Science.gov

Sample records for hydrogen-based transportation economy

  1. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  2. Transportation Fuels and the Hydrogen Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbard, Alex

    2004-11-01

    An energy analysis of transportation fuels is performed for comparing automobiles and fuels currently in the marketplace as real world benchmarks projected as "hydrogen economy" requirements. Comparisons are made for ideal case average energy values at Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) at 20°C, 1 atmosphere with no loses. "Real world" benchmarks currently in the marketplace illuminate the challenges to be met if an equivalent "hydrogen economy" is to become reality. The idea of a "hydrogen economy" is that, at some time in the future, world energy needs will be supplied in part or totally from hydrogen; in part as compared to the current "petroleum economy" that is the source of most of the world's transportation fuels and only a portion of total energy use, or hydrogen as the source of all energy consumption.

  3. Potential Environmental Impacts of Hydrogen-based Transportation and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grieb, Thomas M; Mills, W B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Summers, Karen V; Crossan, A Brook

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen (H2) offers advantages as an energy carrier: minimal discharge of pollutants, production from multiple sources, increased thermodynamic efficiencies compared to fossil fuels, and reduced dependence on foreign oil. However, potential impacts from the H2 generation processes, transport and distribution of H2, and releases of H2 into the atmosphere have been proposed. The goal of this project was to analyze the effects of emissions of hydrogen, the six criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases on climate, human health, materials and structures. This project was part of a larger effort by DOE to assess the life-cycle costs and benefits and environmental impacts to inform decisions regarding future hydrogen research. Technical Approach: A modeling approach was developed and used to evaluate the potential environmental effects associated with the conversion of the on-road vehicle fleet from fossil-fuel vehicles to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. GATOR-GCMOM was the primary tool used to predict atmospheric concentrations of gases and aerosols for selected scenarios. This model accounts for all feedbacks among major atmospheric processes based on first principles. The future scenarios and the emission rates selected for this analysis of hydrogen environmental effects are based on the scenarios developed by IPCC. The scenarios selected for the model simulations are a 2000 and 2050 A1B base cases, and a 2050 A1B case with hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs). The hydrogen fuel cell scenario assumed conversion of 90% of fossil-fuel on-road vehicles (FFOV) in developed countries and 45% of FFOVs vehicles in other countries to HFCVs, with the H2 produced by steam-reforming of natural gas (SHFCVs). Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of converting the world's FFOVs to HFCVs, where the H2 is produced by wind-powered electrolysis (WHFCVs). In all scenarios a 3% leakage of H2 consumed was assumed. Two new models were developed that provide the ability to evaluate a

  4. Transportation: Environment, energy and the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Petrakis, L.

    1993-01-11

    In the US, the transportation sector consumes over one quarter of the entire energy used, almost in its entirety as petroleum products, and in quantities greater than the total US domestic oil production. The transportation sector is responsible for a significant fraction of all emissions that either prevent US cities from achieving compliance with EPA air quality standards or have serious global change implications. Finally, the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and employment due to the sector are low and incommensurate with the high fraction of energy that the transportation sector consumes. We examine below this situation in some detail and make recommendations for improvements.

  5. The Transportation Leapfrog: Using Smart Phones to Collect Driving Data and Model Fuel Economy in India

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Anand; Schewel, Laura; Saxena, Samveg; Phadke, Amol

    2013-05-01

    Car ownership in India is expected to skyrocket in the coming decades, strongly driven by rising incomes. This phenomenon provides unprecedented opportunities for automakers and equally unprecedented social and environmental challenges. Policymakers, urban planners and civil society see this car boom leading to an explosion in problems related to congestion, infrastructure, air pollution, safety, higher oil imports and climate change. For all these stakeholders to take effective action, good data on how people use their cars, their demand for mobility and their behavior in mobility is essential. Unfortunately, there is very little data on the Indian transport sector as a whole and virtually none on real-world vehicle performance and use. The rapid development of high quality mobile telecommunications infrastructure provides India with the opportunity to leapfrog the West in cheaply collecting vast amounts of useful data from transportation. In this paper, we describe a pilot project in which we use commercial smart phone apps to collect per second car driving data from the city of Pune, instantly upload it through 3G and prepare it for analysis using advanced noise filtering algorithms for less than $1 per day per car. We then use our data in an Autonomie simulation to show that India’s currently planned fuel economy test procedures will result in over-estimates of fuel economy of approximately 35% for a typical Indian car when it is operated in real world conditions. Supporting better driving cycle development is just one of many applications for smart phone derived data in Indian transportation.

  6. Economic impacts of SEPTA on the regional and state economy. Final report. [SouthEast Pennsylvania Transportation Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The report evaluates the economic and social impacts of supporting the Southeast Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) public transportation system. The study is comprehensive, considering travel times and costs for individual travelers, and how those changes would affect the cost of doing business, individual spending patterns, and the regional and State economies. Four alternatives were considered: rehabilitation of the system and continuation of services, a fifty-percent scaleback of services, gradual shutdown of the system over ten years, and immediate shutdown. The analysis showed that rehabilitation of the system would return three dollars to the region for every dollar spent on it, and that cutting back service would have economic costs far greater than any savings accrued. The methodology is general, and can be applied in other areas.

  7. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  9. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. (a)...

  12. [Market economy, health economy?].

    PubMed

    De Wever, A

    2002-09-01

    After the definition of the economy and its different types, we have to stress the political economy which integrates pure economy and society. The economical science will gradually introduce the health economy of which the definition urges to seek for a better distribution between public and private means to do more and better for the public health. The market economy is different from the state economy. She is principally conducted by the supply and demand law. The consumer's behaviour in a competitive market has some characteristics which favour the balance of this market. The healthcare market put also a health supply and demand forward but not with the same values. The needs, the supply, the consumption and the consumer's behaviour are different in this particular market which quickly evolves and progressively goes closer to the market economy. Is the healthcare an economical good or duty? The choices' criteria and the priorities are changeable. The role of the valuation studies in health economy is to try to clarify them and to favour a better use of the limited resources to the unlimited needs.

  13. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  14. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: Energy and Transportation, Grade 3. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    This publication is part of a series of instructional units produced by NSTA's Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum. This unit presents the variety of transportation modes and tries to assist students in understanding the effects of transportation on their world. The main concern of the unit is with fossil fuel consumption. The seven…

  15. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that they provide. So, to project employment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) starts by projecting the gross domestic product (GDP) for 2018. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the…

  16. Overall Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The economy's need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, BLS starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States. Then, BLS estimates the size--in…

  17. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  18. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  19. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  20. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  1. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; O'Neill, Kathleen; Bradley, Paul M.; Methé, Barbara A.; Ciufo, Stacy A.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2002-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  2. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Francis H; O'Neill, Kathleen; Bradley, Paul M; Methé, Barbara A; Ciufo, Stacy A; Knobel, LeRoy L; Lovley, Derek R

    2002-01-17

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  3. A hydrogen-based subsurface microbial community dominated by methanogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; O'Neil, Kyle; Bradley, P.M.; Methe, B.A.; Ciufo, S.A.; Knobel, L.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life may be facilitated if ecosystems can be found on Earth that exist under conditions analogous to those present on other planets or moons. It has been proposed, on the basis of geochemical and thermodynamic considerations, that geologically derived hydrogen might support subsurface microbial communities on Mars and Europa in which methanogens form the base of the ecosystem1-5. Here we describe a unique subsurface microbial community in which hydrogen-consuming, methane-producing Archaea far outnumber the Bacteria. More than 90% of the 16s ribosomal DNA sequences recovered from hydrothermal waters circulating through deeply buried igneous rocks in Idaho are related to hydrogen-using methanogenic microorganisms. Geochemical characterization indicates that geothermal hydrogen, not organic carbon, is the primary energy source for this methanogen-dominated microbial community. These results demonstrate that hydrogen-based methanogenic communities do occur in Earth's subsurface, providing an analogue for possible subsurface microbial ecosystems on other planets.

  4. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  5. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  6. Antimatter Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  7. Practical Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackerby, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    The article discusses special considerations in applying standard token economy techniques to behavior change with the head injured with examples of token economies at three rehabilitation facilities. (DB)

  8. Penetration of hydrogen-based energy system and its potential for causing global environmental change: Scoping risk analysis based on life cycle thinking

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Ryunosuke . E-mail: kikuchi@mail.esac.pt

    2006-03-15

    A hydrogen-based economy seems superficially to be environmentally friendly, and many people have worked toward its realization. Today hydrogen is mainly produced by decarbonizing fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas), and in the future decarbonization of both fossil fuels and biomass will play a leading role in the production of hydrogen. The main purpose of this paper is to suggest the identification of potential environmental risks in terms of 'life cycle thinking' (which considers all aspects from production to utilization) with regard to the hydrogen-based economy to come. Hydrogen production by decarbonization results in CO{sub 2} emissions. The final destination of the recovered CO{sub 2} is uncertain. Furthermore, there is a possibility that hydrogen molecules will escape to the atmosphere, posing risks that could occasion global environmental changes such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, temperature change in the stratosphere and change of the hydrides cycle through global vaporization. Based on the results of simulation, requirements regarding the following items are proposed to minimize potential risks: hydrogen source, production and storage loss.

  9. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  10. Understanding the New Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  11. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  12. Public Acceptance of Hydrogen in the Netherlands: Two Surveys that Demystify Public Views on a Hydrogen Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariah-Wolff, J. Leslie; Hemmes, Kas

    2006-01-01

    Interest in a hydrogen economy has grown significantly in the past decade. However, the success of old technologies that are being re-engineered to work on hydrogen, as well as the creation of new hydrogen-based technologies, hinges upon public interest in and demand for such technologies. With increasing investments in the research and…

  13. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  14. The solar-hydrogen economy: an analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Warren D.

    2007-09-01

    The 20th Century was the age of the Petroleum Economy while the 21st Century is certainly the age of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy. The global Solar-Hydrogen Economy that is now emerging follows a different logic. Under this new economic paradigm, new machines and methods are once again being developed while companies are restructuring. The Petroleum Economy will be briefly explored in relation to oil consumption, Hubbert's curve, and oil reserves with emphasis on the "oil crash". Concerns and criticisms about the Hydrogen Economy will be addressed by debunking some of the "hydrogen myths". There are three major driving factors for the establishment of the Solar-Hydrogen Economy, i.e. the environment, the economy with the coming "oil crash", and national security. The New Energy decentralization pathway has developed many progressive features, e.g., reducing the dependence on oil, reducing the air pollution and CO II. The technical and economic aspects of the various Solar-Hydrogen energy options and combinations will be analyzed. A proposed 24-hour/day 200 MWe solar-hydrogen power plant for the U.S. with selected energy options will be discussed. There are fast emerging Solar Hydrogen energy infrastructures in the U.S., Europe, Japan and China. Some of the major infrastructure projects in the transportation and energy sectors will be discussed. The current and projected growth in the Solar-Hydrogen Economy through 2045 will be given.

  15. Nanocatalysts for Solar Water Splitting and a Perspective on Hydrogen Economy.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Tobias; Meggouh, Mariem; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, nanocatalysts for solar hydrogen production are the focus of discussion as they can contribute to the development of sustainable hydrogen production in order to meet future energy demands. Achieving this task is subject of scientific aspirations in the field of photo- and photoelectrocatalysis for solar water splitting where systems of single catalysts or tandem configurations are being investigated. In search of a suitable catalyst, a number of crucial parameters are laid out which need to be considered for material design, in particular for nanostructured materials that provide exceptional physical and chemical properties in comparison to their bulk counterparts. Apart from synthetic approaches for nanocatalysts, key parameters and properties of nanostructured photocatalysts such as light absorption, charge carrier generation, charge transport, separation and recombination, and other events that affect nanoscale catalysts are discussed. To provide a deeper understanding of these key parameters and properties, their contribution towards existing catalyst systems is evaluated for photo- and photoelectrocatalytic solar hydrogen evolution. Finally, an insight into hydrogen production processes is given, stressing the current development of sustainable hydrogen sources and presenting a perspective towards a hydrogen-based economy.

  16. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  17. Power from space and the hydrogen economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Philip K.; Haynes, William E.

    2005-07-01

    Recent discoveries of methane hydrates under the Arctic permafrost and on continental shelves have revealed an immense energy resource. This has two major implications for the Solar Power Satellite (SPS). First, the SPS will not be built unless it can produce electricity at a price competitive with that generated using methane from hydrates (perhaps with sequestration of carbon dioxide). Second, steam reformation of methane is much cheaper than water electrolysis as a source of hydrogen, so there is little role for the SPS (or any other electric power technology) in the proposed hydrogen economy. On the other hand, an economy based on methane-electric hybrid vehicles offers advantages quite comparable to the hydrogen economy, without its technical problems and immense capital requirements. The methane economy also offers a transitional path to increasing direct use of electricity in transportation, a development that could create a major market for the SPS.

  18. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsche, W. E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Advocates the development of a hydrogen fuel economy as an alternative to the predominately electric economy based upon nuclear plants and depleting fossil fuel supplies. Evaluates the economic and environmental benefits of hydrogen energy delivery systems in the residential and transportation sectors. (JR)

  19. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  20. The Effects: Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nutrient pollution has diverse and far-reaching effects on the U.S. economy, impacting tourism, property values, commercial fishing, recreational businesses and many other sectors that depend on clean water.

  1. Observing the economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Stan

    2009-07-01

    In "The (unfortunate) complexity of the economy" (April pp28-32) Jean-Philippe Bouchaud presents clear evidence that traditional assumptions of rational markets have to be abandoned. The old investor slogan "buy on promise, sell on rumour" quickly magnifies a downturn into a crisis, which triggers two questions. If physics-based models are applied (beyond understanding and prediction) to actual market decisions, does this make the economy more or less stable? And, is this cause for stronger regulation?

  2. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  3. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  4. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  5. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  6. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  7. Developpement d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur le cyclage thermique des hydrures metalliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurencelle, Francois

    La compression de l'hydrogene est une etape incontournable de son utilisation dans l'industrie actuelle et dans les nouvelles applications energetiques de l'hydrogene (stockage stationnaire et transport). Les compresseurs mecaniques traditionnellement utilises posent plusieurs problemes d'ingenierie, de securite et de maintenance qui pourraient etre contournes en developpant de nouvelles technologies mieux adaptees a l'hydrogene. Dans cette these, notre objectif est de developper d'un compresseur d'hydrogene base sur les hydrures metalliques pouvant etre connecte a la sortie d'un electrolyseur fonctionnant a basse pression et d'ainsi repondre au besoin de productioncompression d'hydrogene decentralisee. La methodologie du projet comprend plusieurs etapes. Premierement, nous faisons la revue bibliographique des projets impliquant des compresseurs a hydrures metalliques. Deuxiemement, a travers des travaux experimentaux, nous recherchons des hydrures permettant une compression efficace entre 20 et 80°C. Les materiaux sont synthetises par fusion a arc electrique et caracterises sur bancs d'essais d'hydrogenation. La structure de certains materiaux est aussi investiguee par rayons X, methode de B.E.T. et microscopie electronique. Troisiemement, un reacteur d'hydrures est concu de maniere a promouvoir des echanges de chaleur rapides et efficaces. Quatriemement, le prototype et son interface de controle sont construits. Cinquiemement, le compresseur est caracterise pour en evaluer les performances en termes de debit et de capacite. Les resultats obtenus sont presentes dans trois articles publies et dans le chapitre 5 de cette these. Le compresseur (article I) est base sur trois hydrures (LaNi 4.8Sn0.2, LaNi5 et MMNi4.7Al0.3 ). Celui-ci permet d'atteindre un debit de compression de 10 a 20 L d'hydrogene par heure et son efficacite est, estimee a ˜5% par rapport a un compresseur adiabatique ideal. Il a ete demontre que l'efficacite pourrait etre augmentee en utilisant un

  8. Equality and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The two big events in higher education during 2010 were the implementation of the Equality Act, and the introduction of a new dispensation on fees and funding. The former is intended to promote equality, the latter is premised on the need for economy. In this article, the author focuses on the effect of the latter on the former. He considers this…

  9. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  10. Fueling the Green Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, James

    2009-01-01

    The Obama administration, along with many others, has placed a high priority on accelerating the nation's transition to a cleaner, greener economy. Transforming the nation's economic, energy, and environmental systems to become more sustainable will require a level of expertise, innovation, and cooperation unseen since the 1940s war effort. Public…

  11. Economy of Command

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medeiros, David Peter

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a principle of "economy of command", arguing that it provides a simple and natural explanation for some well-known properties of human language syntax. The focus is on the abstract combinatorial system that constructs the hierarchical structure of linguistic expressions, with long-distance dependencies…

  12. The College Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    As the United States grinds its way through a halting economic recovery, one thing has become abundantly clear: The recession of 2007 continues to reshape the economy in significant and permanent ways. Perhaps the most profound change is the accelerating disappearance of good-paying jobs that require only a high-school education or less. That…

  13. Costs and Potential Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, J. A.; And Others

    The University of Bradford was designated as the target for research directed toward identifying potential economies in the teaching of students under alternative sets of assumptions, in order that action may be taken to secure a more economic use of resources in the higher education sector. Part one looks generally at the nature of university…

  14. Airline Safety and Economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Langley Research Center to improve safety and economy in aircraft. Featured are the cockpit weather information needs computer system, which relays real time weather information to the pilot, and efforts to improve techniques to detect structural flaws and corrosion, such as the thermal bond inspection system.

  15. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  16. Token Economies in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; Nicholas, Heather

    1973-01-01

    Behavior modification has become a widely known practice in rehabilitation during the past decade. A medium of exchange or token is typically used to facilitate transactions and can be traded for backup reinforcers later on. This review of the use of token economies focuses on groups of individuals usually considered target rehabilitation…

  17. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  18. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastalich, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  19. Oscillations in rational economies.

    PubMed

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors - the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level.

  20. Oscillations in Rational Economies

    PubMed Central

    Mishchenko, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Economic (business) cycles are some of the most noted features of market economies, also ranked among the most serious of economic problems. Despite long historical persistence, the nature and the origin of business cycles remain controversial. In this paper we investigate the problem of the nature of business cycles from the positions of the market systems viewed as complex systems of many interacting market agents. We show that the development of cyclic instabilities in these settings can be traced down to just two fundamental factors – the competition of market agents for market shares in the settings of an open market, and the depression of market caused by accumulation of durable overproduced commodities on the market. These findings present the problem of business cycles in a new light as a systemic property of efficient market systems emerging directly from the free market competition itself, and existing in market economies at a very fundamental level. PMID:24505319

  1. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  2. On the comparison of stochastic model predictive control strategies applied to a hydrogen-based microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, P.; Valverde, L.; Maestre, J. M.; Ocampo-Martinez, C.; Bordons, C.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a performance comparison among three well-known stochastic model predictive control approaches, namely, multi-scenario, tree-based, and chance-constrained model predictive control is presented. To this end, three predictive controllers have been designed and implemented in a real renewable-hydrogen-based microgrid. The experimental set-up includes a PEM electrolyzer, lead-acid batteries, and a PEM fuel cell as main equipment. The real experimental results show significant differences from the plant components, mainly in terms of use of energy, for each implemented technique. Effectiveness, performance, advantages, and disadvantages of these techniques are extensively discussed and analyzed to give some valid criteria when selecting an appropriate stochastic predictive controller.

  3. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  4. The real new economy.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  5. The Methanol Economy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, George; Prakash, G. K.

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  6. Oil and the British economy

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, F.; Hall, S.

    1983-01-01

    Despite the 1976 discovery of North Sea oil, the British economy has floundered in the early 1980s. To uncover the reasons behind this predicament, the authors examine the North Sea oil sector, show the impact of its recent development on the British economy, and analyze the automatic responses of an economy to the development of such a new sector, the ''Kay debate,'' and the experience of six other countries with oil and the manufacturing industry.

  7. [Economy class syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  8. Fuel Economy Testing and Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Fuel Economy pages provide information on current standards and how federal agencies work to enforce those laws, testing for national Corporate Average Fuel Economy or CAFE standards, and what you can do to reduce your own vehicle emissions.

  9. Virtual Economies: Threats and Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Hammer, Jessica; Camp, Jean; Callas, Jon; Bond, Mike

    In virtual economies, human and computer players produce goods and services, hold assets, and trade them with other in-game entities, in the same way that people and corporations participate in "real-world" economies. As the border between virtual worlds and the real world grows more and more permeable, privacy and security in virtual worlds matter more and more.

  10. Why Classroom Token Economies Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Tucker, Richard D.

    1974-01-01

    The reasons for clinical failures of classroom token economies are divided into three groups: (1) Problems associated with the token program itself, (2) Problems associated with the teacher, and (3) Problems associated with the specific population on which the classroom token economy is used. Each of these problem areas is discussed. (Author)

  11. Can Education Save the Economy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noy, Michelle; Zeidenberg, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The recent global economic downturn is causing U.S. workers and employers to look to the educational system for skills that will allow them to thrive when the economy recovers. Education alone cannot save the economy. Much larger forces are at work, such as international equity and debt markets, the banking crisis, and the deflation of consumer …

  12. Digitalizing the Circular Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Markus A.

    2016-12-01

    Metallurgy is a key enabler of a circular economy (CE), its digitalization is the metallurgical Internet of Things (m-IoT). In short: Metallurgy is at the heart of a CE, as metals all have strong intrinsic recycling potentials. Process metallurgy, as a key enabler for a CE, will help much to deliver its goals. The first-principles models of process engineering help quantify the resource efficiency (RE) of the CE system, connecting all stakeholders via digitalization. This provides well-argued and first-principles environmental information to empower a tax paying consumer society, policy, legislators, and environmentalists. It provides the details of capital expenditure and operational expenditure estimates. Through this path, the opportunities and limits of a CE, recycling, and its technology can be estimated. The true boundaries of sustainability can be determined in addition to the techno-economic evaluation of RE. The integration of metallurgical reactor technology and systems digitally, not only on one site but linking different sites globally via hardware, is the basis for describing CE systems as dynamic feedback control loops, i.e., the m-IoT. It is the linkage of the global carrier metallurgical processing system infrastructure that maximizes the recovery of all minor and technology elements in its associated refining metallurgical infrastructure. This will be illustrated through the following: (1) System optimization models for multimetal metallurgical processing. These map large-scale m-IoT systems linked to computer-aided design tools of the original equipment manufacturers and then establish a recycling index through the quantification of RE. (2) Reactor optimization and industrial system solutions to realize the "CE (within a) Corporation—CEC," realizing the CE of society. (3) Real-time measurement of ore and scrap properties in intelligent plant structures, linked to the modeling, simulation, and optimization of industrial extractive process

  13. NAFTA and the Mexican Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-04

    their social and economic environment. The study states that NAFTA accelerated the transition of Mexico to a liberalized economy but did not create the...Trade Agreement (NAFTA), in effect since January 1994, plays a very strong role in the bilateral economic relationship between Mexico and the United...health issues. The effects of NAFTA on Mexico and the state of the Mexican economy have important impacts on U.S. economic and political interests. As

  14. Defense Spending and the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-07

    DEFENSE SPENDING AND THE ECONOMY Rudolph G. Penner Director Congressional Budget Office Before the Task Force on Economic Policy and Growth...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Spending and the Economy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Administration budgets have proposed even more defense spending and less nondefense spending than provided in the resolution. Additional emphasis on defense

  15. Fuel economy measurement road test procedure. SAE standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This SAE Standard incorporates driving cycles that produce fuel consumption data relating to urban, suburban, and interstate driving patterns and is intended to be used to determine the relative fuel economy among vehicles and driving patterns under warmed-up conditions on test tracks, suitable roads, or chassis dynamometers. The cycle forms the basis of a cold-start test procedure described in SAE J1256. This document provides uniform testing procedures for measuring the fuel economy of light duty vehicles (motor vehicles designed primarily for transportation of persons or property and rated at 4,500 kg (10,000 lb) or less) on suitable roads.

  16. A solar-hydrogen economy for U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockris, J. Om.; Veziroglu, T. N.

    The benefits, safety, production, distribution, storage, and uses, as well as the economics of a solar and hydrogen based U.S. energy system are described. Tropical and subtropical locations for the generation plants would provide power from photovoltaics, heliostat arrays, OTEC plants, or genetically engineered algae to produce hydrogen by electrolysis, direct thermal conversion, thermochemical reactions, photolysis, or hybrid systems. Either pipelines for gas transport or supertankers for liquefied hydrogen would distribute the fuel, with storage in underground reservoirs, aquifers, and pressurized bladders at sea. The fuel would be distributed to factories, houses, gas stations, and airports. It can be used in combustion engines, gas turbines, and jet engines, and produces water vapor as an exhaust gas. The necessary research effort to define and initiate construction of technically and economically viable solar-hydrogen plants is projected to be 3 yr, while the technical definition of fusion power plants, the other nondepletable energy system, is expected to take 25 yr.

  17. The hydrogen value chain: applying the automotive role model of the hydrogen economy in the aerospace sector to increase performance and reduce costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Acosta-Iborra, Beatriz; Harskamp, Frederik; Moretto, Pietro; Malkow, Thomas; Honselaar, Michel; Steen, Marc; Hovland, Scott; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Schautz, Max; Wittig, Manfred; Soucek, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen will assume a key role in Europe's effort to adopt its energy dependent society to satisfy its needs without releasing vast amounts of greenhouse gases. The paradigm shift is so paramount that one speaks of the "Hydrogen Economy", as the energy in this new and ecological type of economy is to be distributed by hydrogen. However, H2 is not a primary energy source but rather an energy carrier, a means of storing, transporting and distributing energy, which has to be generated by other means. Various H2 storage methods are possible; however industries' favourite is the storage of gaseous hydrogen in high pressure tanks. The biggest promoter of this storage methodology is the automotive industry, which is currently preparing for the generation change from the fossil fuel internal combustion engines to hydrogen based fuel cells. The current roadmaps foresee a market roll-out by 2015, when the hydrogen supply infrastructure is expected to have reached a critical mass. The hydrogen economy is about to take off as being demonstrated by various national mobility strategies, which foresee several millions of electric cars driving on the road in 2020. Fuel cell cars are only one type of "electric car", battery electric as well as hybrid cars - all featuring electric drive trains - are the others. Which type of technology is chosen for a specific application depends primarily on the involved energy storage and power requirements. These considerations are very similar to the ones in the aerospace sector, which had introduced the fuel cell already in the 1960s. The automotive sector followed only recently, but has succeeded in moving forward the technology to a level, where the aerospace sector is starting considering to spin-in terrestrial hydrogen technologies into its technology portfolio. Target areas are again high power/high energy applications like aviation, manned spaceflight and exploration missions, as well as future generation high power telecommunication

  18. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  20. Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  1. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  2. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  3. The Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Dresselhaus, M; Buchanan, Michelle V; Crabtree, George

    2004-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution began in the 18th century, fossil fuels in the form of coal, oil, and natural gas have powered the technology and transportation networks that drive society. But continuing to power the world from fossil fuels threatens our energy supply and puts enormous strains on the environment. The world's demand for energy is projected to double by 2050 in response to population growth and the industrialization of developing countries. The supply of fossil fuels is limited, with restrictive shortages of oil and gas projected to occur within our lifetimes (see the article by Paul Weisz in PHYSICS TODAY, July 2004, page 47). Global oil and gas reserves are concentrated in a few regions of the world, while demand is growing everywhere; as a result, a secure supply is increasingly difficult to assure. Moreover, the use of fossil fuels puts our own health at risk through the chemical and particulate pollution it creates. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions that are associated with global warming threaten the stability of Earth's climate.

  4. Radiation processing and market economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagórski, Z. P.

    1998-06-01

    In the system of totalitarian economy, regulated by bureaucracy, the real value of equipment, materials and services is almost completely unknown, what makes impossible the comparison of different technologies, eliminates competition, disturbs research and development. With introduction of market economy in Central and Eastern Europe, the radiation processing has lost doubtful support, becoming an independent business, subject to laws of free market economy. Only the most valuable objects of processing have survived that test. At the top of the list are: radiation sterilization of medical equipment and radiation induced crosslinking of polymers, polyethylene in particular. New elements of competition has entered the scene, as well as questions of international regulations and standards have appeared.

  5. Overjustification effects in token economies.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, E B

    1979-01-01

    This study tested the relevance to clinical token economies of the overjustification hypothesis that tangible reward interferes with intrinsic interest in target behaviors and causes such behaviors to be less probable following a period of reinforcement than preceding such a period. The study was carried out in an ongoing token economy for chronic psychiatric patients. Alternated over an 8-week period were weeks of token and no-token reward for one of the program's target behaviors, toothbrushing. Two different amounts of token reward were employed in order to examine whether reward magnitude might influence the presence or extent of overjustification effects. Little evidence was found for the presence of overjustification effects in token economies. However, maintenance of toothbrushing was greater in no-token weeks following weeks of low amounts of token reward than in no-token weeks following weeks of higher amounts of reward. The importance of such complex functional relationships is discussed. PMID:511808

  6. Technology transfer-transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anyos, T.; Lizak, R.; Wilhelm, J.; Hirschberg, K.

    1974-01-01

    The application of aerospace technology to the solution of urban public transportation problems is considered. Data are given on highway and railway systems with particular attention given to safety devices, fuel economy, and measures for profiling railways and highways. The development of streamlined truck bodies, to reduce air drag, and efficient brake systems for light trucks and other vehicles was also dealt with.

  7. Adventures in the Alaska Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackstadt, Steve; Huskey, Lee

    This publication was developed to increase students' understanding of basic economic concepts and the historical development of Alaska's economy. Comics depict major historical events as they occurred, but specific characters are fictionalized. Each of nine episodes is accompanied by several pages of explanatory text, which enlarges on the episode…

  8. Murphy's Moral Economy of Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1996-01-01

    Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…

  9. Schools for a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    English schools have always been involved with the economy of their time, but it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that schooling for the poor became primarily an adjunct of industry, rather than of the Church. This industrial style of education, preparation for the production line, still informs the school system, though Britain is no…

  10. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  11. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  12. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  13. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  16. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Closing the gap between socioeconomic and financial implications of residential and community level hydrogen-based energy systems: Incentives needed for a bridge to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verduzco, Laura E.

    benefits and costs of hydrogen-based alternatives, H2POWER compares the financial and socioeconomic costs of home and neighborhood refueling units to a baseline of "conventional" sources of residential electricity, space heat, water heat, and vehicle fuel. The model can also calculate the "gap" between the financial cost of the technology and the environmental cost of the externalities that are generated using conventional energy sources. H2POWER is a flexible, user-friendly tool that allows the user to specify different production pathways, supplemental power sources (renewable and non-renewable), component characteristics, electricity mixes, and other analysis parameters in order to customize the results to specific projects. The model has also built-in default values for each of the input fields based on national averages, standard technology specifications and input from experts.

  20. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  1. Teaching Economics in the Mini-Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet produced by the State of Indiana introduces elementary teachers to economic concepts appropriate to the elementary curriculum and explains how to use mini-economy activities to teach these concepts. Chapter 1 describes how the mini-economy works, while chapter 2 introduces basic economic vocabulary and discusses market economy. Ideas…

  2. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to…

  3. [Immigration in the world economy].

    PubMed

    Sassen, S

    1995-01-01

    "Immigration is at least partly an outcome of the actions of the governments and major private economic actors of the developed countries. The case of Japan is of interest here because it allows us to capture the intersection of economic internationalization and immigration in its inception.... This paper argues that [Japan's] new immigration is part of the globalisation of [its] economy. Japan is a major presence in a regional Asian economic system where it is the leading investor, foreign aid donor, and exporter of consumer goods (including cultural products). The new immigration to Japan is not unrelated to these processes of internationalization. Internationalization provides a context within which bridges are built with the countries of origin of potential emigrants and internationalization contributes to make the Japanese economy more porous, particularly so in the case of large cities." (EXCERPT)

  4. 78 FR 46799 - Use of Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 351 RIN 0625-XC001 Use of Market Economy Input Prices in... (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier and paid for in market economy currency, in the calculation of normal value...

  5. Political economy of population growth.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Mehta, H S

    1987-01-01

    Tracing the origin of political economy as a class-science, this paper focuses on the political economy of population growth. Exposing the limitations of Malthusian ideas and their invalidity even for the capitalist economies, it discusses the subsequent revival of the Malthusian model during the period of de-colonization and the misinterpretation of the relationship between population growth and development in the developing and developed countries. Taking India, China, and Japan as some case studies, the paper examines the relationship between birth rate levels and some correlates. It elaborates on the Indian experience, emphasizing the association of population growth with poverty and unemployment and lays bare some of the hidden causes of these phenomena. The authors examine some interstate variations in India and identify constraints and prospects of the existing population policy. The paper proposes outlines of a democratic population policy as an integral part of India's development strategy which should recognize human beings not simply as consumers but also as producers of material values. It pleads for 1) restructuring of property relations; 2) bringing down the mortality rates and raising of the literacy levels, especially among females; and 3) improving nutritional levels, as prerequisites for bringing down birth rates.

  6. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  7. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  8. Equilibrium in a Production Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarolla, Maria B.; Haussmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-06-15

    Consider a closed production-consumption economy with multiple agents and multiple resources. The resources are used to produce the consumption good. The agents derive utility from holding resources as well as consuming the good produced. They aim to maximize their utility while the manager of the production facility aims to maximize profits. With the aid of a representative agent (who has a multivariable utility function) it is shown that an Arrow-Debreu equilibrium exists. In so doing we establish technical results that will be used to solve the stochastic dynamic problem (a case with infinite dimensional commodity space so the General Equilibrium Theory does not apply) elsewhere.

  9. Bolivia's economy--an update.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at Bolivia's main economic indicators over the past year (mid-2006 to mid-2007), noting improvements in growth, fiscal balances, balance of payments, and international reserves. These improvements were largely due to government policies and choices, such as increased hydrocarbons royalties and control over the hydrocarbons sector, and have allowed the government to embark on a number of programs targeting the poor and landless. The report also notes that Bolivia faces many challenges: expansion of land reform, more rapid growth and poverty reduction, the reduction of regional and demographic disparities, and an accelerated diversification of the economy away from hydrocarbons and minerals.

  10. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  11. Health benefits of a low carbon economy.

    PubMed

    Haines, A

    2012-09-01

    This article summarizes a presentation given at 'Health and Well-being: the 21st Century Agenda', which focused on the potential to make progress by making appropriate connections between activity to promote health and respond to the threat of climate change. It argues that a transition to a low carbon economy would bring together two of our greatest public health challenges, supporting action to improve public health within resource constraints and action to avert climate change as far as possible. Deep cuts in emissions are needed to prevent dangerous consequences arising from climate change. In addition, many of the policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions will, in themselves, have beneficial effects on public health. This article provides an overview of several modelling studies which demonstrate that well-designed initiatives that curb greenhouse gas emissions in energy, residential construction, urban transport and agricultural systems can enhance global public health, including improving health among poor populations. Some of these health co-benefits can be achieved in a relatively short time frame, and they can help offset the costs of climate change mitigation policies.

  12. Does the economy affect teenage substance use?

    PubMed

    Arkes, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This research examines how teenage drug and alcohol use responds to changes in the economy. In contrast to the recent literature confirming pro-cyclical alcohol use among adults, this research offers strong evidence that a weaker economy leads to greater teenage marijuana and hard-drug use and some evidence that a weaker economy also leads to higher teenage alcohol use. The findings are based on logistic models with state and year fixed effects, using teenagers from the NLSY-1997. The evidence also indicates that teenagers are more likely to sell drugs in weaker economies. This suggests one mechanism for counter-cyclical drug use - that access to illicit drugs is easier when the economy is weaker. These results also suggest that the strengthening economy in the 1990s mitigated what would otherwise have been much larger increases in teenage drug use.

  13. Economy Home Improvement, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Economy Home Improvement, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lexington, Kentucky. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Lexington, Kentucky.

  14. Building Green Economies on Tribal Lands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Division of Energy and Mineral Development (DEMD) is assisting tribes in strengthening and diversifying their economies by utilizing the power generated from renewable resources on tribal reservations.

  15. Reviving the carbohydrate economy via multi-product lignocellulose biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2008-05-01

    Before the industrial revolution, the global economy was largely based on living carbon from plants. Now the economy is mainly dependent on fossil fuels (dead carbon). Biomass is the only sustainable bioresource that can provide sufficient transportation fuels and renewable materials at the same time. Cellulosic ethanol production from less costly and most abundant lignocellulose is confronted with three main obstacles: (1) high processing costs (dollars /gallon of ethanol), (2) huge capital investment (dollars approximately 4-10/gallon of annual ethanol production capacity), and (3) a narrow margin between feedstock and product prices. Both lignocellulose fractionation technology and effective co-utilization of acetic acid, lignin and hemicellulose will be vital to the realization of profitable lignocellulose biorefineries, since co-product revenues would increase the margin up to 6.2-fold, where all purified lignocellulose co-components have higher selling prices (> approximately 1.0/kg) than ethanol ( approximately 0.5/kg of ethanol). Isolation of large amounts of lignocellulose components through lignocellulose fractionation would stimulate R&D in lignin and hemicellulose applications, as well as promote new markets for lignin- and hemicellulose-derivative products. Lignocellulose resource would be sufficient to replace significant fractionations (e.g., 30%) of transportation fuels through liquid biofuels, internal combustion engines in the short term, and would provide 100% transportation fuels by sugar-hydrogen-fuel cell systems in the long term.

  16. Transit-bus fuel economy and performance simulation. Final report, October 1982-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.

    1984-10-01

    This paper addresses the simulation element of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Fuel Economy Program. More specifically, it addresses the development of fuel economy and performance sensitivity information on standard-size transit vehicles using the Heavy-Duty Vehicle Simulation (HEVSIM) Program. HEVSIM provides fuel consumption and performance estimates of a specified bus as it executes a given driving schedule. This report presents the results of bus simulation studies which determined the effects of various design and operating parameters on bus fuel economy and performance. The bus components are first described in terms of how they are modeled. Then a variation of each component is performed and the resulting fuel economy and performance are presented as sensitivities and tradeoffs.

  17. High efficiency removal of 2-chlorophenol from drinking water by a hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride membrane biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhong, Fohua; Zhang, Jiao

    2011-02-28

    A continuously stirred hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) hollow fiber membrane was investigated for removing 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) from contaminated drinking water. The bioreactor startup was achieved by acclimating the microorganisms from a denitrifying and sulfate-reducing MBfR to the drinking water contaminated by 2-CP. The effects of some major factors, including 2-CP loading, H(2) pressure, nitrate loading, and sulfate loading, on the removal of 2-CP by the MBfR were systematically investigated. Although the effluent 2-CP concentration increased with its increasing influent loading, the removing efficiency of 2-CP by the MBfR could be up to 94.7% under a high influent loading (25.71 mg/L d). The removing efficiency of 2-CP by the MBfR could be improved by higher H(2) pressure, and lower influent nitrate concentration and sulfate concentration. A high H(2) pressure can assure enough available H(2) as the electron donor for 2-CP degradation. The competition in the electron donor made nitrate and sulfate inhibit the degradation of 2-CP in the MBfR. The electron flux analyses indicated that the degradation of 2-CP only accounted for a small part of electron flux, and the autohydrogenotrophic bacteria in the MBfR were highly efficient for the 2-CP removal.

  18. A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride membrane biofilm reactor for the treatment of nitrate contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, YanHao; Zhong, FoHua

    2009-12-01

    A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was investigated to remove nitrate from the drinking water. The reactor was operated over 100 days, and the result showed that the average nitrate denitrification rate of 1.2 g NO(3)(-)-N/m(2) d and the total nitrogen (TN) removal of 95.1% were achieved with the influent nitrate concentration of 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and the hydrogen pressure of 0.05 MPa. Under the same conditions, the average rate of hydrogen utilization by biofilm was 0.031 mg H(2)/cm(2) d, which was sufficient to remove 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L from the contaminated water with the effluent nitrate and nitrite concentrations below drinking water limit values. The average hydrogen utilization efficiency was achieved as high as 99.5%. Flux analysis demonstrated that, compared to sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction competed more strongly for hydrogen electron, and obtained more electrons in high influent nitrate loading.

  19. 25 CFR 142.7 - How are transportation and scheduling determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the most economical and efficient transportation available, taking into consideration lifestyle... advantage of economies of scale and consider geographic disparity and distribution of sites. (b)...

  20. Results of a token economy.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, D T; Cayner, J J; McLaughlin-Reidel, T

    1978-12-01

    A token economy for chronic psychiatric patients (average hospital stay of ten years) is reported. One hundred seventy-four patients were treated. Follow-up data were obtained on 173 patients who had been discharged from the hospital for an average of three years at the time of follow-up. One hundred twenty-five patients completed the program, which featured a graduated method for shaping behavior (functional levels). Ninety-one of the 125 patients who completed the program and were living in the community were employed. The program was most effective with patients who had been in the hospital for less than ten years and had an IQ above 80.

  1. Child Care and the New Economy: Part I--Three Pillars of the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Late in 2008, when it was becoming apparent that the economic downturn was not a simple blip but a serious recession, Warren Buffet confidently predicted that the American economy would bounce back and be as strong as ever. However, he observed, "the economy that emerges will not be the same economy that entered the downturn." Since then, one…

  2. Training in Toronto's "New Economy"=La formation dans la "nouvelle" economie de Toronto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspectives Series document includes statements about the new economy in Toronto made by four participants in a March 2001 forum. The new economy was defined by the moderator as "an economy that emphasizes knowledge and technical processes put to the production of goods and other outputs so that an individual's knowledge is…

  3. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  4. NAFTA: The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NAFTA , the Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration 5a...ABSTRACT NAFTA , The Mexican Economy, and Undocumented Migration The North American Free Trade Agreement is variously blamed for undocumented...potential, and recommends measures to increase the chances of positive results. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NAFTA , Mexican undocumented migration 16

  5. The Rural Economy in a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    Technological change, globalization, and localization have changed rural economies. They have increased labor productivity, reducing the importance of labor costs in location decisions; decreased the importance of distance; increased the importance of economies of scale; and increased the role of local conditions and choices in determining…

  6. Government and the Economy--Stabilization Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkin, John W.

    This document describes the operation of public and private sector mechanisms which work to keep the Canadian economy stable. Part I discusses the many sources of instability in the Canadian economy. Instability is measured primarily in fluctuations in aggregate income or gross national product. Two important contributors to economic fluctuations…

  7. Political Capital in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, Victor; Opper, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    This research applies a transaction-focused institutional analysis to compare the value of political capital in different institutional domains of China's market economy. Our results show that the value of political capital is associated with institutional domains of the economy in which agents can use political connections to secure advantages.…

  8. Knowledge Production in a Cooperative Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge here means something similar to but broader than science--it is reliable but not necessarily as systematic or explicit. A cooperative economy is contrasted with the competitive economy that has dominated political thinking almost everywhere for about half a century - the neo-liberal period. It is argued that the neo-liberal ideology and…

  9. Higher Education, Development and the Learning Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the claims for the new economy as necessary background to analyzing changes in knowledge production and the role of the university in the so-called learning economy. The article develops an argument for "knowledge networks" as a basis for the university to promote regional development at home and international development…

  10. The Hydrogen Economy as a Technological Bluff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is a technological bluff in its implied assurance that, despite the accelerating pace at which we are depleting the remaining half of our fossil fuels, our energy future is secure. Elementary thermodynamic considerations are developed to show that a hydrogen economy is about as feasible as a perpetual motion machine. Hydrogen…

  11. Towards the Political Economy of Pluriactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Explores theoretical concerns of political economy approaches in agriculture and links these to farm pluriactivity. Focuses on relevance of debates concerning labor commoditization and uneven development, suggesting recognition of pluriactivity for broader understanding of political economy. Recommends broader approach for understanding economic…

  12. Getting Tenure in a Down Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Darla; Maidment, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Academic tenure is now under attack. A down economy has placed greater pressure on institutions making tenure more difficult to obtain. Nineteen tips for gaining tenure in a down economy are presented along with several justifications for tenure and why tenure is important for the preservation of the academy and the freedom to research and teach.

  13. Manufacturing Careers, Skilled Workers and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to jumpstart the economy, "Made in the U.S.A." needs to be synonymous with in-demand, high-quality products sold throughout the world. Recognizing the importance of the manufacturing industry and its connection to a healthy economy, President Obama addressed Carnegie Mellon University and launched the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership…

  14. Politics Between Economy and Culture. Introductory Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokkan, Stein

    The introductory statement to the plenary session of the Ninth World Congress of the International Political Science Association announces the first of two major themes, politics between economy and culture. This theme is described as investigating the culture-economy dialectic at all levels of politics -- global, territorial, national, community,…

  15. Guidelines for Establishing and Maintaining Token Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Brenda Smith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The following stages in planning a token economy with students having behavior problems are discussed: (1) identifying target behaviors; (2) specifying and selecting reinforcers; (3) identifying token types and schedules; (4) planning token distribution and redemption; (5) initiating and implementing the token economy system; and (6) planning…

  16. Using Classroom Token Economies as Instructional Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minner, Sam; Knutson, Richard

    1980-01-01

    The use of a token economy in teaching special needs students is outlined. Steps in establishing a token economy are presented and activities, such as the use of charge cards and a classroom bank, which help develop related skills are discussed. (PHR)

  17. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  18. The Informal Economy: Recent Trends, Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Martha Alter

    2016-08-01

    Informal employment represents more than half of nonagricultural employment in most developing regions, contributes to the overall economy, and provides pathways to reduction of poverty and inequality. Support to the informal economy should include the expansion of occupational health and safety to include informal workers, based on an analysis of their work places and work risks. The paper presents main schools of thought and argues for a holistic understanding of the different segments of the informal work force and for policies and interventions tailored to the needs and constraints of these different segments. The paper recommends a policy approach which seeks to extend social protection, including occupational health and safety services, to informal workers, and to increase the productivity of informal enterprises and informal workers through an enabling environment and support services. The paper calls for a new paradigm of a hybrid economy which would value and integrate the informal economy alongside the formal economies.

  19. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The calculations of vehicle fuel economy values require the weighted...

  20. Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01

    After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with

  1. The Economic Impact of Five Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the San Antonio SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwi, David

    The impact on the economy of five cultural institutions in the San Antonio, Texas, area was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are the San Antonio Symphony, San Antonio Opera, Witte Museum, Museum of Transportation, and the Carver Cultural Center. Data gathered from the six institutions…

  2. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 86 DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration RIN 2060-AQ09; RIN 2127-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction...

  3. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  4. Paraguay: population and the economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1986-01-01

    Paraguay's political conflicts and development experiences have been accompanied by compensatory population movements; however, economic and population policies of the past are not adequate to address the current economic challenges. The principal structural problem is dependence on international commodity prices. Since late 1984, the international prices for soya and cotton have declined more than 50%; these 2 products account for 83% of official exports. The external debt has grown significantly in the past 5 years and is increasingly difficult to service. A major problem the government faces in servicing the debt and maintaining economic growth is its inability to get control of foreign exchange. Much of Paraguay's external trade is contraband, with the dollars passing into the black market. As a result of the illegal economy, government earnings have been insufficient to cover expenses. Unemployment stands at 12% because of general economic decline, cuts in government expenditure, and the reduction of investment in hydroelectricity. Occupation of new land, the classic solution by the Paraguayan peasantry, is no longer a viable option since all land is now utilized. About 20-25% of Paraguayans live outside the country, expecially in Argentina. In 1986, a commission drafted an Adjustment Plan that recommended a devaluation of the official gurani rate, tax increases, higher tariffs for public services, and incentives to invest in priority areas; however, this plan has not been implemented to date.

  5. Financing pharmaceuticals in transition economies.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper (a) provides a methodological taxonomy of pricing, financing, reimbursement, and cost containment methodologies for pharmaceuticals; (b) analyzes complex agency relationships and the health versus industrial policy tradeoff; (c) pinpoints financing measures to balance safety and effectiveness of medicines and their affordability by publicly funded systems in transition; and (d) highlights viable options for policy-makers for the financing of pharmaceuticals in transition. Three categories of measures and their implications for pharmaceutical policy cost containing are analyzed: supply-side measures, targeting manufacturers, proxy demand-side measures, targeting physicians and pharmacists, and demand-side measures, targeting patients. In pursuing supply side measures, we explore free pricing for pharmaceuticals, direct price controls, cost-plus and cost pricing, average pricing and international price comparisons, profit control, reference pricing, the introduction of a fourth hurdle, positive and negative lists, and other price control measures. The analysis of proxy-demand measures includes budgets for physicians, generic policies, practice guidelines, monitoring the authorizing behavior of physicians, and disease management schemes. Demand-side measures explore the effectiveness of patient co-payments, the impact of allowing products over-the-counter and health promotion programs. Global policies should operate simultaneously on the supply, the proxy demand, and the demand-side. Policy-making needs to have a continuous long-term planning. The importation of policies into transition economy may require extensive and expensive adaptation, and/or lead to sub-optimal policy outcomes.

  6. Welcome to the experience economy.

    PubMed

    Pine, B J; Gilmore, J H

    1998-01-01

    First there was agriculture, then manufactured goods, and eventually services. Each change represented a step up in economic value--a way for producers to distinguish their products from increasingly undifferentiated competitive offerings. Now, as services are in their turn becoming commoditized, companies are looking for the next higher value in an economic offering. Leading-edge companies are finding that it lies in staging experiences. To reach this higher level of competition, companies will have to learn how to design, sell, and deliver experiences that customers will readily pay for. An experience occurs when a company uses services as the stage--and goods as props--for engaging individuals in a way that creates a memorable event. And while experiences have always been at the heart of the entertainment business, any company stages an experience when it engages customers in a personal, memorable way. The lessons of pioneering experience providers, including the Walt Disney Company, can help companies learn how to compete in the experience economy. The authors offer five design principles that drive the creation of memorable experiences. First, create a consistent theme, one that resonates throughout the entire experience. Second, layer the theme with positive cues--for example, easy-to-follow signs. Third, eliminate negative cues, those visual or aural messages that distract or contradict the theme. Fourth, offer memorabilia that commemorate the experience for the user. Finally, engage all five senses--through sights, sounds, and so on--to heighten the experience and thus make it more memorable.

  7. The economy of solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, H. |

    1994-12-31

    Solar energy is often regarded as environmentally-friendly, but, at the same time as not economical. A global economical view shows, however, that renewable energies can bring about substantial economic and social benefits today, even before their wide market introduction has begun. They are a basic economic innovation for durably overcoming the ever increasing risk innate in the current economic development: they provide new jobs in industry, crafts, and agriculture; a long-term reduction of administrative and health costs; reduced subsidies, increased foreign exchange assets for national economies; reduced military expenses to secure the energy supply structure; and preservation of agriculture on a sustainable basis. In the medium- and long-term, they are a precondition for reducing operation and management costs of the energy supply system. On the basis of a completely new tax system - the entropy tax - solar energy can become the trigger of a new economic dynamics which remains within the ecological limits of growth. 27 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D. A.; Laitner, J. A.

    2000-07-24

    This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).

  9. Exercise economy in skiing and running.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00-0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03-0.46), body mass (r = -0.09-0.46) and body height (r = 0.11-0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects.

  10. Economies of Size in Production Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Economies of size refer to the ability of a farm to lower costs of production by increasing production. Agriculture production displays an L-shaped average cost curve where costs are lower initially but reach a point where no further gains are achieved. Spreading fixed costs, bulk purchases, and marketing power are cited as reasons for economies of size. Labor-reducing technologies may be the primary reason. Most studies do not include the external costs from prophylactic antibiotic use, impact on rural communities, and environmental damage associated with large-scale production. These can contribute to the economies of size. PMID:23144676

  11. The effect of light truck design variables on top speed, performance, and fuel economy, 1981. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.W.; Meisner, R.P.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of vehicle weight, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and drive-line configuration on fuel economy and performance for light duty trucks is examined. The effect of lockup and extended gear ratio range is also investigated. The assessment of these vehicle variables on fuel economy and performance is determined by using the Transportation Systems Center's vehicle simulation program, VEHSIM, which predicts fuel economy and performance for vehicle parameter changes. The results indicate fuel economy and performance trends which can be used to project future improvements.

  12. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  13. E3: Economy, Energy and Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    E3 is a technical assistance framework helping communities, manufacturers, and manufacturing supply chains adapt and thrive in today's green economy. Find information on pollution prevention, sustainable business practices, and energy efficiency.

  14. Traffic airships with special reference to economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyensetter, Walther

    1921-01-01

    The first part of this report details the efficiency and economy of airship travel, while the second part presents methods of economic efficiency with regards to construction, cost of upkeep and operation, and the establishment of airship lines.

  15. Worker Displacement in an Expanding Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, Steven

    1997-01-01

    As the economy grew in the mid-1900s, job loss declined and the rate of reemployment rose. Job losses that did occur were more widely dispersed across industries and occupations than in earlier years. (Author)

  16. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    PubMed

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement.

  17. Policy Simulation of the International Coffee Economy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    roastings ACCUS Dwmmy variable for United States apparent green coffee roastings DCUS Dummy variable for extremes in United States coffee roasting ...AD-AI1N 682 DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF EXTERNAL-ETC F/8 5/3 POLICY SIMULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY.(U) 1981 W C...POLICY SIMULATION OF T=E INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY: FINAL REPORT by Walter C. Labys* This final report describes the completed research of the coffee

  18. Piracy and Its Impact on the Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    maximum 200 words) This thesis attempts to shed light on the growing threat maritime piracy has on the economy along with possible solutions...shed light on the growing threat maritime piracy has on the economy along with possible solutions (military and diplomatic operations) the world...would like to thank my wife, Kathleen, for her constant support and understanding with all the effort that was put into this thesis. I would also

  19. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  20. The token economy: a decade later.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1982-01-01

    In the last decade, the token economy has been extended widely across populations and behaviors in treatment, rehabilitation, educational, and community settings. Outcome research has expanded as well to include large-scale program evaluations and comparative and combined treatment studies of the token economy. In a previous review (Kazdin & Bootzin, 1972), several obstacles were identified for the effective application of the token economy. These included identifying procedures to enhance program efficacy, to train staff, to overcome client resistance, and to promote long-term maintenance and transfer of training. The present paper discusses recent advances in research and reviews progress on the major issues identified previously. New issues have become salient in the last decade that pertain to the extension of the token economy to institutional settings. The demands for maintaining the integrity of treatment, the ability to integrate token economies within existing institutional constraints, and the disseminability of the procedures on a large scale are major issues that may dictate the future of the token economy.

  1. 3 CFR 8377 - Proclamation 8377 of May 11, 2009. National Defense Transportation Day and National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... underscore the importance of the transportation system to our Nation’s economy and security. We also honor... compete in the 21st century global economy, the United States must have an advanced transportation system... system. Whether responding to natural disasters at home or mobilizing resources to defend America...

  2. 40 CFR 1066.840 - Highway fuel economy test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Highway fuel economy test procedure... Highway fuel economy test procedure. This section describes the procedure for the highway fuel economy test (HFET). This test involves emission sampling and fuel economy measurement for certain vehicles...

  3. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph...

  4. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  5. Translation, the Knowledge Economy, and Crossing Boundaries in Contemporary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yun-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    Significant developments in the global economy and information technology have been accompanied by a transformation in the nature and process of knowledge production and dissemination. Concepts such as the knowledge economy or creative economy have been formulated to accommodate the new and complex developments in knowledge, creativity, economy,…

  6. 40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel economy calculations....

  7. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  8. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....

  9. Three Forms of the Knowledge Economy: Learning, Creativity and Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines and reviews three forms and associated discourses of the "knowledge economy": the "learning economy", based on the work of Bengt-Ake Lundvall; the "creative economy" based on the work of Charles Landry, John Howkins and Richard Florida; and the "open knowledge economy" based on the work of Yochai Benkler and others. Arguably,…

  10. Light truck capabilities, utility requirements and uses: Implications for fuel economy. Final report, March 1995-March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Church, R.; Jain, K.; Little, C.; Moavenzadeh, J.; O`Donnell, J.

    1996-04-01

    In April 1994, NHTSA issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM) requesting information regarding light truck fuel economy capabilities for model years 1998 through 2006. Subsequently, in the Department of Transportation Appropriations Act for FY 1995, Congress requested that NHTSA perform a study addressing two key questions: (1) What are the unique capabilities, utility requirements, and uses of light trucks, (2) Do these consumer requirements and other regulatory requirements constrain the ability to improve light truck fuel economy. The principal findings of the study conducted for NHTSA by the Volpe Transportation Systems Center are contained in the report.

  11. Transportation Energy Efficiency Trends, 1972--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Fan, Y.

    1994-12-01

    The US transportation sector, which remains 97% dependent on petroleum, used a record 22.8 quads of energy in 1993. Though growing much more slowly than the economy from 1975 to 1985, energy use for transportation is now growing at nearly the same rate as GDP. This report describes the analysis of trends in energy use and energy intensity in transportation into components due to, (1) growth in transportation activity, (2) changes in energy intensity, and (3) changes in the modal structure of transportation activities.

  12. Youth and the New Economy=Les jeunes et la nouvelle economie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Perspectives Series, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This Community Perspective Series document includes statements about young people in the new economy of Toronto made by three participants in the October 2000 annual general meeting of the Toronto Training Board. "A Hitchhiker's Guide to the New Economy" (Olivia Chow) suggests that training programs available to young people are…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Texas's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting Washington's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Mississippi's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Indiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oregon's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arkansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Florida's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Louisiana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting California's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting Ohio's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Illinois's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maryland's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Jersey's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Idaho's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting West Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Pennsylvania's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Mexico's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting Colorado's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting Tennessee's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Montana's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Minnesota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Michigan's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Missouri's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting Rhode Island's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Vermont's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Oklahoma's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Massachusetts' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kansas' Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting New Hampshire's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Education and the Economy: Boosting Delaware's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  6. Education and the Economy: Boosting New York's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  7. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alaska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  8. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wisconsin's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  9. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nebraska's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  10. Education and the Economy: Boosting Georgia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  11. Education and the Economy: Boosting Hawaii's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  12. Education and the Economy: Boosting Wyoming's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  13. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  14. Education and the Economy: Boosting South Dakota's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  15. Education and the Economy: Boosting Iowa's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  16. Education and the Economy: Boosting Kentucky's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  17. Education and the Economy: Boosting Connecticut's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting Maine's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Education and the Economy: Boosting North Carolina's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  20. Education and the Economy: Boosting Arizona's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  1. Education and the Economy: Boosting Alabama's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  2. Education and the Economy: Boosting Nevada's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  3. Education and the Economy: Boosting Utah's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  4. Education and the Economy: Boosting the Nation's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  5. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  6. Indigenous Economies, Theories of Subsistence, and Women: Exploring the Social Economy Model for Indigenous Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuokkanen, Rauna

    2011-01-01

    The significance of traditional economies in indigenous communities goes beyond the economic realm--they are more than just livelihoods providing subsistence and sustenance to individuals or communities. The centrality of traditional economies to indigenous identity and culture has been noted by numerous scholars. However, today one can detect a…

  7. Running biomechanics: shorter heels, better economy.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M N; Bobbert, M F; van Soest, A J; Clark, J R; van Heerden, J

    2008-10-01

    Better running economy (i.e. a lower rate of energy consumption at a given speed) is correlated with superior distance running performance. There is substantial variation in running economy, even among elite runners. This variation might be due to variation in the storage and reutilization of elastic energy in tendons. Using a simple musculoskeletal model, it was predicted that the amount of energy stored in a tendon during a given movement depends more critically on moment arm than on mechanical properties of the tendon, with the amount of stored energy increasing as the moment arm gets smaller. Assuming a link between elastic energy reutilization and overall metabolic cost of running, a smaller moment arm should therefore be associated with superior running economy. This prediction was confirmed experimentally in a group of 15 highly trained runners. The moment arm of the Achilles tendon was determined from standardized photographs of the ankle, using the position of anatomical landmarks. Running economy was measured as the rate of metabolic energy consumption during level treadmill running at a speed of 16 km h(-1). A strong correlation was found between the moment arm of the Achilles tendon and running economy. Smaller muscle moment arms correlated with lower rates of metabolic energy consumption (r(2)=0.75, P<0.001).

  8. Walking economy in people with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Cory L; Schenkman, Margaret L; McFann, Kim; Wolfe, Pamela; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2009-01-01

    Gait dysfunction is an early problem identified by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in gait may result in an increase in the energy cost of walking (i.e., walking economy). The purpose of this study was to determine whether walking economy is atypical in patients with PD when compared with healthy controls. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the associations of age, sex, and level of disease severity with walking economy in patients with PD. The rate of oxygen consumption (VO2) and other responses to treadmill walking were compared in 90 patients (64.4±10.3 yr) and 44 controls (64.6±7.3 yr) at several walking speeds. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to determine relationships of age, sex, and disease state with walking economy in PD patients. Walking economy was significantly worse in PD patients than in controls at all speeds above 1.0 mph. Across all speeds, VO2 was 6 to 10% higher in PD patients. Heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion were correspondingly elevated. No significant relationship of age, sex, or UPDRS score with VO2 was found for patients with PD. The findings suggest that the physiologic stress of daily physical activities is increased in patients with early to mid-stage PD, and this may contribute to the elevated level of fatigue that is characteristic of PD. PMID:19441128

  9. An entropic framework for modeling economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caticha, Ariel; Golan, Amos

    2014-08-01

    We develop an information-theoretic framework for economic modeling. This framework is based on principles of entropic inference that are designed for reasoning on the basis of incomplete information. We take the point of view of an external observer who has access to limited information about broad macroscopic economic features. We view this framework as complementary to more traditional methods. The economy is modeled as a collection of agents about whom we make no assumptions of rationality (in the sense of maximizing utility or profit). States of statistical equilibrium are introduced as those macrostates that maximize entropy subject to the relevant information codified into constraints. The basic assumption is that this information refers to supply and demand and is expressed in the form of the expected values of certain quantities (such as inputs, resources, goods, production functions, utility functions and budgets). The notion of economic entropy is introduced. It provides a measure of the uniformity of the distribution of goods and resources. It captures both the welfare state of the economy as well as the characteristics of the market (say, monopolistic, concentrated or competitive). Prices, which turn out to be the Lagrange multipliers, are endogenously generated by the economy. Further studies include the equilibrium between two economies and the conditions for stability. As an example, the case of the nonlinear economy that arises from linear production and utility functions is treated in some detail.

  10. Environmental issues elimination through circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková, M.; Pokorná, E.; Šujanová, J.; Samáková, J.

    2016-04-01

    Environmental efforts of European Union are currently going towards circular economy. Tools like Extended Producer Responsibility and Eco-design were established. The circular economy deals with resources availability issue on one hand and waste management on the other hand. There are few pioneering companies all over the world with some kind of circular economy practice. Generally the concept is not very wide-spread. The paper aims to evaluate possibility of transition towards circular economy in Slovak industrial companies. They need to have an active approach to material treatment of their products after usage stage. Innovation is another important pre-condition for the transition. Main problem of current cradle to grave system is landfilling of valuable materials after one cycle of usage. Their potential value for next manufacturing cycles is lost. Companies may do not see connection between waste management and material resource prices and volatility of supplies. Municipalities are responsible for municipal waste collection and treatment in Slovakia. The circular economy operates by cradle to cradle principle. Company manages material flow until the material comes back to the beginning of manufacturing process by itself or by another partners. Stable material supplies with quite low costs are provided this way. It is necessary to deal with environmental problems in phase of product design. Questionnaire survey results show on one hand low involvement of industrial companies in waste management area, however on the other hand they are open to environmental innovations in future.

  11. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant.

  12. The lunar hopping transporter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degner, R.; Kaplan, M. H.; Manning, J.; Meetin, R.; Pasternack, S.; Peterson, S.; Seifert, H.

    1971-01-01

    Research on several aspects of lunar transport using the hopping mode is reported. Hopping exploits the weak lunar gravity, permits fuel economy because of partial recompression of propellant gas on landing, and does not require a continuous smooth surface for operation. Three questions critical to the design of a lunar hopping vehicle are addressed directly in this report: (1) the tolerance of a human pilot for repeated accelerations; (2) means for controlling vehicle attitude during ballistic flight; and (3) means of propulsion. In addition, a small scale terrestrial demonstrator built to confirm feasibility of the proposed operational mode is described, along with results of preliminary study of unmanned hoppers for moon exploration.

  13. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    -called "topographical" approach, which is used by intellectual information technology "Dynamics of systems". According to it the realistic plan of regional economic system is created in the virtual space -directly on a computer desktop. And economic objects are displayed on evident schemes according to their real "geographical" structure. Each enterprise, bank, business-unit or the detached division of the company receives its own "Module" (area in working space of a spreadsheet). In result the general plan of regional economic system appears at planners. A whole real picture of all economic system functioning is recreated by such way. The idea of a method is obvious: the operator sees actual functioning of regional economy. This is promoted by "the friendly interface", allowing to display real objects as a clear symbols. The regional economy can be considered as a set of the separate enterprises connected by various economic communications. Constant monitoring of an infrastructure development, tracking of a cargoes transportation condition, supervision over following the ecological specifications by the regional enterprises, growth of housing and industrial building level, condition of communications, etc. is necessary for carrying out with the help of modern technologies of space shooting and satellite navigating systems. It will allow to obtain the data in an operative mode and will also help to the quickly modeling of a situation development variants, and to accept anticipatory administrative decisions. Other sources of the information are statistical directories and reports on a social condition in region: about a migration level and the population incomes, consumer's basket structure, demographic parameters - age of the capable population, a sexual and national attributes, etc. It is possible to attribute financial parameters to the third group: the regional budget condition data, a gain of investments into the regional economy, a growth of incomes in the regional budget from the

  14. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  15. Towards a statistical mechanics of economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jericó, João Pedro; Marsili, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    The relevance of a given good in the production network of an economy can be quantified by its degree. We find that, across a large dataset of IO matrices for different countries, degrees follow an exponential distribution when the level of aggregation of economic activity is coarse enough. We confirm this by studying the US economy, for which data at a finer classification are available, at different level of aggregation. We recover the same "universal" degree distribution in models of large random economies, upon aggregation. The convergence to the exponential distribution is faster when aggregation is performed disregarding the nature of economic activities. This suggests that the loss of information on microscopic details depends on the classification methods employed by government agencies.

  16. Sanitary engineering and water economy in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krul, W. F. J. M.

    1957-01-01

    The author deals with a wide variety of aspects of water economy and the development of water resources, relating them to the sanitary engineering problems they give rise to. Among those aspects are the balance between available resources and water needs for various purposes; accumulation and storage of surface and ground water, and methods of replenishing ground water supplies; pollution and purification; and organizational measures to deal with the urgent problems raised by the heavy demands on the world's water supply as a result of both increased population and the increased need for agricultural and industrial development. The author considers that at the national level over-all plans for developing the water economy of countries might well be drawn up by national water boards and that the economy of inter-State river basins should receive international study. In such work the United Nations and its specialized agencies might be of assistance. PMID:13472427

  17. Automotive fuel economy and emissions program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, M. W.; Baisley, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental data were generated to support an assessment of the relationship between automobile fuel economy and emissions control systems. Tests were made at both the engine and vehicle levels. Detailed investigations were made on cold-start emissions devices, exhaust gas recirculation systems, and air injection reactor systems. Based on the results of engine tests, an alternative emission control system and modified control strategy were implemented and tested in the vehicle. With the same fuel economy and NOx emissions as the stock vehicle, the modified vehicle reduced HC and CO emissions by about 20 percent. By removing the NOx emissions constraint, the modified vehicle demonstrated about 12 percent better fuel economy than the stock vehicle.

  18. Intrinsic reinforcers in a classroom token economy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, T F; Malaby, J

    1972-01-01

    An inexpensive, easily managed token economy was used in a normal classroom for one academic year, and data were collected for the entire academic performance in spelling, language, handwriting, and math for that year. During a baseline period, assignment completion was variable. The introduction of a token economy with a point exchange every five days increased assignment completion and decreased variability of performance. An application of a token economy that had a point exchange averaging four days was accompanied by an assignment completion rate that approximated 100%. A reinforcement contingency for which quiet behavior rather than for assignment completion was eased quiet behavior was accompanied by a marked diminution of assignment completion. A reintroduction of the token reinforcement for assignment completion system increased assignment completion again.

  19. Divvy Economies Based On (An Abstract) Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Dennis G.

    2004-04-01

    The Leontief Input-Output economic system can provide a model for a one-parameter family of economic systems based on an abstract temperature T. In particular, given a normalized input-output matrix R and taking R= R(1), a family of economic systems R(1/T)=R(α) is developed that represents heating (T>1) and cooling (T<1) of the economy relative to T=1. .The economy for a given value of T represents the solution of a constrained maximum entropy problem.

  20. An inquiry into the household economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    The value of the time which people devote to each activity of their lives is compared with the money they spend on the activity. After tax wage rates are used to value an individual's time. The enormous size of the household economy and the fact that for most activities the value of the consumer's time devoted to an activity exceeds the money expenditures on the activity, suggest that there are many opportunities for productivity improvements in the household economy which have been overlooked in most traditional thinking on productivity.

  1. A strategic approach to a green economy.

    PubMed

    Trumka, Richard L

    2009-01-01

    The crash has happened and we face dual market failures: climate change and the greatest economic crisis of our lifetimes. American labor believes that we must have a strategic approach to greening the economy centered on domestic investment in new technologies, the creation of good jobs, and leading a shared international response to both these issues. The nay-sayers are the same financial and industrial interests that advised the world economy into chaos. Their advice to us is more of the same: no rules, no regulations, free markets, and free trade. But now is the time for real change.

  2. Haptic seat for fuel economy feedback

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John Thomas

    2016-08-30

    A process of providing driver fuel economy feedback is disclosed in which vehicle sensors provide for haptic feedback on fuel usage. Such sensors may include one or more of a speed sensors, global position satellite units, vehicle pitch/roll angle sensors, suspension displacement sensors, longitudinal accelerometer sensors, throttle position in sensors, steering angle sensors, break pressure sensors, and lateral accelerometer sensors. Sensors used singlely or collectively can provide enhanced feedback as to various environmental conditions and operating conditions such that a more accurate assessment of fuel economy information can be provided to the driver.

  3. When does inequality freeze an economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio

    2016-07-01

    Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.

  4. Defense Spending and the Civilian Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    1980s. We are now once again in a period of substantially declining military expenditure . Although not perfectly correlated with total defense spending ...AD-A257 677 - IIIIIIIIIII11liiIll/I l///ll III1II lllI! A RAND NOTE Defense Spending and the Civilian Economy DTIC C. R. Neu S ELECTE r• DEC 01...NOTE N-3083-PCT Defense Spending and the Civilian Economy C. R. Neu October 1990 Accesion For Supported by the NTlSCRA.. Pew Charitable Trusts TA

  5. Minorities and fuel-economy standards: Differences in EPA-test vs in-use fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    A vehicle's in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985 and of those vehicles held by different population groups. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis showed that fleetwide, the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and that light trucks are experiencing larger shortfalls than automobiles. Controlling for vehicle age and size class, shortfalls did not appear to differ by population group. However, African-American households appeared to select vehicles with systematically lower fuel economy (both EPA-test and on-the-road) within individual vehicle age and size class categories.

  6. Minorities and fuel-economy standards: Differences in EPA-test vs in-use fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1991-12-31

    A vehicle`s in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985 and of those vehicles held by different population groups. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis showed that fleetwide, the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and that light trucks are experiencing larger shortfalls than automobiles. Controlling for vehicle age and size class, shortfalls did not appear to differ by population group. However, African-American households appeared to select vehicles with systematically lower fuel economy (both EPA-test and on-the-road) within individual vehicle age and size class categories.

  7. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  8. Production of biofuels and biomolecules in the framework of circular economy: A regional case study.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric; Richel, Aurore

    2015-12-01

    Faced to the economic and energetic context of our society, it is widely recognised that an alternative to fossil fuels and oil-based products will be needed in the nearest future. In this way, development of urban biorefinery could bring many solutions to this problem. Study of the implementation of urban biorefinery highlights two sustainable configurations that provide solutions to the Walloon context by promoting niche markets, developing circular economy and reducing transport of supply feedstock. First, autonomous urban biorefineries are proposed, which use biological waste for the production of added value molecules and/or finished products and are energetically self-sufficient. Second, integrated urban biorefineries, which benefit from an energy supply from a nearby industrial activity. In the Walloon economic context, these types of urban biorefineries could provide solutions by promoting niche markets, developing a circular economy model, optimise the transport of supply feedstock and contribute to the sustainable development.

  9. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2004-01-01

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  10. Adult Education and the Irish Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Sexton

    2004-01-01

    The Irish Economy is at an interesting and dynamic phase of its development and people are faced with major decisions that will impact on the Irish society for many years to come. These decisions are and must be made by all who are in a position to influence. Economic evolution or revolution is not new and is most certainly not new to these…

  11. Supporting Innovation in Developing and Transitional Economies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of innovative entrepreneurship and the needs of developing and transitional economies. Outlines the operation of the European Commission's Business and Innovation Centres. Suggests that innovation must be viewed as a major issue in all enterprises and that greater recognition be given to the role of innovative small and…

  12. Black Women in the Emerging Services Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Bette

    1989-01-01

    Examines the impact of a services economy on the work and income of Black women in relation to current labor theory, employment patterns of Black and White women, and future policy implications. Discusses the growing feminization of poverty as the product of a growing subculture of low-wage work. (JS)

  13. Facing the Challenges of a Turbulent Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Pamela B.

    2009-01-01

    As college presidents face the challenges of a turbulent and uncertain economy, they are working to assess the impacts on their strategic financial positions and to develop response plans that reflect their institutional missions and values. How can college presidents navigate during these difficult economic times as they seek to hold on to the…

  14. The Economy of a Lucky Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    1984-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest standards of living in the world. Agriculture, grazing, and mining are the mainstays of the country's economy. Since the end of World War II, Australia has developed an advanced industrial base that manufactures a wide range of goods, from automobiles to clothespins. (RM)

  15. California Community Colleges: Vital to the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The California Community Colleges play an important role in boosting the state's economy by serving more than 2.3 million students a year. In fact, one out of three community college students in the U.S. is enrolled in a California community college, making it the nation's largest system of higher education. Their 112 colleges provide students…

  16. The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and…

  17. The Socialist Market Economy and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yixian, Li

    2006-01-01

    The [Chinese Communist] Party's Fourteenth Congress unequivocally confirmed the building of a socialist market system. The Third Plenary Session of the Party's Twelfth Congress in 1984 propounding the market led to economic reforms and the advancing of the theory of a socialist market economy. It constitutes a deepened understanding of the…

  18. Economics of automobile fuel-economy standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kleit, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1978 the Federal government has mandated that new automobiles sold by major firms in the United States reach certain levels of average fuel efficiency. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards can generate implicit taxes and subsidies for various types of cars. They also can have an impact on market structure, creating regulatory economies of scope. CAFE standards may also act to increase the profits of firms in the automobile industry, either by preventing competition among firms constrained by the standards or by creating profit opportunities for firms not constrained by the standards. CAFE standards are shown to have had a significant effect on the price of new cars in model years 1983 through 1986, raising the price of fuel inefficient cars and lowering the price of fuel efficient cars. The gasoline savings resulting from the imposition of higher standards are computed, as well as the welfare loss they generate. It is concluded that automobile fuel economy standards can save gasoline,but only at a large loss to the economy. An empirical model of the political support for CAFE standards is developed and tested. It is shown that support for the standards comes from the one major domestic automobile company that would benefit from higher standards, as well as from those who in general prefer regulatory solutions to the free market.

  19. Leading Indicator: New England's Higher Education Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    In few places is higher education so ingrained in a region's economic vitality as in New England. Students from all over the world enroll in New England's institutions of learning and research, bringing resources to finance their education and living expenses that reverberate throughout local and state economies. Human capital-based industries…

  20. What Does the Economy Bode for Fundraising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbon, Julie

    2008-01-01

    With the United States economy on a rollercoaster ride this year and words like "meltdown," "bailout," and "crisis" commonly used in recent weeks in connection with the financial markets, college and university administrators might find themselves becoming increasingly anxious about their fundraising plans. They…

  1. Your Institution in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, William

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author offers his reflections on the American economy and its "slow, gradual, and tedious" recovery. What the American people are experiencing now is not one of the ordinary recessions that have been experienced since World War II. What they have seen is a bursting of a bubble in the credit markets and in financial…

  2. Political Economy in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, David

    2017-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review is based on the fundamental idea that political economy should be adopted as a frame for research and discussion in applied linguistics as part of a general social turn which has taken hold in the field over the past three decades. It starts with Susan Gal's (1989) early call for such a move in sociolinguistics and…

  3. Reconsidering an Economy of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayanagi, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    This article has an overall aim as follows: to develop an alternative understanding to a narrow view of education, and in particular teacher training--preparatory and continuing--in terms of economy, as well as the competencies needed for the teaching profession. It takes the view that such an alternative is or could be found in the ideas put…

  4. Library Automation in a Difficult Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The downturn in the economy has taken its toll on libraries. Even in the best of times, most libraries have to work with budgets that are barely adequate to support their essential activities. In these recent months, the recession has subtracted significant funds from the parent organizations of many libraries: city, county, and state governments;…

  5. Apparel Graduate Course Focuses on Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnock, Mary M.

    2006-01-01

    Students at all levels of study must understand the impact and consequences of globalization. Because of technology innovations, integration of world economies through trade and cash flows, and the movement of people from one location to another, the world is becoming flatter. Based on this growing need to study globalization, a graduate course,…

  6. Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…

  7. Iraq’s Economy: Past, Present, Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-03

    Political Economy, and Martin A. Weiss, Analyst in International Trade and Finance, Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Division. 2 Dani Rodrik . “Growth...to Dani Rodrik , a prominent development economist, "in the long run, the main thing that ensures convergence with the living standards of advanced

  8. Building New York City's Innovation Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Jim; Bowles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Academic research institutions have long been important economic anchors for New York City. They provide thousands of jobs and serve as a magnet for talented students and faculty, who inject hundreds of millions of dollars into the local economy through federal research grants. Yet, even though New York's concentration of top-fight scientific…

  9. Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

  10. The "Celtic Tiger" and a Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Gerard M.; O'Sullivan, Eoin

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Ireland has proactively marketed its educated workforce, its favourable corporate tax rates, membership of the European common market, and other advantages, to multinational technology corporations. The resulting foreign direct investment in high-tech manufacturing operations has driven a booming Irish economy that has…

  11. The Political Economy of North American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John H., Ed.

    This book presents 12 papers that proceed from the idea that Native American history in the United States and Canada is best understood not as an Indian-European cultural conflict but as an economic conflict between communal and capitalist modes of production. Three chapters are of particular educational interest. "Political Economy in…

  12. The Information Economy--A European Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, R.

    From a European perspective, this paper focuses on a set of issues affecting the emerging information economy. Among the issues covered are: developing a means of measuring the value of information and knowledge; studying other institutions such as the United States Department of Defense and the United States venture capital industry which are…

  13. Biotech Tradeoffs in the Rural Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesizes findings with personal estimates of likely impacts of biotechnology on nonmetropolitan economy, farming, public research institutions. Indicates biotechnology's benefit to rural America may come in expanded demand for raw materials although drawbacks may include declining farm numbers and displacement of rural workers in…

  14. Valid Knowledge: The Economy and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    The future of Western universities as public institutions is the subject of extensive continuing debate, underpinned by the issue of what constitutes "valid knowledge". Where in the past only propositional knowledge codified by academics was considered valid, in the new economy enabled by information and communications technology, the procedural…

  15. A Revised Curriculum in Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taube, Richard K.

    1975-01-01

    The economics curriculum developed to fit Dominican College's new urban-international focus is outlined. Eight courses in the sequence are the nature of economics in a political context, comparative decision making systems, current issues, political economy in your experience, international political economics, economic development, macroeconomic…

  16. Technology transfer to the broader economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Approaches to the transfer of government-funded civil space technology to the broader commercial economy were addressed by Working Panel no. 4. Some of the problems related to current strategies for technology transfer and recommendations for new approaches are described in outline form.

  17. Trends in Alaska's People and Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Linda; Killorin, Mary; Martin, Stephanie

    This booklet provides data on Alaska's population, economy, health, education, government, and natural resources, including specific information on Alaska Natives. Since 1960, Alaska's population has tripled and become more diverse, more stable, older, less likely to be male or married, and more concentrated. About 69 percent of the population…

  18. A Cooperative Home-School Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Belinda D.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes token economy systems for use with students with severe behavioral disorders, including systems extending from the classroom into home life. Techniques for soliciting parent participation, training parents, and maintaining the system are put forth. Variations on the system and a sample checklist are also included. (PB)

  19. Establishing and Balancing a Classroom Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.; Arnault, Lynne

    The paper presents a classroom token economy system for providing classroom structure, eliminating or controlling a variety of problem behaviors, and for demonstration and teaching purposes. The first section addresses income production (payment for productive work using classroom work periods as payment periods). A percentage method in paying for…

  20. Token economy in a hospital rehabilitation system.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1988-09-01

    A ward-based token economy programme which formed one part of a larger rehabilitative service for long-stay psychiatric patients is described. The clinical effectiveness of the programme is examined by the use of various nursing, psychological and psychiatric assessments before and after the patients' treatment on the ward, and the progress of former patients is followed-up as they move to different parts of the rehabilitation service. Significant clinical gains in patients' psychiatric symptomatology and problem behaviour on the ward are reported, although there were indications that improvement was not fully maintained as the patients moved on to other parts of the service. Comparison of the present clinical programme with the earlier research programmes on the ward indicated that the present regime was superior. The advantages and problems of token economy as a rehabilitative facility are discussed, outlining the various different roles for token economy with psychiatric rehabilitation. Finally, the future of token economy for long-stay patients is considered, questioning whether it might more appropriately be replaced by other structured ward programmes.

  1. A Home-School Token Economy Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles L.; Fairchild, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Presents a workable plan for all counselors who wish to establish cooperation and collaboration between parents and teachers concerning children's problems that involve achievement and misbehavior. A basic outline of how to implement a home-school token economy plan is presented with two case examples illustrating its use and effectiveness.…

  2. Peer Managed Token Economies: Evaluation and Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedell, Jeffrey R.; Archer, Robert P.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate equivalent levels of patient performance when contingent reinforcement in a residential token economy program was controlled by either patient peer groups or staff. Patients in a peer-managed program showed positive ward behavior, reductions in psychosocial problems, and increase in potential for adjusting to community life.…

  3. Economy's Troubles Could Hit Colleges Unusually Hard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2008-01-01

    Financial experts everywhere agree that the economy appears headed toward a recession. The question is how long it will last and how deep it will be. The last recession, in 2001, lasted less than a year. Most sectors, including higher education, shrugged it off. During lengthier downturns, colleges have often benefited from increased enrollments.…

  4. Political economy of Clinton's ambitious energy program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-10-01

    Hillary Clinton's campaign has stressed her continuity with Obama's energy policy on key aspects such as decarbonization of the US economy, technological innovation and global cooperation. However, policy reforms to deliver long-term climate goals might be out of reach in a highly divided Congress.

  5. Labor and the Economy in 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defina, Catherine C.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the economy in 1973 includes coverage of price controls and freezes; monetary and fiscal policy; unemployment collective bargaining (apparel, railroads, rubber, electrical equipment, postal, trucking, automobiles); strikes; legal developments (employment discrimination and legislation); union developments (indictment, farm ferment,…

  6. Thriving locally in the global economy.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2003-08-01

    More and more small and midsize companies are joining corporate giants in striving to exploit international growth markets. At the same time, civic leaders worry about their communities' economic future in light of the impact of global forces on the operation and survival of business. How can communities retain local vitality yet still link their business to the global economy? Harvard professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter addresses that question in this classic HBR article, orginally published in 1995. To avoid a clash between international economic interests and local political interests, globalizing business must learn how to be responsive to the communities in which they operate, Kanter says. And communities must determine how to create a civic culture that will attract and retain footloose companies. The author surveyed five U.S. regions with direct connections to the global economy--Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle, and the Spartanburg-Greenville region of South Carolina--to determine their business and civic leader's strategies for improving their constituent's quality of life. She identified ways in which the global economy can work locally by capitalizing on the resources that distinguish one place from another. Kanter argues that regions can invest in capabilities that connect their local populations to the global economy in one of three ways: as thinkers, makers, or traders. She points to the Spartanburg-Greenville region as a good example of a world-class makers, with its exceptional blue-collar workforce that has attracted more than 200 companies from 18 countries. The history of the economic development of this region is a lesson for those seeking to understand how to achieve world-class status and bring local residents into the world economy.

  7. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    PubMed

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  8. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    focusing on 42 sectors. Most regional data have been produced from the Multisectoral Dynamic Model of the UK economy. The flooding caused a 3.56% direct damage in the Yorkshire economy, while the indirect accounted for 14.58%.Utilities and transportation where the sectors that suffered the greatest direct impact. This impact indirectly transferred through business and supply chain to services, construction and primary industries.

  9. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  10. A National MagLev Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The case for a national high-speed magnetic-levitation (MagLev) transportation system is presented. Focus is on current issues facing the country, such as national security, the economy, transportation, technology, and the environment. NASA s research into MagLev technology for launch assist is also highlighted. Further, current socio-cultural norms regarding motor-vehicle-based transportation systems are questioned in light of the problems currently facing the U.S. The multidisciplinary benefits of a long-distance MagLev system support the idea that such a system would be an important element of a truly multimodal U.S. transportation infrastructure.

  11. Lack of Sleep Takes Big Bite Out of World Economies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162298.html Lack of Sleep Takes Big Bite Out of World Economies More ... increased risk of death linked to lack of sleep among U.S. workers cost the nation's economy as ...

  12. Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy The sometimes deadly conditions cost $75 billion in ... a major impact on Americans and the U.S. economy, a new report finds. "The impact of skin ...

  13. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  14. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  15. Discussion and Conclusion: A Global Perspective on the World Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the world economy which are not adequately dealt with by either Keynesian or monetarist theories. Too much emphasis placed on what is happening in the American and western European economies can blind us to important developments in such nonwestern economies as the OPEC nations. (IS)

  16. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  17. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  18. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  19. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  20. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  1. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  2. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  3. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  4. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and any... requirements and other economy and efficiency principles that would otherwise be applicable to the services...

  5. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  6. 48 CFR 17.502-2 - The Economy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Economy Act. 17.502-2... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Interagency Acquisitions 17.502-2 The Economy Act. (a) The Economy Act (31 U.S.C. 1535) authorizes agencies to enter into agreements to obtain supplies...

  7. English and the Knowledge Economy: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on knowledge economy discourse and considers the appeal of this discourse to English educators. Knowledge economy discourse is defined as a mode of thought and expression that assumes a broad-based economy driven by innovation will soon emerge in the USA. This discourse, it is argued, offers English teachers solutions to some…

  8. Growth and the Current Account in a Small Open Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Matt; Wells, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Offers a framework with which to analyze growth in a small economy with perfect capital mobility. Produces a diagrammatic representation of steady states that differs from the usual closed-economy Solow-Swan diagram. Uses the diagrams to compare open economy steady states with closed ones. Illustrate the possibility of endogenous income growth.…

  9. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  10. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  11. 75 FR 55739 - Cybersecurity, Innovation and the Internet Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Internet Economy AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of... innovation in the Internet economy has been extended until 5 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on September 20... cybersecurity challenges in the commercial sector and innovation in the Internet economy, with a closing...

  12. 40 CFR 610.42 - Fuel economy measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy measurement. 610.42... ECONOMY RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Vehicle Test Procedures § 610.42 Fuel economy measurement. (a) Fuel consumption will be measured by: (1) The carbon balance method,...

  13. 75 FR 36633 - Cybersecurity and Innovation in the Information Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Cybersecurity and Innovation in the Information Economy AGENCY: National... cybersecurity in the commercial space and innovation in the Internet economy. DATES: The meeting will be held on... review of cybersecurity and innovation in the Internet economy, with a particular emphasis on...

  14. Analysis on Inclusion of Social Studies Economy Concepts in Coursebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Mustafa; Osmanoglu, Ahmet Emin

    2015-01-01

    Having an efficient and satisfactory economy education may enable an individual to actively participate in decision making process about economy-related issues. This is very important for democratic societies. This research aims to search methods and levels of teaching "economy" concepts prepared for Turkey 2005 Social Studies Program in…

  15. Transportation Network Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John M.

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21PstP thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within

  16. Transportation Network Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  17. Ventilation air, the economy cycle, and VAV

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, R.W.

    1994-10-01

    This article describes a simple yet effective method of providing both minimum and economy cycle control of outside air with a VAV system. Like most of the people in the HVAC industry, the author has been aware that there are problems with ventilation air and economy cycle outside air control when variable air volume (VAV) systems are used. It seemed obvious that the simple solution was to use an injection fan in the outside air intake to provide the minimum ventilation requirement under any operating condition of the VAV system and--presto--the problem would be solved. Recently the author was asked to prepare a seminar on HVAC controls for one of the ASHRAE chapters, with special emphasis on VAV systems. This forced him to take a careful look at the situation, and in the ensuing analysis, it became apparent that the previous look at the problem had not discovered the simplest and perhaps best solution.

  18. Political economy of tobacco control in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chantornvong, S.; McCargo, D.

    2001-01-01

    Thailand has some of the world's strongest anti-tobacco legislation. This paper examines the political economy of tobacco control in Thailand, emphasising the identification of forces which have supported and opposed the passage of strong anti-tobacco measures. It argues that while a powerful tobacco control coalition was created in the late 1980s, the gains won by this coalition are now under threat from systematic attempts by transnational tobacco companies to strengthen their share of the Thai cigarette market. The possible privatisation of the Thailand Tobacco Monopoly could threaten the tobacco control cause, but the pro-control alliance is fighting back with a proposed Health Promotion Act which would challenge the tobacco industry with a hypothecated excise tax dedicated to health awareness campaigns.


Keywords: anti-tobacco legislation; political economy; Thailand; transnational tobacco companies PMID:11226361

  19. The token economy: an evaluative review1

    PubMed Central

    Kazdin, Alan E.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented. PMID:16795358

  20. The token economy: an evaluative review.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E; Bootzin, R R

    1972-01-01

    Token economies have been applied in a wide range of settings. While there are several advantages to the use of this procedure, there are obstacles that may impede its implementation and therapeutic efficacy. These include: staff training, client resistance, circumvention of the contingencies, and non-responsiveness of subjects. Studies employing token programs with psychiatric patients, retardates, children in classroom settings, delinquents, and autistic children are reviewed. Although token economies are successful while in operation, the issue of generalization of behavior gains or resistance to extinction has not been given careful consideration. Inasmuch as generalization is perhaps the most crucial issue, several procedures are presented that are designed to facilitate maintenance of performance when reinforcement is withdrawn. Methodological suggestions for investigations on token reinforcement in applied settings are presented.

  1. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy".

  2. Potential of spark ignition engine, effect of vehicle design variables on top speed, performance, and fuel economy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zub, R.W.; Neckyfarow, C.M.; Lew, W.M.; Colello, R.G.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the effect of vehicle characteristics on vehicle performance and fuel economy. The studies were performed using the VEHSIM (vehicle simulation) program at the Transportation Systems Center. The computer simulation offers repeatability and can predict minute changes in fuel economy based on relatively small vehicle alterations. The degree to which each vehicle parameter is modified is based upon projections presented in current literature. The results are assessed and an explanation of the interaction of the vehicle design characteristics on performance is presented.

  3. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities for

  4. Pakistan: social basis of the economy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    Pakistan's gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an average of 5.3%/year since 1950 and real per capita income has increased 3.7%/year over the past decade, despite a 3% annual population growth rate. Contributing to this dynamic economic growth have been migration, the construction of a new national economy following independence, controlled irrigation, foreign exchange availability, and an expectation on the part of the public of higher earnings and consumption. Despite these trends, the Pakistan economy is structurally weak and there have been rapid increases in both the domestic and foreign debt. Economic growth has been based largely on trading and soft services. Government departments are known for their corruption. This self-contradictory economic picture derives directly from the structure of Pakistani society, which is dominated by the elite of Punjab Province. Urbanization is increasing economic inequality in the society, and government taxation policies are biased toward big agriculture and industry. Pakistan's poor performance in education, social development, and family planning are expected to inhibit future economic development. Only 26% of Pakistanis are literate, reflecting the low social value placed on education. Even in urban areas, there is no evidence of a decline in fertility. This results from the psychological and economic need for children, women's limited roles, Islamic opposition to family planning, and inefficient government delivery of social services. Within a few years, population growth will magnify the structural weaknesses of the Pakistan economy. It is hoped that the dynamic nature of Panjabi values and behavior, especially of the new middle class, will lead to a redress of this situation.

  5. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  6. [The informal economy: an occupational health issue].

    PubMed

    Carretero Ares, José Luis; Cueva Oliver, Begoña; Vidal Martínez, Asunción; Rigo Martínez, María Vicenta; Lobato Cañón, José Rafael

    Informal economy must be differentiated from concepts such as informal employment and the informal sector, each with its own characteristics. There are several types of informal workers that are grouped into several categories according to their work. The families of these workers are grouped into vulnerable job, which is also not beneficial for health coverage. Informal working conditions mean great morbidity resulting in economic losses and a large number of quality-adjusted life year, especially among young populations and women. Health policies are needed to reduce socio-economic inequalities, improve the training of health professionals and the accessibility of health services to these workers.

  7. VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

  8. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Committee on Alternatives and Strategies for Future Hydrogen Production and Use

    2004-08-31

    The announcement of a hydrogen fuel initiative in the President’s 2003 State of the Union speech substantially increased interest in the potential for hydrogen to play a major role in the nation’s long-term energy future. Prior to that event, DOE asked the National Research Council to examine key technical issues about the hydrogen economy to assist in the development of its hydrogen R&D program. Included in the assessment were the current state of technology; future cost estimates; CO2 emissions; distribution, storage, and end use considerations; and the DOE RD&D program. The report provides an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel in the nation’s future energy economy and describes a number of important challenges that must be overcome if it is to make a major energy contribution. Topics covered include the hydrogen end-use technologies, transportation, hydrogen production technologies, and transition issues for hydrogen in vehicles.

  9. 75 FR 28181 - National Defense Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... our Nation's economy and security, and we thank the dedicated men and women who build and maintain it... in keeping us safe by enabling the rapid movement of people and resources. The devoted professionals... transportation system to support our military readiness and emergency response capabilities. Our...

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  11. Non-crisis economies must make adjustments too. World Economy survey.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    This article presents ¿The World Economy in 1999,¿ a report prepared by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). It was noted in the report that 39 developing countries had gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth exceeding 3% in 1996, compared to just 13 countries in 1999. This indicates that 32 developing countries would suffer a decline in GDP per capita by the year 2000 as compared to 14 in 1996. In addition, slow growth has been recorded at just 2% in 1998 and 1999, with only continued growth in North America and Europe keeping the world economy going. Continued slow growth was expected for the year 2000. In terms of income, commodity prices have fallen in developing countries. Net transfer of financial resources from developing countries was almost $60 billion in 1998, compared to positive flows of about $35 billion in the first half of the 1990s. Overall, the brunt of world economic slow-down had been borne by the developing and transition economies. Thus, according to Mr. Nitin Desai, it is important that there is a coordinated policy response to crisis situations, rather than expecting the crisis economies to undertake the bulk of adjustment actions. There are advantages in coordination, which should include developing countries and the Group of Seven.

  12. The Knowledge Economy and Innovation: Certain Uncertainty and the Risk Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge economy is a dominant force in today's world, and innovation policy and national systems of innovation are central to it. In this article, we draw on different sociological and economic theories of risk to engage critically with innovation policy and national systems of innovation. Beck's understanding of a risk society, Schumpeter's…

  13. [Environmental governance and the green economy].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Pedro Roberto; Sinisgalli, Paulo Antonio de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 Conference will mobilize the global community in 2012 to participate in a challenging debate on the global environmental reality and the existing modus operandi with respect to the broad and generic topics of development and the environment. One of the core themes of this meeting is the transition to a green economy in the context of sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. The issue of Global Environmental Governance will top the agenda of the Rio +20 discussions, with a view to promoting and accelerating the transition to sustainable societies. It presents, often in a controversial way, the creation of conditions to define new institutional spaces and shared decision-making processes. Before embarking on the discussion about what king of sustainability should be behind the Green Economy, and its applicability, the scope of this article is to ask readers to reflect on what should be the priority in the discussion on environmental governance This should be explained to the extent that there is a need to change the existing mechanisms of profoundly unequal exploitation of resources, which blocks progress in decision-making processes, as decisions of the few create a perverse logic of appropriation of natural resources and the non-resolution of social exclusion.

  14. The World Economy Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Viktor

    The Future of the Civilization is linked to the ability of men to organize an effective mode of economic reproduction. It is difficult to see clearly now which this mode will be really. Even to reach it beyond the horizon of one or two ten years is not easy because the world economy is in which time situated in a turning point. The period of adaptation to the petrole price rise and to the dismounting of the Bretton-Woods monetary system, that had begin between 60th and 70th, go to the finish. In the first tens of the 21st century the development of the world economy would go in the frame of the all-round globalization of economic, social, cultural, ethical and political relations called to soften the enormious differences in standards of life between the regions of the Earth, between the developed and developing countries. The image of a remote Future is given by some western authors who draw a picture of a postindustrial, even a postteconomic society. This society would be based on a creative work and on a high level of well-beging of all men. The most attractive utopies of 18th-19th centuries are reviwed under the pens of these prophets…

  15. Agrofuels capitalism: a view from political economy.

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Dasgupta, Anirban

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether "agrofuels capitalism" is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis.

  16. 75 FR 55626 - Office of the Secretary of Transportation: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... evolving transportation needs, challenges, and opportunities of the global economy. The Environment Subcommittee is charged with examining steps and strategies that can be taken by aviation-sector stakeholders... operational and technological improvements, sustainable alternative fuels, and harmonized domestic and...

  17. 3 CFR 8675 - Proclamation 8675 of May 13, 2011. National Defense Transportation Day and National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... access to the first-rate products and services that define our economy, increasing the productivity of... ourselves for the next revolutionary breakthroughs in transportation technology. We must provide...

  18. Transport Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Boering, Kristie A.; Eckman, Richard S.; Lerner, Jean; Plumb, R. Alan; Rind, David H.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wei, Chu-Feng

    1999-01-01

    MM II defined a series of experiments to better understand and characterize model transport and to assess the realism of this transport by comparison to observations. Measurements from aircraft, balloon, and satellite, not yet available at the time of MM I [Prather and Remsberg, 1993], provide new and stringent constraints on model transport, and address the limits of our transport modeling abilities. Simulations of the idealized tracers the age spectrum, and propagating boundary conditions, and conserved HSCT-like emissions probe the relative roles of different model transport mechanisms, while simulations of SF6 and C02 make the connection to observations. Some of the tracers are related, and transport diagnostics such as the mean age can be derived from more than one of the experiments for comparison to observations. The goals of the transport experiments are: (1) To isolate the effects of transport in models from other processes; (2) To assess model transport for realistic tracers (such as SF6 and C02) for comparison to observations; (3) To use certain idealized tracers to isolate model mechanisms and relationships to atmospheric chemical perturbations; (4) To identify strengths and weaknesses of the treatment of transport processes in the models; (5) To relate evaluated shortcomings to aspects of model formulation. The following section are included:Executive Summary, Introduction, Age Spectrum, Observation, Tropical Transport in Models, Global Mean Age in Models, Source-Transport Covariance, HSCT "ANOY" Tracer Distributions, and Summary and Conclusions.

  19. The water intensity of the plugged-in automotive economy.

    PubMed

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-06-15

    Converting light-duty vehicles from full gasoline power to electric power, by using either hybrid electric vehicles or fully electric power vehicles, is likely to increase demand for water resources. In the United States in 2005, drivers of 234 million cars, lighttrucks, and SUVs drove approximately 2.7 trillion miles and consumed over 380 million gallons of gasoline per day. We compare figures from literature and government surveys to calculate the water usage, consumption, and withdrawal, in the United States during petroleum refining and electricity generation. In displacing gasoline miles with electric miles, approximately 2-3 [corrected] times more water is consumed (0.24 [corrected] versus 0.07--0.14 gallons/mile) and over 12 [corrected] times more water is withdrawn (7.8 [corrected] versus 0.6 gallons/mile) primarily due to increased water cooling of thermoelectric power plants to accommodate increased electricity generation. Overall, we conclude that the impact on water resources from a widespread shift to grid-based transportation would be substantial enough to warrant consideration for relevant public policy decision-making. That is not to say that the negative impacts on water resources make such a shift undesirable, but rather this increase in water usage presents a significant potential impact on regional water resources and should be considered when planning for a plugged-in automotive economy.

  20. The dual economy in long-run development.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    A salient feature of developing economies is the coexistence of a modern commercial sector alongside a traditional subsistence sector-the dual economy. The apparent differences in productivity between sectors imply substantial losses in aggregate productivity. Existing theories of the dual economy rely on exogenous price distortions, and cannot explain why or if these distortions evolve over the course of development. This paper provides a model of the dual economy in which the productivity differences arise endogenously because of a non-separability between the value of market and non-market time in the traditional sector. Incorporating endogenous fertility, the model then demonstrates how a dual economy will originate, persist, and eventually disappear within a unified growth framework. An implication is that traditional sector productivity growth will exacerbate the inefficiencies of a dual economy and produce slower overall growth than will modern sector productivity improvements.

  1. Transportation energy trends and issues through 2030

    SciTech Connect

    DeCicco, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Controlling transportation energy use looms as a serious challenge for the United States in the 21st century. Demand for transportation services is steadily growing, driven by increasing population, economic activity, and incomes. Few forces presently constrain growth in travel by the energy-intensive modes of automobile, truck, and air transportation. In contrast to other sectors of the economy, transportation energy efficiency improvements are nearly stagnant. Efficiency increases are now absent in highway modes; aircraft efficiency is improving, but not enough to offset rising air travel. Transportation is also the most oil-dependent sector of the economy as well as the country`s most rapidly growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. A conservative forecast indicates US transportation energy consumption rising from 23 Quads in 1990 to roughly 36 Quads by 2030; less conservative assumptions push the total to 43 Quads by 2030. Yet opportunities exist for efficiency improvements to counter a substantial portion of this growth. The most promising options are technological, with potential long-term efficiency improvements of threefold for light vehicles, twofold for aircraft, and 65 percent for heavy trucks. Combined with system efficiency changes to help limit growth of the energy-intensive modes, transportation energy use might be cut to 19 Quads by 2030. Pursuing cost-effective strategies to move the system toward such reduced energy intensiveness would be clearly valuable for the economy and environment. This paper examines these trends and options, and offers suggestions for policies that could lead to reductions in transportation energy use and its associated problems such as greenhouse gas emissions and oil dependence risks. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Transportation Statistics Annual Report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, M.

    1997-01-01

    accessibility patterns? How are commodity flows and transportation services responding to global competition, deregulation, economic restructuring, and new information technologies? How do U.S. patterns of personal mobility and freight movement compare with other advanced industrialized countries, formerly centrally planned economies, and major newly industrializing countries? Finally, how is the rapid adoption of new information technologies influencing the patterns of transportation demand and the supply of new transportation services? Indeed, how are information technologies affecting the nature and organization of transportation services used by individuals and firms?

  3. Influence of the formation- and passivation rate of boron-oxygen defects for mitigating carrier-induced degradation in silicon within a hydrogen-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Hallam, Brett Abbott, Malcolm; Nampalli, Nitin; Hamer, Phill; Wenham, Stuart

    2016-02-14

    A three-state model is used to explore the influence of defect formation- and passivation rates of carrier-induced degradation related to boron-oxygen complexes in boron-doped p-type silicon solar cells within a hydrogen-based model. The model highlights that the inability to effectively mitigate carrier-induced degradation at elevated temperatures in previous studies is due to the limited availability of defects for hydrogen passivation, rather than being limited by the defect passivation rate. An acceleration of the defect formation rate is also observed to increase both the effectiveness and speed of carrier-induced degradation mitigation, whereas increases in the passivation rate do not lead to a substantial acceleration of the hydrogen passivation process. For high-throughput mitigation of such carrier-induced degradation on finished solar cell devices, two key factors were found to be required, high-injection conditions (such as by using high intensity illumination) to enable an acceleration of defect formation whilst simultaneously enabling a rapid passivation of the formed defects, and a high temperature to accelerate both defect formation and defect passivation whilst still ensuring an effective mitigation of carrier-induced degradation.

  4. Geochemical and microbiological evidence for a hydrogen-based, hyperthermophilic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem (HyperSLiME) beneath an active deep-sea hydrothermal field.

    PubMed

    Takai, Ken; Gamo, Toshitaka; Tsunogai, Urumu; Nakayama, Noriko; Hirayama, Hisako; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-08-01

    Subsurface microbial communities supported by geologically and abiologically derived hydrogen and carbon dioxide from the Earth's interior are of great interest, not only with regard to the nature of primitive life on Earth, but as potential analogs for extraterrestrial life. Here, for the first time, we present geochemical and microbiological evidence pointing to the existence of hyperthermophilic subsurface lithoautotrophic microbial ecosystem (HyperSLiME) dominated by hyperthermophilic methanogens beneath an active deep-sea hydrothermal field in the Central Indian Ridge. Geochemical and isotopic analyses of gaseous components in the hydrothermal fluids revealed heterogeneity of both concentration and carbon isotopic compositions of methane between the main hydrothermal vent (0.08 mM and -13.8 per thousand PDB, respectively) and the adjacent divergent vent site (0.2 mM and -18.5 per thousand PDB, respectively), representing potential subsurface microbial methanogenesis, at least in the divergent vent emitting more 13C-depleted methane. Extremely high abundance of magmatic energy sources such as hydrogen (2.5 mM) in the fluids also encourages a hydrogen-based, lithoautotrophic microbial activity. Both cultivation and cultivation-independent molecular analyses suggested the predominance of Methanococcales members in the superheated hydrothermal emissions and chimney interiors along with the other major microbial components of Thermococcales members. These results imply that a HyperSLiME, consisting of methanogens and fermenters, occurs in this tectonically active subsurface zone, strongly supporting the existence of hydrogen-driven subsurface microbial communities.

  5. Statistical Physics of Economic Systems: a Survey for Open Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yong; Chen, Xun

    2012-05-01

    We extend the theoretical framework of an independent economy developed by Tao [Phys. Rev. E 82 (2010) 036118] so as to include multiple economies. Since the starting point of our framework is on the basis of the theory of the competitive markets of traditional economics, this framework shall be suitable for any free market. Our study shows that integration of world economies can decrease trade friction among economic systems, but may also cause a global economic crisis whenever economy disequilibrium occurs in any one of these economic systems.

  6. [Applying nursing innovation from a knowledge economy perspective].

    PubMed

    Liao, Shu-Chen; Chang, Wen-Chung

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge is power and knowledge and creativity are keys to creating wealth the era of the knowledge-based economy epoch. Through innovation, knowledge can add value that can enhance knowledge-based industries. This article discusses the meaning of nursing innovation and knowledge economy from the perspective of knowledge-based economy in order to illustrate the process of nursing innovation and actual experiences applying patents and technology licenses. The authors hope this article will be referenced by nurses to enhance their understanding of the knowledge economy and nursing innovation in order to stimulate creative thinking.

  7. Gendered Organizations in the New Economy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christine L.; Muller, Chandra; Kilanski, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Gender scholars draw on the “theory of gendered organizations” to explain persistent gender inequality in the workplace. This theory argues that gender inequality is built into work organizations in which jobs are characterized by long-term security, standardized career ladders and job descriptions, and management controlled evaluations. Over the past few decades, this basic organizational logic has been transformed. in the so-called new economy, work is increasingly characterized by job insecurity, teamwork, career maps, and networking. Using a case study of geoscientists in the oil and gas industry, we apply a gender lens to this evolving organization of work. This article extends Acker's theory of gendered organizations by identifying the mechanisms that reproduce gender inequality in the twenty-first-century workplace, and by suggesting appropriate policy approaches to remedy these disparities. PMID:25419048

  8. Scale economies in rail transit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, I.

    1994-06-01

    The research uses Federal Transit Administration Section 15 data to investigate the operating costs of 13 heavy-rail and 13 light-rail urban mass transit systems for the period 1985-91. A Cobb-Douglas technology is used to investigate various types of economies of scale. The principal findings are: (1) Adding additional passenges to an existing network and schedule of services involves zero marginal cost for heavy-rail systems, and small additional costs for light-rail systems. (2) Adding additional trains, and passengers, to an existing network leads to a less than proportionate increase in costs. (3) An expanded route network results in mild increases in unit costs for the large heavy-rail systems. The smaller light-rail systems display reduced unit costs with an expanded network. The research suggests that the minimum efficient scale for rail operation is approximately 25 route miles.

  9. Family division in China's transitional economy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feinian

    2009-03-01

    Using a longitudinal data-set (the China Health and Nutrition Survey) we explored the effect of various economic factors, including household wealth, employment sector, and involvement in a household business on the division of extended families in China's transitional economy. Results from event history analyses suggest that these economic factors act as either a dividing or a unifying force on the extended family. Household wealth reduces the risk of family division, but the effect is weaker for families in which parents have upper secondary education. In addition, an extended family is more likely to divide when married children work in the state sector. Further, the probability of family division is higher in families where daughters-in-law work in the state sector than in those with sons in this sector. Finally, involvement in a household business for married children increases family stability.

  10. Potential improvements in turbofan engine fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, R. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1976-01-01

    The method developed for initial evaluation of possible performance improvements in the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program, directed toward improving the fuel economy of turbofan engines, is outlined, and results of the evaluation of 100 candidate engine modifications are presented. The study indicates that fuel consumption improvements of as much as 5% may be possible in current JT3D, JT8D, and JT9D turbofan engines. Aerodynamic, thermodynamic, material, and structural advances are expected to yield fuel consumption improvements on the order of 10 to 15% in advanced turbofan engines, with the greatest improvement stemming from significantly higher cycle pressure ratios. Higher turbine temperature and fan bypass ratios are also expected to contribute to fuel conservation.

  11. Glycerol esters as fuel economy additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, P.W.; Smith, C.R.; Gowland, F.W.

    1987-07-28

    A lubricating oil composition formulated is described for use as a crankcase lubricating oil composition for gasoline or diesel engines consisting essentially of a major amount of a mineral oil of a lubricating viscosity which has incorporated about 0.20 weight percent of a glycerol partial ester. The partial ester is a mixture of glycerol monooleate and glycerol dioleate. The mixture has a weight ratio of 3 parts of glycerol monooleate to 2 parts of glycerol dioleate the ester providing a fuel economy improvement of about 1 to 3 percent when the lubricating oil composition is employed in the crankcase of the engine. An ashless dispersant, a metal detergent additive, a zinc dihdyrocarbyl dithiophosphate anti-wear additive and an antioxidant. The dispersant, detergent, anti-wear additive and antioxidant are present in conventional amounts to provide their normal attendant functions.

  12. Token economy, pimozide and chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCreadie, R G; Main, C J; Dunlop, R A

    1978-08-01

    Response to a token economy was assessed in male chronic schizophrenic in-patients who were given, in a double-blind cross-over trial, pimozide (up to 20 mg daily) or chlorpromazine )up to 1,000 mg daily), each for three months. After six months there was little change in the patients' mental state, but general ward behaviour and token-rewarded "target" behaviours improved significantly. There were no statistically significant between-drug differences, but the trend was that general ward behaviour, but not token-rewarded behaviour, improved more on pimozide. The patients who showed initiative and cooperated best with staff were those whose token-rewarded behaviour was most satisfactory.

  13. Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.

    PubMed

    Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement.

  14. We want a made-in-the-U.S.A. economy.

    PubMed

    Angelides, Phil

    2009-01-01

    We're going to have to organize relentlessly day and night if we really want that clean-energy, good-jobs, made-in-the-USA economy. That means pushing for sweeping investments in energy efficiency, public transportation, renewable energy. It means retooling America's manufacturing base. It means new investments in research and development. It means training and educating our workers and our young people. It means pushing for climate-change legislation this year that will cap and reduce emissions. We can do it.

  15. Quantum Transport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-15

    Notre Dame was concerned with a variety of quantum transport in mesoscopic structures. This research was funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific...Research under Grant No. AFOSR-91-0211. The major issues examined included quantum transport in high magnetic fields and modulated channels, Coulomb...lifetimes in quasi-1D structures, quantum transport experiments in metals, the mesoscopic photovoltaic effect, and new techniques for fabricating quantum structures in semiconductors.

  16. An expanding sexual economy along National Route 3 in Luang Namtha Province, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Doussantousse, Serge; Sakounnavong, Bounchanh; Patterson, Ian

    2011-12-01

    With some of the lowest development indicators in Southeast Asia, remote upland areas of the Lao People's Democratic Republic are among the poorest in the region. The advent of improved transport and communication links, along with opportunities for wage employment, have accelerated the growth of a cash economy in traditionally isolated farming communities of Luang Namtha Province. Interviews and focus group discussions with young people, women in the sexual service business and health workers indicate that the lure of the new economy is wooing villagers away from their agrarian roots. Motorbikes and mobile phones have expanded the sexual territory of indigenous youth at a time when international commerce and a cash economy along improved highways are bringing new people into the region. Among the concerns for their health and safety are at-risk behaviours involving alcohol and sexual practices, especially HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Of particular concern is the sexual trade in the province with a predominance of young, poorly educated Khmou women providing sexual services in a growing number of entertainment places.

  17. The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2003-01-01

    This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Suggests that libraries in general, and academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices. Findings indicate that slight…

  18. The Cost Function and Scale Economies in Academic Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lewis Guodo

    2002-01-01

    This empirical research examined scale economies of academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. Argues that libraries are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices and compares this study with previous…

  19. Statistical properties of stock market indices of different economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Tan, Ying Oon

    2007-03-01

    Daily changes in the logarithm of stock market index from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed for countries from three subgroups of economies classified by the International Monetary Fund (IMF): developing Asian countries, newly industrialized Asian economies and major advanced economies. For all markets, the daily changes are well fitted by a non-Gaussian stable probability density. The time evolution of the standard deviation of the daily changes for each market obeys a power law. However, the developing Asian countries have the smallest stable density characteristic parameters α and the largest exponents b of the power law, except China's SSEC and India's SENSEX. The values of α and b for these two markets are closer to those of the newly industrialized Asian economies; in particular, those for China's SSEC are close to those for Hong Kong's HSI. The values of α and b for the newly industrialized Asian economies are in between those for the developing Asian countries and major advanced economies, consistent with the results for generalized Hurst exponent [Physica A 324 (2003) 183]. The daily changes for the developing Asian countries and newly industrialized Asian economies have a weak long-range correlation, whereas the daily changes for the major advanced economies have a weak long-range anti-correlation.

  20. Canada in the International Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William T.; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains instructional materials on Canada's role in the world economy. Ten sections contain readings and suggestions for activities related to Canadian trade, tariffs, the Canada-United States automobile pact, Canada-United…

  1. Universities' Entrepreneurial Performance: The Role of Agglomeration Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ping Penny

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research on universities' entrepreneurship, whether research strength fosters or dampens their entrepreneurial performance remains controversial. Much research claims an influential role of research universities in regional economy, however, little has been said about what a part that the agglomeration economies may play…

  2. Managing Reward in Developing Economies: The Challenge for Multinational Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opute, John

    2010-01-01

    Reward has been, and continues to be, subject to significant changes in developing economies; the industrial relations model prevalent being driven by the complex socio-economic and cultural paradigms and the increasing demands of globalisation. The issue of reward in developing economies is therefore central and dependent on numerous contextual…

  3. Provision of Effectiveness of University Education on the Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznetsov, Nikolai; Usenko, Lyudmila; Ivanova, Olga; Kostoglodova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of university education on the economy of various countries. Design/methodology/approach: To determine the necessity and expedience of making provision for the effectiveness of university education on the market economy, this work uses the method of regression and…

  4. Malaysia Transitions toward a Knowledge-Based Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills…

  5. U.S. Immigration Policy and the Mexican Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Edward

    Rural Mexico's economy currently relies heavily on illegal migrants to the United States. Severing the link between rural Mexican households and U.S. labor markets would require restructuring not only affecting U.S. industries, which are the focus of federal immigration reform, but also migrant-sending economies in Mexico. If effectively enforced,…

  6. Shaping the Curriculum: Values, Community, and a Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrey, John N.

    Five major trends are shaping curricula in two-year colleges today, including clear shifts in emphasis from teaching to learning; from the college degree as a terminal point to learning as a lifelong activity; from solitary instruction to learning communities; from management to leadership; and from a national economy to a global economy. The…

  7. Teaching Applied Macro in Emergent Economies: Lessons from Bahrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael S.; Epstein, Seth

    2013-01-01

    In this article we explore the challenges of adapting a standard introductory MBA course in applied macroeconomics to a student audience in a small open economy with a pegged currency. Our focus will be on the Kingdom of Bahrain, with reference to other countries in the Arabian Gulf region, where one would expect to use an open-economy theoretical…

  8. Working Economics: Labor Policy and Conducive Economy in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korver, Ton

    2004-01-01

    The conducive economy challenges both the conceptual foundations and the practices of present-day economies. In the Netherlands, a few initiatives during the 1980s and early 1990s looked promising, in particular, as these initiatives focused on work quality as one major precondition for reducing disability and enhancing labor participation.…

  9. Education, Globalisation and the Future of the Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh; Ashton, David

    2008-01-01

    The dominant view today is of a global knowledge-based economy, driven by the application of new technologies, accelerating the shift to high-skilled, high-waged European economies. This view is reflected in the expansion of higher education and the key role of higher education in national and European economic policy. The Lisbon agenda seeks to…

  10. An Agenda for the U.S. Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, William M.

    1979-01-01

    In his address at the 1979 National Business Education Assosication convention, the head of The Bendix Corporation looks at the economy, technology, and productivity as they relate to the education of business management students. He states that the business of business today is the whole sociopolitical economy. (MF)

  11. Returns to Scale and Economies of Scale: Further Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Gregory M.; Mitchell, Douglas W.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that most economics textbooks continue to repeat past mistakes concerning returns to scale and economies of scale under assumptions of constant and nonconstant input prices. Provides an adaptation for a calculus-based intermediate microeconomics class that demonstrates the pointwise relationship between returns to scale and economies of…

  12. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and...

  13. 42 CFR 440.370 - Economy and efficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economy and efficiency. 440.370 Section 440.370 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...-Equivalent Coverage § 440.370 Economy and efficiency. Benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage and...

  14. A Stay-Rich View of the New Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusteeship, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Major demographic changes around the world. Disproportionate sovereign debt. A shift from North America, Western Europe, and Japan to emerging economies as centers of growth. Unprecedented levels of market risk and volatility. The structure of the global economy is undergoing significant changes. Michael Oyster, managing principal of Fund…

  15. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  16. Regulation of the Debt Sustainability of the Russian Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seleznev, Alexander Z.; Chapluk, Vladimir Z.; Sayrenko, Tatiana N.; Sorokina, Larisa N.; Pertovskaya, Maria V.; Alekseenko, Elena A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigating problem is caused by the need to reduce the total aggregated amount of debt in Russian economy in conditions of crisis and the strengthening of external anti-Russian sanctions. In this context, the purpose of this article is to identify measures aimed to regulate debt sustainability of the Russian economy using…

  17. Five Ways to Economy-Proof Your Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassom, Julie

    2012-01-01

    When customers are facing job loss or tighter budgets, prospects are attempting to negotiate tuition fees, and subsidies are being cut, smart child care managers are studying the essential moves directors must take to increase and retain enrollment despite the volatile economy. Instead of using a tough economy as a reason enrollment drops, they…

  18. The Nigerian oil economy: From prosperity to glut

    SciTech Connect

    Onoh, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the development of Nigeria's oil industry. Onoh charts the changing course of Nigeria's economy and details the dramatic effect oil has had on domestic and international policies. He then assesses Nigeria's future in the oil industry both in light of her former policies and in the changing world economy.

  19. Game Time: The Educator's Playbook for the New Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessinger, Leon; Salowe, Allen

    This book serves as a "playbook" to help business leaders and educators understand, build, and adapt to the changes converging upon them from an emerging information-rich global economy. The book uses football as a metaphor to understand the obstacles to becoming successful in today's changing economy. This football metaphoric theme is…

  20. Career Education for a Global Economy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Preparation for productive employment in a global economy is one aspect of National Education Goals 3 and 5. Career education can help people realize the opportunities and meet the challenges of the international workplace. The emergence of flexible, information-based technologies is a primary factor in the evolution of the global economy. New…

  1. Living in the Classroom: The Currency-Based Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, James S.; And Others

    Various types of token economies and contingency contract systems are emerging throughout private and public educational programs. The basic idea of this book is that a token economy based on currency creates a real-life situation for children in the classroom. The goal of this book is to help the teacher establish a currency-based token economy…

  2. Methodology in Token Economy Evaluation: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Gary L.

    Major problem areas in evaluating token economies for psychiatric inpatients are identified and discussed. Three categories of methodological deficiencies frequently encountered in the token economy literature are described: (1) inadequate specification of treatment procedures; (2) insufficient or inadequately described dependent measures; and (3)…

  3. Use of the Systems Approach for Successful Token Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Catherine C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The three basic steps of the systems approach are described: the mission profile, the functional analysis, and the method-means. The advantageous use of these steps in planning a token economy is illustrated by a systematic evaluation of a token economy implemented in a sixth-grade setting. (Author)

  4. How to Assemble a Knowledge Economy: Singapore's Transnational Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    This article takes Singapore, an emerging education hub, as a focal point from which to investigate its attempts to become a global city and knowledge-based economy. It outlines how discourses of the knowledge economy are used to rationalise particular policy interventions and the transnational education forms arising from them. It speculates on…

  5. Pushing Economies (and Students) outside the Factor Price Equalization Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslington, Paul; Towers, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Despite overwhelming empirical evidence of the failure of factor price equalization, most teaching of international trade theory (even at the graduate level) assumes that economies are incompletely specialized and that factor price equalization holds. The behavior of trading economies in the absence of factor price equalization is not well…

  6. 40 CFR 600.302-08 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.302-08 Fuel economy label format requirements. Examples of fuel economy labels for gasoline...

  7. 77 FR 38553 - Proposed Modification to Regulation Concerning the Use of Market Economy Input Prices in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Market Economy Input Prices in Nonmarket Economy Proceedings AGENCY: Import Administration, International... normally will use the price that a nonmarket economy (``NME'') producer pays to a market economy supplier when a factor of production is purchased from a market economy supplier and paid for in market...

  8. Experimental evaluation of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and pollutant emissions over real-world simulation driving cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Pistikopoulos, Panayotis; Samaras, Zissis

    2008-06-01

    The reduction of transport-generated CO2 emissions is currently a problem of global interest. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as one promising technological solution for limiting transport-generated greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the number of HEVs in the market remains limited, but this picture will change in the years to come as HEVs are expected to pave the way for cleaner technologies in transport. In this paper, results are presented regarding fuel economy and pollutant emissions measurements of two hybrid electric production vehicles. The measurements were conducted on a Prius II and a Honda Civic IMA using both the European legislated driving cycle (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) and real-world simulation driving cycles (Artemis). In addition to the emissions measurements, other vehicle-operating parameters were studied in an effort to better quantify the maximum CO2 reduction potential. Data from real-world operation of a Prius II vehicle were also used in the evaluation. Results indicate that in most cases both vehicles present improved energy efficiency and pollutant emissions compared to conventional cars. The fuel economy benefit of the two HEVs peaked under urban driving conditions where reductions of 60% and 40% were observed, respectively. Over higher speeds the difference in fuel economy was lower, reaching that of conventional diesel at 95 km h-1. The effect of ambient temperature on fuel consumption was also quantified. It is concluded that urban operation benefits the most of hybrid technology, leading to important fuel savings and urban air quality improvement.

  9. School Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A special report on school transportation covers the following topics: (1) a school bus safety update; (2) equipping school buses with motion detectors; (3) state training requirements for school bus drivers; (4) recruiting and retaining drivers; (5) regulations covering underground fuel-storage tanks; and (6) a transportation directory. (MLF)

  10. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCready, Mark J.; Leighton, David T.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problems created in graduate chemical engineering programs when students enter with a wide diversity of understandings of transport phenomena. Describes a two-semester graduate transport course sequence at the University of Notre Dame which focuses on fluid mechanics and heat and mass transfer. (TW)

  11. The impact of health on Kentucky's economy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Danielle; Asher, Linda M; Whitler, Elmer; Wilson, Emery A

    2008-07-01

    All states are strongly committed to economic development policies and activities as participants in national and global competition. However, a sometimes overlooked and perhaps under appreciated influence on economic development is the health of a state's citizens. This study focuses on how the health status of Kentucky profoundly influences its economy, workforce, productivity, and general quality of life. If Kentucky's economy is to improve significantly, as compared to other states, significant improvements in the health status of its citizens must be achieved in the near future and sustained over time. In an era of growing concern about rising health insurance costs and maintaining a reliable and productive workforce, employers are increasingly likely to locate in communities where measures of health status are strongly positive. The latest report from the United Health Foundation indicates that in 2007 Kentucky had the 8th worst health status in the nation based on a set of risk factors and outcomes. These risk factors include personal behaviors, community and environment, and public health policies that culminate in key health outcomes related to quality of life and longevity. While it is a serious challenge, our research demonstrates that many of these risk factors can be lowered through relatively low cost and effective interventions that produce substantial improvements in health and Kentucky's rank. Health education is very effective when it begins early in life and continues to emphasize the importance of healthy behaviors, such as not smoking, healthy diets and exercise, and weight control. Preventive health services that identify and treat diseases and conditions that lead to premature death increase both longevity and economic growth through lower treatment costs for chronic diseases and an increase in human capital. Policy changes, such as primary enforcement of motor vehicle seat belt use and encouragement of the use of safety equipment at work

  12. Aging and factors related to running economy.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Timothy J; Manley, Michelle J; Aziz, Jason; Padham, Jamie L; MacKenzie, Allison M

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship that age has on factors affecting running economy (RE) in competitive distance runners. Fifty-one male and female subelite distance runners (Young [Y]: 18-39 years [n = 18]; Master [M]: 40-59 years [n = 22]; and Older [O]: 60-older [n = 11]) were measured for RE, step rate, lactate threshold (LT), VO2max, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, power, and body composition. An RE test was conducted at 4 different velocities (161, 188, 215, and 241 m·min(-1)), with subjects running for 5 minutes at each velocity. The steady-state VO2max during the last minute of each stage was recorded and plotted vs. speed, and a regression equation was formulated. A 1 × 3 analysis of variance revealed no differences in the slopes of the RE regression lines among age groups (y = 0.1827x - 0.2974; R2 = 0.9511 [Y]; y = 0.1988x - 1.0416; R2 = 0.9697 [M]; y = 0.1727x + 3.0252; R2 = 0.9618 [O]). The VO2max was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 64.1 ± 3.2; M = 56.8 ± 2.7; O = 44.4 ± 1.7 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The maximal heart rate and velocity @ LT were significantly different among all age groups (Y = 197 ± 4; M = 183 ± 2; O = 170 ± 6 b·min(-1) and Y = 289.7 ± 27.0; M = 251.5 ± 32.9; O = 212.3 ± 24.6 m·min(-1), respectively). The VO2max @ LT was significantly lower in the O group compared to in the Y and M groups (Y = 50.3 ± 2.0; M = 48.8 ± 2.9; O = 34.9 ± 3.2 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The O group was significantly lower than in the Y and M groups in flexibility, power, and upper body strength. Multiple regression analyses showed that strength and power were significantly related to running velocity. The results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that age-related declines in running performance are associated with declines in maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory variables and declines in strength and power, not because of declines in running economy.

  13. Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tolley, George S.; Jones, Donald W. Mintz, Marianne M.; Smith, Barton A.; Carlson, Eric; Unnasch, Stefan; Lawrence, Michael; Chmelynski, Harry

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy report, Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on Employment in the United States Report to Congress, estimates the effects on employment of a U.S. economy transformation to hydrogen between 2020 and 2050. The report includes study results on employment impacts from hydrogen market expansion in the transportation, stationary, and portable power sectors and highlights possible skill and education needs. This study is in response to Section 1820 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) (EPACT). Section 1820, “Overall Employment in a Hydrogen Economy,” requires the Secretary of Energy to carry out a study of the effects of a transition to a hydrogen economy on several employment [types] in the United States. As required by Section 1820, the present report considers: • Replacement effects of new goods and services • International competition • Workforce training requirements • Multiple possible fuel cycles, including usage of raw materials • Rates of market penetration of technologies • Regional variations based on geography • Specific recommendations of the study Both the Administration’s National Energy Policy and the Department’s Strategic Plan call for reducing U.S. reliance on imported oil and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The National Energy Policy also acknowledges the need to increase energy supplies and use more energy-efficient technologies and practices. President Bush proposed in his January 2003 State of the Union Address to advance research on hydrogen so that it has the potential to play a major role in America’s future energy system. Consistent with these aims, EPACT 2005 authorizes a research, development, and demonstration program for hydrogen and fuel cell technology. Projected results for the national employment impacts, projections of the job creation and job replacement underlying the total employment changes, training implications, regional employment impacts and the

  14. The Economy Goes to College: The Hidden Promise of Higher Education in the Post-Industrial Service Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This report explores the crucial transformation of the United States from an industrial to a post-industrial economy, with a particular focus on the shifting skill levels and incomes of American workers. It shows the increasing value of postsecondary education in today's economy and examines how workers have fared as the nation's focus has shifted…

  15. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  16. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  17. Advanced automobile engines for fuel economy, low emissions, and multifuel capability

    SciTech Connect

    Mellde, R.W.; Maasing, I.M. ); Johansson, T.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper has two objectives: to identify a set of performance levels for automobiles that will substantially help in dealing with the global problems; and to identify interesting combinations of technologies that can satisfy the criteria. Automobile oil consumption is a significant contributor to major global problems such as security and oil supply, the possible return of OPEC oil pricing power, and, through the associated emissions, to global warming, acidification, and urban air pollution. Strategies to deal with these major world problems necessarily involve automobiles - particularly their fuel economy, emissions, and choice of fuel. Efforts to improve these performance factors will have to take into account the transportation demands associated with an increasing world population and economic growth. The crucial question here is whether the world can find ways to meet transportation demands, while reducing automobiles' staggering external costs.

  18. Forest products in the global economy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, R.

    1987-01-01

    The various industries which comprise the forest product sector - most importantly timber, wood pulp and newsprint - are significant elements on the global economy. While world production and trade remain concentrated in the industrialized world many Third World countries have invested in forest products and these countries will play an important role in the future. This book presents a comprehensive survey of forest product manufacturing and trade throughout the world. It analyses the forest resource policies of producer countries and outlines output levels and growth rates. It examines world patterns of trade including both demand and supply and temperate and tropical producers. It considers the industry itself, its organisation, ownership and control, the technology employed and technology transfer. The book covers all the major countries involved in the industry including the USA, Canada, Japan, the Soviet bloc, South East Asia, West Africa and Northern Europe. It concludes with an assessment of likely future trends. CONTENTS. Introduction, origins and evolution, the forest resource, distribution, ownership and utilization, world patterns of production and trade, world patterns of demand, organization, technology and location, the coniferous belt producers, the tropical producers, the international transfer of technology in forest products, forest products in third world development, and future prospects.

  19. Pedagogical integrity in the knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Myrick, Florence

    2004-04-01

    Abstract In pedagogy, as in life generally, there are moral complexities and ambiguities intrinsic to the teaching-learning process. Within the context of the knowledge economy and globalization those complexities and ambiguities are proliferating. How we as educators address the interface between these complexities is critical to how well we and those we serve fare in the educational and practice environment. With the emergent corporate university culture it would seem that the major goal is to become a 'knowledge factory' or a site of knowledge creation. Increasingly its scientific and technological agenda is to focus on generating knowledge that would further the means and ends of economic growth and public policy. Traditionally, however, education has meant much more than this. Indeed, the original purpose of university education was designed to foster a desire for right conduct and good things which ultimately cannot be neatly packaged and delivered. Within this view, university educators would thus be expected to cultivate a climate of self-reflection in which learning can be fulfilling in itself. This paper explores the notion of globalization and its hegemonic influence on the university agenda and addresses how corporatism, a key dimension of globalization, is in effect usurping the very essence of the teaching-learning process.

  20. Safety Training for the Hydrogen Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Akers, Bret M.

    2006-04-11

    PNNL and the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training and Education Center are helping to prepare emergency responders and permitting/code enforcement officials for their respective roles in the future Hydrogen Economy. Safety will be a critical component of the anticipated hydrogen transition. Public confidence goes hand in hand with perceived safety to such an extent that, without it, the envisioned transition is unlikely to occur. Stakeholders and the public must be reassured that hydrogen, although very different from gasoline and other conventional fuels, is no more dangerous. Ensuring safety in the hydrogen infrastructure will require a suitably trained emergency response force for containing the inevitable incidents as they occur, coupled with knowledgeable code officials to ensure that such incidents are kept to a minimum. PNNL and HAMMER are, therefore, designing a hydrogen safety training program, funded by DOE's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program, and modeled after the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s multi-tiered approach to hazardous materials training. Capabilities under development at HAMMER include classroom and long-distance (i.e., satellite and internet broadcast) learning, as well as life-size, hands-on hydrogen burn props for “training as real as it gets.” This paper presents insights gained from the early emergency response hydrogen safety training courses held in 2005 and current plans for design and construction of a number of hydrogen burn props.

  1. Azolla domestication towards a biobased economy?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Paul; Bräutigam, Andrea; Külahoglu, Canan; Tazelaar, Anne O E; Kurz, Samantha; Nierop, Klaas G J; van der Werf, Adrie; Weber, Andreas P M; Schluepmann, Henriette

    2014-05-01

    Due to its phenomenal growth requiring neither nitrogen fertilizer nor arable land and its biomass composition, the mosquito fern Azolla is a candidate crop to yield food, fuels and chemicals sustainably. To advance Azolla domestication, we research its dissemination, storage and transcriptome. Methods for dissemination, cross-fertilization and cryopreservation of the symbiosis Azolla filiculoides-Nostoc azollae are tested based on the fern spores. To study molecular processes in Azolla including spore induction, a database of 37 649 unigenes from RNAseq of microsporocarps, megasporocarps and sporophytes was assembled, then validated. Spores obtained year-round germinated in vitro within 26 d. In vitro fertilization rates reached 25%. Cryopreservation permitted storage for at least 7 months. The unigene database entirely covered central metabolism and to a large degree covered cellular processes and regulatory networks. Analysis of genes engaged in transition to sexual reproduction revealed a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like protein in ferns with special features induced in sporulating Azolla fronds. Although domestication of a fern-cyanobacteria symbiosis may seem a daunting task, we conclude that the time is ripe and that results generated will serve to more widely access biochemicals in fern biomass for a biobased economy.

  2. Income and poverty in a developing economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Ackland, G. J.; Mallick, S. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present a stochastic agent-based model for the distribution of personal incomes in a developing economy. We start with the assumption that incomes are determined both by individual labour and by stochastic effects of trading and investment. The income from personal effort alone is distributed about a mean, while the income from trade, which may be positive or negative, is proportional to the trader's income. These assumptions lead to a Langevin model with multiplicative noise, from which we derive a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the income probability density function (IPDF) and its variation in time. We find that high earners have a power law income distribution while the low-income groups have a Levy IPDF. Comparing our analysis with the Indian survey data (obtained from the world bank website: http://go.worldbank.org/SWGZB45DN0) taken over many years we obtain a near-perfect data collapse onto our model's equilibrium IPDF. Using survey data to relate the IPDF to actual food consumption we define a poverty index (Sen A. K., Econometrica., 44 (1976) 219; Kakwani N. C., Econometrica, 48 (1980) 437), which is consistent with traditional indices, but independent of an arbitrarily chosen "poverty line" and therefore less susceptible to manipulation.

  3. The political economy of national defense

    SciTech Connect

    Weida, W.J.; Gertcher, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    This timely study covers both the economic and the political aspects of defense spending-first by providing a theoretical framework and then by explaining, in a political economy context, the results of decisions to allocate scarce resources to defense. The authors provide a comprehensive picture of the interaction between defense spending and the economic and political structure of the United States, complementing their exploration of topical concerns such as SDI with analysis of long-term trends and issues of timeless importance in the defense debate. Because of the politicizing of defense planning and procurement, there have been few significant applications of optimization techniques to high-level defense issues over the past decade. As a result, there has been a rapid decline in the importance of those techniques-historically the focus of books on defense economics. Like its predecessors, this book presents optimization techniques applicable to a wide variety of defense problems, but it also illustrates what happens in actual practice and why defense decisions are often not economically efficient. The authors discuss alternatives for cases when political constraints make efficient solutions unlikely and explore changes in the defense establishment and political structures that would make economically efficient resource allocations a reality.

  4. Economies of scale: The physics basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, A.; Almerbati, A.; Lorente, S.

    2017-01-01

    Why is size so important? Why are "economies of scale" a universal feature of all flow systems, animate, inanimate, and human made? The empirical evidence is clear: the bigger are more efficient carriers (per unit) than the smaller. This natural tendency is observed across the board, from animal design to technology, logistics, and economics. In this paper, we rely on physics (thermodynamics) to determine the relation between the efficiency and size. Here, the objective is to predict a natural phenomenon, which is universal. It is not to model a particular type of device. The objective is to demonstrate based on physics that the efficiencies of diverse power plants should increase with size. The analysis is performed in two ways. First is the tradeoff between the "external" irreversibilities due to the temperature differences that exist above and below the temperature range occupied by the circuit executed by the working fluid. Second is the allocation of the fluid flow irreversibility between the hot and cold portions of the fluid flow circuit. The implications of this report in economics and design science (scaling up, scaling down) and the necessity of multi-scale design with hierarchy are discussed.

  5. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized.

  6. The Edge supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  7. Human locomotion on snow: determinants of economy and speed of skiing across the ages.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Federico; Ardigò, Luca P; Minetti, Alberto E

    2005-08-07

    We explore here the evolution of skiing locomotion in the last few thousand years by investigating how humans adapted to move effectively in lands where a cover of snow, for several months every year, prevented them from travelling as on dry ground. Following historical research, we identified the sets of skis corresponding to the 'milestones' of skiing evolution in terms of ingenuity and technology, built replicas of them and measured the metabolic energy associated to their use in a climate-controlled ski tunnel. Six sets of skis were tested, covering a span from 542 AD to date. Our results show that: (i) the history of skiing is associated with a progressive decrease in the metabolic cost of transport, (ii) it is possible today to travel at twice the speed of ancient times using the same amount of metabolic power and (iii) the cost of transport is speed-independent for each ski model, as during running. By combining this finding with the relationship between time of exhaustion and the sustainable fraction of metabolic power, a prediction of the maximum skiing speed according to the distance travelled is provided for all past epochs, including two legendary historical journeys (1206 and 1520 AD) on snow. Our research shows that the performances in races originating from them (Birkebeiner and Vasaloppet) and those of other modern competitions (skating versus classical techniques) are well predicted by the evolution of skiing economy. Mechanical determinants of the measured progression in economy are also discussed in the paper.

  8. 76 FR 11196 - Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies... rate methodology in antidumping proceedings involving non-market economy (``NME'') countries. See Antidumping Methodologies in Proceedings Involving Non-Market Economies: Valuing the Factor of...

  9. Method of predicting a change in an economy

    DOEpatents

    Pryor, Richard J; Basu, Nipa

    2006-01-10

    An economy whose activity is to be predicted comprises a plurality of decision makers. Decision makers include, for example, households, government, industry, and banks. The decision makers are represented by agents, where an agent can represent one or more decision makers. Each agent has decision rules that determine the agent's actions. Each agent can affect the economy by affecting variable conditions characteristic of the economy or the internal state of other agents. Agents can communicate actions through messages. On a multiprocessor computer, the agents can be assigned to processing elements.

  10. [A token economy experiment in young schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Cosyns, P; Peuskens, J; Tilmans, B

    1977-01-01

    The paradigm of operant behaviour (Skinner) systematically applied to a group constitutes the theoretical basis of token-economy programs. Such a system consists in relating a certain behaviour to a consequence known to the patient. The efficiency of a token-economy has already been demonstrated for various populations: delinquants, schooolboys, chronic psychiatric patients. This pilot-study reports on our experience in applying in token-economy program in a group of young schizophrenics, most of them being hebefrenics: concepts and difficulties in realisation, hierarchical structure of the system, and results obtained.

  11. Transport Phenomena.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a course designed to achieve a balance between exposing students to (1) advanced topics in transport phenomena, pointing out similarities and differences between three transfer processes and (2) common methods of solving differential equations. (JN)

  12. Essays on Firm Behavior in Developing Economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeberese, Ama Baafra

    The performance of firms is central to growth in developing economies. A burgeoning literature within development economics seeks to understand the behavior of firms in developing countries and the constraints to their performance. This dissertation explores two types of constraints---infrastructure-related constraints and trade-related constraints---faced by manufacturing firms in developing countries. Despite the widely acknowledged importance of infrastructure for economic growth, there has been relatively little research on how infrastructure affects the decisions of firms. Electricity, in particular, is commonly cited by firms in developing countries as a major obstacle to their performance. In the first two chapters, I analyze the responses of firms to two types of electricity constraints, namely electricity prices and electricity shortages. Chapter 1 provides evidence on how electricity prices affect a firm's industry choice and productivity growth using data on Indian manufacturing firms. I construct an instrument for electricity price as the interaction between the price of coal paid by power utilities, which is arguably exogenous to firm characteristics, and the initial share of thermal generation in a state's total electricity generation capacity. I find that, in response to an exogenous increase in electricity price, firms reduce their electricity consumption and switch to industries with less electricity-intensive production processes. I also find that firm output, machine intensity and labor productivity decline with an increase in electricity price. In addition to these level effects, I show that firm output and productivity growth rates are negatively affected by high electricity prices. These results suggest that electricity constraints faced by firms may limit a country's growth by leading firms to operate in industries with fewer productivity-enhancing opportunities. Chapter 2 examines the impact of electricity shortages on firm investment. I

  13. Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

  14. Building Partnerships to Cut Petroleum Use in Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. Clean Cities accomplishes this work through the activities of nearly 100 local coalitions. These coalitions provide resources and technical assistance in the deployment of alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies as they emerge.

  15. Transportation: Design, Build, and Manage the Future for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A safe, efficient, and effective transportation system is critical to the growth and stability of the U.S. economy, America's ability as a nation to compete in increasingly competitive global markets, and as a commuter network that provides access to jobs and recreational facilities that are important to quality of life for all Americans. The…

  16. Hydrogen: Its Future Role in the Nation's Energy Economy.

    PubMed

    Winsche, W E; Hoffman, K C; Salzano, F J

    1973-06-29

    electrolysis, from coal, and directly from thermal energy could be found that are less expensive than those now available; inexpensive fuel cells could be developed, and high-temperature turbines could be used for the efficient conversion of hydrogen (and oxygen) to electricity. The use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel would be a key factor in the development of a hydrogen energy economy, and safe storage techniques for carrying sufficient quantities of hydrogen in automotive systems can certainly be developed. The use of hydrogen in automobiles would significantly reduce urban pollution because the dispersed fossil fuel emissions would be replaced by radioactive wastes generated at large central stations. The conversion of internal or external combustion engines for combustion of hydrogen fuel would probably have less economic impact on the automotive industry than the mass introduction of electric automobiles. However, this is a subject that requires more detailed study. All of the safety aspects of hydrogen utilization will have to be examined, especially the problems of safety in the domestic use and the long distance transport of hydrogen in pipelines at high pressures. It is our opinion that the various energy planning agencies should now begin to outline the mode of implementing hydrogen energy delivery systems in the energy economy. The initial transition to hydrogen energy derived from available fossil fuels such as coal should be considered together with the long range view of all the hydrogen being derived eventually from nuclear energy. By the year 1985 when petroleum imports may be in excess of the domestic supply, these plans could set the stage for the transition period from fossil to a predominantly nuclear energy economy able to supply abundant synthetic fuels such as hydrogen. Synthetic fuels will obviously be more expensive than fuels now derived from petroleum; however, there may be no other viable choice. Thus, it is essential that the analysis and

  17. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32, from the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.; Boundy, Robert G. [Roltek, Inc.

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium designed for use as a reference. The data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 on energy; Chapter 3 0n highway vehicles; Chapter 4 on light vehicles; Chapter 5 on heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 on alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7on fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 on household vehicles; and Chapter 9 on nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 on transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 on greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 on criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also appendices which include detailed source information for various tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions.

  18. About E3: Economy – Energy – Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page explains EPA's E3 – Economy, Energy, and Environment – program, a federal and local technical assistance initiative, helping manufacturers adapt and thrive with a focus on sustainability.

  19. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S.; Glaser, R.; Richardson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CAROB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4 %, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6 %. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CAROB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  20. Texas in transition: dependence on oil and the national economy

    SciTech Connect

    Fomby, T.B.; Hirschberg, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Although Texas may once have appeared immune to national business cycles, the state's economy no longer has such immunity. The authors quantify the degree to which the Texas economy's responsiveness to oil prices and the national economy has changed. They find that Texas nonagricultural employment is 62% less sensitive to unexpected changes in real oil prices and 338% more responsive to unexpected changes in national employment. Further, the authors also develop measures of the degree of dissimilarity between the Texas and national economies. They find that these dissimilarity measures, which reflect differences in economic structure between Texas and the nation, bear a closer relation to real oil prices than does state employment. 15 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  2. Perils (Hidden and Not So Hidden) for the Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Jakki

    1988-01-01

    Potential hazards and dangers of using the token economy approach to behavior change with head injured individuals are identified and it is suggested that the injured person's active awareness of reinforcement contingencies may sometimes be deleterious. (DB)

  3. Variables Affecting the Efficacy of a Token Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Carl R.

    1975-01-01

    Investigated in a longitudinal study were the variables affecting the efficacy of a token economy used with 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded males (16-24 years old) exhibiting disruptive behaviors. (Author/CL)

  4. A review of token economy treatment programs for psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Milby, J B

    1975-10-01

    The author has reviewed outcome studies of token economy programs for psychiatric inpatients. Only studies that employed some control procedures in their evaluation were included. Token economies were most effective in modifying inhospital work, personal care, and some psychotic behaviors. Studies that assessed token programs to prepare patients for community living and reduce recidivism generally affirmed the effectiveness of token procedures, but the studies were poorly designed, and they lacked systematic follow-up data. Almost all studies failed to examine possible interactions between chemotherapy and the token economies. The author suggests the need for studies using token economies with psychiatric patients other than chronic schizophrenics, who have been studied almost exclusively to date.

  5. Vocational Preparation of The Hardcore Unemployed: The Token Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Jack; Turner, Walter L.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes a demonstration project designed to assist in the upgrading of job skills among hardcore, inner-city, underemployed clients. The token economy procedure is described and its use in the present study is detailed. (Author)

  6. The new economy is stronger than you think.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, W A

    1999-01-01

    Many policy makers at the Fed contend that the new economy is a fragile bubble--and that with the "irrational exuberance" of the capital markets, the sky is going to fall on the U.S. economy. That couldn't be further from the truth, according to William Sahlman. As long as the government doesn't interfere, he argues, the economy is sturdy, resilient, and raring to grow. The new economy is strong for several reasons. First, it is based on a business model that works. Any business system that relentlessly drives out inefficiency, forces intelligent business-process reengineering, and gives customers more of what they want will be sustainable. Second, it is built on America's admiration for entrepreneurs and its tolerance for failure, not to mention its easy access to capital. Third, the new economy is attracting the best and brightest minds in the country. And finally, says Sahlman, the new economy is strong because it is spreading. It may be primarily an American phenomenon now, but in a few short years it will start to show its effects everywhere, making the whole world a more productive place. Still, Sahlman believes, the road ahead is not without potholes and sharp curves. But that is what the new economy is all about, he maintains--companies attacking the status quo and entrenched players, companies experimenting to find new technologies that improve or replace earlier ones. Such activity presents no cause for alarm. The economic, social, and cultural factors undergirding the new economy are rock solid. It's simply a matter of letting them stand.

  7. The effect of holidays on a token economy regime.

    PubMed

    Elliott, P A

    1977-05-01

    This preliminary study investigates the effect on patients' performance of a set time off, in the form of a short holiday, from a strict reinforcement (token economy) regime. Assessment was by the patients' mean token earnings before and after the holiday and their self-care and work performance throughout. The results suggest that a holiday from a token economy has beneficial effects for patients.

  8. Building Digital Economy - The Research Councils Programme and the Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, John

    We at the Research Councils believe that there are many aspects of society and business that could be transformed by the innovative design and use of digital technologies. This has led to the Digital Economy Programme. The Digital Economy is an RCUK Cross-Research Council Programme, led by the EPSRC, but working closely with ESRC, MRC, AHRC and TSB. What is Digital Economy? Digital Economy is the novel design or use of information and communication technology to help transform the lives of individuals, society or business. All Digital Economy research involves the user community. This can include industry, government, society, charities or other groups as applicable. The research will understand the technologies and also why change is needed, what the impacts will be and who will benefit. Research in this cross-research council area can be driven by economic, social or technical need. The early involvement of the user community is vital if new technologies are to be integrated successfully into business opportunities, technical solutions or commercial products and processes. Challenges in the Digital Economy will require multi-disciplinary academic input, including, but not limited to, the arts and humanities, economic and social sciences and medical sciences, in addition to engineering and physical sciences.

  9. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    PubMed Central

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Breusegem, Frank Van; Mey, Marjan De; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy. PMID:23761802

  10. Older Runners Retain Youthful Running Economy Despite Biomechanical Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Owen N.; Kipp, Shalaya; Roby, Jaclyn M.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger; Ortega, Justus D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Sixty-five years of age typically marks the onset of impaired walking economy. However, running economy has not been assessed beyond the age of 65 years. Furthermore, a critical determinant of running economy is the spring-like storage and return of elastic energy from the leg during stance, which is related to leg stiffness. Therefore, we investigated whether runners over the age of 65 years retain youthful running economy and/or leg stiffness across running speeds. Methods Fifteen young and fifteen older runners ran on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.01, 2.46, and 2.91 m·s−1. We measured their rates of metabolic energy consumption (i.e. metabolic power), ground reaction forces, and stride kinematics. Results There were only small differences in running economy between young and older runners across the range of speeds. Statistically, the older runners consumed 2–9% less metabolic energy than the young runners across speeds (p=0.012). Also, the leg stiffness of older runners was 10–20% lower than that of young runners across the range of speeds (p=0.002) and in contrast to the younger runners, the leg stiffness of older runners decreased with speed (p<0.001). Conclusion Runners beyond 65 years of age maintain youthful running economy despite biomechanical differences. It may be that vigorous exercise, such as running, prevents the age related deterioration of muscular efficiency, and therefore may make everyday activities easier. PMID:26587844

  11. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    PubMed

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  12. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrício, João

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy.

  13. Nanostructured carbide catalysts for the hydrogen economy

    SciTech Connect

    Ram Seshadri, Susannah Scott, Juergen Eckert

    2008-07-21

    The above quote, taken from the executive summary of the Report from the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences Workshop held August 6–8, 2007,[1] places in context the research carried out at the University of California, Santa Barbara, which is reported in this document. The enormous impact of heterogeneous catalysis is exemplified by the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, which consumes a few % of the world’s energy supply and natural gas, and feeds as many as a third of the world’s population. While there have been numerous advances in understanding the process,[2] culminating in the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Gerhard Ertl in 2007, it is interesting to note that the catalysts themselves have changed very little since they were discovered heuristically in the the early part of the 20th century. The thesis of this report is that modern materials chemistry, with all the empirical knowledge of solid state chemistry, combined with cutting edge structural tools, can help develop and better heterogeneous catalysis. The first part of this report describes research in the area of early transition metal carbides (notably of Mo and W), potentially useful catalysts for water gas shift (WGS) and related reactions of use to the hydrogen economy. Although these carbides have been known to be catalytically useful since the 1970s,[3] further use of these relatively inexpensive materials have been plagued by issues of low surface areas and ill-defined, and often unreactive surfaces, in conjunction with deactivation. We have employed for the first time, a combination of constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron scattering, including a total scattering analysis of the latter data, to better understand what happens in these materials, in a manner that for the first time, reveals surface graphitic carbon in these materials in a quantitative manner. Problems of preparation, surface stability, and irreversible reactivity have become manifest in this class of materials

  14. A theory of family, economy, and gender.

    PubMed

    Huber, J

    1988-03-01

    Historically, the requirements of population replacement have interacted with modes of subsistence technology to shape the differential distribution of power and prestige by sex. Two assumptions undergird Huber's argument: in all societies, producers have more power than consumers; those who control the distribution of valued goods beyond the family have the most power. Evidence comes from societies based on foraging, the hoe, the plow, herding, and industrial technologies. Huber concludes that changes in the work people do have altered the stratification and family systems of plow societies. Declines in mortality and fertility and changes in lactation customs have reduced the time that women spend pregnant or nursing. Increases in educational levels and employment rates enable women to provide sizable shares of family income. These trends have increased the centrality of individual goal attainment in the Western ideational system. Now women, along with men, have been swept into the occupational streams of the industrial revolution, though not quite into the mainstream. Still in question is the extent to which women will hold a fair share of top positions. This will hinge on responsibility for housework and childcare early in a woman's career, a time when most single parents or couples lack resources to command full-time quality care for the daily needs of their children. Ambitious women can avoid much conflict by remaining childless, but that is the point; ambitious men need not make that choice. Women cannot become men's social equals until the most talented women can aspire as realistically as their male counterparts to contribute in proportion to their talents. Thus, the overlap of family, economy, and gender, reshaped by continuing technological change, continues to affect women's status. Industrialization 1st turned the cost-benefit ratio of children upside down. Then wives were drawn into the labor force, raising the opportunity cost of their time, and

  15. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  16. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.; McFarlin, D.N.

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  17. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy...

  18. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy...

  19. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will calculate normal value by valuing the nonmarket economy producers' factors...

  20. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will calculate normal value by valuing the nonmarket economy producers' factors...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  3. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator...

  4. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will calculate normal value by valuing the nonmarket economy producers' factors...

  5. 40 CFR 600.307-95 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... dual fuel automobiles, the statement: “All fuel economy values on this label pertain to fuel usage. fuel(s) usage will yield different values. See the FREE FUEL ECONOMY GUIDE for information on .” At...

  6. 40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  7. 20 CFR 220.131 - Work which exists in the national economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work which exists in the national economy... economy. (a) General. The Board considers that work exists in the national economy when it exists in... for work. (b) How the Board determines the existence of work. Work exists in the national economy...

  8. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy §...

  9. 40 CFR 600.510-08 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy §...

  10. 19 CFR 351.408 - Calculation of normal value of merchandise from nonmarket economy countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nonmarket economy countries. 351.408 Section 351.408 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... economy countries. (a) Introduction. In identifying dumping from a nonmarket economy country, the Secretary normally will calculate normal value by valuing the nonmarket economy producers' factors...

  11. 77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Economy Reports AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... average fuel economy standard for the model year for which the report is made, the actions a manufacturer... CONTACT: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  13. 40 CFR 600.510-93 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy §...

  14. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  15. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  16. 40 CFR 600.307-95 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-95 Fuel economy label...

  17. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy...

  18. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Range of fuel economy for comparable... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy...

  19. 40 CFR 600.307-86 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-86 Fuel economy label...

  20. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  1. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  2. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  3. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  4. 10 CFR 474.3 - Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. 474.3..., DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.3 Petroleum-equivalent fuel economy calculation. (a) The petroleum-equivalent fuel economy for an electric vehicle...

  5. Air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, F Handley

    1924-01-01

    I purpose (sic) in this paper to deal with the development in air transport which has taken place since civil aviation between England and the Continent first started at the end of August 1919. A great deal of attention has been paid in the press to air services of the future, to the detriment of the consideration of results obtained up to the present.

  6. Pupil Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four transportation experts on issues related to school buses. The experts respond to the following questions: will advertisements placed on buses be used to generate district revenue; will compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas become standard fuel for school buses; and will school bus seat belts be mandatory and…

  7. Anomalous transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheverry, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    This article is concerned with the relativistic Vlasov equation, for collisionless axisymmetric plasmas immersed in a strong magnetic field, like in tokamaks. It provides a consistent kinetic treatment of the microscopic particle phase-space dynamics. It shows that the turbulent transport can be completely described through WKB expansions.

  8. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  9. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false âEconomy size.â 502.102 Section 502.102... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy...

  10. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false âEconomy size.â 502.102 Section 502.102... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy...

  11. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false âEconomy size.â 502.102 Section 502.102... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy...

  12. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false âEconomy size.â 502.102 Section 502.102... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy...

  13. 16 CFR 502.102 - “Economy size.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âEconomy size.â 502.102 Section 502.102... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.102 “Economy size.” (a) The term economy size means any printed matter consisting of the words “economy size,” “economy...

  14. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    DOE PAGES

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenuemore » from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.« less

  15. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  16. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology called cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB). Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7 H2O (l) 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g) (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456). Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from PEM fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  17. Moving toward the circular economy: the role of stocks in the Chinese steel cycle.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Wang, Tao; Müller, Daniel B

    2012-01-03

    As the world's largest CO(2) emitter and steel producer, China has set the ambitious goal of establishing a circular economy which aims at reconciling economic development with environmental protection and sustainable resource use. This work applies dynamic material flow analysis to forecast production, recycling, and iron ore consumption in the Chinese steel cycle until 2100 by using steel services in terms of in-use stock per capita as driver of future development. The whole cycle is modeled to determine possible responses of the steel industry in light of the circular economy concept. If per-capita stock saturates at 8-12 tons as evidence from industrialized countries suggests, consumption may peak between 2015 and 2020, whereupon it is likely to drop by up to 40% until 2050. A slower growing in-use stock could mitigate this peak and hence reduce overcapacity in primary production. Old scrap supply will increase substantially and it could replace up to 80% of iron ore as resource for steel making by 2050. This would require advanced recycling technologies as manufacturers of machinery and transportation equipment would have to shift to secondary steel as well as new capacities in secondary production which could, however, make redundant already existing integrated steel plants.

  18. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  19. Transportation energy data book: Edition 12

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.; Morris, M.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 12 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes--highway, air, water, rail, pipeline--is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  20. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  1. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes -- highway, air, water, rail, pipeline -- is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  2. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  3. AN INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACTS OF HYDROGEN ECONOMY ON TRANSPORTATION, ENERGY USE, AND AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential energy, economic and environmental implications of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H2-FCV) penetration into the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. The approach, which uses the U.S. EPA MARKet ALlocation technology database and model, allow...

  4. Molecular fundamentals of nitrogen uptake and transport in trees.

    PubMed

    Castro-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Cañas, Rafael A; de la Torre, Fernando N; Pascual, Ma Belén; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2017-03-27

    Nitrogen (N) is frequently a limiting factor for tree growth and development. Because N availability is extremely low in forest soils, trees have evolved mechanisms to acquire and transport this essential nutrient along with biotic interactions to guarantee its strict economy. Here we review recent advances in the molecular basis of tree N nutrition. The molecular characteristics, regulation, and biological significance of membrane proteins involved in the uptake and transport of N are addressed. The regulation of N uptake and transport in mycorrhized roots and transcriptome-wide studies of N nutrition are also outlined. Finally, several areas of future research are suggested.

  5. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  6. Fuel economy rebound effect of U.S. household vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Kahn, J.R.; Gibson, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents an econometric estimation of the rebound effect for household vehicle travel in the US based on analysis of survey data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) at approximately three-year intervals over a 15-year period. The rebound effect measures the tendency to take back potential energy savings from fuel economy improvements as increased travel. Vehicle use models were estimated for one-, two-, three-, four-, and five-vehicle households. The results confirm recent estimates based on national or state-level data: a long-run take back of about 20% of potential energy savings. Consumer responses to changes in fuel economy or fuel price per gallon appear to be equal and opposite in sign. Recognizing the interdependencies among miles of travel, fuel economy and price is key to obtaining meaningful results.

  7. Energy-economy study methods and transit cases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H.T.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe energy economy study methods that are now available for practical use. The report discusses methods of estimating energy demands in Chapter II. Three heavy rail transit systems and two bus systems (Chapters III to VII) are described in terms of their development history, physical characteristics, operations, service, and energy demands. Estimates are made for the direct and indirect energy demands for the systems and energy economy studies of hypothetical alternatives for operations, equipment, or facilities are presented for the following systems: PATH (Port Authority Trans-Hudson) rail system; BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit District) rail system; AC Transit (Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) bus system; Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Metrobus and Metrorail systems. Chapter VIII discusses a number of opportunities to conduct energy economy studies, and presents quantitative data for three comparisons of hypothetical alternatives. Some infomation from actual settings was used. (MCW)

  8. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  9. The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women.

  10. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'.

  11. Old Dominion, industrial commonwealth: coal, politics, and economy in Antebellum America

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.P.

    2005-05-15

    The political economies of coal in Virginia and Pennsylvania from the late eighteenth century through the Civil War are compared, and the divergent paths these two states took in developing their ample coal reserves during a critical period of American industrialisation are examined. State economic policies played a major role. Virginia's failure to exploit the rich coal fields in the western part of the state can be traced to the legislature's over riding concern to protect and promote the interests of the agrarian, slaveholding elite of eastern Virginia. Pennsylvania's more fractious legislature enthusiastically embraced a policy of economic growth that resulted in the construction of an extensive transportation network, a statewide geological survey, and support for private investment in its coal fields.

  12. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A vehicle's in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  13. Differences between EPA-test and in-use fuel economy: Are the correction factors correct?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.M.; Vyas, A.R.D.; Conley, L.A.

    1993-02-01

    A vehicle`s in-use or on-the-road fuel economy often differs substantially from the miles-per-gallon estimates developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of its emissions certification program. As a result, the certification values are routinely adjusted by a set of correction factors so that the resulting estimates will better reflect in-use experience. Using data from the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey conducted by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy, our analysis investigated how well the correction factors replicated the shortfall experience of all household vehicles on the road in 1985. Results show that the shortfall is larger than the EPA correction factors, and light trucks are experiencing significantly larger shortfalls than automobiles.

  14. Strategies to grow your practice in a struggling economy.

    PubMed

    Drumm, Tracy L; Arkins, John P; Dayan, Steven H

    2010-02-01

    Creating a successful aesthetic medicine practice in times of economic uncertainty is a daunting challenge. This article introduces the concept of Retailicine, combining inherent edicts of medicine with the best practices in business, so today's aesthetic physician can develop strategies for success in any economy. Through the efficient use of marketing strategies catered to aesthetic medicine, aesthetic practices can thrive. Emphasizing the patient's experience, effectively using the Internet, and an ego-devoid introspective analysis of the flaws of one's practice are essential for any successful aesthetic physician to grow and be prosperous despite any shortfalls in the economy.

  15. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry.

  16. Relative Economy of Different Methods of Airplane Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, H

    1931-01-01

    A comparison of the relative economy of airplane construction shows that monoplanes are cheaper than biplanes; that all-metal construction is much more expensive than mixed construction; that multi-engine airplanes are more expensive than single-engine types of the same carrying capacity and speed;that the cost of airplanes is materially reduced by increasing their size without increasing the number of engines. The greatest economy usually coincides with the best aerodynamic and static conditions and the cost is always increased by safety requirements.

  17. Oil and the world economy: some possible futures.

    PubMed

    Kumhof, Michael; Muir, Dirk

    2014-01-13

    This paper, using a six-region dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model of the world economy, assesses the output and current account implications of permanent oil supply shocks hitting the world economy. For modest-sized shocks and conventional production technologies, the effects are modest. But for larger shocks, for elasticities of substitution that decline as oil usage is reduced to a minimum, and for production functions in which oil acts as a critical enabler of technologies, output growth could drop significantly. Also, oil prices could become so high that smooth adjustment, as assumed in the model, may become very difficult.

  18. Highway fuel economy study. Final report Sep 79-Mar 81

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.L.; Zub, R.W.

    1981-06-01

    In 1979, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with support from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), convened a Task Force to develop a base of information on the effects of the 55 MPH speed limit. This report addresses the fuel consumption changes attributable to speed reduction and compliance with the 55 MPH speed limit. It also discusses the effects of vehicle size and type, and driver-controllable functions on vehicle fuel economy at highway speeds. Most of the analytical work in this report is related to passenger cars and light trucks. However, medium and heavy trucks, primarily commercial in application, have been included in the highway fuel economy analyses.

  19. Building a knowledge based economy in Russia using guided entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Boris N.; Daniels, Marc; Ichim, Thomas E.; Reznik, David L.

    2005-06-01

    Despite advanced scientific and technological (S&T) expertise, the Russian economy is presently based upon manufacturing and raw material exports. Currently, governmental incentives are attempting to leverage the existing scientific infrastructure through the concept of building a Knowledge Based Economy. However, socio-economic changes do not occur solely by decree, but by alteration of approach to the market. Here we describe the "Guided Entrepreneurship" plan, a series of steps needed for generation of an army of entrepreneurs, which initiate a chain reaction of S&T-driven growth. The situation in Russia is placed in the framework of other areas where Guided Entrepreneurship has been successful.

  20. 75 FR 44216 - Cybersecurity, Innovation and the Internet Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Internet. The nation's e-commerce interests are significant. Growth in online sales and expanding use of... the business-to- consumer e-commerce space, the United States economy enjoyed an increase in revenue....pdf . \\11\\ U.S. Census Bureau, ``Quarterly Retail E-Commerce Sales: 4th Quarter 2008,'' Feb. 16,...