”) induced the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which resulted in an increased consumption of endogenous and exogenous H2S. Replacement of H2S or overexpression of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced enhancement of ROS formation, attenuated nuclear DNA injury, reduced the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and improved cellular viability. In vitro hyperglycemia resulted in a switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, an effect that was partially corrected by H2S supplementation. Exposure of isolated vascular rings to high glucose in vitro induced an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, which was prevented by CSE overexpression or H2S supplementation. siRNA silencing of CSE exacerbated ROS production in hyperglycemic endothelial cells. Vascular rings from CSE−/− mice exhibited an accelerated impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations in response to in vitro hyperglycemia, compared with wild-type controls. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats resulted in a decrease in the circulating level of H2S; replacement of H2S protected from the development of endothelial dysfunction ex vivo. In conclusion, endogenously produced H2S protects against the development of hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesize that, in hyperglycemic endothelial cells, mitochondrial ROS production and increased H2S catabolism form a positive feed-forward cycle. H2S replacement protects against these alterations, resulting in reduced ROS formation, improved endothelial metabolic state, and maintenance of normal endothelial function. PMID:21808008

  16. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  17. Suicide with hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Sams, Ralph Newton; Carver, H Wayne; Catanese, Charles; Gilson, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    This presentation will address the recent rise of suicide deaths resulting from the asphyxiation by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas.Hydrogen sulfide poisoning has been an infrequently encountered cause of death in medical examiner practice. Most H2S deaths that have been reported occurred in association with industrial exposure.More recently, H2S has been seen in the commission of suicide, particularly in Japan. Scattered reports of this phenomenon have also appeared in the United States.We have recently observed 2 intentional asphyxial deaths in association with H2S. In both cases, the decedents committed suicide in their automobiles. They generated H2S by combining a sulfide-containing tree spray with toilet bowl cleaner (with an active ingredient of hydrogen chloride acid). Both death scenes prompted hazardous materials team responses because of notes attached to the victims' car windows indicating the presence of toxic gas. Autopsy findings included discoloration of lividity and an accentuation of the gray matter of the brain. Toxicology testing confirmed H2S exposure with the demonstration of high levels of thiosulfate in blood.In summary, suicide with H2S appears to be increasing in the United States.

  18. Medical Functions of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gasomediator synthesized from L- and D-cysteine in various tissues. It is involved in a number of physiological and pathological processes. H(2)S exhibits antiatherosclerotic, vasodilator, and proangiogenic properties, and protects the kidney and heart from damage following ischemia/reperfusion injury. H(2)S donors may be natural or synthetic, and may be used for the safe treatment of a wide range of diseases. This review article summarizes the current state of knowledge of the therapeutic function of H(2)S.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide in signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata

    2015-01-15

    For a long time hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) was considered a toxic compound, but recently H₂S (at low concentrations) has been found to play an important function in physiological processes. Hydrogen sulfide, like other well-known compounds - nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous intracellular signal transducer. It regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis and the oxidative stress. Moreover, its functions include neuromodulation, regulation of cardiovascular system and inflammation. In this review, I focus on the metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (including enzymatic pathways of H₂S synthesis from l- and d-cysteine) and its signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system and the nervous system. I also describe how hydrogen sulfide may be used as therapeutic agent, i.e. in the cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Controlled release hydrogen sulfide delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles protects graft endothelium from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenshuo; Sun, Xiaotian; Zhang, Huili; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Ye; Yang, Wuli; Guo, Changfa; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) functions as a protective gas transmitter in various physiological and pathological processes, but the lack of ideal donors severely hampers the clinical application of H2S. This study aims to construct a controlled release H2S donor and evaluate its protective effect on graft endothelium. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized using the sol-gel method and loaded with diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an H2S-releasing agent named DATS-MSN. In vitro experiments showed that DATS-MSN could alleviate endothelial cell inflammation and enhance endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the apoptosis of graft endothelium was mitigated in the presence of DATS-MSN. Our results indicated that DATS-MSN, releasing H2S in a controlled release fashion, could serve as an ideal H2S donor.

  1. Controlled release hydrogen sulfide delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles protects graft endothelium from ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenshuo; Sun, Xiaotian; Zhang, Huili; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Ye; Yang, Wuli; Guo, Changfa; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) functions as a protective gas transmitter in various physiological and pathological processes, but the lack of ideal donors severely hampers the clinical application of H2S. This study aims to construct a controlled release H2S donor and evaluate its protective effect on graft endothelium. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were synthesized using the sol–gel method and loaded with diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an H2S-releasing agent named DATS-MSN. In vitro experiments showed that DATS-MSN could alleviate endothelial cell inflammation and enhance endothelial cell proliferation and migration. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the apoptosis of graft endothelium was mitigated in the presence of DATS-MSN. Our results indicated that DATS-MSN, releasing H2S in a controlled release fashion, could serve as an ideal H2S donor. PMID:27486324

  2. Thermally stable derivatives or propylenepolyamines as protective additives for lubricating oils used in compressors handling hydrogen sulfide-containing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, V.A.; Panidi, I.S.; Spirkin, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    In the transmission of natural, associated, and petroleum gases containing hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water, and other corrosive impurities, problems are created by the saturation of the compressor lubricating oil with these impurities and failure of components of the lubricating and sealing system. Hydrogen sulfide is distinguished by the greatest affinity for oil and the highest corrosivity. Its solubility in oils may be as high as 10 g/liter under standard conditions. In the work reported here, we investigated the protective properties of salts and amides based on higher aliphatic, alkylaromatic, and unsaturated carboxylic acids with certain substituted propylenepolyamines. In synthesizing the additives, we used the following: a commercial C{sub 17} - C{sub 20} fraction of synthetic fatty acids (SFA): C{sub 25+} still bottoms; technical alkyl (C{sub 16} - C {sub 18}) salicylic acids; and oleic acid. From these materials, we obtained salts and amides of N,N-dimethylpropanediamine, N-benzylpropanediamine, N-cyanoethylpropanediamine, N,N,N`,N`-tetramethyldipropylenetriamine, and N,N-dimethyldipropylenetriamine.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide protects from colitis and restores intestinal microbiota biofilm and mucus production.

    PubMed

    Motta, Jean-Paul; Flannigan, Kyle L; Agbor, Terence A; Beatty, Jennifer K; Blackler, Rory W; Workentine, Matthew L; Da Silva, Gabriela J; Wang, Rui; Buret, Andre G; Wallace, John L

    2015-05-01

    Microbiota dysbiosis and impaired barrier function are among the most prominent features of inflammatory bowel disease. In the gastrointestinal tract, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an important regulator of mucosal homeostasis. We hypothesized that H(2)S promotes resolution of colonic inflammation through actions on microbiota biofilm and the mucus barrier. We used mice genetically deficient for a key enzyme for H(2)S production (cystathionine γ-lyase) and pharmacologically inhibited that enzyme during colitis in wild-type mice. We tested the effects of administering an H(2)S donor (diallyl disulfide) to rodents during hapten-induced colitis. Colonic microbiota biofilm was visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization, and mucus granules were quantified with periodic acid-alcian blue staining. We exposed human microbiota biofilms and planktonic bacteria to H(2)S donors ex vivo to determine changes in their growth, viability, and biomass. Intestinal microbiota formed linear biofilms in the colon of healthy rodents. During colitis, microbiota biofilms were fragmented and mucus granule production decreased. Endogenous production of H(2)S had beneficial effects on establishment of microbiota biofilms and colonic mucus production. Therapeutic delivery of H(2)S into the colon reduced inflammation, restored the microbiota biofilm, and increased the production of mucus granules. In ex vivo human microbiota, H(2)S not only promoted biofilm formation but also reduced growth of planktonic bacteria. Our results suggest that H(2)S donors could be used therapeutically during colitis, facilitating correction of microbiota biofilm dysbiosis and mucus layer reconstitution.

  4. Suicide by hydrogen sulfide inhalation.

    PubMed

    Bott, Eleanor; Dodd, Malcolm

    2013-03-01

    The authors report a case of suicide by hydrogen sulfide in Australia. A young woman was located in a car wearing protective eyewear. A tub of foamy yellow substance and a quantity of hydrochloric acid and lime sulfur were also located in the rear of the vehicle. Morphological findings at autopsy were nonspecific. Toxicologic analysis of a specimen of leg blood detected elevated levels of methemoglobin. If Australia follows a similar trend to Japan and the United States, it is possible that incidences of such cases will rise, probably because of Internet dissemination. From a public health perspective, emergency service providers and forensic case workers should be aware of the potential hazards to themselves and others when dealing with such cases.

  5. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 250.490 of this part), the lessee shall take appropriate precautions to protect life and property...

  6. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 250.490 of this part), the lessee shall take appropriate precautions to protect life and property...

  7. GYY4137, a novel hydrogen sulfide-releasing molecule, protects against endotoxic shock in the rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Tan, Choon-Hong; Whiteman, Matthew; Moore, Philip K

    2009-07-01

    GYY4137 (morpholin-4-ium-4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate) is a slow-releasing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) donor. Administration of GYY4137 (50 mg/kg, iv) to anesthetized rats 10 min after lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 mg/kg, iv) decreased the slowly developing hypotension. GYY4137 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in rat blood and reduced the LPS-evoked rise in NF-kappaB activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase/cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and generation of PGE(2) and nitrate/nitrite in RAW 264.7 macrophages. GYY4137 (50 mg/kg, ip) administered to conscious rats 1 or 2 h after (but not 1 h before) LPS decreased the subsequent (4 h) rise in plasma proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6), nitrite/nitrate, C-reactive protein, and L-selectin. GYY4137 administration also decreased the LPS-evoked increase in lung myeloperoxidase activity, increased plasma concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and decreased tissue damage as determined histologically and by measurement of plasma creatinine and alanine aminotransferase activity. Time-expired GYY4137 (50 mg/kg, ip) did not affect the LPS-induced rise in plasma TNF-alpha or lung myeloperoxidase activity. GYY4137 also decreased the LPS-mediated upregulation of liver transcription factors (NF-kappaB and STAT-3). These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of GYY4137. The possibility that GYY4137 and other slow-releasing H(2)S donors exert anti-inflammatory activity in other models of inflammation and in humans warrants further study.

  8. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  9. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S is unknown, as defined in § 250.490 of this...

  10. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or...

  11. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or...

  12. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of...

  13. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  14. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  15. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  16. Suspended animation inducer hydrogen sulfide is protective in an in vivo model of ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Aslami, Hamid; Heinen, André; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Zuurbier, Coert J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Acute lung injury is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory response and a high metabolic demand. Mechanical ventilation can contribute to lung injury, resulting in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). A suspended-animation-like state induced by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against hypoxia-induced organ injury. We hypothesized that suspended animation is protective in VILI by reducing metabolism and thereby CO2 production, allowing for a lower respiratory rate while maintaining adequate gas exchange. Alternatively, H2S may reduce inflammation in VILI. Methods In mechanically ventilated rats, VILI was created by application of 25 cmH2O positive inspiratory pressure (PIP) and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Controls were lung-protective mechanically ventilated (13 cmH2O PIP, 5 cmH2O PEEP). H2S donor NaHS was infused continuously; controls received saline. In separate control groups, hypothermia was induced to reproduce the H2S-induced fall in temperature. In VILI groups, respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain normo-pH. Results NaHS dose-dependently and reversibly reduced body temperature, heart rate, and exhaled amount of CO2. In VILI, NaHS reduced markers of pulmonary inflammation and improved oxygenation, an effect which was not observed after induction of deep hypothermia that paralleled the NaHS-induced fall in temperature. Both NaHS and hypothermia allowed for lower respiratory rates while maintaining gas exchange. Conclusions NaHS reversibly induced a hypometabolic state in anesthetized rats and protected from VILI by reducing pulmonary inflammation, an effect that was in part independent of body temperature. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00134-010-2022-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20721529

  17. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide protects pancreatic beta-cells from a high-fat diet-induced glucotoxicity and prevents the development of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Yamaoka, Mami; Takei, Masahiro; Ando, Tomomi; Taniguchi, Shigeki; Ishii, Isao; Tohya, Kazuo; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Niki, Ichiro; Kimura, Toshihide

    2013-12-13

    Chronic exposure to high glucose induces the expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme, in pancreatic beta-cells, thereby suppressing apoptosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydrogen sulfide on the onset and development of type 2 diabetes. Middle-aged (6-month-old) wild-type (WT) and CSE knockout (CSE-KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8weeks. We determined the effects of CSE knockout on beta-cell function and mass in islets from these mice. We also analyzed changes in gene expression in the islets. After 8weeks of HFD, blood glucose levels were markedly increased in middle-aged CSE-KO mice, insulin responses were significantly reduced, and DNA fragmentation of the islet cells was increased. Moreover, expression of thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2, also known as Txnip) was increased. Administration of NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide donor, reduced TBP-2 gene levels in isolated islets from CSE-KO mice. Gene levels were elevated when islets were treated with the CSE inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PPG). These results provide evidence that CSE-produced hydrogen sulfide protects beta-cells from glucotoxicity via regulation of TBP-2 expression levels and thus prevents the onset/development of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Protects Alveolar Growth in Experimental O2-Induced Neonatal Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vadivel, Arul; Alphonse, Rajesh S.; Ionescu, Lavinia; Machado, Desiree S.; O’Reilly, Megan; Eaton, Farah; Haromy, Al; Michelakis, Evangelos D.; Thébaud, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the chronic lung disease of prematurity, remains a major health problem. BPD is characterized by impaired alveolar development and complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PHT). Currently there is no specific treatment for BPD. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon monoxide and nitric oxide (NO), belong to a class of endogenously synthesized gaseous molecules referred to as gasotransmitters. While inhaled NO is already used for the treatment of neonatal PHT and currently tested for the prevention of BPD, H2S has until recently been regarded exclusively as a toxic gas. Recent evidence suggests that endogenous H2S exerts beneficial biological effects, including cytoprotection and vasodilatation. We hypothesized that H2S preserves normal alveolar development and prevents PHT in experimental BPD. Methods We took advantage of a recently described slow-releasing H2S donor, GYY4137 (morpholin-4-ium-4-methoxyphenyl(morpholino) phosphinodithioate) to study its lung protective potential in vitro and in vivo. Results In vitro, GYY4137 promoted capillary-like network formation, viability and reduced reactive oxygen species in hyperoxia-exposed human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. GYY4137 also protected mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells. In vivo, GYY4137 preserved and restored normal alveolar growth in rat pups exposed from birth for 2 weeks to hyperoxia. GYY4137 also attenuated PHT as determined by improved pulmonary arterial acceleration time on echo-Doppler, pulmonary artery remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy. GYY4137 also prevented pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. Conclusions H2S protects from impaired alveolar growth and PHT in experimental O2-induced lung injury. H2S warrants further investigation as a new therapeutic target for alveolar damage and PHT. PMID:24603989

  19. Hydrogen sulfide protects against endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial injury in nucleus pulposus cells and ameliorates intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Daoliang; Jin, Haiming; Wen, Jianxia; Chen, Jiaoxiang; Chen, Deheng; Cai, Ningyu; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Jianle; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiangyang

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that excessive apoptosis in intervertebral disc cells induced by inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, is related to the process of intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule, has drawn attention for its anti-apoptosis role in various pathophysiological processes in degenerative diseases. To date, there has been no investigation of the correlation of H2S production and IVDD or of the effects of H2S on IL-1β-induced apoptosis in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here, we found that the expression levels of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), two key enzymes in the generation of H2S, were significantly decreased in human degenerate NP tissues as well as in IL-1β-treated NP cells. NaHS (H2S donor) administration showed a protective effect by inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by IL-1β stimulation in vitro, the effect was related to activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Suppression of these pathways by specific inhibitors, LY294002 and PD98059, partially reduced the protective effect of NaHS. Moreover, in the percutaneous needle puncture disc degeneration rat tail model, disc degeneration was partially reversed by NaHS administration. Taken together, our results suggest that H2S plays a protective role in IVDD and the underlying mechanism involves PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways-mediated suppression of ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in IL-1β-induced NP cells.

  20. Evidence that d-cysteine protects mice from gastric damage via hydrogen sulfide produced by d-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luan Kelves M; Araújo, Thiago S L; Sousa, Nayara A; Sousa, Francisca Beatriz M; Nogueira, Kerolayne M; Nicolau, Lucas A D; Medeiros, Jand Venes R

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. H2S production can derive from d-cysteine via various pathways, thus pointing to a new therapeutic approach: delivery of H2S to specific tissues. This study was designed to evaluate the concentration and effects of H2S (generated by d-amino acid oxidase [DAO] from d-cysteine) in the gastric mucosa and the protective effects against ethanol-induced lesions in mice. Mice were treated with l-cysteine or d-cysteine (100 mg/kg per os). Other groups received oral l-propargylglycine (cystathionine γ-lyase inhibitor, 100 mg/kg) or indole-2-carboxylate (DAO inhibitor), and 30 min later, received d- or l-cysteine. After 30 min, 50% ethanol (2.5 mL/kg, per os) was administered. After 1 h, the mice were euthanized and their stomachs excised and analyzed. Pretreatment with either l-cysteine or d-cysteine significantly reduced ethanol-induced lesions. Pretreatment of d-cysteine- or l-cysteine-treated groups with indole-2-carboxylate reversed the gastroprotective effects of d-cysteine but not l-cysteine. Histological analysis revealed that pretreatment with d-cysteine decreased hemorrhagic damage, edema, and the loss of the epithelium, whereas the administration of indole-2-carboxylate reversed these effects. d-Cysteine also reduced malondialdehyde levels but maintained the levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, pretreatment with d-cysteine increased the synthesis of H2S. Thus, an H2S-generating pathway (involving d-cysteine and DAO) is present in the gastric mucosa and protects this tissue from ethanol-induced damage by decreasing direct oxidative damage.

  1. Diallyl trisulfide protects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via a hydrogen sulfide-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lian-Yun; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Xiao-Jing; Kong, De-Song; Wu, Li; Shao, Jiang-Juan; Zheng, Shi-Zhong

    2016-07-01

    Garlic is one natural source of organic sulfur containing compounds and has shown promise in the treatment of chronic liver disease. Dietary garlic consumption is inversely correlated with the progression of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL), although the exact underlying mechanisms are not clear. Our previous studies also have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS), the primary organosulfur compound from Allium sativum L, displayed anti-lipid deposition and antioxidant properties in AFL. The aim of the present study was to clarify the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we used the intragastric infusion model of alcohol administration and human normal liver cell line LO2 cultured with suitable ethanol to mimic the pathological condition of AFL. We showed that accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was lowered significantly by the administration of DATS, but antioxidant capacity was increased by DATS. Additionally, DATS inhibited hepatocyte apoptosis via down-regulating Bax expression and up-regulating Bcl-2 expression, and attenuated alcohol-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. More importantly, using iodoacetamide (IAM) to block hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production from DATS, we noted that IAM abolished all the above effects of DATS in ethanol-treated LO2 cells. Lastly, we found DATS could increase the expressions of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), the major H2S-producing enzymes. These results demonstrate that DATS protect against alcohol-induced fatty liver via a H2S-mediated mechanism. Therefore, targeting H2S may play a therapeutic role for AFL.

  2. Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide inhalation on oxidative stress in rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    HAN, ZHI-HAI; JIANG, YI; DUAN, YUN-YOU; WANG, XIAO-YANG; HUANG, YAN; FANG, TING-ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhalation protects against oxidative stress in rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated randomly into four groups, which included the control, H2S, smoke and smoke + H2S groups. A rat model of cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury was established following inhalation of 30% oxygen for 6 h. In addition, H2S (80 ppm) was inhaled by the rats in the H2S and smoke + H2S groups for 6 h following smoke or sham-smoke inhalation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to measure various indices in the rat lung homogenate, while the levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κBp65 in the lung tissue of the rats were determined and semiquantitatively analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the rat lung tissue. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), inducible iNOS and NF-κBp65, as well as the sum-integrated optical density of NF-κBp65 and the relative mRNA expression of iNOS, in the rat lung tissue from the smoke + H2S group were significantly lower when compared with the smoke group. The concentrations of MDA, NO, iNOS and NF-κBp65 in the H2S group were comparable to that of the control group. Therefore, inhalation of 80 ppm H2S may reduce iNOS mRNA transcription and the production of iNOS and NO in rats by inhibiting NF-κBp65 activation, subsequently decreasing oxidative stress and cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury. PMID:26170929

  3. Hydrogen sulfide protects testicular germ cells against heat-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Xie, Zhi-Zhong; Chua, Jason M W; Wong, P C; Bian, Jinsong

    2015-04-30

    The present study was designed to investigate whether H2S can protect testicular germ cells against heat exposure induced injury and the underlying mechanisms. It was found that all three H2S generating enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lysase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3 MST), were expressed in mouse testicular tissue. Three episodes of heat exposure (42 °C, 30 min/day, 3 days) significantly decreased endogenous H2S production and down-regulated the expression of CBS and CSE in testes. In primary cultured testicular germ cells, exogenous application of NaHS (an H2S donor) attenuated heat stress (42 °C, 30 min) induced cell death and apoptosis. This was mediated by the inhibitory effects of H2S on cytochrome C release and the ratio of the Bax/Bcl-2. NaHS also improved mitochondrial function by decreasing oxygen consumption and increasing ATP production. NaHS treatment also stimulated SOD activity and reduced ROS production. Our results revealed both physiological and pharmacological roles of H2S in testicular germ cells. Exogenous application of H2S may protect germ cells by preservation of mitochondrial function and stimulation of anti-oxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Controllable Hydrogen Sulfide-Releasing Molecule Protects Human Skin Keratinocytes Against Methylglyoxal-Induced Injury and Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-tao; Zhao, Yu; Xian, Ming; Li, Jian-hua; Dong, Qi; Bai, Hong-bo; Xu, Ji-de; Zhang, Mei-fen

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Delayed wound healing is a common skin complication of diabetes, which is associated with keratinocyte injury and dysfunction. Levels of methylglyoxal (MGO), an α-dicarbonyl compound, are elevated in diabetic skin tissue and plasma, while levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a critical gaseous signaling molecule, are reduced. Interestingly, the gas has shown dermal protection in our previous study. To date, there is no evidence demonstrating whether MGO affects keratinocyte viability and function or H2S donation abolishes these effects and improves MGO-related impairment of wound healing. The current study was conducted to examine the effects of MGO on the injury and function in human skin keratinocytes and then to evaluate the protective action of a novel H2S-releasing molecule. Methods An N-mercapto-based H2S donor (NSHD)-1 was synthesized and its ability to release H2S was observed in cell medium and cells, respectively. HaCaT cells, a cell line of human skin keratinocyte, were exposed to MGO to establish an in vitro diabetic wound healing model. NSHD-1 was added to the cells before MGO exposure and the improvement of cell function was observed in respect of cellular viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and behavioral function. Results Treatment with MGO decreased cell viability, induced cellular apoptosis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and depressed MMP in HaCaT cells. The treatment also damaged cell behavioral function, characterized by decreased cellular adhesion and migration. The synthesized H2S-releasing molecule, NSHD-1, was able to increase H2S levels in both cell medium and cells. Importantly, pretreatment with NSHD-1 inhibited MGO-induced decreases in cell viability and MMP, increases in apoptosis and ROS accumulation in HaCaT cells. The pretreatment was also able to improve adhesion and migration function. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the novel

  5. Hydrogen sulfide and vascular relaxation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Tang, Chao-Shu; DU, Jun-Bao; Jin, Hong-Fang

    2011-11-01

    To review the vasorelaxant effects of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in arterial rings in the cardiovascular system under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the possible mechanisms involved. The data in this review were obtained from Medline and Pubmed sources from 1997 to 2011 using the search terms "hydrogen sulfide" and "vascular relaxation". Articles describing the role of hydrogen sulfide in the regulation of vascular activity and its vasorelaxant effects were selected. H(2)S plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular tone. The vasomodulatory effects of H(2)S depend on factors including concentration, species and tissue type. The H(2)S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), causes vasorelaxation of rat isolated aortic rings in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was more pronounced than that observed in pulmonary arterial rings. The expression of K(ATP) channel proteins and mRNA in the aortic rings was increased compared with pulmonary artery rings. H(2)S is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Downregulation of the endogenous H(2)S pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The vasorelaxant effects of H(2)S have been shown to be mediated by activation of K(ATP) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells and via the induction of acidification due to activation of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. It is speculated that the mechanisms underlying the vasoconstrictive function of H(2)S in the aortic rings involves decreased NO production and inhibition of cAMP accumulation. H(2)S is an important endogenous gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and acts as a modulator of vascular tone in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide [corrected] increases survival during sepsis: protective effect of CHOP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ferlito, Marcella; Wang, Qihong; Fulton, William B; Colombani, Paul M; Marchionni, Luigi; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Paolocci, Nazareno; Steenbergen, Charles

    2014-02-15

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality, and dysregulation of the immune response plays a central role in this syndrome. H2S, a recently discovered gaso-transmitter, is endogenously generated by many cell types, regulating a number of physiologic processes and pathophysiologic conditions. We report that H2S increased survival after experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in mice. Exogenous H2S decreased the systemic inflammatory response, reduced apoptosis in the spleen, and accelerated bacterial eradication. We found that C/EBP homologous protein 10 (CHOP), a mediator of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, was elevated in several organs after CLP, and its expression was inhibited by H2S treatment. Using CHOP-knockout (KO) mice, we demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, that genetic deletion of Chop increased survival after LPS injection or CLP. CHOP-KO mice displayed diminished splenic caspase-3 activation and apoptosis, decreased cytokine production, and augmented bacterial clearance. Furthermore, septic CHOP-KO mice treated with H2S showed no additive survival benefit compared with septic CHOP-KO mice. Finally, we showed that H2S inhibited CHOP expression in macrophages by a mechanism involving Nrf2 activation. In conclusion, our findings show a protective effect of H2S treatment afforded, at least partially, by inhibition of CHOP expression. The data reveal a major negative role for the transcription factor CHOP in overall survival during sepsis and suggest a new target for clinical intervention, as well potential strategies for treatment.

  7. Metal hydrogen sulfide superconducting temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    Éliashberg theory is generalized to the electronphonon (EP) systems with the not constant density of electronic states. The phonon contribution to the anomalous electron Green's function (GF) is considered. The generalized Éliashberg equations with the variable density of electronic states are resolved for the hydrogen sulphide SH3 phase under pressure. The dependence of both the real and the imaginary part of the order parameter on the frequency in the SH3 phase is obtained. The Tc = 177 K value in the hydrogen sulfide SH3 phase at the pressure P = 225 GPa has been defined. The results of the solution of the Eliashberg equations for the Im-3m (170 GPa), Im-3m (200 GPa) and R3m (120 GPa) phases are presented. A peak value Tc = 241 K of the superconducting transition temperature has been predicted.

  8. Hydrogen recovery from hydrogen sulfide by oxidation and by decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.L.; Kung, H.H. . Ipatieff Lab. and Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    Selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur oxides in a two-step process and the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide were studied for the recovery of hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide. Platinum, when adequately dispersed on a silica support, was found to be effective in reacting with hydrogen sulfide to produce hydrogen and platinum sulfide at 500 C. The platinum sulfide could then be treated with oxygen at 400 C to release sulfur oxides and regenerate the platinum. However, oxidation of sulfur dioxide to trioxide, retention of oxygen by platinum, and adsorption of hydrogen sulfide by the silica support also occurred, which resulted in a minor loss in hydrogen yield. In the decomposition of hydrogen sulfide, platinum sulfide was found to be catalytically active. The equilibrium hydrogen yields were measured experimentally over the range 350--650 C and compared with the values calculated on the basis of a model that included the S, allotropes, the H[sub 2]S[sub n] sulfanes, and HS. The values agreed well at low temperatures but deviated from each other up to 20% at high temperatures.

  9. Catalyst and process for oxidizing hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.; Ward, J.W.

    1984-04-24

    Catalysts comprising bismuth and vanadium components are highly active and stable, especially in the presence of water vapor, for oxidizing hydrogen sulfide to sulfur or SO/sub 2/. Such catalysts have been found to be especially active for the conversion of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur by reaction with oxygen or SO/sub 2/.

  10. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide removal using biochar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. Ammonia has been regarded as odorous, precursor for particulate matter (PM), and contributed to livestock mortality. Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic at elev...

  11. The role of hydrogen sulfide in burns.

    PubMed

    Akter, Farhana

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a novel gasotransmitter that has been shown to play a major role in regulating vascular tone. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide in inflammation, sepsis and burns has only recently been studied. In animal studies, hydrogen sulfide has been shown to play a role in both promoting and inhibiting inflammation. Understanding the role of H2S in sepsis and shock is particularly important due to the high mortality associated with both conditions. In animal sepsis models, hydrogen sulfide appears to increase survival. Severe burns are associated with an inflammatory response that causes increased permeability and edema. Currently, there are few studies that have examined the exact role of hydrogen sulfide in burns. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide in inflammation enables us to hypothesize its role in burns. This review highlights the role of hydrogen sulfide in the mechanisms of action underlying inflammation, wound healing and sepsis as well as examining the potential role of hydrogen sulfide in burns. The authors of this article hope that this review will stimulate research to discover the exact role of this fascinating molecule in burns.

  12. The polysulfide diallyl trisulfide protects the ischemic myocardium by preservation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide and increasing nitric oxide bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Benjamin L.; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Bhushan, Shashi; Zlatopolsky, Maxim A.; King, Adrienne L.; Aragon, Juan Pablo; Grinsfelder, D. Bennett; Condit, Marah E.

    2012-01-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a polysulfide constituent found in garlic oil, is capable of the release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). H2S is a known cardioprotective agent that protects the heart via antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial actions. Here, we investigated DATS as a stable donor of H2S during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in vivo. We investigated endogenous H2S levels, infarct size, postischemic left ventricular function, mitochondrial respiration and coupling, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) activation, and nuclear E2-related factor (Nrf2) translocation after DATS treatment. Mice were anesthetized and subjected to a surgical model of MI/R injury with and without DATS treatment (200 μg/kg). Both circulating and myocardial H2S levels were determined using chemiluminescent gas chromatography. Infarct size was measured after 45 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Troponin I release was measured at 2, 4, and 24 h after reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured at baseline and 72 h after reperfusion by echocardiography. Cardiac mitochondria were isolated after MI/R, and mitochondrial respiration was investigated. NO metabolites, eNOS phosphorylation, and Nrf2 translocation were determined 30 min and 2 h after DATS administration. Myocardial H2S levels markedly decreased after I/R injury but were rescued by DATS treatment (P < 0.05). DATS administration significantly reduced infarct size per area at risk and per left ventricular area compared with control (P < 0.001) as well as circulating troponin I levels at 4 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Myocardial contractile function was significantly better in DATS-treated hearts compared with vehicle treatment (P < 0.05) 72 h after reperfusion. DATS reduced mitochondrial respiration in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly improved mitochondrial coupling after reperfusion (P < 0.01). DATS activated eNOS (P < 0.05) and increased NO metabolites (P < 0

  13. Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitor, Tadalafil, Protects against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion through Protein-Kinase G Dependent Generation of Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Salloum, Fadi N.; Chau, Vinh Q.; Hoke, Nicholas N.; Abbate, Antonio; Varma, Amit; Ockaili, Ramzi A.; Toldo, Stefano; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tadalafil is a novel long acting inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5. Since cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) signaling plays a key role in cardioprotection, we hypothesized that PKG activation with tadalafil would limit myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and dysfunction. Additionally, we contemplated that cardioprotection with tadalafil is mediated by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling in a PKG-dependent fashion. Methods and Results After baseline transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), adult ICR mice were injected i.p. with vehicle (10% DMSO) or tadalafil (1 mg/kg) with or without KT5823 (KT, PKG blocker, 1 mg/kg) or dl-propargylglycine [PAG, Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE, H2S-producing enzyme) blocker; 50 mg/kg] 1 h prior to coronary artery ligation for 30 min and reperfusion for 24 h, whereas C57BL-wild type and CSE-knockout mice were treated with either vehicle or tadalafil. After reperfusion, TTE was performed and hearts were collected for infarct size (IS) measurement using TTC staining. Survival was increased with tadalafil (95%) compared with control (65%, P<0.05). Infarct size was reduced with tadalafil (13.2±1.7%) compared to vehicle (40.6±2.5%; P<0.05). KT and PAG abolished tadalafil-induced protection (IS: 39.2±1% and 51.2±2.4%, respectively) similar to genetic deletion of CSE (47.2±5.1%). Moreover, tadalafil preserved fractional shortening (FS: 31±1.5%) compared to control (FS: 22±4.8%, P<0.05). Baseline FS was 44±1.7%. KT and PAG abrogated the preservation of LV function with tadalafil by a decline in FS to 17±1% and 23±3%, respectively. Compared to vehicle, myocardial H2S production was significantly increased with tadalafil and was abolished with KT. Conclusion PKG activation with tadalafil limits myocardial infarction and preserves LV function through H2S signaling. PMID:19752383

  14. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. )

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  15. [Hydrogen sulfide and penile erection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Yong; Jiang, Rui

    2012-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third type of active endogenous gaseous signal molecule following nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). In mammalians, H2S is mainly synthesized by two proteases, cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE). H2S plays an essential function of physiological regulation in vivo, and promotes penile erection by acting on the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to relax the vascular smooth muscle as well as by the synergistic effect with testosterone and NO to relax the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). At present, the selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor is mainly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), but some ED patients fail to respond. Therefore, further studies on the mechanism of H2S regulating penile erection may provide a new way for the management of erectile dysfunction.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide and nervous system regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2011-11-01

    This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in regulation of neurotoxicity, neuroprotection, and neuromodulator, as well as its therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders. The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2001 to August 2011. The search terms were "hydrogen sulfide", "neuron", and "neurodegenerative disorders". Articles regarding the regulation of neuronal function, the protection against neuronal damage and neurological diseases, and their possible cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with H(2)S were selected. The inhibited generation of endogenous H(2)S is implicated in 1-methy-4-phenylpyridinium ion, 6-OHDA, and homocysteine-triggered neurotoxicity. H(2)S elicits neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease models as well as protecting neurons against oxidative stress, ischemia, and hypoxia-induced neuronal death. H(2)S offers anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, as well as activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channels. H(2)S regulates the long-term potentiation (LTP) and GABAB receptors in the hippocampus, as well as intracellular calcium and pH homeostasis in neurons and glia cells. These articles suggest that endogenous H(2)S may regulate the toxicity of neurotoxin. H(2)S not only acts as a neuroprotectant but also serves as a novel neuromodulator.

  17. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, John B. L.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  18. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  19. Metabolism of S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine to hydrogen sulfide and the role of hydrogen sulfide in S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine-induced mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Banki, K; Elfarra, A A; Lash, L H; Anders, M W

    1986-07-31

    The nephrotoxic cysteine S-conjugate S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (CTFC) is metabolized by kidney homogenates and subcellular fractions to pyruvate and a reactive thiol, which is cytotoxic and partially decomposes to yield hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate. Although hydrogen sulfide is a potent mitochondrial poison, the mitochondrial toxicity of CTFC is not attributable to hydrogen sulfide formation, as shown by different sites of inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by CTFC and hydrogen sulfide. The efficient mitochondrial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide apparently serves to protect mitochondria against the toxic effects of hydrogen sulfide generated from CTFC.

  20. Ridding Groundwater of Hydrogen Sulfide. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochrane, Thomas G.

    1979-01-01

    This article is the first in a series reviewing the problems associated with hydrogen sulfide in drinking water sources. Discussion centers on identification of a cost-effective balance between aeration and chlorination treatment operations. (AS)

  1. Ridding Groundwater of Hydrogen Sulfide. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochrane, Thomas G.

    1979-01-01

    This article is the first in a series reviewing the problems associated with hydrogen sulfide in drinking water sources. Discussion centers on identification of a cost-effective balance between aeration and chlorination treatment operations. (AS)

  2. [Fatal outcome of an hydrogen sulfide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Querellou, E; Jaffrelot, M; Savary, D; Savry, C; Perfus, J-P

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of fatal outcome poisoning by massive exposure to hydrogen sulfide of a sewer worker. This rare event was associated with a moderate intoxication of two members of the rescue team. The death was due to asystole and massive lung oedema. Autopsy analysis showed diffuse necrotic lesions in lungs. Hydrogen sulfide is a direct and systemic poison, produced by organic matter decomposition. The direct toxicity mechanism is still unclear. The systemic toxicity is due to an acute toxicity by oxygen depletion at cellular level. It is highly diffusable and potentially very dangerous. At low concentration, rotten egg smell must trigger hydrogen sulfide suspicion since at higher concentration it is undetectable, making intoxication possible. In case of acute intoxication, there is an almost instantaneous cardiovascular failure and a rapid death. Hydrogen sulfide exposure requires prevention measures and more specifically the use of respiratory equipment for members of the rescue team.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide in hemostasis: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata

    2014-06-25

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well known toxic gas that is synthesized from the amino acids: cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy) by three enzymes: cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). Hydrogen sulfide, like carbon monoxide (CO) or nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule in different biological systems, including the cardiovascular system. Moreover, hydrogen sulfide plays a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. It modulates different elements of hemostasis (activation of blood platelet, and coagulation process) as well as proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the biological role and the therapeutic potential of H2S is not clear. This review summarizes the different functions of hydrogen sulfide in hemostasis.

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide as a Gasotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    Gadalla, Moataz M.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are well established as messenger molecules throughout the body, gasotransmitters, based on striking alterations in mice lacking the appropriate biosynthetic enzymes. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is even more chemically reactive, but till recently there was little definitive evidence for its physiologic formation. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, EC 4.2.1.22), and Cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE; EC 4.4.1.1), also known as cytathionase, can generate H2S from cyst(e)ine. Very recent studies with mice lacking these enzymes have established that CSE is responsible for H2S formation in the periphery, while in the brain CBS is the biosynthetic enzyme. Endothelial-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) activity is reduced 80% in the mesenteric artery of mice with deletion of CSE, establishing H2S as a major physiologic EDRF. H2S appears to signal predominantly by S-sulfhydrating cysteines in its target proteins, analogous to S-nitrosylation by NO. Whereas S-nitrosylation typically inhibits enzymes, S-sulfhydration activates them. S-nitrosylation basally affects 1–2% of its target proteins, while 10–25% of H2S target proteins are S-sulfhydrated. In summary, H2S appears to be a physiologic gasotransmitter of comparable importance to NO and CO. PMID:20067586

  5. Hydrogen sulfide and translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Cheng, Ze-yu; Zhu, Yi-zhun

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide is an important signaling molecule that has undergone large numbers of fundamental investigations. H2S is involved in various physiological activities associated with the regulation of homeostasis, vascular contractility, pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as pro- and anti-apoptotic activities etc. However, the actions of H2S are influenced by its concentration, reaction time, and cell/disease types. Therefore, H2S is a signaling molecule without definite effect. The use of existing H2S donors is limited because of the instant release and short lifetime of H2S. Thus, translational medicine involving the sustained and controlled release of H2S is of great value for both scientific and clinical uses. H2S donation can be manipulated by different ways, including where H2S is given, how H2S is donated, or the specific structures of H2S-releasing drugs and H2S donor molecules. This review briefly summarizes recent progress in research on the physiological and pathological functions of H2S and H2S-releasing drugs, and suggests hope for future investigations. PMID:24096643

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide Donor Protects Porcine Oocytes against Aging and Improves the Developmental Potential of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krejcova, Tereza; Smelcova, Miroslava; Petr, Jaroslav; Bodart, Jean-Francois; Sedmikova, Marketa; Nevoral, Jan; Dvorakova, Marketa; Vyskocilova, Alena; Weingartova, Ivona; Kucerova-Chrpova, Veronika; Chmelikova, Eva; Tumova, Lenka; Jilek, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Porcine oocytes that have matured in in vitro conditions undergo the process of aging during prolonged cultivation, which is manifested by spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, lysis or fragmentation of aged oocytes. This study focused on the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the process of porcine oocyte aging. H2S is a gaseous signaling molecule and is produced endogenously by the enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST). We demonstrated that H2S-producing enzymes are active in porcine oocytes and that a statistically significant decline in endogenous H2S production occurs during the first day of aging. Inhibition of these enzymes accelerates signs of aging in oocytes and significantly increases the ratio of fragmented oocytes. The presence of exogenous H2S from a donor (Na2S.9H2O) significantly suppressed the manifestations of aging, reversed the effects of inhibitors and resulted in the complete suppression of oocyte fragmentation. Cultivation of aging oocytes in the presence of H2S donor positively affected their subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation. Although no unambiguous effects of exogenous H2S on MPF and MAPK activities were detected and the intracellular mechanism underlying H2S activity remains unclear, our study clearly demonstrates the role of H2S in the regulation of porcine oocyte aging. PMID:25615598

  7. Signaling of hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2015-02-10

    It has been almost two decades since the first demonstration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a physiological mediator of cognitive function and vascular tone. H2S is physiologically important because it protects various organs from ischemia-reperfusion injury besides regulating inflammation, oxygen sensing, cell growth, and senescence. The production, metabolism, and regulation of H2S have been studied extensively. H2S modulates target proteins through sulfhydration (or sulfuration) or by the reduction of cysteine disulfide bonds. A large number of novel H2S-donating compounds are being developed owing to the therapeutic potential of H2S. Recently, polysulfides, rather than H2S, have been identified as molecules that sulfhydrate (or sulfurate) their target proteins.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide: neurochemistry and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Qu, K; Lee, S W; Bian, J S; Low, C-M; Wong, P T-H

    2008-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in brain functions, probably acting as a neuromodulator as well as an intracellular messenger. In the mammalian CNS, H2S is formed from the amino acid cysteine by the action of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) with serine (Ser) as the by-product. As CBS is a calcium and calmodulin dependent enzyme, the biosynthesis of H2S should be acutely controlled by the intracellular concentration of calcium. In addition, it is also regulated by S-adenosylmethionine which acts as an allosteric activator of CBS. H2S, as a sulfhydryl compound, has similar reducing properties as glutathione. In neurons, H2S stimulates the production of cAMP probably by direct activation of adenylyl cyclase and thus activate cAMP-dependent processes. In astrocytes, H2S increases intracellular calcium to an extent capable of inducing and propagating a "calcium wave", which is a form of calcium signaling among these cells. Possible physiological functions of H2S include potentiating long-term potentials through activation of the NMDA receptors, regulating the redox status, maintaining the excitatory/inhibitory balance in neurotransmission, and inhibiting oxidative damage through scavenging free radicals and reactive species. H2S is also involved in CNS pathologies such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. In stroke, H2S appears to act as a mediator of ischemic injuries and thus inhibition of its production has been suggested to be a potential treatment approach in stroke therapy.

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of misfolded proteins, which are often associated with various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and vascular dementia. The amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to be significantly reduced in the brain tissue of people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease relative to that of healthy individuals. These findings prompted us to investigate the effects of H2S on the formation of amyloids in vitro using a model fibrillogenic protein hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). HEWL forms typical β-sheet rich fibrils during the course of 70 min at low pH and high temperatures. The addition of H2S completely inhibits the formation of β-sheet and amyloid fibrils, as revealed by deep UV resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy and ThT fluorescence. Nonresonance Raman spectroscopy shows that disulfide bonds undergo significant rearrangements in the presence of H2S. Raman bands corresponding to disulfide (RSSR) vibrational modes in the 550–500 cm–1 spectral range decrease in intensity and are accompanied by the appearance of a new 490 cm–1 band assigned to the trisulfide group (RSSSR) based on the comparison with model compounds. The formation of RSSSR was proven further using a reaction with TCEP reduction agent and LC-MS analysis of the products. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence study shows a strong denaturation of HEWL containing trisulfide bonds. The presented evidence indicates that H2S causes the formation of trisulfide bridges, which destabilizes HEWL structure, preventing protein fibrillation. As a result, small spherical aggregates of unordered protein form, which exhibit no cytotoxicity by contrast with HEWL fibrils. PMID:25545790

  10. Metal hydrogen sulfide superconducting temperature calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    Éliashberg theory is generalized to the electron-phonon (EP) systems with the not constant density of electronic states. The phonon contribution to the anomalous electron Green's function (GF) is considered. The generalized Éliashberg equations with the variable density of electronic states are resolved for the hydrogen sulfide SH3 phase under pressure. The dependence of both the real and the imaginary part of the order parameter on the frequency in the SH3 phase is obtained. The Tc = 177 K value in the hydrogen sulfide SH3 phase at the pressure been defined. P = 225 GPa has been defined.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide as a vasculoprotective factor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a novel mediator with the unique properties of a gasotransmitter and many and varied physiological effects. Included in these effects are a number of cardiovascular effects that are proving beneficial to vascular health. Specifically, H2S can elicit vasorelaxation, prevention of inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, anti-proliferative effects and anti-thrombotic effects. Additionally, H2S is a chemical reductant and nucleophile that is capable of inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species, scavenging and neutralising reactive oxygen species and boosting the efficacy of endogenous anti-oxidant molecules. These result in resistance to oxidative stress, protection of vascular endothelial function and maintenance of blood flow and organ perfusion. H2S has been shown to be protective in hypertension, atherosclerosis and under conditions of vascular oxidative stress, and deficiency of endogenous H2S production is linked to cardiovascular disease states. Taken together, these effects suggest that H2S has a physiological role as a vasculoprotective factor and that exogenous H2S donors may be useful therapeutic agents. This review article will discuss the vascular effects and anti-oxidant properties of H2S as well as examine the protective role of H2S in some important vascular disease states. PMID:23628084

  12. Microwave production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A waste-treatment process is being developed that uses cold'' microwave plasma-chemical reactions to split hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. A clean sulfur product can be recovered and sold, while product gases are purified and separated into seams containing hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide at 0.5 to 1.5 L/min flow rates and microwave powers of 400 to 1000 W confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass at process energy requirements approaching 5 kcal/mol are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery waste hydrogen sulfide streams have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and that they do not create new waste treatment problems. This technology has a long-term potential for saving 40 to 70 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu/yr in the refining industry, for an economic savings of $500 million to $1000 million annually. Although the microwave process should show particular advantages for the petroleum refining industry, the low capital costs and modular nature of the new process should make it economically attractive in connection with the small-scale waste-treatment technologies currently used in the natural gas industry. Currently, in the U.S.S.R., a 500-kW demonstration microwave hydrogen sulfide treatment unit operating at near atmospheric pressure is being tested at the natural gas fields in Orenberg. 3 refs.

  13. Microwave production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A waste-treatment process is being developed that uses ``cold`` microwave plasma-chemical reactions to split hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. A clean sulfur product can be recovered and sold, while product gases are purified and separated into seams containing hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide at 0.5 to 1.5 L/min flow rates and microwave powers of 400 to 1000 W confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass at process energy requirements approaching 5 kcal/mol are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery waste hydrogen sulfide streams have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and that they do not create new waste treatment problems. This technology has a long-term potential for saving 40 to 70 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu/yr in the refining industry, for an economic savings of $500 million to $1000 million annually. Although the microwave process should show particular advantages for the petroleum refining industry, the low capital costs and modular nature of the new process should make it economically attractive in connection with the small-scale waste-treatment technologies currently used in the natural gas industry. Currently, in the U.S.S.R., a 500-kW demonstration microwave hydrogen sulfide treatment unit operating at near atmospheric pressure is being tested at the natural gas fields in Orenberg. 3 refs.

  14. Comparison of Hydrogen Sulfide Analysis Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    A summary and critique of common methods of hydrogen sulfide analysis is presented. Procedures described are: reflectance from silver plates and lead acetate-coated tiles, lead acetate and mercuric chloride paper tapes, sodium nitroprusside and methylene blue wet chemical methods, infrared spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography. (BL)

  15. Comparison of Hydrogen Sulfide Analysis Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    A summary and critique of common methods of hydrogen sulfide analysis is presented. Procedures described are: reflectance from silver plates and lead acetate-coated tiles, lead acetate and mercuric chloride paper tapes, sodium nitroprusside and methylene blue wet chemical methods, infrared spectrophotometry, and gas chromatography. (BL)

  16. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... equipment and flow lines, circulating the well, swabbing, and pulling tubing, pumps, and packers. The...

  17. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... equipment and flow lines, circulating the well, swabbing, and pulling tubing, pumps, and packers. The...

  18. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... equipment and flow lines, circulating the well, swabbing, and pulling tubing, pumps, and packers. The...

  19. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... equipment and flow lines, circulating the well, swabbing, and pulling tubing, pumps and packers. The...

  20. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... equipment and flow lines, circulating the well, swabbing, and pulling tubing, pumps and packers. The...

  1. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL... equipment and flow lines, circulating the well, swabbing, and pulling tubing, pumps and packers. The...

  2. Microaeration reduces hydrogen sulfide in biogas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although there are a variety of biological and chemical treatments for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas, all require some level of chemical or water inputs and maintenance. In practice, managing biogas H2S remains a significant challenge for agricultural digesters where labor and opera...

  3. Hydrogen sulfide intervention in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-juan; Li, Chao-kun; Wei, Lin-yu; Lu, Na; Wang, Guo-hong; Zhao, Hong-gang; Li, Dong-liang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against neuronal damage caused by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. We established the middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats via the suture method. Ten minutes after middle cerebral artery occlusion, the animals were intraperitoneally injected with hydrogen sulfide donor compound sodium hydrosulfide. Immunofluorescence revealed that the immunoreactivity of P2X7 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury decreased with hydrogen sulfide treatment. Furthermore, treatment of these rats with hydrogen sulfide significantly lowered mortality, the Longa neurological deficit scores, and infarct volume. These results indicate that hydrogen sulfide may be protective in rats with local cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by down-regulating the expression of P2X7 receptors. PMID:26199610

  4. Biological chemistry of hydrogen sulfide and persulfides.

    PubMed

    Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Möller, Matías N; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been traditionally considered to be a toxic molecule for mammals. However, it can be formed endogenously and exert physiological effects with potential health benefits. H2S can partition two-fold in biological membranes and traverse them rapidly, diffusing between compartments. H2S reactivity has similarities to that of thiols, although it is less nucleophilic than thiols and it can form different products. H2S can react with oxidants derived from the partial reduction of oxygen, but direct scavenging is unlikely to explain H2S protective actions. Important effects are exerted on mitochondria including the stimulation or the inhibition of the electron transport chain. Possible mechanisms for unleashing biological consequences are the reactions with metal centers and with thiol oxidation products. The reactions of H2S with disulfides (RSSR) and sulfenic acids (RSOH) lead to the formation of persulfides (RSSH). Persulfides have enhanced nucleophilicity with respect to the corresponding thiol, consistent with the alpha effect. Besides, the inner and outer sulfurs can both act as electrophiles. In this review, we describe the reactions of H2S with oxidized thiol products and the properties of the persulfides formed in the context of the chemical biology of H2S.

  5. Signaling Molecules: Hydrogen Sulfide and Polysulfide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as a signaling molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. It modulates neurotransmission, regulates vascular tone, and protects various tissues and organs, including neurons, the heart, and kidneys, from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury. H2S is produced from l-cysteine by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase. Recent Advances: In addition to these enzymes, we recently identified a novel pathway to produce H2S from d-cysteine, which involves d-amino acid oxidase (DAO) along with 3MST. These enzymes are localized in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. However, some enzymes translocate to organelles under specific conditions. Moreover, H2S-derived potential signaling molecules such as polysulfides and HSNO have been identified. Critical Issues: The physiological stimulations, which trigger the production of H2S and its derivatives and maintain their local levels, remain unclear. Future Directions: Understanding the regulation of the H2S production and H2S-derived signaling molecules and the specific stimuli that induce their release will provide new insights into the biology of H2S and therapeutic development in diseases involving these substances. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 362–376. PMID:24800864

  6. Method for direct production of carbon disulfide and hydrogen from hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Frank Q.; Erekson, Erek James

    1998-12-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide to carbon disulfide and hydrogen is provided comprising contacting the hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide to a bi-functional catalyst residing in a controlled atmosphere for a time and at a temperature sufficient to produce carbon disulfide and hydrogen. Also provided is a catalyst for converting carbon sulfides and hydrogen sulfides to gasoline range hydrocarbons comprising a mixture containing a zeolite catalyst and a hydrogenating catalyst.

  7. Redetermination of piperidinium hydrogen sulfide structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andras, Maria T.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Duraj, Stan A.; Gordon, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    The presence of adventitious water in a reaction between dicyclopentamethylene thiuram-disulfide (C5H10NCS2)(sub 2) and a picoline solution of tricyclopentadienyl indium(III) (C5H5)(sub 3). It resulted in the formation of piperidinium hydrogen sulfide (C5H13NS). The piperidinium hydrogen sulfide produced in this way was unambiguously characterized by X-ray crystallography. The structure determination showed that the piperidinium hydrogen sulfide crystal (MW = 119.23 g/mol) has an orthorhombic (Pbcm) unit cell whose parameters are: a = 9.818(2), b = 7.3720(1), c = 9.754(1) A, V = 706.0(3) A(exp 3), Z=4. D(sub chi) = 1.122 g cm(exp -3), Mo K(alpha) (lamda = 0.71073), mu= 3.36 cm(exp -1), F(000) = 264.0, T =293 K, R = 0.036 for 343 reflections with F(sub O)(sup 2) greater than 3 sigma (F(sub O)(sup 2)) and 65 variables. The compound consists of (C5H10NH2)(+) cations and (SH)(-) anions with both species residing on crystallographic mirror planes. N-H -- S hydrogen bonding contributes to the interconnection of neighboring piperidinium components of the compound.

  8. Redox biochemistry of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Kabil, Omer; Banerjee, Ruma

    2010-07-16

    H(2)S, the most recently discovered gasotransmitter, might in fact be the evolutionary matriarch of this family, being both ancient and highly reduced. Disruption of gamma-cystathionase in mice leads to cardiovascular dysfunction and marked hypertension, suggesting a key role for this enzyme in H(2)S production in the vasculature. However, patients with inherited deficiency in gamma-cystathionase apparently do not present vascular pathology. A mitochondrial pathway disposes sulfide and couples it to oxidative phosphorylation while also exposing cytochrome c oxidase to this metabolic poison. This report focuses on the biochemistry of H(2)S biogenesis and clearance, on the molecular mechanisms of its action, and on its varied biological effects.

  9. Hydrogen attack - Influence of hydrogen sulfide. [on carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.

  10. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Gilligan Jr., T. J.

    1985-10-22

    The present invention relates to a process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide which frequently becomes entrained in drilling fluid during the course of drilling operations through subterranean formations. The process consists of introducing a solid oxidant in powdered form into the circulating drilling fluid when hydrogen sulfide is encountered. The solid oxidants are selected from the group consisting of calcium hypochlorite (Ca-(OCl)/sub 2/), sodium perborate (NaBO/sub 3/), potassium permanganate (KMnO/sub 4/), and potassium peroxydisulfate (K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/). The solid oxidants are soluble in the drilling fluid, promoting fast and complete scavenging reactions without adversely altering the drilling fluid rheology.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide in the mammalian cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Hong; Lu, Ming; Hu, Li-Fang; Wong, Peter T-H; Webb, George D; Bian, Jin-Song

    2012-07-01

    For more than a century, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been regarded as a toxic gas. This review surveys the growing recognition of the role of H(2)S as an endogenous signaling molecule in mammals, with emphasis on its physiological and pathological pathways in the cardiovascular system. In biological fluids, H(2)S gas is a weak acid that exists as about 15% H(2)S, 85% HS(-), and a trace of S(2-). Here, we use "H(2)S" to refer to this mixture. H(2)S has been found to influence heart contractile functions and may serve as a cardioprotectant for treating ischemic heart diseases and heart failure. Alterations of the endogenous H(2)S level have been found in animal models with various pathological conditions such as myocardial ischemia, spontaneous hypertension, and hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. In the vascular system, H(2)S exerts biphasic regulation of a vascular tone with varying effects based on its concentration and in the presence of nitric oxide. Over the past decade, several H(2)S-releasing compounds (NaHS, Na(2)S, GYY4137, etc.) have been utilized to test the effect of exogenous H(2)S under different physiological and pathological situations in vivo and in vitro. H(2)S has been found to promote angiogenesis and to protect against atherosclerosis and hypertension, while excess H(2)S may promote inflammation in septic or hemorrhagic shock. H(2)S-releasing compounds and inhibitors of H(2)S synthesis hold promise in alleviating specific disease conditions. This comprehensive review covers in detail the effects of H(2)S on the cardiovascular system, especially in disease situations, and also the various underlying mechanisms.

  12. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Hypoxic Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: A Possible Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yaqi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhong, Liangjie; Zhu, Yizhun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, against hypoxia-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and also to look into the possible mechanisms by which H2S exerts this protective effect. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and scratch wound healing assay were chosen to measure the cell viability and migration-promoting effects. The fluorescent probe, DCFH-DA and 5,5′,6,6′-Tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethyl-imidacarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) were applied to detect the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Furthermore, western blots were used to measure the expressions of the apoptosis-related proteins. Under hypoxic conditions, 300 μM and 600 μM of H2S could protect HUVECs against hypoxia-induced injury, as determined by MTT assay. Following the treatment of 60 μM NaHS for 18 h, scratch wound healing assays indicated that the scratch became much narrower than control group. After treatment with 60 μM, 120 μM, and 600 μM NaHS, and hypoxia for 30 min, flow cytometry demonstrated that the ROS concentrations decreased to 95.08% ± 5.52%, 73.14% ± 3.36%, and 73.51% ± 3.05%, respectively, compared with the control group. In addition, the JC-1 assay showed NaHS had a protective effect on mitochondria damage. Additionally, NaHS increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased the expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in a dose-dependent way. Our results suggest that H2S can protect endothelial cells and promote migration under hypoxic condition in HUVECs. These effects are partially associated with the preservation of mitochondrial function mediated by regulating the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:23799362

  13. Structure of 4-methylpyridinium Hydrogen Sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andras, Maria T.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Martuch, Robert A.; Duraj, Stan A.; Gordon, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    4-Methylpyridinium hydrogen sulfide, (C6H7NH)HS, M(sub r) = 127.21, consists of C6H7NH(+) cations and HS(-) anions. Z = 2 for the crystal with monoclinic space group Cm (#8), dimensions of a = 8.679(2) A, b = 7.964(1) A, and c = 4.860(2) A, an angle beta of 101.10(2) degrees, and a volume of V = 329.6(3) A(exp 3). R = 0.039 and R(sub w) = 0.048 for 385 reflections with F(sub o)(exp 2) greater than 3 sigma(F(sub o)(exp 2)) and 59 variables. Both the C6H7NH(+) cation and the HS(-) anion lie on crystallographic mirror planes with the N,S, two carbon atoms, and two hydrogen atoms positioned in the planes. The hydrogen atom of the HS(-) anion was not located.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the renal fibrosis of obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Wang, Fen; Li, Qian; Shi, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Hui-Fen; Peng, Hanjing; Shen, Hua-Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2014-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has recently been found decreased in chronic kidney disease. Here we determined the effect and underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide on a rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Compared with normal rats, obstructive injury decreased the plasma hydrogen sulfide level. Cystathionine-β-synthase, a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme, was dramatically reduced in the ureteral obstructed kidney, but another enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase was increased. A hydrogen sulfide donor (sodium hydrogen sulfide) inhibited renal fibrosis by attenuating the production of collagen, extracellular matrix, and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin. Meanwhile, the infiltration of macrophages and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the kidney were also decreased. In cultured kidney fibroblasts, a hydrogen sulfide donor inhibited the cell proliferation by reducing DNA synthesis and downregulating the expressions of proliferation-related proteins including proliferating cell nuclear antigen and c-Myc. Further, the hydrogen sulfide donor blocked the differentiation of quiescent renal fibroblasts to myofibroblasts by inhibiting the transforming growth factor-β1-Smad and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Thus, low doses of hydrogen sulfide or its releasing compounds may have therapeutic potentials in treating chronic kidney disease.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide protects H9c2 cardiac cells against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; He, Jun; Tan, Tian-Ping; Wu, Shao-Jian; Guo, Dong-Ming; He, Hui; Peng, Juan; Tang, Zhi-Han; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an efficient drug used in cancer therapy that also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induces severe cytotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gasotransmitter, has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects. The present study aimed to determine whether exogenous H2S protects H9c2 cardiac cells against DOX-induced cytotoxicity and whether these protective effects are mediated through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway. The H9c2 cardiac cells were exposed to 5 µM DOX for 24 h to establish a model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The results showed that the treatment of H9c2 cardiac cells with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) for 30 min prior to DOX exposure markedly attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a. Notably, pre-treatment of the H9c2 cells with NaHS significantly attenuated the nuclear localization of FoxO3a as well as the apoptosis of H9c2 cells induced by DOX. The treatment of H9c2 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of ROS, prior to DOX exposure, also markedly increased the phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a which was inhibited by DOX alone. Furthermore, pre-treatment with LY294002, a selective inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, reversed the protective effect of H2S against DOX-induced injury of cardiomyocytes, as demonstrated by an increased number of apoptotic cells, a decrease in cell viability and the reduced phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO3a. These findings suggested that exogenous H2S attenuates DOX-induced cytotoxic effects in H9c2 cardiac cells through the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway.

  16. New amine-type inhibitors for protecting low-carbon steels in hydrogen sulfide-containing neutral media

    SciTech Connect

    Podobaev, N.I.; Atanasyan, T.K.; Lyashenko, L.F.; Isaev, M.G.; Sidorenko, G.V.

    1988-01-10

    The protecting action of polethylenepolyamine (PEPA) products was carried out by gravimetric and electrochemical methods in aerated and de-aerated 35 NaCl solutions and simulated waste water containing CaCl/sub 2/, NaCl, NaHCO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and KBr, with addition of H/sub 2/S. Gravimetric and electrochemical measurements were carried out and results are presented. The influence on tanning agents on the physicomechanical and photographic properties of the positive emulsion Unibrom, Normal at thermostated aging for two days was shown. The results lead to the conclusion that the use of animals as tanning agents of the emulsion lead to improvement of the physicomechanical properties of the emulsion light sensitive layers.

  17. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide induces calcium waves in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yasuo; Tsugane, Mamiko; Oka, Jun-Ichiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2004-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) modifies hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and functions as a neuromodulator. Here, we show that H2S increases intracellular Ca2+ and induces Ca2+ waves in primary cultures of astrocytes as well as hippocampal slices. H2S increases the influx of Ca2+ and to a lesser extent causes the release from intracellular Ca2+ stores. Ca2+ waves induced by neuronal excitation as well as responses to exogenously applied H2S are potently blocked by La3+ and Gd3+, inhibitors of Ca2+ channels. These observations suggest that H2S induces Ca2+ waves that propagate to neighboring astrocytes.

  19. Amorphous molybdenum sulfides as hydrogen evolution catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morales-Guio, Carlos G; Hu, Xile

    2014-08-19

    Providing energy for a population projected to reach 9 billion people within the middle of this century is one of the most pressing societal issues. Burning fossil fuels at a rate and scale that satisfy our near-term demand will irreversibly damage the living environment. Among the various sources of alternative and CO2-emission-free energies, the sun is the only source that is capable of providing enough energy for the whole world. Sunlight energy, however, is intermittent and requires an efficient storage mechanism. Sunlight-driven water splitting to make hydrogen is widely considered as one of the most attractive methods for solar energy storage. Water splitting needs a hydrogen evolution catalyst to accelerate the rate of hydrogen production and to lower the energy loss in this process. Precious metals such as Pt are superior catalysts, but they are too expensive and scarce for large-scale applications. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and application of amorphous molybdenum sulfide catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The catalysts can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition under ambient conditions from readily available and inexpensive precursors. The catalytic activity is among the highest for nonprecious catalysts. For example, at a loading of 0.2 mg/cm(2), the optimal catalyst delivers a current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential of 160 mV. The growth mechanism of the electrochemically deposited film catalysts was revealed by an electrochemical quartz microcrystal balance study. While different electrochemical deposition methods produce films with different initial compositions, the active catalysts are the same and are identified as a "MoS(2+x)" species. The activity of the film catalysts can be further promoted by divalent Fe, Co, and Ni ions, and the origins of the promotional effects have been probed. Highly active amorphous molybdenum sulfide particles can also be prepared

  20. Normal state of metallic hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2017-02-01

    A generalized theory of the normal properties of metals in the case of electron-phonon (EP) systems with a nonconstant density of electron states has been used to study the normal state of the SH3 and SH2 phases of hydrogen sulfide at different pressures. The frequency dependence of the real Re Σ (ω) and imaginary ImΣ (ω) parts of the self-energy Σ (ω) part (SEP) of the Green's function of the electron Σ (ω), real part Re Z (ω), and imaginary part Im Z (ω) of the complex renormalization of the mass of the electron; the real part Re χ (ω) and the imaginary part Imχ (ω) of the complex renormalization of the chemical potential; and the density of electron states N (ɛ) renormalized by strong electron-phonon interaction have been calculated. Calculations have been carried out for the stable orthorhombic structure (space group Im3¯ m) of the hydrogen sulfide SH3 for three values of the pressure P = 170, 180, and 225 GPa; and for an SH2 structure with a symmetry of I4/ mmm ( D4 h1¯7) for three values of pressure P = 150, 180, and 225 GP at temperature T = 200 K.

  1. Occupationally related hydrogen sulfide deaths in the United States from 1984 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Fuller, D C; Suruda, A J

    2000-09-01

    Alice Hamilton described fatal work injuries from acute hydrogen sulfide poisonings in 1925 in her book Industrial Poisons in the United States. There is no unique code for H2S poisoning in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision; therefore, these deaths cannot be identified easily from vital records. We reviewed US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigation records for the period 1984 to 1994 for mention of hazardous substance 1480 (hydrogen sulfide). There were 80 fatalities from hydrogen sulfide in 57 incidents, with 19 fatalities and 36 injuries among coworkers attempting to rescue fallen workers. Only 17% of the deaths were at workplaces covered by collective bargaining agreements. OSHA issued citations for violation of respiratory protection and confined space standards in 60% of the fatalities. The use of hydrogen sulfide detection equipment, air-supplied respirators, and confined space safety training would have prevented most of the fatalities.

  2. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by human liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Nada; Prip-Buus, Carina; Vons, Corinne; Lenoir, Véronique; Abou-Hamdan, Abbas; Guedouari-Bounihi, Hala; Lombès, Anne; Bouillaud, Frédéric

    2014-09-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter discovered. Sulfide shares with the two others (NO and CO) the same inhibiting properties towards mitochondrial respiration. However, in contrast with NO or CO, sulfide at concentrations lower than the toxic (μM) level is an hydrogen donor and a substrate for mitochondrial respiration. This is due to the activity of a sulfide quinone reductase found in a large majority of mitochondria. An ongoing study of the metabolic state of liver in obese patients allowed us to evaluate the sulfide oxidation capacity with twelve preparations of human liver mitochondria. The results indicate relatively high rates of sulfide oxidation with a large variability between individuals. These observations made with isolated mitochondria appear in agreement with the main characteristics of sulfide oxidation as established before with the help of cellular models.

  3. Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

    2007-07-31

    IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

  4. Toxicological analysis of 17 autopsy cases of hydrogen sulfide poisoning resulting from the inhalation of intentionally generated hydrogen sulfide gas.

    PubMed

    Maebashi, Kyoko; Iwadate, Kimiharu; Sakai, Kentaro; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukui, Kenji; Aoyagi, Miwako; Ochiai, Eriko; Nagai, Tomonori

    2011-04-15

    Although many cases of fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning have been reported, in most of these cases, it resulted from the accidental inhalation of hydrogen sulfide gas. In recent years, we experienced 17 autopsy cases of fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning due to the inhalation of intentionally generated hydrogen sulfide gas. In this study, the concentrations of sulfide and thiosulfate in blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid and pleural effusion were examined using GC/MS. The sulfide concentrations were blood: 0.11-31.84, urine: 0.01-1.28, cerebrospinal fluid: 0.02-1.59 and pleural effusion: 2.00-8.59 (μg/ml), while the thiosulfate concentrations were blood: 0-0.648, urine: 0-2.669, cerebrospinal fluid: 0.004-0.314 and pleural effusion: 0.019-0.140 (μmol/ml). In previous reports, the blood concentration of thiosulfate was said to be higher than that of sulfide in hydrogen sulfide poisoning cases, although the latter was higher than the former in 8 of the 14 cases examined in this study. These results are believed to be strongly influenced by the atmospheric concentration of hydrogen sulfide the victims were exposed to and the time interval between exposure and death.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as biological mediators.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hideo

    2014-10-09

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a biological mediator with various roles such as neuromodulation, regulation of the vascular tone, cytoprotection, anti-inflammation, oxygen sensing, angiogenesis, and generation of mitochondrial energy. It is produced by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). The activity of CBS is enhanced by S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and glutathionylation, while it is inhibited by nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The activity of CSE and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), which produces the 3MST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3MP), is regulated by Ca2+. H2S is oxidized to thiosulfate in mitochondria through the sequential action of sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), sulfur dioxygenase, and rhodanese. The rates of the production and clearance of H2S determine its cellular concentration. Polysulfides (H2Sn) have been found to occur in the brain and activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels, facilitate the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus, and suppress the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by sulfurating (sulfhydrating) the target cysteine residues. A cross talk between H2S and NO also plays an important role in cardioprotection as well as regulation of the vascular tone. H2S, polysulfides, and their cross talk with NO may mediate various physiological and pathophysiological responses.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide and polysulfides as signaling molecules

    PubMed Central

    KIMURA, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a familiar toxic gas that smells of rotten eggs. After the identification of endogenous H2S in the mammalian brain two decades ago, studies of this molecule uncovered physiological roles in processes such as neuromodulation, vascular tone regulation, cytoprotection against oxidative stress, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and oxygen sensing. Enzymes that produce H2S, such as cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase have been studied intensively and well characterized. Polysulfides, which have a higher number of inner sulfur atoms than that in H2S, were recently identified as potential signaling molecules that can activate ion channels, transcription factors, and tumor suppressors with greater potency than that of H2S. This article focuses on our contribution to the discovery of these molecules and their metabolic pathways and mechanisms of action. PMID:25864468

  7. Hydrogen sulfide in a circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukita, N.; Morris, M.

    1983-01-01

    A search for hydrogen sulfide in the cool circumstellar envelopes of 25 stars was made using the 1(10)-1(01) rotational line at 1.8 mm. It was detected in the bipolar nebula/OH maser OH231.8+4.2, an object having a high rate of mass loss. An approximate analysis indicates that 1/60 of the sulfur in this outflowing envelope is in the form of H2S, a fraction which may be similar to that in the atmosphere of the central star. In addition, the shape of the observed line profile is discussed in terms of a possible variation of the outflow velocity with latitude above the system's equatorial plane.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide in gastrointestinal and liver physiopathology.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Mencarelli, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a gas that can be formed by the action of two enzymes, cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta synthase (CBS). H(2)S has been known for hundreds of years for its poisoning effect, however the idea that H(2)S is not only a poison, but can exert a physiological role in mammalian organisms, originates from the evidence that this gaseous mediator is produced endogenously. In addition to H(2)S synthesis by gastrointestinal tissue, the intestinal mucosa, particularly in the large intestine, is regularly exposed to high concentrations of H(2)S that are generated by some species of bacteria and through the reduction of unabsorbed intestinal inorganic sulphate. This review reports on the effects of H(2)S in the gastrointestinal tract and liver and provides information on the therapeutic applications of H(2)S-donating drugs.

  9. Chemical Foundations of Hydrogen Sulfide Biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Following nitric oxide (nitrogen monoxide) and carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide (or its newer systematic name sulfane, H2S) became the third small molecule that can be both toxic and beneficial depending on the concentration. In spite of its impressive therapeutic potential, the underlying mechanisms for its beneficial effects remain unclear. Any novel mechanism has to obey fundamental chemical principles. H2S chemistry was studied long before its biological relevance was discovered, however, with a few exceptions, these past works have received relatively little attention in the path of exploring the mechanistic conundrum of H2S biological functions. This review calls attention to the basic physical and chemical properties of H2S, focuses on the chemistry between H2S and its three potential biological targets: oxidants, metals and thiol derivatives, discusses the applications of these basics into H2S biology and methodology, and introduces the standard terminology to this youthful field. PMID:23850631

  10. Nanomaterials for the Selective Detection of Hydrogen Sulfide in Air

    PubMed Central

    Llobet, Eduard; Brunet, Jérôme; Pauly, Alain; Ndiaye, Amadou; Varenne, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a focused review on the nanomaterials and associated transduction schemes that have been developed for the selective detection of hydrogen sulfide. It presents a quite comprehensive overview of the latest developments, briefly discusses the hydrogen sulfide detection mechanisms, identifying the reasons for the selectivity (or lack of) observed experimentally. It critically reviews performance, shortcomings, and identifies missing or overlooked important aspects. It identifies the most mature/promising materials and approaches for achieving inexpensive hydrogen sulfide sensors that could be employed in widespread, miniaturized, and inexpensive detectors and, suggests what research should be undertaken for ensuring that requirements are met. PMID:28218674

  11. A new process for removing hydrogen sulfide from gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, K.; Allford, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    A novel, patented sour gas sweetening process was introduced to the gas processing industry in September, 1984. This new process is referred to as the one-step process in this paper. The one-step process selectively removes hydrogen sulfide from sour gases and converts dissolved hydrogen sulfide directly to sulfur in a bubble tower filled with the sweetener solution. The sweetener, a proprietary formulation, is an alkaline solution of oxidizing and buffering agents. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur is achieved by a liquid phase oxidation technique.

  12. Process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, I.

    1981-01-20

    A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ containing a crystalline phase of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected.

  13. Optimization of the superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Masur, E. A.

    2015-12-15

    The electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of electron and phonon states of the SH{sub 3} phase and the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH{sub 2}, are calculated for the pressure interval 100–225 GPa. It is found that the I4/mmm phase can be responsible for the superconducting properties of metallic hydrogen sulfide along with the SH{sub 3} phase. Sequential stages for obtaining and conservation of the SH{sub 2} phase are proposed. The properties of two (SH{sub 2} and SH{sub 3}) superconducting phases of hydrogen sulfide are compared.

  14. Thiosulfate Mediates Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Neuronal Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Marutani, Eizo; Yamada, Marina; Ida, Tomoaki; Tokuda, Kentaro; Ikeda, Kohei; Kai, Shinichi; Shirozu, Kazuhiro; Hayashida, Kei; Kosugi, Shizuko; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Kaneki, Masao; Akaike, Takaaki; Ichinose, Fumito

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits protective effects in various disease models including cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nonetheless, mechanisms and identity of molecules responsible for neuroprotective effects of H2S remain incompletely defined. In the current study, we observed that thiosulfate, an oxidation product of H2S, mediates protective effects of an H2S donor compound sodium sulfide (Na2S) against neuronal I/R injury. We observed that thiosulfate in cell culture medium is not only required but also sufficient to mediate cytoprotective effects of Na2S against oxygen glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) and murine primary cortical neurons. Systemic administration of sodium thiosulfate (STS) improved survival and neurological function of mice subjected to global cerebral I/R injury. Beneficial effects of STS, as well as Na2S, were associated with marked increase of thiosulfate, but not H2S, in plasma and brain tissues. These results suggest that thiosulfate is a circulating "carrier" molecule of beneficial effects of H2S. Protective effects of thiosulfate were associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity by persulfidation at Cys163 in caspase-3. We discovered that an SLC13 family protein, sodium sulfate cotransporter 2 (SLC13A4, NaS-2), facilitates transport of thiosulfate, but not sulfide, across the cell membrane, regulating intracellular concentrations and thus mediating cytoprotective effects of Na2S and STS. The protective effects of H2S are mediated by thiosulfate that is transported across cell membrane by NaS-2 and exerts antiapoptotic effects via persulfidation of caspase-3. Given the established safety track record, thiosulfate may be therapeutic against ischemic brain injury. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Photocatalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide on cadmium and zinc sulfides immobilized on a cation exchange film

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmadmurodov, A.; Gruzdkov, Y.A.; Parmon, V.N.; Savinov, E.N.

    1986-08-01

    The photocatalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide on cadmium, zinc, and tin sulfides, immobilized on a polymer, was studied. Activation of the photocatalyst by finely divided particles of Pd and Pt was used. A quantum yield of 9.5% was achieved.

  16. NEAR-CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE BY AN AUTOMATIC GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector that samples and analyzes hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide at 30-s intervals is described. Temperature programming was used to elute trace amounts of carbon disulfide present in each injection from a Supelpak-S...

  17. NEAR-CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE AND CARBONYL SULFIDE BY AN AUTOMATIC GAS CHROMATOGRAPH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector that samples and analyzes hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide at 30-s intervals is described. Temperature programming was used to elute trace amounts of carbon disulfide present in each injection from a Supelpak-S...

  18. An Experiment in Autotrophic Fermentation: Microbial Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublette, Kerry L.

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which uses an autotrophic bacterium to anaerobically oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfate in a batch-stirred tank reactor. Discusses background information, experimental procedure, and sample results of this activity. (CW)

  19. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools.

  20. An Experiment in Autotrophic Fermentation: Microbial Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sublette, Kerry L.

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which uses an autotrophic bacterium to anaerobically oxidize hydrogen sulfide to sulfate in a batch-stirred tank reactor. Discusses background information, experimental procedure, and sample results of this activity. (CW)

  1. Process for removing hydrogen sulfide from waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Niedzwiecki, J.L.; Wolfe, R.G.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a process for removing hydrogen sulfide from a water stream, derived by separating water from crude oil at the production well. The water stream comprising hydrogen sulfide or a hydrogen sulfide precursor and a concentration of at least about 1000 mg/L of a Group IIA metal component of the Periodic Table of Elements. The process comprises the steps of: maintaining the water stream at a temperature ranging from about 150{sup 0}F. to about 200{sup 0}F. and at a pH ranging from about 5 to about 6; subjecting the water stream resulting in the absence of a stripping gas, to a pressure ranging from about 3 to about 10 psia, whereby at least a portion of the hydrogen sulfide is removed by volatilization from the water stream and whereby salt deposition is minimized.

  2. Tryptophan and hydrogen sulfide reaction from modified trypticase soy agar.

    PubMed Central

    VON Riesen, V L

    1978-01-01

    The use of Trypticase soy agar modified by the addition of 0.05% ferric ammonium citrate and 0.01% sodium thiosulfate for the determination of indole, phenylpyruvic acid, anthranilate, kynurenine, and hydrogen sulfide reactions is described. PMID:624768

  3. The hydrogen sulfide metabolite trimethylsulfonium is found in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Lajin, Bassam; Francesconi, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is the third and most recently discovered gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, playing important roles both in normal physiological conditions and disease progression. The trimethylsulfonium ion (TMS) can result from successive methylation reactions of hydrogen sulfide. No report exists so far about the presence or quantities of TMS in human urine. We developed a method for determining TMS in urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ), and applied the method to establish the urinary levels of TMS in a group of human volunteers. The measured urinary levels of TMS were in the nanomolar range, which is commensurate with the steady-state tissue concentrations of hydrogen sulfide previously reported in the literature. The developed method can be used in future studies for the quantification of urinary TMS as a potential biomarker for hydrogen sulfide body pools. PMID:27247020

  4. Nanocomposite polymer structures for optical sensors of hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, A. A.; Mironenko, A. Yu.; Nazirov, A. E.; Leonov, A. A.; Voznesenskii, S. S.

    2017-08-01

    Composite coatings based on gold and silver nanoparticles reduced in situ in the film of chitosan polysaccharide are studied. In the presence of hydrogen sulfide, the maximum of plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles that is proportional to the analyte concentration decreases. The detection limits for hydrogen sulfide are 0.1 and 5 ppm for the chitosan/silver and chitosan/gold nanocomposites, respectively.

  5. Oxygen-hydrogen sulfide intermediate layer of the Black Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Timoshchuk, V.I.; Risik, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    Spatial and vertical boundaries were studied for the oxygen-hydrogen sulfide intermediate layer in the Black Sea. The wind has a great influence on the thermohaline structure of the Danube coastal waters. It causes strong out-and-influx processes and up-welling of hydrogen sulfide waters of the intermediate layer in the north-western part of the Black Sea, which is supposed to be one of the reasons for the ecological equilibrium disturbance in this region.

  6. Detection of thiol modifications by hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Williams, E; Pead, S; Whiteman, M; Wood, M E; Wilson, I D; Ladomery, M R; Teklic, T; Lisjak, M; Hancock, J T

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gasotransmitter in both animals and plants. Many physiological events, including responses to stress, have been suggested to involve H2S, at least in part. On the other hand, numerous responses have been reported following treatment with H2S, including changes in the levels of antioxidants and the activities of transcription factors. Therefore, it is important to understand and unravel the events that are taking place downstream of H2S in signaling pathways. H2S is known to interact with other reactive signaling molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). One of the mechanisms by which ROS and NO have effects in a cell is the modification of thiol groups on proteins, by oxidation or S-nitrosylation, respectively. Recently, it has been reported that H2S can also modify thiols. Here we report a method for the determination of thiol modifications on proteins following the treatment with biological samples with H2S donors. Here, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as a model system but this method can be used for samples from other animals or plants. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide and Inflammatory Joint Diseases.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Elena Fernandez; Meijide-Failde, Rosa; Blanco, Francisco J

    2016-08-29

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are widespread rheumatic diseases characterized by persistent inflammation and joint destruction. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gas with important physiologic functions in the brain, vasculature and other organs. Recent studies have found H2S to be a mediator in inflammatory joint diseases. H2S exhibited anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and/or anti-oxidant effects in rodent models of acute arthritis and in in vitro models using human synoviocytes and articular chondrocytes from RA and OA tissues. These findings suggest that exogenous supplementation of H2S may provide a viable therapeutic option for these diseases. The earliest studies used fast-dissolving salts, such as NaSH, but GYY4137, which produces H2S more physiologically, shortly appeared. More recently still, new H2S-forming compounds that target mitochondria have been synthesized. These compounds open exciting opportunities for investigating the role of H2S in cell bioenergetics, typically altered in arthritides. Positive results have been also obtained when H2S is administered as a sulphurous water bath, an option meriting further study. This review summarizes the recent literature concerning H2S and inflammatory joint diseases, highlighting relevant developments.

  8. The role of hydrogen sulfide in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yang; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a kind of acute cerebrovascular disease characterized by the focal lack of neurological function, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. As society ages rapidly, stroke has become the second leading cause of disability and death, and also become the main threat to human health and life. In recent years, findings from increasing animal and clinical trials have supplied scientific evidences for the treatment of stroke. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has always been seen as a toxic gas, now has been thought to be the third gaseous signaling molecule following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. Accumulating evidences indicate that H2S plays an important role in stroke. Given that its neuroprotective effect is dose-dependent, only when its concentration is relatively low, H2S can yield the neuroprotection, while high dose may lead to neurotoxicity. All these study results suggest that H2S may offer a new promising application for the therapy of stroke. Here, our review will present the role of H2S in stroke from its mechanism to animal and clinical studies. PMID:27867473

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide and Cellular Redox Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhi-Zhong; Liu, Yang; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular redox imbalance is mainly caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or weakness of the natural antioxidant defense system. It is involved in the pathophysiology of a wide array of human diseases. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as the third “gasotransmitters” and proved to exert a wide range of physiological and cytoprotective functions in the biological systems. Among these functions, the role of H2S in oxidative stress has been one of the main focuses over years. However, the underlying mechanisms for the antioxidant effect of H2S are still poorly comprehended. This review presents an overview of the current understanding of H2S specially focusing on the new understanding and mechanisms of the antioxidant effects of H2S based on recent reports. Both inhibition of ROS generation and stimulation of antioxidants are discussed. H2S-induced S-sulfhydration of key proteins (e.g., p66Shc and Keap1) is also one of the focuses of this review. PMID:26881033

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Signaling in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The current literature regarding the effects of the gaseous signal molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the gastrointestinal system is reviewed. Bacterial, host and pharmaceutical-derived H2S are all considered and presented according to the physiological or pathophysiological effects of the gaseous signal molecule. These subjects include the toxicology of intestinal H2S with emphasis on bacterial-derived H2S, especially from sulfate-reducing bacteria, the role of endogenous and exogenous H2S in intestinal inflammation, and the roles of H2S in gastrointestinal motility, secretion and nociception. Recent Advances: While its pro- and anti-inflammatory, smooth muscle relaxant, prosecretory, and pro- and antinociceptive actions continue to remain the major effects of H2S in this system; recent findings have expanded the potential molecular targets for H2S in the gastrointestinal tract. Critical Issues: Numerous discrepancies remain in the literature, and definitive molecular targets in this system have not been supported by the use of competitive antagonism. Future Directions: Future work will hopefully resolve discrepancies in the literature and identify molecular targets and mechanisms of action for H2S. It is clear from the current literature that the long-appreciated relationship between H2S and the gastrointestinal tract continues to be strong as we endeavor to unravel its mysteries. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 818–830. PMID:23582008

  11. Enamel surface changes caused by hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Takao; Hanabusa, Masao; Hosoya, Noriyasu; Chiba, Toshie; Yoshida, Takumasa; Morito, Akiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced inside the mouth are a well-known cause of halitosis. Recent studies have suggested that VSCs modify the pathology of periodontitis by encouraging the migration of bacterial toxins associated with increased permeability of gingival epithelia, and enhancing the production of matrix metalloproteinases in gingival connective tissue. Nonetheless, the effects on the enamel of direct exposure to VSCs within the oral cavity remain unclear. In the present study, we observed the effects of VSCs in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on enamel surfaces and determined their effects on restorations. Materials and Methods: Extracted human tooth and bovine tooth samples were divided into the H2S experimental side and the control side. We observed the effects of H2S on enamel surfaces using electron microscopy and conducted a shear test. Results: We found that exposure to H2S obscured the enamel surface's crystal structure. The surface also exhibited coarseness and reticular changes. Shear testing did not reveal any differences in bond strength. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that H2S occurring inside the mouth causes changes to the crystal structure of the enamel surface that can lead to tooth wear, but that it does not diminish the effects of dental bonding in adhesive restorations. PMID:26752833

  12. Organization of the human mitochondrial hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway.

    PubMed

    Libiad, Marouane; Yadav, Pramod Kumar; Vitvitsky, Victor; Martinov, Michael; Banerjee, Ruma

    2014-11-07

    Sulfide oxidation is expected to play an important role in cellular switching between low steady-state intracellular hydrogen sulfide levels and the higher concentrations where the physiological effects are elicited. Yet despite its significance, fundamental questions regarding how the sulfide oxidation pathway is wired remain unanswered, and competing proposals exist that diverge at the very first step catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR). We demonstrate that, in addition to sulfite, glutathione functions as a persulfide acceptor for human SQR and that rhodanese preferentially synthesizes rather than utilizes thiosulfate. The kinetic behavior of these enzymes provides compelling evidence for the flow of sulfide via SQR to glutathione persulfide, which is then partitioned to thiosulfate or sulfite. Kinetic simulations at physiologically relevant metabolite concentrations provide additional support for the organizational logic of the sulfide oxidation pathway in which glutathione persulfide is the first intermediate formed.

  13. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m.

    PubMed Central

    Kanagawa, T; Mikami, E

    1989-01-01

    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day. PMID:2930168

  14. Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m

    SciTech Connect

    Kanagawa, T.; Mikami, E.

    1989-03-01

    Methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide were efficiently removed from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m and oxidized to sulfate stoichiometrically. More than 99.99% of dimethyl sulfide was removed when the load was less than 4.0 g of dimethyl sulfide per g (dry cell weight) per day.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3 < 7 mm) and 35% had severe periodontal breakdown (CAL > 7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket.

  16. Is hydrogen sulfide a circulating "gasotransmitter" in vertebrate blood?

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is gaining acceptance as a signaling molecule and has been shown to elicit a variety of biological effects at concentrations between 10 and 1000 micromol/l. Dissolved H(2)S is a weak acid in equilibrium with HS(-) and S(2-) and under physiological conditions these species, collectively referred to as sulfide, exist in the approximate ratio of 20% H(2)S, 80% HS(-) and 0% S(2-). Numerous analyses over the past 8 years have reported plasma or blood sulfide concentrations also in this range, typically between 30 and 300 micromol/l, thus supporting the biological studies. However, there is some question whether or not these concentrations are physiological. First, many of these values have been obtained from indirect methods using relatively harsh chemical conditions. Second, most studies conducted prior to 2000 failed to find blood sulfide in micromolar concentrations while others showed that radiolabeled (35)S-sulfide is rapidly removed from blood and that mammals have a relatively high capacity to metabolize exogenously administered sulfide. Very recent studies using H(2)S gas-sensing electrodes to directly measure sulfide in plasma or blood, or HPLC analysis of head-space gas, have also indicated that sulfide does not circulate at micromolar levels and is rapidly consumed by blood or tissues. Third, micromolar concentrations of sulfide in blood or exhaled air should be, but are not, malodorous. Fourth, estimates of dietary sulfur necessary to sustain micromolar levels of plasma sulfide greatly exceed the daily intake. Collectively, these studies imply that many of the biological effects of sulfide are only achieved at supra-physiological concentrations and they question whether circulating sulfide is a physiologically relevant signaling molecule. This review examines the blood/plasma sulfide measurements that have been reported over the past 30 years from the perspective of the analytical methods used and the potential sources of error.

  17. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongdong; Wang, Jun; Li, Hui; Xue, Mengzhou; Ji, Ailing; Li, Yanzhang

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the major causes of high morbidity, disability, and mortality in the world. I/R injury remains a complicated and unresolved situation in clinical practice, especially in the field of solid organ transplantation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gaseous signaling molecule and plays a broad range of physiological and pathophysiological roles in mammals. H2S could protect against I/R injury in many organs and tissues, such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, intestine, stomach, hind-limb, lung, and retina. The goal of this review is to highlight recent findings regarding the role of H2S in I/R injury. In this review, we present the production and metabolism of H2S and further discuss the effect and mechanism of H2S in I/R injury. PMID:26064416

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide in Biochemistry and Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Benjamin Lee; Lefer, David Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: An abundance of experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a prominent role in physiology and pathophysiology. Many targets exist for H2S therapy. The molecular targets of H2S include proteins, enzymes, transcription factors, and membrane ion channels. Recent Advances: Novel H2S precursors are being synthesized and discovered that are capable of releasing H2S in a slow and sustained manner. This presents a novel and advantageous approach to H2S therapy for treatment of chronic conditions associated with a decline in endogenous H2S, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Critical Issues: While H2S is cytoprotective at physiological concentrations, it is not universally cytoprotective, as it appears to have pro-apoptotic actions in cancer cells and is well known to be toxic at supraphysiological concentrations. Many of the pleiotropic effects of H2S on health are associated with the inhibition of inflammation and upregulation of prosurvival pathways. The powerful anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, immunomodulating, and trophic effects of H2S on the vast majority of normal cells seem to be mediated mainly by its actions as an extremely versatile direct and indirect antioxidant and free radical scavenger. While the overall effects of H2S on transformed (i.e., malignant) cells can be characterized as pro-oxidant and pro-apoptotic, they contrast sharply with the cytoprotective effects on most normal cells. Future Directions: H2S has become a molecule of great interest, and several slow-releasing H2S prodrugs are currently under development. We believe that additional agents regulating H2S bioavailability will be developed during the next 10 years. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 119–140. PMID:22432697

  19. Vertebrate phylogeny of hydrogen sulfide vasoactivity.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Ryan A; Russell, Michael J; Schulman, Alexis A; Doellman, Meredith M; Olson, Kenneth R

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a recently identified endogenous vasodilator in mammals. In steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Osteichthyes), H(2)S produces both dose-dependent dilation and a unique dose-dependent constriction. In this study, we examined H(2)S vasoactivity in all vertebrate classes to determine whether H(2)S is universally vasoactive and to identify phylogenetic and/or environmental trends. H(2)S was generated from NaHS and examined in unstimulated and precontracted systemic and, when applicable, pulmonary arteries (PA) from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti, Agnatha), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, Agnatha), sandbar shark (Carcharhinus milberti, Chondrichthyes), marine toad (Bufo marinus, Amphibia), American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis, Reptilia), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Aves), and white rat (Rattus rattus, Mammalia). In otherwise unstimulated vessels, NaHS produced 1) a dose-dependent relaxation in Pacific hagfish dorsal aorta; 2) a dose-dependent contraction in sea lamprey dorsal aorta, marine toad aorta, alligator aorta and PA, duck aorta, and rat thoracic aorta; 3) a threshold relaxation in shark ventral aorta, dorsal aorta, and afferent branchial artery; and 4) a multiphasic contraction-relaxation-contraction in the marine toad PA, duck PA, and rat PA. Precontraction of these vessels with another agonist did not affect the general pattern of NaHS vasoactivity with the exception of the rat aorta, where relaxation was now dominant. These results show that H(2)S is a phylogenetically ancient and versatile vasoregulatory molecule that appears to have been opportunistically engaged to suit both organ-specific and species-specific homeostatic requirements.

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide as an Oxygen Sensor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance Although oxygen (O2)-sensing cells and tissues have been known for decades, the identity of the O2-sensing mechanism has remained elusive. Evidence is accumulating that O2-dependent metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is this enigmatic O2 sensor. Recent Advances The elucidation of biochemical pathways involved in H2S synthesis and metabolism have shown that reciprocal H2S/O2 interactions have been inexorably linked throughout eukaryotic evolution; there are multiple foci by which O2 controls H2S inactivation, and the effects of H2S on downstream signaling events are consistent with those activated by hypoxia. H2S-mediated O2 sensing has been demonstrated in a variety of O2-sensing tissues in vertebrate cardiovascular and respiratory systems, including smooth muscle in systemic and respiratory blood vessels and airways, carotid body, adrenal medulla, and other peripheral as well as central chemoreceptors. Critical Issues Information is now needed on the intracellular location and stoichometry of these signaling processes and how and which downstream effectors are activated by H2S and its metabolites. Future Directions Development of specific inhibitors of H2S metabolism and effector activation as well as cellular organelle-targeted compounds that release H2S in a time- or environmentally controlled way will not only enhance our understanding of this signaling process but also provide direction for future therapeutic applications. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 377–397. “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” —Theodosius Dobzhansky (29) PMID:24801248

  1. 40 CFR 721.10445 - 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn. residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10445 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with...) The chemical substance identified as 2-propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10445 - 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide, distn. residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10445 2-Propen-1-ol, reaction products with...) The chemical substance identified as 2-propen-1-ol, reaction products with hydrogen sulfide,...

  3. Hydrogen sulfide protects against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by inhibiting NF-κB expression and regulating Th1/Th2 balance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jianping; Huang, Xinli; Zhai, Yu; Zhang, Xuejing; Chu, Li

    2014-01-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) displays vasodilative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of H2S on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats and its possible mechanisms. Fifty-four pathogen-free Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, BLM and H2S treated groups with 18 rats in each group. Each group was then divided into three subgroups based on time of study (7, 14 and 28 day). Pulmonary fibrosis model was established by a single intratracheal instillation of BLM A5 (5 mg/kg). While control rats received saline, rats of the treated group simultaneously were administered intraperitoneal injections of NaHS (the H2S donor, 28 μmol/kg) once daily. BLM induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, increased lung hydroxyproline levels, lung index, total cell counts, neutrophils and eosinophils counts and expression of NF-κB p65 in lung tissue, decreased lymphocytes and macrophages counts. In addition, Th1 response is suppressed as shown by diminished IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) after BLM exposure, and enhancement of Th2 response is marked by increased IL-4 in BALF. H2S administration significantly attenuated these effects. The findings reveal the therapeutic potential of H2S for BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in male rats, which were at least partly due to inhibition NF-κB p65 expression and regulation of Th1/Th2 balance.

  4. The novel mitochondria-targeted hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donors AP123 and AP39 protect against hyperglycemic injury in microvascular endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gerő, Domokos; Torregrossa, Roberta; Perry, Alexis; Waters, Alicia; Le-Trionnaire, Sophie; Whatmore, Jacqueline L; Wood, Mark; Whiteman, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    The development of diabetic vascular complications is initiated, at least in part, by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in endothelial cells. Hyperglycemia induces superoxide production in the mitochondria and initiates changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential that leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) supplementation has been shown to reduce the mitochondrial oxidant production and shows efficacy against diabetic vascular damage in vivo. However, the half-life of H2S is very short and it is not specific for the mitochondria. We have therefore evaluated two novel mitochondria-targeted anethole dithiolethione and hydroxythiobenzamide H2S donors (AP39 and AP123 respectively) at preventing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and metabolic changes in microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. Hyperglycemia (HG) induced significant increase in the activity of the citric acid cycle and led to elevated mitochondrial membrane potential. Mitochondrial oxidant production was increased and the mitochondrial electron transport decreased in hyperglycemic cells. AP39 and AP123 (30-300nM) decreased HG-induced hyperpolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane and inhibited the mitochondrial oxidant production. Both H2S donors (30-300nM) increased the electron transport at respiratory complex III and improved the cellular metabolism. Targeting H2S to mitochondria retained the cytoprotective effect of H2S against glucose-induced damage in endothelial cells suggesting that the molecular target of H2S action is within the mitochondria. Mitochondrial targeting of H2S also induced >1000-fold increase in the potency of H2S against hyperglycemia-induced injury. The high potency and long-lasting effect elicited by these H2S donors strongly suggests that these compounds could be useful against diabetic vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Preconditioning Protects Rat Liver against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Activating Akt-GSK-3β Signaling and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Xu, Fengying; Zou, Zui; Liu, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Miao, Mingyong; Shi, Xueyin

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC) or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg) did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury. PMID:24058562

  6. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  7. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  8. Thermochemical hydrogen production via a cycle using barium and sulfur - Reaction between barium sulfide and water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ota, K.; Conger, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction between barium sulfide and water, a reaction found in several sulfur based thermochemical cycles, was investigated kinetically at 653-866 C. Gaseous products were hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The rate determining step for hydrogen formation was a surface reaction between barium sulfide and water. An expression was derived for the rate of hydrogen formation.

  9. Esterase Activated Carbonyl Sulfide/Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Donors.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Preeti; Bora, Prerona; Ravikumar, Govindan; Jos, Swetha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2017-01-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a mediator of a number of cellular processes, and modulating cellular levels of this gas has emerged as an important therapeutic area. Localized generation of H2S is thus very useful but highly challenging. Here, we report pivaloyloxymethyl-based carbonothioates and carbamothioates that are activated by the enzyme, esterase, to generate carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is hydrolyzed to H2S.

  10. Visible-Light-Triggered Uncaging of Carbonyl Sulfide for Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Release.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Nair, Mrutyunjay; Chauhan, Preeti; Gupta, Kavya; Saini, Deepak K; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2017-09-05

    Generation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is challenging and few methods are capable of localized delivery of this gas. Here, a boron dipyrromethene-based carbamothioate (BDP-H2S) that is uncaged by visible light of 470 nm to generate carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is rapidly hydrolyzed to H2S in the presence of carbonic anhydrase, a widely prevalent enzyme, is reported.

  11. Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Fermentation Broths Containing SO21

    PubMed Central

    Acree, T. E.; Sonoff, Elisabeth P.; Splittstoesser, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in fermentation broths containing up to 100 μg of SO2 per ml is described. The method involves the sparging of H2S from the broth into a cadmium hydroxide absorption solution, the formation of methylene blue from the absorbed sulfide, and the measuring of this color spectrophotometrically. The use of cadmium hydroxide instead of zinc acetate, the common absorbent, substantially reduced the interference of SO2 with the analysis. PMID:5111300

  12. Hydrogen sulfide induces oxidative damage to RNA and DNA in a sulfide-tolerant marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Joyner-Matos, Joanna; Predmore, Benjamin L; Stein, Jenny R; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Julian, David

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide acts as an environmental toxin across a range of concentrations and as a cellular signaling molecule at very low concentrations. Despite its toxicity, many animals, including the mudflat polychaete Glycera dibranchiata, are periodically or continuously exposed to sulfide in their environment. We tested the hypothesis that a broad range of ecologically relevant sulfide concentrations induces oxidative stress and oxidative damage to RNA and DNA in G. dibranchiata. Coelomocytes exposed in vitro to sulfide (0-3 mmol L(-1) for 1 h) showed dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress (as 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence) and superoxide production (as dihydroethidine fluorescence). Coelomocytes exposed in vitro to sulfide (up to 0.73 mmol L(-1) for 2 h) also acquired increased oxidative damage to RNA (detected as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine) and DNA (detected as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine). Worms exposed in vivo to sulfide (0-10 mmol L(-1) for 24 h) acquired elevated oxidative damage to RNA and DNA in both coelomocytes and body wall tissue. While the consequences of RNA and DNA oxidative damage are poorly understood, oxidatively damaged deoxyguanosine bases preferentially bind thymine, causing G-T transversions and potentially causing heritable point mutations. This suggests that sulfide can be an environmental mutagen in sulfide-tolerant invertebrates.

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide Is a Signaling Molecule and a Cytoprotectant

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Yuka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Accumulating evidence shows that hydrogen sulfide may function as a signaling molecule in processes such as neuromodulation in the brain and smooth muscle relaxation in the vascular system. It also has a cytoprotective effect, since it can protect neurons and cardiac muscle from oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide can also modulate inflammation, insulin release, and angiogenesis. Recent Advances: The regulation of the activity of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase (3MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), one of the H2S producing pathways, has been demonstrated. The production of H2S by the pathway, which is regulated by Ca2+ and facilitated by thioredoxin and dihydrolipoic acid, is also involved in H2S signaling as well as cytoprotection. Sulfur hydration of proteins by H2S has been proposed to modulate protein functions. H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, which enable us to measure the localization of H2S in real time, have been developed. Critical Issues: The basal concentrations of H2S have recently been measured and found to be much lower than those initially reported. However, the concentration of H2S reached in stimulated cells, as well as the regulation of H2S producing enzymes is not well understood. It has been proposed that some of the effects of H2S on the regulation of enzymes and receptors might be explained through the properties of sulfane sulfur (S0), another form of active sulfur. Future Directions: The determination of H2S concentrations in activated cells using new methods including H2S-sensitive fluorescent probes, as well as the investigation of the effects of H2S using specific inhibitors, may provide better understanding of the physiological function of this molecule. Clarifying mechanisms of H2S activity may also facilitate the development of new therapeutic compounds. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 45–57. PMID:22229673

  14. Preparation of narrow pores carbon suitable for hydrogen sulfide adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tanada, S.; Kita, T.; Boki, K.; Kozaki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Microporous N-containing activated carbon (N-CAC) suitable for hydrogen sulfide adsorption was prepared by impregnating raw activated carbon with a 25% methylol melamine urea solution and then heating it at different temperatures from 100 to 1000/sup 0/C. The structures of raw activated carbon and N-CAC No. 8 carbonized at the most suitable temperature 850/sup 0/C have been discussed based on applying the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation to adsorption isotherm of hydrogen sulfide. The 12.2% increase in micropore volume of N-CAC No.8 result from the numerical increase of micropores rather than radial expansion of micropores. The relation of q and ..delta..S could be consistently explained by the interaction of hydrogen sulfide with micropores of adsorbents.

  15. Therapeutic metabolic inhibition: hydrogen sulfide significantly mitigates skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Peter W; Singh, Sunil P; Weinstein, Andrew L; Nagineni, Vijay; Rafii, Daniel C; Kadouch, Daniel; Krijgh, David D; Spector, Jason A

    2010-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide is capable of mitigating the degree of cellular damage associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is protective in skeletal muscle. This study used both in vitro (cultured myotubes subjected to sequential anoxia and normoxia) and in vivo (mouse hind-limb ischemia followed by reperfusion) models in which hydrogen sulfide (0 to 1000 μM) was delivered before the onset of oxygen deficiency. Injury score and apoptotic index were determined by analysis of specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, respectively. In vitro, hydrogen sulfide reduced the apoptotic index by as much as 99 percent (p=0.001), with optimal protection conferred by raising intravascular hydrogen sulfide to 10 μM. In vivo, 10 μM hydrogen sulfide delivered before 3 hours of hind-limb ischemia followed by 3 hours of reperfusion resulted in protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced cellular changes, as evidenced by significant decreases in injury score and apoptotic index (by as much as 91 percent; p=0.001). These findings were consistent at 4 weeks after injury and reperfusion. These findings confirm that the preischemic delivery of hydrogen sulfide limits ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced cellular damage in myotubes and skeletal muscle and suggests that, when given in the appropriate dose, this molecule may have significant therapeutic applications in multiple clinical scenarios.

  16. Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duangmanee, Thanapong

    The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion. The high sulfide level in the biogas stream is not only poisonous to many novel metal catalysts employed in thermo-catalytic processes but also reduces the quality of methane to produce renewable energy. This study used an innovative, low-maintenance, low-cost biological sulfide removal technology to remove sulfides simultaneously from both gas and liquid phase. ORP (Oxidation-Reduction-Potential) was used as the controlling parameter to precisely regulate air injection to the sulfide oxidizing unit (SOU). The microaeration technique provided just enough oxygen to partially oxidize sulfides to elemental sulfur without inhibiting methanogenesis. The SOU was equipped with a diffuser at the bottom for the dispersion of sulfide-laden biogas and injected air throughout the column. The SOU can be operated as a standalone unit or coupled with an anaerobic digester to simultaneously remove sulfide from the biogas and effluent. The integrated system was capable of reducing hydrogen sulfide in biogas from 2,450 to less than 2 ppmV with minimal sulfate production at the highest available sulfide loading rate of 0.24 kg/m3-day. More than 98% of sulfide removed was recovered as elemental sulfur. However, the standalone SOU was able to operate at high hydrogen sulfide loading of 1.46 kg/m 3-day at inlet sulfide concentration of 3000 ppmV and reduce the off-gas hydrogen sulfide concentrations to less than 10 ppmV. The experiment also revealed that the ORP controlled aeration was sensitive enough to prevent oxygen overdosing (dampening effect) during unexpected surges of aeration. Using generalized linear regression, a model predicting output H2S concentration based on input H2S concentrations, SOU medium heights, and biogas flow rates, was derived. With 95% confidence, output H2S concentration

  17. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide Prevents Endotoxin-Induced Systemic Inflammation and Improves Survival by Altering Sulfide Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Kentaro; Kida, Kotaro; Marutani, Eizo; Crimi, Ettore; Bougaki, Masahiko; Khatri, Ashok; Kimura, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced inflammation is incompletely understood. We examined the impact of H2S breathing on LPS-induced changes in sulfide metabolism, systemic inflammation, and survival in mice. Results: Mice that breathed air alone exhibited decreased plasma sulfide levels and poor survival rate at 72 h after LPS challenge. Endotoxemia markedly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels in plasma and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice that breathed air. In contrast, breathing air supplemented with 80 ppm of H2S for 6 h after LPS challenge markedly improved survival rate compared to mice that breathed air alone (p<0.05). H2S breathing attenuated LPS-induced increase of plasma ALT activity and NOx levels and lung MPO activity. Inhaled H2S suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, while it markedly induced anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10 in the liver. Beneficial effects of H2S inhalation after LPS challenge were associated with restored sulfide levels and markedly increased thiosulfate levels in plasma. Increased thiosulfate levels after LPS challenge were associated with upregulation of rhodanese, but not cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), in the liver. Administration of sodium thiosulfate dose-dependently improved survival after LPS challenge in mice. Innovation: By measuring changes in plasma levels of sulfide and sulfide metabolites using an advanced analytical method, this study revealed a critical role of thiosulfate in the protective effects of H2S breathing during endotoxemia. Conclusion: These observations suggest that H2S breathing prevents inflammation and improves survival after LPS challenge by altering sulfide metabolism in mice. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 11—21. PMID:22221071

  18. Hydrogen sulfide-mediated myocardial pre- and post-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Benjamin L; Lefer, David J

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Acute myocardial infarction, resulting from coronary artery atherosclerosis, is a serious and often fatal consequence of coronary artery disease, resulting in cell death in the myocardium. Pre- and post-conditioning of the myocardium are two treatment strategies that reduce the amount of cell death significantly. Hydrogen sulfide has recently been identified as a potent cardioprotective signaling molecule, which is a highly effective pre- and post-conditioning agent. The cardioprotective signaling pathways involved in hydrogen sulfide-based pre- and post-conditioning will be explored in this article. PMID:21373204

  19. Making and working with hydrogen sulfide: The chemistry and generation of hydrogen sulfide in vitro and its measurement in vivo: a review.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Martin N; Centelles, Miguel N; Moore, Kevin P

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen sulfide is rapidly emerging as an important vasoactive mediator formed in health and disease. Its biological action is centered on its reactivity with heme-proteins and its ability to activate K(ATP) channels. Hydrogen sulfide is a signalling molecule of the inflammatory and nervous systems, and in particular the cardiovascular system where it regulates vascular tone, cardiac work, and exerts cardioprotection. This has led to an explosion of papers in which the role of hydrogen sulfide generated in vitro has been used to stimulate biological responses, and where a variety of methods have been used to measure the concentration of this compound in biological fluids. Understanding the chemistry and the inherent problems in the analytical techniques used to measure hydrogen sulfide concentrations is critical to our expanding knowledge on the biology of hydrogen sulfide. In this brief review we will cover the chemistry of hydrogen sulfide, including sources of hydrogen sulfide, its speciation at physiological pH, the susceptibility of sulfide to aerobic oxidation, and the methods used to measure hydrogen sulfide concentrations in solution, including biological fluids. We also give a brief overview of knockout animals and inhibition of the enzymes involved in the formation of hydrogen sulfide in vivo.

  20. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production is essential for dietary restriction benefits.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher; Harputlugil, Eylul; Zhang, Yue; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Lee, Byung Cheon; Brace, Lear; Longchamp, Alban; Treviño-Villarreal, Jose H; Mejia, Pedro; Ozaki, C Keith; Wang, Rui; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Madeo, Frank; Mair, William B; Mitchell, James R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. SAA supplementation, mTORC1 activation, or chemical/genetic CGL inhibition reduced H2S production and blocked DR-mediated stress resistance. In vitro, the mitochondrial protein SQR was required for H2S-mediated protection during nutrient/oxygen deprivation. Finally, TSP-dependent H2S production was observed in yeast, worm, fruit fly, and rodent models of DR-mediated longevity. Together, these data are consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a mediator of DR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. PAPERFLICK: Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemistry and therapeutic potential of hydrogen sulfide - reality or fantasy?

    PubMed

    Brodek, Paulina; Olas, Beata

    2016-08-11

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling gasotransmitter, involved in different physiological and pathological processes. H2S regulates apoptosis, the cell cycle and oxidative stress. H2S exerts powerful effects on smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclear transcription factors. H2S is known to be produced from L-cysteine, D-cysteine and L-homocysteine in the body. Four enzymes - cystathionine-b synthase (CBS), mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) and cysteine aminotransferase (CAT) - are involved in H2S synthesis. The biosynthetic pathway for the production of H2S from D-cysteine involves 3-MST and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). The therapeutic potential of H2S is not clear. However, recently results have demonstrated that H2S has protective action for ischemic heart disease or hypertension, and protects against ischemia of the brain. This review summarizes the negative and the positive roles of H2S in various biological systems, for example the cardiovascular system and nervous system. We also discuss the function of classical, therapeutic and natural (for example garlic) donors of H2S in pre-clinical and clinical studies.

  2. Carbamoylation abrogates the antioxidant potential of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Praschberger, Monika; Hermann, Marcela; Laggner, Christian; Jirovetz, Leopold; Exner, Markus; Kapiotis, Stylianos; Gmeiner, Bernhard M K; Laggner, Hilde

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as the third gasotransmitter. Beside its role as signaling molecule in the cardiovascular and nervous system the antioxidant and cyto-protective properties of H2S have gained much attention. In the present study we show that cyanate, an uremic toxin which is found in abundant concentration in sera of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), can abrogate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activity of H2S via S-carbamoylation reaction, a reaction that previously has only been shown to have a physiological effect on cysteine groups, but not on H2S. Carbamoylation strongly inhibited the free radical scavenging (ABTS(+·) and alkylperoxyl ROO(·)) properties of H2S. The extent of intracellular ROS formation induced by ROO(·) was diminished by H2S whereas carbamoylation counteracted the protective effect. Reagent HOCl was rapidly inactivated by H2S in contrast to the carbamoylated compound. Protein modification by HOCl was inhibited by H2S but carbamoylation significantly reduced the effect. Thus, S-carbamoylation of low molecular weight thiols by abrogating their antioxidant potential may contribute to the higher oxidative stress observed in CKD.

  3. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Production Is Essential for Dietary Restriction Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher; Harputlugil, Eylul; Zhang, Yue; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Lee, Byung Cheon; Brace, Lear; Longchamp, Alban; Trevino-Villarreal, Jose H.; Mejia, Pedro; Ozaki, C. Keith; Wang, Rui; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Madeo, Frank; Mair, William B.; Mitchell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. SAA supplementation, mTORC1 activation, or chemical/genetic CGL inhibition reduced H2S production and blocked DR-mediated stress resistance. In vitro, the mitochondrial protein SQR was required for H2S-mediated protection during nutrient/oxygen deprivation. Finally, TSP-dependent H2S production was observed in yeast, worm, fruit fly and rodent models of DR-mediated longevity. Together, these data are consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a novel mediator of DR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. PMID:25542313

  4. Hydrogen evolution from water through metal sulfide reactions.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2013-11-28

    Transition metal sulfides play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal sulfide cluster anions M2S(X)(-) (M = Mo and W, X = 4-6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal sulfide anions have ground state isomers with two bridging sulfide bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal sulfide anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo2S4(-) isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W2S4(-) and M2S5(-) isomers. In all the lowest energy H2 elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H2 elimination step involve a thiol (-SH) and a hydroxyl (-OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo sulfide reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M2S4(-) and M2S5(-) clusters with water to liberate H2 are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M2S6(-) is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to saturation of the local bonding environment.

  5. Hydrogen evolution from water through metal sulfide reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2013-11-01

    Transition metal sulfides play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal sulfide cluster anions M2SX- (M = Mo and W, X = 4-6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal sulfide anions have ground state isomers with two bridging sulfide bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal sulfide anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo2S4- isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W2S4- and M2S5- isomers. In all the lowest energy H2 elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H2 elimination step involve a thiol (-SH) and a hydroxyl (-OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo sulfide reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M2S4- and M2S5- clusters with water to liberate H2 are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M2S6- is highly endothermic with a considerable barrier due to saturation of the local bonding environment.

  6. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Basic, Amina; Blomqvist, Susanne; Carlén, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways. PMID:26130377

  7. Hydrogen sulfide release from dairy manure storages containing gypsum bedding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recycled gypsum products can provide a cost-effective bedding alternative for dairy producers. Manufacturers report reduced odors, moisture and bacteria in the stall environment when compared to traditional bedding. Gypsum provides a sulfate source that can be converted to hydrogen sulfide under ana...

  8. Apparatus and method for treating geothermal steam which contains hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Maassen, B.W.; Cambell, R.G.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for treating and disposing of a low of hot, pressurized, geothermal steam containing hydrogen sulfide. The apparatus comprises: condensing means for condensing substantially sulfide-containing geothermal steam into a mixture comprising steam condensate and hydrogen sulfide; separating means for separating the mixture comprising steam condensate and hydrogen sulfide into a flow comprising steam condensate and a flow comprising hydrogen sulfide; and means for causing a vacuum in an injection well in order to draw the flow comprising hydrogen sulfide thereinto. A method for treating and disposing of a flow of hot, pressurized, geothermal steam which contains significant amount of hydrogen sulfide is described. The method comprises the steps of: condensing substantially all the steam in the flow of hydrogen sulfide-containing geothermal steam into a mixture comprising steam condensate, and hydrogen sulfide; separating hydrogen sulfide from the mixture comprising steam condensate and hydrogen sulfide; cooling the resulting separated steam condensate to or below a disposal temperature; and injecting the cooled concentrate into an injection well for disposal thereof and in order to cause a vacuum therein for drawing the separated hydrogen sulfide thereinto.

  9. Solubility and Permeation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Denicola, Ana; Alvarez, Beatriz; Möller, Matías N.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is mainly known for its toxicity but has recently been shown to be produced endogenously in mammalian tissues and to be associated with physiological regulatory functions. To better understand the role of biomembranes in modulating its biological distribution and effects; we measured the partition coefficient of H2S in models of biological membranes. The partition coefficients were found to be 2.1±0.2, 1.9±0.5 and 2.0±0.6 in n-octanol, hexane and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine liposome membranes relative to water, respectively (25°C). This two-fold higher concentration of H2S in the membrane translates into a rapid membrane permeability, Pm = 3 cm s−1. We used a mathematical model in three dimensions to gain insight into the diffusion of total sulfide in tissues. This model shows that the sphere of action of sulfide produced by a single cell expands to involve more than 200 neighboring cells, and that the resistance imposed by lipid membranes has a significant effect on the diffusional spread of sulfide at pH 7.4, increasing local concentrations. These results support the role of hydrogen sulfide as a paracrine signaling molecule and reveal advantageous pharmacokinetic properties for its therapeutic applications. PMID:22509322

  10. Nitrite as an antidote for acute hydrogen sulfide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.F.; Bradbury, C.M.; Connors, A.J.; Donini, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    The detoxification of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) by a heme catalyzed oxidation was examined as part of an on-going study of H/sub 2/S toxicity. Interlocking O/sub 2/ absorption and sulfide depletion data indicate that both oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin are effective catalytic agents. Although the latter is more efficacious, the life time of excess sulfide in the presence of oxygen and either of the above is of the order of minutes. It has also been established that the formation of methemoglobin following nitrite administration occurs preferentially under oxygen poor conditions. Under an atmospheric or oxygen enriched environment, which favors sulfide depletion, the nitrite retards sulfide oxidation. Thus nitrite as an antidote for acute H/sub 2/S intoxication can only be effective within the first few minutes after the exposure, at which time resuscitation and/or ventilation of the victim is likely to produce conditions in which the nitrite actually slows sulfide removal.

  11. Plasma-chemical conversion of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    A waste-treatment process that recovers both hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen-sulfide-contaminated industrial wastes is being developed to replace the Claus technology, which recovers only sulfur. The proposed process is based on research reported in the Soviet technical literature and uses microwave (or radio-frequency) energy to initiate plasma-chemical reactions that dissociate hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. In the plasma-chemical process, the gaseous stream would be purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Since unconverted hydrogen sulfide is recycled to the plasma reactor, the plasma-chemical process has the potential for sulfur recoveries in excess of 99% without the additional tail-gas clean-up processes associated with the Claus technology. Laboratory experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide have confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery and natural gas production acid gases have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and do not appear to create new waste-treatment problems. Other experiments show that the cyclonic-flow pattern hypothesized by the Russian theoretical analysis of the plasma-chemical process can substantially decrease energy requirements for hydrogen sulfide dissociation while increasing conversion. This process has several advantages over the current Claus-plus-tail-gas-cleanup technology. The primary advantage is the potential for recovering hydrogen more cheaply than the direct production of hydrogen. The difference could amount to an energy savings of 40 {times} 10{sup 15} to 70 {times} 10{sup 15} J/yr in the refining industry, for an annual savings of $500 million to $1,000 million.

  12. A FRET enzyme-based probe for monitoring hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Strianese, Maria; Palm, Gottfried J; Milione, Stefano; Kühl, Olaf; Hinrichs, Winfried; Pellecchia, Claudio

    2012-11-05

    Fluorescently labeled cobalt peptide deformylase (Co-PDF) can be efficiently used as a fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-based sensing device for hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). The proof of concept of our sensor system is substantiated by spectroscopic, structural, and theoretical results. Monohydrogen sulfide coordination to Co-PDF and Ni-PDF was verified by X-ray crystallography. Density functional theory calculations were performed to gain insight into the characteristics of the coordination adduct between H(2)S and the cobalt cofactor in Co-PDF.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide and resolution of acute inflammation: A comparative study utilizing a novel fluorescent probe

    PubMed Central

    Dufton, Neil; Natividad, Jane; Verdu, Elena F.; Wallace, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an essential gasotransmitter associated with numerous pathologies. We assert that hydrogen sulfide plays an important role in regulating macrophage function in response to subsequent inflammatory stimuli, promoting clearance of leukocyte infiltrate and reducing TNF-α levels in vivo following zymosan-challenge. We describe two distinct methods of measuring leukocyte hydrogen sulfide synthesis; methylene blue formation following zinc acetate capture and a novel fluorescent sulfidefluor probe. Comparison of these methods, using pharmacological tools, revealed they were complimentary in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate the application of sulfidefluor probe to spectrofluorimetry, flow cytometry and whole animal imaging, to monitor the regulation of hydrogen sulfide synthesis in vivo during dynamic inflammatory processes. Both methodologies revealed that granulocyte infiltration negatively affects hydrogen sulfide synthesis. Our report offers an insight into the profile of hydrogen sulfide synthesis during inflammation and highlight opportunities raised by the development of novel fluorescent hydrogen sulfide probes. PMID:22787557

  14. Hydrogen sulfide and resolution of acute inflammation: A comparative study utilizing a novel fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Dufton, Neil; Natividad, Jane; Verdu, Elena F; Wallace, John L

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an essential gasotransmitter associated with numerous pathologies. We assert that hydrogen sulfide plays an important role in regulating macrophage function in response to subsequent inflammatory stimuli, promoting clearance of leukocyte infiltrate and reducing TNF-α levels in vivo following zymosan-challenge. We describe two distinct methods of measuring leukocyte hydrogen sulfide synthesis; methylene blue formation following zinc acetate capture and a novel fluorescent sulfidefluor probe. Comparison of these methods, using pharmacological tools, revealed they were complimentary in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate the application of sulfidefluor probe to spectrofluorimetry, flow cytometry and whole animal imaging, to monitor the regulation of hydrogen sulfide synthesis in vivo during dynamic inflammatory processes. Both methodologies revealed that granulocyte infiltration negatively affects hydrogen sulfide synthesis. Our report offers an insight into the profile of hydrogen sulfide synthesis during inflammation and highlight opportunities raised by the development of novel fluorescent hydrogen sulfide probes.

  15. Hydrogen Sulfide as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shufang; Pan, Chuli; Zhou, Feifei; Yuan, Zhi; Wang, Huiying; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Gensheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced endogenously by the activation of two major H2S-generating enzymes (cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase), plays important regulatory roles in different physiologic and pathologic conditions. The abnormal metabolism of H2S is associated with fibrosis pathogenesis, causing damage in structure and function of different organs. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that both endogenous H2S level and the expressions of H2S-generating enzymes in plasma and tissues are significantly downregulated during fibrosis. Supplement with exogenous H2S mitigates the severity of fibrosis in various experimental animal models. The protective role of H2S in the development of fibrosis is primarily attributed to its antioxidation, antiapoptosis, anti-inflammation, proangiogenesis, and inhibition of fibroblasts activities. Future studies might focus on the potential to intervene fibrosis by targeting the pathway of endogenous H2S-producing enzymes and H2S itself. PMID:26078809

  16. Physiological Importance of Hydrogen Sulfide: Emerging Potent Neuroprotector and Neuromodulator

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an emerging neuromodulator that is considered to be a gasotransmitter similar to nitrogen oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). H2S exerts universal cytoprotective effects and acts as a defense mechanism in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals. It is produced by the enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ϒ-lyase (CSE), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST), and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), which are also involved in tissue-specific biochemical pathways for H2S production in the human body. H2S exerts a wide range of pathological and physiological functions in the human body, from endocrine system and cellular longevity to hepatic protection and kidney function. Previous studies have shown that H2S plays important roles in peripheral nerve regeneration and degeneration and has significant value during Schwann cell dedifferentiation and proliferation but it is also associated with axonal degradation and the remyelination of Schwann cells. To date, physiological and toxic levels of H2S in the human body remain unclear and most of the mechanisms of action underlying the effects of H2S have yet to be fully elucidated. The primary purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of H2S in the human body and to describe its beneficial effects. PMID:27413423

  17. Interactions between oxygen homeostasis, food availability, and hydrogen sulfide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Iranon, Nicole N.; Miller, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to stressful conditions is essential to maintain organismal homeostasis. It has long been recognized that stress response factors that improve survival in changing conditions can also influence longevity. In this review, we discuss different strategies used by animals in response to decreased O2 (hypoxia) to maintain O2 homeostasis, and consider interactions between hypoxia responses, nutritional status, and H2S signaling. O2 is an essential environmental nutrient for almost all metazoans as it plays a fundamental role in development and cellular metabolism. However, the physiological response(s) to hypoxia depend greatly on the amount of O2 available. Animals must sense declining O2 availability to coordinate fundamental metabolic and signaling pathways. It is not surprising that factors involved in the response to hypoxia are also involved in responding to other key environmental signals, particularly food availability. Recent studies in mammals have also shown that the small gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against cellular damage and death in hypoxia. These results suggest that H2S signaling also integrates with hypoxia response(s). Many of the signaling pathways that mediate the effects of hypoxia, food deprivation, and H2S signaling have also been implicated in the control of lifespan. Understanding how these pathways are coordinated therefore has the potential to reveal new cellular and organismal homeostatic mechanisms that contribute to longevity assurance in animals. PMID:23233860

  18. Detoxification of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol in the cecal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M D; Furne, J; Springfield, J; Suarez, F; DeMaster, E

    1999-10-01

    Colonic bacteria liberate large quantities of the highly toxic gases hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methanethiol (CH(3)SH). The colonic mucosa presumably has an efficient means of detoxifying these compounds, which is thought to occur through methylation of H(2)S to CH(3)SH and CH(3)SH to dimethylsulfide (CH(3)SCH(3)). We investigated this detoxification pathway by incubating rat cecal mucosal homogenates with gas containing H(2)S, CH(3)SH, or CH(3)SCH(3). Neither CH(3)SH nor CH(3)SCH(3) was produced during H(2)S catabolism, whereas catabolism of CH(3)SH liberated H(2)S but not CH(3)SCH(3). Thus, H(2)S and CH(3)SH are not detoxified by methylation to CH(3)SCH(3). Rather, CH(3)SH is demethylated to H(2)S, and H(2)S is converted to nonvolatile metabolites. HPLC analysis of the homogenate showed the metabolite to be primarily thiosulfate. Analysis of cecal venous blood obtained after intracecal instillation of H(2)(35)S revealed that virtually all absorbed H(2)S had been oxidized to thiosulfate. The oxidation rate of H(2)S by colonic mucosa was 10,000 times greater than the reported methylation rate. Conversion to thiosulfate appears to be the mechanism whereby the cecal mucosa protects itself from the injurious effects of H(2)S and CH(3)SH, and defects in this detoxification possibly could play a role in colonic diseases such as ulcerative colitis.

  19. MODELING OF SYNGAS REACTIONS AND HYDROGEN GENERATION OVER SULFIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

    2004-10-01

    The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. During this study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The relative stabilities of pure MoS{sub 2} edges were calculated and small clusters exhibiting properties of the edges were modeled. The results were finalized and published in the journal ''Surface Science''. Hydrogen adsorption energies on both the edges and the clusters were calculated, and the thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption on both systems were evaluated. The adsorption locations and vibrational frequencies were also determined. These additional results were published in a second paper in ''Surface Science''. Most recently, the bonding and effect of alkali and transition metal ions was investigated on the MoS{sub 2} clusters. Potassium atoms bind to the clusters and increase the binding of hydrogen to the clusters while reducing the activation barriers for hydrogen adsorption. Silver attaches to the Mo7S14 cluster and donates its odd electron to the nearby Mo atoms and should have a similar effect to hydrogen as potassium does.

  20. High temperature solar thermochemical processing - Hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J. E.; Fletcher, E. A.

    1982-08-01

    Sunlight, concentrated to high intensities, has a rarely recognized potential for adding process heat to reactors at high temperatures. Hydrogen sulfide is a by-product of the sweetening of fossil fuels. In this paper, by way of example, the production of hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen sulfide is used as a device for showing how solar processing might be considered as a successor to a currently used industrial process, the Claus process. It is concluded that this and other processes should be explored as means of using as well as storing solar energy.

  1. A fatality caused by accidental production of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A K; Smith, D R; Canfield, D V

    2001-12-01

    A 55-year-old male Caucasian truck driver was dead at the scene after breathing hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) produced by an accidental transfer of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) from a tanker truck to a tank containing 4% sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) and iron(II) sulfate (FeSO(4)). Autopsy of the decedent's body revealed pulmonary edema and passive congestion in lungs, spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands. Postmortem biological samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethanol, and drugs. Since a potential exposure to H(2)S was involved, blood was also analyzed for sulfide (S(2-)). The analysis entailed isolating S(2-) from blood as H(2)S using 0.5M H(3)PO(4), trapping the gas in 0.1M NaOH, and determining the electromotive force using a sulfide ion specific electrode. Acetaminophen at a concentration of 14.3 microg/ml was found in blood, and metoprolol was detected in the blood, liver, and kidney samples. The blood S(2-) level was determined to be 1.68 microg/ml. It is concluded that the cause of death was H(2)S poisoning associated with a hazardous material accident in an industrial situation.

  2. Health assessment document for hydrogen sulfide: review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Ammann, H.M.; Bradow, F.; Fennell, D.; Griffin, R.; Kearney, B.

    1986-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas which is immediately lethal in concentrations greater than 2000 ppm. The toxic end-point is due to anoxia to brain and heart tissues which results from its interaction with the celluar enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of the enzyme halts oxidative metabolism which is the primary energy source for cells. A second toxic end-point is the irritative effect of hydrogen sulfide on mucous membranes, particularly edema at sublethal doses (250 to 500 ppm) in which sufficient exposure occurs before conciousness is lost. Recovered victims of exposure report neurologic symptoms such as headache, fatigue, irritability, vertigo, and loss of libido. Long-term effects are similar to those caused by anoxia due to other toxic agents like CO, and probably are not due to specific H/sub 2/S effects. H/sub 2/S is not a cumulative poison. No mutagenic, carcinogenic, reproductive, or teratogenic effects have been reported in the literature.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide production during decomposition of landfill inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Fairweather, R.J.; Barlaz, M.A.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a number of landfill inputs on hydrogen sulfide production and on competition between methane production and sulfate reduction during refuse decomposition. Tests were conducted in four-liter reactors that contained residential municipal waste; decomposed refuse as a seed; and various mixtures of anaerobically digested polymer-treated sludge, anaerobically digested lime-stabilized sludge, and wallboard (calcium sulfate) simulating construction and demolition waste. Tests demonstrated that wallboard was the major cause of hydrogen sulfide production and that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction occur concurrently during refuse decomposition. Additionally, both polymer- and lime-treated sludge enhanced refuse decomposition. Despite the presence of excess sulfate, 2.9 to 7.0 times more organic carbon was biodegraded through methanogenesis than through sulfate reduction.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide determines HNO-induced stimulation of trigeminal afferents.

    PubMed

    Wild, Vanessa; Messlinger, Karl; Fischer, Michael J M

    2015-08-18

    Endogenous NO and hydrogen sulfide form HNO, which causes CGRP release via TRPA1 channel activation in sensory nerves. In the present study, stimulation of intact trigeminal afferent neuron preparations with NO donors, Na2S or both was analyzed by measuring CGRP release as an index of mass activation. Combined stimulation was able to activate all parts of the trigeminal system and acted synergistic compared to stimulation with both substances alone. To investigate the contribution of both substances, we varied their ratio and tracked intracellular calcium in isolated neurons. Our results demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide is the rate-limiting factor for HNO formation. CGRP has a key role in migraine pathophysiology and HNO formation at all sites of the trigeminal system should be considered for this novel means of activation.

  5. Spurious hydrogen sulfide production by Providencia and Escherichia coli species.

    PubMed Central

    Treleaven, B E; Diallo, A A; Renshaw, E C

    1980-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide production was noted in two Escherichia coli strands and one Provaidenica alcalifaciens (Proteus inconstans A) strain isolated from clinical stool specimens durin the summer of 1979. An investigation into this phenomenon revealed the predence of Eubacterium lentum, an anaerobe, growing in synergism with the Enterobacteriaceae and producing H2s. The implications of this association are discssed with reference to clinical microbiology laboratory practice. PMID:7000823

  6. Reconstruction of the electron spectrum in a metal hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    Generalized Eliashberg theory of the normal properties of a metal electron-phonon system with a non constant electron density of states has been used to study the effect of the conduction band reconstruction. The electron density of states of the metallic phase of the hydrogen sulfide renormalized by the strong electron-phonon coupling at a pressure of P = 225 GPa has been calculated. It has been found that the reconstructed conduction band contains a series of narrow energy pockets.

  7. Resistance of constructional steel to fracture in hydrogen impregnation and hydrogen sulfide cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Savchenkov, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the resistance of constructional steel to fracture in hydrogen impregnation and hydrogen sulfide cracking. The greater the hydrogen concentration at the crack tip, the lower the failure stress intensity factor. The relationship of the new parameter of hydrogen resistance and the equations of decohesion of the hydrogen impregnated metal is revealed in analysis of the threshold stresses of hydrogen sulfide cracking. The quantitative rules and criteria of fracture of hydrogen impregnated steel established show that the activity of hydrogen, creating ''hydrogen stresses'' and adsorption effects, has primary significance. Results presented show that the harmful influence of hydrogen may be neutralized by selection of appropriate alloying and methods of treatment of the steel to reduce the activity of hydrogen and under certain conditions to even obtain a positive effect from hydrogen impregnation. The author outlines several conclusions and shows that the criterion of failure of constructional steels in hydrogen embrittlement may be represented in clear form through the probability of decohesion, the hydrogen activity and the original crack resistance.

  8. A short course of infusion of a hydrogen sulfide-donor attenuates endotoxemia induced organ injury via stimulation of anti-inflammatory pathways, with no additional protection from prolonged infusion.

    PubMed

    Aslami, Hamid; Beurskens, Charlotte J P; de Beer, Friso M; Kuipers, Maria T; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Hegeman, Maria A; Van der Sluijs, Koen F; Schultz, Marcus J; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2013-02-01

    Organ failure is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Previously, we showed that a short course of infusion of a hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) donor reduced metabolism with concurrent reduction of lung injury. Here, we hypothesize that prolonged H(2)S infusion is more protective than a short course in endotoxemia with organ failure. Also, as H(2)S has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, we explored the effect of H(2)S on interleukin production. Endotoxemia was induced by an intravenous bolus injection of LPS (7.5mg/kg) in mechanically ventilated rats. H(2)S donor NaHS (2mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was infused and organ injury was determined after either 4 or 8h. A short course of H(2)S infusion was associated with reduction of lung and kidney injury. Prolonged infusion did not enhance protection. Systemically, infusion of H(2)S increased both the pro-inflammatory response during endotoxemia, as demonstrated by increased TNF-α levels, as well as the anti-inflammatory response, as demonstrated by increased IL-10 levels. In LPS-stimulated whole blood of healthy volunteers, co-incubation with H(2)S had solely anti-inflammatory effects, resulting in decreased TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 levels. Co-incubation with a neutralizing IL-10 antibody partly abrogated the decrease in TNF-α levels. In conclusion, a short course of H(2)S infusion reduced organ injury during endotoxemia, at least in part via upregulation of IL-10.

  9. Measurement and biological significance of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Tangerman, Albert

    2009-10-15

    This review deals with the measurement of the volatile sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in various biological matrices of rats and humans (blood, serum, tissues, urine, breath, feces and flatus). Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol both contain the active thiol (-SH) group and appear in the free gaseous form, in the acid-labile form and in the dithiothreitol-labile form. Dimethyl sulfide is a neutral molecule and exists only in the free form. The foul odor of these sulfur volatiles is a striking characteristic and plays a major role in bad breath, feces and flatus. Because sulfur is a biologically active element, the biological significance of the sulfur volatiles are also highlighted. Despite its highly toxic properties, hydrogen sulfide has been lately recommended to become the third gasotransmitter, next to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, based on high concentration found in healthy tissues, such as blood and brain. However, there is much doubt about the reliability of the assay methods used. Many artifacts in the sulfide assays exist. The methods to detect the various forms of hydrogen sulfide are critically reviewed and compared with findings of our group. Recent findings that free gaseous hydrogen sulfide is absent in whole blood urged the need to revisit its role as a blood-borne signaling molecule.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide inhalation ameliorates allergen induced airway hypereactivity by modulating mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Bertolino, Antonio; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Terlizzi, Michela; Matteis, Maria; Calderone, Vincenzo; Mattera, Valentina; Martelli, Alma; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Pinto, Aldo; D'Agostino, Bruno; Cirino, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide represents an important gaseous transmitter in the mammalian respiratory system. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of mast cells in hydrogen sulfide-induced effects on airways in a mouse model of asthma. Mice were sensitized to ovalbumin and received aerosol of a hydrogen sulfide donor (NaHS; 100 ppm) starting at day 7 after ovalbumin challenge. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide abrogated ovalbumin-induced bronchial hypereactivity as well as the increase in lung resistance. Concomitantly, hydrogen sulfide prevented mast cell activity as well as FGF-2 and IL-13 upregulation. Conversely, pulmonary inflammation and the increase in plasmatic IgE levels were not affected by hydrogen sulfide. A lack of hydrogen sulfide effects in mast cell deficient mice occurred. Primary fibroblasts harvested from ovalbumin-sensitized mice showed an increased proliferation rate that was inhibited by hydrogen sulfide aerosol. Furthermore, ovalbumin-induced transdifferentiation of pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts was reversed. Finally, hydrogen sulfide did abrogate in vitro the degranulation of the mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cell line. Similarly to the in vivo experiments the inhibitory effect was present only when the cells were activated by antigen exposure. In conclusion, inhaled hydrogen sulfide improves lung function and inhibits bronchial hyper-reactivity by modulating mast cells and in turn fibroblast activation.

  11. Reconstruction of the conduction band in metallic hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2016-09-15

    The theory of the normal properties of a metal generalized to the case of particular properties of an electron band with a finite width for electron–phonon systems with a varying electron density of states has been used to study the normal state of the SH{sub 3} phase of hydrogen sulfide at a pressure of 225 GPa and a temperature of 200 K. The frequency dependences of the real, ReΣ(ω), and imaginary, ImΣ(ω), parts of the selfenergy part of the Green’s function of the electron Σ(ω), as well as the electron density of states N(ε) of the Im–3m stable orthorhombic structure of SH{sub 3} hydrogen sulfide at a pressure of P = 225 GPa, which is renormalized by the strong electron–phonon coupling, have been calculated. It has been established that a part of the electron conduction band of the SH{sub 3} phase of hydrogen sulfide adjacent to the Fermi level undergoes renormalization-induced reconstruction in the form of a number of energy pockets with the widths equal to fractions of the characteristic phonon energies of the system.

  12. Control of malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds using microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Eaktasang, Numfon; Min, Hyeong-Sik; Kang, Christina; Kim, Han S

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was used to control malodorous hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from domestic wastewaters. The electricity production demonstrated a distinct pattern of a two-step increase during 170 h of system run: the first maximum current density was 118.6 ± 7.2 mA m⁻² followed by a rebound of current density increase, reaching the second maximum of 176.8 ± 9.4 mA m⁻². The behaviors of the redox potential and the sulfate level in the anode compartment indicated that the microbial production of hydrogen sulfide compounds was suppressed in the first stage, and the hydrogen sulfide compounds generated from the system were removed effectively as a result of their electrochemical oxidation, which contributed to the additional electricity production in the second stage. This was also directly supported by sulfur deposits formed on the anode surface, which was confirmed by analyses on those solids using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as an elemental analyzer. To this end, the overall reduction efficiencies for HS⁻ and H₂S(g) were as high as 67.5 and 96.4 %, respectively. The correlations among current density, redox potential, and sulfate level supported the idea that the electricity signal generated in the MFC can be utilized as a potential indicator of malodor control for the domestic wastewater system.

  13. The HYSULF{sup SM} process: A valuable hydrogen resource from hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The increasing demand for hydrogen to reduce the sulfur content in standard refinery fuels is a very familiar problem to everyone in the industry. This problem could be partially offset by the continuous recycling of the hydrogen portion of hydrogen sulfide. In this regard, Marathon has been developing the HYSULF process. This process uses Redox chemistry under mild operating conditions to convert hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur. The process employs two basic steps, i.e., a sulfur production and recovery step and a hydrogen production step. All chemicals and the catalyst used in the HYSULF process are either commercially available or are slight modifications of available materials. Also, the chemistry used in the HYSULF process is similar to that used in commercial desulfurization and gas sweetening processes.

  14. Hydrogen evolution from water through metal sulfide reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Arjun; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2013-11-28

    Transition metal sulfides play an important catalytic role in many chemical reactions. In this work, we have conducted a careful computational study of the structures, electronic states, and reactivity of metal sulfide cluster anions M{sub 2}S{sub X}{sup −} (M = Mo and W, X = 4–6) using density functional theory. Detailed structural analysis shows that these metal sulfide anions have ground state isomers with two bridging sulfide bonds, notably different in some cases from the corresponding oxides with the same stoichiometry. The chemical reactivity of these metal sulfide anions with water has also been carried out. After a thorough search on the reactive potential energy surface, we propose several competitive, energetically favorable, reaction pathways that lead to the evolution of hydrogen. Selectivity in the initial water addition and subsequent hydrogen migration are found to be the key steps in all the proposed reaction channels. Initial adsorption of water is most favored involving a terminal metal sulfur bond in Mo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} isomers whereas the most preferred orientation for water addition involves a bridging metal sulfur bond in the case of W{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup −} isomers. In all the lowest energy H{sub 2} elimination steps, the interacting hydrogen atoms involve a metal hydride and a metal hydroxide (or thiol) group. We have also observed a higher energy reaction channel where the interacting hydrogen atoms in the H{sub 2} elimination step involve a thiol (–SH) and a hydroxyl (–OH) group. For all the reaction pathways, the Mo sulfide reactions involve a higher barrier than the corresponding W analogues. We observe for both metals that reactions of M{sub 2}S{sub 4}{sup −} and M{sub 2}S{sub 5}{sup −} clusters with water to liberate H{sub 2} are exothermic and involve modest free energy barriers. However, the reaction of water with M{sub 2}S{sub 6}{sup −} is highly endothermic with a considerable

  15. Proceedings of the Hydrogen Sulfide Health Research and Risk Assessment Symposium October 31-November 2, 2000.

    PubMed

    Woodall, George M; Smith, Roy L; Granville, Geoff C

    2005-10-01

    The Hydrogen Sulfide Health Research and Risk Assessment Symposium came about for several reasons: (1) increased interest by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and several state agencies in regulating hydrogen sulfide (H2S); (2) uncertainty about ambient exposure to H2S; (3) confusion and disagreement in the literature about possible health effects at low-level exposures; and (4) presentation of results of a series of recent animal bioassays. The American Petroleum Institute (API) proposed this symposium and the EPA became an early co-sponsor, with the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) and the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) contributing expertise and funding assistance. The topics covered in this symposium included Animal Research, Human Research, Mode-of-Action and Dosimetry Issues, Environmental Exposure and Monitoring, Assessment and Regulatory Issues, and closed with a panel discussion. The overall goals of the symposium were to: gather together experts in H2S health effects research and individuals from governmental agencies charged with protecting the public health, provide a venue for reporting of recent research findings, identify gaps in the current information, and outline new research directions and promote research collaboration. During the course of the symposium, presenters provided comprehensive reviews of the state of knowledge for each topic. Several new research proposals discussed at the symposium have subsequently been initiated. This report provides a summary of the talks, poster presentations, and panel discussions that occurred at the Hydrogen Sulfide Health and Risk Assessment Symposium.

  16. Photochemical hydrogen production with platinized suspensions of cadmium sulfide and cadmium zinc sulfide modified by silver sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, J.F.; Rusek, M.

    1986-02-27

    An efficient hydrogen production can be achieved by irradiated suspensions of platinized CdS in solutions of S/sup 2 -/ and/or SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions. However, the photocatalytic activity of CdS powders strongly depends on their specific surface area. However, coprecipitation of CdS with about 0.5-3 wt% silver sulfide or surface modification of CdS with a large specific surface area by silver ions permitted preparation of very active platinized photocatalysts. The enhancement of activity is not limited to the absorption range of CdS, but also results from a significant extension of the spectral response up to about 620 nm. Further improvement of the photoactivity can be achieved by doping the Ag/sub 2/S activated CdS powders with zinc sulfide. 77 references, 17 figures.

  17. The response of Caenorhabditis elegans to hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Budde, Mark W; Roth, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenously produced small molecule, protects animals from various stresses. Recent studies demonstrate that animals exposed to H2S are long lived, resistant to hypoxia, and resistant to ischemia-reperfusion injury. We performed a forward genetic screen to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms Caenorhabditis elegans uses to appropriately respond to H2S. At least two distinct pathways appear to be important for this response, including the H2S-oxidation pathway and the hydrogen cyanide (HCN)-assimilation pathway. The H2S-oxidation pathway requires two distinct enzymes important for the oxidation of H2S: the sulfide:quinone reductase sqrd-1 and the dioxygenase ethe-1. The HCN-assimilation pathway requires the cysteine synthase homologs cysl-1 and cysl-2. A low dose of either H2S or HCN can activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which is required for C. elegans to respond to either gas. sqrd-1 and cysl-2 represent the entry points in the H2S-oxidation and HCN-assimilation pathways, respectively, and expression of both of these enzymes is highly induced by HIF-1 in response to both H2S and HCN. In addition to their role in appropriately responding to H2S and HCN, we found that cysl-1 and cysl-2 are both essential mediators of innate immunity against fast paralytic killing by Pseudomonas. Furthermore, in agreement with these data, we showed that growing worms in the presence of H2S is sufficient to confer resistance to Pseudomonas fast paralytic killing. Our results suggest the hypoxia-independent hif-1 response in C. elegans evolved to respond to the naturally occurring small molecules H2S and HCN.

  18. The electronic structure and catalytic properties of molybdenum sulfides in the coal hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Gyul'maliev; M.A. Gyul'malieva; A.S. Maloletnev; M.Ya. Shpirt

    2008-08-15

    Comparative analysis of the electronic structure of molybdenum sulfides and their catalytic activity in hydrogenation reactions was performed from the results of Hartree-Fock ab initio quantum-chemical calculations using the STO 3-21G and 6-311G basis sets with geometry optimization. The model reactions of hydrogenation of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons with hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide were studied. It was shown that the hydrogenation reactions of aromatic hydrocarbons with hydrogen sulfide must occur at a higher rate (with lower activation energy) as compared to those with molecular hydrogen.

  19. ISE Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guofeng; Polk, Brian J.; Meazell, Liz A.; Hatchett, David W.

    2000-08-01

    Many advanced undergraduate analytical laboratory courses focus on exposing students to various modern instruments. However, students rarely have the opportunity to construct their own analytical tools for solving practical problems. We designed an experiment in which students are required to build their own analytical module, a potentiometric device composed of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, a Ag/Ag2S ion selective electrode (ISE), and a pH meter used as voltmeter, to determine the amount of hydrogen sulfide in cigarette smoke. Very simple techniques were developed for constructing these electrodes. Cigarette smoke is collected by a gas washing bottle into a 0.1 M NaOH solution. The amount of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution is analyzed by standard addition of sulfide solution while monitoring the response of the Ag/Ag2S ISE. The collected data are further evaluated using the Gran plot technique to determine the concentration of sulfide in the cigarette smoke solution. The experiment has been successfully incorporated into the lab course Instrumental Analysis at Georgia Institute of Technology. Students enjoy the idea of constructing an analytical tool themselves and applying their classroom knowledge to solve real-life problems. And while learning electrochemistry they also get a chance to visualize the health hazard imposed by cigarette smoking.

  20. Modeling of hydrogen sulfide oxidation in concrete corrosion products from sewer pipes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2009-04-01

    Abiotic and biotic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide related to concrete corrosion was studied in corrosion products originating from a sewer manhole. The concrete corrosion products were suspended in an acidic solution, mimicking the conditions in the pore water of corroded concrete. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and dissolved oxygen was measured in parallel in the suspension, upon which the suspension was sterilized and the measurement repeated. The results revealed the biotic oxidation to be fast compared with the abiotic oxidation. The stoichiometry of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation was evaluated using the ratio between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide uptake. The ratio for the biotic oxidation pointed in the direction of elemental sulfur being formed as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfuric acid. The experimental results were applied to suggest a hypothesis and a mathematical model describing the hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathway in a matrix of corroded concrete.

  1. The Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Renal System

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xu; Bian, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This review surveys the emerging role of H2S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H2S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells. Likewise, it also influences the release of renin from juxtaglomerular cells and thereby modulates blood pressure. A possible role of H2S as an oxygen sensor has also been discussed, especially at renal medulla. Alternation of H2S level has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as renal ischemia/reperfusion, obstructive nephropathy, diabetic nephropathy, and hypertensive nephropathy. Moreover, H2S donors exhibit broad beneficial effects in renal diseases although a few conflicts need to be resolved. Further research reveals that multiple mechanisms are underlying the protective effects of H2S, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptosis. In the review, several research directions are also proposed including the role of mitochondrial H2S in renal diseases, H2S delivery to kidney by targeting D-amino acid oxidase/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (DAO/3-MST) pathway, effect of drug-like H2S donors in kidney diseases and understanding the molecular mechanism of H2S. The completion of the studies in these directions will not only improves our understanding of renal H2S functions but may also be critical to translate H2S to be a new therapy for renal diseases. PMID:27803669

  2. Role of hydrogen sulfide in secondary neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Li, Yu; Song, Jin-Ning; Pang, Hong-Gang

    2014-01-01

    In acute neuronal insult events, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury, pathological processes of secondary neuronal injury play a key role in the severity of insult and clinical prognosis. Along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is regarded as the third gasotransmitter and endogenous neuromodulator and plays multiple roles in the central nervous system under physiological and pathological states, especially in secondary neuronal injury. The endogenous level of H2S in the brain is significantly higher than that in peripheral tissues, and is mainly formed by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in astrocytes and released in response to neuronal excitation. The mechanism of secondary neuronal injury exacerbating the damage caused by the initial insult includes microcirculation failure, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, neuronal apoptosis and calcium overload. H2S dilates cerebral vessels by activating smooth muscle cell plasma membrane ATP-sensitive K channels (KATP channels). This modification occurs on specific cysteine residues of the KATP channel proteins which are S-sulfhydrated. H2S counteracts glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity by inducing astrocytes to intake more glutamate from the extracellular space and thus increasing glutathione in neurons. In addition, H2S protects neurons from secondary neuronal injury by functioning as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mediator. However, there are still some reports suggest that H2S elevates neuronal Ca(2+) concentration and may contribute to the formation of calcium overload in secondary neuronal injury. H2S also elicits calcium waves in primary cultures of astrocytes and may mediate signals between neurons and glia. Consequently, further exploration of the molecular mechanisms of H2S in secondary neuronal injury will provide important insights into its potential therapeutic uses for the treatment

  3. Hydrogen sulfide improves neural function in rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Yan; Zhang, Min-Wei; Wang, Jin-Gao; Li, Hui; Wei, Hong-Yan; Liu, Rong; Dai, Gang; Liao, Xiao-Xing

    2016-02-01

    The alleviation of brain injury is a key issue following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and exerts a protective effect on neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on neural functions following cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. A total of 60 rats were allocated at random into three groups. CA was induced to establish the model and CPR was performed after 6 min. Subsequently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine or saline was administered to the rats. Serum levels of H2S, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β were determined following CPR. In addition, neurological deficit scoring (NDS), the beam walking test (BWT), prehensile traction test and Morris water maze experiment were conducted. Neuronal apoptosis rates were detected in the hippocampal region following sacrifice. After CPR, as the H2S levels increased or decreased, the serum NSE and S100β concentrations decreased or increased, respectively (P<0.0w. The NDS results of the NaHS group were improved compared with those of the hydroxylamine group at 24 h after CPR (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze experiment, BWT and prehensile traction test the animals in the NaHS group performed best and rats in the hydroxylamine group performed worst. At day 7, the apoptotic index and the expression of caspase-3 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, while the expression of Bcl-2 increased in the NaHS group; and results of the hydroxylamine group were in contrast. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that H2S is able to improve neural function in rats following CPR.

  4. Role of hydrogen sulfide in skeletal muscle biology and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel endogenous gaseous signal transducer (gasotransmittor). Its emerging role in multiple facets of inter- and intra-cellular signaling as a metabolic, inflammatory, neuro and vascular modulator has been increasingly realized. Although H2S is known for its effects as an anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant molecule, the relevance of these effects in skeletal muscle biology during health and during metabolic syndromes is unclear. H2S has been implicated in vascular relaxation and vessel tone enhancement, which might lead to mitigation of vascular complications caused by the metabolic syndromes. Metabolic complications may also lead to mitochondrial remodeling by interfering with fusion and fission, therefore, leading to mitochondrial mitophagy and skeletal muscle myopathy. Mitochondrial protection by H2S enhancing treatments may mitigate deterioration of muscle function during metabolic syndromes. In addition, H2S might upregulate uncoupling proteins and might also cause browning of white fat, resulting in suppression of imbalanced cytokine signaling caused by abnormal fat accumulation. Likewise, as a source for H+ ions, it has the potential to augment anaerobic ATP synthesis. However, there is a need for studies to test these putative H2S benefits in different patho-physiological scenarios before its full-fledged usage as a therapeutic molecule. The present review highlights current knowledge with regard to exogenous and endogenous H2S roles in skeletal muscle biology, metabolism, exercise physiology and related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, and also provides future directions. PMID:25461301

  5. Role of hydrogen sulfide in skeletal muscle biology and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel endogenous gaseous signal transducer (gasotransmitter). Its emerging role in multiple facets of inter- and intra-cellular signaling as a metabolic, inflammatory, neuro and vascular modulator has been increasingly realized. Although H2S is known for its effects as an anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant molecule, the relevance of these effects in skeletal muscle biology during health and during metabolic syndromes is unclear. H2S has been implicated in vascular relaxation and vessel tone enhancement, which might lead to mitigation of vascular complications caused by the metabolic syndromes. Metabolic complications may also lead to mitochondrial remodeling by interfering with fusion and fission, therefore, leading to mitochondrial mitophagy and skeletal muscle myopathy. Mitochondrial protection by H2S enhancing treatments may mitigate deterioration of muscle function during metabolic syndromes. In addition, H2S might upregulate uncoupling proteins and might also cause browning of white fat, resulting in suppression of imbalanced cytokine signaling caused by abnormal fat accumulation. Likewise, as a source for H(+) ions, it has the potential to augment anaerobic ATP synthesis. However, there is a need for studies to test these putative H2S benefits in different patho-physiological scenarios before its full-fledged usage as a therapeutic molecule. The present review highlights current knowledge with regard to exogenous and endogenous H2S roles in skeletal muscle biology, metabolism, exercise physiology and related metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, and also provides future directions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Hydrogen Sulfide--Mechanisms of Toxicity and Development of an Antidote.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Chan, Adriano; Ali, Sameh; Saha, Arindam; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Lam, Wai-Ling Macrina; Glasheen, Megan; Parker, James; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Patel, Hemal H; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; Lipton, Stuart A; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2016-02-15

    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas-second only to carbon monoxide as a cause of inhalational deaths. Its mechanism of toxicity is only partially known, and no specific therapy exists for sulfide poisoning. We show in several cell types, including human inducible pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons, that sulfide inhibited complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and induced apoptosis. Sulfide increased hydroxyl radical production in isolated mouse heart mitochondria and F2-isoprostanes in brains and hearts of mice. The vitamin B12 analog cobinamide reversed the cellular toxicity of sulfide, and rescued Drosophila melanogaster and mice from lethal exposures of hydrogen sulfide gas. Cobinamide worked through two distinct mechanisms: direct reversal of complex IV inhibition and neutralization of sulfide-generated reactive oxygen species. We conclude that sulfide produces a high degree of oxidative stress in cells and tissues, and that cobinamide has promise as a first specific treatment for sulfide poisoning.

  7. Utilization of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy and Induced Hypothermia After Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Mir J.; Exline, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas produced as a byproduct of organic waste and many industrial processes. Hydrogen sulfide exposure symptoms may vary from mild (dizziness, headaches, nausea) to severe lactic acidosis via its inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cardiac arrhythmias and death. Treatment is generally supportive. We report the case of a patient presenting with cardiac arrest secondary to hydrogen sulfide exposure treated with both hyperbaric oxygen therapy and therapeutic hypothermia with great improvement in neurologic function. PMID:22004989

  8. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Soumyadeep; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-15

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200 °C. Growth rate of 1.3 Å per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films.

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans HIF-1 Is Broadly Required for Survival in Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Topalidou, Irini; Miller, Dana L

    2017-09-09

    Hydrogen sulfide is common in the environment, and is also endogenously produced by animal cells. Although hydrogen sulfide is often toxic, exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide improves outcome in a variety of mammalian models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the initial transcriptional response to hydrogen sulfide depends on the hif-1 transcription factor, and hif-1 mutant animals die when exposed to hydrogen sulfide. In this study, we use rescue experiments to identify tissues in which hif-1 is required to survive exposure to hydrogen sulfide. We find that expression of hif-1 from the unc-14 promoter is sufficient to survive hydrogen sulfide. Although unc-14 is generally considered to be a pan-neuronal promoter, we show that it is active in many non-neuronal cells as well. Using other promoters, we show that pan-neuronal expression of hif-1 is not sufficient to survive exposure to hydrogen sulfide. Our data suggest that hif 1 is required in many different tissues to direct the essential response to hydrogen sulfide. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  10. Corrosion of concrete sewers--the kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Wium-Andersen, Tove; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide absorption and oxidation by corroding concrete surfaces was quantified in a test rig consisting of 6 concrete pipes operated under sewer conditions. The test rig was placed in an underground sewer monitoring station with access to fresh wastewater. Hydrogen sulfide gas was injected into the pipe every 2nd hour to peak concentrations around 1000 ppm. After some months of operation, the hydrogen sulfide became rapidly oxidized by the corroding concrete surfaces. At hydrogen sulfide concentrations of 1000 ppm, oxidation rates as high as 1 mg S m(-2) s(-1) were observed. The oxidation process followed simple nth order kinetics with a process order of 0.45-0.75. Extrapolating the results to gravity sewer systems showed that hydrogen sulfide oxidation by corroding concrete is a fast process compared to the release of hydrogen sulfide from the bulk water, resulting in low gas concentrations compared with equilibrium. Balancing hydrogen sulfide release with hydrogen sulfide oxidation at steady state conditions demonstrated that significant corrosion rates--several millimeters of concrete per year--can potentially occur at hydrogen sulfide gas phase concentrations well below 5-10 ppm. The results obtained in the study advances the knowledge on prediction of sewer concrete corrosion and the extent of odor problems.

  11. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  12. Therapeutic application of hydrogen sulfide donors: the potential and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Hu, Qingxun; Zhu, Yizhun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a colorless gas smelling of rotten egg, has long been considered a toxic gas and environment hazard. However, evidences show that H2S plays a great role in many physiological and pathological activities, and it exhibits different effects when applied at various doses. In this review, we summarize the chemistry and biomedical applications of H2S-releasing compounds, including inorganic salts, phosphorodithioate derivatives, derivatives of Allium sativum extracts, derivatives of thioaminoacids, and derivatives of antiinflammatory drugs.

  13. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  14. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  15. Severe hydrogen sulfide exposure in a working adolescent.

    PubMed

    Nikkanen, Heikki E; Burns, Michele M

    2004-04-01

    We describe an occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas in a 16-year-old boy. While cleaning the reoxygenation tank of a fish hatchery, he and an adult supervisor lost consciousness. The adult died, and the adolescent regained consciousness briefly when emergency medical services personnel administered oxygen. At a local emergency department, he was intubated for respiratory distress. He was transferred to a tertiary care facility for additional management and, over the next 2 weeks, had a recovery to normal function. Hydrogen sulfide is a colorless, malodorous gas that results from the decay of organic material. It is a byproduct of industry and agriculture. The mechanism of its toxicity is related primarily to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, which causes a decrease in available cellular energy. Although there is some anecdotal evidence to suggest that the early use of hyperbaric oxygen is beneficial, supportive care remains the mainstay of therapy. This report highlights the sources of exposure, management, and need for more stringent application of safety regulations in industries in which adolescents are employed.

  16. Using hydrogen sulfide to design and develop drugs.

    PubMed

    Calderone, Vincenzo; Martelli, Alma; Testai, Lara; Citi, Valentina; Breschi, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter, involved in the regulation of several biological functions. Conversely, impaired biosynthesis of H2S is associated with important diseases. This paves the way for exciting pharmacological perspectives for drugs acting on the 'H2S system'. At the beginning of this manuscript, the authors present the biological roles and mechanisms of action of hydrogen sulfide. The authors then discuss the developments in the modulation of the H2S system via heterogeneous molecules, which behave as sources of exogenous H2S, and are promising drugs for a number of diseases. The rate of H2S generation, the physicochemical characteristics and the bioavailability greatly affect the overall pharmacological profile of each H2S-releasing compound. Therefore, the development of broad collections of original moieties endowed with heterogeneous rates/mechanisms of H2S release and a variety of physicochemical, biological and pharmacological features is the most timely and compelling issue in the field of H2S-based drug discovery.

  17. Critical temperature of metallic hydrogen sulfide at 225-GPa pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Eliashberg theory generalized for electron—phonon systems with a nonconstant density of electron states and with allowance made for the frequency behavior of the electron mass and chemical potential renormalizations is used to study T c in the SH3 phase of hydrogen sulfide under pressure. The phonon contribution to the anomalous electron Green's function is considered. The pairing within the total width of the electron band and not only in a narrow layer near the Fermi surface is taken into account. The frequency and temperature dependences of the complex mass renormalization Re Z(ω), the density of states N(ɛ) renormalized by the electron—phonon interactions, and the electron—phonon spectral function obtained computationally are used to calculate the anomalous electron Green's function. A generalized Eliashberg equation with a variable density of electron states has been solved. The frequency dependence of the real and imaginary parts of the order parameter in the SH3 phase has been obtained. The value of T c ≈ 177 K in the SH3 phase of hydrogen sulfide at pressure P = 225 GPa has been determined by solving the system of Eliashberg equations.

  18. Hydrogen permeation of carbon steel in weak alkaline solution containing hydrogen sulfide and cyanide ion

    SciTech Connect

    Yamakawa, K; Nishimura, R.

    1999-01-01

    The hydrogen permeation behavior of carbon steel (CS) was investigated electrochemically in weak alkaline solutions containing hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) with various cyanide ion (CN{sup {minus}}) concentrations under open-circuit conditions. Anodic and cathodic polarization behaviors of CS also were investigated under the same environmental conditions. Little hydrogen content (C{sub 0}) was detected in alkaline solutions without CN{sup {minus}}. However, when a small amount of CN was added in the alkaline solution, a rapid increase in C{sub 0} was observed after the induction time, which corresponded to a rapid decrease in rest potential. Surface abrasion also produced a similar increase in C{sub o} in the presence of CN{sup {minus}}. Results were explained in terms of formation and destruction of iron sulfide (FeS), soluble species of H{sub 2}S, and iron dissolution.

  19. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Lens, Piet N L; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Bester, Kai; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2011-05-30

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d(-1) and 1.33 d(-1) as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur.

  20. Survival of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria on corroded concrete surfaces of sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, H S; Nielsen, A H; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Vollertsen, J

    2008-01-01

    The activity of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria within corroded concrete from a sewer manhole was investigated. The bacteria were exposed to hydrogen sulfide starvation for up till 18 months, upon which their hydrogen sulfide oxidizing activity was measured. It was tested whether the observed reduction in biological activity was caused by a biological lag phase or by decay of the bacteria. The results showed that the bacterial activity declined with approximately 40% pr. month during the first two months of hydrogen sulfide starvation. After 2-3 months of starvation, the activity stabilized. Even after 6 months of starvation, exposure to hydrogen sulfide for 6 hours a day on three successive days could restore the bacteriological activity to about 80% of the initial activity. After 12 months of starvation, the activity could, however, not be restored, and after 18 months the biological activity approached zero. The long-term survival aspect of concrete corroding bacteria has implications for predicting hydrogen sulfide corrosion in sewer systems subject to irregular hydrogen sulfide loadings, e.g. as they occur in temperate climates where hydrogen sulfide often is a summer-problem only.

  1. 30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 250.215 Section 250.215 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the...

  2. 30 CFR 550.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 550.215 Section 550.215 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must...

  3. 30 CFR 550.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 550.215 Section 550.215 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must...

  4. 30 CFR 550.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 550.215 Section 550.215 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.215 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must...

  5. Reactive Precipitation of Anhydrous Alkali Sulfide Nanocrystals with Concomitant Abatement of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cogeneration of Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemin; Zhao, Yangzhi; Brennan, Alice; McCeig, Miranda; Wolden, Colin A; Yang, Yongan

    2017-07-21

    Anhydrous alkali sulfide (M2 S, M=Li or Na) nanocrystals (NCs) are important materials central to the development of next generation cathodes and solid-state electrolytes for advanced batteries, but not commercially available at present. This work reports an innovative method to directly synthesize M2 S NCs through alcohol-mediated reactions between alkali metals and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). In the first step, the alkali metal is complexed with alcohol in solution, forming metal alkoxide (ROM) and releasing hydrogen (H2 ). Next, H2 S is bubbled through the ROM solution, where both chemicals are completely consumed to produce phase-pure M2 S NC precipitates and regenerate alcohol that can be recycled. The M2 S NCs morphology may be tuned through the choice of the alcohol and solvent. Both synthetic steps are thermodynamically favorable (ΔGm(o) <-100 kJ mol(-1) ), proceeding rapidly to completion at ambient temperature with almost 100 % atom efficiency. The net result, H2 S+2 m→M2 S+H2 , makes good use of a hazardous chemical (H2 S) and delivers two value-added products that naturally phase separate for easy recovery. This scalable approach provides an energy-efficient and environmentally benign solution to the production of nanostructured materials required in emerging battery technologies. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. New method for quantification of gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide in biological matrices by LC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bo; Jin, Sheng; Sun, Jiping; Gu, Zhongkai; Sun, Xiaotian; Zhu, Yichun; Huo, Keke; Cao, Zonglian; Yang, Ping; Xin, Xiaoming; Liu, Xinhua; Pan, Lilong; Qiu, Furong; Jiang, Jian; Jia, Yiqun; Ye, Fuyuan; Xie, Ying; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide exists widely in mammalian tissues and plays a vital role in physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, striking differences with orders of magnitude were observed for the detected hydrogen sulfide concentrations in biological matrices among different measurements in literature, which lead to the uncertainty for examination the biological relevance of hydrogen sulfide. Here, we developed and validated a liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in various biological matrices by determination of a derivative of hydrogen sulfide and monobromobimane named sulfide dibimane (SDB). 36S-labeled SDB was synthesized and validated for using as an internal standard. This method has been successfully used to measure hydrogen sulfide levels in a broad range of biological matrices, such as blood, plasma, tissues, cells, and enzymes, across different species. Moreover, a novel mode that hydrogen sulfide could loosely and non-covalently bind to human serum protein (HSA) and hemoglobin (HB) was revealed by using the developed method. PMID:28406238

  7. Bio-orthogonal "click-and-release" donation of caged carbonyl sulfide (COS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).

    PubMed

    Steiger, Andrea K; Yang, Yang; Royzen, Maksim; Pluth, Michael D

    2017-01-24

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biomolecule with high therapeutic potential. Here we leverage the inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) click reaction between a thiocarbamate-functionalized trans-cyclooctene and a tetrazine to deliver carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is quickly converted to H2S by the uniquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), thus providing a new strategy for bio-orthogonal COS/H2S donation.

  8. Catalytic reduction of CO with hydrogen sulfide. 4. Temperature-programmed desorption of methanethiol on anatase, rutile, and sulfided rutile

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.D.; White, J.M.; Ratcliffe, C.T.

    1986-07-03

    The interaction of methanethiol with anatase, rutile, and sulfided rutile was studied by temperature-programmed desorption. Dissociative adsorption occurs on rutile but is insignificant on anatase. Decomposition products are dominated by H/sub 2/ on rutile and by CH/sub 4/ on sulfided rutile. In both cases desorption occurs between 500 and 775 K. The 5- and 4-coordinate sites on the (110) face of rutile are proposed as the active sites for decomposition. The dominance of methane on a sulfided surface is attributed to the relatively large supply of highly mobile surface hydrogen atoms.

  9. Influence of IFKhANGAZ-1 inhibitor on crack growth in corrosion fatigue of steel in a hydrogen sulfide-containing medium

    SciTech Connect

    Shipilov, S.A.

    1987-11-01

    The authors present results of their investigation of the influence of hydrogen sulfide on crack growth in the corrosion fatigue of 32Kh3NMFA steel in a 3 percent NaCl solution and of the protective properties of the title inhibitor as well as its influence on the role of hydrogen embrittlement in corrosion fatigue crack propagation.

  10. Analytical Measurement of Discrete Hydrogen Sulfide Pools in Biological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xinggui; Peter, Elvis A.; Bir, Shyamal; Wang, Rui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a ubiquitous gaseous signaling molecule that plays a vital role in numerous cellular functions and has become the focus of many research endeavors including pharmaco-therapeutic manipulation. Amongst the challenges facing the field is the accurate measurement of biologically active H2S. We have recently reported that the typically used methylene blue method and its associated results are invalid and do not measure bonafide H2S. The complexity of analytical H2S measurement reflects the fact that hydrogen sulfide is a volatile gas and exists in the body in different forms, including a free form, an acid labile pool and as bound sulfane sulfur. Here we describe a new protocol to discretely measure specific H2S pools using the monobromobimane method coupled with RP-HPLC. This new protocol involves selective liberation, trapping and derivatization of H2S. Acid-labile H2S is released by incubating the sample in an acidic solution (pH 2.6) of 100 mM phosphate buffer with 0.1 mM DTPA, in an enclosed system to contain volatilized H2S. Volatilized H2S is then trapped in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.5, 0.1 mM DTPA) and then reacted with excess monobromobimane. In a separate aliquot, the contribution of bound sulfane sulfur pool was measured by incubating the sample with 1 mM TCEP (Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride), a reducing agent to reduce disulfide bonds, in 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.6, 0.1 mM DTPA), and H2S measurement performed in an analogous manner to the one described above. The acid labile pool was determined by subtracting the free hydrogen sulfide value from the value obtained by the acid liberation protocol. The bound sulfane sulfur pool was determined by subtracting the H2S measurement from the acid liberation protocol alone compared to that of TCEP plus acidic conditions. In summary, our new method protocol allows very sensitive and accurate measurement of the three primary biological pools of H2S including free, acid labile

  11. An intercomparison of aircraft instrumentation for tropospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Davis, Douglas D.; Thornton, Donald C.; Johnson, James E.; Bandy, Alan R.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Barrick, John D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports results of NASA's Chemical Instrumentation and Test Evaluation (CITE 3) during which airborne measurements for carbonyl sulfide (COS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were intercompared. Instrumentation included a gas chromatograph using flame photometric detection (COS, H2S, and CS2), a gas chromatograph using mass spectrometric detection (COS) and CS2), a gas chromatograph using fluorination and subsequent SF6 detection via electron capture (COS and CS2), and the Natusch technique (H2S). The measurements were made over the Atlantic Ocean east of North and South America during flights from NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, in August/September 1989. Most of the intercomparisons for H2S and CS2 were at mixing ratios less than 25 pptv and less than 10 pptv, respectively, with a maximum mixing ratio of about 100 pptv and 50 pptv, respectively. Carbonyl sulfide intercomparisons were at mixing ratios between 400 and 600 pptv. Measurements were intercompared from data bases constructed from time periods of simultaneous or overlapping measurements. Agreement among the COS techniques averaged about 5%, and individual measurements were generally within 10%. For H2S and at mixing ratio greater than 25 pptv, the instruments agreed on average to about 15%. At mixing ratios less than 25 pptv the agreement was about 5 pptv. For CS2 (mixing ratios less than 50 pptv), two techniques agreed on average to about 4 pptv, and the third exhibited a bias (relative to the other two) that varied in the range of 3-7 pptv. CS2 mixing ratios over the ocean east of Natal as measured by the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer technique were only a few pptv and were below the detection limits of the other two techniques. The CITE 3 data are used to estimate the current uncertainty associated with aircraft measurements of COS, H2S, and CS2 in the remote troposphere.

  12. High temperature hydrogen sulfide removal with tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Karpuk, M.E.; Copeland, R.J.; Feinberg, D.; Wickham, D.; Windecker, B.; Yu, J.

    1993-09-01

    The system is based on the absorption of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) by stannic (tin) oxide. Two sorbents are required, the first sorbent is tin oxide and the second sorbent is a zinc oxide based material (i.e., zinc ferrite or zinc titanate) which is regenerated by air producing SO{sub 2}. TDA`s process carries out a modified Claus reaction to reduce the SO{sub 2} from the second sorbent generation to elemental sulfur. In this case the sulfided stannic oxide forms stannous sulfide (SnS) which reduces the SO{sub 2}. The absorption by SnO{sub 2} could remove over 90% of the H{sub 2}S from typical coal gas streams, but we use zinc ferrite (or zinc titanate), (a) to reduce H{sub 2}S to less than 20 ppM and (b) as a source of SO{sub 2} in regeneration. Due to stoichiometry of regeneration we want to remove half of the H{sub 2}S by SnO{sub 2} and the remainder by the second sorbent. The reactions with stannic oxide minimize the heat released during H{sub 2}S removal and regeneration. The absorption by SnO{sub 2} is slightly endothermic and cools the gas stream by less that 5{degrees}F (2.8{degrees}C) during absorption. Regeneration with SO{sub 2} is exothermic but releases only 11% of the heat that is liberated in regenerating the ZnO. For a nominal 6.5:1 steam to air the regeneration of ZnO increases the temperature by {approx_equal}400{degrees}F. The regeneration of SnO{sub 2} increases the temperature by less than 50{degrees}F (28{degrees}C) in the same gas flow.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-09-01

    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2 S: (i) H2 S accelerated the recovery of photosynthesis after prolonged exposure to darkness and anoxia. We suggest that this is possibly due to regulatory effects of H2 S on photosystem I components and/or on the Calvin cycle. (ii) H2 S concentrations of up to 210 μM temporarily enhanced the photosynthetic rates at low irradiance. Modelling showed that this enhancement is plausibly based on changes in the light-harvesting efficiency. (iii) Above a certain light-dependent concentration threshold H2 S also acted as an inhibitor. Intriguingly, this inhibition was not instant but occurred only after a specific time interval that decreased with increasing light intensity. That photosynthesis is most sensitive to inhibition at high light intensities suggests that H2 S inactivates an intermediate of the oxygen evolving complex that accumulates with increasing light intensity. We discuss the implications of these three effects of H2 S in the context of cyanobacterial photosynthesis under conditions with diurnally fluctuating light and H2 S concentrations, such as those occurring in microbial mats and biofilms.

  14. Carbonyl sulfide removal with compost and wood chip biofilters, and in the presence of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melanie L; Garrepalli, Divya R; Nawal, Chandraprakash S

    2009-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an odor-causing compound and hazardous air pollutant emitted frequently from wastewater treatment facilities and chemical and primary metals industries. This study examined the effectiveness of biofiltration in removing COS. Specific objectives were to compare COS removal efficiency for various biofilter media; to determine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is frequently produced along with COS under anaerobic conditions, adversely impacts COS removal; and to determine the maximum elimination capacity of COS for use in biofilter design. Three laboratory-scale polyvinyl chloride biofilter columns were filled with up to 28 in. of biofilter media (aged compost, fresh compost, wood chips, or a compost/wood chip mixture). Inlet COS ranged from 5 to 46 parts per million (ppm) (0.10-9.0 g/m3 hr). Compost and the compost/wood chip mixture produced higher COS removal efficiencies than wood chips alone. The compost and compost/wood chip mixture had a shorter stabilization times compared with wood chips alone. Fresh versus aged compost did not impact COS removal efficiency. The presence of H2S did not adversely impact COS removal for the concentration ratios tested. The maximum elimination capacity is at least 9 g/m3 hr for COS with compost media.

  15. Airborne sulfur trace species intercomparison campaign: Sulfur dioxide, dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Hoell, James M., Jr.; Davis, Douglas D.

    1991-01-01

    Results from an airborne intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of sulfur trace gases are presented. The intercomparison was part of the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was conducted during the summer of 1989. The intercomparisons were conducted on the Wallops Electra aircraft during flights from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil. Sulfur measurements intercompared included sulfur dioxide (SO2), dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2), and carbonyl sulfide (OCS). Measurement techniques ranged from filter collection systems with post-flight analyses to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph systems employing various methods for measuring and identifying the sulfur gases during flight. Sampling schedules for the techniques ranged from integrated collections over periods as long as 50 minutes to one- to three-minute samples every ten or fifteen minutes. Several of the techniques provided measurements of more than one sulfur gas. Instruments employing different detection principles were involved in each of the sulfur intercomparisons. Also included in the intercomparison measurement scenario were a host of supporting measurements (i.e., ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, total sulfur, aerosols, etc.) for purposes of: (1) interpreting results (i.e., correlation of any noted instrument disagreement with the chemical composition of the measurement environment); and (2) providing supporting chemical data to meet CITE-3 science objectives of studying ozone/sulfur photochemistry, diurnal cycles, etc. The results of the intercomparison study are briefly discussed.

  16. Mitochondrial Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase Prevents Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Hydrogen Sulfide*

    PubMed Central

    Horsman, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule with important roles in cellular signaling. In mammals, exogenous H2S improves survival of ischemia/reperfusion. We have previously shown that exposure to H2S increases the lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, and improves protein homeostasis in low oxygen. The mitochondrial SQRD-1 (sulfide quinone oxidoreductase) protein is a highly conserved enzyme involved in H2S metabolism. SQRD-1 is generally considered important to detoxify H2S. Here, we show that SQRD-1 is also required to maintain protein translation in H2S. In sqrd-1 mutant animals, exposure to H2S leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibition of protein synthesis. In contrast, global protein translation is not altered in wild-type animals exposed to lethally high H2S or in hif-1(ia04) mutants that die when exposed to low H2S. We demonstrate that both gcn-2 and pek-1 kinases are involved in the H2S-induced phosphorylation of eIF2α. Both ER and mitochondrial stress responses are activated in sqrd-1 mutant animals exposed to H2S, but not in wild-type animals. We speculate that SQRD-1 activity in H2S may coordinate proteostasis responses in multiple cellular compartments. PMID:26677221

  17. The metallization and superconductivity of dense hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinwei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yanling; Ma, Yanming

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a prototype molecular system and a sister molecule of water (H2O). The phase diagram of solid H2S at high pressures remains largely unexplored arising from the challenges in dealing with the pressure-induced weakening of S-H bond and larger atomic core difference between H and S. Metallization is yet achieved for H2O, but it was observed for H2S above 96 GPa. However, the metallic structure of H2S remains elusive, greatly impeding the understanding of its metallicity and the potential superconductivity. We have performed an extensive structural study on solid H2S at pressure ranges of 10-200 GPa through an unbiased structure prediction method based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. Besides the findings of candidate structures for nonmetallic phases IV and V, we are able to establish stable metallic structures violating an earlier proposal of elemental decomposition into sulfur and hydrogen [R. Rousseau, M. Boero, M. Bernasconi, M. Parrinello, and K. Terakura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1254 (2000)]. Our study unravels a superconductive potential of metallic H2S with an estimated maximal transition temperature of ˜80 K at 160 GPa, higher than those predicted for most archetypal hydrogen-containing compounds (e.g., SiH4, GeH4, etc.).

  18. The metallization and superconductivity of dense hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yinwei Hao, Jian; Li, Yanling; Liu, Hanyu; Ma, Yanming

    2014-05-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a prototype molecular system and a sister molecule of water (H{sub 2}O). The phase diagram of solid H{sub 2}S at high pressures remains largely unexplored arising from the challenges in dealing with the pressure-induced weakening of S–H bond and larger atomic core difference between H and S. Metallization is yet achieved for H{sub 2}O, but it was observed for H{sub 2}S above 96 GPa. However, the metallic structure of H{sub 2}S remains elusive, greatly impeding the understanding of its metallicity and the potential superconductivity. We have performed an extensive structural study on solid H{sub 2}S at pressure ranges of 10–200 GPa through an unbiased structure prediction method based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. Besides the findings of candidate structures for nonmetallic phases IV and V, we are able to establish stable metallic structures violating an earlier proposal of elemental decomposition into sulfur and hydrogen [R. Rousseau, M. Boero, M. Bernasconi, M. Parrinello, and K. Terakura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1254 (2000)]. Our study unravels a superconductive potential of metallic H{sub 2}S with an estimated maximal transition temperature of ∼80 K at 160 GPa, higher than those predicted for most archetypal hydrogen-containing compounds (e.g., SiH{sub 4}, GeH{sub 4}, etc.)

  19. The metallization and superconductivity of dense hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinwei; Hao, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yanling; Ma, Yanming

    2014-05-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a prototype molecular system and a sister molecule of water (H2O). The phase diagram of solid H2S at high pressures remains largely unexplored arising from the challenges in dealing with the pressure-induced weakening of S-H bond and larger atomic core difference between H and S. Metallization is yet achieved for H2O, but it was observed for H2S above 96 GPa. However, the metallic structure of H2S remains elusive, greatly impeding the understanding of its metallicity and the potential superconductivity. We have performed an extensive structural study on solid H2S at pressure ranges of 10-200 GPa through an unbiased structure prediction method based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. Besides the findings of candidate structures for nonmetallic phases IV and V, we are able to establish stable metallic structures violating an earlier proposal of elemental decomposition into sulfur and hydrogen [R. Rousseau, M. Boero, M. Bernasconi, M. Parrinello, and K. Terakura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1254 (2000)]. Our study unravels a superconductive potential of metallic H2S with an estimated maximal transition temperature of ∼80 K at 160 GPa, higher than those predicted for most archetypal hydrogen-containing compounds (e.g., SiH4, GeH4, etc.).

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide, Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Diseases: A Concise Review

    PubMed Central

    Greabu, Maria; Totan, Alexandra; Miricescu, Daniela; Radulescu, Radu; Virlan, Justina; Calenic, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, biomedical research has recognized hydrogen sulfide (H2S) not only as an environmental pollutant but also, along with nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, as an important biological gastransmitter with paramount roles in health and disease. Current research focuses on several aspects of H2S biology such as the biochemical pathways that generate the compound and its functions in human pathology or drug synthesis that block or stimulate its biosynthesis. The present work addresses the knowledge we have to date on H2S production and its biological roles in the general human environment with a special focus on the oral cavity and its involvement in the initiation and development of periodontal diseases. PMID:26805896

  1. Role of cGMP in hydrogen sulfide signaling.

    PubMed

    Bibli, Sofia-Iris; Yang, Guangdong; Zhou, Zongmin; Wang, Rui; Topouzis, Stavros; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-30

    The importance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in physiology and disease is being increasingly recognized in recent years. Unlike nitric oxide (NO) that signals mainly through soluble guanyl cyclase (sGC)/cGMP, H2S is more promiscuous, affecting multiple pathways. It interacts with ion channels, enzymes, transcription factors and receptors. It was originally reported that H2S does not alter the levels of cyclic nucleotides. More recent publications, however, have shown increases in intracellular cGMP following exposure of cells or tissues to exogenously administered or endogenously produced H2S. Herein, we discuss the evidence for the participation of cGMP in H2S signaling and reconcile the seemingly divergent results presented in the literature on the role of this cyclic nucleotide in the biological actions of H2S. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Observation of superconductivity in hydrogen sulfide from nuclear resonant scattering.

    PubMed

    Troyan, Ivan; Gavriliuk, Alexander; Rüffer, Rudolf; Chumakov, Alexander; Mironovich, Anna; Lyubutin, Igor; Perekalin, Dmitry; Drozdov, Alexander P; Eremets, Mikhail I

    2016-03-18

    High-temperature superconductivity remains a focus of experimental and theoretical research. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to be superconducting at high pressures and with a high transition temperature. We report on the direct observation of the expulsion of the magnetic field in H2S compressed to 153 gigapascals. A thin (119)Sn film placed inside the H2S sample was used as a sensor of the magnetic field. The magnetic field on the (119)Sn sensor was monitored by nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation. Our results demonstrate that an external static magnetic field of about 0.7 tesla is expelled from the volume of (119)Sn foil as a result of the shielding by the H2S sample at temperatures between 4.7 K and approximately 140 K, revealing a superconducting state of H2S.

  3. Sulfur as a Signaling Nutrient Through Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Kabil, Omer; Vitvitsky, Victor; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important signaling molecule with beneficial effects on various cellular processes affecting, for example, cardiovascular and neurological functions. The physiological importance of H2S is motivating efforts to develop strategies for modulating its levels. However, advancement in the field of H2S-based therapeutics is hampered by fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how H2S is regulated, its mechanism of action, and its molecular targets. This review provides an overview of sulfur metabolism; describes recent progress that has shed light on the mechanism of H2S as a signaling molecule; and examines nutritional regulation of sulfur metabolism, which pertains to health and disease. PMID:25033061

  4. Brain hydrogen sulfide is severely decreased in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Eto, Ko; Asada, Takashi; Arima, Kunimasa; Makifuchi, Takao; Kimura, Hideo

    2002-05-24

    Although hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is generally thought of in terms of a poisonous gas, it is endogenously produced in the brain from cysteine by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). H2S functions as a neuromodulator as well as a smooth muscle relaxant. Here we show that the levels of H2S are severely decreased in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared with the brains of the age matched normal individuals. In addition to H2S production CBS also catalyzes another metabolic pathway in which cystathionine is produced from the substrate homocysteine. Previous findings, which showed that S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM), a CBS activator, is much reduced in AD brain and that homocysteine accumulates in the serum of AD patients, were confirmed. These observations suggest that CBS activity is reduced in AD brains and the decrease in H2S may be involved in some aspects of the cognitive decline in AD.

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Chemical Biology: Pathophysiological roles and detection

    PubMed Central

    Kolluru, Gopi K; Shen, Xinggui; Bir, Shyamal C.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the most recent endogenous gasotransmitter that has been reported to serve many physiological and pathological functions in different tissues. Studies over the past decade have revealed that H2S can be synthesized through numerous pathways and its bioavailability regulated through its conversion into different biochemical forms. H2S exerts its biological effects in various manners including redox regulation of protein and small molecular weight thiols, polysulfides, thiosulfate/sulfite, iron-sulfur cluster proteins, and anti-oxidant properties that affect multiple cellular and molecular responses. However, precise measurement of H2S bioavailability and its associated biochemical and pathophysiological roles remains less well understood. In this review, we discuss recent understanding of H2S chemical biology, its relationship to tissue pathophysiological responses and possible therapeutic uses. PMID:23850632

  6. THE GENUS VEILLONELLA. 3. HYDROGEN SULFIDE PRODUCTION BY GROWING CULTURES.

    PubMed

    ROGOSA, M; BISHOP, F S

    1964-07-01

    Rogosa, Morrison (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, Md.), and Ferial S. Bishop. The genus Veillonella. III. Hydrogen sulfide production by growing cultures. J. Bacteriol. 88:37-41. 1964.-The conditions necessary for H(2)S production by 105 strains of Veillonella, from a variety of sources and comprising seven anti-genic groups, are presented and discussed. All strains, during 1 to 2 days of growth, produced H(2)S in a defined medium supplemented with proper amounts of l-cysteine, l-cystine, reduced glutathione, thiosulfate, thiocyanate, or thioglycolate. Erratic or negative results were obtained with some commonly used media containing yeast extract and casein digest, but which were not supplemented with appropriate substrates for H(2)S production. Previous literature descriptions of V. alcalescens as not producing H(2)S are incorrect; H(2)S production, or the previously presumed lack of it, cannot be used as a criterion differentiating V. alcalescens from V. parvula.

  7. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Wang; Chaoshu, Tang; Hongfang, Jin; Junbao, Du

    2010-05-28

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, complex, and progressive pathological process in large and medium sized arteries. The exact mechanism of this process remains unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a novel gasotransmitter, was confirmed as playing a major role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. It plays a role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and apoptosis, participates in the progress of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), inhibits atherogenic modification of LDL, interferes with vascular calcification, intervenes with platelet function, and there are interactions between H{sub 2}S and inflammatory processes. The role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerotic pathogenesis highlights the mysteries of atherosclerosis and inspires the search for innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the studies to date that have considered the role of H{sub 2}S in atherosclerosis.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: change in stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander; Lobanov, Sergey; Kruglov, Ivan; Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Oganov, Artem; Konopkova, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was studied by x-ray synchrotron diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy up to 144 GPa at 180-295 K. We find that H2S compound become unstable with respect to formation of new compounds with different composition including pure S, H3S and HS2 depending on the thermodynamic P-T path. These results are supported by our quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations that show the stability of the above mentioned compounds at elevated pressures. The stability of H3S at high pressures, which we find a strong experimental and theoretical confirmation here, suggests that it is this material which is responsible for high-temperature superconducting properties reported previously. We thank DARPA, NSF, ISSP (Hefei, China), Government of Russian Federation, and Foreign Talents Introduction and Academic Exchange Program. Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: an antidotal role for sodium nitrite?

    PubMed

    Hall, A H; Rumack, B H

    1997-06-01

    In 2 separate incidents, 6 patients were poisoned with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in sewer gas. In the first incident, mixing acid- and sodium hydroxide-based drain cleaners in a confined space resulted in 4 poisonings and 2 deaths. Three would-be rescuers were seriously poisoned and 1 died. Two survivors had neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite appeared to have some clinical efficacy in 1 case. The second incident involved 2 patients working on a pump in a sewage pond. A patient lying on a raft close to the pond surface was seriously poisoned; sodium nitrite was clinically efficacious and this patient survived without developing neurological sequelae. Sodium nitrite deserves further clinical study as a potential H2S antidote.

  10. Working with nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide in biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuai; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are gasotransmitter molecules important in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Although these molecules were first known as environmental toxicants, it is now evident that that they are intricately involved in diverse cellular functions with impact on numerous physiological and pathogenic processes. NO and H2S share some common characteristics but also have unique chemical properties that suggest potential complementary interactions between the two in affecting cellular biochemistry and metabolism. Central among these is the interactions between NO, H2S, and thiols that constitute new ways to regulate protein function, signaling, and cellular responses. In this review, we discuss fundamental biochemical principals, molecular functions, measurement methods, and the pathophysiological relevance of NO and H2S. PMID:25550314

  11. Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge thermal drying

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Dai, Zhixin; Ji, Zhongqiang; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-04-15

    The release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during sludge drying is a major environmental problem because of its toxicity to human health. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms and factors controlling the H2S release. Results of this study show that: 1) the biomass and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sludge were the major factors controlling the amount of H2S release, 2) the sludge drying temperature had an important effect on both the extent and the timing of H2S release from the sludge, and 3) decreasing sludge pH increased the H2S release. Based on the findings from this study, a new system that integrates sludge drying and H2S gas treatment was developed to reduce the amount of H2S released from sludge treatments.

  12. Fluorescent probes for hydrogen sulfide detection and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fabiao; Han, Xiaoyue; Chen, Lingxin

    2014-10-21

    In comparison with other biological detection technologies, fluorescence bioimaging technology has become a powerful supporting tool for intracellular detection, and can provide attractive facilities for investigating physiological and pathological processes of interest with high spatial and temporal resolution, less invasiveness, and a rapid response. Due to the versatile roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cellular signal transduction and intracellular redox status regulation, fluorescent probes for the detection of this third signalling gasotransmitter have rapidly increased in number in recent years. These probes can offer powerful means to investigate the physiological actions of H2S in its native environments without disturbing its endogenous distribution. In this feature article, we address the synthesis and design strategies for the development of fluorescent probes for H2S based on the reaction type between H2S and the probes. Moreover, we also highlight fluorescent probes for other reactive sulfur species, such as sulfane sulfurs and SO2 derivatives.

  13. Protein-based nanobiosensor for direct detection of hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, Meisam; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Habibi-Rezaei, M.

    2015-01-01

    The chemically modified cytochrome c from equine heart, EC (232-700-9), was immobilized onto gold nanoparticles in order to develop a specific biosensing system for monitoring hydrogen sulfide down to the micromolar level, by means of a localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. The sensing mechanism is based on the cytochrome-c conformational changes in the presence of H2S which alter the dielectric properties of the gold nanoparticles and the surface plasmon resonance peak undergoes a redshift. According to the experiments, it is revealed that H2S can be detected at a concentration of 4.0 μ \\text{M} (1.3 \\text{ppb}) by the fabricated biosensor. This simple, quantitative and sensitive sensing platform provides a rapid and convenient detection for H2S at concentrations far below the hazardous limit.

  14. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Lobanov, Sergey S.; Kruglov, Ivan; Zhao, Xiao-Miao; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Oganov, Artem R.; Konôpková, Zuzana; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S ) was studied by x-ray synchrotron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy up to 150 GPa at 180-295 K and by quantum-mechanical variable-composition evolutionary simulations. The experiments show that H2S becomes unstable with respect to formation of compounds with different structure and composition, including Cccm and a body-centered cubic like (R 3 m or I m -3 m ) H3S , the latter one predicted previously to show a record-high superconducting transition temperature, a Tc of 203 K. These experiments provide experimental ground for understanding of this record-high Tc. The experimental results are supported by theoretical structure searches that suggest the stability of H3S , H4S3 , H5S8 , H3S5 , and H S2 compounds that have not been reported previously at elevated pressures.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates wound healing in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoguang; Li, Wei; Chen, Qingying; Jiang, Yuxin; Lu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the role of hydrogen sulfide on wound healing in diabetic rats. Methods: Experimental diabetes in rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (in 0.1 mol/L citrate buffer, Ph 4.5) at dose of 70 mg/kg. Diabetic and age-matched non-diabetic rats were randomly assigned to three groups: untreated diabetic controls (UDC), treated diabetic administrations (TDA), and non-diabetic controls (NDC). Wound Healing Model was prepared by making a round incision (2.0 cm in diameter) in full thickness. Rats from TDA receive 2% sodium bisulfide ointment on wound, and animals from UDC and NDC receive control cream. After treatment of 21 days with sodium bisulfide, blood samples were collected for determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), antioxidant effects. Granulation tissues from the wound were processed for histological examination and analysis of western blot. Results: The study indicated a significant increase in levels of VEGF and ICAM-1 and a decline in activity of coagulation in diabetic rats treated with sodium bisulfide. Sodium bisulfide treatment raised the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) protein expression in diabetic rats. Conclusions: The findings in present study suggested that hydrogen sulfide accelerates the wound healing in rats with diabetes. The beneficial effect of H2S may be associated with formation of granulation, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and the increased level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PMID:26191204

  16. The liver as a central regulator of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Norris, Eric J; Culberson, Catherine R; Narasimhan, Sriram; Clemens, Mark G

    2011-09-01

    The liver is likely exposed to high levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from endogenous hepatic synthesis and exogenous sources from the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the consequence of H2S exposure on the liver or hepatic regulation of H2S levels. We hypothesized that the liver has a high capacity to metabolize H2S and that H2S oxidation is decreased during sepsis, a condition in which hepatic O2 is limited and H2S synthesis is increased. Using a nonrecirculating isolated and perfused liver system, we demonstrated rapid hepatic H2S metabolism up to an infusion concentration of 200' μM H2S. Hydrogen sulfide metabolism was associated with an increase in O2 consumption from a baseline 96.7 ± 7.6 μmol O2/min/kg to 109 ± 7.4 μmol O2/min/kg at an infusion concentration of 150 μM H2S (P < 0.001). Removal of O2 from the perfusate decreased H2S clearance from a maximal 97% to only 23%. Livers isolated from rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) did not differ significantly from control livers in their capacity to metabolize H2S, suggesting that H2S oxidation remains a priority during sepsis. To test whether H2S induces O2 consumption in vivo, intravital microscopy was utilized to monitor the oxygen content in the hepatic microenvironment. Infusion of H2S increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio (645 gray-scale-unit increase, P = 0.035) and decreased hepatic O2 availability visualized with Ru(Phen)3(2+) (439 gray-scale-unit increase, P = 0.040). We conclude that the liver has a high hepatic capacity for H2S metabolism. Moreover, H2S oxidation consumes available oxygen and may exacerbate the tissue hypoxia associated with sepsis.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions from Sow Farm Lagoons across Climates Zones.

    PubMed

    Grant, Richard H; Boehm, Matthew T; Lawrence, Alfred J; Heber, Albert J

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (HS) emissions were measured periodically over the course of 2 yr at three sow waste lagoons representing humid mesothermal (North Carolina, NC), humid microthermal (Indiana, IN), and semiarid (Oklahoma, OK) climates. Emissions were determined using a backward Lagrangian stochastic model in conjunction with line-sampled HS concentrations and measured turbulence. The median annual sow-specific (area-specific) lagoon emissions at the OK farm were approximately 1.6 g head [hd] d (5880 µg m s), whereas those at the IN and NC sow farms were 0.035 g hd d (130 µg m s), and 0.041 g hd d (260 µg m s), respectively. Hydrogen sulfide emissions generally increased with wind speed. The daily HS emissions from the OK lagoon were greatest during the first half of the year and decreased as the year progressed. Emissions were episodic at the NC and IN lagoons. The generally low emissions at the NC and IN lagoons were probably a result of significant populations of purple sulfur bacteria maintained in the humid mesothermal and humid microthermal climates. Most of the large HS emission events at the NC and IN lagoons appeared to be a result of either precipitation events or liquid pump-out events. The high emissions at the OK lagoon in a semiarid climate were largely a result of high wind speeds enhancing both lagoon and air boundary layer mixing. The climate (air temperature, winds, and precipitation) appeared to influence the HS emissions from lagoons. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Thioethers as markers of hydrogen sulfide production in homocystinurias.

    PubMed

    Kožich, Viktor; Krijt, Jakub; Sokolová, Jitka; Melenovská, Petra; Ješina, Pavel; Vozdek, Roman; Majtán, Tomáš; Kraus, Jan P

    2016-07-01

    Two enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway of homocysteine -cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) and gamma-cystathionase (CTH)-use cysteine and/or homocysteine to produce the important signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and simultaneously the thioethers lanthionine, cystathionine or homolanthionine. In this study we explored whether impaired flux of substrates for H2S synthesis and/or deficient enzyme activities alter production of hydrogen sulfide in patients with homocystinurias. As an indirect measure of H2S synthesis we determined by LC-MS/MS concentrations of thioethers in plasma samples from 33 patients with different types of homocystinurias, in 8 patient derived fibroblast cell lines, and as reaction products of seven purified mutant CBS enzymes. Since chaperoned recombinant mutant CBS enzymes retained capacity of H2S synthesis in vitro it can be stipulated that deficient CBS activity in vivo may impair H2S production. Indeed, in patients with classical homocystinuria we observed significantly decreased cystathionine and lanthionine concentrations in plasma (46% and 74% of median control levels, respectively) and significantly lower cystathionine in fibroblasts (8% of median control concentrations) indicating that H2S production from cysteine and homocysteine may be also impaired. In contrast, the grossly elevated plasma levels of homolanthionine in CBS deficient patients (32-times elevation compared to median of controls) clearly demonstrates a simultaneous overproduction of H2S from homocysteine by CTH. In the remethylation defects the accumulation of homocysteine and the increased flux of metabolites through the transsulfuration pathway resulted in elevation of cystathionine and homolanthionine (857% and 400% of median control values, respectively) indicating a possibility of an increased biosynthesis of H2S by both CBS and CTH. This study shows clearly disturbed thioether concentrations in homocystinurias, and modeling using these data indicates

  19. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) in urban ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, K.; Kelesis, A.; Petrakakis, M.

    Despite indications of high hydrogen sulfide levels in some urban environments, only sparse measurements have been reported in the literature. Here we present one full year of hydrogen sulfide measurements in an urban traffic site in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. In this 1-million-population city the H 2S concentrations were surprisingly high, with a mean annual concentration of 8 μg m -3 and wintertime mean monthly concentrations up to 20 μg m -3 (12.9 ppb). Daily mean concentrations in the winter were up to 30 μg m -3 (19.3 ppb), while hourly concentrations were up to 54 μg m -3 (34.8 ppb). During calm (wind velocity < 0.5 m s -1) conditions, mainly encountered during night-time hours, hourly values of H 2S were highly correlated with those of CO ( r2 = 0.75) and SO 2 ( r2 = 0.70), pointing to a common traffic source from catalytic converters. Annual mean concentrations are above the WHO recommendation for odor annoyance; hence, H 2S might play a role to the malodorous episodes that the city occasionally experiences. The high ambient H 2S levels might also be relevant to the implementation of preservation efforts for outdoor marble and limestone historical monuments that have been targeting SO 2 emissions as an atmospheric acidity source, since the measurements presented here suggest that about 19% of the annual sulfur (SO 2 + H 2S) emissions in Thessaloniki are in the form of H 2S.

  20. Low-level hydrogen sulfide and central nervous system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Kaye H; Thrasher, Jack D; Gray, Michael R

    2010-08-01

    Forty-nine adults living in Lovington, Tatum, and Artesia, the sour gas/oil sector of Southeastern New Mexico, were tested for neurobehavioral impairment. Contributing hydrogen sulfide were (1) an anaerobic sewage plant; (2) two oil refineries; (3) natural gas/oil wells and (4) a cheese-manufacturing plant and its waste lagoons. Comparisons were to unexposed Wickenburg, Arizona, adults. Neurobehavioral functions were measured in 26 Lovington adults including 23 people from Tatum and Artesia, New Mexico, and 42 unexposed Arizona people. Participants completed questionnaires including chemical exposures, symptom frequencies and the Profile of Mood States. Measurements included balance, reaction time, color discrimination, blink reflex, visual fields, grip strength, hearing, vibration, problem solving, verbal recall, long-term memory, peg placement, trail making and fingertip number writing errors (FTNWE). Average numbers of abnormalities and test scores were adjusted for age, gender, educational level, height and weight, expressed as percent predicted (% pred) and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Ages and educational attainment of the three groups were not statistically significantly different (ssd). Mean values of Lovington residents were ssd from the unexposed Arizona people for simple and choice reaction times, balance with eyes open and closed, visual field score, hearing and grip strength. Culture Fair, digit symbol substitution, vocabulary, verbal recall, peg placement, trail making A and B, FTNWE, information, picture completion and similarities were also ssd. The Lovington adults who averaged 11.8 abnormalities were ssd from, Tatum-Artesia adults who had 3.6 and from unexposed subjects with 2.0. Multiple source community hydrogen sulfide exposures impaired neurobehavioral functions.

  1. Structural effects of naphthalimide-based fluorescent sensor for hydrogen sulfide and imaging in live zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seon-Ae; Park, Chul Soon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Giong, Hoi-Khoanh; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Ha, Tai Hwan; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological messenger, but few biologically-compatible methods are available for its detection in aqueous solution. Herein, we report a highly water-soluble naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe (L1), which is a highly versatile building unit that absorbs and emits at long wavelengths and is selective for hydrogen sulfide over cysteine, glutathione, and other reactive sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen species in aqueous solution. We describe turn-on fluorescent probes based on azide group reduction on the fluorogenic ‘naphthalene’ moiety to fluorescent amines and intracellular hydrogen sulfide detection without the use of an organic solvent. L1 and L2 were synthetically modified to functional groups with comparable solubility on the N-imide site, showing a marked change in turn-on fluorescent intensity in response to hydrogen sulfide in both PBS buffer and living cells. The probes were readily employed to assess intracellular hydrogen sulfide level changes by imaging endogenous hydrogen sulfide signal in RAW264.7 cells incubated with L1 and L2. Expanding the use of L1 to complex and heterogeneous biological settings, we successfully visualized hydrogen sulfide detection in the yolk, brain and spinal cord of living zebrafish embryos, thereby providing a powerful approach for live imaging for investigating chemical signaling in complex multicellular systems.

  2. Structural effects of naphthalimide-based fluorescent sensor for hydrogen sulfide and imaging in live zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon-Ae; Park, Chul Soon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Giong, Hoi-Khoanh; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Ha, Tai Hwan; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological messenger, but few biologically-compatible methods are available for its detection in aqueous solution. Herein, we report a highly water-soluble naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe (L1), which is a highly versatile building unit that absorbs and emits at long wavelengths and is selective for hydrogen sulfide over cysteine, glutathione, and other reactive sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen species in aqueous solution. We describe turn-on fluorescent probes based on azide group reduction on the fluorogenic ‘naphthalene’ moiety to fluorescent amines and intracellular hydrogen sulfide detection without the use of an organic solvent. L1 and L2 were synthetically modified to functional groups with comparable solubility on the N-imide site, showing a marked change in turn-on fluorescent intensity in response to hydrogen sulfide in both PBS buffer and living cells. The probes were readily employed to assess intracellular hydrogen sulfide level changes by imaging endogenous hydrogen sulfide signal in RAW264.7 cells incubated with L1 and L2. Expanding the use of L1 to complex and heterogeneous biological settings, we successfully visualized hydrogen sulfide detection in the yolk, brain and spinal cord of living zebrafish embryos, thereby providing a powerful approach for live imaging for investigating chemical signaling in complex multicellular systems. PMID:27188400

  3. Biogeochemistry of dissolved hydrogen sulfide species and carbonyl sulfide in the western North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford-Knȩry, Joël; Cutter, Gregory A.

    1994-12-01

    The biogeochemistry of total sulfide dissolved in the open ocean is a poorly understood component of the global sulfur cycle. Here, the cycling of total sulfide was examined in the western North Atlantic Ocean using specially developed sampling and analytical methods. Total sulfide (particulate + dissolved sulfide) concentrations ranged from <2-550 pmol/L; concentrations were highest in the mixed layer and decreased with depth. Significant levels (up to 19 pmol/L) of free sulfide (uncomplexed sulfide) were determined in the top 50 m of the water column. Sources of total sulfide were examined. In particular, the rate of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) hydrolysis was redetermined under oceanographic conditions, and the depth distribution of OCS was examined. The patterns of near-surface enrichment (up to 150 pmol/L) and depletion at depth observed in OCS depth profiles suggest in situ production of OCS. To quantify the sources and sinks of total sulfide in the mixed layer of the Sargasso Sea, a budget was constructed. The rate of total sulfide production was 5.5 pmol L-1 h-1 (OCS hydrolysis + atmospheric input), and total sulfide removal rate was 115 pmol L -1 h-1 (oxidation + particulate sinking). The significant difference between the known sources and sinks indicates that other processes are important for the cycling of sulfide. Similarities in the depth distribution of total sulfide and chlorophyll a, and results from recent laboratory experiments argue strongly in favor of biological involvement in the production of total sulfide in the open ocean.

  4. Production of Hydrogen Sulfide by Streptomycetes and Methods for its Detection

    PubMed Central

    Küster, E.; Williams, S. T.

    1964-01-01

    The ability of streptomycetes to produce hydrogen sulfide is generally used for taxonomic purposes. It was found that the previously used method, the blackening of Peptone Iron Agar, does not clearly indicate formation of hydrogen sulfide. It was shown that the blackening of a lead acetate strip is the most accurate indicator for H2S-producing streptomycetes. A great variety of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds were examined and compared, and the choice of the most suitable sulfur source and method for the detection of hydrogen sulfide is discussed. PMID:14106940

  5. PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE BY STREPTOMYCETES AND METHODS FOR ITS DETECTION.

    PubMed

    KUESTER, E; WILLIAMS, S T

    1964-01-01

    The ability of streptomycetes to produce hydrogen sulfide is generally used for taxonomic purposes. It was found that the previously used method, the blackening of Peptone Iron Agar, does not clearly indicate formation of hydrogen sulfide. It was shown that the blackening of a lead acetate strip is the most accurate indicator for H(2)S-producing streptomycetes. A great variety of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds were examined and compared, and the choice of the most suitable sulfur source and method for the detection of hydrogen sulfide is discussed.

  6. Metal-organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Phoebe K; Wheatley, Paul S; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A; Megson, Ian L; Chapman, Karena W; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E

    2012-04-02

    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  7. Inhibitory effects of enterococci on the production of hydrogen sulfide by hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria in raw meat.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Gong, C; Jiang, X

    2011-07-01

    Applying competitive exclusion micro-organisms to control hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) gas produced by hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria (SPB) in chicken meat. Five SPB strains, isolated from animal by-products, were used for screening lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that can inhibit the production of H₂S by SPB in trypticase soy broth supplemented with L-cysteine (TSB-L-cys). A sensitive and accurate test strip method was developed for H₂S determination in real time. One LAB strain, isolate L86, from cheese whey, demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity against the production of H₂S by SPB. The isolate L86 was confirmed as Enterococcus faecium that does not possess genes encoding for vancomycin resistance based on PCR analysis. Enterococcus faecium strain L86 reduced (P < 0·05) the yield of H₂S upto 51·2% in 10 h at 35°C in TSB-L-cys medium. In fresh chicken meat, the yield of H₂S produced by the artificially inoculated SPB was reduced (P < 0·05) by 48·6, 49·7 and 69·8% in 10 h at 35, 30 and 25°C, respectively. Enterococcus faecium strain L86 also reduced (P < 0·05) by 53·8% on the yield of H₂S produced by the indigenous SPB in partially spoiled chicken meat at 35°C for 10 h. Enterococcus faecium strain L86 is effective on inhibiting the production of H₂S by SPB. The application of this biological agent to raw animal by-products will provide a safer working environment in rendering processing plants and produce higher-quality rendered products. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide: A Signal Molecule in Plant Cross-Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Min, Xiong; Zhou, Zhi-Hao

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been considered as merely a toxic by product of cell metabolism, but nowadays is emerging as a novel gaseous signal molecule, which participates in seed germination, plant growth and development, as well as the acquisition of stress tolerance including cross-adaptation in plants. Cross-adaptation, widely existing in nature, is the phenomenon in which plants expose to a moderate stress can induce the resistance to other stresses. The mechanism of cross-adaptation is involved in a complex signal network consisting of many second messengers such as Ca2+, abscisic acid, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, as well as their crosstalk. The cross-adaptation signaling is commonly triggered by moderate environmental stress or exogenous application of signal molecules or their donors, which in turn induces cross-adaptation by enhancing antioxidant system activity, accumulating osmolytes, synthesizing heat shock proteins, as well as maintaining ion and nutrient balance. In this review, based on the current knowledge on H2S and cross-adaptation in plant biology, H2S homeostasis in plant cells under normal growth conditions; H2S signaling triggered by abiotic stress; and H2S-induced cross-adaptation to heavy metal, salt, drought, cold, heat, and flooding stress were summarized, and concluded that H2S might be a candidate signal molecule in plant cross-adaptation. In addition, future research direction also has been proposed. PMID:27833636

  9. A fatal case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a geothermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Kage, S; Ito, S; Kishida, T; Kudo, K; Ikeda, N

    1998-07-01

    An adult man entered an oil separator room to remove waste oil from a vacuum pump in a geothermal power plant. He suddenly collapsed and died soon after. Since hydrogen sulfide gas was detected in the atmosphere at the scene of the accident, poisoning by this gas was suspected and toxicological analysis of sulfide and thiosulfate in blood, brain, lung, femoral muscle was made using the extractive alkylation technique combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The concentrations of sulfide in these tissues were similar to those previously reported for fatal cases of hydrogen sulfide gas. The concentration of thiosulfate in the blood was at least 48 times higher than the level in control samples. Based on these results, the cause of death was attributed to hydrogen sulfide gas poisoning.

  10. Methods for producing hydrogen (BI) sulfide and/or removing metals

    DOEpatents

    Truex, Michael J [Richland, WA; Peyton, Brent M [Pullman, WA; Toth, James J [Kennewick, WA

    2002-05-14

    The present invention is a process wherein sulfide production by bacteria is efficiently turned on and off, using pH adjustment. The adjustment of pH impacts sulfide production by bacteria by altering the relative amounts of H.sub.2 S and HS-- in solution and thereby control the inhibition of the bacterial metabolism that produces sulfide. This process can be used to make a bioreactor produce sulfide "on-demand" so that the production of sulfide can be matched to its use as a metal precipitation reagent. The present invention is of significance because it enables the use of a biological reactor, a cost effective sulfide production system, by making the biological reactor produce hydrogen sulfide "on demand", and therefore responsive to production schedules, waste stream generation rate, and health and safety requirements/goals.

  11. 40 CFR 425.04 - Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide gas. (3) The characteristics of the receiving POTWs headworks, preliminary and primary... opportunities for release of hydrogen sulfide gas. (4) The occurrence of any prior sulfide related interference... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability of sulfide...

  12. 40 CFR 425.04 - Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide gas. (3) The characteristics of the receiving POTWs headworks, preliminary and primary... opportunities for release of hydrogen sulfide gas. (4) The occurrence of any prior sulfide related interference... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability of sulfide...

  13. 40 CFR 425.04 - Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide gas. (3) The characteristics of the receiving POTWs headworks, preliminary and primary... opportunities for release of hydrogen sulfide gas. (4) The occurrence of any prior sulfide related interference... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability of sulfide...

  14. 40 CFR 425.04 - Applicability of sulfide pretreatment standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen sulfide gas. (3) The characteristics of the receiving POTWs headworks, preliminary and primary... opportunities for release of hydrogen sulfide gas. (4) The occurrence of any prior sulfide related interference... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability of sulfide...

  15. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by an enrichment from sour water coproduced with petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.G.; Sublette, K.L.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    We have previously demonstrated that the chemoautotroph and facultative anaerobe Thiobacillus denitrificans may be readily cultured aerobically or anoxically in batch and continuous reactors on hydrogen sulfide under sulfide-limiting conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of T. denitrificans (strain F) was isolated by enrichment and recently used in a successful field test of a microbial process for the treatment of sour water coproduced with petroleum at an Amoco Production Co. site in Wyoming. Prior to the initiation of this field test, it was determined that the sour water at this site contained low concentrations of indigenous autotrophs, which could grow on thiosulfate as an energy source. Samples of this sour water have now been used to produce an enrichment culture for sulfide oxidizers. This enrichment has been characterized with respect to hydrogen sulfide oxidation, response to oxygen, pH and temperature optima, and sulfide tolerance. The enrichment was shown to be strictly aerobic and to grow on sulfide as an energy source with complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The enrichment has a tolerance of sulfide comparable to that of T. denitrificans strain F. However, the enrichment has a higher optimum temperature (35{degrees}C) than strain F and was shown to oxidize sulfides over a much broader range of pH values.

  16. The Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Stack Gases, Iodometric Titration After Sulfite Removal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, E. G.

    The determination of hydrogen sulfide in effluents from coal-fired furnaces and incinerators is complicated by the presence of sulfur oxides (which form acids). Organic compounds also may interfere with or prevent the formation of the cadmium sulfide precipitate or give false positive results because of reaction with iodine. The report presents a…

  17. The Determination of Hydrogen Sulfide in Stack Gases, Iodometric Titration After Sulfite Removal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, E. G.

    The determination of hydrogen sulfide in effluents from coal-fired furnaces and incinerators is complicated by the presence of sulfur oxides (which form acids). Organic compounds also may interfere with or prevent the formation of the cadmium sulfide precipitate or give false positive results because of reaction with iodine. The report presents a…

  18. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  19. Sewage sludge-derived materials as efficient adsorbents for removal of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Bagreev, A; Bashkova, S; Locke, D C; Bandosz, T J

    2001-04-01

    Sewage sludge-derived materials were used as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide from moist air. The adsorbent obtained by carbonization at 950 degrees C has a capacity twice of that of coconut-shell-based activated carbon. The capacity of the sludge-derived materials increases with increasing carbonization temperature. It is likelythatduring carbonization at 950 degrees C a mineral-like phase is formed that consists of such catalytically active metals as iron, zinc, and copper. The results obtained demonstrate that the presence of iron oxide significantly increases the capacity of commercial carbon and activated alumina. The sludge-derived adsorbents are efficient for hydrogen sulfide removal until the pore entrances are blocked with sulfur as the product of oxidation reaction. For materials in which the catalytic effect is predominant, hydrogen sulfide is adsorbed until all pores are filled with sulfur. There is also indication that chemisorption plays a significant role in the removal of hydrogen sulfide from moist air.

  20. Fluorogenic detection of hydrogen sulfide via reductive unmasking of o-azidomethylbenzoyl-coumarin conjugate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhisheng; Li, Zhu; Yang, Liu; Han, Jiahuai; Han, Shoufa

    2012-10-18

    Selective detection of hydrogen sulfide was achieved with 7-o-2'-(azidomethyl)benzoyl-4-methylcoumarin via analyte mediated reductive removal of the 2'-(azidomethyl)benzoyl moiety and concurrent generation of fluorescent 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide scavengers market assessment. Topical report, June 16-December 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    The report objective was to establish the dollar market size for removing low level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide from natural gas using commercially available scavengers, identify the key players, and determine significant trends in the industry. The study established the oilfield and refinery markets for the treating of natural gas, with hydrogen sulfide scavengers. The total North American market is estimated to be worth $172 million in 1995. Natural gas stream or vapor phase treating represents 85 percent of the total market.

  2. Carbon-13 in black sea waters and implications for the origin of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Deuser, W G

    1970-06-26

    A combination of measurements of carbon-13 and the hydrogen sulfide content in Black Sea waters with available data on the total carbon dioxide in these waters indicates that the contribution of organic sulfur to the hydrogen sulfide lies between 3 and 5 percent and increases with depth. Likely causes for the increase are increasing productivity or upward movement of the anoxic zone during the facts last 2000 year.

  3. The cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Polhemus, David J; Calvert, John W; Butler, Javed; Lefer, David J

    2014-01-01

    It has now become universally accepted that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), previously considered only as a lethal toxin, has robust cytoprotective actions in multiple organ systems. The diverse signaling profile of H2S impacts multiple pathways to exert cytoprotective actions in a number of pathological states. This paper will review the recently described cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in both myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and congestive heart failure.

  4. Is exogenous hydrogen sulfide a relevant tool to address physiological questions on hydrogen sulfide?

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe

    2016-07-15

    This review challenges the use of solutions of dissolved exogenous H2S in the literature as a tool to determine the potential physiological functions of endogenous H2S as well as its putative therapeutic applications. Our major point of contention is that solutions of dissolved H2S are used in vitro at concentrations, within the high microM range, which are above the concentrations of dissolved H2S found in blood and tissues during lethal H2S exposure in vivo. In addition, since the levels of toxicity are extremely variable among cell types, a property that is seldom acknowledged, the physiological relevance of data obtained after local or in-vitro administrations of H2S at concentrations of few microM is far from certain. Conversely, the rate of disappearance of the dissolved pool of H2S in the body (being trapped or oxidized), which we found to be at least of several micromoles/kg/min, is so rapid in vivo that if relatively low quantities of H2S, i.e. few micromoles for instance, are administered, no change in H2S concentrations in the body is to be expected, unless toxic levels are used. Protocols looking at the effects of compounds slowly releasing H2S must also resolve a similar conundrum, as their effects must be reconciled with the unique ability of the blood and tissues to get rid of H2S and the steepness of the dose-toxic effects relationship. Only by developing a comprehensive framework in which H2S metabolism and toxicity will be used as a rationale to justify any experimental approach will we be able to bring definitive evidence supporting a protective role for exogenous H2S, if any, and its putative function as an endogenous mediator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transient Kinetic Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide Oxidation Catalyzed by Human Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Yadav, Pramod K; Ballou, David P; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-10-09

    The first step in the mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway is catalyzed by sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQR), which belongs to the family of flavoprotein disulfide oxidoreductases. During the catalytic cycle, the flavin cofactor is intermittently reduced by sulfide and oxidized by ubiquinone, linking H2S oxidation to the electron transfer chain and to energy metabolism. Human SQR can use multiple thiophilic acceptors, including sulfide, sulfite, and glutathione, to form as products, hydrodisulfide, thiosulfate, and glutathione persulfide, respectively. In this study, we have used transient kinetics to examine the mechanism of the flavin reductive half-reaction and have determined the redox potential of the bound flavin to be -123 ± 7 mV. We observe formation of an unusually intense charge-transfer (CT) complex when the enzyme is exposed to sulfide and unexpectedly, when it is exposed to sulfite. In the canonical reaction, sulfide serves as the sulfur donor and sulfite serves as the acceptor, forming thiosulfate. We show that thiosulfate is also formed when sulfide is added to the sulfite-induced CT intermediate, representing a new mechanism for thiosulfate formation. The CT complex is formed at a kinetically competent rate by reaction with sulfide but not with sulfite. Our study indicates that sulfide addition to the active site disulfide is preferred under normal turnover conditions. However, under pathological conditions when sulfite concentrations are high, sulfite could compete with sulfide for addition to the active site disulfide, leading to attenuation of SQR activity and to an alternate route for thiosulfate formation.

  6. Potential biological chemistry of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with the nitrogen oxides.

    PubMed

    Bruce King, S

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, an important gaseous signaling agent generated in numerous biological tissues, influences many physiological processes. This biological profile seems reminiscent of nitric oxide, another important endogenously synthesized gaseous signaling molecule. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with nitric oxide or oxidized forms of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors in vitro to form species that display distinct biology compared to both hydrogen sulfide and NO. The products of these interesting reactions may include small-molecule S-nitrosothiols or nitroxyl, the one-electron-reduced form of nitric oxide. In addition, thionitrous acid or thionitrite, compounds structurally analogous to nitrous acid and nitrite, may constitute a portion of the reaction products. Both the chemistry and the biology of thionitrous acid and thionitrite, compared to nitric oxide or hydrogen sulfide, remain poorly defined. General mechanisms for the formation of S-nitrosothiols, nitroxyl, and thionitrous acid based upon the ability of hydrogen sulfide to act as a nucleophile and a reducing agent with reactive nitric oxide-based intermediates are proposed. Hydrogen sulfide reactivity seems extensive and could have an impact on numerous areas of redox-controlled biology and chemistry, warranting more work in this exciting and developing area.

  7. Sulfide stress corrosion study of a super martensitic stainless steel in H2S sour environments: Metallic sulfides formation and hydrogen embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnot, Martin; Nogueira, Ricardo P.; Roche, Virginie; Berthomé, Grégory; Chauveau, Eric; Estevez, Rafael; Mantel, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Thanks to their high corrosion resistance, super martensitic stainless steels are commonly used in the oil and gas industry, particularly in sour environments. Some grades are however susceptible to undergo hydrogen and mechanically-assisted corrosion processes in the presence of H2S, depending on the pH. The martensitic stainless steel EN 1.4418 grade exhibits a clear protective passive behavior with no sulfide stress corrosion cracking when exposed to sour environments of pH ≥ 4, but undergoes a steep decrease in its corrosion resistance at lower pH conditions. The present paper investigated this abrupt loss of corrosion resistance with electrochemical measurements as well as different physicochemical characterization techniques. Results indicated that below pH 4.0 the metal surface is covered by a thick (ca 40 μm) porous and defect-full sulfide-rich corrosion products layer shown to be straightforwardly related to the onset of hydrogen and sulfide mechanically-assisted corrosion phenomena.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide: A Therapeutic Candidate for Fibrotic Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Li, Qian; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Lu, Ying; Liu, Chun-Feng; Hu, Li-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Fibrotic diseases including chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic disease account for 45% mortality in the developed countries and pose a great threat to the global health. Many great targets and molecules have been reported to be involved in the initiation and/or progression of fibrosis, among which inflammation and oxidative stress are well-recognized modulation targets. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third gasotransmitter with potent properties in inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in various organs. Recent evidence suggests that plasma H2S level is decreased in various animal models of fibrotic diseases and supplement of exogenous H2S is able to ameliorate fibrosis in the kidney, lung, liver, and heart. This leads us to propose that modulation of H2S production may represent a promising therapeutic venue for the treatment of a variety of fibrotic diseases. Here, we summarize and discuss the current data on the role and underlying mechanisms of H2S in fibrosis diseases related to heart, liver, kidney, and other organs. PMID:26078807

  9. Hydrogen sulfide anion regulates redox signaling via electrophile sulfhydration

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Motohiro; Sawa, Tomohiro; Kitajima, Naoyuki; Ono, Katsuhiko; Inoue, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideshi; Motohashi, Hozumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Suematsu, Makoto; Kurose, Hitoshi; van der Vliet, Albert; Freeman, Bruce A; Shibata, Takahiro; Uchida, Koji; Kumagai, Yoshito; Akaike, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    An emerging aspect of redox signaling is the pathway mediated by electrophilic byproducts, such as nitrated cyclic nucleotide (for example, 8-nitroguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)) and nitro or keto derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids, generated via reactions of inflammation-related enzymes, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and secondary products. Here we report that enzymatically generated hydrogen sulfide anion (HS−) regulates the metabolism and signaling actions of various electrophiles. HS− reacts with electrophiles, best represented by 8-nitro-cGMP, via direct sulfhydration and modulates cellular redox signaling. The relevance of this reaction is reinforced by the significant 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mouse cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction that is modulated by alterations in HS− biosynthesis. Cardiac HS−, in turn, suppresses electrophile-mediated H-Ras activation and cardiac cell senescence, contributing to the beneficial effects of HS− on myocardial infarction–associated heart failure. Thus, this study reveals HS−-induced electrophile sulfhydration as a unique mechanism for regulating electrophile-mediated redox signaling. PMID:22772154

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide in Physiology and Diseases of the Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudha B.; Lin, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a Janus-faced molecule. On one hand, several toxic functions have been attributed to H2S and exposure to high levels of this gas is extremely hazardous to health. On the other hand, H2S delivery based clinical therapies are being developed to combat inflammation, visceral pain, oxidative stress related tissue injury, thrombosis and cancer. Since its discovery, H2S has been found to have pleiotropic effects on physiology and health. H2S is a gasotransmitter that exerts its effect on different systems, such as gastrointestinal, neuronal, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems. In the gastrointestinal tract, in addition to H2S production by mammalian cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), H2S is also generated by the metabolic activity of resident gut microbes, mainly by colonic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) via a dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) pathway. In the gut, H2S regulates functions such as inflammation, ischemia/ reperfusion injury and motility. H2S derived from gut microbes has been found to be associated with gastrointestinal disorders such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. This underscores the importance of gut microbes and their production of H2S on host physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27682122

  11. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions. PMID:27446159

  12. Role of hydrogen sulfide in the physiology of penile erection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Villalta, Jackie; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), which is a well-known toxic gas, has recently been recognized as a biological messenger that plays an important role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Relatively high levels of H(2)S have been discovered in mammalian tissues. It is mainly synthesized by 2 enzymes, including cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lysase, which utilize L-cysteine as substrate to produce H(2)S. H(2)S has been demonstrated to exhibit potent vasodilator activity both in vitro and in vivo by relaxing vascular smooth muscle. Recently, H(2)S has been discovered in penile tissue with smooth muscle relaxant effects. Furthermore, other effects of H(2)S could play a role in the physiology of erection. Understanding H(2)S in the physiology of erection might provide alternative erectile dysfunction strategies for those patients with poor or no response to type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors. This review intends to present the H(2)S pathway in penile tissue and the potential role of H(2)S in the physiology of erections.

  13. Chemically Reversible Reactions of Hydrogen Sulfide with Metal Phthalocyanines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important signaling molecule that exerts action on various bioinorganic targets. Despite this importance, few studies have investigated the differential reactivity of the physiologically relevant H2S and HS– protonation states with metal complexes. Here we report the distinct reactivity of H2S and HS– with zinc(II) and cobalt(II) phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes and highlight the chemical reversibility and cyclability of each metal. ZnPc reacts with HS–, but not H2S, to generate [ZnPc-SH]−, which can be converted back to ZnPc by protonation. CoPc reacts with HS–, but not H2S, to form [CoIPc]−, which can be reoxidized to CoPc by air. Taken together, these results demonstrate the chemically reversible reaction of HS– with metal phthalocyanine complexes and highlight the importance of H2S protonation state in understanding the reactivity profile of H2S with biologically relevant metal scaffolds. PMID:24785654

  14. Passive loss of hydrogen sulfide in biological experiments.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Eric R; Stoy, Gilbrian F; Olson, Kenneth R

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a volatile gas of considerable interest as a physiologically relevant signaling molecule, but this volatility has typically been overlooked in the context of biological experiments. We examined volatility of 10 and 100 μM H(2)S (Na(2)S·9H(2)O) in real time with polarographic electrodes in three commonly employed experimental apparatuses: 24-well tissue culture plates (WP), muscle myograph baths (MB), and the Langendorff perfused heart apparatus (LPH). H(2)S loss from all apparatuses was rapid and exponential, with half-times (t(1/2)) of 5 min (WP), less than 4 min (MB), and less than 0.5 min (LPH). The t(1/2) for H(2)S loss from MB bubbled with 100% oxygen was slightly longer than that for MB bubbled with 100% nitrogen; both were significantly shorter than stirred but unbubbled MB (>9 min). Therefore, even without tissue, H(2)S rapidly disappears from buffer under a variety of experimental conditions, and this is due to volatilization, not oxidation. The inability to maintain H(2)S concentration, even briefly, questions the accuracy of dose-response studies and the relevance of long-term (>10 min) exposure to a single treatment of H(2)S. These results also help to explain the discrepancy between low H(2)S concentrations in blood and tissues versus high concentrations of exogenous H(2)S required to produce physiological responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide and the underlying signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Lin; Niu, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Wei-Zheng; Tang, Hui-Lan; Zhang, Chong; Xia, Qi-Ming; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gas that represents a novel third gaseous signaling molecule, neurotransmitter and cytoprotectant. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase with cysteine aminotransferase (3-MST/CAT) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfur transferase with d-amino acid oxidase (3-MST/DAO) pathways are involved in the generation of endogenous H2S despite the ubiquitous or restricted distribution of those enzymes. CBS, 3-MST/CAT and 3-MST/DAO can be found in the brain, while CSE is widely located in other organs. There also exist up-taking or recycling and scavenging mechanisms in H2S metabolism to maintain its persistence for physiological function. In recent years, investigating the role that H2S plays in the central nervous system and cardiovascular system has always been a hotspot. To date, effects of H2S are at least partially verified in multiple animal models or neuron cell lines of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia, major depression disorders and febrile seizure, although subsequent studies are still badly needed. This article presents an overview of current knowledge of H2S focusing on its neuroprotective effects and corresponding signaling pathways, together with connections to potential therapeutic strategies in the clinic.

  16. Epithelial Electrolyte Transport Physiology and the Gasotransmitter Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Pouokam, Ervice; Althaus, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known environmental chemical threat with an unpleasant smell of rotten eggs. Aside from the established toxic effects of high-dose H2S, research over the past decade revealed that cells endogenously produce small amounts of H2S with physiological functions. H2S has therefore been classified as a "gasotransmitter." A major challenge for cells and tissues is the maintenance of low physiological concentrations of H2S in order to prevent potential toxicity. Epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are especially faced with this problem, since these barriers are predominantly exposed to exogenous H2S from environmental sources or sulfur-metabolising microbiota. In this paper, we review the cellular mechanisms by which epithelial cells maintain physiological, endogenous H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest a concept by which epithelia use their electrolyte and liquid transport machinery as defence mechanisms in order to eliminate exogenous sources for potentially harmful H2S concentrations.

  17. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions.

  18. Physiological and pharmacological features of the novel gasotransmitter: Hydrogen sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Mancardi, Daniele; Penna, Claudia; Merlino, Annalisa; Del Soldato, Piero; Wink, David A.; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been known for hundreds of years because of its poisoning effect. Once the basal bio-production became evident its pathophysiological role started to be investigated in depth. H2S is a gas that can be formed by the action of two enzymes, cystathionine gamma-lyase and cystathionine beta-synthase, both involved in the metabolism of cysteine. It has several features in common with the other two well known “gasotransmitters” (nitric oxide and carbon monoxide) in the biological systems. These three gasses share some biological targets; however, they also have dissimilarities. For instance, the three gases target heme-proteins and open KATP channels; H2S as NO is an antioxidant, but in contrast to the latter molecule, H2S does not directly form radicals. In the last years H2S has been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes such as long term synaptic potentiation, vasorelaxation, pro- and anti-inflammatory conditions, cardiac inotropism regulation, cardioprotection, and several other physiological mechanisms. We will focus on the biological role of H2S as a molecule able to trigger cell signaling. Our attention will be particularly devoted on the effects in cardiovascular system and in cardioprotection. We will also provide available information on H2S-donating drugs which have so far been tested in order to conjugate the beneficial effect of H2S with other pharmaceutical properties. PMID:19285949

  19. [Severe hydrogen sulfide intoxication: a pediatric case of survival].

    PubMed

    Claudet, I; Marcoux, M-O; Karsenty, C; Rittié, J-L; Honorat, R; Lelong-Tissier, M-C

    2012-03-01

    We report a paediatric case of survival following severe hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas intoxication. A 13-year-old boy was found submerged to the neck in a manure tank. He was hypothermic, unresponsive with bilateral mydriasis, and had poor oxygen saturation. After intubation, he was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring high frequency percussive ventilation. Cardiac evaluation was significant for myocardial infarction and left ventricular function impairment. He completely recovered from the respiratory and cardiac failure. Neurological examinations showed abnormal signals on MRI in the semi-oval center and in the frontal cortex. Follow-up detected partial impairment of axonal fibers of the right external popliteal sciatic nerve. Paediatric cases of survival after H2S intoxication have been rarely reported. Such exposures can evolve to severe ARDS and benefit from high frequency percussive ventilation. Hypothermia and other metabolic abnormalities are now better explained thanks to actual knowledge about endogenous H2S function. Lessons learned from paediatric accidents should result in better information about this threat for farmers and families living in houses with septic tanks, reducing the risk to their own and their children's safety.

  20. Alleviation of chromium toxicity by hydrogen sulfide in barley.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shafaqat; Farooq, Muhammad Ahsan; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Abbasi, G H; Zhang, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to examine the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in alleviating chromium (Cr) stress in barley. A 2-factorial design with 6 replications was selected, including 3 levels of NaHS (0 μM, 100 μM, and 200 μM) and 2 levels of Cr (0 μM and 100 μM) as treatments. The results showed that NaHS addition enhances plant growth and photosynthesis slightly compared with the control. Moreover, NaHS alleviated the inhibition in plant growth and photosynthesis by Cr stress. Higher levels of NaHS exhibited more pronounced effects in reducing Cr concentrations in roots, shoots, and leaves. Ultrastructural examination of plant cells supported the facts by indication of visible alleviation of cell disorders in both root and leaf with exogenous application of NaHS. An increased number of plastoglobuli, disintegration, and disappearance of thylakoid membranes and starch granules were visualized inside the chloroplast of Cr-stressed plants. Starch accumulation in the chloroplasts was also noticed in the Cr-treated cells, with the effect being much less in Cr + NaHS-treated plants. Hence, it is concluded that H2 S produced from NaHS can improve plant tolerance under Cr stress.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide therapy in brain diseases: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju-yi; Ding, Yi-ping; Wang, Zhong; Kong, Yan; Gao, Rong; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized and studied for nearly 300 years, but past researches mainly focus on its toxicity effect. During the past two decades, the majority of researches have reported that H2S is a novel endogenous gaseous signal molecule in organisms, and play an important role in various systems and diseases. H2S is mainly produced by three enzymes, including cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase along with cysteine aminotransferase. H2S had been firstly reported as a neuromodulator in the brain, because of its essential role in the facilitating hippocampal long-term potentiation at physiological concentration. It is subsequently reported that H2S may have relevance to neurologic disorders through antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and additional effects. Recent basic medical studies and preclinical studies on neurologic diseases have demonstrated that the administration of H2S at physiological or pharmacological levels attenuates brain injury. However, the neuroprotective effect of H2S is concentration-dependent, only a comparatively low dose of H2S can provide beneficial effect. Herein, we review the neuroprotevtive role of H2S therapy in brain diseases from its mechanism to clinical application in animal and human subjects, and therefore provide the potential strategies for further clinical treatment. PMID:28744364

  2. Epithelial Electrolyte Transport Physiology and the Gasotransmitter Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Pouokam, Ervice; Althaus, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known environmental chemical threat with an unpleasant smell of rotten eggs. Aside from the established toxic effects of high-dose H2S, research over the past decade revealed that cells endogenously produce small amounts of H2S with physiological functions. H2S has therefore been classified as a “gasotransmitter.” A major challenge for cells and tissues is the maintenance of low physiological concentrations of H2S in order to prevent potential toxicity. Epithelia of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract are especially faced with this problem, since these barriers are predominantly exposed to exogenous H2S from environmental sources or sulfur-metabolising microbiota. In this paper, we review the cellular mechanisms by which epithelial cells maintain physiological, endogenous H2S concentrations. Furthermore, we suggest a concept by which epithelia use their electrolyte and liquid transport machinery as defence mechanisms in order to eliminate exogenous sources for potentially harmful H2S concentrations. PMID:26904165

  3. Hydrogen sulfide and cell signaling: team player or referee?

    PubMed

    Hancock, J T; Whiteman, M

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been postulated to be the third gasotransmitter, and along with other reactive compounds such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) it is thought to be a key signalling molecule. Enzymes which generate H2S, and remove it, have been characterised in both plants and animals and although it is inherently toxic to cells - inhibiting cytochrome oxidase for example - H2S is now being thought of as part of signal transduction pathways. But is it working as a signal in the sense usually seen for small signalling molecules, that is, produced when needed, perceived and leading to dedicated responses in cells? A look through the literature shows that H2S is involved in many stress responses, and in animals is implicated in the onset of many diseases, in both cases where ROS and NO are often involved. It is suggested here that H2S is not acting as a true signal, but through its interaction with NO and ROS metabolism is modulating such activity, keeping it in check unless strictly needed, and that H2S is acting as a referee to ensure NO and ROS metabolism is working properly.

  4. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide--IGCC Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Stevens, R.W.; Newby, R.A.; Keairns, D.L.

    2006-09-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) to elemental sulfur using activated carbon and NETL-processed metal oxide catalyst systems has been investigated under bench-scale, simulated pressurized IGCC conditions for use in dry and humid gas cleaning process applications. For this technology to be successful, a 20% cost effective advantage and 1 percentage-point plant efficiency gain over current commercial technology, and <10-15 ppm total gas phase sulfur release into the effluent gas stream must be demonstrated. The results of our bench-scale catalyst/sorbent desulfurization and regeneration efforts for both bulk and polishing sulfur removal indicate that direct selective catalytic oxidation of H2S to elemental sulfur utilizing current activated carbon systems occurs only under conditions of low syngas temperature (<150°C), and in syngas effluent streams containing a low water and CO content. Thus the SCOHS desulfurization process is considered to be only potentially feasible for use in dry gas cleaning conditions for IGCC applications where syngas-CO is shifted to CO2, and regeneration of the catalyst occurs through heating in warm CO2, with simultaneous CO2 sequestration. SCOHS is not considered as a candidate desulfurization approach for use in humid IGCC gas cleaning applications.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide and oxygen sensing in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R; Whitfield, Nathan L

    2010-05-15

    Vertebrate cardiorespiratory homeostasis is inextricably dependent upon specialized cells that provide feedback on oxygen status in the tissues, blood, and on occasion, environment. These "oxygen sensing" cells include chemoreceptors and oxygen-sensitive chromaffin cells that initiate cardiorespiratory reflexes, vascular smooth muscle cells that adjust perfusion to metabolism or ventilation, and other cells that condition themselves in response to episodic hypoxia. Identification of how these cells sense oxygen and transduce this into the appropriate physiological response has enormous clinical applicability, but despite intense research there is no consensus regarding the initial hypoxia-effector coupling mechanism. This review examines an alternative mechanism of oxygen sensing using oxidation of endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as the O(2)-sensitive couple. Support for this hypothesis includes the similarity of effects of hypoxia and H(2)S on a variety of tissues, augmentation of hypoxic responses by precursors of H(2)S production and their inhibition by inhibitors of H(2)S synthesis, and the rapid consumption of H(2)S by O(2) in the range of intracellular/mitochondrial Po(2). These studies also indicate that, under normoxic conditions, it is doubtful that free H(2)S has longer than a transient existence in tissue or extracellular fluid.

  6. Study on Fiber-optic Hydrogen Sulfide Gas Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Zhen; Wang, Wei; Feng, De-Quan; Wang, Qi; Jia, Fei

    We describe a novel fiber-optic gas sensor which hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) gas can be detected by a silver coated fiber bragg grating (FBG). The H2S sensitive material Ag can be coated on the cladding surrounding surface of FBG by conventional silver mirror reaction. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to analysis the Ag film structure before and after the interaction with H2S gas. By conducting the experiment of Ag-coated optical sensor (AOS), the relation between the H2S gas concentration and absorption spectrum was built. Result shows that while the concentration alters from 0 to 9.32%, a linear response of AOS signal to H2S concentration was observed with the response sensitivity of 0.332 dBm/% and linearity R2=0.9966. Such H2S sensor is suitable for monitoring the H2S hazard as a one time disposable logging-while-drilling sensor.

  7. New nitric oxide or hydrogen sulfide releasing aspirins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarato, Loretta; Chegaev, Konstantin; Marini, Elisabetta; Rolando, Barbara; Borretto, Emily; Guglielmo, Stefano; Joseph, Sony; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2011-08-11

    A new series of (((R-oxy)carbonyl)oxy)methyl esters of aspirin (ASA), bearing nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) releasing groups, was synthesized, and the compounds were evaluated as new ASA co-drugs. All the products were quite stable in buffered solution at pH 1 and 7.4. Conversely, they were all rapidly metabolized, producing ASA and the NO/H(2)S releasing moiety used for their preparation. Consequent on ASA release, the compounds were capable of inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation of human platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The simple NO/H(2)S donor substructures were able to relax contracted rat aorta strips, with a NO- and H(2)S-dependent mechanism, respectively, but they either did not trigger antiaggregatory activity or displayed antiplatelet potency markedly below that of the related co-drug. The new products might provide a safer and improved alternative to the use of ASA principally in its anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic applications.

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide as Endothelial Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor Sulfhydrates Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Asif K.; Sikka, Gautam; Gazi, Sadia K.; Steppan, Jochen; Jung, Sung M.; Bhunia, Anil K.; Barodka, Viachaslau M.; Gazi, Farah K.; Barrow, Roxanne K.; Wang, Rui; Amzel, L. Mario; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Nitric oxide, the classic endothelial derived relaxing factor (EDRF), acts via cyclic GMP and calcium without notably affecting membrane potential. A major component of EDRF activity derives from hyperpolarization and is termed endothelial derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a prominent EDRF, since mice lacking its biosynthetic enzyme, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), display pronounced hypertension with deficient vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine if H2S is a major physiologic EDHF. Methods and Results We now show that H2S is a major EDHF, as in blood vessels of CSE deleted mice hyperpolarization is virtually abolished. H2S acts by covalently modifying (sulfhydrating) the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, as mutating the site of sulfhydration prevents H2S-elicited hyperpolarization. The endothelial intermediate conductance (IKCa) and small conductance (SKCa) potassium channels mediate in part the effects of H2S, as selective IKCa and SKCa channel inhibitors, charybdotoxin and apamin, inhibit glibenclamide insensitive H2S induced vasorelaxation. Conclusions H2S is a major EDHF that causes vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell hyperpolarization and vasorelaxation by activating the ATP-sensitive, intermediate conductance and small conductance potassium channels through cysteine S-sulfhydration. As EDHF activity is a principal determinant of vasorelaxation in numerous vascular beds, drugs influencing H2S biosynthesis offer therapeutic potential. PMID:21980127

  9. Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in the Physiology of Penile Erection

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Villalta, Jackie; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is a well known toxic gas, has recently been recognized as a biological messenger, which plays an important role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Relatively high levels of H2S have been discovered in mammalian tissues. It is mainly synthesized by two enzymes including cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lysase, which utilize L-cysteine as substrate to produce H2S. H2S has been demonstrated to exhibit potent vasodilator activity both in vitro and in vivo by relaxing vascular smooth muscle. Recently, H2S has been discovered in penile tissue with smooth muscle relaxant effects. Furthermore, other effects of H2S may play a role in the physiology of erection. Understanding of H2S in the physiology of erection might provide alternative erectile dysfunction (ED) strategies for those patients with poor or no response to type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE5i). This review intends to present the H2S pathway in penile tissue and the potential role of H2S in the physiology of erections. PMID:22016355

  10. Acute pit gas (hydrogen sulfide) poisoning in confinement cattle.

    PubMed

    Hooser, S B; Van Alstine, W; Kiupel, M; Sojka, J

    2000-05-01

    Rapid deaths in confinement cattle caused by exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas from manure pits has not been reported in the USA. In 1997, 158 cattle in 2 confinement pens were exposed to H2S gas as the manure in the pits under a slatted floor was agitated prior to pumping. Approximately 35 of the cattle were lying on the floor when the upper agitator was turned on. Within 5 minutes, many these cattle were down on their sides and paddling. Of these, 26 died within a few minutes. The survivors were treated and sent to slaughter. Cattle that did not show immediate signs of toxicosis remained clinically unaffected. Two steers that were near death were brought to the Purdue Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for clinical evaluation, euthanasia, and necropsy. They were recumbent and unresponsive to visual and auditory stimuli. Necropsy examination yielded no significant gross lesions. No evidence of viral or bacterial infection was found. Ocular fluid nitrate concentrations were within normal limits, and no lead was detected in either animal. Microscopic examination revealed lesions consistent with H2S-induced central nervous system anoxia. Histologically, sections of brain demonstrated massive, diffuse cerebral cortical laminar necrosis and edema. Portions of the outer lamina contained hypereosinophilic and shrunken neurons. The subcortical white matter was vacuolated in some areas. The history, clinical signs, and histologic lesion of cerebral laminar necrosis led to a diagnosis of H2S toxicosis in these cattle.

  11. Depolarizing Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide on Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Khademullah, C. Sahara; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel neurotransmitter that has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions as well and corticotrophin hormone (CRH) secretion. Since the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is a central relay center for autonomic and endocrine functions, we sought to investigate the effects of H2S on the neuronal population of the PVN. Whole cell current clamp recordings were acquired from the PVN neurons and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) was bath applied at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 50 mM). NaHS (1, 10, and 50 mM) elicited a concentration-response relationship from the majority of recorded neurons, with almost exclusively depolarizing effects following administration. Cells responded and recovered from NaHS administration quickly and the effects were repeatable. Input differences from baseline and during the NaHS-induced depolarization uncovered a biphasic response, implicating both a potassium and non-selective cation conductance. The results from the neuronal population of the PVN shed light on the possible physiological role that H2S has in autonomic and endocrine function. PMID:23691233

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Disruption of Na+ Homeostasis in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongman; He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H.; Xia, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance of ionic balance is essential for neuronal functioning. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a known toxic environmental gaseous pollutant, has been recently recognized as a gasotransmitter involved in numerous biological processes and is believed to play an important role in the neural activities under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, it is unclear if it plays any role in maintenance of ionic homeostasis in the brain under physiological/pathophysiological conditions. Here, we report by directly measuring Na+ activity using Na+ selective electrodes in mouse cortical slices that H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) increased Na+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be partially blocked by either Na+ channel blocker or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blocker alone or almost completely abolished by coapplication of both blockers but not by non-NMDAR blocker. These data suggest that increased H2S in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia, potentially causes a disruption of ionic homeostasis by massive Na+ influx through Na+ channels and NMDARs, thus injuring neural functions. Activation of delta-opioid receptors (DOR), which reduces Na+ currents/influx in normoxia, had no effect on H2S-induced Na+ influx, suggesting that H2S-induced disruption of Na+ homeostasis is resistant to DOR regulation and may play a major role in neuronal injury in pathophysiological conditions, e.g., hypoxia/ischemia. PMID:22474073

  13. Hydrogen sulfide exposure increases desiccation tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Feng; Wang, Shu-Ping; Shi, Xiao-Qin; Mu, Li-li; Li, Guo-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been shown to effect physiological alterations in several animals, frequently leading to an improvement in survival in otherwise lethal conditions. In the present paper, a volatility bioassay system was developed to evaluate the survivorship of Drosophila melanogaster adults exposed to H(2)S gas that emanated from a K(2)S donor. Using this bioassay system, we found that H(2)S exposure significantly increased the survival of flies under arid and food-free conditions, but not under humid and food-free conditions. This suggests that H(2)S plays a role in desiccation tolerance but not in nutritional stress alleviation. To further confirm the suggestion, the mRNA levels of two desiccation tolerance-related genes Frost and Desat2, and a starvation-related gene Smp-30, from the control and treated flies were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. These genes were up-regulated within 2h when the flies transferred to the arid and food-free bioassay system. Addition of H(2)S further increased Frost and Desat2 mRNA levels, in contrast to Smp-30. Thus, our molecular results were consistent with our bioassay findings. Because of the molecular and genetic tools available for Drosophila, the fly will be a useful system for determining how H(2)S regulates various physiological alterations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing prevalence of hydrogen sulfide negative Salmonella in retail meats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dachuan; Yan, Meiying; Lin, Song; Chen, Sheng

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production is considered a typical characteristic of Salmonella and an important marker for Salmonella isolation. In this study, a total of 82 (26%) Salmonella strains were isolated from 113 chicken and 204 pork samples, within which 49 Salmonella strains were H2S positive and 33 were H2S negative. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was most prevalent in both pork and chicken followed by S. Typhimurium in pork and S. Heidelberg in chicken. Salmonella isolated from pork exhibited a much higher H2S positive rate than those from chicken (68% versus 31%). The most prevalent H2S negative serotypes were S. Derby (40%) and S. Heidelberg (30%) in chicken, and S. Typhimurium (23%) and S. Enteritidis (23%) in pork. spvC, a plasmid-encoded virulence marker, was detected in 51% and 42% of the H2S positive and negative Salmonella respectively. The presence of the two most important serotypes, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, as well as a virulence plasmid in H2S negative Salmonella suggested that H2S negative Salmonella is also a significant public health concern. Such finding warrants the development of an improved method for effective coverage of H2S negative Salmonella.

  15. Biogenesis of reactive sulfur species for signaling by hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Libiad, Marouane; Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-01-01

    The chemical species involved in H2S signaling remain elusive despite the profound and pleiotropic physiological effects elicited by this molecule. The dominant candidate mechanism for sulfide signaling is persulfidation of target proteins. However, the relatively poor reactivity of H2S toward oxidized thiols, such as disulfides, the low concentration of disulfides in the reducing milieu of the cell and the low steady-state concentration of H2S raise questions about the plausibility of persulfide formation via reaction between an oxidized thiol and a sulfide anion or a reduced thiol and oxidized hydrogen disulfide. In contrast, sulfide oxidation pathways, considered to be primarily mechanisms for disposing of excess sulfide, generate a series of reactive sulfur species, including persulfides, polysulfides and thiosulfate, that could modify target proteins. We posit that sulfide oxidation pathways mediate sulfide signaling and that sulfurtransferases ensure target specificity. PMID:26083070

  16. Biogenesis of reactive sulfur species for signaling by hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways.

    PubMed

    Mishanina, Tatiana V; Libiad, Marouane; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-07-01

    The chemical species involved in H2S signaling remain elusive despite the profound and pleiotropic physiological effects elicited by this molecule. The dominant candidate mechanism for sulfide signaling is persulfidation of target proteins. However, the relatively poor reactivity of H2S toward oxidized thiols, such as disulfides, the low concentration of disulfides in the reducing milieu of the cell and the low steady-state concentration of H2S raise questions about the plausibility of persulfide formation via reaction between an oxidized thiol and a sulfide anion or a reduced thiol and oxidized hydrogen disulfide. In contrast, sulfide oxidation pathways, considered to be primarily mechanisms for disposing of excess sulfide, generate a series of reactive sulfur species, including persulfides, polysulfides and thiosulfate, that could modify target proteins. We posit that sulfide oxidation pathways mediate sulfide signaling and that sulfurtransferases ensure target specificity.

  17. Endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide in isolated bovine eye.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhura; Njie-Mbye, Ya Fatou; Okpobiri, Ikechukwu; Zhao, Min; Opere, Catherine A; Ohia, Sunny E

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a novel gasotransmitter with physiological and pathological functions in vascular homeostasis, cardiovascular system and central nervous system. In the present study, we determined the endogenous levels of H(2)S in various tissues of the bovine eye. We also examined the basal levels of H(2)S in response to donors (sodium hydrosulfide, NaHS and sodium sulfide, Na(2)S), substrate (L: -cysteine), inhibitors (propargylglycine, PAG and aminooxyacetic acid, AOA) and activator (S-adenosyl-L: -methionine, SAM) of this gas in the bovine retina. H(2)S was measured using a well established spectrophotometric method. The highest concentration of endogenous H(2)S was detected in cornea (19 ± 2.85 nmoles/mg protein, n = 6) and retina (17 ± 2.1 nmoles/mg protein, n = 6). Interestingly, H(2)S was not present in vitreous humor. The inhibitors of CSE and CBS; PAG (1 mM) and AOA (1 mM), significantly attenuated the production of H(2)S in the bovine retina by 56.8 and 42%, respectively. On the other hand the activator of CBS; SAM (100 μM), H(2)S donors; NaHS (1 μM) and Na(2)S (100 μM), significantly increased endogenous levels of H(2)S in bovine retina. L: -cysteine (10-300 μM) produced a significant (P < 0.05) concentration-dependent increase in H(2)S levels reaching a maximal at 300 μM. We conclude that H(2)S is endogenously produced in various tissues of the isolated bovine eye. Moreover, endogenous levels of H(2)S are enhanced in the presence of substrate (L: -cysteine), an activator of CBS (SAM) and H(2)S donors but are blocked by inhibitors of enzymes that synthesize this gas in neural retina.

  18. Mitochondrial adaptations to utilize hydrogen sulfide for energy and signaling.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2012-10-01

    Sulfur is a versatile molecule with oxidation states ranging from -2 to +6. From the beginning, sulfur has been inexorably entwined with the evolution of organisms. Reduced sulfur, prevalent in the prebiotic Earth and supplied from interstellar sources, was an integral component of early life as it could provide energy through oxidization, even in a weakly oxidizing environment, and it spontaneously reacted with iron to form iron-sulfur clusters that became the earliest biological catalysts and structural components of cells. The ability to cycle sulfur between reduced and oxidized states may have been key in the great endosymbiotic event that incorporated a sulfide-oxidizing α-protobacteria into a host sulfide-reducing Archea, resulting in the eukaryotic cell. As eukaryotes slowly adapted from a sulfidic and anoxic (euxinic) world to one that was highly oxidizing, numerous mechanisms developed to deal with increasing oxidants; namely, oxygen, and decreasing sulfide. Because there is rarely any reduced sulfur in the present-day environment, sulfur was historically ignored by biologists, except for an occasional report of sulfide toxicity. Twenty-five years ago, it became evident that the organisms in sulfide-rich environments could synthesize ATP from sulfide, 10 years later came the realization that animals might use sulfide as a signaling molecule, and only within the last 4 years did it become apparent that even mammals could derive energy from sulfide generated in the gastrointestinal tract. It has also become evident that, even in the present-day oxic environment, cells can exploit the redox chemistry of sulfide, most notably as a physiological transducer of oxygen availability. This review will examine how the legacy of sulfide metabolism has shaped natural selection and how some of these ancient biochemical pathways are still employed by modern-day eukaryotes.

  19. Hydrogen Sulfide as an Endogenous Modulator in Mitochondria and Mitochondria Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Kan, Jun-tao; Cheng, Ze-yu; Chen, Jie-fang; Shen, Ya-qi; Xu, Jie; Wu, Dan; Zhu, Yi-zhun

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has historically been considered to be a toxic gas, an environmental and occupational hazard. However, with the discovery of its presence and enzymatic production through precursors of L-cysteine and homocysteine in mammalian tissues, H2S has recently received much interest as a physiological signaling molecule. H2S is a gaseous messenger molecule that has been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes in mammals, including vascular relaxation, angiogenesis, and the function of ion channels, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), and heart injury. H2S is an endogenous neuromodulator and present studies show that physiological concentrations of H2S enhance NMDA receptor-mediated responses and aid in the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation. Moreover, in the field of neuronal protection, physiological concentrations of H2S in mitochondria have many favorable effects on cytoprotection. PMID:23304257

  20. Hydrogen sulfide gas emission under turbulent conditions - an experimental approach for free-fall drops.

    PubMed

    Matias, N M; Matos, J S; Ferreira, F

    2014-01-01

    Odor nuisance and sulfide corrosion in sewers carrying septic wastewater are accelerated at points of turbulence such as drops in manholes, but accurate methods or empirical expressions to evaluate the gas stripping rate at those particular sites are still missing. With the aim of improving the current knowledge on the influence of free-fall drops on the release of hydrogen sulfide gas, an experimental set-up was built allowing different free-fall drops heights and flows. Three types of experiments were carried out: reaeration tests without sulfide; sulfide oxidation tests; and hydrogen sulfide release tests. With the increase of the free-fall drop height or of the flow, a higher rate of air-to-water mass oxygen transfer was observed. Results regarding sulfide oxidation tests with reaeration through the free-fall have shown that the oxidation rate was correlated with flow. In the hydrogen sulfide release tests, the maximum concentration in the atmosphere reached 500 ppm. Results also showed that increasing the flow rate decreased the time at which the maximum concentrations in the atmosphere were observed.

  1. Protein S-sulfhydration by hydrogen sulfide in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guoliang; Zhao, Shuang; Xie, Liping; Han, Yi; Ji, Yong

    2017-04-22

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), independently of any specific transporters, has a number of biological effects on the cardiovascular system. However, until now, the detailed mechanism of H2 S was not clear. Recently, a novel post-translational modification induced by H2 S, named S-sulfhydration, has been proposed. S-sulfhydration is the chemical modification of specific cysteine residues of target proteins by H2 S. There are several methods for detecting S-sulfhydration, such as the modified biotin switch assay, maleimide assay with fluorescent thiol modifying regents, tag-switch method and mass spectrometry. H2 S induces S-sulfhydration on enzymes or receptors (such as p66Shc, phospholamban, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, mitogen-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and ATP synthase subunit α), transcription factors (such as specific protein-1, kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1, NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor-1), and ion channels (such as voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels, transient receptor potential channels and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels) in the cardiovascular system. Although significant progress has been achieved in delineating the role of protein S-sulfhydration by H2 S in the cardiovascular system, more proteins with detailed cysteine sites of S-sulfhydration as well as physiological function need to be investigated in further studies. This review mainly summarizes the role and possible mechanism of S-sulfhydration in the cardiovascular system. The S-sulfhydrated proteins may be potential novel targets for therapeutic intervention and drug design in the cardiovascular system, which may accelerate the development and application of H2 S-related drugs in the future. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Ambient geothermal hydrogen sulfide exposure and peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Karl; So, Yuen T; Crane, Julian; Bates, Michael N

    2017-05-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas is thought mainly to operate through effects on the nervous system. The gas has high acute toxicity, but whether chronic exposure causes effects, including peripheral neuropathy, is yet unclear. The city of Rotorua, New Zealand, sits on an active geothermal field and the population has some of the highest measured ambient H2S exposures. A previous study in Rotorua provided evidence that H2S is associated with peripheral neuropathy. Using clinical methods, the present study sought to investigate and possibly confirm this association in the Rotorua population. The study population comprised 1635 adult residents of Rotorua, aged 18-65. Collected data relevant to the peripheral neuropathy investigation included symptoms, ankle stretch reflex, vibration sensitivity, as measured by the timed-tuning fork test and a Bio-Thesiometer (Bio-Medical Instrument Co., Ohio), and light touch sensitivity measured by monofilaments. An exposure metric, estimating time-weighted H2S exposure across the last 30 years was used. Principal components analysis was used to combine data across the various indicators of possible peripheral neuropathy. The main data analysis used linear regression to examine associations between the peripheral nerve function indicators and H2S exposure. None of the peripheral nerve function indicators were associated with H2S exposure, providing no evidence that H2S exposure at levels found in Rotorua is a cause of peripheral neuropathy. The earlier association between H2S exposure and peripheral neuropathy diagnoses may be attributable to the ecological study design used. The possibility that H2S exposure misclassification could account for the lack of association found cannot be entirely excluded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intermittent control procedures for the Geysers hydrogen sulfide emission abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Buick, B.D.; Mooney, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) operates the world's largest geothermal steam electric power generation facility, currently about 1.140 megawatts (Mw). This facility is located about 80 miles north of San Francisco, California and is within a region referred to as the Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). Pollutants resulting from this method of electric power generation are due to impurities in the geothermal steam. A major contaminate in the steam is hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), a regulated pollutant in California. The ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for this pollutant in California is 0.03 parts per million (ppM) averaged over one hour. H/sub 2/S is an invisible, unpleasant smelling gas present in varying concentrations in the geothermal steam. Its odor has been compared to the smell of rotten eggs. Since PG and E is increasingly relying on this source of electrical power generation, it has committed millions of dollars to the development, testing, acquisition, and installation of abatement equipment to reduce H/sub 2/S emissions during the past ten years. In order to reduce the number of exceeds of the AAQS during this developmental period, a predictive model was needed for interim abatement purposes. Most of the high hourly H/sub 2/S values occur with meteorological conditions having poor ventilation resulting from a combination of low wind speed and reduced mixing layer depths. This weather condition is most common during the months of June through October in California. A predictive model was developed from three years of hourly H/sub 2/S measurements of 0.03 ppM or greater in populated areas downwind of the generation facility and from observations of associated meteorological data.

  4. Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 μg/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

  5. Regulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase redox state by hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zongmin; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida; Esposito, Iolanda; Szabo, Csaba; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cirino, Giuseppe; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a receptor for nitric oxide (NO). Binding of NO to ferrous (Fe(2+)) heme increases its catalytic activity, leading to the production of cGMP from GTP. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a signaling molecule that exerts both direct and indirect anti-oxidant effects. In the present, study we aimed to determine whether H2S could regulate sGC redox state and affect its responsiveness to NO-releasing agents and sGC activators. Using cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, we observed that treatment with H2S augmented the response to the NO donor DEA/NO, while attenuating the response to the heme-independent activator BAY58-2667 that targets oxidized sGC. Similarly, overexpression of H2S-synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-γ lyase reduced the ability of BAY58-2667 to promote cGMP accumulation. In experiments with phenylephrine-constricted mouse aortic rings, treatment with rotenone (a compound that increases ROS production), caused a rightward shift of the DEA/NO concentration-response curve, an effect partially restored by H2S. When rings were pre-treated with H2S, the concentration-response curve to BAY 58-2667 shifted to the right. Using purified recombinant human sGC, we observed that treatment with H2S converted ferric to ferrous sGC enhancing NO-donor-stimulated sGC activity and reducing BAY 58-2667-triggered cGMP formation. The present study identified an additional mechanism of cross-talk between the NO and H2S pathways at the level of redox regulation of sGC. Our results provide evidence that H2S reduces sGC heme Fe, thus, facilitating NO-mediated cellular signaling events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic ambient hydrogen sulfide exposure and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Reed, Bruce R; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L; Bates, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Participants were 1637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0-64 ppb (0-88 μg/m(3)). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. MET2 affects production of hydrogen sulfide during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien; Roncoroni, Miguel; Gardner, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    The production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during yeast fermentation contributes negatively to wine aroma. We have mapped naturally occurring mutations in commercial wine strains that affect production of H2S. A dominant R310G mutant allele of MET2, which encodes homoserine O-acetyltransferase, is present in several wine yeast strains as well as in the main lab strain S288c. Reciprocal hemizygosity and allele swap experiments demonstrated that the MET2 R310G allele confers reduced H2S production. Mutations were also identified in genes encoding the two subunits of sulfite reductase, MET5 and MET10, which were associated with reduced H2S production. The most severe of these, an allele of MET10, showed five additional phenotypes: reduced growth rate on sulfate, elevated secretion of sulfite, and reduced production in wine of three volatile sulfur compounds: methionol, carbon disulfide and methylthioacetate. Alleles of MET5 and MET10, but not MET2, affected H2S production measured by colour assays on BiGGY indicator agar, but MET2 effects were seen when bismuth was added to agar plates made with Sauvignon blanc grape juice. Collectively, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that H2S production during wine fermentation results predominantly from enzyme activity in the sulfur assimilation pathway. Lower H2S production results from mutations that reduce the activity of sulfite reductase, the enzyme that produces H2S, or that increase the activity of L-homoserine-O-acetyltransferase, which produces substrate for the next step in the sulfur assimilation pathway.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide promotes calcium uptake in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Perry, Steve F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can act as a signaling molecule for various ion channels and/or transporters; however, little is known about its potential involvement in Ca(2+) balance. Using developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an in vivo model system, the present study demonstrated that acute exposure to H2S donors increased Ca(2+) influx at 4 days postfertilization, while chronic (3-day) exposure caused a rise in whole body Ca(2+) levels. The mRNA expression of Ca(2+)-transport-related genes was unaffected by H2S exposure, suggesting that posttranscriptional modifications were responsible for the altered rates of Ca(2+) uptake. Indeed, treatment of fish with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 abolished the H2S-mediated stimulation of Ca(2+) influx, suggesting that H2S increased Ca(2+) influx by activating cAMP-protein kinase A pathways. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) are two key enzymes in the endogenous synthesis of H2S. Using an antisense morpholino knockdown approach, we demonstrated that Ca(2+) influx was reduced in CBS isoform b (CBSb)- but not in CSE-deficient fish. Interestingly, the reduction in Ca(2+) influx in CBSb-deficient fish was observed only in fish that were acclimated to low-Ca(2+) water (i.e., 25 μM Ca(2+); control: 250 μM Ca(2+)). Similarly, mRNA expression of cbsb but not cse was increased in fish acclimated to low-Ca(2+) water. Results from whole-mount immunohistochemistry further revealed that CBSb was expressed in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-rich cells, which are implicated in Ca(2+) uptake in zebrafish larvae. Collectively, the present study suggests a novel role for H2S in promoting Ca(2+) influx, particularly in a low-Ca(2+) environment.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide promotes calcium uptake in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Steve F.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can act as a signaling molecule for various ion channels and/or transporters; however, little is known about its potential involvement in Ca2+ balance. Using developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an in vivo model system, the present study demonstrated that acute exposure to H2S donors increased Ca2+ influx at 4 days postfertilization, while chronic (3-day) exposure caused a rise in whole body Ca2+ levels. The mRNA expression of Ca2+-transport-related genes was unaffected by H2S exposure, suggesting that posttranscriptional modifications were responsible for the altered rates of Ca2+ uptake. Indeed, treatment of fish with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 abolished the H2S-mediated stimulation of Ca2+ influx, suggesting that H2S increased Ca2+ influx by activating cAMP-protein kinase A pathways. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) are two key enzymes in the endogenous synthesis of H2S. Using an antisense morpholino knockdown approach, we demonstrated that Ca2+ influx was reduced in CBS isoform b (CBSb)- but not in CSE-deficient fish. Interestingly, the reduction in Ca2+ influx in CBSb-deficient fish was observed only in fish that were acclimated to low-Ca2+ water (i.e., 25 μM Ca2+; control: 250 μM Ca2+). Similarly, mRNA expression of cbsb but not cse was increased in fish acclimated to low-Ca2+ water. Results from whole-mount immunohistochemistry further revealed that CBSb was expressed in Na+-K+-ATPase-rich cells, which are implicated in Ca2+ uptake in zebrafish larvae. Collectively, the present study suggests a novel role for H2S in promoting Ca2+ influx, particularly in a low-Ca2+ environment. PMID:25948733

  10. Is hydrogen sulfide-induced suspended animation general anesthesia?

    PubMed

    Li, Rosie Q; McKinstry, Andrew R; Moore, Jason T; Caltagarone, Breanna M; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Kelz, Max B

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) depresses mitochondrial function and thereby metabolic rates in mice, purportedly resulting in a state of "suspended animation." Volatile anesthetics also depress mitochondrial function, an effect that may contribute to their anesthetic properties. In this study, we ask whether H(2)S has general anesthetic properties, and by extension, whether mitochondrial effects underlie the state of anesthesia. We compared loss of righting reflex, electroencephalography, and electromyography in mice exposed to metabolically equipotent concentrations of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and H(2)S. We also studied combinations of H(2)S and anesthetics to assess additivity. Finally, the long-term effects of H(2)S were assessed by using the Morris water maze behavioral testing 2 to 3 weeks after exposures. Exposure to H(2)S decreases O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, and body temperature similarly to that of the general anesthetics, but fails to produce a loss of righting reflex or muscle atonia at metabolically equivalent concentrations. When combined, H(2)S antagonizes the metabolic effects of isoflurane, but potentiates the isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex. We found no effect of prior H(2)S exposure on memory or learning. H(2)S (250 ppm), not itself lethal, produced delayed lethality when combined with subanesthetic concentrations of isoflurane. H(2)S cannot be considered a general anesthetic, despite similar metabolic suppression. Metabolic suppression, presumably via mitochondrial actions, is not sufficient to account for the hypnotic or immobilizing components of the anesthetic state. Combinations of H(2)S and isoflurane can be lethal, suggesting extreme care in the combination of these gases in clinical situations.

  11. [Relationship between hydrogen sulfide and myocardial damage in endotoxemic rats].

    PubMed

    Xian, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Xin-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jing-Kun; Ling, Yi-Ling

    2007-06-25

    To investigate the changes and role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in myocardial damage in endotoxemic rats, a rat model of endotoxemia induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was developed. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group, LPS group, LPS + propargylglycine (PPG, a metabolic enzyme inhibitor of H2S) group and LPS + NaHS (H2S donor) group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) of rats within 4 h was observed, TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma, TNF-alpha and H2S contents, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in cardiac muscles were determined. The morphological structure of cardiac muscle was observed. Administration of LPS caused a sustained fall in MAP within 4 h, and significant increases in TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma (P<0.05). Plasmic H2S content was negatively correlated with MAP (r = -0.936, -0.913 and -0.908 at 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively, P<0.05). LPS also induced increases in TNF-alpha and H2S contents, LDH and MPO activity in cardiac muscles and myocardial damage. Treatment with PPG reduced the increases in TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma, TNF-alpha and H2S contents, LDH and MPO activity in cardiac muscles, ameliorated the hypotensive effect and myocardial damage caused by LPS administration (P<0.05). However, treatment with NaHS increased TNF-alpha and H2S contents in plasma, TNF-alpha and H2S contents, LDH and MPO activity in cardiac muscles, and aggravated the hypotensive action and tissue injuries caused by LPS administration (P<0.05). It is suggested that hypotension and myocardial damage in endotoxemic rats are partly induced by increase in H2S content.

  12. Design and synthesis of polymeric hydrogen sulfide donors.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Urara; van der Vlies, André J

    2014-07-16

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that has several important biological functions in the human body. Because of the difficulties of handling H2S gas, small organic compounds that release H2S under physiological conditions have been developed. The observed bioactivities of these H2S donors have generally been directly correlated with their H2S release properties. However, apart from H2S release, these H2S donors also exert biological effects by direct interaction with intracellular components within the cytoplasm after passive diffusion across cellular membranes. Here we report polymeric H2S donors based on ADT-OH which would alter cellular trafficking of ADT-OH to minimize the unfavorable interactions with intracellular components. We designed and synthesized a poly(ethylene glycol)-ADT (PEG-ADT) conjugate having ADT linked via an ether bond. Whereas ADT-OH significantly reduced cell viability in murine macrophages, the PEG-ADT conjugate did not show obvious cytotoxicity. The PEG-ADT conjugate released H2S in murine macrophages but not in the presence of serum proteins. The PEG-ADT conjugate was taken up by the cell through the endocytic pathway and stayed inside endolysosomes, which is different from the small amphiphilic donor ADT-OH that can directly enter the cytoplasm. Furthermore, PEG-ADT was capable of potentiating LPS-induced inflammation. This polymeric H2S donor approach may help to better understand the H2S bioactivities of the H2S donor ADT-OH.

  13. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic contributions to colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, Kyle L; McCoy, Kathy D; Wallace, John L

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an important modulator of many aspects of digestive function, both in health and disease. Colonic tissue H(2)S synthesis increases markedly during injury and inflammation and appears to contribute to resolution. Some of the bacteria residing in the colon can also produce H(2)S. The extent to which bacterial H(2)S synthesis contributes to what is measured as colonic H(2)S synthesis is not clear. Using conventional and germ-free mice, we have delineated the eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic contributions to colonic H(2)S synthesis, both in healthy and colitic mice. Colonic tissue H(2)S production is entirely dependent on the presence of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B(6)), while bacterial H(2)S synthesis appears to occur independent of this cofactor. As expected, approximately one-half of the H(2)S produced by feces is derived from eukaryotic cells. While colonic H(2)S synthesis is markedly increased when the tissue is inflamed, and, in proportion to the extent of inflammation, fecal H(2)S synthesis does not change and tissue granulocytes do not appear to be the source of the elevated H(2)S production. Rats fed a B vitamin-deficient diet for 6 wk exhibited significantly diminished colonic H(2)S synthesis, but fecal H(2)S synthesis was not different from that of rats on the control diet. Our results demonstrate that H(2)S production by colonic bacteria does not contribute significantly to what is measured as colonic tissue H(2)S production, using the acetate trapping assay system employed in this study.

  14. Sensory and Cognitive Effects of Acute Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Nancy; Kipen, Howard; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhang, Junfeng; Weisel, Clifford; Laumbach, Robert; Kelly-McNeil, Kathie; Olejeme, Kelechi; Lioy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have reported compromised cognitive and sensory performance among individuals exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Objectives We hypothesized a dose–response increase in symptom severity and reduction in sensory and cognitive performance in response to controlled H2S exposures. Methods In separate exposure sessions administered in random order over three consecutive weeks, 74 healthy subjects [35 females, 39 males; mean age (± SD) = 24.7 ± 4.2; mean years of education = 16.5 ± 2.4], were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5 ppm H2S. During each exposure session, subjects completed ratings and tests before H2S exposure (baseline) and during the final hour of the 2-hr exposure period. Results Dose–response reduction in air quality and increases in ratings of odor intensity, irritation, and unpleasantness were observed. Total symptom severity was not significantly elevated across any exposure condition, but anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in the 5-ppm than in the 0.05-ppm condition. No dose–response effect was observed for sensory or cognitive measures. Verbal learning was compromised during each exposure condition. Conclusions Although some symptoms increased with exposure, the magnitude of these changes was relatively minor. Increased anxiety was significantly related to ratings of irritation due to odor. Whether the effect on verbal learning represents a threshold effect of H2S or an effect due to fatigue across exposure requires further investigation. These acute effects in a healthy sample cannot be directly generalized to communities where individuals have other health conditions and concomitant exposures. PMID:18197303

  15. Genetic Targets of Hydrogen Sulfide in Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury – A Microarray Study

    PubMed Central

    Spassov, Sashko; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Strosing, Karl; Ryter, Stefan; Hummel, Matthias; Faller, Simone; Hoetzel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that inhalation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In the present study, we aimed to determine the underlying molecular mechanisms of H2S-dependent lung protection by analyzing gene expression profiles in mice. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to spontaneous breathing or mechanical ventilation in the absence or presence of H2S (80 parts per million). Gene expression profiles were determined by microarray, sqRT-PCR and Western Blot analyses. The association of Atf3 in protection against VILI was confirmed with a Vivo-Morpholino knockout model. Mechanical ventilation caused a significant lung inflammation and damage that was prevented in the presence of H2S. Mechanical ventilation favoured the expression of genes involved in inflammation, leukocyte activation and chemotaxis. In contrast, ventilation with H2S activated genes involved in extracellular matrix remodelling, angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis, and inflammation. Amongst others, H2S administration induced Atf3, an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic regulator. Morpholino mediated reduction of Atf3 resulted in elevated lung injury despite the presence of H2S. In conclusion, lung protection by H2S during mechanical ventilation is associated with down-regulation of genes related to oxidative stress and inflammation and up-regulation of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory genes. Here we show that Atf3 is clearly involved in H2S mediated protection. PMID:25025333

  16. Hydrogen sulfide mitigates matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and neurovascular permeability in hyperhomocysteinemic mice.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Neetu; Givvimani, Srikanth; Qipshidze, Natia; Kundu, Soumi; Kapoor, Shray; Vacek, Jonathan C; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2010-01-01

    An elevated level of homocysteine (Hcy), known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), was associated with neurovascular diseases. At physiological levels, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) protected the neurovascular system. Because Hcy was also a precursor of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), we sought to test whether the H(2)S protected the brain during HHcy. Cystathionine-beta-synthase heterozygous (CBS+/-) and wild type (WT) mice were supplemented with or without NaHS (30 microM/L, H(2)S donor) in drinking water. Blood flow and cerebral microvascular permeability in pial vessels were measured by intravital microscopy in WT, WT+NaHS, CBS-/+ and (CBS-/+)+NaHS-treated mice. The brain tissues were analyzed for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) by Western blot and RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of CBS and cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE, enzyme responsible for conversion of Hcy to H(2)S) genes were measured by RT-PCR. The results showed a significant increase in MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-3 protein and mRNA in CBS (-/+) mice, while H(2)S treatment mitigated this increase. Interstitial localization of MMPs was also apparent through immunohistochemistry. A decrease in protein and mRNA expression of TIMP-4 was observed in CBS (-/+) mice. Microscopy data revealed increase in permeability in CBS (-/+) mice. These effects were ameliorated by H(2)S and suggested that physiological levels of H(2)S supplementation may have therapeutic potential against HHcy-induced microvascular permeability, in part, by normalizing the MMP/TIMP ratio in the brain.

  17. 30 CFR 250.215 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the EP? 250.215 Section 250.215 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.215 What hydrogen...

  18. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  19. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  20. Impact of fermentation rate changes on potential hydrogen sulfide concentrations in wine.

    PubMed

    Butzke, Christian E; Park, Seung Kook

    2011-05-01

    The correlation between alcoholic fermentation rate, measured as carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution, and the rate of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) formation during wine production was investigated. Both rates and the resulting concentration peaks in fermentor headspace H2S were directly impacted by yeast assimilable nitrogenous compounds in the grape juice. A series of model fermentations was conducted in temperature-controlled and stirred fermentors using a complex model juice with defined concentrations of ammonium ions and/or amino acids. The fermentation rate was measured indirectly by noting the weight loss of the fermentor; H2S was quantitatively trapped in realtime using a pre-calibrated H2S detection tube which was inserted into a fermentor gas relief port. Evolution rates for CO2 and H2S as well as the relative ratios between them were calculated. These fermentations confirmed that total sulfide formation was strongly yeast strain-dependent, and high concentrations of yeast assimilable nitrogen did not necessarily protect against elevated H2S formation. High initial concentrations of ammonium ions via addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) caused a higher evolution of H2S when compared with a non-supplemented but nondeficient juice. It was observed that the excess availability of a certain yeast assimilable amino acid, arginine, could result in a more sustained CO2 production rate throughout the wine fermentation. The contribution of yeast assimilable amino acids from conventional commercial yeast foods to lowering of the H2S formation was marginal.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning in solid oxide fuel cells under accelerated testing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting Shuai; Wang, Wei Guo; Chen, Tao; Miao, He; Xu, Cheng

    This study investigates the 0.2% hydrogen sulfide poisoning of Ni/YSZ anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The deterioration degrees and recovery extents of the cell current density, cell voltage and operation temperature are monitored. The results of impedance spectroscopy analysis show that hydrogen sulfide poisoning behavior may affect oxygen ion migration and gas diffusion and conversion on the anode side. Microstructural inspection reveals sulfur or sulfide formed on the anode-active area, which accounts for the immediate and severe cell power drop upon the injection of H 2S. The nickel sulfide in the anodic functional layer cannot be completely removed after long-term regeneration and thus may be a key factor in the permanent degradation of the cell.

  2. Simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in hen tissues.

    PubMed

    Kubalczyk, Paweł; Borowczyk, Kamila; Chwatko, Grażyna; Głowacki, Rafał

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in hen tissues has been developed and validated. For estimation of hydrogen sulfide content, a sample (0.1 g) of hen tissue was treated according to the procedure consisted of some essential steps: simultaneous homogenization of a tissue and derivatization of hydrogen sulfide to its S-quinolinium derivative with 2-chloro-1-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate, separation of so-formed derivative by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with sweeping, and detection and quantitation with the use of UV detector set to measure analytical signals at 375 nm. Effective electrophoretic separation was achieved using fused silica capillary (effective length 41.5 cm, 75 μm id) and 0.05 mol/L, pH 8 phosphate buffer with the addition of 0.04 mol/L SDS and 26% ACN. The lower limit of quantification was 0.12 μmol hydrogen sulfide in 1 g of tissue. The calibration curve prepared in tissue homogenate for hydrogen sulfide showed linearity in the range from 0.15 to 2.0 μmol/g, with the coefficient of correlation 0.9978. The relative standard deviation of the points of the calibration curve varied from 8.3 to 3.2% RSD.

  3. MEMS-based array for hydrogen sulfide detection employing a phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierer, B.; Dinc, C.; Gao, H.; Wöllenstein, J.; Palzer, S.

    2017-06-01

    The monitoring of hydrogen sulfide in biogas is crucial due to its highly corrosive properties. Most notably, the lifetime of heat and power generation machinery suffers from high levels of hydrogen sulfide. Here an approach to enable large-scale, low cost deployment of selective, quasi-continuous hydrogen sulfide detection systems is presented. A chip featuring three individually controllable hotplates has been developed for this purpose. Each hotplate device consists of a heating structure and an interdigitated electrode structure, which we use to control the temperature and determine the resistivity of copper(II)oxide nanospheres, respectively. The fundamental process to determine the hydrogen sulfide concentration is based on a phase transition that occurs in the temperature regime below 200°C. The transition process may be reversed at temperatures above 300°C thus resetting the sensing layer. However, the reversal takes times, which is why we use a total of six hotplates simultaneously to enable a quasi-continuous monitoring of the hydrogen sulfide concentration.

  4. Distributed fiber optic chemical sensor for hydrogen sulfide and chlorine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukamal, Harold; Cordero, Steven R.; Ruiz, David; Beshay, Manal; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    Fiber optic sensors having their entire length as the sensing elements for chlorine or hydrogen sulfide are reported here. The chlorine fiber consists of a silica core and a chlorine-sensitive cladding, and the hydrogen sulfide fiber has a hydrogen sulfide sensitive cladding. Upon exposure to the corresponding challenge gas, the cladding very rapidly changes color resulting in attenuation of the light throughput of the fiber. A one-meter portion of the chlorine sensor fiber responds to 10 ppm chlorine in 20 seconds and to 1 ppm in several minutes. The attenuation after 10 minutes of exposure is very high, and is dependant on both chlorine concentration and fiber length. A ten-meter portion of the hydrogen sulfide sensor fiber responds to 100 ppm hydrogen sulfide in 30 seconds and to 10 ppm in 1 minute. The high sensitivity suggests that the propagating modes of the light interact strongly with the cladding, and that these interactions are massively increased (Beers Law) due to the extended sensor length. This approach will supersede the current method of having a collection of point-detectors to cover large areas.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant activity of kiwifruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqin; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yonggen; Du, Huaying; Wu, Shaofu

    2014-10-01

    Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. Little work has been done to explore the effects of H₂S on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of H₂S treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol L⁻¹ on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °C storage and the role of H₂S in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S significantly inhibited the increase in soluble sugar content and the decrease in vitamin C (Vit C), chlorophyll content and firmness, inhibited ethylene production and both superoxide production rate (O(·2)⁻) and hydrogen peroxide content. Kiwifruits with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S exhibited significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Treatment with 180 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S promoted the ripening of kiwifruits. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S could delay the maturation and senescence of kiwifruits and maintain higher titratable acid (TA) and Vit C during eating-ripe storage by inhibiting ethylene production, improving protective enzyme activities and decreasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species to protect the cell membrane during storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Vibrational Spectroscopic Studies of Hydrogen, Carbon-Monoxide and Thiophene Adsorption on Ruthenium-Sulfide and Sulfided Ruthenium Catalysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, William Herbert

    The "working surface" of ruthenium hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts has been modeled by preadsorption of sulfur, carbon and carbon plus sulfur on Ru(0001). Adsorption and decomposition of thiophene over these surfaces have been investigated using TDS/TPRS, XPS and EELS. Thiophene is proposed to decompose via a three-step mechanism involving: (i) initial thiophene cracking at 120 K yielding surface sulfur and hydrocarbon species, (ii) hydrogen desorption near 230 K providing additional decomposition ensembles and (iii) continued decomposition to form "metallocycle -like" intermediates which retain EELS features similar to thiophene. Preadsorbed carbon or carbon plus sulfur are not as effective for passivation of the surface toward metallocycle formation as preadsorbed sulfur alone. This result is attributed to the fact that carbon deposited from butadiene annealed and decomposed at 700 K forms islands, while sulfur establishes a well-ordered superlattice on the surface. The decrease in metallocycle formation with increasing poison levels appears to explain HDS selectivity and specific activity trends observed in our laboratory from mildly sulfided (10% H_2S/H_2 , 673 K, 2h) ruthenium catalysts retaining submonolayers of sulfur. Incoherent inelastic neutron scattering (IINS) has been used to characterize hydrogen adsorption sites on ruthenium sulfide. Hydrogen resides on sulfur anions to form SH groups, yielding two non-degenerate bending modes at 600 and 710 cm^{-1}. Complementary hydrogen adsorption and H_2/D _2 exchange data suggest that the active sites for hydrogen adsorption may be coordinatively unsaturated S-S anion pairs. Comparison of CO adsorption on sulfided Ru/Al _2O_3 to sulfur precovered Ru(0001) reveals an adsorption site related to edge/corner atoms directly perturbed by sulfur, consistent with previous kinetic studies demonstrating higher specific activity for thiophene HDS over smaller ruthenium crystallites.

  7. Conversion of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen by reaction with a sulfided catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for removing ammonia from the sour water stream of a coal gasification process. The basic steps comprise stripping the ammonia from the sour water; heating the stripped ammonia to a temperature from between 400.degree. to 1,000.degree. F; passing the gaseous ammonia through a reactor containing a sulfided catalyst to produce elemental hydrogen and nitrogen; and scrubbing the reaction product to obtain an ammonia-free gas. The residual equilibrium ammonia produced by the reactor is recycled into the stripper. The ammonia-free gas may be advantageously treated in a Claus process to recover elemental sulfur. Iron sulfide or cobalt molybdenum sulfide catalysts are used.

  8. Sulfur transformations at the hydrogen sulfide/oxygen interface in stratified waters and in cyanobacterial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Stratified water bodies allow the development of several microbial plates along the water column. The microbial plates develop in relation to nutrient availability, light penetration, and the distribution of oxygen and sulfide. Sulfide is initially produced in the sediment by sulfate-reducing bacteria. It diffuses along the water column creating a zone of hydrogen sulfide/oxygen interface. In the chemocline of Solar Lake oxygen and sulfide coexist in a 0 to 10 cm layer that moves up and down during a diurnal cycle. The microbial plate at the chemocline is exposed to oxygen and hydrogen sulfide, alternating on a diurnal basis. The cyanobacteria occupying the interface switch from anoxygenic photosynthesis in the morning to oxygenic photosynthesis during the rest of the day which results in a temporal build up of elemental sulfur during the day and disappears at night due to both oxidation to thiosulfate and sulfate by thiobacilli, and reduction to hydrogen sulfide by Desulfuromonas sp. and anaerobically respiring cyanobacteria. Sulfate reduction was enhanced in the light at the surface of the cyanobacterial mats. Microsulfate reduction measurements showed enhanced activity of sulfate reduction even under high oxygen concentrations of 300 to 800 micrometer. Apparent aerobic SO sub 4 reduction activity is explained by the co-occurrence of H sub 2. The physiology of this apparent sulfate reduction activity is studied.

  9. Red soil as a regenerable sorbent for high temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tzu-Hsing; Chu, Hsin; Lin, Hsiao-Ping; Peng, Ching-Yu

    2006-08-25

    In this study, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was removed from coal gas by red soil under high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor. Red soil powders were collected from the northern, center and southern of Taiwan. They were characterized by XRPD, porosity analysis and DCB chemical analysis. Results show that the greater sulfur content of LP red soils is attributed to the higher free iron oxides and suitable sulfidation temperature is around 773K. High temperature has a negative effect for use red soil as a desulfurization sorbent due to thermodynamic limitation in a reduction atmosphere. During 10 cycles of regeneration, after the first cycle the red soil remained stable with a breakthrough time between 31 and 36 min. Hydrogen adversely affects sulfidation reaction, whereas CO exhibits a positive effect due to a water-shift reaction. COS was formed during the sulfidation stage and this was attributed to the reaction of H(2)S and CO. Results of XRPD indicated that, hematite is the dominant active species in fresh red soil and iron sulfide (FeS) is a product of the reaction between hematite and hydrogen sulfide in red soils. The spinel phase FeAl(2)O(4) was found during regeneration, moreover, the amount of free iron oxides decreased after regeneration indicating the some of the free iron oxide formed a spinel phase, further reducting the overall desulfurization efficiency.

  10. Methanol and hydrogen sulfide in comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, P.; Meier, R.; Krankowsky, D.; Hodges, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Giotto spacecraft measured the gas and ion composition in the coma of comet P/Halley. A detailed model of the ion chemistry inside the contact surface located at 4660 km is used to interpret the measured ion desnity profiles in the 32 to 35 amu/e mass range. The masses 33 and 35 amu/e are dominated by the protonated methanol and hydrogen sulfide ions CH3OH2(+) and H3S(+). Both profiles are essentially compatible with CH3OH and H2S originating from the nucleus only. The production rates relative to water are Y(CH3OH) = Q(CH3OH)/Q(H2O) = 1.7% and Y(H2S) = 0.41%. Our Y(CH3OH) agrees well with a determination from IR spectra obtained about 6 weeks after the Giotto encounter with P/Halley. In 7 other comets IR and microwave observations give Y(CH3OH) values between about 0.7 and 6%, indicating that the methanol abundance shows a strong variability from comet to comet. In three other comets Y(H2S) values between 0.2 and 0.5% have been reported. In addition to H2S(+), only ions containing minor isotopes of H, C, O and S contribute to mass 34 amu/e (e.g. (34)S(+), (13)CH3OH2(+), CH4DO(+)). These contributions can be calculated from the measured densities of the ions containing the major isotopes and the H2S(+) contribution from the measured H3S(+) density. From mass 34 amu/e we can also derive an upper limit of 1% for the abundance of deuterated methanol. This limit is at most marginally compatible with a direct interstellar origin of the CH3OH in P/Halley as the measured interstellar abundance of deuterated methanol is 1 to 6%.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide and cerebral microvascular tone in newborn pigs

    PubMed Central

    Parfenova, Helena; Basuroy, Shyamali; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Umstot, Edward S.; Fedinec, Alexander L.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that appears to be involved in numerous biological processes, including regulation of blood pressure and vascular tone. The present study is designed to address the hypothesis that H2S is a functionally significant, endogenous dilator in the newborn cerebrovascular circulation. In vivo experiments were conducted using newborn pigs with surgically implanted, closed, cranial windows. Topical application of H2S concentration-dependently (10−6 to 2 × 10−4 M) dilated pial arterioles. This dilation was blocked by glibenclamide (10−6 M). l-Cysteine, the substrate of the H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), also dilated pial arterioles. The dilation to l-cysteine was blocked by the CSE inhibitor d,l-propargylglycine (PPG, 10 mM) but was unaffected by the CBS inhibitor amino-oxyacetate (AOA, 1 mM). Western blots detected CSE, but not CBS, in cerebral microvessels, whereas CBS is detected in brain parenchyma. Immunohistological CSE expression is predominantly vascular while CBS is expressed mainly in neurons and astrocytes. l-Cysteine (5 mM) increased H2S concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), measured by GC-MS, from 561 ± 205 to 2,783 ± 818 nM before but not during treatment with PPG (1,030 ± 70 to 622 ± 78 nM). Dilation to hypercapnia was inhibited by PPG but not AOA. Hypercapnia increased CSF H2S concentration from 763 ± 243 to 4,337 ± 1789 nM before but not during PPG treatment (357 ± 178 vs. 425 ± 217 nM). These data show that H2S is a dilator of the newborn cerebral circulation and that endogenous CSE can produce sufficient H2S to decrease vascular tone. H2S appears to be a physiologically significant dilator in the cerebral circulation. PMID:21131483

  12. Hydrogen sulfide and colonic epithelial metabolism: implications for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, J; Mortensen, P B

    2001-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (HS-) impairs the oxidation of butyrate in colonocytes and is found in excess in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis. The possible pathogenic role of HS- in ulcerative colitis was further investigated. To investigate the metabolic effect of free and bound fecal HS-, isolated rat colonocytes were incubated in the presence of butyrate without and with the addition of (1) HS- in water, (2) sterile filtrates of fecal homogenates supplemented and incubated with HS- and known sources of fecal HS- production, and (3) HS- incubated with fecal agents known to bind HS-. Oxidation rates were obtained by quantifying the production of CO2. Total and free HS-, as well as the fecal ability to bind HS-, were determined in health and ulcerative colitis. Compared to the production of CO2 by colonocytes incubated with 2 mmol/liter of butyrate, the further addition of 1.25 and 2.5 mmol/liter of HS- in water reduced the production of CO2 by 57.6+/-10.0 and 98.9+/-1.4%, respectively. However, when adding fecal filtrate of homogenate supplemented with HS- corresponding to 1.25 and 2.5 mmol/liter of HS- in water, the reduction of CO2 production was only 30.7+/-12.0 and 53.2+/-14.0%, respectively. Neither the fecal level of total or free HS- nor the remarkable fecal ability to bind HS- differed in health or quiescent and active ulcerative colitis. Bound HS- had no or little effect on CO2 production. Addition of fecal filtrate of nonsupplemented homogenate to colonocytes significantly reduced the oxidation of butyrate to CO2 about 25%, which could not be ascribed to fecal HS-. In conclusion, fecal HS- has little effect on butyrate oxidation in colonocytes and does not seem to play a pathogenic role for UC by impairing colonic epithelial metabolism. Other fecal agents seem to be more potent metabolic inhibitors than fecal HS-. The role of colonic contents in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis remains circumstantial.

  13. Methanol and hydrogen sulfide in comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, P.; Meier, R.; Krankowsky, D.; Hodges, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Giotto spacecraft measured the gas and ion composition in the coma of comet P/Halley. A detailed model of the ion chemistry inside the contact surface located at 4660 km is used to interpret the measured ion desnity profiles in the 32 to 35 amu/e mass range. The masses 33 and 35 amu/e are dominated by the protonated methanol and hydrogen sulfide ions CH3OH2(+) and H3S(+). Both profiles are essentially compatible with CH3OH and H2S originating from the nucleus only. The production rates relative to water are Y(CH3OH) = Q(CH3OH)/Q(H2O) = 1.7% and Y(H2S) = 0.41%. Our Y(CH3OH) agrees well with a determination from IR spectra obtained about 6 weeks after the Giotto encounter with P/Halley. In 7 other comets IR and microwave observations give Y(CH3OH) values between about 0.7 and 6%, indicating that the methanol abundance shows a strong variability from comet to comet. In three other comets Y(H2S) values between 0.2 and 0.5% have been reported. In addition to H2S(+), only ions containing minor isotopes of H, C, O and S contribute to mass 34 amu/e (e.g. (34)S(+), (13)CH3OH2(+), CH4DO(+)). These contributions can be calculated from the measured densities of the ions containing the major isotopes and the H2S(+) contribution from the measured H3S(+) density. From mass 34 amu/e we can also derive an upper limit of 1% for the abundance of deuterated methanol. This limit is at most marginally compatible with a direct interstellar origin of the CH3OH in P/Halley as the measured interstellar abundance of deuterated methanol is 1 to 6%.

  14. Colorimetric detection of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Yong Jin; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Jaemyeon; Lee, Doyeon; Park, Hun-Kuk; Lee, Gi-Ja

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has received great attention as a third gaseous signal transmitter, following nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. In particular, H2S plays an important role in the regulation of cancer cell biology. Therefore, the detection of endogenous H2S concentrations within biological systems can be helpful to understand the role of gasotransmitters in pathophysiology. Although a simple and inexpensive method for the detection of H2S has been developed, its direct and precise measurement in living cells remains a challenge. In this study, we introduced a simple, facile, and inexpensive colorimetric system for selective H2S detection in living cells using a silver-embedded Nafion/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membrane. This membrane could be easily applied onto a polystyrene microplate cover. First, we optimized the composition of the coating membrane, such as the PVP/Nafion mixing ratio and AgNO3 concentration, as well as the pH of the Na2S (H2S donor) solution and the reaction time. Next, the in vitro performance of a colorimetric detection assay utilizing the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane was evaluated utilizing a known concentration of Na2S standard solution both at room temperature and at 37 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. As a result, the sensitivity of the colorimetric assay for H2S at 37 °C in the incubator (0.0056 Abs./μM Na2S, R2 = 0.9948) was similar to that at room temperature (0.0055 Abs./μM Na2S, R2 = 0.9967). Moreover, these assays were less sensitive to interference from compounds such as glutathione, L-cysteine (Cys), and dithiothreitol than to the H2S from Na2S. This assay based on the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane also showed excellent reproducibility (2.8% RSD). Finally, we successfully measured the endogenous H2S concentrations in live C6 glioma cells by s-(5‧-adenosyl)-L-methionine stimulation with and without Cys and L-homocysteine, utilizing the silver/Nafion/PVP membrane. In summary, colorimetric assays using silver

  15. Protective effects of diallyl sulfide on acetaminophen-induced toxicities.

    PubMed

    Hu, J J; Yoo, J S; Lin, M; Wang, E J; Yang, C S

    1996-10-01

    Diallyl sulfide (DAS), a major flavour component of garlic, is known to modulate drug metabolism and may protect animals from chemically induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. In this study the effects of DAS on the oxidative metabolism and hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in rats were investigated. In the hepatotoxicity evaluation of Fischer 344 rats there was a dose-dependent increase in the odds of mortality rate by APAP (P = 0.009); DAS treatment significantly protected rats from APAP-related mortality (P = 0.026). Liver toxicity determined by lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by APAP treatment (0.75 g/kg). Pretreatment with DAS protected animals from APAP-induced liver toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Treatment of DAS (50 mg/kg) 3 hr after APAP dosing significantly (P < 0.05) protected rats from APAP-induced liver toxicity. The metabolism of APAP (50 microM) in vitro was significantly inhibited by DAS (0.3-1 mM) in liver microsomes isolated from F344 rats. As the effect of DAS on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo was observed only when DAS was administered before or shortly after (< 3 hr) APAP dosing, data suggested that the protective effect of DAS is mainly at the metabolic activation step of APAP. However, the possibility that DAS may also have effects on other drug metabolism systems, such as glutathione (GSH) and glutathione S-transferases, cannot be ruled out.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide decreases the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by homocysteine and its thiolactone.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been investigated widely in recent years. H2S plays a variety of roles in different biological systems, including cardiovascular system. It is the final product of amino acids metabolism, which contains sulfur-cysteine and homocysteine (Hcy). In human plasma, there are several various forms of homocysteine: free Hcy, protein-bound Hcy (S-linked, and N-linked), and homocysteine thiolactone (HTL). Our previous works have shown that both Hcy in the reduced form and its thiolactone may modify fibrinolysis, coagulation process, and biological activity of blood platelets. Moreover, we have observed that HTL, like its precursor-Hcy stimulated the generation of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 (-•) ) in blood platelets. The aim of our study in vitro was to establish the influence of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, as a fast-releasing H2S donor; at tested concentrations: 10-1000 µM) on the plasma lipid peroxidation induced by the reduced Hcy (at final concentrations of 0.01-1 mM) and HTL (at final concentrations of 0.1-1 µM). Our results indicate that 10 and 100 µM NaHS decreased the lipid peroxidation in plasma treated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL (when NaHS and Hcy/HTL were added to plasma together). The protective effect of 10 and 100 µM NaHS against the lipid peroxidation in plasma preincubated with 1 mM Hcy or 1 µM HTL was also observed. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the lipid peroxidation (induced by different forms of homocysteine) may be reduced by hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide in the RVLM and PVN has No Effect on Cardiovascular Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, Eloise; Al-Magableh, Mohammad; Hart, Joanne Louise; Badoer, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as an important signaling molecule and has been shown to have vasodilator and cardio-protectant effects. More recently it has been suggested that H2S may also act within the brain to reduce blood pressure (BP). In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of the H2S-producing enzyme, cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), brain regions with key cardiovascular regulatory functions. The cardiovascular role of H2S was investigated by determining the BP, heart rate (HR), and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) responses elicited by a H2S donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) or inhibitors of CBS, microinjected into the RVLM and PVN. In anesthetized Wistar Kyoto rats bilateral microinjections of NaHS (0.2–2000 pmol/side) into the RVLM did not significantly affect BP, HR, or LSNA, compared to vehicle. Similarly, when the CBS inhibitors, amino-oxyacetate (AOA; 0.1–1.0 nmol/side) or hydroxylamine (HA; 0.2–2.0 nmol/side), were administered into the RVLM, there were no significant effects on the cardiovascular variables compared to vehicle. Microinjections into the PVN of NaHS, HA, and AOA had no consistent significant effects on BP, HR, or LSNA compared to vehicle. We also investigated the cardiovascular responses to NaHS microinjected into the RVLM and PVN in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Again, there were no significant effects on BP, HR, and LSNA. Together, these results suggest that H2S in the RVLM and PVN does not have a major role in cardiovascular regulation. PMID:21941511

  18. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from waste treatment plant biogas using the apollo scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.; Burrowes, P.A.; Gupta, A.; Walton, P.S.; Meffe, S.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide and other sulphur compounds from anaerobic digester gas streams prior to their use as fuel for boilers, stationary engines, and cogeneration units minimizes corrosion problems and reduces sulfur emission loadings. A research program at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto in the 1980`s demonstrated the use of a modified flotation cell for the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream and its catalytic oxidation to sulfur. The essence of the technology was a proprietary gas liquid contactor which provided very high mass transfer rates at the interface. A bench scale contactor developed at the university achieved hydrogen sulfide removal efficiencies of over 99.9% at atmospheric pressure. A demonstration unit for digester gas scrubbing applications was designed, fabricated, and then installed and evaluated at the Metropolitan Toronto Works Department - Main Treatment Plant (MTP).

  19. A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide and natural gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yixin; Schaefer, Laura

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) occurs naturally in crude petroleum, natural gas, volcanic gases, hot springs, and some lakes. Hydrogen sulfide can also result as a by-product from industrial activities, such as food processing, coke ovens, paper mills, tanneries, and petroleum refineries. Sometimes, it is considered to be an industrial pollutant. However, hydrogen can be decomposed from H 2S and then used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This paper presents an examination of a simple hydrogen sulfide and natural gas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system. The possibility of utilization of hydrogen sulfide as a feedstock in a solid oxide fuel cell is discussed. A system configuration of an SOFC combined with an external H 2S decomposition device is proposed, where a certain amount of natural gas is supplied to the SOFC. The exhaust fuel gas of the SOFC is after-burned with exhaust air from the SOFC, and the heat of the combustion gas is utilized in the decomposition of H 2S in a decomposition reactor (DR) to produce hydrogen to feed the SOFC. The products are electricity and industry-usable sulfur. Through a mass and energy balance, a preliminary thermodynamic analysis of this system is performed, and the system efficiency is calculated. Also in this paper, the challenges in creating the proposed configuration are discussed, and the direction of future work is presented.

  20. Development of a Hydrogen Sulfide End-of-Service-Life Indicator for Respirator Cartridges Using Cobinamide.

    PubMed

    Greenawald, Lee A; Boss, Gerry R; Reeder, Aaron; Bell, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    An inexpensive paper-based sensor was developed for detecting low ppm concentrations of hydrogen sulfide gas. A piece of filter paper containing aquohydroxocobinamide [OH(H2O)Cbi] was placed on the end of a bifurcated optical fiber, and the reflectance spectrum of the OH(H2O)Cbi was monitored during exposure to 10.0 ppm hydrogen sulfide gas (NIOSH recommended exposure limit). Reaction of sulfide (HS-) yielded an increase in reflectance from 400-450 nm, and decrease from 470-550 nm. Spectral changes were monitored as a function of time at 25, 50, and 85% relative humidity. Spectral shifts at high-er humidity suggested reduction of the Cbi(III) compound. The sensor was used to detect hydrogen sulfide breakthrough from respirator carbon beds and results correlated well with a standard electrochemical detector. The simple paper-based sensor could provide a real-time end-of-service-life alert for hydrogen sulfide gas.

  1. Computational study of the interaction of indole-like molecules with water and hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M.; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús; Peña-Gallego, Ángeles

    2011-10-01

    The characteristics of the interaction between water and hydrogen sulfide with indole and a series of analogs obtained by substituting the NH group of indole by different heteroatoms have been studied by means of ab initio calculations. In all cases, minima were found corresponding to structures where water and hydrogen sulfide interact by means of X-H...π contacts. The interaction energies for all these π complexes are quite similar, spanning from -13.5 to -18.8 kJ/mol, and exhibiting the stability sequence NH > CH2 ≈ PH > Se ≈ S > O, for both water and hydrogen sulfide. Though interaction energies are similar, hydrogen sulfide complexes are slightly favored over their water counterparts when interacting with the π cloud. σ-Type complexes were also considered for the systems studied, but only in the case of water complexes this kind of complexes is relevant. Only for complexes formed by water and indole, a significantly more stable σ-type complex was found with an interaction energy amounting to -23.6 kJ/mol. Oxygen and phosphorous derivatives also form σ-type complexes of similar stability as that observed for π ones. Despite the similar interaction energies exhibited by complexes with water and hydrogen sulfide, the nature of the interaction is very different. For π complexes with water the main contributions to the interaction energy are electrostatic and dispersive contributing with similar amounts, though slightly more from electrostatics. On the contrary, in hydrogen sulfide complexes dispersion is by far the main stabilizing contribution. For the σ-type complexes, the interaction is clearly dominated by the electrostatic contribution, especially in the indole-water complex.

  2. Circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide and substance P in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gaddam, Ravinder Reddy; Chambers, Stephen; Murdoch, David; Shaw, Geoffrey; Bhatia, Madhav

    2017-10-01

    To determine alterations of circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide and substance P in patients with sepsis compared to non-sepsis patients with similar disease severity and organ dysfunction. This study included 23 septic and 14 non-septic patients during 2015-16 study period at the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit, Christchurch, New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from the time of admission to 96 h, with collection at different time points (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h) and subjected to measurement of hydrogen sulfide, substance P, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and lactate levels. Patients with sepsis showed higher circulating hydrogen sulfide and substance P levels compared to patients without sepsis. Hydrogen sulfide levels were significantly higher at 12 h (1.45 vs 0.75 μM; p < 0.05) and 24 h (1.11 vs 0.72 μM; p < 0.01), whereas substance P levels were higher at 48 h (0.55 vs 0.31 ng/mL; p < 0.05). Increased hydrogen sulfide and substance P levels in septic patients were associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators - procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. These results provide evidence that higher circulating levels of hydrogen sulfide and substance P are associated with increased inflammatory response in patients with sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide synthesis enzymes reduced in lower esophageal sphincter of patients with achalasia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Zheng, Z; Wang, T; Zhao, C; Zhou, G; Jin, H; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    The etiology of achalasia remains largely unknown. Considerable evidence reveals that the lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction is due to the lack of inhibitory neurotransmitter, secondary to esophageal neuronal inflammation or loss. Recent studies suggest hydrogen sulfide may act as an inhibitory transmitter in gastrointestinal tract, but study about hydrogen sulfide in human esophagus still lack. The aim of the study was to investigate if hydrogen sulfide synthesis enzymes could be detected in human esophagus and if the synthesis of the endogenous hydrogen sulfide could be affected in achalasia patients. Tissue samples in cardia, lower esophageal sphincter, 2 cm and 4 cm above lower esophageal sphincter were obtained from achalasia patients undergoing peroral endoscopic myotomy. Control tissues in lower esophageal sphincter were obtained from esophageal carcinoma patients. Expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in lower esophageal sphincter of achalasia patients and control were detected by immunohistochemical staining. In addition, expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase were compared among different parts of esophagus in achalasia patients. Compared with control, the expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in lower esophageal sphincter of achalasia patients was significantly reduced (χ(2) = 11.429, P = 0.010). The expression of cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase were lower in lower esophageal sphincter than that in 2 cm and 4 cm above lower esophageal sphincter, respectively (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, the expression of hydrogen sulfide synthesis enzymes, cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase, can be detected in human esophagus and is reduced in patients with achalasia, which implicates the involvement of the two hydrogen sulfide synthesis enzymes in the pathophysiology of achalasia.

  4. Organic silicon compounds anf hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas by mineral and adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds and hydrogen sulfide , as their burning has damaging effects on utilities and humans; organic silicon compounds and hydrogen sulfide can be found in biogas produced from biomass wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product,such as cosmetics, detergents and paints.Siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Ajhar et al., 2010); aim of the present work is to find a single practical andeconomic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both hydrogen sulfide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleoneet al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing both hydrogen sulphide and volatile siloxane (Decamethycyclopentasiloxane or D5) in a nitrogen stream,typically 25-300 ppm D5 over N2, through an clay minerals, Fe oxides and Silica; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best silica shows an adsorption capacity of 0.2 g D5 per gram of silica. The next thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests.The capacity results depend on D5 and hydrogen sulphide concentrations. A regenerative silica process is then carried out byheating the silica bed up to 200 ° C and flushing out the adsorbed D5 and hydrogen sulphide samples in a nitrogen stream in athree step heating procedure up to 200 ° C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cyclingthe samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles.

  5. Importance of Hydrogen Sulfide, Thiosulfate, and Methylmercaptan for Growth of Thiobacilli during Simulation of Concrete Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Sand, W

    1987-07-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete surfaces caused by thiobacilli was reproduced in simulation experiments. At 9 months after inoculation with thiobacilli, concrete blocks were severely corroded. The sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, and methylmercaptan were tested for their corrosive action. With hydrogen sulfide, severe corrosion was noted. The flora was dominated by Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Thiosulfate led to medium corrosion and a dominance of Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus intermedius. Methylmercaptan resulted in negligible corrosion. A flora of heterotrophs and fungi grew on the blocks. This result implies that methylmercaptan cannot be degraded by thiobacilli.

  6. Importance of Hydrogen Sulfide, Thiosulfate, and Methylmercaptan for Growth of Thiobacilli during Simulation of Concrete Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    Biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete surfaces caused by thiobacilli was reproduced in simulation experiments. At 9 months after inoculation with thiobacilli, concrete blocks were severely corroded. The sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, and methylmercaptan were tested for their corrosive action. With hydrogen sulfide, severe corrosion was noted. The flora was dominated by Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Thiosulfate led to medium corrosion and a dominance of Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiobacillus intermedius. Methylmercaptan resulted in negligible corrosion. A flora of heterotrophs and fungi grew on the blocks. This result implies that methylmercaptan cannot be degraded by thiobacilli. PMID:16347391

  7. 30 CFR 250.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.245 Section 250.245 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Documents (docd) § 250.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?...

  8. 30 CFR 250.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.245 Section 250.245 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Development Operations Coordination Documents (docd) § 250.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information...

  9. 30 CFR 550.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.245 Section 550.245 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...

  10. 30 CFR 550.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.245 Section 550.245 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...

  11. 30 CFR 550.245 - What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 550.245 Section 550.245 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Coordination Documents (docd) § 550.245 What hydrogen sulfide (H2S) information must accompany the DPP or DOCD...

  12. Hydrogen sulfide in plants: from dissipation of excess sulfur to signaling molecule.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Alexander; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2014-09-15

    Sulfur is essential in all organisms for the synthesis of amino acids cysteine and methionine and as an active component of numerous co-factors and prosthetic groups. However, only plants, algae, fungi, and some prokaryotes are capable of using the abundant inorganic source of sulfur, sulfate. Plants take sulfate up, reduce it, and assimilate into organic compounds with cysteine being the first product of the pathway and a donor of reduced sulfur for synthesis of other S-containing compounds. Cysteine is formed in a reaction between sulfide, derived from reduction of sulfite and an activated amino acid acceptor, O-acetylserine. Sulfide is thus an important intermediate in sulfur metabolism, but numerous other functions in plants has been revealed. Hydrogen sulfide can serve as an alternative source of sulfur for plants, which may be significant in anaerobic conditions of waterlogged soils. On the other hand, emissions of hydrogen sulfide have been detected from many plant species. Since the amount of H2S discharged correlated with sulfate supply to the plants, the emissions were considered a mechanism for dissipation of excess sulfur. Significant hydrogen sulfide emissions were also observed in plants infected with pathogens, particularly with fungi. H2S thus seems to be part of the widely discussed sulfur-induced-resistance/sulfur-enhanced-defense. Recently, however, more evidence has emerged for a role for H2S in regulation and signaling. Sulfide stabilizes the cysteine synthase complex, increasing so the synthesis of its acceptor O-acetylserine. H2S has been implicating in regulation of plant stress response, particularly draught stress. There are more and more examples of processes regulated by H2S in plants being discovered, and hydrogen sulfide is emerging as an important signaling molecule, similar to its role in the animal and human world. How similar the functions, and homeostasis of H2S are in these diverse organisms, however, remains to be elucidated.

  13. The Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on Adipocyte Viability in Human Adipocyte and Adipocyte-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Cultures Under Ischemic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Andac; Ozturk, Serdar; Sahin, Ismail; Avcu, Ferit; Sagkan, Rahsan Ilıkçı; Isik, Selcuk

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro effects of hydrogen sulfide on adipocyte survival under ischemic conditions and explored possible mechanisms of its apoptotic process. The mesenchymal stem cell culture was prepared from a human subcutaneous adipose tissue sample. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were differentiated into the adipogenic direction, and a mature adipocyte culture was obtained. The adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell and mature adipocyte cultures were both divided into 6 groups. Sodium hydrogen sulfide was used as a hydrogen sulfide donor. After treating the groups with sodium hydrogen sulfide (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μM), the cell cultures were incubated in 1% oxygen at 37°C for 24 hours. After the ischemia period, the cell culture groups were evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test for the proliferation/cytotoxicity rates, flow cytometry for apoptosis and necrosis rates, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for apoptotic (Bax, Caspase-3) and antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) gene expression levels. Statistically significant increases in proliferation rates were found in mesenchymal stem cell groups treated with low dose (0, 1, and 1 μM) sodium hydrogen sulfide (P<0.05). For each dose, a statistically significant decrease was found in late apoptosis levels on the mature adipocyte cultures (P<0.05). In both cell culture groups, Bcl-2 gene expression was increased and Caspase-3 gene expression was decreased. Under ischemic conditions, hydrogen sulfide has a protective effect on mesenchymal stem cells and mature adipocytes, and this effect is mediated by the elevation of antiapoptotic gene expression.

  14. Comparative study of using different materials as bacterial carriers to treat hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Zhu, Nanwen; Cao, Xinde; Jia, Jinping

    2008-12-01

    The use of support media for the immobilization of microorganisms is widely known to provide a surface for microbial growth and protect the microorganisms from inhibitory compounds. In this study, molecular sieve, granular porous carbon, and ferric oxide desulfurizer, immobilized with autotrophic bacteria capable of oxidizing ferrous iron to ferric iron, were developed to treat hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Their corresponding bioreactors were referred to as BMS, BPC, and BFO, respectively. H(2)S loading, gas retention time, hydrogen ion, and aluminous, ferric, and ferrous iron concentrations of recycling effluents were evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis, Brauner-Emmett-Teller method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize packing materials. Results showed that the elimination capacity was in the order of BFO > BPC > BMS. This study suggested that the material characteristics progressively influenced the deodorization capacities of bioreactors. H(2)S was oxidized into elemental sulfur and oxidized sulfur species, according to differences of carriers. Furthermore, this study revealed the potential application of simultaneously treating of H(2)S under extremely acidic conditions.

  15. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2015-11-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree such simulations have potential for further improving odor and sulfide management. The campaign covered measurement of wastewater sulfide by grab sampling and diurnal sampling, and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere was logged. The tested model was based on the Wastewater Aerobic/Anaerobic Transformations in Sewers (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit with some uncertainty. It was concluded that the model could be applied for the purpose in mind.

  16. Bioconversion of high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur in airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed Abdel-Monaem; AlZahrani, Abdulraheem Ahmad; Noweir, Madbuli Hamed; El-Marakby, Fadia Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5-8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2 mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500 mg/L at pH values 8.0-8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8-8.5.

  17. Precise tuning in platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide interface nanowires for synergistic hydrogen evolution catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengtang; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Jin; Wan, Sheng; Guo, Shaojun; Lu, Gang; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2017-02-01

    Comprising abundant interfaces, multicomponent heterostructures can integrate distinct building blocks into single entities and yield exceptional functionalities enabled by the synergistic components. Here we report an efficient approach to construct one-dimensional metal/sulfide heterostructures by directly sulfuring highly composition-segregated platinum-nickel nanowires. The heterostructures possess a high density of interfaces between platinum-nickel and nickel sulfide components, which cooperate synergistically towards alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction. The platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide heterostructures can deliver a current density of 37.2 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 70 mV, which is 9.7 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C. The heterostructures also offer enhanced stability revealed by long-term chronopotentiometry measurements. The present work highlights a potentially powerful interface-engineering strategy for designing multicomponent heterostructures with advanced performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and beyond.

  18. Precise tuning in platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide interface nanowires for synergistic hydrogen evolution catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengtang; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Jin; Wan, Sheng; Guo, Shaojun; Lu, Gang; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Comprising abundant interfaces, multicomponent heterostructures can integrate distinct building blocks into single entities and yield exceptional functionalities enabled by the synergistic components. Here we report an efficient approach to construct one-dimensional metal/sulfide heterostructures by directly sulfuring highly composition-segregated platinum-nickel nanowires. The heterostructures possess a high density of interfaces between platinum-nickel and nickel sulfide components, which cooperate synergistically towards alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction. The platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide heterostructures can deliver a current density of 37.2 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of 70 mV, which is 9.7 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C. The heterostructures also offer enhanced stability revealed by long-term chronopotentiometry measurements. The present work highlights a potentially powerful interface-engineering strategy for designing multicomponent heterostructures with advanced performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and beyond. PMID:28239145

  19. Preconditioning of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with hydrogen sulfide improves their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qun; Liu, Song; Li, Tong; Yuan, Lin; Liu, Hansen; Wang, Xueer; Wang, Fuwu; Wang, Shuanglian; Hao, Aijun; Liu, Dexiang; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation has shown great promises for treating various brain diseases. However, poor viability of transplanted BMSCs in injured brain has limited the therapeutic efficiency. Hypoxia-ischemic injury is one of major mechanisms underlying the survival of transplanted BMSCs. We investigated the mechanism of preconditioning of BMSCs with hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for hypoxia-ischemic injury. In this study, we demonstrated that preconditioning of NaHS, a H2S donor, effectively suppressed hypoxia-ischemic-induced apoptosis whereby the rise in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Further analyses revealed Akt and ERK1/2 pathways were involved in the protective effects of NaHS. In addition, NaHS preconditioning increased secretion of BDNF and VEGF in BMSCs. Consistent with in vitro data, transplantation of NaHS preconditioned BMSCs in vivo further enhanced the therapeutic effects of BMSCs on neuronal injury and neurological recovery, associated with increased vessel density and upregulation of BDNF and VEGF in the ischemic tissue. These findings suggest that H2S could enhance the therapeutic effects of BMSCs. The underlying mechanisms might be due to enhanced capacity of BMSCs and upregulation of protective cytokines in the hypoxia tissue. PMID:27517324

  20. C. elegans Aging Is Modulated by Hydrogen Sulfide and the sulfhydrylase/cysteine Synthase cysl-2

    PubMed Central

    Qabazard, Bedoor; Ahmed, Samanza; Li, Ling; Arlt, Volker M.; Moore, Philip K.; Stürzenbaum, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) administration and endogenous H2S metabolism were explored in the nematode C. elegans. Chronic treatment with a slow-releasing H2S donor, GYY4137, extended median survival by 17-23% and increased tolerance towards oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Also, cysl-2, a sulfhydrylase/cysteine synthase in C. elegans, was transcriptionally upregulated by GYY4137 treatment and the deletion of cysl-2 resulted in a significant reduction in lifespan which was partially recovered by the supplementation of GYY4137. Likewise, a mammalian cell culture system, GYY4137 was able to protect bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) from oxidative stress and (H2O2)-induced cell death. Taken together, this provides further support that H2S exerts a protective function which is consistent with the longevity dividend theory. Overall, this study underlines the therapeutic potential of a slow-releasing H2S donor as regulators of the aging and cellular stress pathways. PMID:24260346

  1. Emergence of Hydrogen Sulfide as an Endogenous Gaseous Signaling Molecule in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Polhemus, David J.; Lefer, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Long recognized as a malodorous and highly toxic gas, recent experimental studies have revealed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced enzymatically in all mammalian species including man and exerts a number of critical actions to promote cardiovascular homeostasis and health. During the past 15 years, scientists have determined that H2S is produced by three endogenous enzymes and exerts powerful effects on endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear transcription factors. These effects have been reported in multiple organ systems and the vast majority of data clearly indicate that H2S produced by the endogenous enzymes exerts cytoprotective actions. Recent preclinical studies investigating cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that the administration of physiological or pharmacological levels of H2S attenuates myocardial injury, protects blood vessels, limits inflammation, and regulates blood pressure. H2S has emerged as a critical cardiovascular signaling molecule similar to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) with a profound impact on the heart and circulation (Figure 1). Our improved understanding of how H2S elicits protective actions, coupled with the very rapid development of novel H2S releasing agents, has resulted in heightened enthusiasm for the clinical translation of this ephemeral gaseous molecule. This review will examine our current state of knowledge regarding the actions of H2S within the cardiovascular system with an emphasis on the therapeutic potential and molecular crosstalk between H2S, NO, and CO. PMID:24526678

  2. The role of hydrogen sulfide in pathologies of the vital organs and its clinical application.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z; Chan, H; Ning, J; Lu, K; Ma, D

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is one of the more recently recognised gaseous transmitters that have been shown to be involved in a large range of cellular functions. While H(2)S generally has pro-survival and anti-apoptotic effects, at higher concentrations, this effect is reversed and it becomes anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic instead. H(2)S is also involved in a number of organ specific functions such as thermoregulation, modulating myocardial activity and broncho-dilation. H(2)S has organ protective effects in ischaemia, acting as a vasodilator and negative inotrope to reduce blood pressure. H(2)S generally has a protective effect in acute inflammation and oxidative stress from causes such as allergy and toxins. In chronic organ pathology, low H(2)S levels have been observed in a number of different diseases, while there is evidence that H(2)S may be beneficial in a number of chronic organ degenerations. A number of studies on human tissue and cell line conducted in the recent years shows H(2)S exerting largely similar effects in humans as those in animals. This may indicate that the pharmacological potential of H(2)S modulators could have therapeutic value in a large range of acute conditions such as ischaemia, toxin exposure as well as chronic conditions such as hypertension, lung diseases and neurodegenerative disease.

  3. VERIFICATION OF AMBIENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing concentration of livestock agriculture into animal feeding operations (AFOs) has raised concerns about the environmental and potential health impact of the emissions from AFOs into the atmosphere. Gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2...

  4. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  5. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS FROM THE REACTION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is of biological significance and may be implicated in the overall toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic. The course of the reaction in aqueous phase was monitored and an initial product, dimethylthioarsin...

  6. VERIFICATION OF AMBIENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing concentration of livestock agriculture into animal feeding operations (AFOs) has raised concerns about the environmental and potential health impact of the emissions from AFOs into the atmosphere. Gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2...

  7. Catalytic activity of in situ synthesized MoWNi sulfides in hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topolyuk, Yu. A.; Maksimov, A. L.; Kolyagin, Yu. G.

    2017-02-01

    MoWNi-sulfide catalysts were obtained in situ by thermal decomposition of metal-polymer precursors based on the copolymers of polymaleic anhydride in a hydrocarbon raw material. The activity of the synthesized catalysts in hydrogenation of bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied, and the composition and structure of active phase nanoparticles were determined.

  8. Human health cost of hydrogen sulfide air pollution from an oil and gas Field.

    PubMed

    Kenessary, Dinara; Kenessary, Almas; Kenessariyev, Ussen Ismailovich; Juszkiewicz, Konrad; Amrin, Meiram Kazievich; Erzhanova, Aya Eralovna

    2017-06-08

    Introduction and objective. The Karachaganak oil and gas condensate field (KOGCF), one of the largest in the world, located in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RoK) in Central Asia, is surrounded by 10 settlements with a total population of 9,000 people. Approximately73% of this population constantly mention a specific odour of rotten eggs in the air, typical for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, and the occurrence of low-level concentrations of hydrogen sulfide around certain industrial installations (esp. oil refineries) is a well known fact. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the impact on human health and the economic damage to the country due to H2S emissions. Materials and method. Dose-response dependency between H2S concentrations in the air and cardiovascular morbidity using multiple regression analysis was applied. Economic damage from morbidity was derived with a newly-developed method, with Kazakhstani peculiarities taken into account. Results.Hydrogen sulfide air pollution due to the KOGCF activity costs the state almost $60,000 per year. Moreover, this is the reason for a more than 40% rise incardiovascular morbidity in the region. Conclusion. The reduction of hydrogen sulfide emissions into the air is recommended, as well as successive constant ambient air monitoring in future. Economic damage evaluation should be made mandatory, on a legal basis, whenever an industrial facility operation results in associated air pollution.

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Mitigates Reperfusion Injury in a Porcine Model of Vascularized Composite Autotransplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    supporting an allograft that can improve quality of life but is not lifesaving. The skin component of a VCA is highly immunogenic and, in combination with...insights into hydrogen sulfide-mediated cytoprotection. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;12:1203Y1217. Annals of Plastic Surgery & Volume 72, Number 5, May

  10. Removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide using biochar produced from pyrolyzing animal manures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from livestock facilities is an important issue for many communities and livestock producers. The emission of these gases can be substantially reduced using adsorption filters filled with biochar produced from pyrolysis of livestock residuals such as c...

  11. Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

  12. Assessment of Hydrogen Sulfide Minimum Detection Limits of an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser

    EPA Science Inventory

    During June 2007, U.S. EPA conducted a feasibility study to determine whether the EPA OTM 10 measurement approach, also known as radial plume mapping (RPM), was feasible. A Boreal open-path tunable diode laser (OP-TDL) to collect path-integrated hydrogen sulfide measurements alon...

  13. Assessment of Hydrogen Sulfide Minimum Detection Limits of an Open Path Tunable Diode Laser

    EPA Science Inventory

    During June 2007, U.S. EPA conducted a feasibility study to determine whether the EPA OTM 10 measurement approach, also known as radial plume mapping (RPM), was feasible. A Boreal open-path tunable diode laser (OP-TDL) to collect path-integrated hydrogen sulfide measurements alon...

  14. [The effect of hydrogen sulfide on contractile activity of the vascular smooth muscles in rats].

    PubMed

    Semenykhina, O M; Baziliuk, O V; Korkach, Iu P; Sahach, V F

    2011-01-01

    The effect of endogenous and exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on contractile activity of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) was studied. The introduction of substrate synthesis H2S L-cysteine and its donor NaHS in vitro caused concentration-dependent relaxation of VSM of aorta and portal vein. Low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide donor (10(-5) mol/L) caused vasoconstriction of both types of the vessels. It was shown that the reaction of relaxation of VSM in response to NaHS is independent from endothelium. It was revealed that VSM of portal vein are more sensitive to the effects of H2S than VSM of aorta. Removing of aorta periadventitial adipose tissue showed no relaxation reply to the hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS in 70% of experiments. Some of the cellular mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide action were established, namely relaxation of aorta is depended on K(ATP) channel activation. This is manifested by a lack of relaxation of the aortic VSM due to K(ATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide.

  15. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  16. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. Its primary uses include the production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid, the manufacture of heavy water and other chemicals. Occupational exposure occurs primarily from its presence in petroleum, n...

  17. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. Its primary uses include the production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid, the manufacture of heavy water and other chemicals. Occupational exposure occurs primarily from its presence in petroleum, n...

  18. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS FROM THE REACTION OF DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID WITH HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reaction of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV) with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is of biological significance and may be implicated in the overall toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic. The course of the reaction in aqueous phase was monitored and an initial product, dimethylthioarsin...

  19. Comparison of field olfactometers in a controlled chamber using hydrogen sulfide as the test odorant.

    PubMed

    McGinley, M A; McGinley, C M

    2004-01-01

    A standard method for measuring and quantifying odour in the ambient air utilizes a portable odour detecting and measuring device known as a field olfactometer (US Public Health Service Project Grant A-58-541). The field olfactometer dynamically dilutes the ambient air with carbon-filtered air in distinct ratios known as "Dilutions-to-Threshold" dilution factors (D/Ts), i.e. 2, 4, 7, 15, etc. Thirteen US states and several cities in North America currently utilize field olfactometry as a key component of determining compliance to odour regulations and ordinances. A controlled environmental chamber was utilized, with hydrogen sulfide as the known test odorant. A hydrogen sulfide environment was created in this controlled chamber using an Advanced Calibration Designs, Inc. Cal2000 Hydrogen Sulfide Generator. The hydrogen sulfide concentration inside the chamber was monitored using an Arizona Instruments, Inc. Jerome Model 631 H2S Analyzer. When the environmental chamber reached a desired test concentration, test operators entered the chamber. The dilution-to-threshold odour concentration was measured using a Nasal Ranger Field Olfactometer (St Croix Sensory, Inc.) and a Barnebey Sutcliffe Corp. Scentometer. The actual hydrogen sulfide concentration was also measured at the location in the room where the operators were standing while using the two types of field olfactometers. This paper presents a correlation between dilution-to-threshold values (D/T) and hydrogen sulfide ambient concentration. For example, a D/T of 7 corresponds to ambient H2S concentrations of 5.7-15.6 microg/m3 (4-11 ppbv). During this study, no significant difference was found between results obtained using the Scentometer or the Nasal Ranger (r = 0.82). Also, no significant difference was found between results of multiple Nasal Ranger users (p = 0.309). The field olfactometers yielded hydrogen sulfide thresholds of 0.7-3.0 microg/m3 (0.5-2.0 ppbv). Laboratory olfactometry yielded comparable

  20. Use of AERMOD to Determine a Hydrogen Sulfide Emission Factor for Swine Operations by Inverse Modeling

    PubMed Central

    O’Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Altmaier, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine both optimal settings applied to the plume dispersion model, AERMOD, and a scalable emission factor for accurately determining the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the vicinity of swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations emit hydrogen sulfide from both housing structures and waste lagoons. With ambient measurements made at 4 stations within 1 km of large swine CAFOs in Iowa, an inverse-modeling approach applied to AERMOD was used to determine hydrogen sulfide emission rates. CAFO buildings were treated as volume sources whereas nearby lagoons were modeled as area sources. The robust highest concentration (RHC), calculated for both measured and modeled concentrations, was used as the metric for adjusting the emission rate until the ratio of the two RHC levels was unity. Utilizing this approach, an average emission flux rate of 0.57 µg/m2-s was determined for swine CAFO lagoons. Using the average total animal weight (kg) of each CAFO, an average emission factor of 6.06 × 10−7 µg/yr-m2-kg was calculated. From studies that measured either building or lagoon emission flux rates, building fluxes, on a floor area basis, were considered equal to lagoon flux rates. The emission factor was applied to all CAFOs surrounding the original 4 sites and surrounding an additional 6 sites in Iowa, producing an average modeled-to-measured RHC ratio of 1.24. When the emission factor was applied to AERMOD to simulate the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide around a hypothetical large swine CAFO (1M kg), concentrations 0.5 km from the CAFO were 35 ppb and dropped to 2 ppb within 6 km of the CAFO. These values compare to a level of 30 ppb that has been determined by the State of Iowa as a threshold level for ambient hydrogen sulfide levels. PMID:21804761

  1. Use of AERMOD to Determine a Hydrogen Sulfide Emission Factor for Swine Operations by Inverse Modeling.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T; Altmaier, Ralph

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine both optimal settings applied to the plume dispersion model, AERMOD, and a scalable emission factor for accurately determining the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide concentrations in the vicinity of swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations emit hydrogen sulfide from both housing structures and waste lagoons. With ambient measurements made at 4 stations within 1 km of large swine CAFOs in Iowa, an inverse-modeling approach applied to AERMOD was used to determine hydrogen sulfide emission rates. CAFO buildings were treated as volume sources whereas nearby lagoons were modeled as area sources. The robust highest concentration (RHC), calculated for both measured and modeled concentrations, was used as the metric for adjusting the emission rate until the ratio of the two RHC levels was unity. Utilizing this approach, an average emission flux rate of 0.57 µg/m(2)-s was determined for swine CAFO lagoons. Using the average total animal weight (kg) of each CAFO, an average emission factor of 6.06 × 10(-7) µg/yr-m(2)-kg was calculated. From studies that measured either building or lagoon emission flux rates, building fluxes, on a floor area basis, were considered equal to lagoon flux rates. The emission factor was applied to all CAFOs surrounding the original 4 sites and surrounding an additional 6 sites in Iowa, producing an average modeled-to-measured RHC ratio of 1.24. When the emission factor was applied to AERMOD to simulate the spatial distribution of hydrogen sulfide around a hypothetical large swine CAFO (1M kg), concentrations 0.5 km from the CAFO were 35 ppb and dropped to 2 ppb within 6 km of the CAFO. These values compare to a level of 30 ppb that has been determined by the State of Iowa as a threshold level for ambient hydrogen sulfide levels.

  2. Cystathionine β-synthase-derived hydrogen sulfide is involved in human malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Vellecco, Valentina; Mancini, Antonio; Ianaro, Angela; Calderone, Vincenzo; Attanasio, Chiara; Cantalupo, Anna; Andria, Barbara; Savoia, Gennaro; Panza, Elisabetta; Di Martino, Antonietta; Cirino, Giuseppe; Bucci, Mariarosaria

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous gasotransmitter and its mechanism of action involves activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and phosphodiesterase inhibition. As both mechanisms are potentially involved in malignant hyperthermia (MH), in the present study we addressed the involvement of the L-cysteine/hydrogen sulfide pathway in MH. Skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from 25 MH-susceptible (MHS) and 56 MH-negative (MHN) individuals have been used to perform the in vitro contracture test (IVCT). Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting studies have also been performed. Hydrogen sulfide levels are measured in both tissue samples and plasma. In MHS biopsies an increase in cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) occurs, as both mRNA and protein expression compared with MHN biopsies. Hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis is increased in MHS biopsies (0.128±0.12 compared with 0.943±0.13 nmol/mg of protein per min for MHN and MHS biopsies, respectively; P<0.01). Addition of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) to MHS samples evokes a response similar, in the IVCT, to that elicited by either caffeine or halothane. Incubation of MHN biopsies with NaHS, before caffeine or halothane challenge, switches an MHN to an MHS response. In conclusion we demonstrate the involvement of the L-cysteine/hydrogen sulfide pathway in MH, giving new insight into MH molecular mechanisms. This finding has potential implications for clinical care and could help to define less invasive diagnostic procedures.

  3. Kinetics and the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide removal by biochar derived from rice hull.

    PubMed

    Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Chen, Ping; Shen, Guoqing; Li, Qiwu

    2016-05-01

    The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperature has great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperature, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biochar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09 mg·g(-1), 2.65 mg·g(-1), 16.30 mg·g(-1), 20.80 mg·g(-1), and 382.70 mg·g(-1), which their pyrolysis temperatures were 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, it analyzed the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar. The paper focuses on the biochar derived from rice hull-removed hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperatures have great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperatures, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biohar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09, 2.65, 16.30, 20.80, and 382.70 mg·g(-1), and their pyrolysis temperatures were 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C, respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar was analyzed.

  4. SIRT3 Mediates the Antioxidant Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liping; Feng, Haihua; Li, Sha; Meng, Guoliang; Liu, Shangmin; Tang, Xin; Ma, Yan; Han, Yi; Xiao, Yujiao; Gu, Yue; Shao, Yongfeng; Park, Chung-Min; Xian, Ming; Huang, Yu; Ferro, Albert; Wang, Rui; Moore, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Oxidative stress is a key contributor to endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular pathogenesis. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an antioxidant gasotransmitter that protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress. Sirtuin3 (SIRT3), which belongs to the silent information regulator 2 (SIR2) family, is an important deacetylase under oxidative stress. H2S is able to regulate the activity of several sirtuins. The present study aims to investigate the role of SIRT3 in the antioxidant effect of H2S in endothelial cells. Results: Cultured EA.hy926 endothelial cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a model of oxidative stress-induced cell injury. GYY4137, a slow-releasing H2S donor, improved cell viability, reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis, and improved mitochondrial function following H2O2 treatment. H2S reversed the stimulation of MAPK phosphorylation, downregulation of SIRT3 mRNA and reduction of the superoxide dismutase 2 and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 expression which were induced by H2O2. H2S also increased activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity with SIRT3 promoter and this effect was absent in the presence of the specific AP-1 inhibitor, SR11302 or curcumin. Paraquat administration to mice induced a defected endothelium-dependent aortic vasodilatation and increased oxidative stress in both mouse aorta and small mesenteric artery, which were alleviated by GYY4137 treatment. This vasoprotective effect of H2S was absent in SIRT3 knockout mice. Innovation: The present results highlight a novel role for SIRT3 in the protective effect of H2S against oxidant damage in the endothelium both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: H2S enhances AP-1 binding activity with the SIRT3 promoter, thereby upregulating SIRT3 expression and ultimately reducing oxidant-provoked vascular endothelial dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 329–343. PMID:26422756

  5. Autotrophic denitrification for combined hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas and post-denitrification.

    PubMed

    Kleerebezem, R; Mendez, R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe an alternative flow-chart for full treatment of wastewaters rich in organic substrates, ammonia (or organic nitrogen), and sulfate, such as those generated in fish cannery industries. Biogas generated during anaerobic pretreatment of these wastewaters is rich in hydrogen sulfide that needs to be removed to enable application of the biogas. Nitrogen elimination is traditionally achieved by subsequent nitrification and denitrification of the effluent of the anaerobic reactor. Alternatively, the hydrogen sulfide in the biogas can be applied as an electron donor in an autotrophic post-denitrification step. In order to study whether sufficient hydrogen sulfide containing biogas for denitrification was produced in the anaerobic reactor, the biogas composition as a function of the anaerobic reactor-pH was estimated based on a typical wastewater composition and chemical equilibrium equations. It is demonstrated that typical sulfate and nitrogen concentrations in fish cannery wastewater are highly appropriate for application of autotrophic post-denitrification. A literature review furthermore suggested that the kinetic parameters for autotrophic denitrification by Thiobacillus denitrificans represent no bottleneck for its application. Initial experimental studies in fixed-film reactors were conducted with sodium sulfide and nitrate as an electron donor-acceptor couple. The results revealed that only moderate volumetric treatment capacities (< 1 g-NO3- N l(-1) day(-1)) could be achieved. Mass balances suggested that incomplete sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur occurred, limiting biomass retention and the treatment capacity of the reactor. Future research should clarify the questions concerning product formation from sulfide oxidation.

  6. Sulfur Dioxide Enhances Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Accumulation and Alleviates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum Stress in Germinating Wheat Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Dong-Bo; Hu, Kang-Di; Guo, Xi-Kai; Liu, Yong; Hu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yan-Hong; Wang, Song-Hua; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum ions are especially toxic to plants in acidic soils. Here we present evidences that SO2 protects germinating wheat grains against aluminum stress. SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3) pretreatment at 1.2 mM reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde, enhanced the activities of guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and decreased the activity of lipoxygenase in germinating wheat grains exposed to Al stress. We also observed higher accumulation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in SO2-pretreated grain, suggesting the tight relation between sulfite and sulfide. Wheat grains geminated in water for 36 h were pretreated with or without 1 mM SO2 donor for 12 h prior to exposure to Al stress for 48 h and the ameliorating effects of SO2 on wheat radicles were studied. SO2 donor pretreatment reduced the content of reactive oxygen species, protected membrane integrity, and reduced Al accumulation in wheat radicles. Gene expression analysis showed that SO2 donor pretreatment decreased the expression of Al-responsive genes TaWali1, TaWali2, TaWali3, TaWali5, TaWali6, and TaALMT1 in radicles exposed to Al stress. These results suggested that SO2 could increase endogenous H2S accumulation and the antioxidant capability and decrease endogenous Al content in wheat grains to alleviate Al stress. PMID:26078810

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide as a "Double-Faced" Compound: One with Pro- and Antioxidant Effect.

    PubMed

    Olas, B

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), like other gasotransmitters such as nitric oxide (NO(•)) and carbon monoxide (CO), acts as a signaling molecule in various biological systems. It may also regulate the oxidative stress observed in several diseases sometimes associated with changes of H2S concentration. This chapter describes the "double face" of hydrogen sulfide as both an antioxidant and a prooxidant in biological systems. One proposed mechanism by which H2S exerts its antioxidative effects is its ability to modulate the concentration of glutathione, which is a very important physiological antioxidant. This chapter discusses the interactions of H2S with various reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, including the superoxide radical anion [Formula: see text] , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)), which is produced in a rapid reaction between [Formula: see text] and NO(•).

  8. Hydrogen sulfide, bacteria, and fish: a unique, subterranean food chain.

    PubMed

    Roach, Katherine A; Tobler, Michael; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2011-11-01

    Photoautotrophs are generally considered to be the base of food webs, and habitats that lack light, such as caves, frequently rely on surface-derived carbon. Here we show, based on analysis of gut contents and stable isotope ratios of tissues (13C:12C and 15N:14N), that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria are directly consumed and assimilated by the fish Poecilia mexicana in a sulfide-rich cave stream in Tabasco state, Mexico. Our results provide evidence of a vertebrate deriving most of its organic carbon and nitrogen from in situ chemoautotrophic production, and reveals the importance of alternative energy production sources supporting animals in extreme environments.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide adsorption on MOFs and MOF/graphite oxide composites.

    PubMed

    Petit, Camille; Mendoza, Barbara; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2010-12-03

    Composites of a copper-based metal-organic framework (MOF) and graphite oxide (GO) were tested for hydrogen sulfide removal at ambient conditions. In order to understand the mechanisms of adsorption, the initial and exhausted samples were analyzed by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and sorption of nitrogen. Compared to the parent materials, an enhancement in hydrogen sulfide adsorption was found. It was the result of physical adsorption of water and H(2)S in the pore space formed at the interface between the MOF units and the graphene layers where the dispersive forces are the strongest. Besides physisorption, reactive adsorption was found as the main mechanism of retention. H(2)S molecules bind to the copper centers of the MOF. They progressively react with the MOF units resulting in the formation of copper sulfide. This leads to the collapse of the MOF structure. Water enhances adsorption in the composites as it allows the dissolution of hydrogen sulfide.

  10. Electrochemical polishing of hydrogen sulfide from coal synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, E.F.; Winnick, J.

    1995-11-01

    An advanced process has been developed for the separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane. This technology is developed for use in coal gasification facilities providing fuel for cogeneration coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas by reduction to the sulfide ion and H at the cathode. The sulfide ion migrates to the anode through a molten salt electrolyte suspended in an inert ceramic matrix. Once at the anode it is oxidized to elemental sulfur and swept away for condensation in an inert gas stream. The syn-gas is enriched with the H{sub 2}. Order-of-magnitude reductions in H{sub 2}S have been repeatably recorded (100 ppm to 10 ppm H{sub 2}S) on a single pass through the cell. This process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. Since there are no absorbents used, there is no absorption/regeneration step as with conventional technology. Elemental sulfur is produced as a by-product directly, so there is no need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. This makes the process economically attractive since it is much less equipment intensive than conventional technology.

  11. Optimum reaction ratio of coal fly ash to blast furnace cement for effective removal of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Okamura, Hideo; Kim, Kyunghoi; Hatanaka, Yuzuru; Nakamoto, Kenji; Hino, Kazutoshi; Oikawa, Takahito; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Okuda, Tetsuji

    2017-02-01

    Reducing hydrogen sulfide concentration in eutrophic marine sediments is crucial to maintaining healthy aquatic ecosystems. Managing fly ash, 750 million tons of which is generated annually throughout the world, is another serious environmental problem. In this study, we develop an approach that addresses both these issues by mixing coal fly ash from coal-fired power plants with blast furnace cement to remediate eutrophic sediments. The purpose of this study is to optimize the mixing ratio of coal fly ash and blast furnace cement to improve the rate of hydrogen sulfide removal based on scientific evidence obtained by removal experiments and XAFS, XRD, BET, and SEM images. In the case of 10 mg-S L(-1) of hydrogen sulfide, the highest removal rate of hydrogen sulfide was observed for 87 wt% of coal fly ash due to decreased competition of adsorption between sulfide and hydroxyl ions. Whereas regarding 100 mg-S L(-1), the hydrogen sulfide removal rate was the highest for 95 wt% of coal fly ash. However, for both concentrations, the removal rate obtained by 87 wt% and 95 wt% were statistically insignificant. The crushing strength of the mixture was over 1.2 N mm(-2) when the coal fly ash mixing ratio was less than 95 wt%. Consequently, the mixing ratio of coal fly ash was optimized at 87 wt% in terms of achieving both high hydrogen sulfide removal rate and sufficient crushing strength.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide differentially affects the hepatic vasculature in response to phenylephrine and endothelin 1 during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Eric J; Larion, Sebastian; Culberson, Catherine R; Clemens, Mark G

    2013-02-01

    Despite being protective in many disease states, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) contributes to organ injury in sepsis. Like the other gasotransmitters, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, H(2)S is a modulator of the microcirculation. Because microcirculatory dysfunction is a main cause of organ injury during sepsis, the present study was designed to test the effect of H(2)S on microvascular dysfunction in isolated perfused livers. In most microcirculatory beds, endotoxin activates the endothelium, resulting in hyporesponsiveness to catecholamines and a derangement in blood flow distribution. We demonstrate that H(2)S treatment attenuates the increase in portal pressure during infusion of the α1 adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE) (P < 0.01). Hydrogen sulfide almost completely negated the increase in portal pressure in livers isolated from endotoxemic rats. Treatment with an inhibitor of endogenous H(2)S, DL-propargylglycine (PAG), reversed lipopolysaccharide-induced hyporesponsiveness to PE. Because hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction is associated with excessive sinusoidal vasoconstriction and not dilation, we investigated whether H(2)S affects endothelin 1 (ET-1)-induced vasoconstriction in isolated livers. Contrary to PE treatment, H(2)S did not affect the increase in portal pressure during infusion of ET-1, nor did it attenuate the hypersensitization of the liver to ET-1 during endotoxemia. Hepatic resistance in control rats was increased by PAG treatment during ET-1 infusion, but this increase was not exacerbated during endotoxemia. We monitored hepatic O(2) consumption to assess the effect of vascular changes on oxygen consumption following ET-1 treatment. Low-dose ET-1 infusion caused an increase in hepatic O(2)consumption, whereas low-dose ET-1 infusion decreased O(2) consumption in endotoxemic livers. Interestingly, whereas we observed no effect of PAG on the vascular response to ET-1 infusion during endotoxemia, PAG treatment did maintain O(2), suggesting a

  13. The Cardioprotective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Heart Diseases: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yaqi; Shen, Zhuqing; Luo, Shanshan; Guo, Wei; Zhu, Yi Zhun

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now recognized as a third gaseous mediator along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), though it was originally considered as a malodorous and toxic gas. H2S is produced endogenously from cysteine by three enzymes in mammalian tissues. An increasing body of evidence suggests the involvement of H2S in different physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies have shown that H2S has the potential to protect the heart against myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, fibrosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure. Some mechanisms, such as antioxidative action, preservation of mitochondrial function, reduction of apoptosis, anti-inflammatory responses, angiogenic actions, regulation of ion channel, and interaction with NO, could be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of H2S. Although several mechanisms have been identified, there is a need for further research to identify the specific molecular mechanism of cardioprotection in different cardiac diseases. Therefore, insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying H2S action in the heart may promote the understanding of pathophysiology of cardiac diseases and lead to new therapeutic targets based on modulation of H2S production. PMID:26078822

  14. Broad-Range Antiviral Activity of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bazhanov, Nikolay; Escaffre, Olivier; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Casola, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an important endogenous mediator that has been the focus of intense investigation in the past few years, leading to the discovery of its role in vasoactive, cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory responses. Recently, we made a critical observation that H2S also has a protective role in paramyxovirus infection by modulating inflammatory responses and viral replication. In this study we tested the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of the H2S slow-releasing donor GYY4137 on enveloped RNA viruses from Ortho-, Filo-, Flavi- and Bunyavirus families, for which there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic available, with the exception of influenza. We found that GYY4137 significantly reduced replication of all tested viruses. In a model of influenza infection, GYY4137 treatment was associated with decreased expression of viral proteins and mRNA, suggesting inhibition of an early step of replication. The antiviral activity coincided with the decrease of viral-induced pro-inflammatory mediators and viral-induced nuclear translocation of transcription factors from Nuclear Factor (NF)-kB and Interferon Regulatory Factor families. In conclusion, increasing cellular H2S is associated with significant antiviral activity against a broad range of emerging enveloped RNA viruses, and should be further explored as potential therapeutic approach in relevant preclinical models of viral infections. PMID:28106111

  15. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Jiao, Chengjin; Su, Miao; Yang, Tao; Zhou, Lina; Peng, Renyi; Wang, Ranran; Wang, Chongying

    2013-09-01

    Flooding of soils often results in hypoxic conditions surrounding plant roots, which is a harmful abiotic stress to crops. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly diffusible, gaseous molecule that modulates cell signaling and is involved in hypoxia signaling in animal cells. However, there have been no previous studies of H2S in plant cells in response to hypoxia. The effects of H2S on hypoxia-induced root tip death were studied in pea (Pisum sativum) via analysis of endogenous H2S and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The activities of key enzymes involved in antioxidative and H2S metabolic pathways were determined using spectrophotometric assays. Ethylene was measured by gas chromatography. We found that exogenous H2S pretreatment dramatically alleviated hypoxia-induced root tip death by protecting root tip cell membranes from ROS damage induced by hypoxia and by stimulating a quiescence strategy through inhibiting ethylene production. Conversely, root tip death induced by hypoxia was strongly enhanced by inhibition of the key enzymes responsible for endogenous H2S biosynthesis. Our results demonstrated that exogenous H2S pretreatment significantly alleviates hypoxia-induced root tip death in pea seedlings and, therefore, enhances the tolerance of the plant to hypoxic stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide removal under starvation and shock loads conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan-he; Meng, Xiu-li; Wang, Ying; Liu, Li-dan

    2009-01-01

    In the industrial operation of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal, shock loads or starvation was common due to process variations or equipment malfunctions. In this study, effects of starvation and shock loads on the performance of biotrickling filters for H2S removal were investigated. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the changes of biomass and viable bacteria numbers in the biotrickling filters during a 24-d starvation. Compared to biomass, viable bacteria numbers decreased significantly during the starvation, especially when airflow was maintained in the absence of spray liquid. During the subsequent re-acclimation, all the bioreactors could resume high removal efficiencies within 4 d regardless of the previous starvation conditions. The results show that the re-acclimation time, in the case of biotrickling filters for H2S removal, is mainly controlled by viable H2S oxidizing bacteria numbers. On the other hand, the biotrickling filters can protect against shock loads in inlet fluctuating H2S concentration after resuming normal operation. When the biotrickling filters were supplied with H2S at an input of lower than 1700 mg/m3, their removal efficiencies were nearly 98% regardless of previous H2S input. PMID:19650198

  17. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide prevents neurodegeneration and movement disorder in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kida, Kotaro; Yamada, Marina; Tokuda, Kentaro; Marutani, Eizo; Kakinohana, Manabu; Kaneki, Masao; Ichinose, Fumito

    2011-07-15

    Parkinson's disease is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders. Neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can cause Parkinson's disease-like symptoms and biochemical changes in humans and animals. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been shown to protect neurons. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of inhaled H(2)S in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP. Male C57BL/6J mice received MPTP at 80 mg/kg and breathed air with or without 40 ppm H(2)S for 8 h/day for 7 days. Administration of MPTP induced movement disorder and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-containing neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum in mice that breathed air. Inhalation of H(2)S prevented the MPTP-induced movement disorder and the degeneration of TH-containing neurons. Inhaled H(2)S also prevented apoptosis of the TH-containing neurons and gliosis in nigrostriatal region after administration of MPTP. The neuroprotective effect of inhaled H(2)S after MPTP administration was associated with upregulation of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, including heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase. These observations suggest that inhaled H(2)S prevents neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP, potentially via upregulation of antioxidant defense mechanisms and inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis in the brain.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Feng, Yu; Zhan, Zhoubing; Chen, Jianchang

    2014-10-17

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney diseases. This study was designed to investigate whether H2S has protective effects against diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and administrated with H2S donor NaHS for 12 weeks. Rat glomerular mesangial cells were pretreated with NaHS or MAPK inhibitors (U0126, SP600125, and SB203580) prior to high glucose exposure, and cell proliferation was determined. Our findings suggest that H2S can improve renal function and attenuate glomerular basement membrane thickening, mesangial matrix deposition, and renal interstitial fibrosis in diabetic rats. H2S was found to reduce high glucose-induced oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway and to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. In addition, H2S reduced high glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation by blockade of MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, H2S was also found to inhibit the renin-angiotensin system in diabetic kidney. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that H2S alleviates the development of diabetic nephropathy by attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation, reducing mesangial cell proliferation, and inhibiting renin-angiotensin system activity.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits rotenone-induced apoptosis via preservation of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Fang; Lu, Ming; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Wong, Peter T-H; Bian, Jin-Song

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator, which plays critical roles in the central nervous system affecting both neurons and glial cells. However, its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases is unexplored. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of H(2)S on cell injury induced by rotenone, a commonly used toxin in establishing in vivo and in vitro Parkinson's disease (PD) models, in human-derived dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y). We report here that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H(2)S donor, concentration-dependently suppressed rotenone-induced cellular injury and apoptotic cell death. NaHS also prevented rotenone-induced p38- and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and rotenone-mediated changes in Bcl-2/Bax levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) dissipation, cytochrome c release, caspase-9/3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Furthermore, 5-hydroxydecanoate, a selective blocker of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channel, attenuated the protective effects of NaHS against rotenone-induced cell apoptosis. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that H(2)S inhibited rotenone-induced cell apoptosis via regulation of mitoK(ATP) channel/p38- and JNK-MAPK pathway. Our data suggest that H(2)S may have potential therapeutic value for neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide-releasing NSAIDs attenuate neuroinflammation induced by microglial and astrocytic activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonhee; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; McGeer, Edith; McGeer, Patrick L

    2010-01-01

    Endogenously generated hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) may have multiple functions in brain. It has been shown that H(2)S attenuates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. Here we demonstrate a neuroprotective effect of NaSH and three H(2)S-releasing compounds, ADT-OH, S-diclofenac, and S-aspirin. When activated by LPS and gamma-interferon, human microglia and THP-1 cells release materials that are toxic to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. These phenomena also occur with gamma-interferon-stimulated human astroglia and U118 cells. When these cell types are pretreated with aspirin, diclofenac, NASH, or ADT-OH, the supernatants are significantly less toxic. When they are treated with the NSAID-H(2)S hybrid molecules S-diclofenac and S-aspirin, which are here referred to as S-NSAIDs, there is a significant enhancement of the protection. The effect is concentration and incubation time dependent. Such pretreatment also reduces the release of the proinflammatory mediators TNFalpha, IL-6, and nitric oxide. The H(2)S-releasing compounds are without effect when applied directly to SH-SY5Y cells. These data suggest that hybrid H(2)S releasing compounds have significant antiinflammatory properties and may be candidates for treating neurodegenerative disorders that have a prominent neuroinflammatory component such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

  1. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  2. Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  3. Involvement of ERK in NMDA receptor-independent cortical neurotoxicity of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kurokawa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kubo, Satoko; Yamasaki, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Sachi; Okamoto, Yukari; Sekimoto, Teruki; Fukatsu, Anna; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kume, Toshiaki; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen sulfide causes NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity in mouse fetal cortical neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of ERK mediates the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptotic mechanisms are involved in the hydrogen-induced cell death. -- Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a gasotransmitter, exerts both neurotoxicity and neuroprotection, and targets multiple molecules including NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NO synthase (NOS) that might affect neuronal viability. Here, we determined and characterized effects of NaHS, an H{sub 2}S donor, on cell viability in the primary cultures of mouse fetal cortical neurons. NaHS caused neuronal death, as assessed by LDH release and trypan blue staining, but did not significantly reduce the glutamate toxicity. The neurotoxicity of NaHS was resistant to inhibitors of NMDA receptors, T-type calcium channels and NOS, and was blocked by inhibitors of MEK, but not JNK, p38 MAP kinase, PKC and Src. NaHS caused prompt phosphorylation of ERK and upregulation of Bad, followed by translocation of Bax to mitochondria and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, leading to the nuclear condensation/fragmentation. These effects of NaHS were suppressed by the MEK inhibitor. Our data suggest that the NMDA receptor-independent neurotoxicity of H{sub 2}S involves activation of the MEK/ERK pathway and some apoptotic mechanisms.

  4. Fluorescence chemosensors for hydrogen sulfide detection in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhi; Chen, Guiqiu; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhongwu; Chen, Anwei; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Longbo

    2015-03-21

    A comprehensive review of the development of H2S fluorescence-sensing strategies, including sensors based on chemical reactions and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of fluorescence-sensing strategies are compared with those of traditional methods. Fluorescence chemosensors, especially those used in FRET sensing, are highly promising because of their low cost, technical simplicity, and their use in real-time sulfide imaging in living cells. Potential applications based on sulfate reduction to H2S, the relationship between sulfate-reducing bacteria activity and H2S yield, and real-time detection of sulfate-reducing bacteria activity using fluorescence sensors are described. The current challenges, such as low sensitivity and poor stability, are discussed.

  5. High temperature hydrogen sulfide removal with tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.J.; Feinberg, D.; Wickham, D.; Windecker, B.; Yu, J.

    1993-06-01

    This Phase II SBIR contract is developing a sorbent and process which removes H{sub 2}S from hot gasified coal and generates sulfur during regeneration of the sorbent. The process can be used with any type of reactor (e.g., fixed or moving bed) and any gasifier (e.g., KRW or Texaco) and shows lower costs that competing H{sub 2}S removal processes. TDA Research`s (TDA) process uses a regenerable stannic oxide-based (SnO{sub 2}) sorbent as the first sorbent and zinc ferrite (or zinc titanate) as a second sorbent to remove H{sub 2}S to very low concentrations. The process converts the sulfides from both sorbents to elemental sulfur, a commercial product which is easy to store and transport. The object of this phase is to develop chemically active, high sulfur loadings, and durable stannic oxide sorbents and to demonstrate the process at the bench scale.

  6. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monaem Zytoon, Mohamed; Ahmad AlZahrani, Abdulraheem; Hamed Noweir, Madbuli; Ahmed El-Marakby, Fadia

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008 ppm and 31,215 ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113 g H2S m−3 h−1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2 mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500 mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5. PMID:25147857

  7. Elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide in homes with 'Chinese Drywall'.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L; Saltzman, Lori E; Baker, Brian J; Matheson, Joanna M; Recht, Joel R; Minegishi, Taeko; Fragala, Matt A; Myatt, Theodore A; Spengler, John D; Stewart, James H; McCarthy, John F

    2012-06-01

    In December 2008, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) began receiving reports about odors, corrosion, and health concerns related to drywall originating from China. In response, a detailed environmental health and engineering evaluation was conducted of 41 complaint and 10 non-complaint homes in the Southeast U.S. Each home investigation included characterization of: 1) drywall composition; 2) indoor and outdoor air quality; 3) temperature, moisture, and building ventilation; and 4) copper and silver corrosion rates. Complaint homes had significantly higher hydrogen sulfide concentrations (mean 0.82 vs. sulfide and silver sulfide corrosion compared to non-complaint homes (Cu(2)S: 476 vs. <32 Å/30 d, p<0.01; Ag(2)S: 1472 vs. 389 Å/30 d, p<0.01). The abundance of carbonate and strontium in drywall was also elevated in complaint homes, and appears to be useful objective marker of problematic drywall in homes that meet other screening criteria (e.g., constructed or renovated in 2006-2007, reports of malodor and accelerated corrosion). This research provides empirical evidence of the direct association between homes constructed with 'Chinese Drywall' in 2006-2007 and elevated corrosion rates and hydrogen sulfide concentrations in indoor air.

  8. Mechanistic study of microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

    2001-09-05

    Microbial control of biogenic production of hydrogen sulfide in oil fields was studied in a model system consisting of pure cultures of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacterium (NR-SOB) Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO and the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac6, as well as in microbial cultures enriched from produced water of a Canadian oil reservoir. The presence of nitrate at concentrations up to 20 mM had little effect on the rate of sulfate reduction by a pure culture of Lac6. Addition of CVO imposed a strong inhibition effect on production of sulfide. In the absence of added nitrate SRB we were able to overcome this effect after an extended lag phase. Simultaneous addition of CVO and nitrate stopped the production of H2S immediately. The concentration of sulfide decreased to a negligible level due to nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation activity of CVO. This was not prevented by raising the concentration of Na-lactate, the electron donor for sulfate reduction. Similar results were obtained with enrichment cultures. Enrichments of produced water with sulfide and nitrate were dominated by CVO, whereas enrichments with sulfate and Na-lactate were dominated by SRB. Addition of an NR-SOB enrichment to an SRB enrichment inhibited the production of sulfide. Subsequent addition of sufficient nitrate caused the sulfide concentration to drop to zero. A similar response was seen in the presence of nitrate alone, although after a pronounced lag time, it was needed for emergence of a sizable CVO population. The results of the present study show that two mechanisms are involved in microbial control of biogenic sulfide production. First, addition of NR-SOB imposes an inhibition effect, possibly by increasing the environmental redox potential to levels which are inhibitory for SRB. Second, in the presence of sufficient nitrate, NR-SOB oxidize sulfide, leading to its complete removal from the environment. Successful microbial control of H2S in

  9. Evidence for methane and hydrogen sulfide venting imprinted on a Quaternary eolianite from southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druckman, Y.; Weissbrod, T.; Aharon, P.

    1994-06-01

    Two different and physically separated chemosynthetic communities of bacteria are responsible for the formation of the Beeri native sulfur deposit hosted in a Late Quaternary sandstone on the southern coastal plain of Israel. The enriched concentrations are distributed over an area of about 1 km2, within a zone 2 3 m thick at 1 13 m below surface. Two hundred fifty meters below the sulfur deposit, sulfur-reducing bacteria, thriving on methane generated in Neogene marls, reduced the Messinian gypsum to generate hydrogen sulfide, which subaqueously vented together with methane into the siliciclastic Quaternary sequence. Another, different chemosynthetic community ofBeggiatoa-like and unidentified bacteria oxidized the hydrogen sulfide into native sulfur and secondary gypsum, alunite, and iron sulfates. The coupled chemical and bacterial processes attributed to the formation of the sulfur deposit at Beeri are strikingly similar to the processes occurring today in the context of submarine hydrocarbon vents associated with the salt diapirs in the Gulf of Mexico.

  10. The role of hydrogen sulfide in aging and age-related pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Perridon, Bernard W.; Leuvenink, Henri G.D.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; van Goor, Harry; Bos, Eelke M.

    2016-01-01

    When humans grow older, they experience inevitable and progressive loss of physiological function, ultimately leading to death. Research on aging largely focuses on the identification of mechanisms involved in the aging process. Several proposed aging theories were recently combined as the ‘hallmarks of aging’. These hallmarks describe (patho-)physiological processes that together, when disrupted, determine the aging phenotype. Sustaining evidence shows a potential role for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the regulation of aging. Nowadays, H2S is acknowledged as an endogenously produced signaling molecule with various (patho-) physiological effects. H2S is involved in several diseases including pathologies related to aging. In this review, the known, assumed and hypothetical effects of hydrogen sulfide on the aging process will be discussed by reviewing its actions on the hallmarks of aging and on several age-related pathologies. PMID:27683311

  11. Esterase-Sensitive Prodrugs with Tunable Release Rates and Direct Generation of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Ji, Kaili; Pan, Zhixiang; Chittavong, Vayou; Wang, Binghe

    2016-03-24

    Prodrugs that release hydrogen sulfide upon esterase-mediated cleavage of an ester group followed by lactonization are described herein. By modifying the ester group and thus its susceptibility to esterase, and structural features critical to the lactonization rate, H2 S release rates can be tuned. Such prodrugs directly release hydrogen sulfide without the involvement of perthiol species, which are commonly encountered with existing H2 S donors. Additionally, such prodrugs can easily be conjugated to another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, leading to easy synthesis of hybrid prodrugs. As a biological validation of the H2 S prodrugs, the anti-inflammatory effects of one such prodrug were examined by studying its ability to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells. This type of H2 S prodrugs shows great potential as both research tools and therapeutic agents.

  12. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  13. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  14. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  15. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  16. Use of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as recognition elements in hydrogen sulfide biosensing system.

    PubMed

    Janfada, Behdokht; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Four sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus thioparus, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans PTCC1717, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans PTCC1646, and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans PTCC1647) were used as biorecognition elements in a hydrogen sulfide biosensing system. All the experiments were performed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution containing 1-20 ppm H2S with optimum pH and temperature for each species. Although H2 S was applied to the biosensing system, the dissolved O2 content decreased. Dissolved O2 consumed by cells in both free and immobilized forms was measured using a dissolved oxygen sensor. Free bacterial cells exhibit fast response (<200 Sec). Immobilization of the cells on polyvinyl alcohol was optimized using an analytical software. Immobilized A. ferrooxidans and A. thiooxidans retained more than 50% of activity after 30 days of immobilization. According to the data, A. thiooxidans and A. ferrooxidans are appropriate species for hydrogen sulfide biosensor. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide production in surface layers of sediments in the Atlantic Ocean (from radioisotope data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lein, A. Yu.; Ivanov, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The report presents the results of 35S-radioisotope researches of sulfate reduction rates in Holocene sediments (0-20 cm) of the shelf and the continental slope at the eastern coasts of the Atlantic Ocean from 81° N to 25° S, including sediments in the most environmentally hazardous upwelling zones. Data from experiments on the rates of sulfate reduction were used in calculating the production of hydrogen sulfide. The rates of sulfate reduction are comparable at the polar shelf and the equatorial area of the influence of the Congo River (11.9 and 14.96 mg S/m2 day, respectively). It must be acknowledged that the production of microbial diagenetic hydrogen sulfide is first affected by the content and composition of organic matter in the sediments and secondly by the thermal conditions of the basin.

  18. Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

    2008-05-31

    The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates

  19. Health effects from chronic low-level exposure to hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Legator, M S; Singleton, C R; Morris, D L; Philips, D L

    2001-01-01

    The acute toxic effects of hydrogen sulfide have been known for decades. However, studies investigating the adverse health effects from chronic, low-level exposure to this chemical are limited. In this study, the authors compared symptoms of adverse health effects, reported by residents of two communities exposed mainly to chronic, low-levels of industrial sources of hydrogen sulfide, to health effects reported by residents in three reference communities in which there were no known industrial sources of hydrogen sulfide. Trained interviewers used a specially created, menu-driven computer questionnaire to conduct a multi-symptom health survey. The data-collection process and questions were essentially the same in the reference and exposed communities. The two exposed communities responded very similarly to questions about the major categories. When the authors compared responses of the exposed communities with those of the reference communities, 9 of the 12 symptom categories had iterated odds ratios greater than 3.0. The symptoms related to the central nervous system had the highest iterated odds ratio (i.e., 12.7; 95% confidence interval = 7.59, 22.09), followed by the respiratory category (odds ratio = 11.92; 95% confidence interval = 6.03, 25.72), and the blood category (odds ratio = 8.07; 95% confidence interval = 3.64, 21.18). Within the broader health categories, individual symptoms were also elevated significantly. This study, like all community-based studies, had several inherent limitations. Limitations, and the procedures the authors used to minimize their effects on the study outcomes, are discussed. The results of this study emphasize the need for further studies on the adverse health effects related to long-term, chronic exposure to hydrogen sulfide.

  20. Renormalization of the hydrogen sulfide properties due to the strong electron-phonon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, N. A.; Kutukov, A. A.; Mazur, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    The normal state of a metal is described by generalized Eliashberg theory which takes into account the finite width of an electron band, strong electron-phonon coupling and electron-hole nonequivalence. Reconstructed parameters of the conduction band of the metallic hydrogen sulfide for both the real and imaginary parts of the mass renormalization of the electron Green’s function and the real and imaginary parts of the renormalization of the chemical potential have been found.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide on Io - Evidence from telescopic and laboratory infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Howell, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence is reported for hydrogen sulfide on Io's surface. An infrared band at 3.915 (+ or - 0.015) micrometers in several ground-based spectra of Io can be accounted for by reflectance from H2S frost deposited on or cocondensed with sulfur dioxide frost. Temporal variation in the occurrence and intensity of the band suggests that condensed H2S on Io's surface is transient, implying a similar variation of H2S abundance in Io's atmosphere.

  2. Fast responding and selective near-IR Bodipy dye for hydrogen sulfide sensing.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Tugba; Sozmen, Fazli; Mamur, Sevcan; Tekinay, Turgay; Akkaya, Engin U

    2014-05-28

    A Bodipy based, highly selective probe for hydrogen sulfide has been designed, synthesized and demonstrated to detect H2S in living cells. In this design, the reduction of two arylazido groups change the charge transfer characteristics of the 3,5-distyryl substituents on the Bodipy core, producing a 20 nm bathochromic spectral shift in the absorption band, and quenching of the emission by 85% compared to the original intensity, through photoinduced electron transfer.

  3. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  4. Toward a selective, sensitive, fast-responsive, and biocompatible two-photon probe for hydrogen sulfide in live cells.

    PubMed

    Singha, Subhankar; Kim, Dokyoung; Moon, Hyunsoo; Wang, Taejun; Kim, Ki Hean; Shin, Youn Ho; Jung, Junyang; Seo, Eunseok; Lee, Sang-Joon; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2015-01-20

    Hydrogen sulfide has emerged as an exciting endogenous gasotransmitter in addition to nitric oxide and carbon dioxide. Noninvasive detection methods for hydrogen sulfide thus become indispensable tools for studying its diverse roles in biological systems. Accordingly, fluorescent probes for hydrogen sulfide have received great attention in recent years. A practically useful fluorescent probe for bioimaging of hydrogen sulfide should be selective, sensitive, fast-responsive, biocompatible, observable in the biological optical window, and capable of deep-tissue imaging. These sensing properties, however, are extremely difficult to achieve at the same time. Disclosed here is the two-photon fluorescent probe that meets all of these criteria. The probe belongs to a Michael acceptor system, which raised a serious selectivity issue over the competing biothiols such as cysteine and glutathione. We have addressed the selectivity issue by optimizing the electronic and steric interactions between biothiols and the probe, in addition to achieving very high sensitivity, fast-response, and biocompatibility. Also, the sensing mechanism suggested in the literature was revised. The probe thus enables us to image the endogenously produced hydrogen sulfide with negligible interference from other biothiols in live cells. The excellent sensing properties of the probe combined with its capability of bioimaging thus make it a practically useful tool for further studying biological roles of hydrogen sulfide.

  5. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  6. Usefulness of the hydrogen sulfide test for assessment of water quality in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Sheikh, M A; Islam, M S; Rahman, K S; Jahan, N; Rahman, M M; Hoekstra, R M; Johnston, R; Ram, P K; Luby, S

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) test for assessing water quality in Bangladesh. We tested 382 water samples from a variety of sources using locally produced H(2)S test kits and laboratory-based membrane filtration for the detection of Escherichia coli. Compared with membrane filtration, H(2)S tests, when incubated for 24 h, had both a sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of <40% when analysis was restricted to water samples with E. coli levels below 100 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 ml. In contrast, for E. coli levels from 1000 to 9999 CFU per 100 ml, sensitivity was 94% and PPV 88%; specificity was 97% and negative predictive value was 99%. The hydrogen sulfide test, when incubated at 24 h, is a promising alternative for assessing water quality where E. coli levels may be high. An improved understanding of the incremental impact of contamination level on health is needed to better determine its usefulness. The hydrogen sulfide test is inexpensive, easy to use and portable. Its use may allow rapid assessment of water quality in situations where cost or logistics prevent use of other testing methods, such as in remote areas or during flood and other natural disasters.

  7. Effect of surface characteristics of wood-based activated carbons on adsorption of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Adib, F.; Bagreev, A.; Bandosz, T.J.

    1999-06-15

    Three wood-based commercial activated carbons supplied by Westvaco were studied as adsorbents of hydrogen sulfide. The initial materials were characterized using sorption of nitrogen, Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, water sorption, thermal analysis, and temperature-programmed desorption. The breakthrough tests were done at low concentrations of H{sub 2}S in the input gas to simulate conditions in water pollution control plants where carbon beds are used as odor adsorbents. In spite of apparent general similarities in the origin of the materials, method of activation, surface chemistry, and porosity, significant differences in their performance as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents were observed. Results show that the combined effect of the presence of pores large enough to accommodate surface functional groups and small enough to have the film of water at relatively low pressure contributes to oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. Moreover, there are features of activated carbon surfaces such as local environment of acidic/basic groups along with the presence of alkali metals which are important to the oxidation process.

  8. Water vapor inhibits hydrogen sulfide detection in pulsed fluorescence sulfur monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhme, Anders B.; Ingemar, Jonas L.; Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S.

    2016-06-01

    The Thermo Scientific 450 Hydrogen Sulfide-Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures both hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Sulfur dioxide is measured by pulsed fluorescence, while H2S is converted to SO2 with a molybdenum catalyst prior to detection. The 450 is widely used to measure ambient concentrations, e.g., for emissions monitoring and pollution control. An air stream with a constant H2S concentration was generated and the output of the analyzer recorded as a function of relative humidity (RH). The analyzer underreported H2S as soon as the relative humidity was increased. The fraction of undetected H2S increased from 8.3 at 5.3 % RH (294 K) to over 34 % at RH > 80 %. Hydrogen sulfide mole fractions of 573, 1142, and 5145 ppb were tested. The findings indicate that previous results obtained with instruments using similar catalysts should be re-evaluated to correct for interference from water vapor. It is suspected that water decreases the efficiency of the converter unit and thereby reduces the measured H2S concentration.

  9. Low-power, fast, selective nanoparticle-based hydrogen sulfide gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelson, William; Sussman, Allen; Zettl, Alex

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate a small, low-cost, low-power, highly sensitive, and selective nanomaterials-based gas sensor. A network of tungsten oxide nanoparticles is heated by an on-chip microhotplate while the conductance of the network is monitored. The device can be heated with short pulses, thereby drastically lowering the power consumption, without diminishing the sensor response. The sensor shows high sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide and does not have significant cross sensitivities to hydrogen, water, or methane, gases likely to be present in operation. A sensing mechanism is proposed, and its effect on electronic properties is discussed.

  10. The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  11. Contribution of dissolved sulfates and sulfites in hydrogen sulfide emission from stagnant water bodies in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, K I A; Dissanayake, D P; Mahanama, K R R

    2003-08-01

    Accumulation of sulfur-containing compounds and their bacterial mediated reductions have led to the emission of pungent odors from stagnant water bodies. This study is focused on the contribution of inorganic sulfur compounds in the emission of hydrogen sulfide. The measured dissolved oxygen levels have demonstrated good negative correlations with the dissolved sulfide levels implying the oxygen deficiency is the key for the reduction of sulfate ion and sulfite ion to sulfide ion. Particularly, the dissolved molar fractions of sulfide from the total dissolved sulfur compounds (sulfates, sulfites and sulfides) have a very good correlation with the dissolved oxygen for the stagnant water bodies except the artificially aerated prawn farms. For the stagnant water bodies with significant correlations, linear regressions are reported for them to be utilized in estimating one component of the regression from the measurement of the other. The measured data were further utilized to estimate the levels of hydrogen sulfide gas. The pH of the water bodies has confined much of the dissolved sulfides in the form of bisulfide ion and they can be easily escaped to the atmosphere upon acidification due to industrial discharges and/or acidic precipitations. The estimated levels of hydrogen sulfide just above the water surface were plotted for the most polluted stagnant water body in Sri Lanka for the pH range of 5-10 and temperature range of 25-35 degrees C.

  12. Dechlorination of chloropicrin and 1,3-dichloropropene by hydrogen sulfide species: redox and nucleophilic substitution reactions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Gan, Jianying

    2006-03-22

    The chlorinated fumigants chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) are extensively used in agricultural production for the control of soilborne pests. The reaction of these two fumigants with hydrogen sulfide species (H2S and HS-) was examined in well-defined anoxic aqueous solutions. Chloropicrin underwent an extremely rapid redox reaction in the hydrogen sulfide solution. Transformation products indicated reductive dechlorination of chloropicrin by hydrogen sulfide species to produce dichloro- and chloronitromethane. The transformation of chloropicrin in hydrogen sulfide solution significantly increased with increasing pH, indicating that H2S is less reactive toward chloropicrin than HS- is. For both 1,3-D isomers, kinetics and transformation products analysis revealed that the reaction between 1,3-D and hydrogen sulfide species is an S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution process, in which the chlorine at C3 of 1,3-D is substituted by the sulfur nucleophile to form corresponding mercaptans. The 50% disappearance time (DT50) of 1,3-D decreased with increasing hydrogen sulfide species concentration at a constant pH. Transformation of 1,3-D was more rapid at high pH, suggesting that the reactivity of hydrogen sulfide species in the experimental system stems primarily from HS-. Because of the relatively low smell threshold values and potential environmental persistence of organic sulfur products yielded by the reaction of 1,3-D and HS-, the effects of reduced sulfide species should be considered in the development of alternative fumigation practices, especially in the integrated application of sulfur-containing fertilizers.

  13. Reasons for high-temperature superconductivity in the electron–phonon system of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Mazur, E. A.

    2015-08-15

    We have calculated the electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of the electron and phonon states, of the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH{sub 2} in the pressure interval 100–180 GPa. It is found that at a pressure of 175 GPa, a set of parallel planes of hydrogen atoms is formed due to a structural modification of the unit cell under pressure with complete accumulation of all hydrogen atoms in these planes. As a result, the electronic properties of the system become quasi-two-dimensional. We have also analyzed the collective synphase and antiphase vibrations of hydrogen atoms in these planes, leading to the occurrence of two high-energy peaks in the phonon density of states.

  14. Giant Hydrogen Sulfide Plume in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Peru Supports Chemolithoautotrophy

    PubMed Central

    Großkopf, Tobias; Kalvelage, Tim; Löscher, Carolin R.; Paulmier, Aurélien; Contreras, Sergio; Siegel, Herbert; Holtappels, Moritz; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schilhabel, Markus B.; Graco, Michelle; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; LaRoche, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems nutrient-rich waters are transported to the ocean surface, fuelling high photoautotrophic primary production. Subsequent heterotrophic decomposition of the produced biomass increases the oxygen-depletion at intermediate water depths, which can result in the formation of oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). OMZs can sporadically accumulate hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is toxic to most multicellular organisms and has been implicated in massive fish kills. During a cruise to the OMZ off Peru in January 2009 we found a sulfidic plume in continental shelf waters, covering an area >5500 km2, which contained ∼2.2×104 tons of H2S. This was the first time that H2S was measured in the Peruvian OMZ and with ∼440 km3 the largest plume ever reported for oceanic waters. We assessed the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the inhabiting microbial community by high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA, while its metabolic activity was determined with rate measurements of carbon fixation and nitrogen transformation processes. The waters were dominated by several distinct γ-, δ- and ε-proteobacterial taxa associated with either sulfur oxidation or sulfate reduction. Our results suggest that these chemolithoautotrophic bacteria utilized several oxidants (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, nitric oxide and nitrous oxide) to detoxify the sulfidic waters well below the oxic surface. The chemolithoautotrophic activity at our sampling site led to high rates of dark carbon fixation. Assuming that these chemolithoautotrophic rates were maintained throughout the sulfidic waters, they could be representing as much as ∼30% of the photoautotrophic carbon fixation. Postulated changes such as eutrophication and global warming, which lead to an expansion and intensification of OMZs, might also increase the frequency of sulfidic waters. We suggest that the chemolithoautotrophically fixed carbon may be involved in a negative feedback loop that could fuel further

  15. Detrimental effects for colonocytes of an increased exposure to luminal hydrogen sulfide: The adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Audebert, Marc; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Grauso, Marta; Lancha, Luciana; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François

    2016-04-01

    Protein fermentation by the gut microbiota releases in the large intestine lumen various amino-acid derived metabolites. Among them, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in excess has been suspected to be detrimental for colonic epithelium energy metabolism and DNA integrity. The first objective of this study was to evaluate in rats the epithelial response to an increased exposure to H2S. Experiments from colonocyte incubation and intra-colonic instillation indicate that low millimolar concentrations of the sulfide donor NaHS reversibly inhibited colonocyte mitochondrial oxygen consumption and increased gene expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (Hif-1α) together with inflammation-related genes namely inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos) and interleukin-6 (Il-6). Additionally, rat colonocyte H2S detoxification capacity was severely impaired in the presence of nitric oxide. Based on the γH2AX ICW technique, NaHS did not induce DNA damage in colonocytes. Since H2S is notably produced by the gut microbiota from sulfur containing amino acids, the second objective of the study was to investigate the effects of a high protein diet (HPD) on large intestine luminal sulfide content and on the expression of genes involved in H2S detoxification in colonocytes. We found that HPD markedly increased H2S content in the large intestine but the concomitant increase of the content mass maintained the luminal sulfide concentration. HPD also provoked an increase of sulfide quinone reductase (Sqr) gene expression in colonocytes, indicating an adaptive response to increased H2S bacterial production. In conclusion, low millimolar NaHS concentration severely affects colonocyte respiration in association with increased expression of genes associated with intestinal inflammation. Although HPD increases the sulfide content of the large intestine, the colonic adaptive responses to this modification limit the epithelial exposure to this deleterious bacterial metabolite.

  16. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

    1993-05-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

  17. Analysis of Decreases in Systemic Arterial Pressure and Heart Rate in Response to the Hydrogen Sulfide Donor Sodium Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Swan, Kevin W; Song, Bryant Minkyu; Chen, Allen L; Chen, Travis J; Chan, Ryan A; Guidry, Bradley T; Katakam, Prasad V G; Kerut, Edmund K; Giles, Thomas D; Kadowitz, Philip

    2017-06-30

    The actions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the heart and vasculature have been extensively reported. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of H2S are unclear in the anesthetized rat. The objective of the current study is to investigate the effect of H2S on the electrocardiogram and examine the relationship between H2S-induced changes in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and respiratory function. Intravenous (iv) administration of the H2S donor sodium sulfide (Na2S) in the anesthetized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat decreased MAP and HR and produced changes in respiratory function. The administration of Na2S significantly increased the RR interval at some doses, but had no effect on the PR or QTc(n)-B intervals. In experiments where respiration was maintained with a mechanical ventilator, we observed that that Na2S-induced decreases in MAP and HR were independent of respiration. In experiments where respiration was maintained by mechanical ventilation and HR was maintained by cardiac pacing, Na2S induced changes in MAP were not significantly altered whereas changes in HR were abolished. Co-administration of glybenclamide significantly increased MAP and HR responses at some doses, but methylene blue, diltiazem, and ivabradine had no significant effect when compared to control. The decreases in MAP and HR in response to Na2S can be dissociated and are independent of changes in respiratory function, K(+)ATP channels, methylene blue-sensitive mechanism involving L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels, or hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (HCN) If channels. Cardiovascular responses observed in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats were more robust than those in SD rats. Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  18. Oxidation of gas mixtures containing dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and methanethiol using a two-stage biotrickling filter.

    PubMed

    Ruokojärvi, A; Ruuskanen, J; Martikainen, P J; Olkkonen, M

    2001-01-01

    A biofiltration technique was developed for removing a mixture of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), and dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) from waste gases. Since H2S, especially at high concentrations, disturbs the removal of Me2S, two biotrickling filters with different microbes and operating pH levels were connected in series to create a two-stage system. Different loads of these gases were studied in order to determine their impact on the removal capacity of the system. The microbial consortia for these filters were enriched from the sludge of a Finnish refinery with bubbling H2S or Me2S. Acclimation for Me2S took 2 weeks, though no acclimation time was needed for the other gases. The first filter, at a pH of 2, removed most of the H2S and some of the MeSH and Me2S. The second filter, at a pH of approximately 6.5, removed the rest of the MeSH and most of the Me2S. The total maximum loads of the whole two-stage biotrickling filter were 1150 g/m3/day for H2S-S (suffix S indicates the results are counted as sulfur amounts), 879 g/m3/day for Me2S-S, and 66 g/m3/day for MeSH-S treated in a gas mixture. The average removal efficiencies for all gases tested were 99% or higher.

  19. Mesoporous Iron Sulfide for Highly Efficient Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Miao, Ran; Dutta, Biswanath; Sahoo, Sanjubala; ...

    2017-09-05

    Here, we report a facile synthetic protocol to pre-pare mesoporous FeS2 without the aid of hard template as an electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The mesoporous FeS2 materials with high surface area were successfully prepared by a sol-gel method follow-ing a sulfurization treatment in an H2S atmosphere. A re-markable HER catalytic performance was achieved with a low overpotential of 96 mV at a current density of 10 mA·cm2 and a Tafel slope of 78 mV per decade under alka-line conditions (pH 13). These theoretical calculations indicate that the excellent catalytic activity of mesoporous FeS2 is attributed to themore » exposed (210) facets. The mesoporous FeS2 material might be a promising alternative to the Pt-based electrocatalysts for water splitting.« less

  20. Abundances of hydrogen sulfide in star-forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Ziurys, L. M.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.

    1991-01-01

    Interstellar H2S and its isotopic variant H2(S-34) have been observed toward several star-forming regions via their 1(10)-1(01) transitions at 2 mm, using the FCRAO telescope. In sources where both isotopic species were observed, column densities of about 10 to the 16th/sq cm were measured. Column density lower limits of about 10 to the 14th/sq cm for H2S were found for other sources, where only the main isotopic line was observed. The fractional abundances of H2S relative to molecular hydrogen appear to be enhanced by at least an order of magnitude relative to quiescent cloud values (about 10 to the -9th) for many of the observed sources.

  1. ELECTROCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM GAS MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  2. Electrochemical separation and concentration of hydrogen sulfide from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  3. Abundances of hydrogen sulfide in star-forming regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Ziurys, L. M.; Irvine, W. M.; Mcgonagle, D.

    1991-01-01

    Interstellar H2S and its isotopic variant H2(S-34) have been observed toward several star-forming regions via their 1(10)-1(01) transitions at 2 mm, using the FCRAO telescope. In sources where both isotopic species were observed, column densities of about 10 to the 16th/sq cm were measured. Column density lower limits of about 10 to the 14th/sq cm for H2S were found for other sources, where only the main isotopic line was observed. The fractional abundances of H2S relative to molecular hydrogen appear to be enhanced by at least an order of magnitude relative to quiescent cloud values (about 10 to the -9th) for many of the observed sources.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates cadmium-induced morpho-physiological and ultrastructural changes in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Ali, Basharat; Gill, Rafaqat A; Yang, Su; Gill, Muhammad B; Ali, Shafaqat; Rafiq, Muhammad T; Zhou, Weijun

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating cadmium (Cd) induced stress in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was studied under greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown hydroponically under three levels (0, 100, and 500µM) of Cd and three levels (0, 100 and 200µM) of H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Results showed that application of H2S significantly improved the plant growth, root morphology, chlorophyll contents, elements uptake and photosynthetic activity in B. napus plants under Cd stress. Moreover, addition of H2S reduced the Cd concentration in the leaves and roots of B. napus plants under Cd-toxicity. Exogenously applied H2S decreased the production of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in the leaves and roots by improving the enzymatic antioxidant activities under Cd stress conditions. The microscopic examination indicated that application of exogenous H2S improved the cell structures and enabled a clean mesophyll cell having a well developed chloroplast with thylakoid membranes, and a number of mitochondria could be observed in the micrographs. A number of modifications could be found in root tip cell i.e. mature mitochondria, long endoplasmic reticulum and golgibodies under combined application of H2S and Cd. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that application of exogenous H2S has a protective role on plant growth, photosynthetic parameters, elements uptake, antioxidants enzyme activities and ultrastructural changes in B. napus under high Cd stress conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic function by hydrogen sulfide. Part II. Pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Módis, Katalin; Bos, Eelke M; Calzia, Enrico; van Goor, Harry; Coletta, Ciro; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R; Radermacher, Peter; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Emerging work demonstrates the dual regulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), including, at lower concentrations, a stimulatory effect as an electron donor, and, at higher concentrations, an inhibitory effect on cytochrome C oxidase. In the current article, we overview the pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of these processes. During cellular hypoxia/acidosis, the inhibitory effect of H2S on complex IV is enhanced, which may shift the balance of H2S from protective to deleterious. Several pathophysiological conditions are associated with an overproduction of H2S (e.g. sepsis), while in other disease states H2S levels and H2S bioavailability are reduced and its therapeutic replacement is warranted (e.g. diabetic vascular complications). Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells up-regulate the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), and utilize its product, H2S, as a metabolic fuel and tumour-cell survival factor; pharmacological CBS inhibition or genetic CBS silencing suppresses cancer cell bioenergetics and suppresses cell proliferation and cell chemotaxis. In the last chapter of the current article, we overview the field of H2S-induced therapeutic ‘suspended animation’, a concept in which a temporary pharmacological reduction in cell metabolism is achieved, producing a decreased oxygen demand for the experimental therapy of critical illness and/or organ transplantation. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:23991749

  6. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  7. Assessment of hydrogen sulfide emission from a sewage treatment plant using AERMOD.

    PubMed

    Baawain, Mahad; Al-Mamun, Abdullah; Omidvarborna, Hamid; Al-Jabri, Abdullah

    2017-06-01

    Air quality modeling plays an important role in prediction of air pollutants in urban areas. Moreover, it is also an essential component to make crucial decisions in environmental management. In this study, environmental protection agency (EPA) regulatory model (AERMOD) was implemented in order to assess the urban air quality in the city of Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. Dispersion modeling was employed for the prediction of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions, a neighborhood claimed issue, from Al-Ansab sewage treatment plant (STP). Meteorological, elevation data, and H2S survey results were implemented into the model. From the site survey study, four different H2S emission sources were identified as sewage tanker connection points, biofilter, old odor control unit (OCU), and open channels of raw sewage. It was observed that based on maximum 24-h analysis, the ground level concentration outside the STP exceeded the concentration limit, 40 μg/m(3), recommended by the local regulating agency in Oman. By applying a sensitivity analysis study, the locations with the highest predicted H2S levels were identified. The most affected area in the worst-case scenario was the nearby expressway with 450.9 μg/m(3) of H2S. The highest ground level concentration of H2S was detected in March, while the lowest was measured in December. The model also predicted that the impact of odor nuisance is greater at the summer season than that of other seasons due to the elevated temperatures. The study revealed an adverse environmental impact from the STPs on urban air quality, which may pose a threat to the public health.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide reduces serum triglyceride by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Yu, Chengyuan; Pan, Zhenwei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yun, Fengxiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Yan, Sen; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Dingyu; Ding, Xue; Liu, Guangzhong; Li, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xuezhu; Liu, Zhaorui; Li, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in liver triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Inhibition of autophagy could reduce the clearance of TG in the liver. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent stimulator of autophagic flux. Recent studies showed H2S is protective against hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and noalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while the mechanism remains to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that H2S reduces serum TG level and ameliorates NAFLD by stimulating liver autophagic flux by the AMPK-mTOR pathway. The level of serum H2S in patients with HTG was lower than that of control subjects. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, H2S donor) markedly reduced serum TG levels of male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which was abolished by coadministration of chloroquine (CQ), an inhibitor of autophagic flux. In HFD mice, administration of NaSH increased the LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and decreased the p62 protein level. Meanwhile, NaSH increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and thus reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR in a Western blot study. In cultured LO2 cells, high-fat treatment reduced the ratio of LC3BII to LC3BI and the phosphorylation of AMPK, which were reversed by the coadministration of NaSH. Knockdown of AMPK by siRNA in LO2 cells blocked the autophagic enhancing effects of NaSH. The same qualitative effect was observed in AMPKα2(-/-) mice. These results for the first time demonstrated that H2S could reduce serum TG level and ameliorate NAFLD by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

  9. Cytoprotective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide in Novel Rat Models of Non-Erosive Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Zayachkivska, Oksana; Havryluk, Olena; Hrycevych, Nazar; Bula, Nazar; Grushka, Oksana; Wallace, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-erosive esophagitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus and is a form of gastroesophageal reflux disease. There are limited treatment options for non-erosive esophagitis, and it often progresses to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal carcinoma. Hydrogen sulfide has been demonstrated to be a critical mediator of gastric and intestinal mucosal protection and repair. However, roles for H2S in esophageal mucosal defence, inflammation and responses to injury have not been reported. We therefore examined the effects of endogenous and exogenous H2S in rat models of non-erosive esophagitis. Mild- and moderate-severity non-erosive esophagitis was induced in rats through supplementation of drinking water with fructose, plus or minus exposure to water-immersion stress. The effects of inhibitors of H2S synthesis or of an H2S donor on severity of esophagitis was then examined, along with changes in serum levels of a pro- and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-17 and IL-10, respectively). Exposure to water-immersion stress after consumption of the fructose-supplemented water for 28 days resulted in submucosal esophageal edema and neutrophil infiltration and the development of lesions in the muscular lamina and basal cell hyperplasia. Inhibition of H2S synthesis resulted in significant exacerbation of inflammation and injury. Serum levels of IL-17 were significantly elevated, while serum IL-10 levels were reduced. Treatment with an H2S donor significantly reduced the severity of esophageal injury and inflammation and normalized the serum cytokine levels. The rat models used in this study provide novel tools for studying non-erosive esophagitis with a range of severity. H2S contributes significantly to mucosal defence in the esophagus, and H2S donors may have therapeutic value in treating esophageal inflammation and injury. PMID:25333941

  10. Effects of Dietary Selenium on Inflammation and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Gastrointestinal Tract in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Huang, Kehe

    2016-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals and is associated with many physiological functions. Previous studies have shown that low-Se diet may affect inflammatory cytokine productions and histology in the digestive system and that sulfide hydrogen (H2S) may contribute to the protection against tissue injury and the inhibition of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Se deficiency-induced inflammation and H2S production in the small intestine in chickens. One hundred twenty 1-day-old chickens were fed with diets with different Se concentrations (0.15 mg/kg in the control and 0.028 mg/kg in the low-Se-diet group). Chickens were euthanized and small intestinal tissues were extracted. We observed histology, measured H2S concentration, and evaluated the mRNA expression of H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), and inflammatory factors TNF-α, NF-κB p50, COX-2, and PTGES. Our results showed that chickens fed with low-Se diet exhibited histological changes, lower H2S production, and lower mRNA expression of H2S-producing enzymes (CSE, CBS, and 3-MST) whereas higher mRNA expression of intestinal inflammatory factors (TNF-α, NF-κB p50, COX-2, and PTGES) compared to controls. Our results indicate that low-Se diet could impact H2S, H2S-producing enzymes, and inflammatory factors in the small intestine, implying that Se is important in maintaining intestinal functions and H2S production is downregulated in Se deficiency-induced inflammation. The downregulation exacerbates the inflammation and impacts H2S-mediated intestinal functions.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide upregulates heme oxygenase-1 expression in rats with volume overload-induced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHAO-YING; LI, XIAO-HUI; ZHANG, TING; FU, JIN; CUI, XIAO-DAI

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous transmitter, in chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by left-to-right shunt, leading to volume overload. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the shunt group, the sham group, the shunt + sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group and the sham + NaHS group. CHF was induced in the rats by abdominal aorta-inferior vena cava shunt operation. Rats in the shunt + NaHS and sham + NaHS groups were injected intraperitoneally with NaHS (H2S donor). Haemodynamic parameters were measured 8 weeks after surgery. In addition, left ventricular heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Protein expression of HO-1 was evaluated by western blot analysis. Eight weeks after surgery, compared to the sham group, the left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and left ventricular peak rate of contraction and relaxation (LV±dp/dtmax) were significantly reduced; the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was significantly increased in the shunt group (all P<0.05). However, NaHS increased LVSP and LV±dp/dtmax (all P<0.05) and decreased LVEDP (P<0.05). Protein expression of HO-1 was significantly decreased in the shunt group compared to that in the sham group (P<0.05). NaHS increased protein expression of HO-1 compared to that in the shunt group (P<0.05). HO-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the shunt + NaHS group compared to that in the shunt group (P<0.01). The present study demonstrated that H2S may play a protective role in volume overload-induced CHF by upregulating protein and mRNA expression of HO-1. PMID:24648967

  12. Interaction between hydrogen sulfide-induced sulfhydration and tyrosine nitration in the KATP channel complex

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minho; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Gade, Aravind

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator affecting many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Enhanced expression of H2S and reactive nitrogen/oxygen species (RNS/ROS) during inflammation alters cellular excitability via modulation of ion channel function. Sulfhydration of cysteine residues and tyrosine nitration are the posttranslational modifications induced by H2S and RNS, respectively. The objective of this study was to define the interaction between tyrosine nitration and cysteine sulfhydration within the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel complex, a significant target in experimental colitis. A modified biotin switch assay was performed to determine sulfhydration of the KATP channel subunits, Kir6.1, sulphonylurea 2B (SUR2B), and nitrotyrosine measured by immunoblot. NaHS (a donor of H2S) significantly enhanced sulfhydration of SUR2B but not Kir6.1 subunit. 3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (a donor of peroxynitrite) induced nitration of Kir6.1 subunit but not SUR2B. Pretreatment with NaHS reduced the nitration of Kir6.1 by SIN-1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells cotransfected with the two subunits, as well as in enteric glia. Two specific mutations within SUR2B, C24S, and C1455S prevented sulfhydration by NaHS, and these mutations prevented NaHS-induced reduction in tyrosine nitration of Kir6.1. NaHS also reversed peroxynitrite-induced inhibition of smooth muscle contraction. These studies suggest that posttranslational modifications of the two subunits of the KATP channel interact to alter channel function. The studies described herein demonstrate a unique mechanism by which sulfhydration of one subunit modifies tyrosine nitration of another subunit within the same channel complex. This interaction provides a mechanistic insight on the protective effects of H2S in inflammation. PMID:25552582

  13. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Releasing Agents: Chemistry and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Biggs, Tyler D.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a newly recognized signaling molecule with very potent cytoprotective actions. The fields of H2S physiology and pharmacology have been rapidly growing in recent years, but a number of fundamental issues must be addressed to advance our understanding of the biology and clinical potential of H2S in the future. Hydrogen sulfide releasing agents (also known as H2S donors) have been widely used in the field. These compounds are not only useful research tools, but also potential therapeutic agents. It is therefore important to study the chemistry and pharmacology of exogenous H2S and to be aware of the limitations associated with the choice of donors used to generate H2S in vitro and in vivo. In this review we summarized the developments and limitations of current available donors including H2S gas, sulfide salts, garlic-derived sulfur compounds, Lawesson’s reagent/analogs, 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones, thiol-activated donors, photo-caged donors, and thioamino acids. Some biological applications of these donors were also discussed. PMID:25019301

  14. Case Study: Microbial Ecology and Forensics of Chinese Drywall-Elemental Sulfur Disproportionation as Primary Generator of Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Tomei Torres, Francisco A

    2017-06-21

    Drywall manufactured in China released foul odors attributed to volatile sulfur compounds. These included hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and sulfur dioxide. Given that calcium sulfate is the main component of drywall, one would suspect bacterial reduction of sulfate to sulfide as the primary culprit. However, when the forensics, i.e., the microbial and chemical signatures left in the drywall, are studied, the evidence suggests that, rather than dissimilatory sulfate reduction, disproportionation of elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and sulfate was actually the primary cause of the malodors. Forensic evidence suggests that the transformation of elemental sulfur went through several abiological and microbial stages: (1) partial volatilization of elemental sulfur during the manufacture of plaster of Paris, (2) partial abiotic disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and thiosulfate during the manufacture of drywall, (3) microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfate resulting in neutralization of all alkalinity, and acidification below pH 4, (4) acidophilic microbial disproportionation of elemental sulfur to sulfide and sulfuric acid, and (5) hydrogen sulfide volatilization, coating of copper fixtures resulting in corrosion, and oxidation to sulfur dioxide.

  15. The hydrogen sulfide emissions abatement program at the Geysers Geothermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. W.; Mccluer, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    The scope of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) abatement program at The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant and the measures currently under way to reduce these emissions are discussed. The Geysers steam averages 223 ppm H2S by weight and after passing through the turbines leaves the plant both through the gas ejector system and by air-stripping in the cooling towers. The sulfide dissolved in the cooling water is controlled by the use of an oxidation catalyst such as an iron salt. The H2S in the low Btu ejector off gases may be burned to sulfur dioxide and scrubbed directly into the circulating water and reinjected into the steam field with the excess condensate. Details are included concerning the disposal of the impure sulfur, design requirements for retrofitting existing plants and modified plant operating procedures. Discussion of future research aimed at improving the H2S abatement system is also included.

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Induced Carbon Dioxide Activation by Metal-Free Dual Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Francisco, Joseph S

    2016-03-18

    The role of metal free dual catalysis in the hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-induced activation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and subsequent decomposition of resulting monothiolcarbonic acid in the gas phase has been explored. The results suggest that substituted amines and monocarboxylic type organic or inorganic acids via dual activation mechanisms promote both activation and decomposition reactions, implying that the judicious selection of a dual catalyst is crucial to the efficient C-S bond formation via CO2 activation. Considering that our results also suggest a new mechanism for the formation of carbonyl sulfide from CO2 and H2S, these new insights may help in better understanding the coupling between the carbon and sulfur cycles in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus.

  17. AP39, a Mitochondria-Targeted Hydrogen Sulfide Donor, Supports Cellular Bioenergetics and Protects against Alzheimer's Disease by Preserving Mitochondrial Function in APP/PS1 Mice and Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng-li; Fang, Fang; Qiao, Pei-feng; Yan, Ning; Gao, Dan; Yan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial functions are altered in AD and play an important role in AD pathogenesis. It has been established that H2S homeostasis is balanced in AD. The emerging mitochondrial roles of H2S include antioxidation, antiapoptosis, and the modulation of cellular bioenergetics. Here, using primary neurons from the well-characterized APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model, we studied the effects of AP39 (a newly synthesized mitochondrially targeted H2S donor) on mitochondrial function. AP39 increased intracellular H2S levels, mainly in mitochondrial regions. AP39 exerted dose-dependent effects on mitochondrial activity in APP/PS1 neurons, including increased cellular bioenergy metabolism and cell viability at low concentrations (25–100 nM) and decreased energy production and cell viability at a high concentration (250 nM). Furthermore, AP39 (100 nM) increased ATP levels, protected mitochondrial DNA, and decreased ROS generation. AP39 regulated mitochondrial dynamics, shifting from fission toward fusion. After 6 weeks, AP39 administration to APP/PS1 mice significantly ameliorated their spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze and NORT and reduced Aβ deposition in their brains. Additionally, AP39 inhibited brain atrophy in APP/PS1 mice. Based on these results, AP39 was proposed as a promising drug candidate for AD treatment, and its anti-AD mechanism may involve protection against mitochondrial damage. PMID:27057285

  18. AP39, a Mitochondria-Targeted Hydrogen Sulfide Donor, Supports Cellular Bioenergetics and Protects against Alzheimer's Disease by Preserving Mitochondrial Function in APP/PS1 Mice and Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-Li; Fang, Fang; Qiao, Pei-feng; Yan, Ning; Gao, Dan; Yan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial functions are altered in AD and play an important role in AD pathogenesis. It has been established that H2S homeostasis is balanced in AD. The emerging mitochondrial roles of H2S include antioxidation, antiapoptosis, and the modulation of cellular bioenergetics. Here, using primary neurons from the well-characterized APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model, we studied the effects of AP39 (a newly synthesized mitochondrially targeted H2S donor) on mitochondrial function. AP39 increased intracellular H2S levels, mainly in mitochondrial regions. AP39 exerted dose-dependent effects on mitochondrial activity in APP/PS1 neurons, including increased cellular bioenergy metabolism and cell viability at low concentrations (25-100 nM) and decreased energy production and cell viability at a high concentration (250 nM). Furthermore, AP39 (100 nM) increased ATP levels, protected mitochondrial DNA, and decreased ROS generation. AP39 regulated mitochondrial dynamics, shifting from fission toward fusion. After 6 weeks, AP39 administration to APP/PS1 mice significantly ameliorated their spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze and NORT and reduced Aβ deposition in their brains. Additionally, AP39 inhibited brain atrophy in APP/PS1 mice. Based on these results, AP39 was proposed as a promising drug candidate for AD treatment, and its anti-AD mechanism may involve protection against mitochondrial damage.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation to Life in Hydrogen Sulfide-Rich Environments.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Joanna L; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Patacsil Martin, Dorrelyn; Yee, Muh-Ching; Bustamante, Carlos D; Tobler, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent toxicant interfering with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and creating extreme environmental conditions in aquatic ecosystems. The mechanistic basis of adaptation to perpetual exposure to H2S remains poorly understood. We investigated evolutionarily independent lineages of livebearing fishes that have colonized and adapted to springs rich in H2S and compared their genome-wide gene expression patterns with closely related lineages from adjacent, nonsulfidic streams. Significant differences in gene expression were uncovered between all sulfidic and nonsulfidic population pairs. Variation in the number of differentially expressed genes among population pairs corresponded to differences in divergence times and rates of gene flow, which is consistent with neutral drift driving a substantial portion of gene expression variation among populations. Accordingly, there was little evidence for convergent evolution shaping large-scale gene expression patterns among independent sulfide spring populations. Nonetheless, we identified a small number of genes that was consistently differentially expressed in the same direction in all sulfidic and nonsulfidic population pairs. Functional annotation of shared differentially expressed genes indicated upregulation of genes associated with enzymatic H2S detoxification and transport of oxidized sulfur species, oxidative phosphorylation, energy metabolism, and pathways involved in responses to oxidative stress. Overall, our results suggest that modification of processes associated with H2S detoxification and toxicity likely complement each other to mediate elevated H2S tolerance in sulfide spring fishes. Our analyses allow for the development of novel hypotheses about biochemical and physiological mechanisms of adaptation to extreme environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Endurance materials for hydrogen sulfide splitting in electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbah, Jonathan Chinwendu

    This study describes the development of a novel thin membrane exchange assembly (MEA) from a solid acid material, cesium hydrogen sulfate (CsHSO 4), and from a composite anode electrocatalyst for electrolytic splitting of (100%) H2S feed content gas operating at 135 kPa and 150°C. A new class of anode electrocatalyst with the general composition, RuO 2/CoS2, and an improved proton conductor, CsHSO4, have shown great stability and desired properties at typical operating conditions. This configuration demonstrated stable electrochemical operation for 24 h with a (100%) H2S fuel stream at 423 K. This same system showed a maximum current density of (19 mA/cm2) at 900 mV. The performance of this new anode electrocatalyst when compared to that of Pt black investigated in a previous study showed an overall superiority in application. We have achieved a 30% reduction in the overall system performance by fabricating a thin (200 microm) CsHSO4 electrolyte, which reduced the whole MEA thickness from 2.3 mm to 500 microm. The result of permeability measurements proved that this thin solid electrolyte is impermeable to H 2S gas and physical integrity was preserved throughout the experimental period. Further resistance losses were compensated by using a high energy planetary milling system to enhance the ionic conductivity of CsHSO4 . The difference in stability and electrochemical performance of these cells compared to that of Pt anode based systems is directly attributable to the anode materials developed in this project. Factorial experiments were used to characterize the effect of controllable process variables (electrolyte thickness, time, age of the electrolyte) on the cell current density and interfacial polarization resistances. As expected, cell current density and interfacial polarization resistances were a function of electrolyte thickness and age. Nevertheless, the effect of electrolyte thickness has a more prominent effect on the measured parameters. In addition

  1. Hydrogen sulfide, endoplasmic reticulum stress and alcohol mediated neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    George, Akash K; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Kelly, Kimberly E; Zhai, Yuankun; Tyagi, Neetu

    2017-02-14

    Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications. Growing evidence suggests that H2S is the most recently recognized gasotransmitter with tremendous physiological protective functions against oxidative stress induced neurotoxicity. In this review we address the alcohol induced oxidative stress mediated ER stress and the role of H2S in its mitigation in the context of alcohol neurotoxicity. Interruption of ER stress triggers is anticipated to have therapeutic benefits for alcohol mediated diseases and disorders.

  2. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen Sensing under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Teng, Huajian; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Li, Hongzhu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the discovery of endogenous H2S production, many in depth studies show this gasotransmitter with a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Three enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST), are involved in enzymatic production of H2S. Emerging evidence has elucidated an important protective role of H2S in hypoxic conditions in many mammalian systems. However, the mechanisms by which H2S senses and responses to hypoxia are largely elusive. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) function as key regulators of oxygen sensing, activating target genes expression under hypoxia. Recent studies have shown that exogenous H2S regulates HIF action in different patterns. The activation of carotid bodies is a sensitive and prompt response to hypoxia, rapidly enhancing general O2 supply. H2S has been identified as an excitatory mediator of hypoxic sensing in the carotid bodies. This paper presents a brief review of the roles of these two pathways which contribute to hypoxic sensing of H2S. PMID:26078818

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide and Reactive Sulfur Species Impact Proteome S-Sulfhydration and Global Virulence Regulation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Zhang, Yixiang; Palmer, Lauren D; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E; Skaar, Eric P; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Giedroc, David P

    2017-09-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is thought to protect bacteria from oxidative stress, but a comprehensive understanding of its function in bacteria is largely unexplored. In this study, we show that the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) harbors significant effector molecules of H2S signaling, reactive sulfur species (RSS), as low molecular weight persulfides of bacillithiol, coenzyme A, and cysteine, and significant inorganic polysulfide species. We find that proteome S-sulfhydration, a post-translational modification (PTM) in H2S signaling, is widespread in S. aureus. RSS levels modulate the expression of secreted virulence factors and the cytotoxicity of the secretome, consistent with an S-sulfhydration-dependent inhibition of DNA binding by MgrA, a global virulence regulator. Two previously uncharacterized thioredoxin-like proteins, denoted TrxP and TrxQ, are S-sulfhydrated in sulfide-stressed cells and are capable of reducing protein hydrodisulfides, suggesting that this PTM is potentially regulatory in S. aureus. In conclusion, our results reveal that S. aureus harbors a pool of proteome- and metabolite-derived RSS capable of impacting protein activities and gene regulation and that H2S signaling can be sensed by global regulators to affect the expression of virulence factors.

  4. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H2S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H2S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30days) and inexpensive (125mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H2S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H2S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H2S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8mLH2S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H2S yield. A 60day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39-86% additional sulfide production. H2S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H2S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the microbial sulfide production

  5. Divergent behavior of hydrogen sulfide pools and of the sulfur metabolite lanthionine, a novel uremic toxin, in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Perna, Alessandra F; Di Nunzio, Annarita; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Fontanarosa, Carolina; Pucci, Piero; Vigorito, Carmela; Cirillo, Giovanni; Zacchia, Miriam; Trepiccione, Francesco; Ingrosso, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Dialysis patients display a high cardiovascular mortality, the causes of which are still not completely explained, but are related to uremic toxicity. Among uremic toxins, homocysteine and cysteine are both substrates of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase in hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis, leading to the formation of two sulfur metabolites, lanthionine and homolanthionine, considered stable indirect biomarkers of its production. Hydrogen sulfide is involved in the modulation of multiple pathophysiological responses. In uremia, we have demonstrated low plasma total hydrogen sulfide levels, due to reduced cystathionine γ-lyase expression. Plasma hydrogen sulfide levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and healthy controls with three different techniques in comparison, allowing to discern the different pools of this gas. The protein-bound (the one thought to be the most active) and acid-labile forms are significantly decreased, while homolanthionine, but especially lanthionine, accumulate in the blood of uremic patients. The hemodialysis regimen plays a role in determining sulfur compounds levels, and lanthionine is partially removed by a single dialysis session. Lanthionine inhibits hydrogen sulfide production in cell cultures under conditions comparable to in vivo ones. We therefore propose that lanthionine is a novel uremic toxin. The possible role of high lanthionine as a contributor to the genesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in uremia is discussed.

  6. In situ Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide During Biogas Fermentation at Microaerobic Condition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yima; Ye, Yuanyuan; Lin, Chunmian

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, rice straw was used as a raw material to produce biogas by anaerobic batch fermentation at 35 °C (mesophilic) or 55 °C (thermophilic). The hydrogen sulfide in biogas can be converted to S(0) or sulfate and removed in-situ under micro-oxygen environment. Trace oxygen was conducted to the anaerobic fermentation tank in amount of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 10.0 times stoichiometric equivalence, respectively, and the control experiment without oxygen addition was carried out. The results showed that the initial H2S concentrations of biogas are about 3235 ± 185 mg/m(3) (mesophilic) or 3394 ± 126 mg/m(3) (thermophilic), respectively. The desulfurization efficiency is 72.3 % (mesophilic) or 65.6 % (thermophilic), respectively, with oxygen addition by stoichiometric relation. When the oxygen feeded in amount of 2∼4 times, theoretical quantity demanded the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide could be over 92 %, and the oxygen residue in biogas could be maintained less than 0.5 %, which fit the requirement of biogas used as vehicle fuel or combined to the grid. Though further more oxygen addition could promote the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide (about 93.6 %), the oxygen residue in biogas would be higher than the application limit concentration (0.5 %). Whether mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation with the extra addition of oxygen, there were no obvious changes in the gas production and methane concentration. In conclusion, in-situ desulfurization can be achieved in the anaerobic methane fermentation system under micro-oxygen environment. In addition, air could be used as a substitute oxygen resource on the situation without strict demand for the methane content of biogas.

  7. Adsorption of hydrogen sulfide by biochars derived from pyrolysis of different agricultural/forestry wastes.

    PubMed

    Shang, Guofeng; Li, Qiwu; Liu, Liang; Chen, Ping; Huang, Xiamei

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics and mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) adsorption on three different biochars derived from agricultural/forestry wastes through pyrolysis at various temperatures (100 to 500 ºC) were investigated. In this study, the H₂S breakthrough capacity was measured using a laboratory-characterized using pH and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The results obtained demonstrate that all biochars were effective in H2S sorption. The sorption capacity of the biochar for H₂S removal is related to the pyrolysis temperature and pH of the surface. Certain threshold ranges of the pyrolysis temperature (from 100 to 500 ºC) and pH of the surface are presented. It also concluded that the sorption capacity (for removing H₂S) of rice hull-derived biochar is the largest in three biochars (camphor-derived biochar, rice hull-derived biochar, and bamboo-derived biochar). These observations will be helpful in designing biochar as engineered sorbents for the removal of H₂S. This paper focuses on the adsorption of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) by biochars derived from wastes. The characteristics and mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) adsorption on three different boichars derived from agricultural/forestry wastes through pyrolysis at various temperatures were investigated. In this study, the H₂S breakthrough capacity was measured using laboratory characterization with pH and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The results obtained demonstrate that all biochars were effective in H₂S sorption. The sorption capacity of the biochar for H₂S removal is related to the pyrolysis temperature and pH of the surface.

  8. A systematic review of occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide in livestock operations.

    PubMed

    Guarrasi, Justene; Trask, Catherine; Kirychuk, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes the current state of knowledge in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations within intensive livestock operations. The review was undertaken to better understand H2S concentrations in intensive livestock operations, in relation to the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) limit reduction to a 1 ppm time-weighted average (TWA). Several online academic databases were searched using two conceptual groups of search terms: "livestock" and "hydrogen sulfide." Industry gray literature was additionally identified via targeted searches of online agriculture-specific Web sites. Title, abstract, and full-text screening were performed to select articles reporting H2S measurements made within livestock facilities. Forty-five articles were included in this review. The bulk (70%) of articles described swine operations, whereas the remaining represented poultry and dairy operations. Although 14% of the articles described task-based monitoring of H2S, the majority of articles (86%) involved only area monitoring. Weighted means from all three livestock types were below 1 ppm, although swine operations displayed a wider range of exposure (from 0 to 97 ppm). Despite most mean task-based exposures being close to 1 ppm, the peak concentrations measurements may be higher during power washing (97 ppm) and miscellaneous tasks (11.4 ppm). This review provides a novel overview of H2S levels in intensive livestock operations, including information on task-based measurements. The review highlights numerous influences that produce a wide variability of H2S levels in intensive livestock operations. The review also highlights the need for research focused on personal monitoring of daily worker exposures to hydrogen sulfide in intensive livestock operations.

  9. Testing of protective coatings in hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, P.E.; Barletta, R.; Adams, J.; Svandrlik, J.

    1993-07-01

    A series of tests of protective coatings on carbon-carbon substrates were performed. The tests involved exposure of the coated material to hydrogen at high temperatures, the examination of the coatings by scanning electron microscopy and the measurement of weight losses. The coatings included Re, TaHfC, TaC and NbC, with thicknesses of the order of 20--60 {mu}m.

  10. Evaluation of thiosulfate as a substitute for hydrogen sulfide in sour corrosion fatigue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappes, Mariano Alberto

    This work evaluates the possibility of replacing hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) with thiosulfate anion (S2O32- ) in sour corrosion fatigue studies. H2S increases the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and can be present in carbon steel risers and flowlines used in off-shore oil production. Corrosion tests with gaseous H2S require special facilities with safety features, because H2S is a toxic and flammable gas. The possibility of replacing H2S with S2O32-, a non-toxic anion, for studying stress corrosion cracking of stainless and carbon steels in H2S solutions was first proposed by Tsujikawa et al. ( Tsujikawa et al., Corrosion, 1993. 49(5): p. 409-419). In this dissertation, Tsujikawa work will be extended to sour corrosion fatigue of carbon steels. H2S testing is often conducted in deareated condition to avoid oxygen reaction with sulfide that yields sulfur and to mimic oil production conditions. Nitrogen deareation was also adopted in S2O3 2- testing, and gas exiting the cell was forced through a sodium hydroxide trap. Measurements of the sulfide content of this trap were used to estimate the partial pressure of H2S in nitrogen, and Henry's law was used to estimate the content of H2S in the solution in the cell. H2S was produced by a redox reaction of S2O 32-, which required electrons from carbon steel corrosion. This reaction is spontaneous at the open circuit potential of steel. Therefore, H2S concentration was expected to be maximum at the steel surface, and this concentration was estimated by a mass balance analysis. Carbon steel specimens exposed to S2O32- containing solutions developed a film on their surface, composed by iron sulfide and cementite. The film was not passivating and a good conductor of electrons. Hydrogen permeation experiments proved that this film controls the rate of hydrogen absorption of steels exposed to thiosulfate containing solutions. The absorption of hydrogen in S2O3 2- solutions was compared with the absorption of hydrogen in

  11. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorates tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress and emphysema in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Weihong; Dong, Zheng; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Su, Yunchao

    2011-10-15

    The mutual interactions between reactive oxygen species, airway inflammation, and alveolar cell death play crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the present study, we investigated the possibility that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) might be a novel option for intervention in COPD. We used a mouse model of tobacco smoke (TS)-induced emphysema. Mice were injected with H(2)S donor NaHS (50 μmol/kg in 0.25 ml phosphate buffer saline, intraperitoneally) or vehicle daily before exposed to TS for 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 12 and 24 weeks. We found that NaHS ameliorated TS-induced increase in mean linear intercepts, the thickness of bronchial walls, and the numbers of total cell counts as well as neutrophils, monocytes, and tumor necrosis factor α in bronchial alveolar lavage. Moreover, NaHS reduced increases in right ventricular systolic pressure, the thickness of pulmonary vascular walls, and the ratio of RV/LV+S in TS-exposed mice. Further, TS exposure for 12 and 24 weeks reduced the protein contents of cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL), cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS), nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), P(ser473)-Akt, as well as glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in the lungs. TS-exposed lungs exhibited large amounts of 8-hydroxyguanine-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. Treatment with NaHS increased P(ser473)-Akt and attenuated TS-induced reduction of CGL, CBS, and Nrf2 as well as glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in the lungs. NaHS also reduced amounts of 8-hydroxyguanine-positive, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and active caspase-3 in TS-exposed lungs. Additionally, knocking-down Akt protein abolished the protective effects of NaHS against TS-induced apoptosis and downregulation of Nrf2, CGL, and CBS in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. These results indicate that NaHS protects

  12. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Tobacco Smoke-Induced Oxidative Stress and Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weihong; Dong, Zheng; Dimitropoulou, Christiana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims The mutual interactions between reactive oxygen species, airway inflammation, and alveolar cell death play crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the present study, we investigated the possibility that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) might be a novel option for intervention in COPD. Results We used a mouse model of tobacco smoke (TS)-induced emphysema. Mice were injected with H2S donor NaHS (50 μmol/kg in 0.25 ml phosphate buffer saline, intraperitoneally) or vehicle daily before exposed to TS for 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 12 and 24 weeks. We found that NaHS ameliorated TS-induced increase in mean linear intercepts, the thickness of bronchial walls, and the numbers of total cell counts as well as neutrophils, monocytes, and tumor necrosis factor α in bronchial alveolar lavage. Moreover, NaHS reduced increases in right ventricular systolic pressure, the thickness of pulmonary vascular walls, and the ratio of RV/LV+S in TS-exposed mice. Further, TS exposure for 12 and 24 weeks reduced the protein contents of cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL), cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS), nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Pser473-Akt, as well as glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in the lungs. TS-exposed lungs exhibited large amounts of 8-hydroxyguanine-positive and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells. Treatment with NaHS increased Pser473-Akt and attenuated TS-induced reduction of CGL, CBS, and Nrf2 as well as glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in the lungs. NaHS also reduced amounts of 8-hydroxyguanine-positive, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells and active caspase-3 in TS-exposed lungs. Additionally, knocking-down Akt protein abolished the protective effects of NaHS against TS-induced apoptosis and downregulation of Nrf2, CGL, and CBS in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Conclusion These

  13. Hydrogen sulfide and PKG in ischemia-reperfusion injury: sources, signaling, accelerators and brakes.

    PubMed

    Andreadou, Ioanna; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Szabo, Csaba; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, hydrogen sulfide has emerged as an important cardioprotective molecule with potential for clinical applications. Although several pathways have been proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of H2S, the NO/cGMP axis has attracted significant attention. Recent evidence has suggested that cGMP-dependent protein kinase can lie both downstream and upstream of H2S. The current literature on this topic is reviewed and data from recent studies are integrated to propose a unifying model.

  14. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOEpatents

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  15. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOEpatents

    Marker, Terry L.; Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2017-03-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  16. Iodide-Photocatalyzed Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid with Thiols and Hydrogen Sulfide.

    PubMed

    Berton, Mateo; Mello, Rossella; González-Núñez, María Elena

    2016-12-20

    The photolysis of iodide anions promotes the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen sulfide or thiols to quantitatively yield formic acid and sulfur or disulfides. The reaction proceeds in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature by irradiation using a low-pressure mercury lamp. This transition-metal-free photocatalytic process for CO2 capture coupled with H2 S removal may have been relevant as a prebiotic carbon dioxide fixation. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide and PKG in ischemia-reperfusion injury: sources, signaling, accelerators and brakes

    PubMed Central

    Andreadou, Ioanna; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K.; Szabo, Csaba; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, hydrogen sulfide has emerged as an important cardioprotective molecule with potential for clinical applications. Although several pathways have been proposed to mediate the beneficial effects of H2S, the NO and cGMP axis has attracted significant attention. Recent evidence has suggested that cGMP-dependent protein kinase can lie both downstream and upstream of H2S. The current literature on this topic is reviewed and data from recent studies are integrated to propose a unifying model. PMID:26318600

  18. Release of hydrogen sulfide by asteroid impacts in Black Sea and risks for inland human population.

    PubMed

    Badescu, Viorel

    2007-10-01

    The hydrogen sulfide rich waters of the Black Sea pose a potential danger for the surrounding land regions. The impact of an asteroid may cause a catastrophic poisonous gas release in the atmosphere. Some effects of this last phenomenon on the Eastern Black Sea coastal regions are evaluated in this article. Two simple models are proposed to describe the generation of the H(2)S cloud. The initial diameter of the cloud depends on asteroid size. The initial thickness of the cloud depends, in addition, on sea depth at impact location. The wind speed plays an important role in H(2)S cloud dynamics. At 10 m/s wind-speed the cloud margins may be seen at about 150 km from impact location in about 3.2 h. The maximum distance traveled by the hydrogen sulfide cloud increases by increasing the asteroid size and wind speed. The influence of the impact position on the distance traveled by hydrogen sulfide clouds is rather weak, as far as the seawater depth does not change significantly. Two values are considered when referring to the effect of hydrogen sulfide concentrations on humans: the lower concentration limit of 19.88 ppm (which corresponds to fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, irritability, poor memory, dizziness) and the upper concentration limit of 497 ppm (which corresponds to death after single exposures). The land surface area covered by the H(2)S cloud generated by a 1000 m size asteroid during the run-in ranges between about 6080 and 11,520 km(2). This may affect between 145,000 and 276,000 people. When a 250 m size asteroid is considered, the covered land surface area ranges between about 840 and 1,890 km(2) and between 20,000 and 45,000 people may be affected. In case of a 70 m size asteroid, the cloud covers up to 105 km(2) of land during the run-in. This may affect about 2500 people. These are moderate estimates. They do not include the urban population and may be 10 times underestimated for some particular wind directions. General recommendations to diminish

  19. Hydrogen sulfide and sodium nitroprusside compete to activate/deactivate MMPs in bone tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    Vacek, Thomas P; Qipshidze, Natia; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2013-01-01

    Bone microvascular remodeling is the primary predictor of bone structure and function. Remodeling by its very nature implies synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Normally, 50% of total protein in the vessel wall is elastin. During remodeling, elastin is degraded by specialized matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Because the turnover of elastin is 1000-fold slower than that of collagen, most of the elastin is replaced by stiffer collagen. Stiffer vessels impose pressure on the aortic valve, causing regurgitation and increased pulse pressure. On the other hand, high MMP activity will cause vascular dilatation, leading to aneurysm. Therefore, balanced constitutive remodeling is necessary for adequate bone structure and function. Interestingly, collagen-degrading MMPs are involved in various pathological conditions, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and cardiovascular disease. Sodium nitroprusside is a nitric oxide donor that could potentially alter MMP activity via vasodilation in vivo, but can also produce peroxynitrite, which activates MMPs by combining with superoxide. Moreover, hydrogen sulfide is a known antioxidant as well as a vasodilator, and is also speculated to contribute directly to MMP activity. We hypothesized that hydrogen sulfide reduced activity of MMP in ex vivo bone tissue homogenates and that sodium nitroprusside would increase MMP activity in vitro. We surgically removed the tibia and femur from anesthetized mice, and prepared bone tissue homogenates using a mortar and pestle, measured the protein concentration with a spectrophotometer, and detected MMP activity using gelatin gel zymography. Our data showed increased MMP activity at a sodium nitroprusside concentration of 1 μM, and MMP activity increased exponentially. There was a decrease in MMP activity with increasing hydrogen sulfide, beginning at 16 μM (P < 0.01) and continuing to 40 μM. Moreover, sodium nitroprusside 3 μM was able to overcome the decrease in MMP

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Formaldehyde-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC12 Cells by Upregulation of SIRT-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Li-Xun; Wang, Li; Xie, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA), a well-known environmental pollutant, has been classified as a neurotoxic molecule. Our recent data demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, has a protective effect on the neurotoxicity of FA. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of FA. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT-1), a histone deacetylases, has various biological activities, including the extension of lifespan, the modulation of ER stress, and the neuroprotective action. Objective We hypothesize that the protection of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity involves in inhibiting ER stress by upregulation of SIRT-1. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of H2S on FA-induced ER stress in PC12 cells and the contribution of SIRT-1 to the protection of H2S against FA-induced injuries, including ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Principal Findings We found that exogenous application of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; an H2S donor) significantly attenuated FA-induced ER stress responses, including the upregulated levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 expression. We showed that NaHS upregulates the expression of SIRT-1 in PC12 cells. Moreover, the protective effects of H2S on FA-elicited ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were reversed by Sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of SIRT-1. Conclusion/Significance These data indicate that H2S exerts its protection against the neurotoxicity of FA through overcoming ER stress via upregulation of SIRT-1. Our findings provide novel insights into the protective mechanisms of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24587076