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Sample records for hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces

  1. Bipolar surface devices on hydrogen-terminated silicon (111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binhui; Kane, B. E.

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional systems on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces show very high quality. The peak electron mobility of 325,000 cm2/Vs can be achieved at T =90 mK, and the device shows the fractional quantum hall effect; the peak hole mobility of 10,000 cm2/Vs can be reached at 70 mK, and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations show a beating pattern due to the spin-orbit effects. With the ability to create both a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) and a two-dimensional hole system (2DHS) on a Si(111) surface, it is natural to develop a bipolar surface device, similar to that on AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. The capability to switch between electrons and holes on the same Si(111) surface is helpful for studies of interaction effects and spin related phenomena, since the electrons and holes have very different band structures, and spin properties. We have fabricated the bipolar surface devices with improved gate structures. The characteristics of the devices will be presented and the possible implication will be discussed.

  2. Transport Properties of Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surface Controlled by Ionic-Liquid Gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    We fabricated electric double-layer transistors on the hydrogen-terminated (111)-oriented surface of non-doped silicon using ionic liquid as a gate dielectric. We introduced hole carriers into silicon with the application of a negative gate voltage. The sheet resistance of silicon was controlled by more than three orders of magnitude at 220 K by changing the gate voltage. The temperature dependence of sheet resistance became weak as the gate voltage was increased, suggesting the approach to an insulator-metal transition.

  3. Indications of chemical bond contrast in AFM images of a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface

    PubMed Central

    Labidi, Hatem; Koleini, Mohammad; Huff, Taleana; Salomons, Mark; Cloutier, Martin; Pitters, Jason; Wolkow, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    The origin of bond-resolved atomic force microscope images remains controversial. Moreover, most work to date has involved planar, conjugated hydrocarbon molecules on a metal substrate thereby limiting knowledge of the generality of findings made about the imaging mechanism. Here we report the study of a very different sample; a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. A procedure to obtain a passivated hydrogen-functionalized tip is defined and evolution of atomic force microscopy images at different tip elevations are shown. At relatively large tip-sample distances, the topmost atoms appear as distinct protrusions. However, on decreasing the tip-sample distance, features consistent with the silicon covalent bonds of the surface emerge. Using a density functional tight-binding-based method to simulate atomic force microscopy images, we reproduce the experimental results. The role of the tip flexibility and the nature of bonds and false bond-like features are discussed. PMID:28194036

  4. Indications of chemical bond contrast in AFM images of a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labidi, Hatem; Koleini, Mohammad; Huff, Taleana; Salomons, Mark; Cloutier, Martin; Pitters, Jason; Wolkow, Robert A.

    2017-02-01

    The origin of bond-resolved atomic force microscope images remains controversial. Moreover, most work to date has involved planar, conjugated hydrocarbon molecules on a metal substrate thereby limiting knowledge of the generality of findings made about the imaging mechanism. Here we report the study of a very different sample; a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. A procedure to obtain a passivated hydrogen-functionalized tip is defined and evolution of atomic force microscopy images at different tip elevations are shown. At relatively large tip-sample distances, the topmost atoms appear as distinct protrusions. However, on decreasing the tip-sample distance, features consistent with the silicon covalent bonds of the surface emerge. Using a density functional tight-binding-based method to simulate atomic force microscopy images, we reproduce the experimental results. The role of the tip flexibility and the nature of bonds and false bond-like features are discussed.

  5. Multifunctional silicon surfaces: reaction of dichlorocarbene generated from Seyferth reagent with hydrogen-terminated silicon (111) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjun; Sharp, Ian D; Tilley, T Don

    2014-01-14

    Insertion of dichlorocarbene (:CCl2), generated by decomposition of the Seyferth reagent PhHgCCl2Br, into the Si-H bond of a tertiary silane to form a Si-CCl2H group is an efficient homogeneous, molecular transformation. A heterogeneous version of this reaction, between PhHgCCl2Br and a silicon (111) surface terminated by tertiary Si-H bonds, was studied using a combination of surface-sensitive infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The insertion of dichlorocarbene into surface Si-H bonds parallels the corresponding reaction of silanes in solution, to produce surface-bound dichloromethyl groups (Si-CCl2H) covering ∼25% of the silicon surface sites. A significant fraction of the remaining Si-H bonds on the surface was converted to Si-Cl/Br groups during the same reaction, with PhHgCCl2Br serving as a halogen atom source. The presence of two distinct environments for the chlorine atoms (Si-CCl2H and Si-Cl) and one type of bromine atom (Si-Br) was confirmed by Cl 2p, Br 3d, and C 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The formation of reactive, halogen-terminated atop silicon sites was also verified by reaction with sodium azide or the Grignard reagent (CH3MgBr), to produce Si-N3 or Si-Me functionalities, respectively. Thus, reaction of a hydrogen-terminated silicon (111) surface with PhHgCCl2Br provides a facile route to multifunctional surfaces possessing both stable silicon-carbon and labile silicon-halogen sites, in a single pot synthesis. The reactive silicon-halogen groups can be utilized for subsequent transformations and, potentially, the construction of more complex organic-silicon hybrid systems.

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy characterization of the geometric and electronic structure of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, W. J.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Grunthaner, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) methods are used to characterize hydrogen-terminated Si surfaces prepared by a novel method. The surface preparation method is used to expose the Si-SiO2 interface. STM images directly reveal the topographic structure of the Si-SiO2 interface. The dependence of interface topography on oxide preparation conditions observed by STM is compared to the results of conventional surface characterization methods. Also, the electronic structure of the hydrogen-terminated surface is studied by STM spectroscopy. The near-ideal electronic structure of this surface enables direct tunnel spectroscopy measurements of Schottky barrier phenomena. In addition, this method enables probing of semiconductor subsurface properties by STM.

  7. Measurement and calculation of the differential reflectance spectrum of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces having different crystal orientations.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, K; Okada, N; Noda, T; Endo, K; Hirose, K

    2007-09-12

    The differential reflectance spectrum between the (001) and the (111) hydrogen-terminated Si surfaces without native oxidation is investigated. Careful measurements using developed apparatus and an ultra-clean process are performed. The measured spectrum is compared with the reported one (Chongsawangvirod and Irene 1991 J. Electrochem. Soc. 138 1748-52), and is shown to be roughly identical even though a native oxidation effect exists. The theoretical calculation based on density-functional theory (DFT) and local density approximation (LDA) is also performed. The peak positions in the calculated and the measured spectra are in good accordance with each other, while the magnitudes of the peaks are in relatively worse agreement. Although the inclusion of advanced approximations would provide more accurate results, a qualitative reproduction is achieved in this study as well. It is concluded that the origin of the spectrum is mainly in the deformation of the bulk states induced by surface perturbation.

  8. Spin-orbit effects in two-dimensional hole systems on hydrogen-terminated silicon (111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binhui; Kott, Tomasz M.; Kane, Bruce E.

    2012-02-01

    We have studied spin-orbit effects in two-dimensional hole systems (2DHSs) on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces using Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations. The device has a vacuum field-effect transistor structure [1], and the 2DHS is induced on the H-Si(111) surface. Hole concentrations up to 8x10^11 cm-2 are obtained, and the peak hole mobility is about 15,000 cm^2/Vs at T = 1.5 K. SdH oscillations show that the heavy hole subband is spin split due to spin-orbit effects. Both frequencies and beating node locations of the SdH oscillations are used to characterize the spin-orbit effects. The spin-splitting energy is measured as a function of the hole concentration, and the underlying physics will be discussed. Heavy-hole effective mass is determined by the temperature dependence of the SdH oscillations, and the relationship between the effective mass and the hole concentration will be presented. [1] K. Eng, R. N. McFarland, and B. E. Kane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 052106 (2005)

  9. Investigation of two-dimensional electron systems at low density on hydrogen-terminated silicon (111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binhui; Kott, Tomasz M.; Kane, B. E.

    2013-03-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces show very high quality. The peak electron mobility of 325,000 cm2/Vs can be reached at T =90 mK and 2D electron density n2 d = 4 . 15 ×1011 cm-2, and the device shows the fractional quantum hall effect[1]. 2DESs on H-Si(111) at lower densities may exhibit new physics, because both valley degeneracy and effective mass lead to a large Wigner-Seitz radius rs at accessible densities. In these devices, phosphorus ion implantation is used to defined the contacts to the 2DESs[2]. The contacts themselves work at low temperature. However, at lower 2D electron density (< 2 ×1011 cm-2) and low temperature (<1 K), the contact resistance to the 2DESs shows strong temperature dependence. This makes accurate Hall measurements difficult in this region. We have systematically investigated the contact resistance at different electron densities and temperatures. Different ion implantation annealing parameters are adjusted to mitigate the issue. Possible measurement technique is also explored to overcome the problem.

  10. Ferrocene-terminated monolayers covalently bound to hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. Toward the development of charge storage and communication devices.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bruno

    2010-12-21

    The combination of monocrystalline silicon's well-defined structure and the ability to prepare hydrogen-terminated surfaces (Si-H) easily and reproducibly has made this material a very attractive substrate for immobilizing functional molecules. The functionalization of Si-H using the covalent attachment of organic monolayers has received intense attention due to the numerous potential applications of controlled and robust organic/Si interfaces. Researchers have investigated these materials in diverse fields such as molecular electronics, chemistry, and bioanalytical chemistry. Applications include the preparation of surface insulators, the incorporation of chemical or biochemical functionality at interfaces for use in photovoltaic conversion, and the development of new chemical and biological sensing devices. Unlike those of gold, silicon's electronic properties are tunable, and researchers can directly integrate silicon-based devices within electronic circuitry. Moreover, the technological processes used for the micro- and nanopatterning of silicon are numerous and mature enough for producing highly miniaturized functional electronic components. In this Account, we describe a powerful approach that integrates redox-active molecules, such as ferrocene, onto silicon toward electrically addressable systems devoted to information storage or transfer. Ferrocene exhibits attractive electrochemical characteristics: fast electron-transfer rate, low oxidation potential, and two stable redox states (neutral ferrocene and oxidized ferrocenium). Accordingly, ferrocene-modified silicon surfaces could be used as charge storage components with the bound ferrocene center as the memory element. Upon application of a positive potential to silicon, ferrocene is oxidized to its corresponding ferrocenium form. This redox change is equivalent to the change of a bit of information from the "0" to "1" state. To erase the stored charge and return the device to its initial state, a low

  11. "Click" Patterning of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Surfaces and Their Characterization Using Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Fan; Watkinson, Michael; Zhu, Jingyuan; Krause, Steffi

    2015-09-08

    Two potential strategies for chemically patterning alkyne-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on oxide-free silicon or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) substrates were investigated and compared. The patterned surfaces were validated using a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) for the first time. The first strategy involved an integration of photolithography with "click" chemistry. Detailed surface characterization (i.e. water contact angle, ellipsometry, AFM, and XPS) and LAPS measurements showed that photoresist processing not only decreases the coverage of organic monolayers but also introduces chemically bonded contaminants on the surfaces, thus significantly reducing the quality of the SAMs and the utility of "click" surface modification. The formation of chemical contaminants in photolithography was also observed on carboxylic acid- and alkyl-terminated monolayers using LAPS. In contrast, a second approach combined microcontact printing (μCP) with "click" chemistry; that is azide (azido-oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG)-NH2) inks were printed on alkyne-terminated SAMs on silicon or SOS through PDMS stamps. The surface characterization results for the sample printed with a flat featureless PDMS stamp demonstrated a nondestructive and efficient method of μCP to perform "click" reactions on alkyne-terminated, oxide-free silicon surfaces for the first time. For the sample printed with a featured PDMS stamp, LAPS imaging showed a good agreement with the pattern of the PDMS stamp, indicating the successful chemical patterning on non-oxidized silicon and SOS substrates and the capability of LAPS to image the molecular patterns with high sensitivity.

  12. Hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates for low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, P. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Fathauer, R. W.; Lin, T. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The preparation of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces for use as starting substrates for low-temperature MBE growth is examined in detail. The procedure involves the ex situ removal under nitrogen of residual oxide from a silicon substrate using a spin-clean with HF in ethanol, followed by the in situ low-temperature desorption (150 C) of physisorbed etch residues. The critical steps and the chemical basis for these steps are examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Impurity residues at the epilayer-substrate interface following subsequent homoepitaxial growth are studied using AES, SIMS and TEM. Finally, scanning tunneling microscopy is used to examine the effect of cleaning methods on substrate morphology.

  13. Light-induced covalent immobilization of monolayers of magnetic nanoparticles on hydrogen-terminated silicon.

    PubMed

    Leem, Gyu; Zhang, Shishan; Jamison, Andrew C; Galstyan, Eduard; Rusakova, Irene; Lorenz, Bernd; Litvinov, Dmitri; Lee, T Randall

    2010-10-01

    Specifically tailored ω-alkenyl-1-carboxylic acids were synthesized for use as surfactants in the single-step preparation of manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs). Monodisperse manganese ferrite NPs terminated with ω-alkenyl moieties were prepared via a one-pot reaction at high temperature without the need of ligand exchange. Using this approach, simple adjustment of the rate of heating allowed precise tuning of the size of the nanoparticles, which were characterized in bulk form by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These surfactant-coated magnetic nanoparticles were then deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon(111) wafers and covalently anchored to the surface by UV-initiated covalent bonding. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the UV treatment led to covalent immobilization of the NPs on the silicon surface with a consistent packing density across the surface. The magnetic properties of the stable, surface-bound nanoparticle arrays were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The materials and methods described here are being developed for use in bit-patterned ultrahigh density magnetic recording media and nanoscale biomagnetic sensing.

  14. Adsorption and migration behavior of Si atoms on the hydrogen-terminated diamond (001) surface: A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuejie; Qiao, Haimao; Kang, Congjie; Ren, Yuan; Tan, Xin; Sun, Shiyang

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption and migration activation energies of a silicon (Si) atom on a hydrogen-terminated diamond (001) surface were calculated using first principles methods based on density functional theory. On the fully hydrogen-terminated surface, the surface carbon atoms possess saturated bonds. The Si atom cannot bond with the surface carbon atoms; thus, the adsorption energy of the Si atom is low. However, on the hydrogen-terminated surface with one or two open radical sites (ORS), the adsorption energy of a Si atom increases to 3.1 eV and even up to 4.7 eV, thereby forming a stable configuration. Along the three ORS in the direction of dimer row or chain, a Si atom can migrate between two deep basins with migration activation energies at 1.5 or 1.3 eV. Given the relatively large energy barrier at approximately 3.8 or 4.7 eV, escaping from the deep basin is difficult for the Si atom. This investigation showed that the number and distribution of ORS, namely, the adsorption site of hydrogen atoms and the removal site of surface hydrogen atoms, can affect the adsorption and migration of Si atoms on the hydrogen-terminated diamond surface. Electron structure analysis further reveals that the reactivity of the surface C atoms and the charge transfer amount between the Si and surface C atoms affect the adsorption and migration of Si atoms.

  15. Micropatterned ferrocenyl monolayers covalently bound to hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces: effects of pattern size on the cyclic voltammetry and capacitance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bruno; Pujari, Sidharam P; Scheres, Luc; Zuilhof, Han

    2014-06-24

    The effect of the size of patterns of micropatterned ferrocene (Fc)-functionalized, oxide-free n-type Si(111) surfaces was systematically investigated by electrochemical methods. Microcontact printing with amine-functionalized Fc derivatives was performed on a homogeneous acid fluoride-terminated alkenyl monolayer covalently bound to n-type H-terminated Si surfaces to give Fc patterns of different sizes (5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 μm(2)), followed by backfilling with n-butylamine. These Fc-micropatterned surfaces were characterized by static water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The charge-transfer process between the Fc-micropatterned and underlying Si interface was subsequently studied by cyclic voltammetry and capacitance. By electrochemical studies, it is evident that the smallest electroactive ferrocenyl patterns (i.e., 5 × 5 μm(2) squares) show ideal surface electrochemistry, which is characterized by narrow, perfectly symmetric, and intense cyclic voltammetry and capacitance peaks. In this respect, strategies are briefly discussed to further improve the development of photoswitchable charge storage microcells using the produced redox-active monolayers.

  16. Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowire photocatalysis: Benzene oxidation and methyl red decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, Suoyuan; Tsang, Chi Him A.; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Wong, Ningbew; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: H-SiNWs can catalyze hydroxylation of benzene and degradation of methyl red under visible light irradiation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were active photocatalyst in the hydroxylation of benzene under light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires were also effective in the decomposition of methyl red dye. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Si/SiO{sub x} core-shell structure is the main reason of the obtained high selectivity during the hydroxylation. -- Abstract: Hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) were used as heterogeneous photocatalysts for the hydroxylation of benzene and for the decomposition of methyl red under visible light irradiation. The above reactions were monitored by GC-MS and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively, which shows 100% selectivity for the transformation of benzene to phenol. A complete decomposition of a 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M methyl red solution was achieved within 30 min. The high selectivity for the hydroxylation of benzene and the photodecomposition demonstrate the catalytic activity of ultrafine H-SiNWs during nanocatalysis.

  17. Immobilization of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon Substrate as a Transparent Conductive Protector.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yudi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Kokufu, Sho; Soga, Masahiro; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-02

    Silicon is a promising electrode material for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic reactions. However, the chemically active surface of silicon will be easily oxidized when exposed to the oxidation environment. We immobilized graphene oxide (GO) onto hydrogen-terminated silicon (H-Si) and reduced it through ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. This acted as an ultrathin conductive layer to protect H-Si from oxidation. The elemental evolution of GO was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and it was found that GO was partially reduced soon after the deposition onto H-Si and further reduced after UV or VUV light irradiation. The VUV photoreduction demonstrated ca. 100 times higher efficiency compared to the UV reduction based on the irradiation dose. The saturated oxygen-to-carbon ratio (RO/C) of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was 0.21 ± 0.01, which is lower than the photoreduction of GO on SiO2 substrate. This indicated the H-Si played an important role in assisting the photoreduction of GO. No obvious exfoliation of rGO was observed after sonicating the rGO-covered H-Si sample in water, which indicated rGO was immobilized on H-Si. The electrical conductivity of H-Si surface was maintained in the rGO-covered region while the exposed H-Si region became insulating, which was observed by conductive atomic force microscopy. The rGO was verified capable to protect the active H-Si against the oxidation under an ambient environment.

  18. Spin-induced anomalous magnetoresistance at the (100) surface of hydrogen-terminated diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahide, Yamaguchi; Sasama, Yosuke; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Kageura, Taisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements of hydrogen-terminated (100)-oriented diamond surfaces wherein an ionic-liquid-gated field-effect-transistor technique was used to make hole carriers accumulate. Unexpectedly, the observed magnetoresistance is positive within the range of 2 surfaces. Furthermore, we find that (1) the magnetoresistance is orders of magnitude larger than that of the classical orbital magnetoresistance; (2) the magnetoresistance is nearly independent of the direction of the applied magnetic field; and (3) for the in-plane field, the magnetoresistance ratio, defined as [ρ (B )-ρ (0 )]/ρ (0 ) , follows a universal function of B /T . These results indicate that the spin degree of freedom of hole carriers plays an important role in the surface conductivity of hydrogen-terminated (100) diamond.

  19. Island growth in the atomic layer deposition of zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide on hydrogen-terminated silicon: Growth mode modeling and transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puurunen, Riikka L.; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Besling, Wim F. A.; Richard, Olivier; Bender, Hugo; Conard, Thierry; Zhao, Chao; Delabie, Annelies; Caymax, Matty; De Gendt, Stefan; Heyns, Marc; Viitanen, Minna M.; de Ridder, Marco; Brongersma, Hidde H.; Tamminga, Yde; Dao, Thuy; de Win, Toon; Verheijen, Marcel; Kaiser, Monja; Tuominen, Marko

    2004-11-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used in applications where inorganic material layers with uniform thickness down to the nanometer range are required. For such thicknesses, the growth mode, defining how the material is arranged on the surface during the growth, is of critical importance. In this work, the growth mode of the zirconium tetrachloride/water and the trimethyl aluminum/water ALD process on hydrogen-terminated silicon was investigated by combining information on the total amount of material deposited with information on the surface fraction of the material. The total amount of material deposited was measured by Rutherford backscattering, x-ray fluorescence, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, and the surface fractions by low-energy ion scattering. Growth mode modeling was made assuming two-dimensional growth or random deposition (RD), with a "shower model" of RD recently developed for ALD. Experimental surface fractions of the ALD-grown zirconium oxide and aluminum oxide films were lower than the surface fractions calculated assuming RD, suggesting the occurrence of island growth. Island growth was confirmed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements, from which the island size and number of islands per unit surface area could also be estimated. The conclusion of island growth for the aluminum oxide deposition on hydrogen-terminated silicon contradicts earlier observations. In this work, physical aluminum oxide islands were observed in TEM after 15 ALD reaction cycles. Earlier, thicker aluminum oxide layers have been analyzed, where islands have not been observed because they have already coalesced to form a continuous film. The unreactivity of hydrogen-terminated silicon surface towards the ALD reactants, except for reactive defect areas, is proposed as the origin of island growth. Consequently, island growth can be regarded as "undesired surface-selective ALD."

  20. Correlated sputtering from a hydrogen-terminated Si surface by individual highly charged ion impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tona, Masahide; Sakurai, Makoto; Yamada, Chikashi; Ohtani, Shunsuke

    2010-09-01

    The interaction of slow iodine highly charged ions (HCIs), Iq+, with a hydrogen-terminated Si(1 1 1)-(1 × 1) surface was investigated for a wide range of q from 17 to 53 (fully stripped ion). The coincidence measurement for secondary ion emission reveals that correlated sputtering is enhanced toward higher q, that is, while Si+ sputtering is anti-correlated with H+, multiple H+ are simultaneously emitted. The direct observation of the HCI-bombarded surface with a scanning tunneling microscope supports the result of the multiple hydrogen emission. These results are discussed in consideration of the strong Coulomb interaction of incident HCIs with the surface and subsurface atoms.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of ion bombardment on hydrogen terminated Si(001)2×1 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Koji; Graves, David B.

    2003-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate H2+ and SiH3+ ion bombardment of hydrogen terminated Si(001)2×1 surfaces. Normal incidence ion bombardment effects on dangling bond generation, adatom diffusion, and nucleation were studied as a function of incident energy between 10 and 40 eV. The dangling bond generation rate due to H2+ impacts at 20 and 40 eV was about twice that of SiH3+. However these effects appeared to be insignificant compared to probable neutral radical effects under typical plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition conditions. The enhanced diffusion of Si adatoms due to ion bombardment was observed to be minor in comparison with thermal diffusion and the disruption of ledge sites due to SiH3+ ion bombardment is not significant, with ion incident energies up to 40 eV. Ion bombardment in the incident energy range between 10 and 20 eV can contribute the modification of surface kinetics without bulk damage.

  2. Multiredox tetrathiafulvalene-modified oxide-free hydrogen-terminated Si(100) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yzambart, Gilles; Fabre, Bruno; Lorcy, Dominique

    2012-02-21

    Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) monolayers covalently bound to oxide-free hydrogen-terminated Si(100) surfaces have been prepared from the hydrosilylation reaction involving a TTF-terminated ethyne derivative. FTIR spectroscopy characterization using similarly modified porous Si(100) substrates revealed the presence of vibration bands assigned to the immobilized TTF rings and the Si-C═C- interfacial bonds. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed the presence of two reversible one-electron systems ascribed to TTF/TTF(.+) and TTF(.+)/TTF(2+) redox couples at ca. 0.40 and 0.75 V vs SCE, respectively, which compare well with the values determined for the electroactive molecule in solution. The amount of immobilized TTF units could be varied in the range from 1.7 × 10(-10) to 5.2 × 10(-10) mol cm(-2) by diluting the TTF-terminated chains with inert n-decenyl chains. The highest coverage obtained for the single-component monolayer is consistent with a densely packed TTF monolayer.

  3. Direct observation of surface potential change due to hydrogen termination of CVD diamond surface by metastable-induced electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, A.; Nishioka, S.; Shirouzu, Y.; Yamada, K.; Naitoh, M.; Nishigaki, S.

    2006-09-01

    Metastable-induced electron spectroscopy (MIES) together with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) was applied to the analysis of the surface electronic structure of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films. The films were grown in a microwave plasma, and their surfaces were terminated by hydrogen. The MIES spectrum measured at an as-deposited surface contains peaks due to adsorbates. When this surface was annealed at 400 °C, those peaks were depressed, and the spectrum showed a similar structure to that of UPS. Once the surface was re-hydrogenated, the MIES spectrum rose up at lower energies than the UPS spectrum did for surfaces annealed at lower temperatures. Finally after annealing at 1000 °C, the cutoff energies of MIES and UPS converged at nearly the same values. The result demonstrates that the MIES detects a surface potential which changes locally at the hydrogen-terminated surfaces.

  4. High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daicho, Akira; Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450 °C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al2O3 film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al2O3 deposition by ALD with H2O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500 °C by the passivation with thick Al2O3 film thicker than 38 nm deposited by ALD at 450 °C. After the annealing at 550 °C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al2O3 films formed from 200 to 400 °C by air annealing at 550 °C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450 °C deposition. Thus, this 450 °C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

  5. Comparative investigation of surface transfer doping of hydrogen terminated diamond by high electron affinity insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Verona, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G.; Ciccognani, W.; Colangeli, S.; Limiti, E.

    2016-07-14

    We report on a comparative study of transfer doping of hydrogenated single crystal diamond surface by insulators featured by high electron affinity, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and MoO{sub 3}. The low electron affinity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also investigated for comparison. Hole transport properties were evaluated in the passivated hydrogenated diamond films by Hall effect measurements, and were compared to un-passivated diamond films (air-induced doping). A drastic improvement was observed in passivated samples in terms of conductivity, stability with time, and resistance to high temperatures. The efficiency of the investigated insulators, as electron accepting materials in hydrogenated diamond surface, is consistent with their electronic structure. These surface acceptor materials generate a higher hole sheet concentration, up to 6.5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}, and a lower sheet resistance, down to 2.6 kΩ/sq, in comparison to the atmosphere-induced values of about 1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} and 10 kΩ/sq, respectively. On the other hand, hole mobilities were reduced by using high electron affinity insulator dopants. Hole mobility as a function of hole concentration in a hydrogenated diamond layer was also investigated, showing a well-defined monotonically decreasing trend.

  6. Comparative investigation of surface transfer doping of hydrogen terminated diamond by high electron affinity insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verona, C.; Ciccognani, W.; Colangeli, S.; Limiti, E.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2016-07-01

    We report on a comparative study of transfer doping of hydrogenated single crystal diamond surface by insulators featured by high electron affinity, such as Nb2O5, WO3, V2O5, and MoO3. The low electron affinity Al2O3 was also investigated for comparison. Hole transport properties were evaluated in the passivated hydrogenated diamond films by Hall effect measurements, and were compared to un-passivated diamond films (air-induced doping). A drastic improvement was observed in passivated samples in terms of conductivity, stability with time, and resistance to high temperatures. The efficiency of the investigated insulators, as electron accepting materials in hydrogenated diamond surface, is consistent with their electronic structure. These surface acceptor materials generate a higher hole sheet concentration, up to 6.5 × 1013 cm-2, and a lower sheet resistance, down to 2.6 kΩ/sq, in comparison to the atmosphere-induced values of about 1 × 1013 cm-2 and 10 kΩ/sq, respectively. On the other hand, hole mobilities were reduced by using high electron affinity insulator dopants. Hole mobility as a function of hole concentration in a hydrogenated diamond layer was also investigated, showing a well-defined monotonically decreasing trend.

  7. Degradation mechanism of hydrogen-terminated porous silicon in the presence and in the absence of light

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Xiao, Hongdi

    2015-06-15

    Si is well-known semiconductor that has a fundamental bandgap energy of 1.12 eV. Its photogenerated electrons in the conduction band can react with the ubiquitous oxygen molecules to yield ⋅O{sub 2}{sup −} radicals, but the photogenerated holes in the valance band can’t interact with OH{sup −} to produce ⋅OH radicals. In this paper, we study the degradation of methyl orange (MO) by hydrogen-terminated porous Si (H-PSi) in the presence and in the absence of light. The absorption spectra of the degraded MO solutions indicated that the H-PSi had superior degradation ability. In the dark, the reduction of dye occurs simply by hydrogen transfer. Under room light, however, some of the dye molecules can be reduced by hydrogen transfer first and then decomposed in the conduction and valance bands. This result should be ascribed to its wide band gap energies centered at 1.79-1.94 eV.

  8. Copper silicide nanocrystals on hydrogen-terminated Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laracuente, A. R.; Baker, L. A.; Whitman, L. J.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we describe the surface characterization of Cu deposited onto nominally-flat and roughened hydrogen-terminated Si(001) surfaces in ultra-high vacuum using scanning tunneling microscopy. Cu forms Cu3Si 3D-islands with markedly different geometries depending on the surface roughness of the underlying H-terminated silicon surface. Anisotropic islands oriented perpendicular to the dimer-rows are observed on the nominally-flat H-terminated surface, while mostly isotropic islands are observed on the rough-engineered H-terminated surface. These results could have implications with respect to both surface-templated growth of nanostructures and Cu-based microelectronics.

  9. Anisotropic surface phonon dispersion of the hydrogen-terminated Si(110)-(1×1) surface: One-dimensional phonons propagating along the glide planes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Stephane Yu; Matsui, Kazuki; Kato, Hiroki; Suto, Shozo; Yamada, Taro

    2014-03-14

    We have measured the surface phonon dispersion curves on the hydrogen-terminated Si(110)-(1×1) surface with the two-dimensional space group of p2mg along the two highly symmetric and rectangular directions of ΓX{sup ¯} and ΓX{sup ′¯} using high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. All the essential energy-loss peaks on H:Si(110) were assigned to the vibrational phonon modes by using the selection rules of inelastic electron scattering including the glide-plane symmetry. Actually, the surface phonon modes of even-symmetry to the glide plane (along ΓX{sup ¯}) were observed in the first Brillouin zone, and those of odd-symmetry to the glide plane were in the second Brillouin zone. The detailed assignment was made by referring to theoretical phonon dispersion curves of Gräschus et al. [Phys. Rev. B 56, 6482 (1997)]. We found that the H–Si stretching and bending modes, which exhibit highly anisotropic dispersion, propagate along ΓX{sup ¯} direction as a one-dimensional phonon. Judging from the surface structure as well as our classical and quantum mechanical estimations, the H–Si stretching phonon propagates by a direct repulsive interaction between the nearest neighbor H atoms facing each other along ΓX{sup ¯}, whereas the H–Si bending phonon propagates by indirect interaction through the substrate Si atomic linkage.

  10. Small-Diameter Silicon Nanowire Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, D. D. D.; Lee, C. S.; Au, F. C. K.; Tong, S. Y.; Lee, S. T.

    2003-03-01

    Small-diameter (1 to 7 nanometers) silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were prepared, and their surfaces were removed of oxide and terminated with hydrogen by a hydrofluoric acid dip. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of these SiNWs, performed both in air and in ultrahigh vacuum, revealed atomically resolved images that can be interpreted as hydrogen-terminated Si (111)-(1 × 1) and Si (001)-(1 × 1) surfaces corresponding to SiH3 on Si (111) and SiH2 on Si (001), respectively. These hydrogen-terminated SiNW surfaces seem to be more oxidation-resistant than regular silicon wafer surfaces, because atomically resolved STM images of SiNWs were obtained in air after several days' exposure to the ambient environment. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements were performed on the oxide-removed SiNWs and were used to evaluate the electronic energy gaps. The energy gaps were found to increase with decreasing SiNW diameter from 1.1 electron volts for 7 nanometers to 3.5 electron volts for 1.3 nanometers, in agreement with previous theoretical predictions.

  11. Morphology, structure, and magnetism of FeCo thin films electrodeposited on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zarpellon, J; Jurca, H F; Mattoso, N; Klein, J J; Schreiner, W H; Ardisson, J D; Macedo, W A A; Mosca, D H

    2007-12-15

    In this work we describe the fabrication of FeCo alloy (less than 10 at% Co) thin films from aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions onto n-type Si(111) substrates using potentiostatic electrodeposition at room temperature. The incorporation of Co into the deposits tends to inhibit Fe silicide formation and to protect deposits against oxidation under air exposure. As the incorporation of Co was progressively increased, the sizes of nuclei consisting of FeCo alloy increased, leading to films with a highly oriented body-centered cubic structure with crystalline texture, where (110) planes remain preferentially oriented parallel to the film surface.

  12. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  13. High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Daicho, Akira Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi

    2014-06-14

    Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450 °C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition by ALD with H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500 °C by the passivation with thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film thicker than 38 nm deposited by ALD at 450 °C. After the annealing at 550 °C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films formed from 200 to 400 °C by air annealing at 550 °C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450 °C deposition. Thus, this 450 °C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

  14. Surface and Interface Chemistry for Gate Stacks on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M. M.; Chabal, Y. J.

    This chapter addresses the fundamental silicon surface science associated with the continued progress of nanoelectronics along the path prescribed by Moore's law. Focus is on hydrogen passivation layers and on ultrathin oxide films encountered during silicon cleaning and gate stack formation in the fabrication of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Three main topics are addressed. (i) First, the current practices and understanding of silicon cleaning in aqueous solutions are reviewed, including oxidizing chemistries and cleans leading to a hydrogen passivation layer. The dependence of the final surface termination and morphology/roughness on reactant choice and pH and the influence of impurities such as dissolved oxygen or metal ions are discussed. (ii) Next, the stability of hydrogen-terminated silicon in oxidizing liquid and gas phase environments is considered. In particular, the remarkable stability of hydrogen-terminated silicon surface in pure water vapor is discussed in the context of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-permittivity (high-k) gate dielectrics where water is often used as an oxygen precursor. Evidence is also provided for co-operative action between oxygen and water vapor that accelerates surface oxidation in humid air. (iii) Finally, the fabrication of hafnium-, zirconium- and aluminum-based high-k gate stacks is described, focusing on the continued importance of the silicon/silicon oxide interface. This includes a review of silicon surface preparation by wet or gas phase processing and its impact on high-k nucleation during ALD growth, and the consideration of gate stack capacitance and carrier mobility. In conclusion, two issues are highlighted: the impact of oxygen vacancies on the electrical characteristics of high-k MOS devices, and the way alloyed metal ions (such as Al in Hf-based gate stacks) in contact with the interfacial silicon oxide layer can be used to control flatband and threshold voltages.

  15. Effects of the deposition rate on growth modes of Ag islands on the hydrogen-terminated Si(111)-(1 × 1) surface: The role of surface energy and quantum size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jungmin; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Kawamoto, Erina; Matsushita, Stephane Yu; Haga, Kenya; Kanagawa, Shino; Wawro, Andrzej; Czajka, Ryszard; Kato, Hiroki; Suto, Shozo

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated the early stage of Ag island growth at 2 monolayer (ML) coverage on the hydrogen-terminated Si(111)-(1 × 1) surface using low-energy electron-diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at room temperature. First, it is found that the Ag(10) LEED pattern varies from arc-like spots to three spots by changing the Ag deposition rate from 1.0 ×10-1 (a fast deposition rate) to 1.1 ×10-4 (a slow deposition rate) ML/s. Second, STM observation reveals that adsorbed Ag atoms grow into dome-like three dimensional (3D) clusters at the fast deposition rate and flat-top two dimensional (2D) islands at the slow deposition rate. Third, most abundant 2D islands show the 8 atomic layer height, which coincides with that obtained from the quantum size effect. The side structures of 2D islands agree well with those calculated from Wulff theory. We will discuss the exact nature of 3D clusters and 2D islands of Ag grown on the hydrogen-terminated Si(111)-(1 × 1) surface and these results indicate the possibility of using kinetic controlled growth to investigate the physics of crystal growth.

  16. Highly Stable Bonding of Thiol Monolayers to Hydrogen-Terminated Si via Supercritical Carbon Dioxide: Toward a Super Hydrophobic and Bioresistant Surface.

    PubMed

    Bhartia, Bhavesh; Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy; Sharma, Mohit; Kuo, Yen-Chien; Chen, Chia-Hao; Reddy, Venugopal Jayarama; Troadec, Cedric; Srinivasan, Madapusi Palavedu

    2016-09-21

    Oxide-free silicon chemistry has been widely studied using wet-chemistry methods, but for emerging applications such as molecular electronics on silicon, nanowire-based sensors, and biochips, these methods may not be suitable as they can give rise to defects due to surface contamination, residual solvents, which in turn can affect the grafted monolayer devices for practical applications. Therefore, there is a need for a cleaner, reproducible, scalable, and environmentally benign monolayer grafting process. In this work, monolayers of alkylthiols were deposited on oxide-free semiconductor surfaces using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) as a carrier fluid owing to its favorable physical properties. The identity of grafted monolayers was monitored with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS), XPS, atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, and ellipsometry. Monolayers on oxide-free silicon were able to passivate the surface for more than 50 days (10 times than the conventional methods) without any oxide formation in ambient atmosphere. Application of the SCCO2 process was further extended by depositing alkylthiol monolayers on fragile and brittle 1D silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and 2D germanium substrates. With the recent interest in SiNWs for biological applications, the thiol-passivated oxide-free silicon nanowire surfaces were also studied for their biological response. Alkylthiol-functionalized SiNWs showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation owing to their superhydrophobicity combined with the rough surface morphology. Furthermore, tribological studies showed a sharp decrease in the coefficient of friction, which was found to be dependent on the alkyl chain length and surface bond. These studies can be used for the development of cost-effective and highly stable monolayers for practical applications such as solar cells, biosensors, molecular electronics, micro- and nano

  17. Active Acetylcholinesterase Immobilization on a Functionalized Silicon Surface.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, K; Sam, S; Gouget-Laemmel, A C; Henry de Villeneuve, C; Moraillon, A; Ozanam, F; Yang, J; Kermad, A; Ghellai, N; Gabouze, N

    2015-08-04

    In this work, we studied the attachment of active acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme on a silicon substrate as a potential biomarker for the detection of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. A multistep functionalization strategy was developed on a crystalline silicon surface: a carboxylic acid-terminated monolayer was grafted onto a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface by photochemical hydrosilylation, and then AChE was covalently attached through amide bonds using an activation EDC/NHS process. Each step of the modification was quantitatively characterized by ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated-total-reflection geometry (ATR-FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The kinetics of enzyme immobilization was investigated using in situ real-time infrared spectroscopy. The enzymatic activity of immobilized acetylcholinesterase enzymes was determined with a colorimetric test. The surface concentration of active AChE was estimated to be Γ = 1.72 × 10(10) cm(-2).

  18. Silicon surface biofunctionalization with dopaminergic tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucena-Serrano, A.; Lucena-Serrano, C.; Contreras-Cáceres, R.; Díaz, A.; Valpuesta, M.; Cai, C.; López-Romero, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we grafted vinyl- and azido-terminated tetrahydroisoquinolines (compounds 1 and 2, respectively) onto Hsbnd Si(1 1 1) silicon wafers obtaining highly stable modified surfaces. A double bond was incorporated into the tetrahydroisoquinoline structure of 1 to be immobilized by a light induced hydrosilylation reaction on hydrogen-terminated Si(1 1 1). The best results were obtained employing a polar solvent (DMSO), rather than a non-polar solvent (toluene). The azide derivative 2 was grafted onto alkenyl-terminated silicon substrates with copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle goniometry (CA) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) were used to demonstrate the incorporation of 1 and 2 into the surfaces, study the morphology of the modified surfaces and to calculate the yield of grafting and surface coverage. CA measurements showed the increase in the surface hydrophobicity when 1 or 2 were incorporated into the surface. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 were prepared starting from 1-(p-nitrophenyl)tetrahydroisoquinoline 3 under smooth conditions and in good yields. The structures of 1 and 2 were designed with a reduced A-ring, two substituents at positions C-6 and C-7, an N-methyl group and a phenyl moiety at C-1 in order to provide a high affinity against dopaminergic receptors. Moreover, O-demethylation of 1 was carried out once it was adsorbed onto the surface by treatment with BBr3. The method presented constitutes a simple, easily reproducible and high yielding approach for grafting complex organic biomolecules with dopaminergic properties onto silicon surfaces.

  19. Surface breakdown of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, R. J.; Senitzky, B.

    1991-07-01

    The surface electrical breakdown of n(+)nn(+) rectangular solid blocks of silicon was investigated. Studies were performed in air at pressures of 10 to the -6th torr and 1 atm, and in transformer oil, ethylene glycol, and deionized water, under pulsed electrical excitation. The breakdown voltage (BV) of these devices was found to increase as the dielectric constant of the ambient increased. Glow discharge cleaning of the surface in vacuum was found to have no effect on the BV. A theory of surface charging leading to field enhancement along the surface is developed on the basis of these findings.

  20. Luminescent, water-soluble silicon quantum dots via micro-plasma surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeslin J.; Kondeti, Vighneswara Siva Santosh Kumar; Bruggeman, Peter J.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2016-03-01

    Silicon quantum dots (SiQDs), with their broad absorption, narrow and size-tunable emission, and potential biocompatibility are highly attractive materials in biological imaging applications. The inherent hydrophobicity and instability of hydrogen-terminated SiQDs are obstacles to their widespread implementation. In this work, we successfully produced highly luminescent, hydrophilic SiQDs with long-term stability in water using non-thermal plasma techniques. Hydrogen-terminated SiQDs were produced in a low-pressure plasma and subsequently treated in water using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for surface modification. Preliminary assessments of the chemical mechanism(s) involved in the creation of water-soluble SiQDs were performed using Fenton’s reaction and various plasma chemistries, suggesting both OH and O species play a key role in the oxidation of the SiQDs.

  1. Covalently modified silicon and diamond surfaces: resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and optimization for biosensing.

    PubMed

    Lasseter, Tami L; Clare, Brian H; Abbott, Nicholas L; Hamers, Robert J

    2004-08-25

    We report the direct covalent functionalization of silicon and diamond surfaces with short ethylene glycol (EG) oligomers via photochemical reaction of the hydrogen-terminated surfaces with terminal vinyl groups of the oligomers, and the use of these monolayers to control protein binding at surfaces. Photochemical modification of Si(111) and polycrystalline diamond surfaces produces EG monolayers linked via Si-C bond formation (silicon) or C-C bond formation (diamond). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the monolayer composition. Measurements using fluorescently labeled proteins show that the EG-functionalized surfaces effectively resist nonspecific adsorption of proteins. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of mixed monolayers on silicon and diamond and apply these surfaces to control specific versus nonspecific binding to optimize a model protein sensing assay.

  2. Surface modification of silicon oxide with trialkoxysilanes toward close-packed monolayer formation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mutsuo; Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Kuwahara, Masashi; Niwa, Osamu

    2013-05-28

    In order to scrutinize potential of trialkoxysilanes to form close-packed monolayer, surface modification of silicon oxide was carried out with the trialkoxysilanes bearing a ferrocene moiety for analysis by electrochemical methods. As it was found that hydrogen-terminated silicon reacts with trialkoxysilane through natural oxidation in organic solvents, where the silicon oxide layer is thin enough to afford conductivity for electrochemical analysis, hydrogen-terminated silicon wafer was immersed in trialkoxysilane solution for surface modification without oxidation treatment. Cyclic voltammetry measurements to determine surface concentrations of the immobilized ferrocene-silane on silicon surface were carried out with various temperature, concentration, solvent, and molecular structure, while the blocking effect in the cyclic voltammogram was investigated to obtain insight into density leading to the close-packed layer. The results suggested that a monolayer modification tended to occur under milder conditions when the ferrocene-silane had a longer alkyl chain, and formation of a close-packed layer to show significant blocking effect was observed. However, the surface modification proceeded even when surface concentration of the immobilized ferrocene-silane was greater than that expected for the monolayer. On the basis of these tendencies, the surface of silicon oxide modified with trialkoxysilane is considered to be a partial multilayer rather than monolayer although a close-packed layer is formed. This result is supported by the comparison with carbon surface modified with ferrocene-diazonium, in which a significant blocking effect was observed when surface concentrations of the immobilized ferrocene moiety are lower than that for silicon oxide modified with ferrocene-silane.

  3. Photoelectron emission properties of hydrogen terminated intrinsic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, D.; Nebel, C. E.; Yamasaki, S.

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen terminated intrinsic diamond is characterized using photoelectron emission spectroscopy. Samples have been annealed at temperatures Ta from 200 to 1000 °C. The electron emission characteristics can be divided into three regimes: (I) (Ta<300 °C) is governed by surface band bending which allows only excitons to reach the surface with subsequent dissociation. (II) (300 °C<=Ta<=650 °C) shows increased electron emission and the surface band bending has been removed. Here, excitons and electrons contribute. (III) (Ta>650 °C) additional rise of emission is detected. The spectra are dominated by photon-phonon interactions which are discussed in detail.

  4. Biofunctionalization on alkylated silicon substrate surfaces via "click" chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guoting; Santos, Catherine; Zhang, Wen; Li, Yan; Kumar, Amit; Erasquin, Uriel J; Liu, Kai; Muradov, Pavel; Trautner, Barbara Wells; Cai, Chengzhi

    2010-11-24

    Biofunctionalization of silicon substrates is important to the development of silicon-based biosensors and devices. Compared to conventional organosiloxane films on silicon oxide intermediate layers, organic monolayers directly bound to the nonoxidized silicon substrates via Si-C bonds enhance the sensitivity of detection and the stability against hydrolytic cleavage. Such monolayers presenting a high density of terminal alkynyl groups for bioconjugation via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC, a "click" reaction) were reported. However, yields of the CuAAC reactions on these monolayer platforms were low. Also, the nonspecific adsorption of proteins on the resultant surfaces remained a major obstacle for many potential biological applications. Herein, we report a new type of "clickable" monolayers grown by selective, photoactivated surface hydrosilylation of α,ω-alkenynes, where the alkynyl terminal is protected with a trimethylgermanyl (TMG) group, on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates. The TMG groups on the film are readily removed in aqueous solutions in the presence of Cu(I). Significantly, the degermanylation and the subsequent CuAAC reaction with various azides could be combined into a single step in good yields. Thus, oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) with an azido tag was attached to the TMG-alkyne surfaces, leading to OEG-terminated surfaces that reduced the nonspecific adsorption of protein (fibrinogen) by >98%. The CuAAC reaction could be performed in microarray format to generate arrays of mannose and biotin with varied densities on the protein-resistant OEG background. We also demonstrated that the monolayer platform could be functionalized with mannose for highly specific capturing of living targets (Escherichia coli expressing fimbriae) onto the silicon substrates.

  5. Band bending and electrical transport at chemically modified silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopinski, Greg; Ward, Tim; Hul'Ko, Oleksa; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2002-03-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and electrical transport measurements have been used to investigate how various chemical modifications give rise to band bending and alter the conductivity of Si(111) surfaces. HREELS is a sensitive probe of band bending through observations of the low frequency free carrier plasmon mode. For hydrogen terminated surfaces, prepared by the standard etch in ammonium flouride, HREELS measurements on both n and n+ substrates are consistent with nearly flat bands. Chlorination of these surfaces results in substantial upward band bending due to the strong electron withdrawing nature of the chlorine, driving the surface into inversion. The presence of this inversion layer on high resistivity n-type samples is observed through a substantial enhancement of the surface conductivity (relative to the H-terminated surface), as well as through broadening of the quasi-elastic peak in the HREELS measurements. We have also begun to examine organically modified silicon surfaces, prepared by various wet chemical reactions with the H-terminated surface. Decyl modified Si(111) surfaces are seen to exhibit a small degree of band bending, attributed to extrinsic defect states cause by a small degree of oxidation accompanying the modification reaction. The prospects of using conductivity as an in-situ monitor of the rate of these reactions will be discussed.

  6. Electrochemical hydrogen termination of boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Rene; Kriele, Armin; Obloh, Harald; Hees, Jakob; Wolfer, Marco; Smirnov, Waldemar; Yang Nianjun; Nebel, Christoph E.

    2010-08-02

    Boron-doped diamond is a promising transducer material for numerous devices which are designed for contact with electrolytes. For optimized electron transfer the surface of diamond needs to be hydrogen terminated. Up to now H-termination of diamond is done by plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. In this paper, we show that boron-doped diamond can be H-terminated electrochemically by applying negative voltages in acidic solutions. Electrochemical H-termination generates a clean surface with virtually no carbon-oxygen bonds (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), a reduced electron affinity (scanning electron microscopy), a highly hydrophobic surface (water contact angle), and a fast electron exchange with Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup -3/-4} (cyclic voltammetry).

  7. Delta-Doping at Wafer Level for High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of Silicon Imaging Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor); Nikzad, Shoulch (Inventor); Jones, Todd J. (Inventor); Greer, Frank (Inventor); Carver, Alexander G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing high quantum efficiency silicon devices. A silicon MBE has a preparation chamber that provides for cleaning silicon surfaces using an oxygen plasma to remove impurities and a gaseous (dry) NH3 + NF3 room temperature oxide removal process that leaves the silicon surface hydrogen terminated. Silicon wafers up to 8 inches in diameter have devices that can be fabricated using the cleaning procedures and MBE processing, including delta doping.

  8. Metallic nanostructure formation limited by the surface hydrogen on silicon.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Kathryn A; Teplyakov, Andrew V

    2010-08-03

    Constant miniaturization of electronic devices and interfaces needed to make them functional requires an understanding of the initial stages of metal growth at the molecular level. The use of metal-organic precursors for metal deposition allows for some control of the deposition process, but the ligands of these precursor molecules often pose substantial contamination problems. One of the ways to alleviate the contamination problem with common copper deposition precursors, such as copper(I) (hexafluoroacetylacetonato) vinyltrimethylsilane, Cu(hfac)VTMS, is a gas-phase reduction with molecular hydrogen. Here we present an alternative method to copper film and nanostructure growth using the well-defined silicon surface. Nearly ideal hydrogen termination of silicon single-crystalline substrates achievable by modern surface modification methods provides a limited supply of a reducing agent at the surface during the initial stages of metal deposition. Spectroscopic evidence shows that the Cu(hfac) fragment is present upon room-temperature adsorption and reacts with H-terminated Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces to deposit metallic copper. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to follow the initial stages of copper nucleation and the formation of copper nanoparticles, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) confirms the presence of hfac fragments on the surfaces of nanoparticles. As the surface hydrogen is consumed, copper nanoparticles are formed; however, this growth stops as the accessible hydrogen is reacted away at room temperature. This reaction sets a reference for using other solid substrates that can act as reducing agents in nanoparticle growth and metal deposition.

  9. Properties of Hydrogen Terminated Diamond as a Photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    J Rameau; J Smedley; E Muller; T Kidd; P Johnson

    2011-12-31

    Electron emission from the negative electron affinity (NEA) surface of hydrogen terminated, boron doped diamond in the [100] orientation is investigated using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). ARPES measurements using 16 eV synchrotron and 6 eV laser light are compared and found to show a catastrophic failure of the sudden approximation. While the high energy photoemission is found to yield little information regarding the NEA, low energy laser ARPES reveals for the first time that the NEA results from a novel Franck-Condon mechanism coupling electrons in the conduction band to the vacuum. The result opens the door to the development of a new class of NEA electron emitter based on this effect.

  10. Influence of surface properties on the electrical conductivity of silicon nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangfu; Scott, Shelley A; Huang, Minghuang; Peng, Weina; Kiefer, Arnold M; Flack, Frank S; Savage, Donald E; Lagally, Max G

    2011-05-31

    Because of the large surface-to-volume ratio, the conductivity of semiconductor nanostructures is very sensitive to surface chemical and structural conditions. Two surface modifications, vacuum hydrogenation (VH) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) cleaning, of silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs) that nominally have the same effect, the hydrogen termination of the surface, are compared. The sheet resistance of the SiNMs, measured by the van der Pauw method, shows that HF etching produces at least an order of magnitude larger drop in sheet resistance than that caused by VH treatment, relative to the very high sheet resistance of samples terminated with native oxide. Re-oxidation rates after these treatments also differ. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are consistent with the electrical-conductivity results. We pinpoint the likely cause of the differences.PACS: 73.63.-b, 62.23.Kn, 73.40.Ty.

  11. Influence of surface properties on the electrical conductivity of silicon nanomembranes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Because of the large surface-to-volume ratio, the conductivity of semiconductor nanostructures is very sensitive to surface chemical and structural conditions. Two surface modifications, vacuum hydrogenation (VH) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) cleaning, of silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs) that nominally have the same effect, the hydrogen termination of the surface, are compared. The sheet resistance of the SiNMs, measured by the van der Pauw method, shows that HF etching produces at least an order of magnitude larger drop in sheet resistance than that caused by VH treatment, relative to the very high sheet resistance of samples terminated with native oxide. Re-oxidation rates after these treatments also differ. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are consistent with the electrical-conductivity results. We pinpoint the likely cause of the differences. PACS: 73.63.-b, 62.23.Kn, 73.40.Ty PMID:21711931

  12. Influence of surface properties on the electrical conductivity of silicon nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiangfu; Scott, Shelley A.; Huang, Minghuang; Peng, Weina; Kiefer, Arnold M.; Flack, Frank S.; Savage, Donald E.; Lagally, Max G.

    2011-05-01

    Because of the large surface-to-volume ratio, the conductivity of semiconductor nanostructures is very sensitive to surface chemical and structural conditions. Two surface modifications, vacuum hydrogenation (VH) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) cleaning, of silicon nanomembranes (SiNMs) that nominally have the same effect, the hydrogen termination of the surface, are compared. The sheet resistance of the SiNMs, measured by the van der Pauw method, shows that HF etching produces at least an order of magnitude larger drop in sheet resistance than that caused by VH treatment, relative to the very high sheet resistance of samples terminated with native oxide. Re-oxidation rates after these treatments also differ. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are consistent with the electrical-conductivity results. We pinpoint the likely cause of the differences. PACS: 73.63.-b, 62.23.Kn, 73.40.Ty

  13. Ion-Surface Interactions and Limits to Silicon Epitaxy at Low Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, M. V. Ramana

    1995-01-01

    Low temperature (T _sp{~ }{<}400^circ C) deposition of Si on Si(001) proceeds epitaxially up to a finite thickness followed by a crystal-state--amorphous -state transition. An atomistic model, the twin-boundary/facet (TBF) mechanism, has been proposed for this transition. The increase in surface roughness during film growth has been directly tied to the breakdown of epitaxy. The mechanism involves the nucleation of a twin boundary on a {111} facet (produced by roughening). When the twinned region meets a different part of the perfect crystal, it inevitably leads to the formation of five- and seven-member rings. These act as nucleation sites for amorphous silicon. Adsorbates such as carbon and oxygen can dramatically increase the surface roughness even at small coverages (~0.01 ML). They thus play an indirect role by accelerating the surface roughening rate. Films with improved crystalline quality were deposited by ion beam-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the main effect of low energy Ar^+ ion irradiation was surface smoothing. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that epitaxy on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces (at high hydrogen coverage) proceeds by subplantation of the incident Si atom and segregation of SiH_{rm x} units. The remarkable success of sputter deposition in growing epitaxial films on a dihydride-terminated Si(001) surface is explained by the very rapid rise in the subplantation probability with the incident Si atom energy. An empirical interatomic potential has been developed to describe Si-H interactions. This can be used, with caution, for classical molecular dynamics investigations of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces, chemical vapor deposition of silicon and hydrogenated amorphous silicon. A technique for low temperature Si(001)-2 times 1 substrate preparation was developed to complement the various low temperature processes that are being developed for device fabrication. This was achieved by low

  14. Surface modification of silicon nanowires via copper-free click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Anders; Friedbacher, Gernot; Hoffmann, Helmuth

    2011-06-21

    A two-step process based on copper-free click chemistry is described, by which the surface of silicon nanowires can be functionalized with specific organic substituents. A hydrogen-terminated nanowire surface is first primed with a monolayer of an α,ω-diyne and thereby turned into an alkyne-terminated, clickable platform, which is subsequently coupled with an overlayer of an organic azide carrying the desired terminal functionality. The reactive, electron-deficient character of the employed diyne enabled a quantitative coupling reaction at 50 °C without metal catalysis, which opens up a simple and versatile route for surface functionalization under mild conditions without any potentially harmful additives.

  15. Surface property modification of silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1984-01-01

    The main emphasis of this work has been to determine the wear rate of silicon in fluid environments and the parameters that influence wear. Three tests were carried out on single crystal Czochralski silicon wafers: circular and linear multiple-scratch tests in fluids by a pyramidal diamond simulated fixed-particle abrasion; microhardness and three-point bend tests were used to determine the hardness and fracture toughness of abraded silicon and the extent of damage induced by abrasion. The wear rate of (100) and (111) n and p-type single crystal Cz silicon abraded by a pyramidal diamond in ethanol, methanol, acetone and de-ionized water was determined by measuring the cross-sectional areas of grooves of the circular and linear multiple-scratch tests. The wear rate depends on the loads on the diamond and is highest for ethanol and lowest for de-ionized water. The surface morphology of the grooves showed lateral and median cracks as well as a plastically deformed region. The hardness and fracture toughness are critical parameters that influence the wear rate. Microhardness tests were conducted to determine the hardness as influenced by fluids. Median cracks and the damage zone surrounding the indentations were also related to the fluid properties.

  16. Functionalization of Oxide-Free Silicon Surfaces with Redox-Active Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bruno

    2016-04-27

    This review provides a comprehensive survey of the derivatization of hydrogen-terminated, oxide-free silicon surfaces with electroactive assemblies (from molecules to polymers) attached through strong interactions (covalent, electrostatic, and chimisorption). Provided that surface modification procedures are thoroughly optimized, such an approach has appeared as a promising strategy toward high-quality functional interfaces exhibiting excellent chemical and electrochemical stabilities. The attachment of electroactive molecules exhibiting either two stable redox states (e.g., ferrocene and quinones) or more than two stable redox states (e.g., metalloporphyrins, polyoxometalates, and C60) is more particularly discussed. Attention is also paid to the immobilization of electrochemically polymerizable centers. Globally, these functional interfaces have been demonstrated to show great promise for the molecular charge storage and information processing or the elaboration of the electrochemically switchable devices. Besides, there are also some relevant examples dealing with their activity for other fields of interest, such as sensing and electrochemical catalysis.

  17. Surface alloying of silicon into aluminum substrate.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.

    1998-10-28

    Aluminum alloys that are easily castable tend to have lower silicon content and hence lower wear resistance. The use of laser surface alloying to improve the surface wear resistance of 319 and 320 aluminum alloys was examined. A silicon layer was painted onto the surface to be treated. A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiberoptic beam delivery was used to carry out the laser surface treatment to enhance the silicon content. Process parameters were varied to minimize the surface roughness from overlap of the laser beam treatment. The surface-alloyed layer was characterized and the silicon content was determined.

  18. Catalytic microcontact printing on chemically functionalized H-terminated silicon.

    PubMed

    Shestopalov, Alexander A; Clark, Robert L; Toone, Eric J

    2010-02-02

    We report a novel inkless soft lithographic fabrication protocol that permits uniform parallel patterning of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces using catalytic elastomeric stamps. Pattern transfer is achieved catalytically via reaction between sulfonic acid moieties covalently bound to an elastomeric stamp and a Boc-functionalized SAM grafted to passivated silicon. The approach represents the first example of a soft lithographic printing technique that creates patterns of chemically distinctive SAMs on oxide-free silicon substrates.

  19. Mechanisms and energetics of hydride dissociation reactions on surfaces of plasma-deposited silicon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Tejinder; Valipa, Mayur S.; Mountziaris, T. J.; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2007-11-01

    We report results from a detailed analysis of the fundamental silicon hydride dissociation processes on silicon surfaces and discuss their implications for the surface chemical composition of plasma-deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films. The analysis is based on a synergistic combination of first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations of hydride dissociation on the hydrogen-terminated Si(001)-(2×1) surface and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of adsorbed SiH3 radical precursor dissociation on surfaces of MD-grown a-Si :H films. Our DFT calculations reveal that, in the presence of fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms, surface trihydride species dissociate sequentially to form surface dihydrides and surface monohydrides via thermally activated pathways with reaction barriers of 0.40-0.55eV. The presence of dangling bonds (DBs) results in lowering the activation barrier for hydride dissociation to 0.15-0.20eV, but such DB-mediated reactions are infrequent. Our MD simulations on a-Si :H film growth surfaces indicate that surface hydride dissociation reactions are predominantly mediated by fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms, with resulting activation barriers of 0.35-0.50eV. The results are consistent with experimental measurements of a-Si :H film surface composition using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicate that the a-Si :H surface is predominantly covered with the higher hydrides at low temperatures, while the surface monohydride, SiH(s ), becomes increasingly more dominant as the temperature is increased.

  20. In situ transmission infrared spectroscopy of high-kappa oxide atomic layer deposition onto silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ming-Tsung

    Ultra-thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and hafnium oxide (HfO2) layers have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tri-methyl-aluminum (TMA) and tetrakis-ethyl-methyl-amino-hafnium (TEMAH) respectively with heavy water (D2O) as the oxidizing agent. Several different silicon surfaces were used as substrates such as hydrogen terminated silicon (H/Si), SC2 (or RCA 2) cleaned native silicon oxide (SiO 2/Si), and silicon (oxy)nitride. In-situ transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been adopted for the study of the growth mechanisms during ALD of these films. The vibrational spectra of gas phase TEMAH and its reaction byproducts with oxidants have also been investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) normal mode calculations show a good agreement with the experimental data when it is combined with linear wave-number scaling method and Fermi resonance mechanism. Ether (-C-O-C-) and tertiary alkylamine (N(R1R 2R3)) compounds are the two most dominant products of TEMAH reacting with oxygen gas and water. When ozone is used as the oxidant, gas phase CH2O, CH3NO2, CH3-N=C=O and other compounds containing -(C=O)- and --C-O-C- (or --O-C-) segments are observed. With substrate temperatures less than 400°C and 300°C for TMA and TEMAH respectively, Al oxide and Hf oxide ALD can be appropriately performed on silicon surfaces. Thin silicon (oxy)nitride thermally grown in ammonia on silicon substrate can significantly reduce silicon oxide interlayer formation during ALD and post-deposition annealing. The crystallization temperature of amorphous ALD grown HfO2 on nitridized silicon is 600°C, which is 100°C higher than on the other silicon surfaces. When HfO2 is grown on H/Si(111) at 100°C deposition temperature, minimum 5--10 ALD cycles are required for the full surface coverage. The steric effect can be seen by the evolution of the H-Si stretching mode at 2083 cm-1. The observed red shift of H-Si stretching to ˜ 2060 cm-1 can be caused by Si

  1. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali

    2016-09-14

    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  2. Investigation of silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Sin sub x grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVO) for passivating silicon surfaces was studied. The application of PECVO SiN sub x films for passivations of silicon N+/P or P+/N solar cells is of particular interest. This program has involved the following areas of investigation: (1) Establishment of PECVO system and development of procedures for growth of SiN sub x; (2) Optical characterization of SiN sub x films; (3) Characterization of the SiN sub x/Si interface; (4) Surface recombination velocity deduced from photoresponse; (5) Current-Voltage analyses of silicon N+/P cells; and (6) Gated diode device studies.

  3. Silicon surface structure-controlled oleophobicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Xiu, Yonghao; Hess, Dennis W; Wong, C P

    2010-06-01

    Superoleophobic surfaces display contact angles >150 degrees with liquids that have lower surface energies than does water. The design of superoleophobic surfaces requires an understanding of the effect of the geometrical shape of etched silicon surfaces on the contact angle and hysteresis observed when different liquids are brought into contact with these surfaces. This study used liquid-based metal-assisted etching and various silane treatments to create superoleophobic surfaces on a Si(111) surface. Etch conditions such as the etch time and etch solution concentration played critical roles in establishing the oleophobicity of Si(111). When compared to Young's contact angle, the apparent contact angle showed a transition from a Cassie to a Wenzel state for low-surface-energy liquids as different silane treatments were applied to the silicon surface. These results demonstrated the relationship between the re-entrant angle of etched surface structures and the contact angle transition between Cassie and Wenzel behavior on etched Si(111) surfaces.

  4. Immobilisation of proteins at silicon surfaces using undecenylaldehyde: demonstration of the retention of protein functionality and detection strategies.

    PubMed

    Hong, Qi; Rogero, Celia; Lakey, Jeremy H; Connolly, Bernard A; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R

    2009-03-01

    We describe a simple method for the covalent immobilisation of proteins to hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces and demonstrate various protein detection strategies. Using hydrosilation chemistry, 1-undecenylaldehyde is attached to the surface through stable Si-C bonds; the reaction occurs primarily via the vinyl group and mainly aldehyde groups are presented at the top surface of the monolayer. Proteins are then captured by reaction with their surface lysines. The proteins are bound via a Schiff base, whose formation is reversible, but can be fixed by reduction with cyanoborohydride in a one-pot reaction. Using standard methods of patterning, we were able to specifically localise proteins (urease, amyloid beta (Abeta1-42), GFP and TolAIII-GFP) with little non-specific adsorption at non-reactive sites. We characterised the immobilised proteins by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and FTIR, and showed that they retain their functionality using potentiometry, fluorescence and coupled antibody systems with chromogenic substrates. We also exploited the conductivity of the silicon substrate to demonstrate electrochemical detection of surface-bound proteins. These protocols will aid the development of protein biochips based on silicon, which gives rise to the possibility of detecting protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions electronically. Such chips would be expected to be of utility for comparative proteomics and in molecular medicine, drug discovery and diagnostics.

  5. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  6. Silicon nanopillars for field enhanced surface spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Sabrina M; Merkulov, Igor A; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nanowire and nanopillar structures have continued to draw increased attention in recent years due in part to their unique optical properties. Herein, electron beam lithography combined with reactive-ion etching is used to reproducibly create individual silicon nanopillars of various sizes, shapes, and heights. Finite difference time domain numerical analysis predicts enhancements in localized fields in the vicinity of appropriately-sized and coaxially-illuminated silicon nanopillars of approximately two orders of magnitude. By analyzing experimentally measured strength of the silicon Raman phonon line (500 cm-1), it was determined that nanopillars produced field enhancement that are consistent with these predictions. Additionally, we demonstrate that a thin layer of Zn phthalocyanine deposited on the nanopillar surface produced prominent Raman spectra yielding enhancement factors (EFs) better than 300. Finally, silicon nanopillars of cylindrical and elliptical shapes were labeled with different fluorophors and evaluated for their surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) capability. The EF derived from analysis of the acquired fluorescence microscopy images indicate that silicon nanopillar structures can provide enhancement comparable or even stronger than those typically achieved using plasmonic SEF structures without the drawbacks of the metal-based substrates. It is anticipated that scaled up arrays of silicon nanopillars will enable SEF assays with extremely high sensitivity, while a broader impact of the reported phenomena are anticipated in photovoltaics, subwavelength light focusing, and fundamental nanophotonics.

  7. Systematic spatial and stoichiometric screening towards understanding the surface of ultrasmall oxygenated silicon nanocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niaz, Shanawer; Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Gülseren, Oǧuz; Sadiq, Imran

    2016-11-01

    In most of the realistic ab initio and model calculations which have appeared on the emission of light from silicon nanocrystals, the role of surface oxygen has been usually ignored, underestimated or completely ruled out. We investigate theoretically, by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) possible modes of oxygen bonding in hydrogen terminated silicon quantum dots using as a representative case of the Si29 nanocrystal. We have considered Bridge-bonded oxygen (BBO), Doubly-bonded oxygen (DBO), hydroxyl (OH) and Mix of these oxidizing agents. Due to stoichiometry, all comparisons performed are unbiased with respect to composition whereas spatial distribution of oxygen species pointed out drastic change in electronic and cohesive characteristics of nanocrytals. From an overall perspective of this study, it is shown that bridge bonded oxygenated Si nanocrystals accompanied by Mix have higher binding energies and large electronic gap compared to nanocrystals with doubly bonded oxygen atoms. In addition, it is observed that the presence of OH along with BBO, DBO and mixed configurations further lowers electronic gaps and binding energies but trends in same fashion. It is also demonstrated that within same composition, oxidizing constituent, along with their spatial distribution substantially alters binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap (up to 1.48 eV) and localization of frontier orbitals.

  8. Hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films by high-temperature annealing at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Seshan, V; Ullien, D; Castellanos-Gomez, A; Sachdeva, S; Murthy, D H K; Savenije, T J; Ahmad, H A; Nunney, T S; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K; Nesládek, M; van der Zant, H S J; Sudhölter, E J R; de Smet, L C P M

    2013-06-21

    A high-temperature procedure to hydrogenate diamond films using molecular hydrogen at atmospheric pressure was explored. Undoped and doped chemical vapour deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films were treated according to our annealing method using a H2 gas flow down to ~50 ml∕min (STP) at ~850 °C. The films were extensively evaluated by surface wettability, electron affinity, elemental composition, photoconductivity, and redox studies. In addition, electrografting experiments were performed. The surface characteristics as well as the optoelectronic and redox properties of the annealed films were found to be very similar to hydrogen plasma-treated films. Moreover, the presented method is compatible with atmospheric pressure and provides a low-cost solution to hydrogenate CVD diamond, which makes it interesting for industrial applications. The plausible mechanism for the hydrogen termination of CVD diamond films is based on the formation of surface carbon dangling bonds and carbon-carbon unsaturated bonds at the applied tempera-ture, which react with molecular hydrogen to produce a hydrogen-terminated surface.

  9. Preparation of superhydrophobic silicon oxide nanowire surfaces.

    PubMed

    Coffinier, Yannick; Janel, Sébastien; Addad, Ahmed; Blossey, Ralf; Gengembre, Léon; Payen, Edmond; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2007-02-13

    The paper reports on the preparation of superhydrophobic amorphous silicon oxide nanowires (a-SiONWs) on silicon substrates with a contact angle greater than 150 degrees by means of surface roughness and self-assembly. Nanowires with an average mean diameter in the range 20-150 nm and 15-20 microm in length were obtained by the so-called solid-liquid-solid (SLS) technique. The porous nature and the high roughness of the resulting surfaces were confirmed by AFM imaging. The superhydrophobicity resulted from the combined effects of surface roughness and chemical modification with fluorodecyl trichlorosilane.

  10. Demultiplexing surface waves with silicon nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinev, I.; Bogdanov, A.; Komissarenko, F.; Petrov, M.; Frizyuk, K.; Makarov, S.; Mukhin, I.; Samusev, A.; Lavrinenko, A.; Iorsh, I.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin gold film with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation within extremely narrow spectral band (¡ 50 nm), which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic and electric dipole moments supported by the dielectric nanoantenna.

  11. Recombination at textured silicon surfaces passivated with silicon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Keith R.; Johnson, Luke P.

    2009-06-01

    The surfaces of solar cells are often textured to increase their capacity to absorb light. This optical benefit is partially offset, however, by an increase in carrier recombination at or near the textured surface. A review of past work shows that the additional recombination invoked by a textured surface varies greatly from one experiment to another. For example, in the most commonly investigated structure—pyramidal textured silicon diffused with phosphorus and passivated with a hydrogenated oxide—recombination ranges from being 1-12 times more than in an equivalently prepared planar {100} surface. Examination of these experiments reveals consistent trends: small increases in recombination occur when the surface is very heavily diffused and dominated by Auger recombination, while larger increases in recombination occur when the surface is lightly diffused and dominated by Shockley-Read-Hall recombination at the surface, making the latter depend critically on surface area and the density of surface states. Comparisons of pyramidal and planar {100} surfaces indicate that when lightly diffused, the difference in recombination is substantially greater than the difference in surface area (1.73) and it is regularly attributed to the pyramid facets having {111} orientations—well known for their higher density of dangling bonds than {100} orientations. This high dangling-bond density makes recombination at pyramidal facets strongly dependent on the passivation scheme, and it is variations in these schemes that led to the wide range of results observed in experimental studies. In addition to surface area and crystal orientation, some experiments suggest a third mechanism that enhances recombination on oxide-passivated pyramids. With capacitance-voltage and photoconductance measurements, we confirm this speculation, showing that oxide-passivated pyramidal textured silicon has a higher density of interface states than can be accounted for by surface area and

  12. Tuned NV emission by in-plane Al-Schottky junctions on hydrogen terminated diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreyvogel, Christoph; Wolfer, Marco; Kato, Hiromitsu; Schreck, Matthias; Nebel, Christoph E.

    2014-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre exhibits outstanding optical and spin properties and thus is very attractive for applications in quantum optics. Up to now an active control of the charge state of near-surface NV centres is difficult and the centres switch in an uncontrolled way between different charge states. In this work, we demonstrate an active control of the charge state of NV centres (implanted 7 nm below the surface) by using an in-plane Schottky diode geometry from aluminium on hydrogen terminated diamond in combination with confocal micro-photoluminescence measurements. The partial quenching of NV-photoluminescence caused by the hole accumulation layer of the hydrogen terminated surface can be recovered by applying reverse bias potentials on this diode, i.e. the NV0 charge state is depleted while the NV- charge state is populated. This charge state conversion is caused by the bias voltage affected modulation of the band bending in the depletion region which shifts the Fermi level across the NV charge transition levels.

  13. Controlled Adhesion of Silicone Elastomer Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Michael

    2000-03-01

    Opportunities exist for controllably enhancing the adhesion of silicone surfaces, ranging from modest enhancement of release force levels of pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) release liners by incorporation of adhesion promoters known as high release additives (HRA), to permanent bonding of silicone elastomers using surface modification techniques such as plasma or corona treatment. Although only a part of the complex interaction of factors contributing to adhesion, surface properties such as wettability are a critical component in the understanding and control of release and adhesion phenomena. Surface characterization studies of low-surface-energy silicones before and after various adhesion modification strategies are reviewed. The silicones include polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fluorosiloxane elastomers and coatings. Techniques used include contact angle, the Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics approach, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Topics addressed are: use of HRA in PDMS release liners, the interaction of PDMS PSAs with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the effect of plasma treatment on PDMS and fluorosiloxane surfaces.

  14. Evolution of Two-Dimensional Structure Phase Transitions (3 × 1) → (2 × 1) and (1 × 1)→(2 × 1) on Hydrogen-Terminated Si(100) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferng, Shyh‑Shin; Lin, Chang‑Ting; Yang, Kai‑Ming; Hsieh, Ming‑Feng; Lin, Deng‑Sung

    2006-03-01

    On the Si(100) surface, monohydride dimers (H-Si-Si-H or M-M) and dihydride (H-Si-H or D) species can form an ordered mixture with (3 × 1), (1 × 1) and (2 × 1) phases. Thermal annealing at elevated temperatures causes both the (3 × 1) and (1 × 1) domains to transform to the (2 × 1) monohydride phase. We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy to observe these two-dimensional structure phase transitions on the atomic scale. The results show that the coverage of the (3 × 1) and (1 × 1) domains decays linearly with a common half-life time of ˜9.8 h at 570 K. In good agreement with a previous report, this finding suggests that the two different transitions are governed by the same reaction mechanism, i.e., the dihydride-pair recombination mechanism.

  15. Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Branz, Howard [Boulder, CO; Duda, Anna [Denver, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Yost, Vernon [Littleton, CO; Meier, Daniel [Atlanta, GA; Ward, James S [Golden, CO

    2011-12-13

    A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

  16. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations showmore » that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Lastly, combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.« less

  17. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Zehnder, Alan T.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.

    2015-11-21

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  18. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Milosevic, Erik; Boyce, Brad L.; Zehnder, Alan T.

    2015-11-19

    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Lastly, combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  19. Atomic and electronic structures of novel silicon surface structures

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, J.H. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    The modification of silicon surfaces is presently of great interest to the semiconductor device community. Three distinct areas are the subject of inquiry: first, modification of the silicon electronic structure; second, passivation of the silicon surface; and third, functionalization of the silicon surface. It is believed that surface modification of these types will lead to useful electronic devices by pairing these modified surfaces with traditional silicon device technology. Therefore, silicon wafers with modified electronic structure (light-emitting porous silicon), passivated surfaces (H-Si(111), Cl-Si(111), Alkyl-Si(111)), and functionalized surfaces (Alkyl-Si(111)) have been studied in order to determine the fundamental properties of surface geometry and electronic structure using synchrotron radiation-based techniques.

  20. Ohmic contact between iridium film and hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Li, Shuoye; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Zhu, Tianfei; Fu, Jiao; Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Xudong; Li, Fengnan; Liu, Zongchen; Fan, Shuwei; Bu, Renan; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Jingwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2017-09-22

    Investigation of ohmic contact between iridium (Ir) film and hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond has been carried out with annealing temperature from 300 to 600 °C in argon (Ar) and hydrogen ambient. Electrodes were deposited on hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond by electron beam evaporation technique, and specific contact resistivity has been measured by transmission line model. The interface between Ir film and hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Theoretical calculation value of barrier height between Ir film and hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond was around -1.1 eV. All results indicate that an excellent ohmic contact could be formed between Ir film and hydrogen-terminated single diamond.

  1. An Investigation of the Texture Surface Silicon Solar Cell,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-06

    silicon chip enters the solution, the etched silicon surface completely 10 absorbs a layer of molecules and an ion layer and among them the Li + , OH- and...Xide, Fang Junxin , Solid Physics, Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1962. 14

  2. Surface effects in segmented silicon sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J. Schwandt; Fretwurst, E.; Garutti, E.; Klanner, R.; Kopsalis, I.

    2017-02-01

    The voltage stability, charge-collection properties and dark current of segmented silicon sensors are influenced by the charge and potential distributions on the sensor surface, the charge distribution in the oxide and passivation layers, and by Si-SiO2 interface states. To better understand these phenomena, measurements on test structures and sensors before and after X-ray irradiation, and TCAD simulations including surface and interface effects are performed at the Hamburg Detector Lab. The main results of these investigations and ongoing studies are presented.

  3. A surface code quantum computer in silicon

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Charles D.; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J.; House, Matthew G.; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.

    2015-01-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel—posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited. PMID:26601310

  4. A surface code quantum computer in silicon.

    PubMed

    Hill, Charles D; Peretz, Eldad; Hile, Samuel J; House, Matthew G; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2015-10-01

    The exceptionally long quantum coherence times of phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubits in silicon, coupled with the proven scalability of silicon-based nano-electronics, make them attractive candidates for large-scale quantum computing. However, the high threshold of topological quantum error correction can only be captured in a two-dimensional array of qubits operating synchronously and in parallel-posing formidable fabrication and control challenges. We present an architecture that addresses these problems through a novel shared-control paradigm that is particularly suited to the natural uniformity of the phosphorus donor nuclear spin qubit states and electronic confinement. The architecture comprises a two-dimensional lattice of donor qubits sandwiched between two vertically separated control layers forming a mutually perpendicular crisscross gate array. Shared-control lines facilitate loading/unloading of single electrons to specific donors, thereby activating multiple qubits in parallel across the array on which the required operations for surface code quantum error correction are carried out by global spin control. The complexities of independent qubit control, wave function engineering, and ad hoc quantum interconnects are explicitly avoided. With many of the basic elements of fabrication and control based on demonstrated techniques and with simulated quantum operation below the surface code error threshold, the architecture represents a new pathway for large-scale quantum information processing in silicon and potentially in other qubit systems where uniformity can be exploited.

  5. Cell attachment on microscopically textured silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Stephen W.; Kam, Lance; Isaacson, Michael; Craighead, Harold G.; Szarowski, Donald H.; Turner, James N.; Shain, W.

    1997-03-01

    To assess the effect of surface topography on cell attachment, central nervous system (astroglial cells) cells were grown on surfaces patterned with two different types of texture. Reactive ion etching (RIE) was used to induce nanometer-scale roughness in silicon wafers. In a subsequent wet etch, photo-patterned resist protected selected areas of the surface, resulting in a pattern of modified and unmodified texture. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the RIE-roughened 'primary' surface consists of randomly positioned columnar structures (diameter approximately equals 50 nm, height approximately equals 250 nm). The wet-etched 'secondary' surfaces had shorter and more sparsely distributed projections, controlled to a degree by wet etch duration. Confocal microscopy and SEM demonstrated that transformed astroglial (LRM55) cells preferred secondary surfaces. The morphology of cells on secondary surfaces depended on wet etch duration. with brief wet etch, cells hade stellate or mounded morphology and were not closely adherent to the surface. With long wet etch, cells had an epithelial-like morphology and were closely adherent to substrates. Under all conditions, cells discriminated between primary and secondary surfaces. In contrast to LRM55 cells, astrocytes in primary cell culture preferred primary surfaces. Thus changes in surface topography produce cell-specific selectivity and change cell attachment characteristics.

  6. Porosity-dependent fractal nature of the porous silicon surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, N.; Dariani, R. S.

    2015-07-15

    Porous silicon films with porosity ranging from 42% to 77% were fabricated by electrochemical anodization under different current density. We used atomic force microscopy and dynamic scaling theory for deriving the surface roughness profile and processing the topography of the porous silicon layers, respectively. We first compared the topography of bare silicon surface with porous silicon and then studied the effect of the porosity of porous silicon films on their scaling behavior by using their self-affinity nature. Our work demonstrated that silicon compared to the porous silicon films has the highest Hurst parameter, indicating that the formation of porous layer due to the anodization etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Fractal analysis revealed that the evolution of the nanocrystallites’ fractal dimension along with porosity. Also, we found that both interface width and Hurst parameter are affected by the increase of porosity.

  7. Rapid Silicon Dioxide Film Formation on Clean Silicon Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-19

    devices, and demands for higher reliability, thereby requiring further refinements of silicon planar technology . An understanding of the kinetics of film...110)) reveal the dependence of the refractive index of SiO. as a function of oxide thickness. No orientation effects were found. Kinetic measurements...further refinements of silicon planar technology . An understanding of the kinetics of film formation and optical properties of ultrathin silicon

  8. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  9. "Click" immobilization on alkylated silicon substrates: model for the study of surface bound antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Santos, Catherine M; Kumar, Amit; Zhao, Meirong; Lopez, Analette I; Qin, Guoting; McDermott, Alison M; Cai, Chengzhi

    2011-02-25

    We describe an effective approach for the covalent immobilization of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to bioinert substrates via Cu(I) -catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The bioinert substrates were prepared by surface hydrosilylation of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) terminated alkenes on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. To render the OEG monolayers "clickable", mixed monolayers were prepared using OEG-alkenes with and without a terminal alkyne protected by a trimethylgermanyl (TMG) group. The mixed monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elliposometry and contact angle measurement. The TMG protecting group can be readily removed to yield a free terminal alkyne by catalytic amounts of Cu(I) in an aqueous media. This step can then be combined with the subsequent CuAAC reaction. Thus, the immobilization of an azide modified AMP (N3-IG-25) was achieved in a one-pot deprotection/coupling reaction. Varying the ratio of the two alkenes in the deposition mixture allowed for control over the density of the alkynyl groups in the mixed monolayer, and subsequently the coverage of the AMPs on the monolayer. These samples allowed for study of the dependence of antimicrobial activities on the AMP density. The results show that a relative low coverage of AMPs (∼1.6×10(13) molecule per cm(2)) is sufficient to significantly suppress the viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the surface presenting the highest density of AMPs (∼2.8×10(13) molecule per cm(2)) is still cyto-compatible. The remarkable antibacterial activity is attributed to the long and flexible linker and the site-specific "click" immobilization, which may facilitate the covalently attached peptides to interact with and disrupt the bacterial membranes.

  10. Rough SERS substrate based on gold coated porous silicon layer prepared on the silicon backside surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dridi, H.; Haji, L.; Moadhen, A.

    2017-04-01

    We report in this paper a novel method to elaborate rough Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrate. A single layer of porous silicon was formed on the silicon backside surface. Morphological characteristics of the porous silicon layer before and after gold deposition were influenced by the rough character (gold size). The reflectance measurements showed a dependence of the gold nano-grains size on the surface nature, through the Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) band properties. SERS signal of Rhodamine 6G used as a model analyte, adsorbed on the rough porous silicon layer revealed a marked enhancement of its vibrational modes intensities.

  11. Silicon surface passivation by polystyrenesulfonate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianhui; Shen, Yanjiao; Guo, Jianxin; Chen, Bingbing; Fan, Jiandong; Li, Feng; Liu, Haixu; Xu, Ying; Mai, Yaohua

    2017-02-01

    The use of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) thin films in a high-quality passivation scheme involving the suppression of minority carrier recombination at the silicon surface is presented. PSS has been used as a dispersant for aqueous poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene. In this work, PSS is coated as a form of thin film on a Si surface. A millisecond level minority carrier lifetime on a high resistivity Si wafer is obtained. The film thickness, oxygen content, and relative humidity are found to be important factors affecting the passivation quality. While applied to low resistivity silicon wafers, which are widely used for photovoltaic cell fabrication, this scheme yields relatively shorter lifetime, for example, 2.40 ms on n-type and 2.05 ms on p-type wafers with a resistivity of 1-5 Ω.cm. However, these lifetimes are still high enough to obtain high implied open circuit voltages (Voc) of 708 mV and 697 mV for n-type and p-type wafers, respectively. The formation of oxides at the PSS/Si interface is suggested to be responsible for the passivation mechanism.

  12. Comparison of the surface charge behavior of commercial silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of protons from aqueous solution onto the surfaces of a variety of commercial silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders has been examined using a surface titration methodology. This method provides information on some colloidal characteristics, such as the point of zero charge (pzc) and the variation of proton adsorption with dispersion pH, useful for the prediction of optimal ceramic-processing conditions. Qualitatively, the magnitude of the proton adsorption from solution reveals small differences among all of the materials studied. However, the results show that the pzc for the various silicon nitride powders is affected by the powder synthesis route. Complementary investigations have shown that milling can also act to shift the pzc exhibited by silicon nitride powder. Also, studies of the role of the electrolyte in the development of surface charge have indicated no evidence of specific adsorption of ammonium ion on either silicon nitride or silicon carbide powders.

  13. Comparison of the surface charge behavior of commercial silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of protons from aqueous solution onto the surfaces of a variety of commercial silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders has been examined using a surface titration methodology. This method provides information on some colloidal characteristics, such as the point of zero charge (pzc) and the variation of proton adsorption with dispersion pH, useful for the prediction of optimal ceramic-processing conditions. Qualitatively, the magnitude of the proton adsorption from solution reveals small differences among all of the materials studied. However, the results show that the pzc for the various silicon nitride powders is affected by the powder synthesis route. Complementary investigations have shown that milling can also act to shift the pzc exhibited by silicon nitride powder. Also, studies of the role of the electrolyte in the development of surface charge have indicated no evidence of specific adsorption of ammonium ion on either silicon nitride or silicon carbide powders.

  14. Selective surface functionalization of silicon nanowires via nanoscale joule heating.

    PubMed

    Park, Inkyu; Li, Zhiyong; Pisano, Albert P; Williams, R Stanley

    2007-10-01

    In this letter, we report a novel approach to selectively functionalize the surface of silicon nanowires located on silicon-based substrates. This method is based upon highly localized nanoscale Joule heating along silicon nanowires under an applied electrical bias. Numerical simulation shows that a high-temperature (>800 K) with a large thermal gradient can be achieved by applying an appropriate electrical bias across silicon nanowires. This localized heating effect can be utilized to selectively ablate a protective polymer layer from a region of the chosen silicon nanowire. The exposed surface, with proper postprocessing, becomes available for surface functionalization with chemical linker molecules, such as 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilanes, while the surrounding area is still protected by the chemically inert polymer layer. This approach is successfully demonstrated on silicon nanowire arrays fabricated on SOI wafers and visualized by selective attachment of gold nanoparticles.

  15. High surface area silicon materials: fundamentals and new technology.

    PubMed

    Buriak, Jillian M

    2006-01-15

    Crystalline silicon forms the basis of just about all computing technologies on the planet, in the form of microelectronics. An enormous amount of research infrastructure and knowledge has been developed over the past half-century to construct complex functional microelectronic structures in silicon. As a result, it is highly probable that silicon will remain central to computing and related technologies as a platform for integration of, for instance, molecular electronics, sensing elements and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Porous nanocrystalline silicon is a fascinating variant of the same single crystal silicon wafers used to make computer chips. Its synthesis, a straightforward electrochemical, chemical or photochemical etch, is compatible with existing silicon-based fabrication techniques. Porous silicon literally adds an entirely new dimension to the realm of silicon-based technologies as it has a complex, three-dimensional architecture made up of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires, and channel structures. The intrinsic material is photoluminescent at room temperature in the visible region due to quantum confinement effects, and thus provides an optical element to electronic applications. Our group has been developing new organic surface reactions on porous and nanocrystalline silicon to tailor it for a myriad of applications, including molecular electronics and sensing. Integration of organic and biological molecules with porous silicon is critical to harness the properties of this material. The construction and use of complex, hierarchical molecular synthetic strategies on porous silicon will be described.

  16. Atomic Scale Flatness of Chemically Cleaned Silicon Surfaces Studied by Infrared Attenuated-Total-Reflection Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawara, Kenichi; Yasaka, Tatsuhiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Hirose, Masataka

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogen-terminated Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces obtained by aqueous HF or pH-modified (pH{=}5.3) buffered-HF (BHF) treatments have been characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) attenuated-total-reflection (ATR) technique. The BHF treatment provides better surface flatness than the HF treatment. Pure water rinse is effective for improving the Si(111) surface flatness, while this is not the case for Si(100) because the pure water acts as an alkaline etchant and promotes the formation of (111) microfacets or microdefects on the (100) surface.

  17. Review of literature surface tension data for molten silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, S.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the surface tension of molten silicon are reported. For marangoni flow, the important parameter is the variation of surface tension with temperature, not the absolute value of the surface tension. It is not possible to calculate temperature coefficients using surface tension measurements from different experiments because the systematic errors are usually larger than the changes in surface tension because of temperature variations. The lack of good surface tension data for liquid silicon is probably due to its extreme chemical reactivity. A material which resists attack by molten silicon is not found. It is suggested that all of the sessile drip surface tension measurements are probably for silicon which is contaminated by the substrate materials.

  18. Consequences of Atomic Oxygen Interaction With Silicone and Silicone Contamination on Surfaces in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Haytas, Christy A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of silicones to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit causes oxidation of the surface, resulting in conversion of silicone to silica. This chemical conversion increases the elastic modulus of the surface and initiates the development of a tensile strain. Ultimately, with sufficient exposure, tensile strain leads to cracking of the surface enabling the underlying unexposed silicone to be converted to silica resulting in additional depth and extent of cracking. The use of silicone coatings for the protection of materials from atomic oxygen attack is limited because of the eventual exposure of underlying unprotected polymeric material due to deep tensile stress cracking of the oxidized silicone. The use of moderate to high volatility silicones in low Earth orbit has resulted in a silicone contamination arrival at surfaces which are simultaneously being bombarded with atomic oxygen, thus leading to conversion of the silicone contaminant to silica. As a result of these processes, a gradual accumulation of contamination occurs leading to deposits which at times have been up to several microns thick (as in the case of a Mir solar array after 10 years in space). The contamination species typically consist of silicon, oxygen and carbon. which in the synergistic environment of atomic oxygen and UV radiation leads to increased solar absorptance and reduced solar transmittance. A comparison of the results of atomic oxygen interaction with silicones and silicone contamination will be presented based on the LDEF, EOIM-111, Offeq-3 spacecraft and Mir solar array in-space results. The design of a contamination pin-hole camera space experiment which uses atomic oxygen to produce an image of the sources of silicone contamination will also be presented.

  19. Thermal characterization of nanoporous 'black silicon' surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Logan; Duan, Wenqi; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-01

    In this work we characterize the thermal conductivity properties of nanoprous `black silicon' (bSi). We fabricate the nanoporous bSi using the metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) process utilizing silver (Ag) metal as the etch catalyst. The MACE process steps include (i) electroless deposition of Ag nanoparticles on the Si surface using silver nitrate (AgNO3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), and (ii) a wet etch in a solution of HF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The resulting porosity of bSi is dependent on the ratio of the concentration of HF to (HF + H2O2); the ratio is denoted as rho (ρ). We find that as etch time of bSi increases the thermal conductivity of Si increases as well. We also analyze the absorption of the bSi samples by measuring the transmission and reflection using IR spectroscopy. This study enables improved understanding of nanoporous bSi surfaces and how they affect the solar cell performance due to the porous structures' thermal properties.

  20. Broadband Infrared Antireflection Structured Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Kenneth; Fettig, Rainer; Allen, Christine; Larocque, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are materials often used for infrared (IR) windows and optical elements. However they have a very high index of refraction, in the order of three to four, which causes large reflection losses on each surface. These losses are especially high under large angles of incidence which are often desirable if signals are faint and fast optics are to be used. Solid antireflection coatings are either not available because materials with appropriate index of refraction do not exist, or their use is limited to a small wavelength range and small angles of incidence. We will present the status of our work to calculate, create, and test the performance of graded structures in Si to reduce its surface reflection. The structures are expected to work over the very broad wavelength range of 10 micron to 1000 micron and a wide range of angle of incidence. We.have identified several high aspect ratio MEMS process techniques to create the structures and have done 3D electromagnetic modeling, which predicts significant effects. Measurements on different samples have validated our modeling.

  1. Broadband Infrared Antireflection Structured Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Kenneth; Fettig, Rainer; Allen, Christine; Larocque, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are materials often used for IR windows and optical elements. However they have a very high index of refraction, in the order of three to four, which causes large reflection losses on each surface. These losses are especially high under large angles of incidence which are often desirable if signals are faint and fast optics are to be used. Solid antireflection coatings are either not available because materials with appropriate index of refraction do not exist, or their use is limited to a small wavelength range and small angles of incidence. We will present the status of our work to calculate, create, and test the performance of graded structures in Si to reduce its surface reflection. The structures are expected to work over the very broad wavelength range of 10 to 1000 micrometers and a wide range of angle of incidence. We have identified several high aspect ratio MEMS process techniques to Create the structures and have done 3D electromagnetic modeling, which predicts significant effects. Measurements on different samples have validated our modeling.

  2. Broadband Infrared Antireflection Structured Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Kenneth; Fettig, Rainer; Allen, Christine; Fettig, Rainer; Larocque, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are materials often used for IR windows and optical elements. However they have a very high index of refraction, in the order of three to four, which causes large reflection losses on each surface. These losses are especially high under large angles of incidence which are often desirable if signals are faint and fast optics are to be used. Solid antireflection coatings are either not available because materials with appropriate index of refraction do not exist, or their use is limited to a small wavelength range and small angles of incidence. We will present the status of our work to calculate, create, and test the performance of graded structures in Si to reduce its surface reflection. The structures are expected to work over the very broad wavelength range of 10 microns to 1000 microns and a wide range of angle of incidence. We have identified several high aspect ratio MEMS process techniques to create the structures and have done 3D electromagnetic modeling, which predicts significant effects. Measurements on different samples have validated our modeling.

  3. Design of highly oleophobic cellulose surfaces from structured silicon templates.

    PubMed

    Aulin, Christian; Yun, Sang Ho; Wågberg, Lars; Lindström, Tom

    2009-11-01

    Structured silicon surfaces, possessing hierarchical porous characteristics consisting of micrometer-sized cavities superimposed upon a network of nanometer-sized pillars or wires, have been fabricated by a plasma-etching process. These surfaces have superoleophobic properties, after being coated with fluorinated organic trichlorosilanes, on intrinsically oleophilic surfaces. By comparison with flat silicon surfaces, which are oleophilic, it has been demonstrated that a combination of low surface energy and the structured features of the plasma-etched surface is essential to prevent oil from penetrating the surface cavities and thus induce the observed macroscopic superoleophobic phenomena with very low contact-angle hysteresis and low roll-off angles. The structured silicon surfaces were coated with cellulose nanocrystals using the polyelectrolyte multilayer technique. The cellulose surfaces prepared in this way were then coated with a monolayer of fluorinated trichlorosilanes. These porous cellulose films displayed highly nonwetting properties against a number of liquids with low surface tension, including alkanes such as hexadecane and decane. The wettability and chemical composition of the cellulose/silicon surfaces were characterized with contact-angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The nano/microtexture features of the cellulose/silicon surfaces were also studied with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The highly oleophobic structured cellulose surfaces are very interesting model surfaces for the development of biomimetic self-cleaning surfaces in a vast array of products, including green constructions, packaging materials, protection against environmental fouling, sports, and outdoor clothing, and microfluidic systems.

  4. Cell culture on hydrophilicity-controlled silicon nitride surfaces.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yuriko; Inami, Wataru; Miyakawa, Atsuo; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2015-12-01

    Cell culture on silicon nitride membranes is required for atmospheric scanning electron microscopy, electron beam excitation assisted optical microscopy, and various biological sensors. Cell adhesion to silicon nitride membranes is typically weak, and cell proliferation is limited. We increased the adhesion force and proliferation of cultured HeLa cells by controlling the surface hydrophilicity of silicon nitride membranes. We covalently coupled carboxyl groups on silicon nitride membranes, and measured the contact angles of water droplets on the surfaces to evaluate the hydrophilicity. We cultured HeLa cells on the coated membranes and evaluated stretch of the cell. Cell migration and confluence were observed on the coated silicon nitride films. We also demonstrated preliminary observation result with direct electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope.

  5. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon Surfaces with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of nanolithography of silicon and germanium surfaces with bare carbon nanotube tips of scanning probe microscopy devices is considered with large scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Tersoff's reactive many-body potential for heteroatomic C/Si/Ge system. Lithography plays a key role in semiconductor manufacturing, and it is expected that future molecular and quantum electronic devices will be fabricated with nanolithographic and nanodeposition techniques. Carbon nanotubes, rolled up sheets of graphene made of carbon, are excellent candidates for use in nanolithography because they are extremely strong along axial direction and yet extremely elastic along radial direction. In the simulations, the interaction of a carbon nanotube tip with silicon surfaces is explored in two regimes. In the first scenario, the nanotubes barely touch the surface, while in the second they are pushed into the surface to make "nano holes". The first - gentle scenario mimics the nanotube-surface chemical reaction induced by the vertical mechanical manipulation of the nanotube. The second -digging - scenario intends to study the indentation profiles. The following results are reported in the two cases. In the first regime, depending on the surface impact site, two major outcomes outcomes are the selective removal of either a single surface atom or a surface dimer off the silicon surface. In the second regime, the indentation of a silicon substrate by the nanotube is observed. Upon the nanotube withdrawal, several surface silicon atoms are adsorbed at the tip of the nanotube causing significant rearrangements of atoms comprising the surface layer of the silicon substrate. The results are explained in terms of relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds. The proposed method is very robust and does not require applied voltage between the nanotube tips and the surface. The implications of the reported controllable etching and hole-creating for

  6. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon Surfaces with Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of nanolithography of silicon and germanium surfaces with bare carbon nanotube tips of scanning probe microscopy devices is considered with large scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Tersoff's reactive many-body potential for heteroatomic C/Si/Ge system. Lithography plays a key role in semiconductor manufacturing, and it is expected that future molecular and quantum electronic devices will be fabricated with nanolithographic and nanodeposition techniques. Carbon nanotubes, rolled up sheets of graphene made of carbon, are excellent candidates for use in nanolithography because they are extremely strong along axial direction and yet extremely elastic along radial direction. In the simulations, the interaction of a carbon nanotube tip with silicon surfaces is explored in two regimes. In the first scenario, the nanotubes barely touch the surface, while in the second they are pushed into the surface to make "nano holes". The first - gentle scenario mimics the nanotube-surface chemical reaction induced by the vertical mechanical manipulation of the nanotube. The second -digging - scenario intends to study the indentation profiles. The following results are reported in the two cases. In the first regime, depending on the surface impact site, two major outcomes outcomes are the selective removal of either a single surface atom or a surface dimer off the silicon surface. In the second regime, the indentation of a silicon substrate by the nanotube is observed. Upon the nanotube withdrawal, several surface silicon atoms are adsorbed at the tip of the nanotube causing significant rearrangements of atoms comprising the surface layer of the silicon substrate. The results are explained in terms of relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds. The proposed method is very robust and does not require applied voltage between the nanotube tips and the surface. The implications of the reported controllable etching and hole-creating for

  7. Preparation and biocompatibility of BSA monolayer on silicon surface.

    PubMed

    Tao, Caihong; Zhang, Junyan; Yang, Shengrong

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes a general strategy for grafting protein molecules on silicon surface by using dopamine as adhesive layer. With this method, silicon surface had been successfully modified by BSA monolayer. Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle analysis and atomic force microscopy confirmed the sequential grafting of initiator and protein molecules. Cell adhesion experiments with PC-12 cells showed that the obtained monolayer exhibits good biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance behavior of the polydopamine and BSA modified silicon wafers was investigated by potentiodynamic test, which indicated that the modified surfaces exhibited a better anti-corrosion capability than silicon surface. All these results must be valuable for the application of protein monolayer in biological and biomedical technology.

  8. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Masafumi; Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al2O3. Using Al2O3 as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  9. Hydrogen-terminated diamond vertical-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with a trench gate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaba, Masafumi Muta, Tsubasa; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Saito, Toshiki; Shibata, Masanobu; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kudo, Takuya; Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-07-18

    The hydrogen-terminated diamond surface (C-H diamond) has a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) layer independent of the crystal orientation. A 2DHG layer is ubiquitously formed on the C-H diamond surface covered by atomic-layer-deposited-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate oxide, C-H diamond metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) operate in a trench gate structure where the diamond side-wall acts as a channel. MOSFETs with a side-wall channel exhibit equivalent performance to the lateral C-H diamond MOSFET without a side-wall channel. Here, a vertical-type MOSFET with a drain on the bottom is demonstrated in diamond with channel current modulation by the gate and pinch off.

  10. Multiple photon excited SF6 interaction with silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared laser induced SF6-silicon interactions have been studied and the surface reaction yields have been determined as a function of the laser frequency, the laser intensity, and the gas pressure in both perpendicular and parallel beam incidences on the solid surfaces. The results clearly show that vibrationally excited SF6 molecules promoted by CO2 laser pulses are very reactive to silicon, particularly when the solid is simultaneously exposed to the intense ir radiation. The laser excitation of the Si substrate alone cannot cause the heterogeneous reaction to occur. The present gas-solid system thus provides an example which clearly establishes the direct correlation between surface reactivity and vibrational activation. Additional experimental measurements also demonstrate that the thermal fluorine atoms generated by SF6 multiple photon dissociation at high laser intensities can react with silicon to form volatile product. The study thus provides further insight into the silicon-fluorine reaction dynamics.

  11. Diffusion of silver over atomically clean silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dolbak, A. E. Ol'shanetskii, B. Z.

    2013-06-15

    The diffusion of silver the (111), (100), and (110) silicon surfaces is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. The mechanisms of diffusion over the (111) and (110) surfaces are revealed, and the temperature dependences of diffusion coefficients are measured. An anisotropy of silver diffusion over the (110) surface is detected.

  12. Controlling cellular activity by manipulating silicone surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Babu R; Brook, Michael A; Smith, Terry; Zhao, Shigui; Chen, Yang; Sheardown, Heather; D'souza, Renita; Rochev, Yuri

    2010-07-01

    Silicone elastomers exhibit a broad range of beneficial properties that are exploited in biomaterials. In some cases, however, problems can arise at silicone elastomer interfaces. With breast implants, for example, the fibrous capsule that forms at the silicone interface can undergo contracture, which can lead to the need for revision surgery. The relationship between surface topography and wound healing--which could impact on the degree of contracture--has not been examined in detail. To address this, we prepared silicone elastomer samples with rms surface roughnesses varying from 88 to 650 nm and examined the growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on these surfaces. The PicoGreen assay demonstrated that fibroblast growth decreased with increases in surface roughness. Relatively smooth (approximately 88 nm) PDMS samples had ca. twice as much fibroblast DNA per unit area than the 'bumpy' (approximately 378 nm) and very rough (approximately 604 and approximately 650 nm) PDMS samples. While the PDMS sample with roughness of approximately 650 nm had significantly fewer fibroblasts at 24h than the TCP control, fibroblasts on the smooth silicone surprisingly reached confluence much more rapidly than on TCP, the gold standard for cell culture. Thus, increasing the surface roughness at the sub-micron scale could be a strategy worthy of consideration to help mitigate fibroblast growth and control fibrous capsule formation on silicone elastomer implants.

  13. Porous silicon nanocrystals in a silica aerogel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amonkosolpan, Jamaree; Wolverson, Daniel; Goller, Bernhard; Polisski, Sergej; Kovalev, Dmitry; Rollings, Matthew; Grogan, Michael D. W.; Birks, Timothy A.

    2012-07-01

    Silicon nanoparticles of three types (oxide-terminated silicon nanospheres, micron-sized hydrogen-terminated porous silicon grains and micron-size oxide-terminated porous silicon grains) were incorporated into silica aerogels at the gel preparation stage. Samples with a wide range of concentrations were prepared, resulting in aerogels that were translucent (but weakly coloured) through to completely opaque for visible light over sample thicknesses of several millimetres. The photoluminescence of these composite materials and of silica aerogel without silicon inclusions was studied in vacuum and in the presence of molecular oxygen in order to determine whether there is any evidence for non-radiative energy transfer from the silicon triplet exciton state to molecular oxygen adsorbed at the silicon surface. No sensitivity to oxygen was observed from the nanoparticles which had partially H-terminated surfaces before incorporation, and so we conclude that the silicon surface has become substantially oxidised. Finally, the FTIR and Raman scattering spectra of the composites were studied in order to establish the presence of crystalline silicon; by taking the ratio of intensities of the silicon and aerogel Raman bands, we were able to obtain a quantitative measure of the silicon nanoparticle concentration independent of the degree of optical attenuation.

  14. Porous silicon nanocrystals in a silica aerogel matrix

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles of three types (oxide-terminated silicon nanospheres, micron-sized hydrogen-terminated porous silicon grains and micron-size oxide-terminated porous silicon grains) were incorporated into silica aerogels at the gel preparation stage. Samples with a wide range of concentrations were prepared, resulting in aerogels that were translucent (but weakly coloured) through to completely opaque for visible light over sample thicknesses of several millimetres. The photoluminescence of these composite materials and of silica aerogel without silicon inclusions was studied in vacuum and in the presence of molecular oxygen in order to determine whether there is any evidence for non-radiative energy transfer from the silicon triplet exciton state to molecular oxygen adsorbed at the silicon surface. No sensitivity to oxygen was observed from the nanoparticles which had partially H-terminated surfaces before incorporation, and so we conclude that the silicon surface has become substantially oxidised. Finally, the FTIR and Raman scattering spectra of the composites were studied in order to establish the presence of crystalline silicon; by taking the ratio of intensities of the silicon and aerogel Raman bands, we were able to obtain a quantitative measure of the silicon nanoparticle concentration independent of the degree of optical attenuation. PMID:22805684

  15. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mews, Mathias Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120 meV and 200 meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37 ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724 mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  16. Surface Figure Measurement of Silicon Carbide Mirrors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The surface figure of a developmental silicon carbide mirror, cooled to 87 K and then 20 K within a cryostat, was measured with unusually high precision at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The concave spherical mirror, with a radius of 600 mm and a clear aperture of 150 mm, was fabricated of sintered silicon carbide. The mirror was mounted to an interface plate representative of an optical bench, made of the material Cesic@, a composite of silicon, carbon, and silicon carbide. The change in optical surface figure as the mirror and interface plate cooled from room temperature to 20 K was 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  17. Optical second-harmonic spectroscopy of chemically-modified silicon and silicon-dioxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, M. C.; Jiang, Y. Y.; Lim, D.

    2002-03-01

    The optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) response of solid interfaces depends sensitively on chemical termination. We present a spectroscopic SHG study of chemically-modified Si and SiO2 surfaces that elucidates at the atomic level how adsorbates alter the electronic structure, and thereby the SHG response, of the surface. SHG spectra were measured on reconstructed Si(001) surfaces in UHV that were exposed to atomic H or to gas-phase precursors of Ge and B, and on the surfaces of 30 angstrom-thick silicon dioxide films on silicon substrates that were chemically functionalized to nucleate silicon nanocrystal formation. Microscopic models show that adsorbate-induced alterations of the surface SHG spectra are correlated with changes in near-surface charge polarization caused by surface dimer buckling, transfer of electrons to boron acceptors in second layer substitutional sites, or transfer of electrons from the silicon substrate, through the tunneling oxide, to the surface nanocrystals [1]. 1. M. C. Downer, B. S. Mendoza and V. I. Gavrilenko, Surf. Interface Anal. 31, 966 (2001).

  18. Controlling the Sensing Properties of Silicon Nanowires via the Bonds Nearest to the Silicon Nanowire Surface.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Jeffrey Mark; Wang, Bin; Haick, Hossam

    2015-06-03

    Controlling the sensing properties of a silicon nanowire field effect transistor is dependent on the surface chemistry of the silicon nanowire. A standard silicon nanowire has a passive oxide layer (native oxide), which has trap states that cause sensing inaccuracies and desensitize the surface to nonpolar molecules. In this paper, we successfully modified the silicon nanowire surface with different nonoxide C3 alkyl groups, specifically, propyl (Si-CH2-CH2-CH3), propenyl (Si-CH═CH-CH3), and propynyl (Si-C≡C-CH3) modifications. The effect of the near surface bond on the sensor sensitivity and stability was explored by comparing three C3 surface modifications. A reduction of trap-states led to greater sensor stability and accuracy. The propenyl-modified sensor was consistently the most stable and sensitive sensor, among the applied sensors. The propenyl- and propynyl-modified sensors consistently performed with the best accuracy in identifying specific analytes with similar polarity or similar molecular weights. A combination of features from different sensing surfaces led to the best rubric for specific analytes identification. These results indicate that nonoxide sensor surfaces are useful in identifying specific analytes and that a combination of sensors with different surfaces in a cross-reactive array can lead to specific analytes detection.

  19. “Click” Immobilization on Alkylated Silicon Substrates: Model for the Study of Surface Bound Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Santos, Catherine M.; Kumar, Amit; Zhao, Meirong; Lopez, Analette I.; Qin, Guoting; McDermott, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an effective approach for the covalent immobilization of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to bioinert substrates via CuI-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The bioinert substrates were prepared by surface hydrosilylation of oligo-(ethylene glycol) (OEG) terminated alkenes on hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces. To render the OEG monolayers “clickable”, mixed monolayers were prepared using OEG-alkenes with and without a terminal alkyne protected by a trimethylgermanyl (TMG) group. The mixed monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), elliposometry and contact angle measurement. The TMG protecting group can be readily removed to yield a free terminal alkyne by catalytic amounts of CuI in an aqueous media. This step can then be combined with the subsequent CuAAC reaction. Thus, the immobilization of an azide modified AMP (N3-IG-25) was achieved in a one-pot de-protection/coupling reaction. Varying the ratio of the two alkenes in the deposition mixture allowed for control over the density of the alkynyl groups in the mixed monolayer, and subsequently the coverage of the AMPs on the monolayer. These samples allowed for study of the dependence of antimicrobial activities on the AMP density. The results show that a relative low coverage of AMPs (~1.6×1013 molecule per cm2) is sufficient to significantly suppress the viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while the surface presenting the highest density of AMPs (~2.8×1013 molecule per cm2) is still cyto-compatible. The remarkable antibacterial activity is attributed to the long and flexible linker and the site-specific “click” immobilization, which may facilitate the covalently attached peptides to interact with and disrupt the bacterial membranes. PMID:21264959

  20. Thermal stability of surface and interface structure of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on H-terminated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, K. Y.; Speck, F.; Emtsev, K.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.

    2007-11-01

    Using the atomic layer deposition technique, 1.2nm Al2O3 films were deposited as high-k gate dielectric layer on hydrogen-terminated silicon and annealed in vacuum and pure hydrogen in order to elucidate the effects of growth and annealing on the structure of film, interface, and surface. As analytical tools, high resolution core level spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation as variable photon source and Fourier Transform Infrared absorption spectroscopy in the attenuated total refraction mode were employed. For Al2O3 on H-terminated Si(111) and (100) surfaces the Si-H bonds are preserved at the interface, while Si-O-Al bonds provide the atomically abrupt interface between Al2O3 and Si. The chemical and structural integrity of the interface is maintained upon annealing except for a gradual loss of Si-H bonds. Growth of a SiO2 layer is observed after annealing, that is unambiguously located at the Al2O3 surface and not at the interface. Stress-induced emission of Si atoms from the interface is identified as the source of SiO2 based on a substantial broadening of the Si 2p core lines. A thermally induced reaction between Si and Al2O3 to form volatile SiO and Al2O is suggested to be responsible for the significant thickness reduction of Al2O3 that accompanies annealing at temperatures of 750°C. Conclusions for the likely effects of forming gas anneals on Al2O3/Si are drawn from this work.

  1. Determination of surface recombination velocity in heavily doped silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, M.; Gatos, H. C.; Actor, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed and successfully tested for the determination of the effective surface recombination velocity of silicon layers doped by diffusion of phosphorus to a level of 10 to the 19th to 10 to the 21st per cu cm. The effective recombination velocity was obtained from the dependence of the electron-beam-induced current on the penetration of the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope. A special silicon diode was constructed which permitted the collection at the p-n junction of the carriers excited by the electron beam. This diode also permitted the study of the effects of surface preparation on the effective surface recombination velocity.

  2. Etching of silicon surfaces using atmospheric plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzelt, H.; Böhm, G.; Arnold, Th

    2015-04-01

    Local plasma-assisted etching of crystalline silicon by fine focused plasma jets provides a method for high accuracy computer controlled surface waviness and figure error correction as well as free form processing and manufacturing. We investigate a radio-frequency powered atmospheric pressure He/N2/CF4 plasma jet for the local chemical etching of silicon using fluorine as reactive plasma gas component. This plasma jet tool has a typical tool function width of about 0.5 to 1.8 mm and a material removal rate up to 0.068 mm3 min-1. The relationship between etching rate and plasma jet parameters is discussed in detail regarding gas composition, working distance, scan velocity and RF power. Surface roughness after etching was characterized using atomic force microscopy and white light interferometry. A strong smoothing effect was observed for etching rough silicon surfaces like wet chemically-etched silicon wafer backsides. Using the dwell-time algorithm for a deterministic surface machining by superposition of the local removal function of the plasma tool we show a fast and efficient way for manufacturing complex silicon structures. In this article we present two examples of surface processing using small local plasma jets.

  3. Formation of a silicon terminated (100) diamond surface

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, Alex Sear, Michael; Pakes, Chris; Tadich, Anton; O'Donnell, Kane M.; Ley, Lothar; Stacey, Alastair

    2015-05-11

    We report the preparation of an ordered silicon terminated diamond (100) surface with a two domain 3 × 1 reconstruction as determined by low energy electron diffraction. Based on the dimensions of the surface unit cell and on chemical information provided by core level photoemission spectra, a model for the structure is proposed. The termination should provide a homogeneous, nuclear, and electron spin-free surface for the development of future near-surface diamond quantum device architectures.

  4. Epitaxy of silicon carbide on silicon: Micromorphological analysis of growth surface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhgasan, Ramazanov; Ştefan, Ţălu; Dinara, Sobola; Sebastian, Stach; Guseyn, Ramazanov

    2015-10-01

    The main purpose of our research was the study of evolution of silicon carbide films on silicon by micromorphological analysis. Surface micromorphologies of Silicon Carbide epilayers with two different thicknesses were compared by means of fractal geometry. Silicon Carbide films were prepared on Si substrates by magnetron sputtering of polycrystalline target SiC in Ar atmosphere (99.999% purity). Synthesis of qualitative SiC/Si templates solves the questions of large diameter SiC single-crystal wafers formation. This technology decreases financial expenditure and provides integration of SiC into silicon technology. These hybrid substrates with buffer layer of high oriented SiC are useful for growth of both wide band gap materials (SiC, AlN, GaN) and graphene. The main problem of SiC heteroepitaxy on Si (1 1 1) is the large difference (∼20%) of the lattice parameters. Fractal analysis of surface morphology of heteroepitaxial films could help to understand the films growth mechanisms. The 3D (three-dimensional) surfaces revealed a fractal structure at the nanometer scale. The fractal dimension (D) provided global quantitative values that characterize the scale properties of surface geometry.

  5. Surface Reconstruction Induced on the (111) Surface of Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Michael Scott

    1992-01-01

    Impact-Collision Ion Scattering Spectrometry (ICISS) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) is used to study the (sqrt{3} x sqrt{3})R30^circ and (2sqrt{3} x 2sqrt{3})R30^ circ reconstructions induced by tin (Sn) on the (111) surface of silicon (Si). The (4 x 1) reconstruction induced by indium (In) was also studied by these methods. For the (sqrt{3} x sqrt{3}) reconstruction the Sn atoms are thought to sit in fourfold atop (T_4) sites, or threefold hollow (H_3) sites. Comparison of the registration between (sqrt{3} x sqrt {3}) and 7 x 7 reconstructions, using STM, suggest that the Sn adatoms sit in T_4 sites. ICISS polar-angle scans show a definite agreement with computer simulations of the T_4 model. These scans also determine the spacing between Sn and Si layers, and the Sn-Si bonding length have also been determined. STM results show that the (2sqrt {3} x 2sqrt{3}) reconstruction has three equivalent orientations and that the electronic structure is one-fold symmetric. ICISS polar-angle scans establish that Sn atoms are located on top of the Si(111) surface. These scans which reflect the relative positions of the Sn atoms with respect to each other, are compared with computer simulations of three STM based models of the surface. Reasonable agreement is obtained with a model which contains two layers of Sn adatoms. The top layer of the 4 x 1 reconstruction is arranged in ridges of two rows, with three equivalent orientations. The rows run in the <110 > type directions. In order to simplify the scattering conditions the (4 x 1) reconstruction was induced on a piece of vicinal Si. This vicinal Si was cut 2.6^circ off the (111) plane, tilting towards the (112) direction. This produced ~80A terraces running along the (110) direction. The (4 x 1) structure induced on this surface was dominated by one orientation. ICISS polar -angle scans from this one orientation (4 x 1) are compared with several models. The model which shows the closed agreement with experiment is a

  6. Silicon nanohybrid-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houyu; Jiang, Xiangxu; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2014-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors are highly promising analytical tools, capable of ultrasensitive, multiplex, and nondestructive detection of chemical and biological species. Extensive efforts have been made to design various silicon nanohybrid-based SERS substrates such as gold/silver nanoparticle (NP)-decorated silicon nanowires, Au/Ag NP-decorated silicon wafers (AuNP@Si), and so forth. In comparison to free AuNP- and AgNP-based SERS sensors, the silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors feature higher enhancement factors (EFs) and excellent reproducibility, since SERS hot spots are efficiently coupled and stabilized through interconnection to the semiconducting silicon substrates. Consequently, in the past decade, giant advancements in the development of silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors have been witnessed for myriad sensing applications. In this review, the representative achievements related to the design of high-performance silicon nanohybrid-based SERS sensors and their use for chemical and biological analysis are reviewed in a detailed way. Furthermore, the major opportunities and challenges in this field are discussed from a broad perspective and possible future directions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Chemical surface management for micro PCR in silicon chip thermocyclers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felbel, Jana; Bieber, Ivonne; Koehler, Johann M.

    2002-11-01

    Silicon, silicon dioxide, glass and other key materials of micro system technology show an inhibiting effect on PCR. This negative influence becomes seriously, if devices are miniaturized, particularly in case of flow-through devices due to their high surface to volume ratio. In contrast, alkyl-substituted surfaces do not inhibit the reaction. Although the silanization improves the compatibility, the suppression of inhibition by wall surface treatment was not stable over longer time intervals. Therefore, the stability of chemical surface modifications was studied in dependence of silanization, material, pH, temperature and buffer composition. The efficiency of surface covering by molecular substitution was characterized by wetting experiments as well as by PCR test runs. The results show that the surface treatment can be optimized by the choice of silanization agents and the concentration of surface active additives.

  8. Chemical method for producing smooth surfaces on silicon wafers

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad

    2003-01-01

    An improved method for producing optically smooth surfaces in silicon wafers during wet chemical etching involves a pre-treatment rinse of the wafers before etching and a post-etching rinse. The pre-treatment with an organic solvent provides a well-wetted surface that ensures uniform mass transfer during etching, which results in optically smooth surfaces. The post-etching treatment with an acetic acid solution stops the etching instantly, preventing any uneven etching that leads to surface roughness. This method can be used to etch silicon surfaces to a depth of 200 .mu.m or more, while the finished surfaces have a surface roughness of only 15-50 .ANG. (RMS).

  9. Samarium- and ytterbium-promoted oxidation of silicon and gallium arsenide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Franciosi, A.

    1989-02-21

    A method is described for promoting oxidation of a silicon or gallium arsenide surface comprising: depositing a ytterbium overlayer on the silicon or gallium arsenide surface prior to the oxidation of the surface.

  10. Secondary-electron emission from hydrogen-terminated diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Wang E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Dimitrov, D.A.; T. Xin, T.

    2012-05-20

    Diamond amplifiers demonstrably are an electron source with the potential to support high-brightness, high-average-current emission into a vacuum. We recently developed a reliable hydrogenation procedure for the diamond amplifier. The systematic study of hydrogenation resulted in the reproducible fabrication of high gain diamond amplifier. Furthermore, we measured the emission probability of diamond amplifier as a function of the external field and modelled the process with resulting changes in the vacuum level due to the Schottky effect. We demonstrated that the decrease in the secondary electrons average emission gain was a function of the pulse width and related this to the trapping of electrons by the effective NEA surface. The findings from the model agree well with our experimental measurements. As an application of the model, the energy spread of secondary electrons inside the diamond was estimated from the measured emission.

  11. On the wettability transparency of graphene-coated silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Kumar, Satish; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the behavior and governing characteristics of the wetting transparency phenomenon observed in graphene-coated surfaces, molecular dynamics simulations were coupled with a theoretical model. Graphene-coated silicon was selected for this analysis, due to potential applications of hybrid silicon-graphene materials as detectors in aqueous environments. The results indicate good agreement between the theory and simulations at the macroscopic conditions required to observe wetting transparency. A microscopic analysis was also conducted in order to identify the parameters, such as the interaction potential energy landscape and the interfacial liquid structure that govern the wetting behavior of graphene-coated surfaces. The interfacial liquid structure was found to be different between uncoated Si(100) and the graphene-coated version and very similar between uncoated Si(111) and the graphene-coated version. However, the concentration of liquid particles for both silicon surfaces was found to be very similar under transparent wetting conditions.

  12. Tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene and silicon oxide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Uçar, A.; Çopuroğlu, M.; Suzer, S.; Baykara, M. Z.; Arıkan, O.

    2014-10-28

    We investigated the tribological interaction between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and silicon oxide surfaces. A simple rig was designed to bring about a friction between the surfaces via sliding a piece of PTFE on a thermally oxidized silicon wafer specimen. A very mild inclination (∼0.5°) along the sliding motion was also employed in order to monitor the tribological interaction in a gradual manner as a function of increasing contact force. Additionally, some patterns were sketched on the silicon oxide surface using the PTFE tip to investigate changes produced in the hydrophobicity of the surface, where the approximate water contact angle was 45° before the transfer. The nature of the transferred materials was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XPS results revealed that PTFE was faithfully transferred onto the silicon oxide surface upon even at the slightest contact and SEM images demonstrated that stable morphological changes could be imparted onto the surface. The minimum apparent contact pressure to realize the PTFE transfer is estimated as 5 kPa, much lower than reported previously. Stability of the patterns imparted towards many chemical washing processes lead us to postulate that the interaction is most likely to be chemical. Contact angle measurements, which were carried out to characterize and monitor the hydrophobicity of the silicon oxide surface, showed that upon PTFE transfer the hydrophobicity of the SiO{sub 2} surface could be significantly enhanced, which might also depend upon the pattern sketched onto the surface. Contact angle values above 100° were obtained.

  13. Surface modification of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and titanium oxynitride for lactate dehydrogenase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Saengdee, Pawasuth; Chaisriratanakul, Woraphan; Bunjongpru, Win; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Srisuwan, Awirut; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Promptmas, Chamras

    2015-05-15

    Three different types of surface, silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon nitride (Si3N4), and titanium oxynitride (TiON) were modified for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilization using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) to obtain an amino layer on each surface. The APTES modified surfaces can directly react with LDH via physical attachment. LDH can be chemically immobilized on those surfaces after incorporation with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain aldehyde layers of APTES-GA modified surfaces. The wetting properties, chemical bonding composition, and morphology of the modified surface were determined by contact angle (CA) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In this experiment, the immobilized protein content and LDH activity on each modified surface was used as an indicator of surface modification achievement. The results revealed that both the APTES and APTES-GA treatments successfully link the LDH molecule to those surfaces while retaining its activity. All types of tested surfaces modified with APTES-GA gave better LDH immobilizing efficiency than APTES, especially the SiO2 surface. In addition, the SiO2 surface offered the highest LDH immobilization among tested surfaces, with both APTES and APTES-GA modification. However, TiON and Si3N4 surfaces could be used as alternative candidate materials in the preparation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based biosensors, including lactate sensors using immobilized LDH on the ISFET surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of nanostructured silicon surfaces by stain etching.

    PubMed

    Ayat, Maha; Belhousse, Samia; Boarino, Luca; Gabouze, Noureddine; Boukherroub, Rabah; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of ordered silicon structures by chemical etching of silicon in vanadium oxide (V2O5)/hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The effects of the different etching parameters including the solution concentration, temperature, and the presence of metal catalyst film deposition (Pd) on the morphologies and reflective properties of the etched Si surfaces were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to explore the morphologies of the etched surfaces with and without the presence of catalyst. In this case, the attack on the surfaces with a palladium deposit begins by creating uniform circular pores on silicon in which we distinguish the formation of pyramidal structures of silicon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrates that the surfaces are H-terminated. A UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study the reflectance of the structures obtained. A reflectance of 2.21% from the etched Si surfaces in the wavelength range of 400 to 1,000 nm was obtained after 120 min of etching while it is of 4.33% from the Pd/Si surfaces etched for 15 min.

  15. Formation of nanostructured silicon surfaces by stain etching

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of ordered silicon structures by chemical etching of silicon in vanadium oxide (V2O5)/hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. The effects of the different etching parameters including the solution concentration, temperature, and the presence of metal catalyst film deposition (Pd) on the morphologies and reflective properties of the etched Si surfaces were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to explore the morphologies of the etched surfaces with and without the presence of catalyst. In this case, the attack on the surfaces with a palladium deposit begins by creating uniform circular pores on silicon in which we distinguish the formation of pyramidal structures of silicon. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) demonstrates that the surfaces are H-terminated. A UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study the reflectance of the structures obtained. A reflectance of 2.21% from the etched Si surfaces in the wavelength range of 400 to 1,000 nm was obtained after 120 min of etching while it is of 4.33% from the Pd/Si surfaces etched for 15 min. PMID:25435830

  16. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of surface-engineered silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Somak; Švrček, Vladimir; Macias-Montero, Manual; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements (15–300 K), which have allowed probing radiative transitions and understanding of the appearance of various transitions. We further demonstrate that transitions associated with oxide in SiNCs show characteristic vibronic peaks that vary with surface characteristics. In particular we study differences and similarities between silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) derived from porous silicon and SiNCs that were surface-treated using a radio-frequency (RF) microplasma system. PMID:27296771

  17. Surface acoustic wave/silicon monolithic sensor/processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.; Nouhi, A.; Kilmer, R.; Fathimulla, M. A.; Mehter, E.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique for sputter deposition of piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) is described. An argon-ion milling system was converted to sputter zinc oxide films in an oxygen atmosphere using a pure zinc oxide target. Piezoelectric films were grown on silicon dioxide and silicon dioxide overlayed with gold. The sputtered films were evaluated using surface acoustic wave measurements, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and resistivity measurements. The effect of the sputtering conditions on the film quality and the result of post-deposition annealing are discussed. The application of these films to the generation of surface acoustic waves is also discussed.

  18. Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Efimenko,K.; Crowe, J.; Manias, E.; Schwark, D.; Fischer, D.; Genzer, J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the rapid formation of hydrophilic silicone elastomer surfaces by ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) irradiation of poly(vinylmethylsiloxane) (PVMS) network films. Our results reveal that the PVMS network surfaces render hydrophilic upon only a short UVO exposure time (seconds to a few minutes). We also provide evidence that the brief UVO irradiation treatment does not cause dramatic changes in the surface modulus of the PVMS network. We compare the rate of formation of hydrophilic silicone elastomer surfaces made of PVMS to those of model poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and commercial-grade PDMS (Sylgard-184). We find that relative to PVMS, 20 times longer UVO treatment times are needed to oxidize the PDMS network surfaces in order to achieve a comparable density of surface-bound hydrophilic moieties. The longer UVO treatment times for PDMS are in turn responsible for the dramatic increase in surface modulus of UVO treated PDMS, relative to PVMS. We also study the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) made of semifluorinated organosilane precursors on the PVMSUVO and PDMS-UVO network surfaces. By tuning the UVO treatment times and by utilizing mono- and tri-functional organosilanes we find that while mono-functionalized organosilanes attach directly to the substrate, SAMs of tri-functionalized organosilanes form in-plane networks on the underlying UVO-modified silicone elastomer surface, even with only short UVO exposure times.

  19. Molecular mechanism of selective binding of peptides to silicon surface.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sathish Kumar; Martin, Marta; Cloitre, Thierry; Firlej, Lucyna; Gergely, Csilla

    2014-07-28

    Despite extensive recent research efforts on material-specific peptides, the fundamental problem to be explored yet is the molecular interactions between peptides and inorganic surfaces. Here we used computer simulations (density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics) to investigate the adsorption mechanism of silicon-binding peptides and the role of individual amino acids in the affinity of peptides for an n-type silicon (n(+)-Si) semiconductor. Three silicon binding 12-mer peptides previously elaborated using phage display technology have been studied. The peptides' conformations close to the surface have been determined and the best-binding amino acids have been identified. Adsorption energy calculations explain the experimentally observed different degrees of affinity of the peptides for n(+)-Si. Our residual scanning analysis demonstrates that the binding affinity relies on both the identity of the amino acid and its location in the peptide sequence.

  20. Superconductivity of metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihashi, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Recent progress in superconducting metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon is reviewed, mainly focusing on the results of the author’s group. After a brief introduction of an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV)-low-temperature (LT)-compatible electron transport measurement system, direct observation of the zero resistance state for the Si(111)-(\\sqrt{7} × \\sqrt{3} )-In surface is described, which demonstrates the existence of a superconducting transition in this class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The measurement and analysis of the temperature dependence of the critical current density indicate that a surface atomic step works as a Josephson junction. This identification is further confirmed by LT-scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observation of Josephson vortices trapped at atomic steps on the Si(111)-(\\sqrt{7} × \\sqrt{3} )-In surface. These experiments reveal unique features of metal-induced surface reconstructions on silicon that may be utilized to explore novel superconductivity.

  1. Controlled oxidation, biofunctionalization, and patterning of alkyl monolayers on silicon and silicon nitride surfaces using plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Michel; Giesbers, Marcel; Schroën, Karin; Zuilhof, Han

    2010-01-19

    A new method is presented for the fast and reproducible functionalization of silicon and silicon nitride surfaces coated with covalently attached alkyl monolayers. After formation of a methyl-terminated 1-hexadecyl monolayer on H-terminated Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces, short plasma treatments (1-3 s) are sufficient to create oxidized functionalities without damaging the underlying oxide-free silicon. The new functional groups can, e.g., be derivatized using the reaction of surface aldehyde groups with primary amines to form imine bonds. In this way, plasma-treated monolayers on silicon or silicon nitride surfaces were successfully coated with nanoparticles, or proteins such as avidin. In addition, we demonstrate the possibility of micropatterning, using a soft contact mask during the plasma treatment. Using water contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, XPS, IRRAS, AFM, and reflectometry, proof of principle is demonstrated of a yet unexplored way to form patterned alkyl monolayers on oxide-free silicon surfaces.

  2. Etching and Chemical Control of the Silicon Nitride Surface.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Marine; Aureau, Damien; Chantraine, Paul; Guillemot, François; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal; Ozanam, François

    2017-01-25

    Silicon nitride is used for many technological applications, but a quantitative knowledge of its surface chemistry is still lacking. Native oxynitride at the surface is generally removed using fluorinated etchants, but the chemical composition of surfaces still needs to be determined. In this work, the thinning (etching efficiency) of the layers after treatments in HF and NH4F solutions has been followed by using spectroscopic ellipsometry. A quantitative estimation of the chemical bonds found on the surface is obtained by a combination of infrared absorption spectroscopy in ATR mode, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and colorimetry. Si-F bonds are the majority species present at the surface after silicon nitride etching; some Si-OH and a few Si-NHx bonds are also present. No Si-H bonds are present, an unfavorable feature for surface functionalization in view of the interest of such mildly reactive groups for achieving stable covalent grafting. Mechanisms are described to support the experimental results, and two methods are proposed for generating surface SiH species: enriching the material in silicon, or submitting the etched surface to a H2 plasma treatment.

  3. Surface quality of silicon wafer improved by hydrodynamic effect polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wenqiang; Guan, Chaoliang; Li, Shengyi

    2014-08-01

    Differing from the traditional pad polishing, hydrodynamic effect polishing (HEP) is non-contact polishing with the wheel floated on the workpiece. A hydrodynamic lubricated film is established between the wheel and the workpiece when the wheel rotates at a certain speed in HEP. Nanoparticles mixed with deionized water are employed as the polishing slurry, and with action of the dynamic pressure, nanoparticles with high chemisorption due to the high specific surface area can easily reacted with the surface atoms forming a linkage with workpiece surface. The surface atoms are dragged away when nanoparticles are transported to separate by the flow shear stress. The development of grand scale integration put extremely high requirements on the surface quality on the silicon wafer with surface roughness at subnanometer and extremely low surface damage. In our experiment a silicon sample was processed by HEP, and the surface topography before and after polishing was observed by the atomic force microscopy. Experiment results show that plastic pits and bumpy structures on the initial surface have been removed away clearly with the removal depth of 140nm by HEP process. The processed surface roughness has been improved from 0.737nm RMS to 0.175nm RMS(10μm×10μm) and the section profile shows peaks of the process surface are almost at the same height. However, the machining ripples on the wheel surface will duplicate on the silicon surface under the action of the hydrodynamic effect. Fluid dynamic simulation demonstrated that the coarse surface on the wheel has greatly influence on the distribution of shear stress and dynamic pressure on the workpiece surface.

  4. Silicon crystal surface temperature: Computational and radiometric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Khounsary, A.M.; Kuzay, T.M.; Forster, G.A.

    1988-12-01

    The surface temperature of the three-channel, gallium cooled Cornell silicon crystal was evaluated for the given system configuration and specifications. The THTB thermal-hydraulic program is used for the numerical solution of the problem, and the results are to be compared with the radiometric measurements obtained at Cornell.

  5. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, D. T.; Milam, J. K.; Winslett, H. B.

    1968-01-01

    Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium-90, radiation detector, and a silicon surface barrier detector, measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank. The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information.

  6. Growth of C 60 films on silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Sarid, Dror

    1994-10-01

    The growth of crystalline C 60 films on Si(111) and Si (100) surfaces has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It is found that the films on these two silicon substrates, which consist of both partially ordered monolayer and crystalline islands, differ in their morphologies. The results are explained in terms of the relative strength of interaction of the first monolayer of C 60 molecules with the silicon substrate and the C 60 islands above it. Annealing the samples to elevated temperatures causes the C 60 islands to evaporate, leaving a full layer of C 60 molecules capped on the substrate.

  7. Random Surface Texturing of Silicon Dioxide Using Gold Agglomerates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    photons incident on the surface of the solar cell actually end up in the active region able to convert photon energy into electrical energy . Several...mechanisms contribute to energy losses in solar cells, including heat loss, recombination loss, and reflective loss. Of those, reflection of incident...in an AR coating on solar cells. 15. SUBJECT TERMS anti-reflective, AR coatings, textured surface structures, silicon dioxide, SiO2 16. SECURITY

  8. Silver diffusion over silicon surfaces with adsorbed tin atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Dolbak, A. E. Olshanetskii, B. Z.

    2015-02-15

    Silver diffusion over the (111), (100), and (110) surfaces of silicon with preliminarily adsorbed tin atoms is studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. Diffusion is observed only on the surface of Si(111)-2√3 × 2√3-Sn. The diffusion mechanism is established. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends on the concentration of diffusing atoms. The diffusion coefficient decreases with increasing silver concentration, while the activation energy and the preexponential factor increase.

  9. Surface effects in high voltage silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Arndt, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The surface of low-resistivity silicon solar cells appears to be a major source of dark diffusion current. This region, consisting of the interface and the adjacent heavily doped layer, therefore, prevents attainment of the high open-circuit voltages expected from these cells. This paper describes the experimental effort carried out to reduce the various contributions of dark current from the surface. Analysis of results from this effort points to means of improving cell voltages by changing processing and structures.

  10. Surface charge transport in Silicon (111) nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weiwei; Scott, Shelley; Jacobson, Rb; Savage, Donald; Lagally, Max; The Lagally Group Team

    Using thin sheets (``nanomembranes'') of atomically flat crystalline semiconductors, we are able to investigate surface electronic properties, using back-gated van der Pauw measurement in UHV. The thinness of the sheet diminishes the bulk contribution, and the back gate tunes the conductivity until the surface dominates, enabling experimental determination of surface conductance. We have previously shown that Si(001) surface states interact with the body of the membrane altering the conductivity of the system. Here, we extended our prior measurements to Si(111) in order to probe the electronic transport properties of the Si(111) 7 ×7 reconstruction. Sharp (7 ×7) LEED images attest to the cleanliness of the Si(111) surface. Preliminary results reveal a highly conductive Si(111) 7 ×7 surface with a sheet conductance Rs of order of μS/ □, for 110nm thick membrane, and Rs is a very slowly varying function of the back gate voltage. This is in strong contrast to Si(001) nanomembranes which have a minimum conductance several orders of magnitude lower, and hints to the metallic nature of the Si(111) surface. Research supported by DOE.

  11. Surface self-diffusion of silicon during high temperature annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta-Alba, Pablo E.; Kononchuk, Oleg; Gourdel, Christophe; Claverie, Alain

    2014-04-07

    The atomic-scale mechanisms driving thermally activated self-diffusion on silicon surfaces are investigated by atomic force microscopy. The evolution of surface topography is quantified over a large spatial bandwidth by means of the Power Spectral Density functions. We propose a parametric model, based on the Mullins-Herring (M-H) diffusion equation, to describe the evolution of the surface topography of silicon during thermal annealing. Usually, a stochastic term is introduced into the M-H model in order to describe intrinsic random fluctuations of the system. In this work, we add two stochastic terms describing the surface thermal fluctuations and the oxidation-evaporation phenomenon. Using this extended model, surface evolution during thermal annealing in reducing atmosphere can be predicted for temperatures above the roughening transition. A very good agreement between experimental and theoretical data describing roughness evolution and self-diffusion phenomenon is obtained. The physical origin and time-evolution of these stochastic terms are discussed. Finally, using this model, we explore the limitations of the smoothening of the silicon surfaces by rapid thermal annealing.

  12. An Analytical Model for Silicon-on-Insulator Reduced Surface Field Devices with Semi-Insulating Polycrystalline Silicon Shielding Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chi-Hon; Liao, Chien-Nan; Chien, Feng-Tso; Tsai, Yao-Tsung

    2008-07-01

    An analytical model is presented to determine the potential and electric field distribution along the semiconductor surface of new silicon-on-insulator (SOI) reduced surface field (RESURF) device. The SOI structure is characterized by a semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon (SIPOS) layer inserted between a silicon layer and a buried oxide. An improvement in the breakdown voltage due to the presence of the SIPOS shielding layer is demonstrated. Numerical simulations using medici are shown to support the analytical model.

  13. Dynamic Chemically Driven Dewetting, Spreading, and Self-Running of Sessile Droplets on Crystalline Silicon.

    PubMed

    Arscott, Steve

    2016-12-06

    A chemically driven dewetting effect is demonstrated using sessile droplets of dilute hydrofluoric acid on chemically oxidized silicon wafers. The dewetting occurs as the thin oxide is slowly etched by the droplet and replaced by a hydrogen-terminated surface; the result of this is a gradual increase in the contact angle of the droplet with time. The time-varying work of adhesion is calculated from the time-varying contact angle; this corresponds to the changing chemical nature of the surface during dewetting and can be modeled by the well-known logistic (sigmoid) function often used for the modeling of restricted growth, in this case, the transition from an oxidized surface to a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. The observation of the time-varying contact angle allows one to both measure the etch rate of the silicon oxide and estimate the hydrogenation rate as a function of HF concentration and wafer type. In addition to this, at a certain HF concentration, a self-running droplet effect is observed. In contrast, on hydrogen-terminated silicon wafers, a chemically induced spreading effect is observed using sessile droplets of nitric acid. The droplet spreading can also be modeled using a logistical function, where the restricted growth is the transition from hydrogen-terminated to a chemically induced oxidized silicon surface. The chemically driven dewetting and spreading observed here add to the methods available to study dynamic wetting (e.g., the moving three-phase contact line) of sessile droplets on surfaces. By slowing down chemical kinetics of the wetting, one is able to record the changing profile of the sessile droplet with time and gather information concerning the time-varying surface chemistry. The data also indicates a chemical interface hysteresis (CIH) that is compared to contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The approach can also be used to study the chemical etching and deposition behavior of thin films using liquids by monitoring the macroscopic

  14. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Sara M.; Alshimy, Ahmad M.; Fahmy, Amal E.

    2014-01-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n = 21). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (α = 0.05). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. PMID:25574170

  15. Silver-Silicon Bonding on Silica Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, John Roland

    The properties of Ag films deposited on silica or silica-based glass substrates have been investigated using several techiques of surface analysis. Interfacial studies are reported for three types of films: organometallic Ag on glass, wet chemical electroless Ag on glass and SiO(,2), and vacuum evaporated Ag on SiO(,2). Organometallic films on Corning (0317) and (7809) glasses have strong adhesion and good optical reflectance. Composition -in-depth profiles taken with XPS, ISS, and SIMS indicate that the interfacial regions are enriched in Si. It is thought that the thermal decomposition of the organometallic solution either depletes the surface of O or deposits Si on the surface to which Ag bonds. Films formed by the wet chemical electroless process were studied as prepared and after various stages of environmental exposure by XPS, AES, ISS, and SIMS. These films have excellent optical reflectance and excellent adhesion. Evidence for Sn-Si bonds after sensitization and Ag-Si bonds after silvering without reducers is presented. It is concluded that Ag is bonded to Si via a set of Sn insertion reactions, thereby accounting for the strong adhesion and resistance to corrosion. Impurities were found at the interfaces of commercial mirror stacks that probably contribute to rapid degradation in the terrestrial environment. The effects of surface treatment of silica with ion and electron beams are reported. It was found that particle bombardment with He, Ne, Ar or electrons in the range of 0.25 to 8 keV results in reduction of surface to form SiO(,x) (x < 2). Complete reduction was not observed. It is thought that enrichment of the surface in Si prior to vacuum deposition of Ag improves the adhesion of the film. Angle resolved XPS and ISS on one monolayer of evaporated Ag on SiO(,2) indicates that Si is preferentially masked by the Ag, suggesting a Si superior position for the Ag atoms.

  16. Mixed role of surface on intrinsic losses in silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Subhadeep; Kunal, K.; Aluru, N. R.

    2016-03-01

    We utilize molecular dynamics simulations and show opposing roles of surface on dissipation in nanostructures. While the surface defects always aid in the entropy generation process, the scattering of phonons from rough surfaces can suppress Akhiezer damping. For the case of a silicon (2 × 1) reconstructed surface, the former dominates and Q-1 (Q is the quality factor) is found to increase with the decrease in size. However, different scaling trends are observed in the case of a hydrogen (H) terminated silicon surface with no defects and dimers. Particularly, in the case of a H-terminated silicon, if the resonator is operated with a frequency Ω such that Ωτph<1 , where τph is the phonon relaxation time and Q-1 is found to decrease with the decrease in size. The opposite scaling is observed for Ωτph>1 . A simplified model, based on two phonon groups (with positive and negative Grüneisen parameters), is considered to explain the observed trend. We show that the equilibration time between the two mode groups decreases with the decrease in size for the H-terminated structure. We also study the scaling of Q-1 factor with frequency for these cases.

  17. Method For Silicon Surface Texturing Using Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kadakia, Nirag; Naczas, Sebastian; Bakhru, Hassaram; Huang Mengbing

    2011-06-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to show more interest in the photovoltaic market, cheaper and readily integrable methods of silicon solar cell production are desired. One of these methods - ion implantation - is well-developed and optimized in all commercial semiconductor fabrication facilities. Here we have developed a silicon surface texturing technique predicated upon the phenomenon of surface blistering of H-implanted silicon, using only ion implantation and thermal annealing. We find that following the H implant with a second, heavier implant markedly enhances the surface blistering, causing large trenches that act as a surface texturing of c-Si. We have found that this method reduces total broadband Si reflectance from 35% to below 5percent;. In addition, we have used Rutherford backscattering/channeling measurements investigate the effect of ion implantation on the crystallinity of the sample. The data suggests that implantation-induced lattice damage is recovered upon annealing, reproducing the original monocrystalline structure in the previously amorphized region, while at the same time retaining the textured surface.

  18. Surface and bulk hot electron dynamics in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Seongtae; Bokor, Jeffrey

    1997-03-01

    The direct time domain study of hot electron dynamics on the silicon surface has been an active area of research. Dynamics in Si(100) surface states was observed(M.W. Rowe, H. Liu, G. P. Williams, Jr., and R. T. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 47, 2048 (1993)) as well as cooling of a hot but thermal distribution of carriers in bulk silicon(J. R. Goldman, and J. A. Prybyla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 1364 (1994)). In this work, a time-resolved photoemission study on the Si(100)2x1 surface with 1.55 eV pump and 4.66 eV probe with 0.2 psec time resolution is reported. It is observed that two-photon absorption is responsible for high kinetic energy electrons above the conduction band minimum (CBM) but direct single-photon excitation into surface states and conduction band states followed by the surface recombination dominates the dynamics. Also observed are an early nonthermal electronic distribution in silicon and its transition into a thermal one followed by a rapid cooling.

  19. Changes in surface chemistry of silicon carbide (0001) surface with temperature and their effect on friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Friction studies were conducted with a silicon carbide (0001) surface contacting polycrystalline iron. The surface of silicon carbide was pretreated: (1) by bombarding it with argon ions for 30 minutes at a pressure of 1.3 pascals; (2) by heating it at 800 C for 3 hours in vacuum at a pressure of 10 to the minus eighth power pascal; or (3) by heating it at 1500 C for 3 hours in a vacuum of 10 to the minus eighth power pascal. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the presence of silicon and carbon and the form of the carbon. The surfaces of silicon carbide bombarded with argon ions or preheated to 800 C revealed the main Si peak and a carbide type of C peak in the Auger spectra. The surfaces preheated to 1500 C revealed only a graphite type of C peak in the Auger spectra, and the Si peak had diminished to a barely perceptible amount. The surfaces of silicon carbide preheated to 800 C gave a 1.5 to 3 times higher coefficient of friction than did the surfaces of silicon carbide preheated to 1500 C. The coefficient of friction was lower in the 11(-2)0 direction than in the 10(-1)0 direction; that is, it was lower in the preferred crystallographic slip direction.

  20. Dynamics of photosensitized formation of singlet oxygen by porous silicon in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Minoru; Nishimura, Naoki; Fumon, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Shinji; Kovalev, Dmitry; Goller, Bernhard; Diener, Joachim

    2006-12-15

    Generation of singlet oxygen due to energy transfer from photoexcited silicon nanocrystals in D{sub 2}O is demonstrated. It is shown that the singlet oxygen generation efficiency, i.e., the intensity of near-infrared emission from singlet oxygen gradually decreases when Si nanocrystals are continuously irradiated in O{sub 2}-saturated D{sub 2}O. The mechanism of the photodegradation of the photosensitizing efficiency is studied using photoluminescence and infrared absorption techniques. Experimental results suggest that the interaction of photogenerated singlet oxygen with the hydrogen-terminated surface of silicon nanocrystals results in photo-oxidation of silicon nanocrystals, and the surface oxides reduce the photosensitizing efficiency. It is also demonstrated that photo-oxidation of porous silicon in O{sub 2}-saturated water results in a strong enhancement of the photoluminescence quantum yield of porous Si.

  1. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  2. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  3. Passivation of c-Si surfaces by sub-nm amorphous silicon capped with silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Yimao Yan, Di; Bullock, James; Zhang, Xinyu; Cuevas, Andres

    2015-12-07

    A sub-nm hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film capped with silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) is shown to provide a high level passivation to crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces. When passivated by a 0.8 nm a-Si:H/75 nm SiN{sub x} stack, recombination current density J{sub 0} values of 9, 11, 47, and 87 fA/cm{sup 2} are obtained on 10 Ω·cm n-type, 0.8 Ω·cm p-type, 160 Ω/sq phosphorus-diffused, and 120 Ω/sq boron-diffused silicon surfaces, respectively. The J{sub 0} on n-type 10 Ω·cm wafers is further reduced to 2.5 ± 0.5 fA/cm{sup 2} when the a-Si:H film thickness exceeds 2.5 nm. The passivation by the sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thermally stable at 400 °C in N{sub 2} for 60 min on all four c-Si surfaces. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal a reduction in interface defect density and film charge density with an increase in a-Si:H thickness. The nearly transparent sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thus demonstrated to be a promising surface passivation and antireflection coating suitable for all types of surfaces encountered in high efficiency c-Si solar cells.

  4. Surface roughness measurements of micromachined polycrystalline silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinney, L. M.; Lin, G.; Wellman, J.; Garcia, A.

    2004-07-01

    The characteristics of the materials and surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and microsystems technology (MST) profoundly affect the performance, reliability, and wear of MEMS and MST devices. It is critical to measure the properties of surfaces that are in contact during microstructure movement, such as the underside of a MEMS gear and the underlying substrate. However, contacting surfaces are usually inaccessible unless the MEMS device is broken and removed from the substrate. This paper presents a nondestructive method for characterizing commercially fabricated surface micromachined polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) devices. Microhinged flaps were designed that enable access to the upper surface, the part of a structural layer deposited last; the lower surface, the part of a structural layer deposited first; and the underlying substrate. Due to the susceptibility of surface-micromachined MEMS to adhesion failures, the surface roughness is a key parameter for predicting device behavior. Using the microhinged flaps, the RMS surface roughness for polycrystalline surfaces was measured and indicated that the upper surfaces were 3.5-6.4 times rougher than the lower surfaces. The difference in the surface roughness for the upper surface, which is easily accessed and the one most commonly characterized, and that for the lower surface reveals the importance of characterizing contacting surfaces in MEMS and MST devices.

  5. Biocompatible silicon surfaces through orthogonal click chemistries and a high affinity silicon oxide binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Hassert, Rayk; Pagel, Mareen; Ming, Zhou; Häupl, Tilmann; Abel, Bernd; Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2012-10-17

    Multifunctionality is gaining more and more importance in the field of improved biomaterials. Especially peptides feature a broad chemical variability and are versatile mediators between inorganic surfaces and living cells. Here, we synthesized a unique peptide that binds to SiO(2) with nM affinity. We equipped the peptide with the bioactive integrin binding c[RGDfK]-ligand and a fluorescent probe by stepwise Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand and copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. For the first time, we report the generation of a multifunctional peptide by combining these innovative coupling reactions. The resulting peptide displayed an outstanding binding to silicon oxide and induced a significant increase in cell spreading and cell viability of osteoblasts on the oxidized silicon surface.

  6. Miniaturized proton exchange fuel cell in micromachined silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, Giuseppe; Spinella, Corrado; Rimini, Emanuele; Rubino, Loredana; Lorenti, Simona

    2004-01-01

    The increasing interest for light and movable electronic systems, cell phones and small digital devices, drives the technological research toward integrated regenerating power sources with small dimensions and great autonomy. Conventional batteries are already unable to deliver power in more and more shrunk volumes maintaining the requirements of long duration and lightweight. A possible solution to overcome these limits is the use of miniaturized fuel cell. The fuel cell offers a greater gravimetric energy density compared to conventional batteries. The micromachining technology of silicon is an important tool to reduce the fuel cell structure to micrometer sizes. The use of silicon also gives the opportunity to integrate the power source and the electronic circuits controlling the fuel cell on the same structure. This paper reports preliminary results concerning the micromachining procedure to fabricate an arrays of microchannels for a Si-based electrocatalytic membrane for miniaturized Si-based proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Several techniques are routinely used to fabricate arrays of microchannels embedded in crystalline silicon. In this paper we present an innovative microchannel formation process, entirely based on surface silicon micromachining, which allows us to produce rhomboidal microchannels embedded on (100) silicon wafers. Compared to the traditional techniques, the proposed process is extremely compatible with the standard microelectronics silicon technology. The kinetics of rhomboidal microchannel formation is monitored by cyclic voltammetry measurements and the results are compared with a detailed structural characterisation performed by scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of this process is discussed in view of the possible applications in the fuel cell application.

  7. Stochastic and fractal properties of silicon and porous silicon rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinabadi, S.; Rajabi, M.

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the stochastic properties and fractal behavior of Si and porous silicon (PS) rough surfaces to characterize the complexity of their morphology. To this end, height fluctuations of these rough surfaces are determined by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and then roughness and correlation length of the surfaces are calculated. The generalized Hurst exponent, h(q) and singularity spectrum, f(α) are obtained by using two dimensional MF-DFA method for both rough surfaces; Our results show that both mentioned surfaces are multifractal and have different scaling exponents. To investigate the reason of the observed multifractality behavior, we determine height distribution, skewness and kurtosis measures and show that the deviation from the Gaussian distribution for the height fluctuations of the surfaces can be a reason for the observed multifractality behavior.

  8. Methods of Attaching or Grafting Carbon Nanotubes to Silicon Surfaces and Composite Structures Derived Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Chen, Bo (Inventor); Flatt, Austen K. (Inventor); Stewart, Michael P. (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Maya, Francisco (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of attaching or grafting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to silicon surfaces. In some embodiments, such attaching or grafting occurs via functional groups on either or both of the CNTs and silicon surface. In some embodiments, the methods of the present invention include: (1) reacting a silicon surface with a functionalizing agent (such as oligo(phenylene ethynylene)) to form a functionalized silicon surface; (2) dispersing a quantity of CNTs in a solvent to form dispersed CNTs; and (3) reacting the functionalized silicon surface with the dispersed CNTs. The present invention is also directed to the novel compositions produced by such methods.

  9. Silicon Nanotips Antireflection Surface for Micro Sun Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Lee, Choonsup; Mobasser, Sohrab; Manohara, Harish

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new technique to fabricate antireflection surface using silicon nano-tips for use on a micro sun sensor for Mars rovers. We have achieved randomly distributed nano-tips of radius spanning from 20 nm to 100 nm and aspect ratio of 200 using a two-step dry etching process. The 30(deg) specular reflectance at the target wavelength of 1 (mu)m is only about 0.09 %, nearly three orders of magnitude lower than that of bare silicon, and the hemispherical reflectance is 8%. By changing the density and aspect ratio of these nanotips, the change in reflectance is demonstrated. Using surfaces covered with these nano-tips, the critical problem of ghost images that are caused by multiple internal reflections in a micro sun sensor was solved.

  10. Structure and dynamics of fluorinated alkanes on silicon dioxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Mesfin

    2007-03-01

    Despite their great promise in various applications, the structure and dynamics of fluorinated alkanes at interfaces is still an open question. In particular, the knowledge from both theoretical and experimental perspectives is very limited when it comes to understanding the interface between these systems and a solid substrate. Molecular dynamics simulations based on the All Atom OPLS model are used to predict the equilibrium structure and dynamics of short fluorinated alkanes on both amorphous and crystalline silicon dioxide surfaces. In order to understand the effect of layer-layer interaction on the ordering of chains in a given layer, the thickness of the liquid film is increased layer-by-layer from monolayer to multilayers. Results for structural and dynamics of the liquid films near the silicon dioxide surfaces will be presented.

  11. Silicon Nanotips Antireflection Surface for Micro Sun Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Lee, Choonsup; Mobasser, Sohrab; Manohara, Harish

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new technique to fabricate antireflection surface using silicon nano-tips for use on a micro sun sensor for Mars rovers. We have achieved randomly distributed nano-tips of radius spanning from 20 nm to 100 nm and aspect ratio of 200 using a two-step dry etching process. The 30(deg) specular reflectance at the target wavelength of 1 (mu)m is only about 0.09 %, nearly three orders of magnitude lower than that of bare silicon, and the hemispherical reflectance is 8%. By changing the density and aspect ratio of these nanotips, the change in reflectance is demonstrated. Using surfaces covered with these nano-tips, the critical problem of ghost images that are caused by multiple internal reflections in a micro sun sensor was solved.

  12. Quantum engineering at the silicon surface using dangling bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, S. R.; Studer, P.; Hirjibehedin, C. F.; Curson, N. J.; Aeppli, G.; Bowler, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    Individual atoms and ions are now routinely manipulated using scanning tunnelling microscopes or electromagnetic traps for the creation and control of artificial quantum states. For applications such as quantum information processing, the ability to introduce multiple atomic-scale defects deterministically in a semiconductor is highly desirable. Here we use a scanning tunnelling microscope to fabricate interacting chains of dangling bond defects on the hydrogen-passivated silicon (001) surface. We image both the ground-state and the excited-state probability distributions of the resulting artificial molecular orbitals, using the scanning tunnelling microscope tip bias and tip-sample separation as gates to control which states contribute to the image. Our results demonstrate that atomically precise quantum states can be fabricated on silicon, and suggest a general model of quantum-state fabrication using other chemically passivated semiconductor surfaces where single-atom depassivation can be achieved using scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  13. Quantum engineering at the silicon surface using dangling bonds.

    PubMed

    Schofield, S R; Studer, P; Hirjibehedin, C F; Curson, N J; Aeppli, G; Bowler, D R

    2013-01-01

    Individual atoms and ions are now routinely manipulated using scanning tunnelling microscopes or electromagnetic traps for the creation and control of artificial quantum states. For applications such as quantum information processing, the ability to introduce multiple atomic-scale defects deterministically in a semiconductor is highly desirable. Here we use a scanning tunnelling microscope to fabricate interacting chains of dangling bond defects on the hydrogen-passivated silicon (001) surface. We image both the ground-state and the excited-state probability distributions of the resulting artificial molecular orbitals, using the scanning tunnelling microscope tip bias and tip-sample separation as gates to control which states contribute to the image. Our results demonstrate that atomically precise quantum states can be fabricated on silicon, and suggest a general model of quantum-state fabrication using other chemically passivated semiconductor surfaces where single-atom depassivation can be achieved using scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  14. Quantum engineering at the silicon surface using dangling bonds

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, S. R.; Studer, P.; Hirjibehedin, C. F.; Curson, N. J.; Aeppli, G.; Bowler, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Individual atoms and ions are now routinely manipulated using scanning tunnelling microscopes or electromagnetic traps for the creation and control of artificial quantum states. For applications such as quantum information processing, the ability to introduce multiple atomic-scale defects deterministically in a semiconductor is highly desirable. Here we use a scanning tunnelling microscope to fabricate interacting chains of dangling bond defects on the hydrogen-passivated silicon (001) surface. We image both the ground-state and the excited-state probability distributions of the resulting artificial molecular orbitals, using the scanning tunnelling microscope tip bias and tip-sample separation as gates to control which states contribute to the image. Our results demonstrate that atomically precise quantum states can be fabricated on silicon, and suggest a general model of quantum-state fabrication using other chemically passivated semiconductor surfaces where single-atom depassivation can be achieved using scanning tunnelling microscopy. PMID:23552064

  15. Ion Beam Analysis Of Silicon-Based Surfaces And Correlation With Surface Energy Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xing Qian; Herbots, N.; Hart, M.; Bradley, J. D.; Wilkens, B. J.; Sell, D. A.; Culbertson, R. J.; Whaley, S. D.; Sell, Clive H.; Kwong, Henry Mark Jr.

    2011-06-01

    The water affinity of Si-based surfaces is quantified by contact angle measurement and surface free energy to explain hydrophobic or hydrophilic behavior of silicone, silicates, and silicon surfaces. Surface defects such as dangling bonds, surface free energy including Lewis acid-base and Lifshitz-van der Waals components are discussed. Water nucleation and condensation is further explained by surface topography. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM) provides statistical analysis of the topography of these Si-based surfaces. The correlation of the above two characteristics describes the behavior of water condensation at Si-based surfaces. Surface root mean square roughness increasing from several A ring to several nm is found to provide nucleation sites that expedite water condensation visibly for silica and silicone. Hydrophilic surfaces have a condensation pattern that forms puddles of water while hydrophobic surfaces form water beads. Polymer adsorption on these surfaces alters the water affinity as well as the surface topography, and therefore controls condensation on Si-based surfaces including silicone intraocular lens (IOL). The polymer film is characterized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in conjunction with 4.265 MeV {sup 12}C({alpha}, {alpha}){sup 12}C, 3.045 MeV {sup 16}O({alpha},{alpha}){sup 16}O nuclear resonance scattering (NRS), and 2.8 MeV elastic recoil detection (ERD) of hydrogen for high resolution composition and areal density measurements. The areal density of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film ranges from 10{sup 18} atom/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 19} atom/cm{sup 2} gives the silica or silicone surface a roughness of several A ring and a wavelength of 0.16{+-}0.02 {mu}m, and prevents fogging by forming a complete wetting layer during water condensation.

  16. Surface functionalization of silicone rubber for permanent adhesion improvement.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jan; Albrecht, Victoria; Nitschke, Mirko; Bellmann, Cornelia; Simon, Frank; Zschoche, Stefan; Michel, Stefan; Luhmann, Claudia; Grundke, Karina; Voit, Brigitte

    2008-11-04

    The surface properties of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) layers screen printed onto silicon wafers were studied after oxygen and ammonia plasma treatments and subsequent grafting of poly(ethylene -alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), roughness analysis, and contact angle and electrokinetic measurements. In the case of oxygen-plasma-treated PDMS, a hydrophilic, brittle, silica-like surface layer containing reactive silanol groups was obtained. These surfaces indicate a strong tendency for "hydrophobic recovery" due to the surface segregation of low-molecular-weight PDMS species. The ammonia plasma treatment of PDMS resulted in the generation of amino-functional surface groups and the formation of a weak boundary layer that could be washed off by polar liquids. To avoid the loss of the plasma modification effect and to achieve stabilization of the mechanically instable, functionalized PDMS top layer, PEMA was subsequently grafted directly or after using gamma-APS as a coupling agent on the plasma-activated PDMS surfaces. In this way, long-time stable surface functionalization of PDMS was obtained. The reactivity of the PEMA-coated PDMS surface caused by the availability of anhydride groups could be controlled by the number of amino functional surface groups of the PDMS surface necessary for the covalent binding of PEMA. The higher the number of amino functional surface groups available for the grafting-to procedure, the lower the hydrophilicity and hence the lower the reactivity of the PEMA-coated PDMS surface. Additionally, pull-off tests were applied to estimate the effect of surface modification on the adhesion between the silicone rubber and an epoxy resin.

  17. Influence of black silicon surfaces on the performance of back-contacted back silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes; Haschke, Jan; Käsebier, Thomas; Korte, Lars; Sprafke, Alexander N; Wehrspohn, Ralf B

    2014-10-20

    The influence of different black silicon (b-Si) front side textures prepared by inductively coupled reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) on the performance of back-contacted back silicon heterojunction (BCB-SHJ) solar cells is investigated in detail regarding their optical performance, black silicon surface passivation and internal quantum efficiency. Under optimized conditions the effective minority carrier lifetime measured on black silicon surfaces passivated with Al(2)O(3) can be higher than lifetimes measured for the SiO(2)/SiN(x) passivation stack used in the reference cells with standard KOH textures. However, to outperform the electrical current of silicon back-contact cells, the black silicon back-contact cell process needs to be optimized with aspect to chemical and thermal stability of the used dielectric layer combination on the cell.

  18. Exploring silicon surface chemistry with spectroscopy and microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fan

    Recent technology advances have pushed the development of silicon devices to their physical performance limits. An alternative way to keep Moore's law valid and avoid the physical limits of today's magnetic memory is to combine molecules with the silicon. Molecules possess degrees of freedom that traditional silicon devices lack, such as rotation, conformation, oxidation states, spontaneous dipole moment, and discrete energy levels. Cleverly taking advantage of these properties may lead to next generation devices that are more powerful and efficient than today's silicon devices. To realize such an ambitious goal, it is necessary to understand the surface chemistry of silicon, i.e., the adsorption, reaction, and disorder phenomena of molecules at the surface. Spectroscopy and microscopy are two complementary methods to study surface chemistry and provide insight into mechanisms for next generation silicon devices. In this thesis, the major spectroscopy method used is Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. To make full use of this technique, a new model is introduced in order to disentangle the concepts of disorder and orientation, both of which are provided by a NEXAFS measurement. The disorder information is obtained by introducing a disorder parameter sigma, whose magnitude directly measures the spread of the orientation angle around its average. This model clarifies some long existing controversial interpretations of NEXAFS measurements and provides insights into disorder-related physical properties. The second emphasis of this thesis is the development of molecular nanostructures where one-dimensional molecular arrays with strong dipole moments are formed on the Si(111) 5x2-Au surface. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) is used to characterize these nanostructures. The study shows that upward versus downward orientations of the dipole moment of the molecules can be distinguished by STM barrier height imaging. Such structures could be a

  19. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy of Silicon and Carbon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Shenda Mary

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) investigations and additional surface analyses were performed on carbon and silicon surfaces. A number of anomalies have been observed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), including large corrugations, distorted images, large range of tip motion and the absence of defects. A mechanism involving direct contact between tip and sample or contact through a contamination layer to provide an additional conducting pathway is proposed. This model of point-contact imaging provides an explanation for added stability of the STM system, a mechanism for producing multiple tips or sliding graphite planes and an explanation for the observed anomalies. These observations indicate that the use of HOPG for testing and calibration of STM instrumentation may be misleading. Designs for the atmospheric STM used in this study are also presented. The conditions necessary for preparing a clean silicon(111) (7x7) surface are discussed. The design and analysis of heaters necessary to prepare the silicon reconstructed surface at ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are described. Results from both radiatively and resistively heated samples are shown in addition to a comparison of topographic and barrier height images of the boron (surd 3 times surd 3) reconstructed surfaces. A spectroscopic distinction between sites of boron, silicon or contaminants is demonstrated. A synthetic boron-doped diamond was examined by a number of analytical techniques in order to determine its composition and surface morphology. Current-voltage spectroscopy taken with the STM indicates that the diamond Fermi level can be pinned in atmospheric conditions. In ultrahigh vacuum, band bending is observed, but the strength of the electric field experienced by the diamond semiconductor is less than expected; introduction of surface charges is shown to account for the field screening. Presentation of an STM study of a protein-antibody complex on a gold surface illustrates the requirements

  20. Photophysical properties of luminescent silicon nanoparticles surface-modified with organic molecules via hydrosilylation.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Mari; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Wada, Satoshi; Kawashima, Akira; Nakajima, Ayako; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Ishioka, Junya; Shibayama, Tamaki; Watanabe, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2016-01-01

    Luminescent silicon nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention for their potential uses in various applications. Many approaches have been reported to protect the surface of silicon nanoparticles and prevent their easy oxidation. Various air-stable luminescent silicon nanoparticles have been successfully prepared. However, the effect of interactions of the π-electron system with the silicon surface on the excited state properties of silicon nanoparticles is unclear. In this study, we have successfully prepared silicon nanoparticles protected with three organic compounds (styrene, 1-decene, and 1-vinyl naphthalene) and have examined their photophysical properties. The ligand π-electron systems on the silicon surface promoted the light harvesting ability for the luminescence through a charge transfer transition between the protective molecules and silicon nanoparticles and also enhanced the radiative rate of the silicon nanoparticles.

  1. Surface modification of silicon and PTFE by laser surface treatment: improvement of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Yong; Lee, Kyoung-cheol; Lee, Cheon

    2003-11-01

    Laser surface treatment was used to modify the surface of silicon and PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene). This method is in order to improve its wettability and adhesion characteristics. Using a 4th harmonic Nd:YAG pulse laser (λ = 266 nm, pulse), we determined the wettability and the adhesion characteristics of silicon and PTFE surfaces developed by the laser irradiation. Particularly, surface treatment of PTFE was only effective when the irradiated interface was in contact with the triethylamine photoreagent. We investigated laser surface treatment of materials by the surface energy modification. By using the sessile drop technique with distilled water, we determined that the wettability of silicon and PTFE after the irradiation showed a decrease in the contact angle and a change in the surface chemical composition. In case of the laser-treated materials surface, laser direct writing of copper lines was achieved through pyrolytic decomposition of copper formate films by using a focused argon ion laser beam (λ = 514.5 nm, cw) on silicon and PTFE substrates. The deposited patterns and the surface chemical compositions were measured by using energy dispersive X-ray, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and surface profiler to examine cross section of the deposited copper lines.

  2. Controlled thinning and surface smoothening of silicon nanopillars.

    PubMed

    Kalem, S; Werner, P; Nilsson, B; Talalaev, V G; Hagberg, M; Arthursson, O; Södervall, U

    2009-11-04

    A convenient method has been developed to thin electron beam fabricated silicon nanopillars under controlled surface manipulation by transforming the surface of the pillars to an oxide shell layer followed by the growth of sacrificial ammonium silicon fluoride coating. The results show the formation of an oxide shell and a silicon core without significantly changing the original length and shape of the pillars. The oxide shell layer thickness can be controlled from a few nanometers up to a few hundred nanometers. While downsizing in diameter, smooth Si pillar surfaces of less than 10 nm roughness within 2 microm were produced after exposure to vapors of HF and HNO3 mixture as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The attempt to expose for long durations leads to the growth of a thick oxide whose strain effect on pillars can be assessed by coupled LO-TO vibrational modes of Si-O bonds. Photoluminescence (PL) of the pillar structures which have been downsized exhibits visible and infrared emissions, which are attributable to microscopic pillars and to the confinement of excited carriers in the Si core, respectively. The formation of smooth core-shell structures while reducing the diameter of the Si pillars has a potential in fabricating nanoscale electronic devices and functional components.

  3. Peptide immobilisation on porous silicon surface for metal ions detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, Sabrina S.; Chazalviel, Jean-Noël Jn; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal Ac; Ozanam, François F.; Etcheberry, Arnaud A.; Gabouze, Nour-Eddine N.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, a Glycyl-Histidyl-Glycyl-Histidine (GlyHisGlyHis) peptide is covalently anchored to the porous silicon PSi surface using a multi-step reaction scheme compatible with the mild conditions required for preserving the probe activity. In a first step, alkene precursors are grafted onto the hydrogenated PSi surface using the hydrosilylation route, allowing for the formation of a carboxyl-terminated monolayer which is activated by reaction with N-hydroxysuccinimide in the presence of a peptide-coupling carbodiimide N-ethyl- N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and subsequently reacted with the amino linker of the peptide to form a covalent amide bond. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to investigate the different steps of functionalization. The property of peptides to form stable complexes with metal ions is exploited to achieve metal-ion recognition by the peptide-modified PSi-based biosensor. An electrochemical study of the GlyHisGlyHis-modified PSi electrode is achieved in the presence of copper ions. The recorded cyclic voltammograms show a quasi-irreversible process corresponding to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. The kinetic factors (the heterogeneous rate constant and the transfer coefficient) and the stability constant of the complex formed on the porous silicon surface are determined. These results demonstrate the potential role of peptides grafted on porous silicon in developing strategies for simple and fast detection of metal ions in solution.

  4. Peptide immobilisation on porous silicon surface for metal ions detection.

    PubMed

    Sam, Sabrina S; Chazalviel, Jean-Noël Jn; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal Ac; Ozanam, François F; Etcheberry, Arnaud A; Gabouze, Nour-Eddine N

    2011-06-06

    In this work, a Glycyl-Histidyl-Glycyl-Histidine (GlyHisGlyHis) peptide is covalently anchored to the porous silicon PSi surface using a multi-step reaction scheme compatible with the mild conditions required for preserving the probe activity. In a first step, alkene precursors are grafted onto the hydrogenated PSi surface using the hydrosilylation route, allowing for the formation of a carboxyl-terminated monolayer which is activated by reaction with N-hydroxysuccinimide in the presence of a peptide-coupling carbodiimide N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and subsequently reacted with the amino linker of the peptide to form a covalent amide bond. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to investigate the different steps of functionalization.The property of peptides to form stable complexes with metal ions is exploited to achieve metal-ion recognition by the peptide-modified PSi-based biosensor. An electrochemical study of the GlyHisGlyHis-modified PSi electrode is achieved in the presence of copper ions. The recorded cyclic voltammograms show a quasi-irreversible process corresponding to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. The kinetic factors (the heterogeneous rate constant and the transfer coefficient) and the stability constant of the complex formed on the porous silicon surface are determined. These results demonstrate the potential role of peptides grafted on porous silicon in developing strategies for simple and fast detection of metal ions in solution.

  5. Peptide immobilisation on porous silicon surface for metal ions detection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a Glycyl-Histidyl-Glycyl-Histidine (GlyHisGlyHis) peptide is covalently anchored to the porous silicon PSi surface using a multi-step reaction scheme compatible with the mild conditions required for preserving the probe activity. In a first step, alkene precursors are grafted onto the hydrogenated PSi surface using the hydrosilylation route, allowing for the formation of a carboxyl-terminated monolayer which is activated by reaction with N-hydroxysuccinimide in the presence of a peptide-coupling carbodiimide N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide and subsequently reacted with the amino linker of the peptide to form a covalent amide bond. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to investigate the different steps of functionalization. The property of peptides to form stable complexes with metal ions is exploited to achieve metal-ion recognition by the peptide-modified PSi-based biosensor. An electrochemical study of the GlyHisGlyHis-modified PSi electrode is achieved in the presence of copper ions. The recorded cyclic voltammograms show a quasi-irreversible process corresponding to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple. The kinetic factors (the heterogeneous rate constant and the transfer coefficient) and the stability constant of the complex formed on the porous silicon surface are determined. These results demonstrate the potential role of peptides grafted on porous silicon in developing strategies for simple and fast detection of metal ions in solution. PMID:21711937

  6. LiBr treated porous silicon used for efficient surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroug, Ahmed; Haddadi, Ikbel; Derbali, Lotfi; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2015-04-01

    A simple but effective passivation method of both front and rear surfaces using porous silicon (PS) has been developed. This paper investigates the effect of LiBr on the passivation of PS. The immersion of as-etched PS in dilute LiBr solution followed by an annealing in an infrared furnace, under a controlled atmosphere at different temperatures, led to the passivation of the PS layer and the improvement of the electronic properties of the crystalline silicon substrates. The influence of substrate temperature was investigated, since the processed wafers were found to be sensitive to heat, which in turn was optimized to have a gettering effect. The bromide of lithium can effectively saturate dangling bonds and hence contributed to the formation of a stable passivation film, at both front and back surfaces. Such a reaction was found to have a beneficial effect on the passivation process of the PS layer grown on both sides. The obtained results exhibited a significant improvement of the minority carrier lifetime, which is an important parameter that defines the quality of crystalline silicon substrates, and an apparent enhancement of its photoluminescence (PL). The internal quantum efficiency was investigated and found to be significantly improved. The qualitative effect of the above-mentioned procedure proved a significant enhancement of the electronic quality of the treated substrates.

  7. Effect of surface modification on the porous silicon infiltrated with biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, B.; Alagumanikumaran, N.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Jeyakumaran, N.; Ramadas, V.; Natarajan, B.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon was prepared by electrochemical etching method. The porous silicon has advantages over planar platforms in biosensor development due to its increased surface area. The high surface area in the porous silicon biosensors will allow for higher biosensor sensitivity while using as a smaller device. The porous silicon optical sensing device works on the basis of changes in its physical properties especially photoluminescence or reflectance, on exposure to the surrounding environment. In the present investigation, porous silicon was bio-functionalized through the deposition of functional groups on its surface by adsorption of chicken blood plasma and serum. SEM, FTIR and photoluminescence studies were carried out for bio-functionalized porous silicon surfaces to study the possibility for utilizing porous silicon as a biomaterial for biosensor applications instead of utilizing porous silicon as a biosensor and biomaterial.

  8. Polycrystalline silicon optical fibers with atomically smooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Healy, Noel; Lagonigro, Laura; Sparks, Justin R; Boden, Stuart; Sazio, Pier J A; Badding, John V; Peacock, Anna C

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the surface roughness of polycrystalline silicon core optical fibers fabricated using a high-pressure chemical deposition technique. By measuring the optical transmission of two fibers with different core sizes, we will show that scattering from the core-cladding interface has a negligible effect on the losses. A Zemetrics ZeScope three-dimensional optical profiler has been used to directly measure the surface of the core material, confirming a roughness of only ~0.1 nm. The ability to fabricate low-loss polysilicon optical fibers with ultrasmooth cores scalable to submicrometer dimensions should establish their use in a range of nonlinear optical applications.

  9. Silicon colors: spectral selective perfect light absorption in single layer silicon films on aluminum surface and its thermal tunability.

    PubMed

    Mirshafieyan, Seyed Sadreddin; Guo, Junpeng

    2014-12-15

    Using two most abundant materials in nature: silicon and aluminum, spectral selective perfect light absorption in single layer silicon films on aluminum surface is demonstrated. Perfect light absorption is achieved due to the critical coupling of incident optical wave to the second order resonance mode of the optical cavity made of a thin silicon film on aluminum surface. Spectral selective perfect light absorption results in different optical colors corresponding to different thicknesses of silicon films. The device colors do not change when viewing from large angles with respect to the surface normal. Perfect absorption wavelength can be tuned over a wide wavelength range over 70 nm by thermal annealing. This new technology, which is low cost and compatible with silicon technology platform, paves the way for many applications such as optical color filters and wavelength selective photodetectors.

  10. Fluoroalkylated Silicon-Containing Surfaces - Estimation of Solid Surface Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-20

    acetone, chloroform and dodecane or diiodomethane, dimethyl sulfoxide and water. 3 SYNOPSIS TOC KEYWORDS Superhydrophobicity ...surfaces that are not wetted by liquid droplets, i. e. superhydrophobic ,1-4 oleophobic,5-15 hygrophobic,16 omniphobic7, 12 surfaces. These surfaces have...potential applications in oil-water separation, non-wettable textiles,2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 14, 15 and fingerprint/smudge resistant touch-screen devices

  11. Surface modulation of silicon nitride ceramics for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Bock, Ryan M; McEntire, Bryan J; Bal, B Sonny; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Boffelli, Marco; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) has a distinctive combination of material properties such as high strength and fracture toughness, inherent phase stability, scratch resistance, low wear, biocompatibility, hydrophilic behavior, excellent radiographic imaging and resistance to bacterial adhesion, all of which make it an attractive choice for orthopaedic implants. Unlike oxide ceramics, the surface chemistry and topography of Si3N4 can be engineered to address potential in vivo needs. Morphologically, it can be manufactured to have an ultra-smooth or highly fibrous surface structure. Its chemistry can be varied from that of a silica-like surface to one which is predominately comprised of silicon-amines. In the present study, a Si3N4 bioceramic was subjected to thermal, chemical, and mechanical treatments in order to induce changes in surface composition and features. The treatments included grinding and polishing, etching in aqueous hydrofluoric acid, and heating in nitrogen or air. The treated surfaces were characterized using a variety of microscopy techniques to assess morphology. Surface chemistry and phase composition were determined using X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Streaming potential measurements evaluated surface charging, and sessile water drop techniques assessed wetting behavior. These treatments yielded significant differences in surface properties with isoelectric points ranging from 2 to 5.6, and moderate to extremely hydrophilic water contact angles from ∼65° to ∼8°. This work provides a basis for future in vitro and in vivo studies which will examine the effects of these treatments on important orthopaedic properties such as friction, wear, protein adsorption, bacteriostasis and osseointegration. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) exhibits a unique combination of bulk mechanical and surface chemical properties that make it an ideal biomaterial for orthopaedic implants. It is already being used for interbody spinal fusion cages and is

  12. Controlling the dopant dose in silicon by mixed-monolayer doping.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liang; Pujari, Sidharam P; Zuilhof, Han; Kudernac, Tibor; de Jong, Michel P; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2015-02-11

    Molecular monolayer doping (MLD) presents an alternative to achieve doping of silicon in a nondestructive way and holds potential for realizing ultrashallow junctions and doping of nonplanar surfaces. Here, we report the mixing of dopant-containing alkenes with alkenes that lack this functionality at various ratios to control the dopant concentration in the resulting monolayer and concomitantly the dopant dose in the silicon substrate. The mixed monolayers were grafted onto hydrogen-terminated silicon using well-established hydrosilylation chemistry. Contact angle measurements, X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) on the boron-containing monolayers, and Auger electron spectroscopy on the phosphorus-containing monolayers show clear trends as a function of the dopant-containing alkene concentration. Dynamic secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (D-SIMS) and Van der Pauw resistance measurements on the in-diffused samples show an effective tuning of the doping concentration in silicon.

  13. Silicon nanocrystal inks, films, and methods

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, Lance Michael; Kortshagen, Uwe Richard

    2015-09-01

    Silicon nanocrystal inks and films, and methods of making and using silicon nanocrystal inks and films, are disclosed herein. In certain embodiments the nanocrystal inks and films include halide-terminated (e.g., chloride-terminated) and/or halide and hydrogen-terminated nanocrystals of silicon or alloys thereof. Silicon nanocrystal inks and films can be used, for example, to prepare semiconductor devices.

  14. Surface and allied studies in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements were made in the short-circuit current-decay method of measuring the recombination lifetime tau and the back surface recombination velocity S of the quasineutral base of silicon solar cells. The improvements include a circuit implementation that increases the speed of switching from the forward-voltage to the short-circuit conditions. They also include a supplementation of this method by some newly developed techniques employing small-signal admittance as a function of frequency omega. This supplementation is highly effective for determining tau for cases in which the diffusion length L greatly exceeds the base thickness W. Representative results on different solar cells are reported. Some advances made in the understanding of passivation provided by the polysilicon/silicon heterojunction are outlined. Recent measurements demonstrate that S 10,000 cm/s derive from this method of passivation.

  15. Surface characterization of nanostructured 'black silicon' using impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wenqi; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we utilize electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study the electronic characteristics of nanostructured silicon (Si) fabricated using the metal-assisted chemical etched (MACE) process. The nanostructured Si fabricated using the MACE process results in a density graded surface that reduces the broadband surface reflection of Si making it appear almost black, which coins it the name `black Si' (bSi). We study two bSi samples prepared using varying MACE times (20s and 40s) and a reference bare silicon sample using EIS between 1 MHz and 1 Hz frequencies. At an illumination intensity created with the use of a tungsten lamp source calibrated to output an intensity of 1-Sun (1000 W/m2), the impedance behavior at bias potentials in both the forward and reverse bias ranging between -1 V and 1 V are studied. We also study the effect of illumination wavelength by using bandpass filters at 400 nm and 800 nm. The results indicate that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) decreases as the surface roughness of the electrodes increases and as the illumination wavelength increases. We also find that the constant phase element (CPE) impedance of the electrodes increases with increasing surface roughness. These results will guide our future work on high efficiency bSi solar cells.

  16. Low thermal budget surface preparation for selective silicon epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Salih Muhsin

    In this dissertation, a low thermal budget surface preparation method which combines an ex situ dilute HF dip with an in situ anneal in vacuum has been investigated. After a 10-second anneal at 750sp° C, oxygen and chlorine levels at the epitaxy/substrate interface are reduced below the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) detection levels and carbon level at the interface is decreased significantly. It is determined that silicon-dioxide patterns on silicon surface does not cause an adverse effect on the in-situ clean efficiency. In-situ cleaning with and without chlorinated background were compared and no adverse effects of chlorine were observed for the ranges of chlorine flows used. A correlation between the defect density in the eptaxial layers and the interfacial carbon dose has been observed. The surface roughness measurements showed that annealing in vacuum did not cause any roughening on the wafer surface. NMOS transistors were fabricated on silicon epitaxial layers with different surface treatments and no significant variations in the electrical characteristics were observed. In situ cleaning is studied in ambients with different partial pressures of nitrogen and oxygen backgrounds. Oxygen was removed from Si(100) by a 800sp° C/10s anneal for nitrogen partial pressures in the cleaning ambient up to 1× 10sp{-6} Torr. When the oxygen partial pressure in the ambient is sufficiently high (1× 10sp{-6} Torr), oxide removal was not complete after in situ cleaning (800sp° C/20s). There was no observable increase in the surface roughness for samples annealed in oxygen partial pressure up to 1× 10sp{-5} Torr. Hydrogen passivation was removed from the substrates and the surfaces were exposed to vacuum at room temperature for times varying from 10 to 10000 seconds. After 10000 seconds of wait time in vacuum, the oxygen coverage was less than 2% of a monolayer. The carbon contamination on the surface was instantaneous and no additional carbon accumulation on

  17. Tantalum oxide/silicon nitride: A negatively charged surface passivation stack for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Yimao Bullock, James; Cuevas, Andres

    2015-05-18

    This letter reports effective passivation of crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces by thermal atomic layer deposited tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) underneath plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}). Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy imaging shows an approximately 2 nm thick interfacial layer between Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and c-Si. Surface recombination velocities as low as 5.0 cm/s and 3.2 cm/s are attained on p-type 0.8 Ω·cm and n-type 1.0 Ω·cm c-Si wafers, respectively. Recombination current densities of 25 fA/cm{sup 2} and 68 fA/cm{sup 2} are measured on 150 Ω/sq boron-diffused p{sup +} and 120 Ω/sq phosphorus-diffused n{sup +} c-Si, respectively. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal a negative fixed insulator charge density of −1.8 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} for the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film and −1.0 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} for the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiN{sub x} stack. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiN{sub x} stack is demonstrated to be an excellent candidate for surface passivation of high efficiency silicon solar cells.

  18. Origin of complex impact craters on native oxide coated silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai; Popok, Vladimir N.; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.

    2008-02-01

    Crater structures induced by impact of keV-energy Arn+ cluster ions on silicon surfaces are measured with atomic force microscopy. Complex crater structures consisting of a central hillock and outer rim are observed more often on targets covered with a native silicon oxide layer than on targets without the oxide layer. To explain the formation of these complex crater structures, classical molecular dynamics simulations of Ar cluster impacts on oxide coated silicon surfaces, as well as on bulk amorphous silica, amorphous Si, and crystalline Si substrates, are carried out. The diameter of the simulated hillock structures in the silicon oxide layer is in agreement with the experimental results, but the simulations cannot directly explain the height of hillocks and the outer rim structures when the oxide coated silicon substrate is free of defects. However, in simulations of 5keV /atom Ar12 cluster impacts, transient displacements of the amorphous silicon or silicon oxide substrate surfaces are induced in an approximately 50nm wide area surrounding the impact point. In silicon oxide, the transient displacements induce small topographical changes on the surface in the vicinity of the central hillock. The comparison of cluster stopping mechanisms in the various silicon oxide and silicon structures shows that the largest lateral momentum is induced in the silicon oxide layer during the impact; thus, the transient displacements on the surface are stronger than in the other substrates. This can be a reason for the higher frequency of occurrence of the complex craters on oxide coated silicon.

  19. Surface Micromachined Silicon Carbide Accelerometers for Gas Turbine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeAnna, Russell G.

    1998-01-01

    A finite-element analysis of possible silicon carbide (SIC) folded-beam, lateral-resonating accelerometers is presented. Results include stiffness coefficients, acceleration sensitivities, resonant frequency versus temperature, and proof-mass displacements due to centripetal acceleration of a blade-mounted sensor. The surface micromachined devices, which are similar to the Analog Devices Inc., (Norwood, MA) air-bag crash detector, are etched from 2-pm thick, 3C-SiC films grown at 1600 K using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). The substrate is a 500 gm-thick, (100) silicon wafer. Polysilicon or silicon dioxide is used as a sacrificial layer. The finite element analysis includes temperature-dependent properties, shape change due to volume expansion, and thermal stress caused by differential thermal expansion of the materials. The finite-element results are compared to experimental results for a SiC device of similar, but not identical, geometry. Along with changes in mechanical design, blade-mounted sensors would require on-chip circuitry to cancel displacements due to centripetal acceleration and improve sensitivity and bandwidth. These findings may result in better accelerometer designs for this application.

  20. Analysis of water microdroplet condensation on silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Takuya; Fujimoto, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Mogi, Katsuo; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Shu; Univ. of Tokyo Team; Tokyo Inst. of Tech. Team

    2016-11-01

    We observed the condensation process of water microdroplets on flat silicon (100) surfaces by means of the sequential visualization of the droplets using an environmental scanning electron microscope. As previously reported for nanostructured surfaces, the condensation process of water microdroplets on the flat silicon surfaces also exhibits two modes: the constant base (CB) area mode and the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. In the CB mode, the contact angle increases with time while the base diameter is constant. Subsequently, in the CCA mode, the base diameter increases with time while the contact angle remains constant. The dropwise condensation model regulated by subcooling temperature does not reproduce the experimental results. Because the subcooling temperature is not constant in the case of a slow condensation rate, this model is not applicable to the condensation of the long time scale ( several tens of minutes). The contact angle of water microdroplets ( several μm) tended to be smaller than the macro contact angle. Two hypotheses are proposed as the cause of small contact angles: electrowetting and the coalescence of sub- μm water droplets.

  1. Chemical tethering of motile bacteria to silicon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Bearinger, Jane P.; Dugan, Lawrence C.; Wu, Ligang; Hill, Haley; Christian, Allen T.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    We chemically immobilized live, motile Escherichia coli on micrometer-scale, photocatalytically patterned silicon surfaces via amine- and carboxylic acid–based chemistries. Immobilization facilitated (i) controlled positioning; (ii) high resolution cell wall imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM); and (iii) chemical analysis with time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Spinning motion of tethered bacteria, captured with fast-acquisition video, proved microbe viability. We expect our protocols to open new experimental doors for basic and applied studies of microorganisms, from host-pathogen relationships, to microbial forensics and drug discovery, to biosensors and biofuel cell optimization. PMID:19317664

  2. Containment of a silicone fluid free surface in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, A.; Jacobson, T.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the surface tension driven convection experiment planned for flight aboard the Space Shuttle, tests were conducted under reduced gravity in the 2.2-sec drop tower and the 5.0-sec Zero-G facility at the Lewis Research Center. The dynamics of controlling the test fluid, a 10-centistoke viscosity silicone fluid, in a low-gravity environment were investigated using different container designs and barrier coatings. Three container edge designs were tested without a barrier coating: a square edge, a sharp edge with a 45-deg slope, and a saw-tooth edge. All three edge designs were successful in containing the fluid below the edge.

  3. Improved Silicon Carbide Crystals Grown From Atomically Flat Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is demonstrating that atomically flat (i.e., step-free) silicon carbide (SiC) surfaces are ideal for realizing greatly improved wide bandgap semiconductor films with lower crystal defect densities. Further development of these improved films could eventually enable harsh-environment electronics beneficial to jet engine and other aerospace and automotive applications, as well as much more efficient and compact power distribution and control. The technique demonstrated could also improve blue-light lasers and light-emitting-diode displays.

  4. Silicon surface-electrode ion traps for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doret, S. Charles; Slusher, Richart

    2010-03-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is designing, building, and testing scalable surface-electrode ion traps for quantum information applications, fabricated using silicon VLSI technology. A wide range of trap architectures have been developed, including a linear trap capable of holding long chains of equally spaced ions, a 90-degree X-junction, and an integrated micromirror with collection efficiency approaching 20%. Fabrication features that can be integrated with the surface electrodes include multilayer interconnects, optics for enhanced light collection, flexible optical access through beveled slots extending through the substrate, and recessed wire bonds for clear laser access across the trap surface. Traps are designed at GTRI using in-house codes that calculate trap fields, compute the full motion of ions confined in the trap, including micromotion, and optimize electrode shapes and transport waveforms using genetic algorithms. We will present designs and initial test results for several of these traps, as well as plans for their use in future experiments.

  5. Passivation of textured crystalline silicon surfaces by catalytic CVD silicon nitride films and catalytic phosphorus doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Cham, Trinh Thi; Matsumura, Hideki

    2017-10-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) films formed by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) and phosphorus (P)-doped layers formed by catalytic impurity doping (Cat-doping) are applied for the passivation of pyramid-shaped textured crystalline Si (c-Si) surfaces formed by anisotropic etching in alkaline solution. Lower surface recombination velocities (SRVs) tend to be obtained when smaller pyramids are formed on c-Si surfaces. P Cat-doping is effective for reducing the SRV of textured c-Si surfaces as in the case of flat c-Si surfaces. We realize SRVs of textured c-Si surfaces of ∼8.0 and ∼6.7 cm/s for only SiN x passivation and for the combination of SiN x and P Cat-doping, respectively. These structures also have high optical transparency and low Auger recombination loss, and are of great worth in application for the surface passivation of interdigitated back-contact c-Si solar cells.

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis on effect of porous silicon surface treatment in multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khezami, Lotfi; Al Megbel, Abdulrahman Omar; Jemai, Abdelbasset Bessadok; Rabha, Mohamed Ben

    2015-10-01

    As widely known in silicon-based solar cells, the intrinsic parameters are decisive factors for internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and solar cells performances. Particularly, the front surface recombination velocity is one of the most important electrical parameters used to quantify the optoelectronic quality of the solar cells. In this study, the impact of the front surface recombination velocities (Sf) and anti-reflection coating are examined. Theoretical analysis shows that a decrease in Sf enhances the IQE for photons with shorter wavelengths (400-700 nm). Cells with front porous silicon treatment (PS) was made and studied under ambient condition to improve performance of solar cells. In fact, internal quantum efficiency of mc-Si solar cells with PS was enhanced in shorter wavelengths, while the reflectivity was reduced to about 7% after PS treatment and conversion efficiency was improved by about 5% compared with conventional mc-Si solar cells. Furthermore, the laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping shows that the PS treatment improves their quantum response.

  7. A new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface with sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linfeng; Tang, Jiuyao

    2009-08-01

    This work proposes a new texturing technique of monocrystalline silicon surface for solar cells with sodium hypochlorite. A mixed solution consisting of 5 wt% sodium hypochlorite and 10 vl% ethanol has been found that results in a homogeneous pyramidal structure, and an optimal size of pyramids on the silicon surface. The textured silicon surface exhibits a lower average reflectivity (about 10.8%) in the main range of solar spectrum (400-1000 nm).

  8. Surface chemical-bonds analysis of silicon particles from diamond-wire cutting of crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benayad, Anass; Hajjaji, Hamza; Coustier, Fabrice; Benmansour, Malek; Chabli, Amal

    2016-12-01

    The recycling of the Si powder resulting from the kerf loss during silicon ingot cutting into wafers for photovoltaic application shows both significant and achievable economic and environmental benefits. A combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectral analyses were applied to kerf-loss Si powders reclaimed from the diamond wire cutting using different cutting fluids. These spectroscopies performed in suitable configurations for the analysis of particles, yield detailed insights on the surface chemical properties of the powders demonstrating the key role of the cutting fluid nature. A combined XPS core peak, plasmon loss, and valence band study allow assessing a qualitative and quantitative chemical, structural change of the kerf-loss Si powders. The relative contribution of the LO and TO stretching modes to the Si-O-Si absorption band in the ATR-FTIR spectra provide a consistent estimation of the effective oxidation level of the Si powders. The change in the cutting media from deionized water to city water, induces a different silicon oxide layer thickness at the surface of the final kerf-loss Si, depending on the powder reactivity to the media. The surfactant addition induces an enhanced carbon contamination in the form of grafted carbonated species on the surface of the particles. The thickness of the modified surface, depending on the cutting media, was estimated based on a simple model derived from the combined XPS core level and plasmon peak intensities. The effective nature of these carbonated species, sensitive to the water quality, was evidenced based on coupled XPS core peak and valence band study. The present work paves the way to a controlled process to reclaim the kerf-loss Si powder without heavy chemical etching steps.

  9. Decoupling high surface recombination velocity and epitaxial growth for silicon passivation layers on crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landheer, Kees; Kaiser, Monja; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Poulios, Ioannis; Schropp, Ruud E. I.; Rath, Jatin K.

    2017-02-01

    We have critically evaluated the deposition parameter space of very high frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition discharges near the amorphous to crystalline transition for intrinsic a-Si:H passivation layers on Si (1 1 1) wafers. Using a low silane concentration in the SiH4-H2 feedstock gas mixture that created amorphous material just before the transition, we have obtained samples with excellent surface passivation. Also, an a-Si:H matrix was grown with embedded local epitaxial growth of crystalline cones on a Si (1 1 1) substrate, as was revealed with a combined scanning electron and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study. This local epitaxial growth was introduced by a decrease of the silane concentration in the feedstock gas or an increase in discharge power at low silane concentration. Together with the samples on Si (1 1 1) substrates, layers were co-deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates. This resulted in void-rich, mono-crystalline epitaxial layers on Si (1 0 0). The epitaxial growth on Si (1 0 0) was compared to the local epitaxial growth on Si (1 1 1). The sparse surface coverage of cones seeded on the Si (1 1 1) substrate is most probably enabled by a combination of nucleation at steps and kinks in the {1 1 1} surface and intense ion bombardment at low silane concentration. The effective carrier lifetime of this sample is low and does not increase upon post-deposition annealing. Thus, sparse local epitaxial growth on Si (1 1 1) is enough to obstruct crystalline silicon surface passivation by amorphous silicon.

  10. Surface and allied studies in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measuring small-signal admittance versus frequency and forward bias voltage together with a new transient measurement apparently provides the most reliable and flexible method available for determining back surface recombination velocity and low-injection lifetime of the quasineutral base region of silicon solar cells. The new transient measurement reported here is called short-circuit-current decay (SCCD). In this method, forward voltage equal to about the open-circuit or the maximum power voltage establishes excess holes and electrons in the junction transition region and in the quasineutral regions. The sudden application of a short circuit causes an exiting of the excess holes and electrons in the transition region within about ten picoseconds. From observing the slope and intercept of the subsequent current decay, the base lifetime and surface recombination velocity can be determined. The admittance measurement previously mentioned then enters to increase accuracy particularly for devices for which the diffusion length exceeds the base thickness.

  11. Silicon surface preparation for III-V molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiomanana, K.; Bahri, M.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Largeau, L.; Cerutti, L.; Mauguin, O.; Castellano, A.; Patriarche, G.; Tournié, E.

    2015-03-01

    We report on a silicon substrate preparation for III-V molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). It combines sequences of ex situ and in situ treatments. The ex situ process is composed of cycles of HF dip and O2 plasma treatments. Ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy performed after each step during the substrate preparation reveal surface cleaning and de-oxidation. The in situ treatment consists in flash annealing the substrate in the MBE chamber prior to epitaxial growth. GaSb-based multiple quantum well heterostructures emitting at 1.55 μm were grown by MBE on Si substrates prepared by different methods. Structural characterizations using XRD and TEM coupled with photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates the efficiency of our preparation process. This study thus unravels a simple and reproducible protocol to prepare the Si surface prior to III-V MBE.

  12. Surface chemistry and friction behavior of the silicon carbide (0001) surface at temperatures to 1500 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy analyses and friction studies were conducted with a silicon carbide (0001) surface in contact with iron at various temperatures to 1200 or 1500 C in a vacuum of 10 to the minus 8th power Pa. The results indicate that there is a significant temperature influence on both the surface chemistry and friction properties of silicon carbide. The principal contaminant of adsorbed amorphous carbon on the silicon carbide surface in the as received state is removed by simply heating to 400 C. Above 400 C, graphite and carbide type carbine are the primary species on the silicon carbide surface, in addition to silicon. The coefficients of friction of polycrystalline iron sliding against a single crystal silicon carbide (0001) surface were high at temperatures to 800 C. Similar coefficients of friction were obtained at room temperature after the silicon carbide was preheated at various temperatures up 800 C. When the friction experiments were conducted above 800 C or when the specimens were preheated to above 800 C, the coefficients of friction were dramatically lower. At 800 C the silicon and carbide type carbon are at a maximum intensity in the XPS spectra. With increasing temperature above 800 C, the concentration of the graphite increases rapidly on the surface, whereas those of the carbide type carbon and silicon decrease rapidly.

  13. Surface states and conductivity of silicon nano-wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Bhaskar, Umesh; Pardoen, Thomas; Passi, Vikram; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    The transport characteristics of low dimensional semiconductors like silicon nano-wires (SiNWs) rarely conform to expectations from geometry and dopant density, exhibiting significant variations as a function of different surface terminations/conditions. The association of these mechanisms with surface states and their exact influence on practical SiNW devices still remains largely unclear. Herein, we report on the influence of surface state charge distributions on SiNW transport characteristics. For this study, p-type SiNW devices with widths of 50, 100, and 2000 nm are fabricated from 25, 50, and 200 nm-thick SOI wafers. A ˜five order difference in effective carrier concentration was observed in the initial SiNWs characteristics, when comparing SiNWs fabricated with and without a thermal oxide. The removal of the surface oxide by a hydrogen fluoride (HF) treatment results in a SiNW conductance drop up to ˜six orders of magnitude. This effect is from a surface depletion of holes in the SiNW induced by positive surface charges deposited as a result of the HF treatment. However, it is observed that this charge density is transient and is dissipated with the re-growth of an oxide layer. In summary, the SiNW conductance is shown to vary by several orders of magnitude, while comparing its characteristics for the three most studied surface conditions: with a native oxide, thermal oxide and HF induced H-terminations. These results emphasize the necessity to interpret the transport characteristics of SiNWs with respect to its surface condition, during future investigations pertaining to the physical properties of SiNWs, like its piezo-resistance. As a sequel, prospects for efficiently sensing an elementary reduction/oxidation chemical process by monitoring the variation of SiNW surface potential, or in practice the SiNW conductance, is demonstrated.

  14. Surface modification for area selective atomic layer deposition on silicon and germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful ultra-thin film deposition method that employs sequential self-terminating surface reaction steps. Typically, the process permits nano-scale control of materials in the vertical direction. To develop the method for three-dimensional control of materials, we have been investigating an area-selective ALD technique which may ultimately enable nano-scale definition laterally. By manipulating the surface functional groups prior to ALD, we demonstrate an area-selective ALD process for both dielectrics (e.g. HfO, and ZrO2 high-kappa materials) and metals (e.g. Pt). Our approach is to chemically modify the substrate surface in order to impart spatial selectivity to ALD. We have investigated several different types of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as resists against ALD. Oxide-coated substrates (e.g. SiO2) have been protected using organosilane-based SAMs by silylation reaction; hydrogen-terminated Si (Si-H) and hydrogen-terminated Ge (Ge-H) protected by reaction with 1-alkenes or 1-alkynes via hydrosilylation and hydrogermylation, respectively. We have followed the SAM properties as a function of molecular structure and formation time using several experimental techniques and have correlated the properties of the SAMs with their efficacy as ALD resists for both classes of monolayers. With the successful ALD resists, area-selective ALD has been carried out using different patterning methods to define the lateral structure. Both micro-contact printing of SAMs and selective functionalization of a SiO2/Si structure by SAMs have been used to achieve area-selective ALD of HfOts2 and Pt films. We have compared the selectivity between these methods, and have described the differences in the context of the SAM resist requirements. We have also shown that by choosing either silylation- or hydrosilylation-based chemical functionalization, a single patterned oxide substrate can be used for either positive or negative pattern transfer into

  15. Experimental study of thermodynamic surface characteristics and pH sensitivity of silicon dioxide and silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, H; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2010-05-18

    In this report, we have introduced a revision of the chemical treatment influence on the surface thermodynamic properties of silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) and silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) solid thin layers. Some characterization techniques might be used to quantify the thermodynamic properties of solid surface and predict its ability in the adhesion phenomenon. In this work, we have used static and dynamic contact angle (CA) measurements to characterize both dioxide solid surfaces being treated by using the two procedures of cleaning and chemical activation. Qualitative and quantitative concepts of analysis, using the Van Oss approach, are based on the determination of dioxide surface hydrophilic and hydrophobic features and the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, acid, base, and Lewis acid-base surface tension components. Electrochemical capacitance-potential measurements were carried out to study the reactivity of both silicon dioxide and silicon nitride surfaces for pH variation. Furthermore, the surface roughness of these insulators was examined by using the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was concluded that CA technique can be used as a suitable and base method for the understanding of surface wettability and for the control of surface wetting behavior.

  16. Surface heterogeneity of passively oxidized silicon carbide particles: vapor adsorption isotherms.

    PubMed

    Médout-Marère, V; Partyka, S; Dutartre, R; Chauveteau, G; Douillard, J M

    2003-06-15

    The surfaces of silicon carbide particles subjected to two different passive oxidation treatments have been characterized by immersion calorimetry and vapor adsorption techniques. Surface enthalpies and surface free energies have been computed using semiempirical models and are compared to theoretical estimations. The surface entropy term appears higher than in the case of other solids studied with the same analysis. The definition of the surface entropy term is discussed in order to explain the discrepancy between calculation and experiment. An explanation of results is proposed, which is related to the constitution of silicon oxide layers at the surface of silicon carbide, a fact demonstrated by previous XPS measurements.

  17. Highly sensitive and reproducible silicon-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensors for real applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houyu; Jiang, Xiangxu; He, Yao

    2016-08-15

    During the past few decades, thanks to silicon nanomaterials' outstanding electronic/optical/mechanical properties, large surface-to-volume ratio, abundant surface chemistry, facile tailorability and good compatibility with modern semiconductor industry, different dimensional silicon nanostructures have been widely employed for rationally designing and fabricating high-performance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors for the detection of various chemical and biological species. Among these, two-dimensional silicon nanostructures made of metal nanoparticle-modified silicon wafers and three-dimensional silicon nanostructures made of metal nanoparticle-decorated SiNW arrays are of particular interest, and have been extensively exploited as promising silicon-based SERS-active substrates for the construction of high-performance SERS sensors. With an aim to retrospect these important and exciting achievements, we herein focus on reviewing recent representative studies on silicon-based SERS sensors for sensing applications from a broad perspective and possible future direction, promoting readers' awareness of these novel powerful silicon-based SERS sensing technologies. Firstly, we summarize the two unique merits of silicon-based SERS sensors, and those are high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Next, we present recent advances of two- and three-dimensional silicon-based SERS sensors, especially for real applications. Finally, we discuss the major challenges and prospects for the development of silicon-based SERS sensors.

  18. A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Walters, R J; van Loon, R V A; Brunets, I; Schmitz, J; Polman, A

    2010-01-01

    After decades of process scaling driven by Moore's law, the silicon microelectronics world is now defined by length scales that are many times smaller than the dimensions of typical micro-optical components. This size mismatch poses an important challenge for those working to integrate photonics with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics technology. One promising solution is to fabricate optical systems at metal/dielectric interfaces, where electromagnetic modes called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) offer unique opportunities to confine and control light at length scales below 100 nm (refs 1, 2). Research groups working in the rapidly developing field of plasmonics have now demonstrated many passive components that suggest the potential of SPPs for applications in sensing and optical communication. Recently, active plasmonic devices based on III-V materials and organic materials have been reported. An electrical source of SPPs was recently demonstrated using organic semiconductors by Koller and colleagues. Here we show that a silicon-based electrical source for SPPs can be fabricated using established low-temperature microtechnology processes that are compatible with back-end CMOS technology.

  19. A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; van Loon, R. V. A.; Brunets, I.; Schmitz, J.; Polman, A.

    2010-01-01

    After decades of process scaling driven by Moore's law, the silicon microelectronics world is now defined by length scales that are many times smaller than the dimensions of typical micro-optical components. This size mismatch poses an important challenge for those working to integrate photonics with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics technology. One promising solution is to fabricate optical systems at metal/dielectric interfaces, where electromagnetic modes called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) offer unique opportunities to confine and control light at length scales below 100nm (refs 1, 2). Research groups working in the rapidly developing field of plasmonics have now demonstrated many passive components that suggest the potential of SPPs for applications in sensing and optical communication. Recently, active plasmonic devices based on III-V materials and organic materials have been reported. An electrical source of SPPs was recently demonstrated using organic semiconductors by Koller and colleagues. Here we show that a silicon-based electrical source for SPPs can be fabricated using established low-temperature microtechnology processes that are compatible with back-end CMOS technology.

  20. Novel antifouling surface with improved hemocompatibility by immobilization of polyzwitterions onto silicon via click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Sunxiang; Yang, Qian; Mi, Baoxia

    2016-02-01

    A novel procedure is presented to develop an antifouling silicon surface with improved hemocompatibility by using a zwitterionic polymer, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA). Functionalization of the silicon surface with polySBMA involved the following three steps: (1) an alkyne terminated polySBMA was synthesized by RAFT polymerization; (2) a self-assembled monolayer with bromine end groups was constructed on the silicon surface, and then the bromine end groups were replaced by azide groups; and (3) the polySBMA was attached to the silicon surface by azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reaction. Membrane characterization confirmed a successful silicon surface modification with almost 100% coverage by polySBMA and an extremely hydrophilic surface after such modification. The polySBMA-modified silicon surface was found to have excellent anti-nonspecific adsorption properties for both bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein and model bacterial cells. Whole blood adsorption experiments showed that the polySBMA-modified silicon surface exhibited excellent hemocompatibility and effective anti-adhesion to blood cells. Silicon membranes with such antifouling and hemocompatible surfaces can be advantageously used to drastically extend the service life of implantable medical devices such as artificial kidney devices.

  1. Oscillations of light absorption in 2D macroporous silicon structures with surface nanocoatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Kuchmii, S.; Lytvynenko, O.; Sizov, F.; Stronska, O.; Stroyuk, A.

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the near-IR light absorption oscillations in 2D macroporous silicon structures with microporous silicon layers and CdTe, ZnO surface nanocrystals. The electro-optical effect was taken into account within the strong electric field approximation. Well-separated oscillations were observed in the spectral ranges of the surface bonds of macroporous silicon structures with surface nanocrystals. The model of the resonant electron scattering on impurity states in electric field of heterojunction “silicon-nanocoating” on macropore surface as well as realization of Wannier-Stark effect on the randomly distributed surface bonds were considered. The Wannier-Stark ladders are not broken by impurities because of the longer scattering lifetime as compared with the period of electron oscillations in an external electric field, in all spectral regions considered for macroporous silicon structures with CdTe and ZnO surface nanocrystals.

  2. Surface chemistry and photoluminescence property of functionalized silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anoop; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2009-05-01

    We report an efficient method of producing macroscopic quantity of functionalized silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) with bright photoluminescence (PL). Single crystalline Si NPs were synthesized in a microwave plasma reactor via pyrolysis of silane (SiH 4). Organic molecules were grafted onto the Si surface by reacting freshly etched NPs with 1-hexadecene at high temperature. Both freshly prepared and coated Si NPs were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the effectiveness of the surface modification. An increase in the PL intensity and a blue shift in the emission spectrum of functionalized Si NPs were observed compared to as-prepared NPs. The change in particle shape and morphology before and after the surface grafting was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electron diffraction patterns confirmed that Si NPs maintain their crystallinity after the functionalization process. In addition, functionalized Si NPs showed a red shift in the PL emission spectrum after air oxidation, which originated from the oxidation of remaining Si-H bonds on the surface.

  3. Modification of Silicon Oxide Surfaces with Thermally Annealed Polystyrene Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalan, Steven; Cavicchi, Kevin; Karim, Alamgir

    2011-03-01

    The modification of silicon with a native oxide surface has been accomplished by annealing thin films of anionically polymerized polystyrene spun-coat from solution at elevated temperature followed by dissolving the film in solvent to leave a thin layer of adsorbed polymer that persisted even after prolonged desorbing in solvent even at elevated temperature. It was found by water contact angle analysis of the samples after washing with organic solvent that annealing is a key step to adsorption of a thin layer of polystyrene on the film surface. X-ray reflectivity analysis also demonstrated that the thickness of the adsorbed layer is proportional to the molecular weight of the polymer. However, the contact angle showed a non-monotonic dependence on molecular weight. The further modification of these surfaces by ultraviolet/ozone treatment will be discussed. This is a novel surface treatment method as it performed with a polystyrene polymer without any additional chemical functionality through straight-forward vacuum annealing and washing with organic solvent.

  4. Optimization of the Surface Structure on Black Silicon for Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaojie; Zhou, Chunlan; Wang, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    Black silicon shows excellent anti-reflection and thus is extremely useful for photovoltaic applications. However, its high surface recombination velocity limits the efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the effective minority carrier lifetime of black silicon is improved by optimizing metal-catalyzed chemical etching (MCCE) method, using an Al2O3 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a passivation layer. Using the spray method to eliminate the impact on the rear side, single-side black silicon was obtained on n-type solar grade silicon wafers. Post-etch treatment with NH4OH/H2O2/H2O mixed solution not only smoothes the surface but also increases the effective minority lifetime from 161 μs of as-prepared wafer to 333 μs after cleaning. Moreover, adding illumination during the etching process results in an improvement in both the numerical value and the uniformity of the effective minority carrier lifetime.

  5. Optimization of the Surface Structure on Black Silicon for Surface Passivation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaojie; Zhou, Chunlan; Wang, Wenjing

    2017-12-01

    Black silicon shows excellent anti-reflection and thus is extremely useful for photovoltaic applications. However, its high surface recombination velocity limits the efficiency of solar cells. In this paper, the effective minority carrier lifetime of black silicon is improved by optimizing metal-catalyzed chemical etching (MCCE) method, using an Al2O3 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a passivation layer. Using the spray method to eliminate the impact on the rear side, single-side black silicon was obtained on n-type solar grade silicon wafers. Post-etch treatment with NH4OH/H2O2/H2O mixed solution not only smoothes the surface but also increases the effective minority lifetime from 161 μs of as-prepared wafer to 333 μs after cleaning. Moreover, adding illumination during the etching process results in an improvement in both the numerical value and the uniformity of the effective minority carrier lifetime.

  6. Fabricating micro-instruments in surface-micromachined polycrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Comtois, J.H.; Michalicek, M.A.; Barron, C.C.

    1997-04-01

    Smaller, lighter instruments can be fabricated as Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), having micron scale moving parts packaged together with associated control and measurement electronics. Batch fabrication of these devices will make economical applications such as condition-based machine maintenance and remote sensing. The choice of instrumentation is limited only by the designer`s imagination. This paper presents one genre of MEMS fabrication, surface-micromachined polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon). Two currently available but slightly different polysilicon processes are presented. One is the ARPA-sponsored ``Multi-User MEMS ProcesS`` (MUMPS), available commercially through MCNC; the other is the Sandia National Laboratories ``Sandia Ultra-planar Multilevel MEMS Technology`` (SUMMiT). Example components created in both processes will be presented, with an emphasis on actuators, actuator force testing instruments, and incorporating actuators into larger instruments.

  7. Surface plasmon resonance imaging biosensor based on silicon photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shaoyun; Sun, Xiuhui; Deng, Qiling; Xia, Liangping; Du, Chunlei

    2010-11-01

    The detection limit of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) biosensor is constrained in part by the SPR biochip and in part by the resolution of the optical intensity of detecting instruments. In this paper, silicon photodiode is proposed as the optical intensity detecting element instead of the traditionally used charge coupled device (CCD), combining with high resolution analog/digital converter, this method can efficiently reduce the cost and increase the sensitivity of the SPRI system while keeping its virtue of multiple channels real time detecting. Based on this method, An SPRI experimental system with two channels is designed and the optical intensity of each channel is detected by a photodiode. By carrying out testing experiments using sucrose solution with different concentrations (corresponding to different refractive index), the system sensitivity of 10-6 refractive index unit (RIU) is obtained.

  8. The Relationship between the Hydrophilicity and Surface Chemical Composition Microphase Separation Structure of Multicomponent Silicone Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; An, Shuang-Shuang; Xie, Hai-Jiao; Han, Xue-Lian; Wang, Fu-He; Jiang, Yong

    2015-07-30

    Three series of multicomponent silicone hydrogels were prepared by the copolymerization of two hydrophobic silicon monomers bis(trimethylsilyloxy) methylsilylpropyl glycerol methacrylate (SiMA) and tris(trimethylsiloxy) 3-methacryloxypropylsilane (TRIS) with three hydrophilic monomers. The surface hydrophilicity of the silicone hydrogels was characterized by contact angle measurements, and an interesting phenomenon was found that the silicone hydrogels made from less hydrophobic monomer SiMA possess more hydrophobic surfaces than those made from TRIS. The surface properties such as morphology and elemental composition of the silicone hydrogels were explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) analysis, and their relationships with the surface hydrophilicity were investigated in details. The results show neither the surface morphology nor the elemental composition has obvious impact on the surface hydrophilicity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging revealed that SiMA hydrogel had a more significant phase separation structure, which also made its surface uneven: a lot of tiny holes were observed on the surface. This surface phase separation structure made SiMA hydrogel more difficult to be wetted by water or PBS buffer, i.e., more hydrophobic than TRIS hydrogel. On the basis of these results, we propose that the phase separation structure as well as the nature of silicon monomers might be the fundamental reasons of surface hydrophilicity. These results could help to design a silicone hydrogel with better surface properties and wider application.

  9. New perspectives on thermal and hyperthermal oxidation of silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalilov, Umedjon

    The growth of (ultra)thin silica (SiO2) layers on crystalline silicon (c-Si) and controlling the thickness of SiO2 is an important issue in the fabrication of microelectronics and photovoltaic devices (e.g., MOSFETs, solar cells, optical fibers etc.). Such ultrathin oxide can be grown and tuned even at low temperature (including room temperature), by hyperthermal oxidation or when performed on non-planar Si surfaces (e.g., Si nanowires or spheres). However, hyperthermal silica growth as well as small Si-NW oxidation in general and the initial stages in particular have not yet been investigated in full detail. This work is therefore devoted to controlling ultrathin silica thickness on planar and non-planar Si surfaces, which can open new perspectives in nanodevice fabrication. The simulation of hyperthermal (1-100 eV) Si oxidation demonstrate that at low impact energy (<10 eV), oxygen does not damage the Si surface and this energy region could thus beneficially be used for Si oxidation. In contrast to thermal oxidation, 10 eV species can directly oxidize Si subsurface layers. A transition temperature of about 700 K was found: below this temperature, the oxide thickness only depends on the impact energy of the impinging species. Above this temperature, the oxide thickness depends on the impact energy, type of oxidant and the surface temperature. The results show that control over the ultrathin oxide (a-SiO2) thickness is possible by hyperthermal oxidation of silicon surfaces at temperatures below the transition temperature. In small Si-NWs, oxidation is a self-limiting process that occurs at low temperature, resulting in small Si core - SiO2 shell (semiconductor + dielectric) or c-Si|SiOx| a-SiO2 nanowire, which has also being envisaged to be used as nanowire field-effect transistors and photovoltaic devices in near-future nanotechnology. Above the transition temperature such core-shell nanowires are completely converted to a-SiO2 nanowires. It can be concluded that

  10. The Electronic and Atomic Structure of Diamond Surface and Effects of Hydrogen Termination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-02

    low reistivity, 3uR. N. Stuart, F . Wooten , and W, E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 7 (1963). although most Ila diamonds are insulators with very high...the large optical phonon energies of diamond (-170 meV) and the observed effective negative electron affinity of diamond (111) 1 x 1 (see Appendix I...semiconductors and islaos the band-peetd ncnimto f u ale ok 1 erprIn contrast to oinsulators, on the relative cross section of the upper p-like part of

  11. Fluorinated alkyne-derived monolayers on oxide-free silicon nanowires via one-step hydrosilylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen Minh, Quyen; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Zhanhua; Haick, Hossam; Zuilhof, Han; van Rijn, Cees J. M.

    2016-11-01

    Passivation of oxide-free silicon nanowires (Si NWs) by the formation of high-quality fluorinated 1-hexadecyne-derived monolayers with varying fluorine content has been investigated. Alkyl chain monolayers (C16H30-xFx) with a varying number of fluorine substituents (x = 0, 1, 3, 9, 17) were attached onto hydrogen-terminated silicon (Sisbnd H) surfaces with an effective one-step hydrosilylation. This surface chemistry gives well-defined monolayers on nanowires that have a cylindrical core-shell structure, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and static contact angle (SCA) analysis. The monolayers were stable under acidic and basic conditions, as well as under extreme conditions (such as UV exposure), and provide excellent surface passivation, which opens up applications in the fields of field effect transistors, optoelectronics and especially for disease diagnosis.

  12. Fabrication and application of porous silicon multilayered microparticles in sustained drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Patel, Sanjaykumar R.; Murthy, Z. V. P.

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the ability of porous silicon (PSi) based distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) microparticles for sustained and observable delivery of the antiviral agent acyclovir (ACV) is demonstrated. DBR was fabricated by electrochemical etching of single crystal silicon wafers and ultrasonic fractured to prepare microparticles. The hydrogen-terminated native surface of DBR microparticles was modified by thermal oxidation and thermal hydrosilylation. Particles were loaded with ACV and drug release experiments were conducted in phosphate buffered saline. Drug loading and surface chemistry of particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Drug release profiles from PSi DBR particles show sustained release behavior from all three studied surface chemistries. Drug release from particles was also monitored from change in color of particles.

  13. Ion irradiation of the native oxide/silicon surface increases the thermal boundary conductance across aluminum/silicon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Hattar, Khalid; Cheaito, Ramez; Duda, John C.; Gaskins, John T.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Biedermann, Laura B.; Piekos, Edward S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2014-07-01

    The thermal boundary conductance across solid-solid interfaces can be affected by the physical properties of the solid boundary. Atomic composition, disorder, and bonding between materials can result in large deviations in the phonon scattering mechanisms contributing to thermal boundary conductance. Theoretical and computational studies have suggested that the mixing of atoms around an interface can lead to an increase in thermal boundary conductance by creating a region with an average vibrational spectra of the two materials forming the interface. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate that ion irradiation and subsequent modification of atoms at solid surfaces can increase the thermal boundary conductance across solid interfaces due to a change in the acoustic impedance of the surface. We measure the thermal boundary conductance between thin aluminum films and silicon substrates with native silicon dioxide layers that have been subjected to proton irradiation and post-irradiation surface cleaning procedures. The thermal boundary conductance across the Al/native oxide/Si interfacial region increases with an increase in proton dose. Supported with statistical simulations, we hypothesize that ion beam mixing of the native oxide and silicon substrate within ˜2.2nm of the silicon surface results in the observed increase in thermal boundary conductance. This ion mixing leads to the spatial gradation of the silicon native oxide into the silicon substrate, which alters the acoustic impedance and vibrational characteristics at the interface of the aluminum film and native oxide/silicon substrate. We confirm this assertion with picosecond acoustic analyses. Our results demonstrate that under specific conditions, a "more disordered and defected" interfacial region can have a lower resistance than a more "perfect" interface.

  14. Laser annealing of silicon surface defects for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zeming; Gupta, Mool C.

    2016-10-01

    High power lasers are increasingly used for low cost fabrication of solar cell devices. High power laser processes generate crystal defects, which lower the cell efficiency. This study examines the effect of low power laser annealing for the removal of high power laser induced surface defects. The laser annealing behavior is demonstrated by the significant decrease of photoluminescence generated from dislocation-induced defects and the increase of band-to-band emission. This annealing effect is further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction peak reversal. The dislocation density is quantified by observing etch pits under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). For as-melted samples, the dislocation density is decreased to as low as 1.01 × 106 cm- 2 after laser annealing, resulting in an excellent surface carrier lifetime of 920 μs that is comparable to the value of 1240 μs for the silicon starting wafer. For severely defective samples, the dislocation density is decreased by 4 times and the surface carrier lifetime is increased by 5 times after laser annealing.

  15. In vitro haemocompatibility and stability of two types of heparin-immobilized silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anfeng; Cao, Ting; Tang, Haiying; Liang, Xuemei; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K Y Simon

    2005-07-10

    Heparin was covalently immobilized onto a silicon surface by two different methods, carbodiimide-based immobilization and photo-immobilization. In the former method, a (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) or multilayer was first coated onto the silicon surface as the bridging layer, and heparin was then attached to the surface in the presence of water-soluble carbodiimide. In the latter method, an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAM was coated on the silicon surface as the bridging layer, and heparin was modified by attaching photosensitive aryl azide groups. Upon UV illumination, the modified heparin was then covalently immobilized onto the surface. The hydrophilicity of the silicon surface changed after each coating step, and heparin aggregates on APTMS SAM and OTS SAM were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). In vitro haemocompatibility assays demonstrated that the deposition of APTMS SAM, APTMS multilayer and OTS SAM enhanced the silicon's haemocompatibility, which was further enhanced by the heparin immobilization. There is no evident distinction regarding the haemocompatibility between the heparin-immobilized surfaces by both methods. However, heparin on silicon with APTMS SAM and multilayer as the bridging layers is very unstable when tested in vitro with a saline solution at 37 degrees C, due to the instability of APTMS SAM and multilayer on silicon. Meanwhile, photo-immobilized heparin on silicon with OTS SAM as the bridging layer showed superb stability.

  16. Role of silicon hydride bonding environment in alpha-silicon:hydrogen films for c-silicon surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Michael Z.

    High efficiency silicon solar cells achieve greater than 700 mV open circuit voltage through excellent surface passivation of the monocyrstalline absorber. This work studies the bifacial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) intrinsic amorphous silicon ((i) alpha-Si:H) passivation structure. To enable the correct interpretation of FTIR detected vibrational modes a model of the layered substructure of ultra-thin (i) alpha-Si:H is constructed. A high fraction of di-hydride bonding is associated with defective, low density amorphous film, and control of this parameter is established by varying hydrogen dilution ratio. The hypothesis that a high fraction of di-hydride bonding over mono-hydride within the film would lead to a poor passivation layer is tested and shown to be false. This is due to the bulk layer within the model defining the di-hydride fraction and indicates that the interface layer plays the more dominant role. A comparison between rf plasma PECVD deposited films and dc plasma shows that upon 30 min, 285°C annealing, large improvements in passivation occur when dc plasma was used with gains in minority carrier effective lifetimes over 1 msec possible. The passivation quality of rf generated films is less effected by annealing. rf plasma films show detectable mono-, di-, and tri-hydride high-potential modes in the as-deposited condition that are removed upon annealing. The finite loss of bulk mono-hydride and these interfacial hydrides do not have a strong impact on film passivation quality. It is concluded that the film has reached an equilibrium level of interfacial defect density which is unaffected by the limited loss of hydride bonding observed. dc plasma films undergo large improvements in passivation quality upon annealing. An increase in mono-hydride bonding at the internal surfaces of nanometer sized voids is detected. It is proposed that this mono-hydride bonding is reducing the density of unsaturated bonds, lowering the interfacial

  17. Edge states of hydrogen terminated monolayer materials: silicene, germanene and stanene ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Ayami; Tanaya, Sho; Yada, Keiji; Araidai, Masaaki; Sato, Masatoshi; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro; Shiraishi, Kenji; Tanaka, Yukio

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the energy dispersion of the edge states in zigzag silicene, germanene and stanene nanoribbons with and without hydrogen termination based on a multi-orbital tight-binding model. Since the low buckled structures are crucial for these materials, both the π and σ orbitals have a strong influence on the edge states, different from the case for graphene nanoribbons. The obtained dispersion of helical edge states is nonlinear, similar to that obtained by first-principles calculations. On the other hand, the dispersion derived from the single-orbital tight-binding model is always linear. Therefore, we find that the non-linearity comes from the multi-orbital effects, and accurate results cannot be obtained by the single-orbital model but can be obtained by the multi-orbital tight-binding model. We show that the multi-orbital model is essential for correctly understanding the dispersion of the edge states in tetragen nanoribbons with a low buckled geometry.

  18. Edge states of hydrogen terminated monolayer materials: silicene, germanene and stanene ribbons.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Ayami; Tanaya, Sho; Yada, Keiji; Araidai, Masaaki; Sato, Masatoshi; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro; Shiraishi, Kenji; Tanaka, Yukio

    2017-03-22

    We investigate the energy dispersion of the edge states in zigzag silicene, germanene and stanene nanoribbons with and without hydrogen termination based on a multi-orbital tight-binding model. Since the low buckled structures are crucial for these materials, both the π and σ orbitals have a strong influence on the edge states, different from the case for graphene nanoribbons. The obtained dispersion of helical edge states is nonlinear, similar to that obtained by first-principles calculations. On the other hand, the dispersion derived from the single-orbital tight-binding model is always linear. Therefore, we find that the non-linearity comes from the multi-orbital effects, and accurate results cannot be obtained by the single-orbital model but can be obtained by the multi-orbital tight-binding model. We show that the multi-orbital model is essential for correctly understanding the dispersion of the edge states in tetragen nanoribbons with a low buckled geometry.

  19. Surface-decorated silicon nanowires: a route to high-ZT thermoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Markussen, Troels; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Brandbyge, Mads

    2009-07-31

    Based on atomistic calculations of electron and phonon transport, we propose to use surface-decorated silicon nanowires for thermoelectric applications. Two examples of surface decorations are studied to illustrate the underlying ideas: nanotrees and alkyl functionalized silicon nanowires. For both systems we find (i) that the phonon conductance is significantly reduced compared to the electronic conductance leading to high thermoelectric figure of merit ZT, and (ii) for ultrathin wires, surface decoration leads to significantly better performance than surface disorder.

  20. Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness.

    PubMed

    Vazhappilly, Tijo; Kilin, Dmitri S; Micha, David A

    2015-04-10

    The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

  1. Modeling the surface photovoltage of silicon slabs with varying thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazhappilly, Tijo; Kilin, Dmitri S.; Micha, David A.

    2015-04-01

    The variation with thickness of the energy band gap and photovoltage at the surface of a thin semiconductor film are of great interest in connection with their surface electronic structure and optical properties. In this work, the change of a surface photovoltage (SPV) with the number of layers of a crystalline silicon slab is extracted from models based on their atomic structure. Electronic properties of photoexcited slabs are investigated using generalized gradient and hybrid density functionals, and plane wave basis sets. Si(1 1 1) surfaces have been terminated by hydrogen atoms to compensate for dangling bonds and have been described by large supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Calculations of the SPV of the Si slabs have been done in terms of the reduced density matrix of the photoactive electrons including dissipative effects due to their interaction with medium phonons and excitons. Surface photovoltages have been calculated for model Si slabs with 4-12, and 16 layers, to determine convergence trends versus slab thickness. Band gaps and the inverse of the SPVs have been found to scale nearly linearly with the inverse thickness of the slab, while the electronic density of states increases quadratically with thickness. Our calculations show the same trends as experimental values indicating band gap reduction and absorption enhancement for Si films of increasing thickness. Simple arguments on confined electronic structures have been used to explain the main effects of changes with slab thickness. A procedure involving shifted electron excitation energies is described to improve results from generalized gradient functionals so they can be in better agreement with the more accurate but also more computer intensive values from screened exchange hybrid functionals.

  2. Surface modification of an experimental silicone rubber maxillofacial material to improve wettability.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Tariq; Waters, Mark; Jagger, Robert

    2003-03-01

    Good wettability of maxillofacial prosthetic materials is important so that a lubricating layer is formed with supporting tissues thus reducing patient discomfort. The purpose of the study was to surface modify an experimental silicone rubber material in order to improve wettability. Samples of experimental silicone rubber were surface modified by first argon plasma treatment followed by chemisorption of ethyleneoxy functional silanes. These were compared with the same silicone rubber which had ethyleneoxy functional surfactants incorporated into the polymer matrix. In all cases contact angles, tear strength and water uptake were measured. Surface modified materials had comparable contact angles to surfactant modified silicone rubber all being significantly lower than the unmodified material. Surface modified materials, however, had a significantly higher tear strength and lower water uptake in comparison to surfactant modified materials. Argon plasma treatment followed by chemisorption of ethyleneoxy functional silanes proved an effective way of improving the wettability of an experimental silicone rubber maxillofacial prosthetic material without altering bulk properties.

  3. Surface Structure and Surface Electronic States Related to Plasma Cleaning of Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jaewon

    This thesis discusses the surface structure and the surface electronic states of Si and Ge(100) surfaces as well as the effects of oxidation process on the silicon oxide/Si(100) interface structure. The H-plasma exposure was performed in situ at low temperatures. The active species, produced in the H-plasma by the rf-excitation of H_2 gas, not only remove microcontaminants such as oxygen and carbon from the surface, but also passivate the surface with atomic hydrogen by satisfying the dangling bonds of the surface atoms. The surfaces were characterized by Angle Resolved UV-Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARUPS) and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED). In the case of Si(100), H-plasma exposure produced ordered H-terminated crystallographic structures with either a 2 x 1 or 1 x 1 LEED pattern. The hydride phases, found on the surfaces of the cleaned Si(100), were shown to depend on the temperature of the surface during H-plasma cleaning. The electronic states for the monohydride and dihydride phases were identified by ARUPS. When the plasma cleaned surface was annealed, the phase transition from the dihydride to monohydride was observed. The monohydride Si-H surface bond was stable up to 460^circC, and the dangling bond surface states were identified after annealing at 500^circC which was accompanied by the spectral shift. The H-terminated surface were characterized to have a flat band structure. For the Ge(100) surface, an ordered 2 x 1 monohydride phase was obtained from the surface cleaned at 180 ^circC. After plasma exposure at <=170^circC a 1 x 1 surface was observed, but the ARUPS indicated that the surface was predominantly composed of disordered monohydride structures. After annealing above the H-dissociation temperatures, the shift in the spectrum was shown to occur with the dangling bond surface states. The H-terminated surfaces were identified to be unpinned. The interface structure of silicon oxide/Si(100) was studied using ARUPS. Spectral shifts were

  4. The effect of surface microstructure on the optical reflectance of monocrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quanji; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Fangfang; Yang, Ruizhao

    2016-12-01

    Surface texturing is an important technique used to enhance the light absorption by forming certain microstructures on silicon surface. In this article, four different microstructures, based on repeat units of triangles, perpendicular grooves, hexagons and parallel grooves respectively, were fabricated directly on the surface of monocrystalline silicon wafers by using femtosecond laser texturing technique. Compare to the silicon wafers that were not treated by laser, a significant decrease of light reflectance can be observed for those laser etched silicon surfaces. And the treated silicon surface with triangles texture was found to have the lowest relative reflectance of ∼20% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1000 nm, if the textured surfaces were irradiated using the same laser fabrication condition. In addition, the relative reflectance of laser etched silicon surfaces with similar repeat unit but different structural period was investigated as well. The results show that the relative reflectance of the treated surface increases along with the increase of structural period size. These results obtained here can provide a useful guide for fabricating silicon-based optoelectronic devices with a more excellent anti-reflective performance.

  5. Surface and Internal Structure of Pristine Presolar Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, Rhonda, M.; Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon carbide is the most well-studied type of presolar grain. Isotope measurements of thousands [1,2] and structural data from over 500 individual grains have been reported [3]. The isotope data indicate that approximately 98% originated in asymptotic giant branch stars and 2% in supernovae. Although tens of different polytypes of SiC are known to form synthetically, only two polytypes have been reported for presolar grains. Daulton et al. [3] found that for SiC grains isolated from Murchison by acid treatments, 79.4% are 3C cubic beta-SiC, 2.7% are 2H hexagonal alpha-SiC, 17.1% are intergrowths of and , and 0.9% are heavily disordered. They report that the occurrence of only the and polytypes is consistent with the observed range of condensation temperatures of circumstellar dust for carbon stars. Further constraint on the formation and subsequent alteration of the grains can be obtained from studies of the surfaces and interior structure of grains in pristine form, i.e., prepared without acid treatments [4,5]. The acid treatments remove surface coatings, produce etch pits around defect sites and could remove some subgrains. Surface oxides have been predicted by theoretical modeling as a survival mechanism for SiC grains exposed to the hot oxidizing solar nebula [6]. Scanning electron microscopy studies of pristine SiC shows some evidence for the existence of oxide and organic coatings [4]. We report herein on transmission electron microscopy studies of the surface and internal structure of two pristine SiC grains, including definitive evidence of an oxide rim on one grain, and the presence of internal TiC and AlN grains.

  6. Surface Micromachined Flexural Plate Wave Device Integrable on Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, P.G.; Dimos, D.; Garino, T.J.; Martin, S.J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Olson, W.R.; Ruffner, J.A.; Schubert, W.K.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Small, reliable chemical sensors are needed for a wide range of applications, such as weapon state-of-health monitoring, nonproliferation activities, and manufacturing emission monitoring. Significant improvements in present surface acoustic wave sensors could be achieved by developing a flexural plate-wave (FPW) architecture, in which acoustic waves are excited in a thin sensor membrane. Further enhancement of device performance could be realized by integrating a piezoelectric thin film on top of the membrane. These new FPW-piezoelectric thin film devices would improve sensitivity, reduce size, enhance ruggedness and reduce the operating frequency so that the FPW devices would be compatible with standard digital microelectronics. Development of these piezoelectric thin film // FPW devices requires integration of (1) acoustic sensor technology, (2) silicon rnicromachining techniques to fabricate thin membranes, and (3) piezoelectric thin films. Two piezoelectric thin film technologies were emphasized in this study: Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) and AlN. PZT thin films were of sufficient quality such that the first high frequency SAW measurements on PZT thin films were measured during the course of this study. Further, reasonable ferroelectric properties were obtained from PZT films deposited on Si surface micromachined FPW device membranes. Fundamental understanding of the effect of nanodimension interfacial layers on AlN thin film domain configurations and piezoelectric response was developed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Influence of acetylcholinesterase immobilization on the photoluminescence properties of mesoporous silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Lee, Ki Hwan

    2014-07-01

    Acetylcholinesterase immobilized p-type porous silicon surface was prepared by covalent attachment. The immobilization procedure was based on support surface chemical oxidation, silanization, surface activation with cyanuric chloride and finally covalent attachment of free enzyme on the cyanuric chloride activated porous silicon surface. Different pore diameter of porous silicon samples were prepared by electrochemical etching in HF based electrolyte solution and appropriate sample was selected suitable for enzyme immobilization with maximum trapping ability. The surface modification was studied through field emission scanning electron microscope, EDS, FT-IR analysis, and photoluminescence measurement by utilizing the fluctuation in the photoluminescence of virgin and enzyme immobilized porous silicon surface. Porous silicon showed strong photoluminescence with maximum emission at 643 nm and immobilization of acetylcholinesterase on porous silicon surface cause considerable increment on the photoluminescence of porous silicon material while acetylcholinesterase free counterpart did not exhibit any fluorescence in the range of 635-670 nm. The activities of the free and immobilized enzymes were evaluated by spectrophotometric method by using neostigmine methylsulfate as standard enzyme inhibitor. The immobilized enzyme exhibited considerable response toward neostigmine methylsulfate in a dose dependent manner comparable with that of its free counterpart alongside enhanced stability, easy separation from the reaction media and significant saving of enzyme. It was believed that immobilized enzyme can be exploited in organic and biomolecule synthesis possessing technical and economical prestige over free enzyme and prominence of easy separation from the reaction mixture.

  8. Cellular interactions of surface modified nanoporous silicon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Laaksonen, Päivi; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B.; Hirvonen, Jouni; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Santos, Hélder A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi nanoparticles incubated in pH 7.4, which renders the particles the possibility for further track-imaging applications. The results highlight the potential of HFBII coating for improving wettability, increasing biocompatibility and possible intestinal association of PSi nanoparticulates for drug delivery applications.In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi

  9. Dramatic reduction of surface recombination by in situ surface passivation of silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dan, Yaping; Seo, Kwanyong; Takei, Kuniharu; Meza, Jhim H; Javey, Ali; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2011-06-08

    Nanowires have unique optical properties and are considered as important building blocks for energy harvesting applications such as solar cells. However, due to their large surface-to-volume ratios, the recombination of charge carriers through surface states reduces the carrier diffusion lengths in nanowires a few orders of magnitude, often resulting in the low efficiency (a few percent or less) of nanowire-based solar cells. Reducing the recombination by surface passivation is crucial for the realization of high-performance nanosized optoelectronic devices but remains largely unexplored. Here we show that a thin layer of amorphous silicon (a-Si) coated on a single-crystalline silicon nanowire, forming a core-shell structure in situ in the vapor-liquid-solid process, reduces the surface recombination nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Under illumination of modulated light, we measure a greater than 90-fold improvement in the photosensitivity of individual core-shell nanowires, compared to regular nanowires without shell. Simulations of the optical absorption of the nanowires indicate that the strong absorption of the a-Si shell contributes to this effect, but we conclude that the effect is mainly due to the enhanced carrier lifetime by surface passivation.

  10. Surface chemistry dependent immunostimulative potential of porous silicon nanoplatforms.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Fernández, Tahia D; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Le Guével, Xavier; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Kaasalainen, Martti H; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been suggested for immunotherapy applications in order to optimize the delivery of immuno-stimulative or -suppressive molecules. However, low attention towards the impact of the NPs' physicochemical properties has presented a major hurdle for developing efficient immunotherapeutic agents. Here, the effects of porous silicon (PSi) NPs with different surface chemistries were evaluated on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) and lymphocytes in order to highlight the importance of the NPs selection in immuno-stimulative or -suppressive treatment. Although all the PSi NPs showed high biocompatibility, only thermally oxidized PSi (TOPSi) and thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) NPs were able to induce very high rate of immunoactivation by enhancing the expression of surface co-stimulatory markers of the MDDCs (CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR), inducing T-cell proliferation, and also the secretion of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). These results indicated a balanced increase in the secretion of Th1, Th2, and Treg cytokines. Moreover, undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi, as well as poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) conjugated to (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized thermally carbonized PSi and polyethyleneimine conjugated undecylenic acid functionalized THCPSi NPs showed moderate immunoactivation due to the mild increase in the above-mentioned markers. By contrast, thermally carbonized PSi (TCPSi) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized TCPSi NPs did not induce any immunological responses, suggesting that their application could be in the delivery of immunosuppressive molecules. Overall, our findings suggest all the NPs containing more nitrogen or oxygen on the outermost backbone layer have lower immunostimulatory effect than NPs with higher C-H structures on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Approaching the downsizing limit of silicon for surface-controlled lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Hao, Long; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Xinghao; Fan, Zhuangjun; Zhi, Linjie

    2015-03-04

    Graphene-sheet-supported uniform ultrasmall (≈3 nm) silicon quantum dots have been successfully synthesized by a simple and effective self-assembly strategy, exhibiting unprecedented fast, surface-controlled lithium-storage behavior and outstanding lithium-storage properties including extraordinary rate capability and remarkable cycling stability, attributable to the intrinsic role of approaching the downsizing limit of silicon.

  12. Schlieren photography of current filaments in surface-related breakdown of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Hankla, B.J.; Williams, P.F.

    1996-02-01

    The authors have used a modified Schlieren technique to photograph current filaments formed inside silicon during the very early stages of surface-related breakdown. They believe that the features they see are due to heating in the filamentary channel. The very rapid formation of these channels suggests that they result from streamer-like phenomena in the bulk silicon.

  13. Amorphous silicon with high specific surface area prepared by a sodiothermic reduction method for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Kai-Xue; Du, Fei-Hu; Guo, Xing-Xing; Jiang, Yan-Mei; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-06-04

    A sodiothermic reduction method has been developed for the preparation of porous silicon using aluminosilicate zeolite NaY as a precursor. The porous silicon with a specific surface area of approximately 570 m(2) g(-1) shows distinct capacitive behavior when used as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

  14. Silicon surface modifications produced by non-equilibrium He, Ne and Kr plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Max; Kartaschew, Konstantin; Bibinov, Nikita; Havenith, Martina; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this publication the interaction of non-equilibrium plasma jets (N-APPJs) with silicon surfaces is studied. The N-APPJs are operated with He, Ne and Kr gas flows under atmospheric pressure conditions. Plasma bullets are produced by the He and Ne N-APPJs, while a filamentary discharge is ignited in the Kr flow. All these N-APPJs produce remarkable traces on silicon wafer surfaces treated in their effluents. Different types of etching tracks, blisters and crystals are observed on the treated surfaces. The observed traces and surface modifications of silicon wafers are analyzed with optical, atomic-force, scanning electron and Raman microscopes. Based on the material composition within the etching tracks and the position and dimension of blisters and crystals, the traces observed on the silicon wafer surfaces are interpreted as traces of micro-plasmoids. Amorphous silicon is found in the etching tracks. Blisters are produced through the formation of cracks inside the silicon crystal by the interaction with micro-plasmoids. The reason for these modifications is not clear now. The density of micro-plasmoids traces on the treated silicon surface and the depth and length of the etching tracks depends strongly on the type of the used carrier gas of the N-APPJ.

  15. Investigation of the surface of implanted silicon crystal by the contact angle

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedeva, N.N.; Bakovets, V.V.; Sedymova, E.A.; Pridachin, N.B.

    1987-03-01

    The authors study the dependence of the critical contact angle of silicon upon the dose of its irradiation by argon and boron ions. It is established that the system of immiscible liquids ether-water can be successfully used to study the influence of ion implantation of silicon on its wettability by water. The change in the wettability of implanted silicon is related to the increase in the level of the defect state of the layer surface. Wetting of implanted silicon by melts at high temperatures can be used for studying the kinetics and the annealing mechanism of defects.

  16. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  17. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen; Yu, Conrad M.; Raley, Norman F.

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  18. A silicon-based surface code quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gorman, Joe; Nickerson, Naomi H.; Ross, Philipp; Morton, John Jl; Benjamin, Simon C.

    2016-02-01

    Individual impurity atoms in silicon can make superb individual qubits, but it remains an immense challenge to build a multi-qubit processor: there is a basic conflict between nanometre separation desired for qubit-qubit interactions and the much larger scales that would enable control and addressing in a manufacturable and fault-tolerant architecture. Here we resolve this conflict by establishing the feasibility of surface code quantum computing using solid-state spins, or ‘data qubits’, that are widely separated from one another. We use a second set of ‘probe’ spins that are mechanically separate from the data qubits and move in and out of their proximity. The spin dipole-dipole interactions give rise to phase shifts; measuring a probe’s total phase reveals the collective parity of the data qubits along the probe’s path. Using a protocol that balances the systematic errors due to imperfect device fabrication, our detailed simulations show that substantial misalignments can be handled within fault-tolerant operations. We conclude that this simple ‘orbital probe’ architecture overcomes many of the difficulties facing solid-state quantum computing, while minimising the complexity and offering qubit densities that are several orders of magnitude greater than other systems.

  19. Residual Silicone Detection. [external tank and solid rocket booster surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, T.

    1980-01-01

    Both photoelectron emission and ellipsometry proved successful in detecting silicone contamination on unpainted and epoxy painted metal surfaces such as those of the external tank and the solid rocket booster. Great success was achieved using photoelectron emission (PEE). Panels were deliberately contaminated to controlled levels and then mapped with PEE to reveal the areas and levels that were contaminated. The panels were then tested with regard to adhesive properties. Tapes were bonded over the contaminated and uncontaminated regions and the peel force was measured, or the contaminated panels were bonded (with CPR 483 foam) to uncontaminated panels and made into lap shear specimens. Other panels were bonded and made into wedge specimens for hydrothermal stress endurance tests. Strong adhesion resulted if the PEE signal fell within an acceptance window, but was poor outside the acceptance window. A prototype instrument is being prepared which can automatically be scanned over the external liquid hydrogen tank and identify those regions that are contaminated and will cause bond degradation.

  20. Surface modifications of silicon nitride for cellular biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Johan; Altankov, George; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Samitier, Josep; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth

    2008-04-01

    Thin films of silicon nitride (Si3N4) can be used in several kinds of micro-sized biosensors as a material to monitor fine environmental changes related to the process of bone formation in vitro. We found however that Si3N4 does not provide optimal conditions for osseointegration as osteoblast-like MG-63 cells tend to detach from the surface when cultured over confluence. Therefore Si3N4 was modified with self-assembled monolayers bearing functional end groups of primary amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) respectively. Both these modifications enhanced the interaction with confluent cell layers and thus improve osseointegration over Si3N4. Furthermore it was observed that the NH2 functionality increased the adsorption of fibronectin (FN), promoted cell proliferation, but delayed the differentiation. We also studied the fate of pre-adsorbed and secreted FN from cells to learn more about the impact of above functionalities for the development of provisional extracellular matrix on materials interface. Taken together our data supports that Si3N4 has low tissue integration but good cellular biocompatibility and thus is appropriate in cellular biosensor applications such as the ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET). COOH and NH2 chemistries generally improve the interfacial tissue interaction with the sensor and they are therefore suitable substrates for monitoring cellular growth or matrix deposition using electrical impedance spectroscopy.

  1. Surface and allied studies in silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindholm, F. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two main results are presented. The first deals with a simple method that determines the minority-carrier lifetime and the effective surface recombination velocity of the quasi-neutral base of silicon solar cells. The method requires the observation of only a single transient, and is amenable to automation for in-process monitoring in manufacturing. This method, which is called short-circuit current decay, avoids distortion in the observed transient and consequent inacccuracies that arise from the presence of mobile holes and electrons stored in the p/n junction spacecharge region at the initial instant of the transient. The second main result consists in a formulation of the relevant boundary-value problems that resembles that used in linear two-port network theory. This formulation enables comparisons to be made among various contending methods for measuring material parameters of p/n junction devices, and enables the option of putting the description in the time domain of the transient studies in the form of an infinite series, although closed-form solutions are also possible.

  2. Surface trap mediated electronic transport in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puppo, F.; Traversa, F. L.; Di Ventra, M.; De Micheli, G.; Carrara, S.

    2016-08-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface electronic transport in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as electronic applications.

  3. Microscopic Image of Martian Surface Material on a Silicone Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger version of Figure 1

    This image taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows soil sprinkled from the lander's Robot Arm scoop onto a silicone substrate. The substrate was then rotated in front of the microscope. This is the first sample collected and delivered for instrumental analysis onboard a planetary lander since NASA's Viking Mars missions of the 1970s. It is also the highest resolution image yet seen of Martian soil.

    The image is dominated by fine particles close to the resolution of the microscope. These particles have formed clumps, which may be a smaller scale version of what has been observed by Phoenix during digging of the surface material.

    The microscope took this image during Phoenix's Sol 17 (June 11), or the 17th Martian day after landing. The scale bar is 1 millimeter (0.04 inch).

    Zooming in on the Martian Soil

    In figure 1, three zoomed-in portions are shown with an image of Martian soil particles taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The left zoom box shows a composite particle. The top of the particle has a green tinge, possibly indicating olivine. The bottom of the particle has been reimaged at a different focus position in black and white (middle zoom box), showing that this is a clump of finer particles.

    The right zoom box shows a rounded, glassy particle, similar to those which have also been seen in an earlier sample of airfall dust collected on a surface exposed during landing.

    The shadows at the bottom of image are of the beams of the Atomic Force Microscope.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Microscopic Image of Martian Surface Material on a Silicone Substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger version of Figure 1

    This image taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows soil sprinkled from the lander's Robot Arm scoop onto a silicone substrate. The substrate was then rotated in front of the microscope. This is the first sample collected and delivered for instrumental analysis onboard a planetary lander since NASA's Viking Mars missions of the 1970s. It is also the highest resolution image yet seen of Martian soil.

    The image is dominated by fine particles close to the resolution of the microscope. These particles have formed clumps, which may be a smaller scale version of what has been observed by Phoenix during digging of the surface material.

    The microscope took this image during Phoenix's Sol 17 (June 11), or the 17th Martian day after landing. The scale bar is 1 millimeter (0.04 inch).

    Zooming in on the Martian Soil

    In figure 1, three zoomed-in portions are shown with an image of Martian soil particles taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The left zoom box shows a composite particle. The top of the particle has a green tinge, possibly indicating olivine. The bottom of the particle has been reimaged at a different focus position in black and white (middle zoom box), showing that this is a clump of finer particles.

    The right zoom box shows a rounded, glassy particle, similar to those which have also been seen in an earlier sample of airfall dust collected on a surface exposed during landing.

    The shadows at the bottom of image are of the beams of the Atomic Force Microscope.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Surface Area, and Oxidation Effects on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon Powder Compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercially available silicon powders were wet-attrition-milled from 2 to 48 hr to achieve surface areas (SA's) ranging from 1.3 to 70 sq m/g. The surface area effects on the nitridation kinetics of silicon powder compacts were determined at 1250 or 1350 C for 4 hr. In addition, the influence of nitridation environment, and preoxidation on nitridation kinetics of a silicon powder of high surface area (approximately equals 63 sq m/g) was investigated. As the surface area increased, so did the percentage nitridation after 4 hr in N2 at 1250 or 1350 C. Silicon powders of high surface area (greater than 40 sq m/g) can be nitrided to greater than 70% at 1250 C in 4 hr. The nitridation kinetics of the high-surface-area powder compacts were significantly delayed by preoxidation treatment. Conversely, the nitridation environment had no significant influence on the nitridation kinetics of the same powder. Impurities present in the starting powder, and those accumulated during attrition milling, appeared to react with the silica layer on the surface of silicon particles to form a molten silicate layer, which provided a path for rapid diffusion of nitrogen and enhanced the nitridation kinetics of high surface area silicon powder.

  6. Amontonian friction induced by flexible surface features on microstructured silicon.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Esben; Yun, Sang Ho; Claesson, Per M; Linnros, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Friction between nonadhering sliding surfaces are normally described by Amontons' law, which states that there exists a linear relationship between the friction force and the normal applied load and that the friction force is independent of the macroscopic contact area between the surfaces and the sliding velocity. In this study we have measured friction as a function of applied load between a spherical silica particle and a microstructured silicon surface consisting of arrays of vertical microneedles, and we have challenged Amontons' law by changing the size of the silica particle and the sliding velocity. First, when looking at the friction as a function of time for a given applied load, the friction force was observed to oscillate with a period related to the spacing between the microneedles when using a small silica particle, whereas the friction force exhibited a more random variation when a larger silica particle was used. The oscillation in the friction force is a direct evidence for bending and release of individual microneedles and the observation illustrates that the energy dissipating mechanism becomes hidden in the friction data when the dimensions of the sliding body becomes much larger than the length scale of the surface features causing the friction. Second, when looking at the average friction force as a function of applied load we find, in accordance with Amontons' law, a linear relationship between the friction force and the applied load and the friction force is independent of both the size of the sliding silica particle and of the sliding velocity. One exception from this, however, was observed when sliding a small silica particle at low velocity, where a deviation from Amontons' law was noticed. The deviation from Amontons' law is suggested to be attributed to a change in the energy dissipating mechanism giving rise to the friction force. In light of that it is suggested that Amontons' law only is valid as long as the main energy dissipating

  7. Surface modification of silicone for biomedical applications requiring long-term antibacterial, antifouling, and hemocompatible properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Neoh, Koon Gee; Xu, Li Qun; Wang, Rong; Kang, En-Tang; Lau, Titus; Olszyna, Dariusz Piotr; Chiong, Edmund

    2012-11-27

    Silicone has been used for peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters for several decades. However, bacteria, platelets, proteins, and other biomolecules tend to adhere to its hydrophobic surface, which may lead to PD outflow failure, serious infection, or even death. In this work, a cross-linked poly(poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate) (P(PEGDMA)) polymer layer was covalently grafted on medical-grade silicone surface to improve its antibacterial and antifouling properties. The P(PEGDMA)-grafted silicone (Silicone-g-P(PEGDMA)) substrate reduced the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Staphylococcus epidermidis , as well as 3T3 fibroblast cells by ≥90%. The antibacterial and antifouling properties were preserved after the modified substrate was aged for 30 days in phosphate buffer saline. Further immobilization of a polysulfobetaine polymer, poly((2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) (P(DMAPS)), on the Silicone-g-P(PEGDMA) substrate via thiol-ene click reaction leads to enhanced antifouling efficacy and improved hemocompatibility with the preservation of the antibacterial property. Compared to pristine silicone, the so-obtained Silicone-g-P(PEGDMA)-P(DMAPS) substrate reduced the absorption of bovine serum albumin and bovine plasma fibrinogen by ≥80%. It also reduced the number of adherent platelets by ≥90% and significantly prolonged plasma recalcification time. The results indicate that surface grafting with P(PEGDMA) and P(DMAPS) can be potentially useful for the modification of silicone-based PD catheters for long-term applications.

  8. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

    1994-07-26

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  9. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.; Herman, Herbert; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1600.degree.C. which transforms the coating to silicon carbide.

  10. Chemical modifications of silicon surfaces for the generation of a tunable surface isoelectric point.

    PubMed

    van der Maaden, Koen; Tomar, Jasmine; Jiskoot, Wim; Bouwstra, Joke

    2014-02-25

    The aim of this work was to generate a tunable surface isoelectric point (sIEP), where the surface is modified with two molecules: a weak base (pyridine), carrying a pH dependent positive charge, and a derivative of a strong acid (sulfate), carrying a permanent negative charge in a physiologically relevant pH range. To this end, silicon surfaces were modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. These amine-modified surfaces were subsequently derivatized into pyridine- or sulfate-modified surfaces. Then, the surface pKa of pyridine-modified surfaces was determined by a fluorescent nanoparticle adhesion assay (FNAA). Next, these values were used to calculate in which ratio the chemicals must be present in the reaction mixture to generate a mixed pyridine/sulfate-modified surface with a target sIEP. After preparing surfaces with a target sIEP, an FNAA with positively and negatively charged nanoparticles was used to verify the sIEP of the generated surfaces. The FNAA revealed that pyridine-modified surfaces had a pKa of 6.69 ± 0.18. When an sIEP was generated, negative nanoparticles bound to surfaces at pH values below the sIEP and positive nanoparticles bound at pH values above the sIEP. Furthermore, we found sIEP values of 5.97 ± 0.88 when we aimed for an sIEP of 6.2, and 7.12 ± 0.21 when we aimed for an sIEP of 7.1. Finally, the pH dependent binding and release of a negatively and positively charged (bio)polymer was investigated for a target sIEP of 7. A negatively charged polymer (poly(I:C)) was bound at a pH < sIEP and released at a pH > sIEP with a release efficiency of 85 ± 9% and a positively charged polymer (trimethyl chitosan) bound at a pH > sIEP and released at a pH < sIEP with a release efficiency of 72 ± 9%. In conclusion, we established a method for preparing modified silicon surfaces with a tunable sIEP, which can be used for pH-dependent binding and release of biomacromolecules.

  11. Polygonal pits on silicon surfaces that are created by laser-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Kimura, Saori

    2017-02-01

    Laser-assisted chemical etching was conducted for creating periodic textures on silicon surfaces. Silicon plates with the (111) surface orientation were immersed in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide, and a pulsed laser beam (532 nm wavelength, 5 ns duration, 10 pulse/s) was irradiated on their surface to promote anisotropic etching. The laser beam was patterned by using a glass capillary plate that contained a hexagonal array of micropores (10 μ m diameter, 12 m period). The focused beam projected the hexagonal image on the silicon surface, creating bright spots of 4 μ m period. During the laser irradiation process of 3 min, both laser-induced ablation and chemical etching took place at these bright spots. After stop of laser irradiation, the chemical etching progressed further, and consequently, a periodic array of triangular or hexagonal pits emerged on the silicon surface. The direction of the triangular pits changed by rotation of the silicon plate. When a silicon plate with the (100) surface orientation was used, diamond or rectangular pits were created on its surface. The mechanism of this polygonal texturing was explained by using the normal and intersecting vectors of the (100), (110), and (111) planes that exhibited different etching rates.

  12. A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Gilberto A; Ryckman, Judson D; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M

    2014-03-15

    A porous silicon (PSi) grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave (BSW/BSSW) biosensor is demonstrated to size selectively detect the presence of both large and small molecules. The BSW is used to sense large immobilized analytes at the surface of the structure while the BSSW that is confined inside but near the top of the structure is used to sensitively detect small molecules. Functionality of the BSW and BSSW modes is theoretically described by dispersion relations, field confinements, and simulated refractive index shifts within the structure. The theoretical results are experimentally verified by detecting two different small chemical molecules and one large 40 base DNA oligonucleotide. The PSi-BSW/BSSW structure is benchmarked against current porous silicon technology and is shown to have a 6-fold higher sensitivity in detecting large molecules and a 33% improvement in detecting small molecules. This is the first report of a grating-coupled BSW biosensor and the first report of a BSSW propagating mode. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Surface morphological instability of silicon (100) crystals under microwave ion physical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yafarov, R. K.; Shanygin, V. Ya.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of studies of the dynamics of relaxation modification of the morphological characteristics of atomically clean surfaces of silicon (100) crystals with different types of conductivity after microwave ion physical etching in an argon atmosphere. For the first time, the effect of the electronic properties on the morphological characteristics and the surface free energy of silicon crystals is experimentally shown and proven by physicochemical methods.

  14. Effective surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon with silicon oxides formed by light-induced anodisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jie; Grant, Nicholas; Lennon, Alison

    2014-12-01

    Electronic surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon by anodic silicon dioxide (SiO2) was investigated. The anodic SiO2 was grown by light-induced anodisation (LIA) in diluted sulphuric acid at room temperature, a process that is significantly less-expensive than thermal oxidation which is widely-used in silicon solar cell fabrication. After annealing in oxygen and then forming gas at 400 °C for 30 min, the effective minority carrier lifetime of 3-5 Ω cm, boron-doped Czochralski silicon wafers with a phosphorus-doped 80 Ω/□ emitter and a LIA anodic SiO2 formed on the p-type surface was increased by two orders of magnitude to 150 μs. Capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrated a very low positive charge density of 3.4 × 1011 cm-2 and a moderate density of interface states of 6 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2. This corresponded to a silicon surface recombination velocity of 62 cm s-1, which is comparable with values reported for other anodic SiO2 films, which required higher temperatures and longer growth times, and significantly lower than oxides grown by chemical vapour deposition techniques. Additionally, a very low leakage current density of 3.5 × 10-10 and 1.6 × 10-9 A cm-2 at 1 and -1 V, respectively, was measured for LIA SiO2 suggesting its potential application as insulation layer in IBC solar cells and a barrier for potential induced degradation.

  15. Chip PCR. I. Surface passivation of microfabricated silicon-glass chips for PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Shoffner, M A; Cheng, J; Hvichia, G E; Kricka, L J; Wilding, P

    1996-01-01

    The microreaction volumes of PCR chips (a microfabricated silicon chip bonded to a piece of flat glass to form a PCR reaction chamber) create a relatively high surface to volume ratio that increases the significance of the surface chemistry in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We investigated several surface passivations in an attempt to identify 'PCR friendly' surfaces and used those surfaces to obtain amplifications comparable with those obtained in conventional PCR amplification systems using polyethylene tubes. Surface passivations by a silanization procedure followed by a coating of a selected protein or polynucleotide and the deposition of a nitride or oxide layer onto the silicon surface were investigated. Native silicon was found to be an inhibitor of PCR and amplification in an untreated PCR chip (i.e. native slicon) had a high failure rate. A silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4) reaction surface also resulted in consistent inhibition of PCR. Passivating the PCR chip using a silanizing agent followed by a polymer treatment resulted in good amplification. However, amplification yields were inconsistent and were not always comparable with PCR in a conventional tube. An oxidized silicon (SiO(2) surface gave consistent amplifications comparable with reactions performed in a conventional PCR tube. PMID:8628665

  16. Rapid, metal-free hydrosilanisation chemistry for porous silicon surface modification.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, M J; McInnes, S J P; Vasani, R B; Guinan, T; Blencowe, A; Voelcker, N H

    2015-07-07

    Here, we report a novel surface modification for porous silicon (pSi). Hydroxyl-terminated pSi surfaces are modified with a hydrosilane via Si-H activation using the Lewis acid catalyst tris(pentafluorophenyl) borane. This surface reaction is fast and efficient at room temperature, and leads to a surface stabilised against hydrolytic attack in aqueous media. The resulting surface shows promise as a substrate for surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

  17. Monolayer contact doping of silicon surfaces and nanowires using organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Hazut, Ori; Agarwala, Arunava; Subramani, Thangavel; Waichman, Sharon; Yerushalmi, Roie

    2013-12-02

    Monolayer Contact Doping (MLCD) is a simple method for doping of surfaces and nanostructures(1). MLCD results in the formation of highly controlled, ultra shallow and sharp doping profiles at the nanometer scale. In MLCD process the dopant source is a monolayer containing dopant atoms. In this article a detailed procedure for surface doping of silicon substrate as well as silicon nanowires is demonstrated. Phosphorus dopant source was formed using tetraethyl methylenediphosphonate monolayer on a silicon substrate. This monolayer containing substrate was brought to contact with a pristine intrinsic silicon target substrate and annealed while in contact. Sheet resistance of the target substrate was measured using 4 point probe. Intrinsic silicon nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism; gold nanoparticles were used as catalyst for nanowire growth. The nanowires were suspended in ethanol by mild sonication. This suspension was used to dropcast the nanowires on silicon substrate with a silicon nitride dielectric top layer. These nanowires were doped with phosphorus in similar manner as used for the intrinsic silicon wafer. Standard photolithography process was used to fabricate metal electrodes for the formation of nanowire based field effect transistor (NW-FET). The electrical properties of a representative nanowire device were measured by a semiconductor device analyzer and a probe station.

  18. Monolayer Contact Doping of Silicon Surfaces and Nanowires Using Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Hazut, Ori; Agarwala, Arunava; Subramani, Thangavel; Waichman, Sharon; Yerushalmi, Roie

    2013-01-01

    Monolayer Contact Doping (MLCD) is a simple method for doping of surfaces and nanostructures1. MLCD results in the formation of highly controlled, ultra shallow and sharp doping profiles at the nanometer scale. In MLCD process the dopant source is a monolayer containing dopant atoms. In this article a detailed procedure for surface doping of silicon substrate as well as silicon nanowires is demonstrated. Phosphorus dopant source was formed using tetraethyl methylenediphosphonate monolayer on a silicon substrate. This monolayer containing substrate was brought to contact with a pristine intrinsic silicon target substrate and annealed while in contact. Sheet resistance of the target substrate was measured using 4 point probe. Intrinsic silicon nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism; gold nanoparticles were used as catalyst for nanowire growth. The nanowires were suspended in ethanol by mild sonication. This suspension was used to dropcast the nanowires on silicon substrate with a silicon nitride dielectric top layer. These nanowires were doped with phosphorus in similar manner as used for the intrinsic silicon wafer. Standard photolithography process was used to fabricate metal electrodes for the formation of nanowire based field effect transistor (NW-FET). The electrical properties of a representative nanowire device were measured by a semiconductor device analyzer and a probe station. PMID:24326774

  19. Surface chemical conversion of 3-glycidoxypropyldimethylethoxysilane on hydroxylated silicon surface: FT-IR, contact angle and ellipsometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Serkan; Kinali-Demirci, Selin; Caykara, Tuncer

    2012-12-01

    The chemical conversion of the top surface of 3-glycidoxypropyldimethylethoxysilane (GPDMES) on hyroxylated silicon surface has been studied as a function of reaction time. A multiple-step procedure was applied in this study. At first, GPDMES molecules were self-assembled on the hydroxylated silicon surface. The second step was the modification of epoxy groups with 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile and the last step was the amidoximation reaction of nitrile groups. Existence of the monolayers covalently attached to silicon surfaces were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Modification, conversion and thickness of surfaces were followed by FT-IR and ellipsometry analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic behavior of water droplets and flashover characteristics on a superhydrophobic silicone rubber surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yufeng; Jin, Haiyun; Nie, Shichao; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Naikui

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a superhydrophobic surface is used to increase the flashover voltage when water droplets are present on a silicone rubber surface. The dynamic behavior of a water droplet and the associated flashover characteristics are studied on common and superhydrophobic silicone rubber surfaces under a high DC voltage. On common silicone rubber, the droplet elongates and the flashover voltage decreases with increasing droplet volume and conductivity. In contrast, the droplet slides off the superhydrophobic surface, leading to an increased flashover voltage. This droplet sliding is due to the low adhesion of the superhydrophobic surface and a sufficiently high electrostatic force provided by the DC voltage. Experimental results show that a superhydrophobic surface is effective at inhibiting flashover.

  1. Biomimetic surface-conducting silicone rubber obtained by physical deposition of MWCNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zylka, Pawel

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents a minimal approach to produce superhydrophobic, surface-conducting silicone rubber with a strongly developed surface modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes partially embedded in the silicone elastic matrix. The modification was achieved by physical deposition of carbon nanotube powder on a semi-liquid silicone rubber surface prior to its cross-linking. The resulting biomimetic material displayed superhydrophobic properties (static wetting angle >160°, sliding angle ∼10°), as well as elevated electric surface resistance (surface resistivity approx 18 kΩ). A piezoresistive hysteretic response with nonmonotonic change of the surface resistance accompanying substantial linear stretching was also demonstrated in the developed specimens displaying negative resistance change in a broad range of extension ratios, making them applicable as highly compliant, large-specific-area electrodes.

  2. Nanoetching process on silicon solar cell wafers during mass production for surface texture improvement.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chisung; Kulkarni, Atul; Ha, Soohyun; Cho, Yujin; Kim, Jeongin; Park, Heejin; Kim, Taesung

    2014-12-01

    Major challenge in nanotechnology is to improve the solar cells efficiency. This can be achieved by controlling the silicon solar cell wafer surface structure. Herein, we report a KOH wet etching process along with an ultrasonic cleaning process to improve the surface texture of silicon solar cell wafers. We evaluated the KOH temperature, concentration, and ultra-sonication time. It was observed that the surface texture of the silicon solar wafer changed from a pyramid shape to a rectangular shape under edge cutting as the concentration of the KOH solution was increased. We controlled the etching time to avoid pattern damage and any further increase of the reflectance. The present study will be helpful for the mass processing of silicon solar cell wafers with improved reflectance.

  3. Effect of oligoethylene glycol moieties in porous silicon surface functionalisation on protein adsorption and cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Martin J.; Harding, Frances J.; Graney, Sean D.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2011-05-01

    We report on the synthesis of two carboxy-functional alkene compounds as modifiers of porous silicon (pSi) surface chemistry by means of thermal hydrosilylation. Both alkene compounds have hydrophobic, aliphatic carbon segments, with terminal carboxylic acid functionality appended through a thioether linkage. In one of the alkene linkers, we incorporated a short oligoethylene glycol (OEG) moiety to explore its low-fouling properties when attached to porous silicon. We examined surface stability of the surface-modified porous silicon in aqueous milieu. Albumin and fibronectin were adsorbed and, using carbodiimide chemistry, covalently immobilised to linker-modified porous silicon, and the propensity for mammalian cells to attach to these surfaces investigated. Surface chemistry was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and the stability of porous silicon in an aqueous milieu was investigated by interferometric reflectance spectroscopy (IRS). Surfaces functionalised with the alkene linker containing OEG displayed greater resistance to the adsorption of albumin. This linker also facilitated higher levels of covalent protein immobilisation to the functionalised pSi surface. Higher levels of cell attachment were observed on pSi surfaces with fibronectin covalently immobilised onto the OEG linker, than for fibronectin covalently immobilised on the non-OEG linker.

  4. Surface States and Effective Surface Area on Photoluminescent P-Type Porous Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisz, S. Z.; Porras, A. Ramirez; Resto, O.; Goldstein, Y.; Many, A.; Savir, E.

    1997-01-01

    The present study is motivated by the possibility of utilizing porous silicon for spectral sensors. Pulse measurements on the porous-Si/electrolyte system are employed to determine the surface effective area and the surface-state density at various stages of the anodization process used to produce the porous material. Such measurements were combined with studies of the photoluminescence spectra. These spectra were found to shift progressively to the blue as a function of anodization time. The luminescence intensity increases initially with anodization time, reaches a maximum and then decreases with further anodization. The surface state density, on the other hand, increases with anodization time from an initial value of about 2 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm surface to about 1013 sq cm for the anodized surface. This value is attained already after -2 min anodization and upon further anodization remains fairly constant. In parallel, the effective surface area increases by a factor of 10-30. This behavior is markedly different from the one observed previously for n-type porous Si.

  5. Pyramidal texturing of silicon surface via inorganic-organic hybrid alkaline liquor for heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a new class of silicon texturing approach based on inorganic (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and organic (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, TMAH) alkaline liquor etching processes for photovoltaic applications. The first stage of inorganic alkaline etching textures the silicon surface rapidly with large pyramids and reduces the cost. The subsequent organic alkaline second-etching improves the coverage of small pyramids on the silicon surface and strip off the metallic contaminants produced by the first etching step. In addition, it could smoothen the surface of the pyramids to yield good morphology. In this study, the texturing duration of both etching steps was controlled to optimize the optical and electrical properties as well as the surface morphology and passivation characteristics of the silicon substrates. Compared with traditional inorganic NaOH texturing, this hybrid process yields smoother (111) facets of the pyramids, fewer residual Na+ ions on the silicon surface, and a shorter processing period. It also offers the advantage of lower cost compared with the organic texturing method based on the use of only TMAH. We applied this hybrid texturing process to fabricate silicon heterojunction solar cells, which showed a remarkable improvement compared with the cells based on traditional alkaline texturing processes.

  6. Surface elastic modulus of barnacle adhesive and release characteristics from silicone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujie; Guo, Senli; Walker, Gilbert C; Kavanagh, Christopher J; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2004-12-01

    The properties of barnacle adhesive on silicone surfaces were studied by AFM indentation, imaging, and other tests and compared to the barnacle shear adhesion strength. A multilayered structure of barnacle adhesive plaque is proposed based on layered modulus regions measured by AFM indentation. The fracture of barnacles from PDMS surfaces was found to include both interfacial and cohesive failure of barnacle adhesive plaque, as determined by protein staining of the substratum after forced barnacle release from the substrate. Data for freshly released barnacles showed that there was a strong correlation between the mean Young's modulus of the outermost (softest) adhesive layer (E<0.3 MPa) and the shear strength of adhesion, but no correlation for other higher modulus regions. Linear, quadratic, and Griffith's failure criterion (based on rough estimate of crack length) regressions were used in the fit, and showed significance.

  7. Graphitic nanostripes in silicon carbide surfaces created by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Osmani, Orkhan; Schade, Martin; Bussmann, Benedict Kleine; Ban-D'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-06-01

    The controlled creation of defects in silicon carbide represents a major challenge. A well-known and efficient tool for defect creation in dielectric materials is the irradiation with swift (Ekin≥500 keV/amu) heavy ions, which deposit a significant amount of their kinetic energy into the electronic system. However, in the case of silicon carbide, a significant defect creation by individual ions could hitherto not be achieved. Here we present experimental evidence that silicon carbide surfaces can be modified by individual swift heavy ions with an energy well below the proposed threshold if the irradiation takes place under oblique angles. Depending on the angle of incidence, these grooves can span several hundreds of nanometres. We show that our experimental data are fully compatible with the assumption that each ion induces the sublimation of silicon atoms along its trajectory, resulting in narrow graphitic grooves in the silicon carbide matrix.

  8. Graphitic nanostripes in silicon carbide surfaces created by swift heavy ion irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Osmani, Orkhan; Schade, Martin; Bussmann, Benedict Kleine; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-06-06

    The controlled creation of defects in silicon carbide represents a major challenge. A well-known and efficient tool for defect creation in dielectric materials is the irradiation with swift (E(kin) ≥ 500 keV/amu) heavy ions, which deposit a significant amount of their kinetic energy into the electronic system. However, in the case of silicon carbide, a significant defect creation by individual ions could hitherto not be achieved. Here we present experimental evidence that silicon carbide surfaces can be modified by individual swift heavy ions with an energy well below the proposed threshold if the irradiation takes place under oblique angles. Depending on the angle of incidence, these grooves can span several hundreds of nanometres. We show that our experimental data are fully compatible with the assumption that each ion induces the sublimation of silicon atoms along its trajectory, resulting in narrow graphitic grooves in the silicon carbide matrix.

  9. Dwell Time and Surface Parameter Effects on Removal of Silicone Oil From D6ac Steel Using TCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of dwell time, surface roughness, and the surface activation state on 1,1,1-trichloroethane's (TCA's) effectiveness for removing silicone oil from D6ac steel. Silicone-contaminated test articles were washed with TCA solvent, and then the surfaces were analyzed for residue, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The predominant factor affecting the ability to remove the silicone oil was surface roughness.

  10. Application of PECVD for bulk and surface passivation of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krygowski, T.; Doshi, P.; Cai, L.; Doolittle, A.; Rohatgi, A.

    1995-08-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) passivation of bulk and surface defects has been shown to be an important technique to improve the performance of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) and single crystalline silicon solar cells. In this paper, we report the status of our on-going investigation into the bulk and surface passivation properties of PECVD insulators for photovoltaic applications. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of PECVD films to passivate the front (emitter) surface, bulk, and back surface by proper tailoring of deposition and post-PECVD annealing conditions.

  11. The influence of the semiconductor and dielectric properties on surface flashover in silicon-dielectric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gradinaru, G.; Madangarli, V.P.; Sudarshan, T.S. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    New experimental results on surface flashover are reported for high field silicon-dielectric systems. Different conditions of the lateral surface, contacts and ambient dielectrics have been studied. The strong influence of the semiconductor quality, and that of the dielectric properties, on the prebreakdown and breakdown response of the system, is demonstrated. All experimental results strongly support the conclusion that surface flashover in silicon systems is a physical process totally different from semiconductor surface breakdown. This conclusion has important practical application in the improvement of the performance of photoconductive power switches, severely limited by premature breakdown effects.

  12. High-temperature chlorination-reduction sequence for the preparation of silicon hydride modified silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Plumeré, Nicolas; Speiser, Bernd; Mayer, Hermann A; Joosten, Dominik; Wesemann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    A general method for the functionalization of silica surfaces with silicon hydride (Si-H) groups is described for four different preparations of silica. The silica surface is reduced in a two-step chlorination-reduction procedure within a simple gas-flow system at high temperatures. After initial dehydroxylation of the silica surface, silicon chloride groups are formed by the reaction with thionyl chloride. The chlorination activates otherwise inaccessible surface siloxane moieties. A high silicon-hydride surface concentration results from the subsequent reduction of the chlorinated surface with hydrogen. The physical properties of the resulting silica are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, as well as dynamic light scattering and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller measurements. The chlorination-reduction sequence has no significant impact on the structure, surface area and mesopore size of the silica materials used. The surface of the materials is characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and (29)Si CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy. The silicon-hydride groups are mostly of the ${{\\rm T}{{3\\hfill \\atop {\\rm H}\\hfill}}}$-type. The use of high temperatures (>800 degrees C) results in the condensation of internal and surface silanol groups. Therefore, materials with both a fully condensed silica matrix as well as a surface free of silanol groups are obtained. The materials are ideal precursors for further molecular silica surface modification, as demonstrated with a ferrocene derivative.

  13. Influence of silicone surface roughness and hydrophobicity on adhesion and colonization of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiying; Cao, Ting; Liang, Xuemei; Wang, Anfeng; Salley, Steven O; McAllister, James; Ng, K Y Simon

    2009-02-01

    Bacterial adhesion and colonization are complicated processes that depend on many factors, including surface chemistry, hydrophobicity, and surface roughness. The contribution of each of these factors has not been fully elucidated because most previous studies used different polymeric surfaces to achieve differences in properties. The objective of this study was to modify hydrophobicity and roughness on one polymeric surface, eliminating the confounding contribution of surface chemistry. Mechanically assembled monolayer (MAM) preparation methods (both one- and two-dimensional) were used to impart different degrees of hydrophobicity on fluoroalkylsilane (FAS)-coated silicone. Surface roughness was varied by casting the silicone to templates prepared with different abrasives. Surface hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurement, whereas surface roughness was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Bacterial adhesion and colonization were analyzed using a direct colony-counting method and SEM images. Hydrophobicity increased as a function of stretched length or width (Deltax or Deltay); it reached a maximum at Deltax = 60% with one-dimensional MAM and decreased as Deltax further increased to 80 and 100%. The same trend was observed for the two-dimensional MAM. After 12-h incubation, all the FAS/silicone surfaces had significantly reduced adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis by 42-89%, compared to untreated silicone, and the degree of which is inversely related to surface hydrophobicity. On the other hand, surface roughness had a significant effect on bacterial adhesion and colonization only when the root-mean-square roughness was higher than 200 nm.

  14. Silylene Defect at the Dihydrogen Terminated (100) Si Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanzoni, P.; Giorgi, G.; Sgamellotti, A.; Cerofolini, G. F.

    2009-09-01

    Density functional calculations for both periodic slabs and different size cluster models of the hydrogen-terminated (100) surface of silicon are used to study a new configuration, formed by a silylene center interacting with vicinal silicon dihydrides through nonconventional hydrogen bonds. A comparison between slab-model and cluster-model approaches to modeling surface silylene defect formation processes is presented. The cluster models are used to analyze the structure and bonding of the silylene with a Lewis acid and base, showing the Zwitterionic nature of the defect. The silylene is also demonstrated to behave as a strong Brønsted acid. The stabilization of the silylene defect via interaction with species unavoidably present in the HFaq-etching solution is investigated. Finally, the negative chemical shift observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the HFaq-etched (100) Si surface is attributed to the occurrence of silylene defect.

  15. Surface adhesion between hexagonal boron nitride nanotubes and silicon based on lateral force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jung-Hui; Chang, Shuo-Hung

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the surface adhesion between hexagonal boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) and silicon based on lateral manipulation in an atomic force microscope (AFM). The BNNT was mechanically manipulated by the lateral force of an AFM pyramidal silicon probe using the scan mechanism in the imaging mode. With a controlled normal force of the AFM probe and the lateral motion, the lateral force applied to the BNNT could overcome the surface adhesion between BNNT and silicon surface. The individual BNNT is forced to slide and rotate on the silicon surface. Based on the recorded force curve, the calculated shear stress due to surface adhesion is 0.5 GPa. And the specific sliding energy loss is 0.2 J/m 2. Comparing BNNTs and carbon nanotube (CNT), the shear stress and specific sliding energy loss of BNNT are an order of magnitude larger than that of CNT. Therefore, the results show that the surface adhesion between BNNT and silicon surface is higher than that of CNT.

  16. Role of oxygen in wetting of copper nanoparticles on silicon surfaces at elevated temperature

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Tapas

    2017-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been deposited on silicon surfaces by a simple galvanic displacement reaction, and rapid thermal annealing has been performed under various atmospheric conditions. In spite of the general tendency of the agglomeration of nanoparticles to lower the surface energy at elevated temperatures, our plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the thermal oxidation of the copper nanoparticles and formation of cupric oxide (CuO) on silicon surfaces leads to wetting rather than agglomeration. In contrast, agglomeration has been observed when copper nanoparticles were annealed in a nitrogen environment. The lattice transformation from cubic Cu to monoclinic CuO, and hence the change in surface energy of the particles, assists the wetting process. The occurrence of wetting during the oxidation step implies a strong interaction between the oxidized film and the silicon surface. PMID:28326232

  17. Initiation time of near-infrared laser-induced slip on the surface of silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sungho; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2014-06-23

    We have determined the initiation time of laser-induced slip on a silicon wafer surface subjected to a near-infrared continuous-wave laser by numerical simulations and experiments. First, numerical analysis was performed based on the heat transfer and thermoelasticity model to calculate the resolved shear stress and the temperature-dependent yield stress. Slip initiation time was predicted by finding the time at which the resolved shear stress reached the yield stress. Experimentally, the slip initiation time was measured by using a laser scattering technique that collects scattered light from the silicon wafer surface and detects strong scattering when the surface slip is initiated. The surface morphology of the silicon wafer surface after laser irradiation was also observed using an optical microscope to confirm the occurrence of slip. The measured slip initiation times agreed well with the numerical predictions.

  18. Separation of the surface and bulk recombination in silicon by means of transient photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Friedemann D.; Warta, Wilhelm; Schubert, Martin C.

    2017-01-01

    The bulk and surface recombination determine the electrical performance of many semiconductor devices. Yet, the experimental determination and separation of both surface and bulk recombination rate remains challenging. This paper presents the measurement and separation of the bulk and surface recombination in silicon by means of time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The high temporal resolution of the applied time correlated single photon counting technique is exploited to access the photoluminescence response of a silicon sample upon pulsed excitation in the nanosecond to millisecond regime on a sub-cm2 area. A rigorous data fitting algorithm based on two dimensional numeric simulations of the induced charge carrier dynamics is applied to extract all information on bulk and surface recombination properties from the recorded photoluminescence transients. Using different samples with symmetric as well as asymmetric surface recombination properties, we demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed contactless and nondestructive technique, which may be applicable to silicon based mono- or multi-junction devices.

  19. Immobilization of catalysts of biological interest on porous oxidized silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Alves, Wendel A; Fiorito, Pablo A; Froyer, Gerard; El Haber, Fady; Vellutini, Luc; Torresi, Roberto M; de Torresi, Susana I Córdoba

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the immobilization of redox mediators and proteins onto protected porous silicon surfaces to obtain their direct electrochemical reactions and to retain their bioactivities. This paper shows that MP-11 and viologens are able to establish chemical bonds with 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane-modified porous silicon surface. The functionalization of the surfaces have been fully characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to examine the immobilization of these mediators onto the solid surface. Amperometric and open circuit potential measurements have shown the direct electron transfer between glucose oxidase and the electrode in the presence of the viologen mediator covalently linked to the 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES)-modified porous silicon surfaces.

  20. Porous silicon reorganization: Influence on the structure, surface roughness and strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenkovic, N.; Drießen, M.; Weiss, C.; Janz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Porous silicon and epitaxial thickening is a lift-off approach for silicon foil fabrication to avoid kerf losses and produce foils with thicknesses less than 50 μm. The crystal quality of the epitaxial silicon film strongly depends on the porous silicon template, which can be adapted through a reorganization process prior to epitaxy. In this work, we investigated the influence of reorganization on the structure of etched porous silicon layers. The reorganization processes were carried out in a quasi-inline Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition reactor. Variations on the temperatures and process durations for the reorganization step were examined. The cross-sections showed that porous silicon requires temperatures of approximately 1150 °C to produce an excellent template for epitaxy. Atomic Force Microscopy measurements on the samples annealed at different temperatures showed the evolution of the pores from as-etched to a closed surface. These measurements confirm that the surface is not yet closed after 30 min of reorganization at 1000 °C. Different durations of the reorganization step at a fixed temperature of 1150 °C all lead to a closed surface with a comparable roughness of less than 0.5 nm. X-ray diffraction measurements show a change in the strain in the porous layer from tensile to compressive when the reorganization temperature is increased from 800 °C to 1150 °C. A longer reorganization at a fixed temperature of 1150 °C leads to a reduction in the strain without reducing the quality of the surface roughness. Defect density measurements on silicon layers deposited on those templates confirm an improvement of the template for longer reorganization times. This study shows that our porous silicon templates achieve lower surface roughness and strain values than those reported in other publications.

  1. High-mobility hydrogen-terminated Si(111) transistors for measurement of six-fold valley degenerate two-dimensional electron systems in fractional quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binhui; Yazdanpanah, Mohamad Meqdad; Kane, Bruce E.

    2015-03-01

    The quality of hydrogen-terminated Si(111) (H-Si(111)) transistors has improved significantly. Peak electron mobility of 325,000 cm2/Vs was achieved at 90 mK, and the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) at 1 < ν < 2 was studied extensively. We have further improved the device by solving gate leakage and contact problems with an updated design, in which a Si piece with thermal oxide acts as a gate through a vacuum cavity, and PN junctions are used to define a hexagonal two-dimensional (2D) region on a H-Si(111) piece. The device operates as an ambipolar transistor, in which a 2D electron system (2DES) and a 2D hole system can be induced at the same H-Si(111) surface. Peak electron mobility of more than 200,000 cm2/Vs is routinely achieved at 300 mK. The Si(111) surface has a six-fold valley degeneracy. The hexagonal device is designed to investigate the symmetry of the 2DES. Preliminary data show that the transport anisotropy at ν < 6 can be explained by the valley occupancy. The details of the valley occupancy can be caused by several mechanisms, such as miscut, magnetic field, pseudospin quantum Hall ferromagnetism (QHFM), and nematic valley polarization phases. The FQHE is investigated in magnetic fields up to 35T, and the properties of composite fermions will be discussed.

  2. Effectiveness of Iodine Termination for Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Cells as a Means of Chemical Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Minkyu; Lee, Youn-jung; Lee, Kyungsoo; Han, Changsoon; Jo, Youngmi; Yi, Junsin

    2012-09-01

    The use of iodine as a passivating agent for chemical modification of silicon surface is demonstrated. The measurement of carrier lifetime using microwave photoconductivity decay method shows an effective passivation with iodine treatment which is 5 times greater than hydrogen passivation. Unlike hydrogen termination, the negative charge created by the iodine termination enhances the solar cell performance. For n-type silicon, the charge effect results in electric passivation. For p-type silicon, the charge effect forms a barrier which acts as back surface field. For cells with the same area, open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current density (JSC), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) of iodine terminated one were 610 mV, 39.5 mA/cm2, 76.1%, and 18.3% while those of hydrogen passivated one were 600 mV, 33.4 mA/cm2, 73.1%, and 14.7%, respectively.

  3. Interactive effect of hysteresis and surface chemistry on gated silicon nanowire gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Paska, Yair; Haick, Hossam

    2012-05-01

    Gated silicon nanowire gas sensors have emerged as promising devices for chemical and biological sensing applications. Nevertheless, the performance of these devices is usually accompanied by a "hysteresis" phenomenon that limits their performance under real-world conditions. In this paper, we use a series of systematically changed trichlorosilane-based organic monolayers to study the interactive effect of hysteresis and surface chemistry on gated silicon nanowire gas sensors. The results show that the density of the exposed or unpassivated Si-OH groups (trap states) on the silicon nanowire surface play by far a crucial effect on the hysteresis characteristics of the gated silicon nanowire sensors, relative to the effect of hydrophobicity or molecular density of the organic monolayer. Based on these findings, we provide a tentative model-based understanding of (i) the relation between the adsorbed organic molecules, the hysteresis, and the related fundamental parameters of gated silicon nanowire characteristics and of (ii) the relation between the hysteresis drift and possible screening effect on gated silicon nanowire gas sensors upon exposure to different analytes at real-world conditions. The findings reported in this paper could be considered as a launching pad for extending the use of the gated silicon nanowire gas sensors for discriminations between polar and nonpolar analytes in complex, real-world gas mixtures.

  4. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride photonic crystals for improved-performance surface electromagnetic wave biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sinibaldi, Alberto; Descrovi, Emiliano; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Dominici, Lorenzo; Ballarini, Mirko; Mandracci, Pietro; Danz, Norbert; Michelotti, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We exploit the properties of surface electromagnetic waves propagating at the surface of finite one dimensional photonic crystals to improve the performance of optical biosensors with respect to the standard surface plasmon resonance approach. We demonstrate that the hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride technology is a versatile platform for fabricating one dimensional photonic crystals with any desirable design and operating in a wide wavelength range, from the visible to the near infrared. We prepared sensors based on photonic crystals sustaining either guided modes or surface electromagnetic waves, also known as Bloch surface waves. We carried out for the first time a direct experimental comparison of their sensitivity and figure of merit with surface plasmon polaritons on metal layers, by making use of a commercial surface plasmon resonance instrument that was slightly adapted for the experiments. Our measurements demonstrate that the Bloch surface waves on silicon nitride photonic crystals outperform surface plasmon polaritons by a factor 1.3 in terms of figure of merit.

  5. Pyramidal surface textures for light trapping and antireflection in perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Bennett W; Lal, Niraj N; Baker-Finch, Simeon; White, Thomas P

    2014-10-20

    Perovskite-on-silicon tandem solar cells show potential to reach > 30% conversion efficiency, but require careful optical control. We introduce here an effective light-management scheme based on the established pyramidal texturing of crystalline silicon cells. Calculations show that conformal deposition of a thin film perovskite solar cell directly onto the textured front surface of a high efficiency silicon cell can yield front surface reflection losses as low as 0.52mA/cm(2). Combining this with a wavelength-selective intermediate reflector between the cells additionally provides effective light-trapping in the high-bandgap top cell, resulting in calculated absolute efficiency gains of 2 - 4%. This approach provides a practical and effective method to adapt existing high efficiency silicon cell designs for use in tandem cells, with conversion efficiencies approaching 35%.

  6. Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization of Low Molecular Organic Substances on Oxidized Porous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmigol, I. V.; Alekseev, S. A.; Lavrynenko, O. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Barbier, D.; Pokrovskiy, V. A.

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) mass spectra of methylene blue (MB+Cl-) were studied using p+-type oxidized monofunctional porous silicon (PS-OX mono ) free layers. Reduction/protonation processes of methylene blue (MB) dye were investigated. It was shown that SiH x terminal sites on oxidized surface of porous silicon (PS-OX) are not the rate-determining factor for the reduction/protonation in DIOS. Tunneling of electron through the dielectric layer of nanostructures on silicon surface under effect of local electrostatic and electromagnetic fields is considered to be the most significant factor of adsorbate-adsorbent electron exchange and further laser-induced ion formation.

  7. Surface wettability enhancement of silicone hydrogel lenses by processing with polar plastic molds.

    PubMed

    Lai, Y C; Friends, G D

    1997-06-05

    In the quest for hydrogel contact lenses with improved extended wear capability, the use of siloxane moieties in the lens materials was investigated. However, the introduction of hydrophobic siloxane groups gave rise to wettability and lipidlike deposit problems. It was found that when polysiloxane-based compositions for hydrogels were processed with polar plastic molds, such as those fabricated from an acrylonitrile-based polymer, the hydrogel lenses fabricated were wettable, with minimized lipidlike deposits. These findings were supported by the wettability of silicone hydrogel films, silicon, and nitrogen element contents near lens surfaces, as well as the results from clinical assessment of silicone hydrogel lenses.

  8. Sol-gel preparation of low oxygen content, high surface area silicon nitride and imidonitride materials.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Kripasindhu; Bounds, Richard; Carravetta, Marina; Cutts, Geoffrey; Hargreaves, Justin S J; Hector, Andrew L; Hriljac, Joseph A; Levason, William; Wilson, Felix

    2016-04-07

    Reactions of Si(NHMe)4 with ammonia are effectively catalysed by small ammonium triflate concentrations, and can be used to produce free-standing silicon imide gels. Firing at various temperatures produces amorphous or partially crystallised silicon imidonitride/nitride samples with high surface areas and low oxygen contents. The crystalline phase is entirely α-Si3N4 and structural similarities are observed between the amorphous and crystallised materials.

  9. High surface area of porous silicon drives desorption of intact molecules.

    PubMed

    Northen, Trent R; Woo, Hin-Koon; Northen, Michael T; Nordström, Anders; Uritboonthail, Winnie; Turner, Kimberly L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2007-11-01

    The surface structure of porous silicon used in desorption/ionization on porous silicon (DIOS) mass analysis is known to play a primary role in the desorption/ionization (D/I) process. In this study, mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to examine the correlation between intact ion generation with surface ablation and surface morphology. The DIOS process is found to be highly laser energy dependent and correlates directly with the appearance of surface ions (Si(n)(+) and OSiH(+)). A threshold laser energy for DIOS is observed (10 mJ/cm(2)), which supports that DIOS is driven by surface restructuring and is not a strictly thermal process. In addition, three DIOS regimes are observed that correspond to surface restructuring and melting. These results suggest that higher surface area silicon substrates may enhance DIOS performance. A recent example that fits into this mechanism is the surface of silicon nanowires, which has a high surface energy and concomitantly requires lower laser energy for analyte desorption.

  10. High Surface Area of Porous Silicon Drives Desorption of Intact Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Northen, Trent R.; Woo, Hin-Koon; Northen, Michael T.; Nordström, Anders; Uritboonthail, Winnie; Turner, Kimberly L.; Siuzdak, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The surface structure of porous silicon used in desorption/ionization on porous silicon (DIOS) mass analysis is known to play a primary role in the desorption/ionization (D/I) process. In this study, mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to examine the correlation between intact ion generation with surface ablation, and surface morphology. The DIOS process is found to be highly laser energy dependent and correlates directly with the appearance of surface ions (Sin+ and OSiH+). A threshold laser energy for DIOS is observed (10 mJ/cm2), which supports that DIOS is driven by surface restructuring and is not a strictly thermal process. In addition, three DIOS regimes are observed which correspond to surface restructuring and melting. These results suggest that higher surface area silicon substrates may enhance DIOS performance. A recent example which fits into this mechanism is silicon nanowires surface which have a high surface energy and concomitantly requires lower laser energy for analyte desorpton. PMID:17881245

  11. In vitro immunogenicity of silicon-based micro- and nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Kristy M; Tao, Sarah L; Popat, Ketul C; Desai, Tejal A

    2008-05-01

    The increasing use of micro- and nanostructured silicon-based devices for in vivo therapeutic or sensing applications highlights the importance of understanding the immunogenicity of these surfaces. Four silicon surfaces (nanoporous, microstructured, nanochanneled, and flat) were studied for their ability to provoke an immune response in human blood derived monocytes. The monocytes were incubated with the surfaces for 48 h and the immunogenicity was evaluated based on the viability, shape factors, and cytokine expression. Free radical oxygen formation was measured at 18 h to elicit a possible mechanism invoking immunogenicity. Although no cytokines were significantly different comparing the response of monocytes on the tissue culture polystyrene surfaces to those on the micropeaked surfaces, on average all cytokines were elevated on the micropeaked surface. The monocytes on the nanoporous surface also displayed an elevated cytokine response, overall, but not to the degree of those on the micropeaked surface. The nanochanneled surface response was similar to that of flat silicon. Overall, the immunogenicity and biocompatibility of flat, nanochanneled, and nanoporous silicon toward human monocytes are approximately equivalent to tissue culture polystyrene.

  12. Surface roughening of silicon, thermal silicon dioxide, and low-k dielectric coral films in argon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Yunpeng; Sawin, Herbert H.

    2008-01-15

    The surface roughness evolutions of single crystal silicon, thermal silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), and low dielectric constant film coral in argon plasma have been measured by atomic force microscopy as a function of ion bombardment energy, ion impingement angle, and etching time in an inductively coupled plasma beam chamber, in which the plasma chemistry, ion energy, ion flux, and ion incident angle can be adjusted independently. The sputtering yield (or etching rate) scales linearly with the square root of ion energy at normal impingement angle; additionally, the angular dependence of the etching yield of all films in argon plasma followed the typical sputtering yield curve, with a maximum around 60 deg. -70 deg. off-normal angle. All films stayed smooth after etching at normal angle but typically became rougher at grazing angles. In particular, at grazing angles the rms roughness level of all films increased if more material was removed; additionally, the striation structure formed at grazing angles can be either parallel or transverse to the beam impingement direction, which depends on the off-normal angle. More interestingly, the sputtering caused roughness evolution at different off-normal angles can be qualitatively explained by the corresponding angular dependent etching yield curve. In addition, the roughening at grazing angles is a strong function of the type of surface; specifically, coral suffers greater roughening compared to thermal silicon dioxide.

  13. Computational Studies of the Interaction of H/H2 with Diamond and Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Goddard, William A., III; Cagin, Tahir; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen atoms and molecules with diamond and silicon surfaces is important in several important applications. Two areas that we are interested are: 1) tribology (molecular level friction) and 2) the role of H atoms in silicon chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In the tribology area, H atoms can be used to tie off dangling bonds, which otherwise form bonds between adjacent surfaces, and lead to resistance to sliding the surfaces by each other. Processes which are important in understanding molecular level friction include barriers to addition of H/H2 to the surface and barriers to migration of H atoms on the surface. In the silicon CVD area, we have studied the process of H2 elimination from the 100 surface of silicon. Cluster models for the dime surfaces of diamond are presented. The unrelaxed 100 surface has carbene like surface carbon atoms; however, for the relaxed surface these dimerize to give rows of surface dimers and there is a significant amount of p bonding between the radical orbitals of the dimer. The 110 surface has zig-zag rows of carbon atoms with a dangling bond on each carbon atom. These dangling bonds are hybridized away from each other and thus interact less strongly than for the 100 surface. Finally, the 111 surface has surface C atoms arranged in a triangular pattern and the surface dangling bonds are well separated from each other (second nearest neighbor distance) leading to almost no interaction between adjacent dangling bonds. These qualitative features may be quantified by computing the overlap of adjacent dangling bonds in a GVB(pp) calculation. The overlaps are 0.462, 0.292, and 0.016 for the diamond 100, 110, and 111 surfaces, respectively.

  14. One - step nanosecond laser microstructuring, sulfur hyperdoping, and annealing of silicon surfaces in liquid carbondisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Luong, Nguyen; Danilov, P. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Khmel'nitskii, P. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Mel'nik, N. N.; Saraeva, I. N.; Смirnov, H. A.; Rudenko, A. A.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2017-09-01

    We perform a single-shot IR nanosecond laser processing of commercial silicon wafers in ambient air and under a 2 mm thick carbon disulfide liquid layer. We characterize the surface spots modified in the liquid ambient and the spots ablated under the same conditions in air in terms of its surface topography, chemical composition, band-structure modification, and crystalline structure by means of SEM and EDX microscopy, as well as of FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. These studies indicate that single-step microstructuring and deep (up to 2-3% on the surface) hyperdoping of the crystalline silicon in its submicron surface layer, preserving via pulsed laser annealing its crystallinity and providing high (103 - 104 cm-1) spectrally at near- and mid-IR absorption coefficients, can be obtained in this novel approach, which is very promising for thin - film silicon photovoltaic devices

  15. Gold Nanostructures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Prepared by Electrodeposition in Porous Silicon.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Kazuhiro; Chourou, Mohamed L; Miyagawa, Ryohei; Muñoz Noval, Álvaro; Sakka, Tetsuo; Manso-Silván, Miguel; Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Ogata, Yukio H

    2011-04-14

    Electrodeposition of gold into porous silicon was investigated. In the present study, porous silicon with ~100 nm in pore diameter, so-called medium-sized pores, was used as template electrode for gold electrodeposition. The growth behavior of gold deposits was studied by scanning electron microscope observation of the gold deposited porous silicon. Gold nanorod arrays with different rod lengths were prepared, and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties were investigated. We found that the absorption peak due to the surface plasmon resonance can be tuned by changing the length of the nanorods. The optimum length of the gold nanorods was ~600 nm for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a He-Ne laser. The reason why the optimum length of the gold nanorods was 600 nm was discussed by considering the relationship between the absorption peak of surface plasmon resonance and the wavelength of the incident laser for Raman scattering.

  16. Surface Formation of Single Silicon Wafer Polished with Nano-sized Al2O3 Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-li; Zuo, Dun-wen; Zhu, Yong-wei; Wang, Min

    2007-12-01

    Ice polishing single silicon wafers with nano-sized Al2O3 abrasives can be known as ice fixed abrasives chemical mechanical polishing (IFA-CMP). TAn abrasive slurry was made of nano-sized Al2O3 particles dispersed in de-ionized water with a surfactant and the slurry was frozen to form an ice polishing pad. Then polishing tests of blanket silicon wafers with the above ice polishing pad were carried out. The morphologies and surface roughness of the polished silicon wafers were observed and examined on an atomic force microscope. The subsurface damage was assessed by means of cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The surface chemical constituents of the polished silicon wafers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to gain insight into the chemical mechanisms in the process. Scratch resistance of the single silicon wafer was measured by nanoscratching using a nanoindenter to explore the mechanical removal mechanism. The results show that a super smooth surface with an average roughness of 0.367 nm is obtained within 1000 nm × 1000 nm and there is a perfect silicon diamond structure without any microcracks in the subsurface. The removal of material is dominated by the coactions of ductile regime machining and chemical corrosion. In the end, a model of material removal of IFA-CMP is built.

  17. Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dezhi; Ma, Zhijun; Xu, Beibei; Dai, Ye; Ma, Guohong; He, Min; Jin, Zuanming; Qiu, Jianrong

    2011-12-07

    We report the synthesis of silicon nanocrystals via a one-step route, namely, femtosecond laser ablation in 1-hexene under ambient conditions. The size of these silicon nanocrystals is 2.37 ± 0.56 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that the surface of the silicon nanocrystals is passivated by organic molecules and is also partially oxidized by O(2) and H(2)O dissolved in the solution. These silicon nanocrystals emit stable and bright blue photoluminescence. We suggest that the photoluminescence originates from the radiative recombination of electron-hole pairs through the oxide-related centers on the surface of the silicon nanocrystals. The decay rate of the oxide-related surface recombination can be comparable to that of the direct band gap transition. In the excitation and emission spectra, a vibrational structure with nearly constant spacings (0.18 eV) is observed. We propose that the strong electron-phonon coupling between excitons and the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons of the Si-C vibration is responsible for this vibrational structure. The fluctuations in the peak resolution, about ±0.01 eV, are ascribed to the size distribution and presence of Si-O vibrations. These silicon nanocrystals offer stable luminescence and are synthesized through a "green" and simple route. They may find important applications in many fields, such as bioimaging and environmental science.

  18. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-10-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  19. Preparation and single molecule structure of electroactive polysilane end-grafted on a crystalline silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Kazuaki; Ebata, Keisuke

    2000-12-01

    Electrically active polysilanes of poly(methylphenylsilane) (PMPS) and poly[bis(p-n-butylphenyl)silane] (PBPS), which are, respectively, known as a good hole transporting material and a near-ultraviolet electroluminescent material, are end-grafted directly on a crystalline silicon surface. The single polysilane molecules are clearly distinguished one from the other on the surface by means of atomic force microscopy observations. End-grafted single molecules of PMPS are observed as dots while end-grafted PBPS appear as worms extending for more than 100 nm on the crystalline silicon surface.

  20. Immobilization of heparin on a silicone surface through a heterobifunctional PEG spacer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Yang; Sheardown, Heather; Brook, Michael A

    2005-12-01

    A novel method of immobilizing heparin on a silicone surface through a heterobifunctional PEG spacer was used yield well defined surfaces with highly active surface immobilized heparin and low non-specific protein adsorption. The heparin surface density achieved using this technique was 0.68 microg/cm2. Sessile drop water contact angles showed increased hydrophilicity of the silicone surface after PEG modification and a further decrease in the contact angles following the grafting of heparin. High specificity for ATIII with little fibrinogen adsorption was noted in plasma adsorption studies. This ATIII adsorption was mediated by the heparin layer, since surfaces modified with PEG only did not adsorb significant quantities of AT. The thrombin resistance of the heparin modified surfaces was demonstrably greater as measured by a chromogenic thrombin generation assay. The results suggest that the heterbifunctional PEG linker results in a high density of active heparin on the surfaces.

  1. Characterization of hydrogen-plasma interactions with photoresist, silicon, and silicon nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Thedjoisworo, Bayu A.; Cheung, David; Zamani, Davoud

    2012-05-15

    For the 45 nm technology node and beyond, a major challenge is to achieve reasonably high photoresist ash rates while minimizing the loss of the silicon (Si) substrate and its nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). Accordingly, an objective of this work is to characterize the photoresist strip rate under varying conditions of H{sub 2} plasma and the effects of these conditions on Si and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etch rates. In addition, we discuss in detail the fundamental mechanisms of the reactions between H atoms and the above substrates and successfully reconcile the process trends obtained with the reaction mechanisms. In this work, photoresist, Si, and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films were exposed to downstream pure-H{sub 2} discharges and their removal rates were characterized by ellipsometry as a function of the following parameters: substrate temperature, reactor pressure, H{sub 2} flow rate, and source power. The authors found that the H{sub 2}-based dry ash and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etch are both thermally activated reactions, evidenced by the steady increase in etch rate as a function of temperature, with activation energies of {approx}5.0 and {approx}2.7 kcal/mol, respectively. The Si substrate exhibits a rather unique behavior where the etch rate increases initially to a maximum, which occurs at {approx}40 deg. C, and then decreases upon a further increase in temperature. The decrease in the Si etch rate at higher temperatures is attributed to the activation of competing side reactions that consume the chemisorbed H atoms on the Si surface, which then suppresses the Si-etch step. The photoresist and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} removal rates increase initially with increasing pressure, reaching maxima at {approx}800 and 2000 mTorr, respectively, beyond which the removal rates drop with increasing pressure. The initial increase in removal rate at the low-pressure regime is attributed to the increased atomic-hydrogen density, whereas the decrease in ash rate at the high-pressure regime could be

  2. Assembly, characterization, and electrochemical properties of immobilized metal bipyridyl complexes on silicon(111) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, Judith R C; Blakemore, James D; Sattler, Wesley; Gul, Sheraz; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Lewis, Nathan S; Gray, Harry B

    2014-10-28

    Silicon(111) surfaces have been functionalized with mixed monolayers consisting of submonolayer coverages of immobilized 4-vinyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (1, vbpy) moieties, with the remaining atop sites of the silicon surface passivated by methyl groups. As the immobilized bipyridyl ligands bind transition metal ions, metal complexes can be assembled on the silicon surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that bipyridyl complexes of [Cp*Rh], [Cp*Ir], and [Ru(acac)2] were formed on the surface (Cp* is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, acac is acetylacetonate). For the surface prepared with Ir, X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ir LIII edge showed an edge energy as well as post-edge features that were essentially identical with those observed on a powder sample of [Cp*Ir(bpy)Cl]Cl (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridyl). Charge-carrier lifetime measurements confirmed that the silicon surfaces retain their highly favorable photoelectronic properties upon assembly of the metal complexes. Electrochemical data for surfaces prepared on highly doped, n-type Si(111) electrodes showed that the assembled molecular complexes were redox active. However the stability of the molecular complexes on the surfaces was limited to several cycles of voltammetry.

  3. Simulation of near-surface proton-stimulated diffusion of boron in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, O. V. Kozlovski, V. V.

    2008-03-15

    A quantitative model for near-surface redistribution of doping impurity in silicon in the course of proton-stimulated diffusion is developed for the first time. According to the model, the near-surface peak of the impurity concentration is caused by migration of neutral impurity-self-interstitial pairs to the surface with subsequent decomposition of these pairs and accumulation of the impurity at the silicon surface within a thin layer (referred to as {delta}-doped layer). The depletion and enhancement regions that are found deeper than the near-surface concentration peak are caused by expulsion of ionized impurity by an electric field from the near-surface region of the field penetration. The field appears due to the charge formed in the natural-oxide film at the silicon surface as a result of irradiation with protons. The diffusion-kinetic equations for the impurity, self-interstitials, vacancies, and impurity-self-interstitial pairs were solved numerically simultaneously with the Poisson equation. It is shown that the results of calculations are in quantitative agreement with experimental data on the proton-stimulated diffusion of boron impurity in the near-surface region of silicon.

  4. Ambient plasma treatment of silicon wafers for surface passivation recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jia; Prinz, Markus; Markert, Thomas; Aberle, Armin G.; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of an ambient plasma treatment powered by compressed dry air on the passivation quality of silicon wafers coated with intrinsic amorphous silicon sub-oxide is investigated. While long-time storage deteriorates the effective lifetime of all samples, a short ambient plasma treatment improves their passivation qualities. By studying the influence of the plasma treatment parameters on the passivation layers, an optimized process condition was identified which even boosted the passivation quality beyond its original value obtained immediately after deposition. On the other hand, the absence of stringent requirement on gas precursors, vacuum condition and longtime processing makes the ambient plasma treatment an excellent candidate to replace conventional thermal annealing in industrial heterojunction solar cell production.

  5. Surface wave accelerator based on silicon carbide: theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S.; Korobkin, D.; Neuner, B.; Shvets, G.

    2009-01-01

    Compact near-field solid-state accelerating structure powered by a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is considered. The accelerating luminous transverse magnetic mode is excited in a few-micron wide evacuated planar channel between two silicon carbide (SiC) films grown on silicon (Si) wafers. Laser coupling to this mode is accomplished through the properly designed Si gratings. Operating wavelength is dictated by the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of SiC and the channel width. The geometric loss factor κ of the accelerating mode is computed. It is found that the unwanted excitation of the guided modes in Si wafers reduces the laser coupling efficiency and increases the fields inside the Si wafer.

  6. Surface wave accelerator based on silicon carbide: theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, S.; Korobkin, D.; Neuner, B.; Shvets, G.

    2009-01-22

    Compact near-field solid-state accelerating structure powered by a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) laser is considered. The accelerating luminous transverse magnetic mode is excited in a few-micron wide evacuated planar channel between two silicon carbide (SiC) films grown on silicon (Si) wafers. Laser coupling to this mode is accomplished through the properly designed Si gratings. Operating wavelength is dictated by the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity of SiC and the channel width. The geometric loss factor {kappa} of the accelerating mode is computed. It is found that the unwanted excitation of the guided modes in Si wafers reduces the laser coupling efficiency and increases the fields inside the Si wafer.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Surface-functionalized Silicon and Germanium Nanoparticles: The Dominant Role of Surface Charges

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Rietjens, Ivonne MCM; Singh, Mani P; Atkins, Tonya M; Purkait, Tapas K; Xu, Zejing; Regli, Sarah; Shukaliak, Amber; Clark, Rhett J; Mitchell, Brian S; Alink, Gerrit M; Marcelis, Antonius TM; Fink, Mark J; Veinot, Jonathan GC; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Zuilhofa, Han

    2013-01-01

    Although it is hypothesized that surface (like surface charge) and physical characteristics (like particle size) play important roles in cellular interactions of nanoparticles (NPs), a systematic study probing this issue is missing. Hence, a comparative cytotoxicity study quantifying nine different cellular endpoints, was performed with a broad series of monodisperse, well characterized silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) NPs with various surface functionalizations. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and rat alveolar macrophage NR8383 cells were used, to clarify the toxicity of this series of NPs. The surface coatings on the NPs appeared to dominate the cytotoxicity: the cationic NPs exhibited cytotoxicity, whereas the carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrophilic PEG- or dextran-terminated NPs did not. Within the cationic Si NPs, smaller Si NPs were more toxic than bigger ones. Manganese-doped (1 % Mn) Si NPs did not show any added toxicity, which favors their further development for bioimaging. Iron-doped (1 % Fe) Si NPs showed some added toxicity, which may be due to the leaching of Fe3+ ions from the core. A silica coating seemed to impart toxicity, in line with the reported toxicity of silica. Intracellular mitochondria seem to be a target organ for the toxic NPs since a dose-, surface charge- and size-dependent imbalance of the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed. Such imbalance led to a series of other cellular events for cationic NPs, like decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP production, induction of ROS generation, increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ content, production of TNF-α and enhanced caspase-3 activity. Taken together, the results explain the toxicity of Si NPs/Ge NPs largely by their surface characteristics, provide insight in the mode of action underlying the observed cytotoxicity, and give directions on synthesizing biocompatible Si and Ge NPs, as this is crucial for bioimaging and other applications in for example the field of

  8. Cytotoxicity of surface-functionalized silicon and germanium nanoparticles: the dominant role of surface charges.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Singh, Mani P; Atkins, Tonya M; Purkait, Tapas K; Xu, Zejing; Regli, Sarah; Shukaliak, Amber; Clark, Rhett J; Mitchell, Brian S; Alink, Gerrit M; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Fink, Mark J; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-06-07

    Although it is frequently hypothesized that surface (like surface charge) and physical characteristics (like particle size) play important roles in cellular interactions of nanoparticles (NPs), a systematic study probing this issue is missing. Hence, a comparative cytotoxicity study, quantifying nine different cellular endpoints, was performed with a broad series of monodisperse, well characterized silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) NPs with various surface functionalizations. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and rat alveolar macrophage NR8383 cells were used to clarify the toxicity of this series of NPs. The surface coatings on the NPs appeared to dominate the cytotoxicity: the cationic NPs exhibited cytotoxicity, whereas the carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrophilic PEG- or dextran-terminated NPs did not. Within the cationic Si NPs, smaller Si NPs were more toxic than bigger ones. Manganese-doped (1% Mn) Si NPs did not show any added toxicity, which favors their further development for bioimaging. Iron-doped (1% Fe) Si NPs showed some added toxicity, which may be due to the leaching of Fe(3+) ions from the core. A silica coating seemed to impart toxicity, in line with the reported toxicity of silica. Intracellular mitochondria seem to be the target for the toxic NPs since a dose-, surface charge- and size-dependent imbalance of the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed. Such an imbalance led to a series of other cellular events for cationic NPs, like decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP production, induction of ROS generation, increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) content, production of TNF-α and enhanced caspase-3 activity. Taken together, the results explain the toxicity of Si NPs/Ge NPs largely by their surface characteristics, provide insight into the mode of action underlying the observed cytotoxicity, and give directions on synthesizing biocompatible Si and Ge NPs, as this is crucial for bioimaging and other applications in for

  9. Point defects generated by oxidation of silicon crystal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suezawa, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suemitsu, M.; Yonenaga, I.

    2009-12-01

    To study the generation of interstitials and vacancies due to oxidation of silicon crystals, we applied a quenching method, namely, oxidation at high temperatures in mixed gases of water vapor and hydrogen gas followed by the quenching into water. Contrary to our expectation that the interstitial concentration is high, the vacancy concentration generated due to the short period of oxidation is higher than that of the thermal equilibrium concentration.

  10. Surface acoustic waves/silicon monolithic sensor processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.; Fathimulla, M. A.; Mehter, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the creation of a two dimensional Fourier transformer for optical images based on the zinc oxide on silicon technology. The sputtering of zinc oxide films using a micro etch system and the possibility of a spray-on technique based on zinc chloride dissolved in alcohol solution are discussed. Refinements to techniques for making platinum silicide Schottky barrier junctions essential for constructing the ultimate convolver structure are described.

  11. Towards the characterization of silicon surfaces: Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, Rebecca Anne

    One of the developing areas in silicon chemistry is in small silicon particles, primarily the nanoparticles regime. When on the 'nano' scale, silicon possesses very different properties and characteristics from bulk silicon. These properties include novel optical and electronic properties that are size dependent. Semiconductor nanoparticles possess a unique bright photoluminescence when in the nanoparticle regime. The photoluminescence in the nanoparticle regime answers the problem of inefficient emissions, which have previously been a problem in bulk silicon, for use in solar cells. Nanoparticle silicon (np-Si) is also biocompatible, allowing for the use in various biological applications including biological tracers, biosensors, delivery of medicine, as well as many others. Although np-Si is widely used, its surface structure still remains largely debated. The surface structure of np-Si is of critical importance as it affects the reactivity of the sample as well as the properties the samples possess. Relative to other silicon samples, np-Si lends itself to be studied by solid state NMR due to its higher surface area, although other types of silicon samples have been studied to some degree in this dissertation project. The surface structure and adjacent interior of np-Si, obtained as commercially available silicon nanopowder, were studied in this project using multinuclear, solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The results are consistent with an overall picture in which the bulk of the np-Si interior consists of highly ordered ('crystalline') silicon atoms, each bound tetrahedrally to four other silicon atoms. From a combination of 1H and 29Si magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR results and quantum mechanical 29Si chemical shift calculations, silicon atoms on the surface of 'as-received' np-Si were found to exist in a variety of chemical structures, including primarily structures of the types (Si-O-)n(Si-) 3-nSi-H (with n = 1--3) and (Si-O-)2Si(H)OH, where Si stands for a

  12. Porous silicon photonic crystals for detection of infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, B.; Guan, B.; Reece, P. J.; Gooding, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of modifying porous silicon (PSi) particles with surface chemistry and immobilizing a biopolymer, gelatin for the detection of protease enzymes in solution. A rugate filter, a one-dimensional photonic crystal, is fabricated that exhibits a high-reflectivity optical resonance that is sensitive to small changes in the refractive index. To immobilize gelatin in the pores of the particles, the hydrogen-terminated silicon surface was first modified with an alkyne, 1,8-nonadiyne via hydrosilylation to protect the silicon surfaces from oxidation. This modification allows for further functionality to be added such as the coupling of gelatin. Exposure of the gelatin modified particles to the protease subtilisin in solution causes a change in the refractive index, resulting in a shift of the resonance to shorter wavelengths, indicating cleavage of organic material within the pores. The ability to monitor the spectroscopic properties of microparticles, and shifts in the optical signature due to changes in the refractive index of the material within the pore space, is demonstrated.

  13. Surface evolution and stability transition of silicon wafer subjected to nano-diamond grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shisheng; Zhang, Changxing; Li, Haicheng; Lu, Siyuan; Li, Yan; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Feng, Xue

    2017-03-01

    In order to obtain excellent physical properties and ultrathin devices, thinning technique plays an important role in semiconductor industry with the rapid development of wearable electronic devices. This study presents a physical nano-diamond grinding technique without any chemistry to obtain ultrathin silicon substrate. The nano-diamond with spherical shape repeats nano-cutting and penetrating surface to physically etch silicon wafer during grinding process. Nano-diamond grinding induces an ultrathin "amorphous layer" on silicon wafer and thus the mismatch strain between the amorphous layer and substrate leads to stability transition from the spherical to non-spherical deformation of the wafer. Theoretical model is proposed to predict and analyze the deformation of amorphous layer/silicon substrate system. Furthermore, the deformation bifurcation behavior of amorphous layer/silicon substrate system is analyzed. As the mismatch strain increases or thickness decreases, the amorphous layer/silicon substrate system may transit to non-spherical deformation, which is consistent to the experimental results. The amorphous layer stresses are also obtained to predict the damage of silicon wafer.

  14. Light-induced metal-like surface of silicon photonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco

    2015-09-11

    The surface of a material may exhibit physical phenomena that do not occur in the bulk of the material itself. For this reason, the behaviour of nanoscale devices is expected to be conditioned, or even dominated, by the nature of their surface. Here, we show that in silicon photonic nanowaveguides, massive surface carrier generation is induced by light travelling in the waveguide, because of natural surface-state absorption at the core/cladding interface. At the typical light intensity used in linear applications, this effect makes the surface of the waveguide behave as a metal-like frame. A twofold impact is observed on the waveguide performance: the surface electric conductivity dominates over that of bulk silicon and an additional optical absorption mechanism arises, that we named surface free-carrier absorption. These results, applying to generic semiconductor photonic technologies, unveil the real picture of optical nanowaveguides that needs to be considered in the design of any integrated optoelectronic device.

  15. Evaporation and wetting dynamics of sessile water droplets on submicron-scale patterned silicon hydrophobic surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chang Kyoung; Shin, Dong Hwan; Lee, Seong Hyuk; Retterer, Scott T

    2010-01-01

    The evaporation characteristics of 1 l sessile water droplets on hydrophobic surfaces are experimentally examined. The proposed hydrophobic surfaces are composed of submicron diameter and 4.2- m-height silicon post arrays. A digital image analysis algorithm was developed to obtain time-dependent contact angles, contact diameters, and center heights for both non-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces and patterned post array surfaces, which have the same hydrophobic contact angles. While the contact angles exhibit three distinct stages during evaporation in the non-patterned surface case, those in the patterned silicon post array surface case decrease linearly. In the case of post array hydrophobic surfaces, the initial contact diameter remains unchanged until the portion of the droplet above the posts completely dries out. The edge shrinking velocity of the droplet shows nonlinear characteristics, and the velocity magnitude increases rapidly near the last stage of evaporation.

  16. Light-induced metal-like surface of silicon photonic waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The surface of a material may exhibit physical phenomena that do not occur in the bulk of the material itself. For this reason, the behaviour of nanoscale devices is expected to be conditioned, or even dominated, by the nature of their surface. Here, we show that in silicon photonic nanowaveguides, massive surface carrier generation is induced by light travelling in the waveguide, because of natural surface-state absorption at the core/cladding interface. At the typical light intensity used in linear applications, this effect makes the surface of the waveguide behave as a metal-like frame. A twofold impact is observed on the waveguide performance: the surface electric conductivity dominates over that of bulk silicon and an additional optical absorption mechanism arises, that we named surface free-carrier absorption. These results, applying to generic semiconductor photonic technologies, unveil the real picture of optical nanowaveguides that needs to be considered in the design of any integrated optoelectronic device. PMID:26359202

  17. Optical analysis of the light emission from porous silicon: a hybrid polyatom surface-coupled fluorophor.

    PubMed

    Gole, James L; Veje, Erling; Egeberg, R G; Ferreira da Silva, A; Pepe, I; Dixon, David A

    2006-02-09

    The most extensive data set yet generated correlating photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra is presented for aged (equilibrated) porous silicon (PS) samples. The observed features, which are temperature independent over the range 10-300 K, show a detailed correlation with the results of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and with molecular electronic structure calculations. The observed energy level patterns are reproduced in the photoabsorption (PA) of PS films released after the etching of a silicon wafer. It is concluded that the energy level pattern found for the photoluminescing surface of PS results from a structure which is neither uniquely molecule- or bulk-like but represents a hybrid form for which the density of states associated with a polyatomic vibrationally excited surface-bound fluorophor dominates the nature of the observed features which are not those of a semiconductor. These fluorophor features are broadened and shifted to lower excitation energy as a result of the intimate presence of the silicon surface to which the fluorophor is bound. The dominance of the surface-bound fluorophor accounts for the temperature-independent PLE and PL features. The observed spectral features are thus suggested to be the result of a strong synergistic interaction in which the silicon surface influences the location of surface-bound fluorophor excited states whereas the nature of the vibrationally excited surface-bound fluorophor coupling to the silicon surface provides the mechanism for an enhanced vibronic structure dominated interaction and energy transfer. The observed PLE, PL, PAS, and PA measurements are found to be consistent with previous photovoltaic and photoconductivity measurements, correlating well with a surface-bound oxyhydride-like emitter. This study suggests the important role that the overtone structure of a molecule bound to a surface can play as one forms a hybrid system.

  18. AFM study of forces between silicon oil and hydrophobic-hydrophilic surfaces in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zbik, Marek S; Frost, Ray L

    2010-09-15

    An investigation has been made of the interactions between silicone oil and various solid substrates immersed in aqueous solutions. Measurements were made using an atomic force microscope (AFM) using the colloid-probe method. The silicone oil drop is simulated by coating a small silica sphere with the oil, and measuring the force as this coated sphere is brought close to contact with a flat solid surface. It is found that the silicone oil surface is negatively charged, which causes a double-layer repulsion between the oil drop and another negatively charged surface such as mica. With hydrophilic solids, this repulsion is strong enough to prevent attachment of the drop to the solid. However, with hydrophobic surfaces there is an additional attractive force which overcomes the double-layer repulsion, and the silicone oil drop attaches to the solid. There is circumstantial evidence that linear and nonlinear effect take part in force results from compression of the silicone oil film coated on the glass sphere.

  19. Solvothermal synthesis of selenium nano and microspheres deposited on silicon surface by microwave-assisted method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Muthanna

    2016-10-01

    This work describes a new application of the solvothermal method, based on the microwave heating, for the synthesis of nano and microparticles of selenium. The reaction of selenium with hydrofluoric acid on the silicon surface is induced by microwave irradiation under high pressure and temperature of 60 bar and 160 °C, respectively. This method allows the deposition of spherical-like particles on the in situ etched silicon surface. The size of deposited selenium spheres scales from tens of nanometers up to tens of micrometers. The morphology and composition of the deposited selenium were analyzed by various analytical techniques. The formation dynamic of spherical structure is explained on the base of reduction of selenium species by hydrogen inside gas bubbles which are generated on the silicon surface by the etching process.

  20. Hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene on Nanostructured Porous Silicon Surface: Role of Current Density and Stabilizing Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shalini; Sharma, Shailesh N.; Govind, Govind; Khan, Mukhtar A.; Singh, P. K.

    2009-06-01

    We report the formation of nanostructured PS on boron doped p-type silicon wafer (100) by electrochemical anodization using aqueous hydrofluoric acid and isopropyl alcohol solution at different current densities 20mAcm-2 and 50mAcm-2 with pore size being 20-30 nm and 50-60 nm, respectively. For organic functionalization of PS surface 1-Dodecene treatment under UV light was done. PL, FTIR and XPS studies have been carried out to characterize the PS after surface modification using dodecene. Stability studies were performed under normal ambience and humid condition for as-anodized (Fresh PS) and dodecene-treated samples. It is observed that the dodecene functionalized samples were more stable than as-anodized porous silicon. The present study demonstrates that nanoporous silicon can provide chemically modified stable and high surface area for the sensing applications of PS.

  1. Effect of silicon carbide ceramic coating process on the mirror surface quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peipei; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Bai, Yunli; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Zhenghang

    2016-10-01

    Silicon carbide, as a new reflector material, its excellent physical and chemical properties has been widely recognized by the industry. In order to make SiC mirror better used in space optical system, we used digital coating equipment during its coating process. By using ion-assisted electron evaporation method, we got a complete metal reflective film system on the surface of finely polished silicon carbide mirror. After automated coating process, by adjusting the coating parameters during the process, the surface roughness of silicon carbide improved from 7.8 nm to 5.1 nm, and the average optical reflectance of the surface reached 95% from visible to near-infrared. The metal reflective film system kept well after annealing and firmness test. As a result, the work of this paper will provide an important reference for high-precision coating process on large diameter SiC mirror.

  2. Bioactive modification of silicon surface using self-assembled hydrophobins from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, L; Rea, I; De Tommasi, E; Rendina, I; Rotiroti, L; Giocondo, M; Longobardi, S; Armenante, A; Giardina, P

    2009-10-01

    A crystalline silicon surface can be made biocompatible and chemically stable by a self-assembled biofilm of proteins, the hydrophobins (HFBs) purified from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The protein-modified silicon surface shows an improvement in wettability and is suitable for immobilization of other proteins. Two different proteins were successfully immobilized on the HFBs-coated chips: the bovine serum albumin and an enzyme, a laccase, which retains its catalytic activity even when bound on the chip. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), water contact angle (WCA), and fluorescence measurements demonstrated that the proposed approach in silicon surface bioactivation is a feasible strategy for the fabrication of a new class of hybrid devices.

  3. Bioactive modification of silicon surface using self-assembled hydrophobins from Pleurotus ostreatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Stefano, L.; Rea, I.; de Tommasi, E.; Rendina, I.; Rotiroti, L.; Giocondo, M.; Longobardi, S.; Armenante, A.; Giardina, P.

    2009-10-01

    A crystalline silicon surface can be made biocompatible and chemically stable by a self-assembled biofilm of proteins, the hydrophobins (HFBs) purified from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The protein-modified silicon surface shows an improvement in wettability and is suitable for immobilization of other proteins. Two different proteins were successfully immobilized on the HFBs-coated chips: the bovine serum albumin and an enzyme, a laccase, which retains its catalytic activity even when bound on the chip. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE), water contact angle (WCA), and fluorescence measurements demonstrated that the proposed approach in silicon surface bioactivation is a feasible strategy for the fabrication of a new class of hybrid devices.

  4. Optical properties of silicon clusters deposited on the basal plane of graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, L. N.; Chase, L. L.; Balooch, M.; Terminello, L. J.; Tench, R. J.; Wooten, F.

    1994-04-01

    Laser ablation was used to deposit of silicon on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces in an ultra high-vacuum environment equipped with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and luminescence spectroscopy. For deposition of up to several monolayers, post annealing produced silicon clusters, whose size distribution was determined vs annealing time and temperature using STM. Pure silicon clusters ranging from 1 to 10 nm showed no detectable photoluminescence in visible range. Exposure to oxygen at 10(exp -6) Torr and for up to 8 hours showed adsorption on the surface of the clusters without silicon oxide formation and no detectable luminescence. Hydrogen termination of these clusters was accomplished by exposing them to atomic hydrogen beam but did not result in any photoluminescence. Prolonged exposure of these clusters to ambient air, however, resulted in strong photoluminescence spectra with color ranging from red to greenish-blue depending on average cluster size. Auger electron spectra revealed the existence of partially oxidized silicon clusters. This luminescence could be due to either an oxide phase or to changes in electronic structure of the clusters as a result of quantum confinement effect.

  5. Surface-initiated hyperbranched polyglycerol as an ultralow-fouling coating on glass, silicon, and porous silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eli; Delalat, Bahman; Vasani, Roshan; McPhee, Gordon; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-09-10

    Anionic ring-opening polymerization of glycidol was initiated from activated glass, silicon, and porous silicon substrates to yield thin, ultralow-fouling hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) graft polymer coatings. Substrates were activated by deprotonation of surface-bound silanol functionalities. HPG polymerization was initiated upon the addition of freshly distilled glycidol to yield films in the nanometer thickness range. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and ellipsometry were used to characterize the resulting coatings. The antifouling properties of HPG-coated surfaces were evaluated in terms of protein adsorption and the attachment of mammalian cells. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin and collagen type I was found to be reduced by as much as 97 and 91%, respectively, in comparison to untreated surfaces. Human glioblastoma and mouse fibroblast attachment was reduced by 99 and 98%, respectively. HPG-grafted substrates outperformed polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafted substrates of comparable thickness under the same incubation conditions. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of antifouling HPG graft polymer coatings on a selected range of substrate materials and open the door for their use in biomedical applications.

  6. Optimization of toxic biological compound adsorption from aqueous solution onto Silicon and Silicon carbide nanoparticles through response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Fakhri, Ali; Rashidi, Sahar; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Asif, Mohammad; Agarwal, Shilpi

    2017-08-01

    The subject of this paper is removal of Aflatoxin B1 as toxic biological compound adsorption onto Silicon (Si) and Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles in aqueous matrices using Response surface methodology. The surface frame of Si and SiC nanoparticles were comminuted by XRD, TEM, SEM, and BET. Experiments were steered well-found by Box-Behnken plan (BBD). Experiments of batch method were performed to prognosticate the reaction equilibrium of Aflatoxin B1 removal. The response surface methodological approach was used. In the agreeable perusal, effect of adsorbent dosage, temperature and pH on the Aflatoxin B1 adsorption from aqueous matrices using Si and SiC nanoparticles has been investigated. The interplay of the changeables and their implication was studied using the analysis of variance. The optimum adsorbent dosage, pH, and temperature were obtained to be 0.04g, 9.0 and 278K, respectively and adsorption of Aflatoxin B1 was 42.50 and 46.10mg/g for Si and SiC nanoparticles, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron microscopy analysis of crystalline silicon islands formed on screen-printed aluminum-doped p-type silicon surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, Robert; Schmidt, Jan; Brendel, Rolf

    2008-08-15

    The origin of a not yet understood concentration peak, which is generally measured at the surface of aluminum-doped p{sup +} regions produced in a conventional screen-printing process is investigated. Our findings provide clear experimental evidence that the concentration peak is due to the microscopic structures formed at the silicon surface during the firing process. To characterize the microscopic nature of the islands (lateral dimensions of 1-3 {mu}m) and line networks of self-assembled nanostructures (lateral dimension of {<=}50 nm), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis are combined. Aluminum inclusions are detected 50 nm below the surface of the islands and crystalline aluminum precipitates of {<=}7 nm in diameter are found within the bulk of the islands. In addition, aluminum inclusions (lateral dimension of {approx}30 nm) are found within the bulk of the self-assembled line networks.

  8. Photochemistry of Dimethyl Cadmium on Quartz and Silicon Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-26

    AD-A237 261 OFFICE OF NAVAL REiSEARCH- ) T I CJUL R&T Code 413a001 C Technical Report No. 2 Photochemistry of Dimethyl Cadmiun on Quartz and Silicon...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7s. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable) Emory University Office of Naval Research ( Code 413) 6c...ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code ) 7t. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Code ) Department of Chemistry Chemistry Program 1515 Pierce Drive 800 N. Quincy

  9. Surface morphology evolution in silicon during ion beam processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian P; Caturla, M; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Johnson, M

    1999-08-01

    The Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) projects that the semiconductor chips used in personal computers and scientific workstations will reach five times the speed and ten times the memory capacity of the current pentium-class processor by the year 2007. However, 1 GHz on-chip clock speeds and 64 Gbits/Chip DRAM technology will not come easy and without a price. Such technologies will require scaling the minimum feature size of CMOS devices (the transistors in the silicon chip) down to below 100nm from the current 180 to 250 nm. This requirement has profound implications for device manufacturing. Existing processing techniques must increasingly be understood quantitatively and modeled with unprecedented precision. Indeed, revolutionary advances in the development of physics-based process simulation tools will be required to achieve the goals for cost efficient manufacturing, and to satisfy the needs of the defense industrial base. These advances will necessitate a fundamental improvement in our basic understanding of microstructure evolution during processing. In order to cut development time and costs, the semiconductor industry makes extensive use of simple models of dopant implantation, and of phenomenological models of defect annealing and diffusion. However, the production of a single device often requires more than 200 processing steps, and the cumulative effects of the various steps are far too complex to be treated with these models. The lack of accurate process modeling simulators is proving to be a serious impediment to the development of next generation devices. New atomic-level models are required to describe the point defect distributions produced by the implantation process, and the defect and dopant diffusion resulting from rapid thermal annealing steps. In this LDRD project, we investigated the migration kinetics of defects and dopants in silicon both experimentally and theoretically to provide a fundamental database for use in the development

  10. GlyHisGlyHis immobilization on silicon surface for copper detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, Sabrina; Gouget-Laemmel, Anne Chantal; Chazalviel, Jean-Noël; Ozanam, François; Gabouze, Noureddine

    2013-03-01

    Hybrid nanomaterials based on organic layer covalently grafted on semi-conductor surfaces appear as promising systems for innovative applications, especially in sensor field. In this work, we focused on the functionalization of silicon surface by the peptide GlyHisGlyHis, which forms stable complexes with metal ions. This property is exploited to achieve heavy metals recognition in solution. The immobilization was achieved using multi-step reactions: GlyHisGlyHis was anchored on a previously prepared carboxyl-terminated silicon surface using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling agents. This scheme is compatible with the mild conditions required for preserving the probe activity of the peptide. At each step of the functionalization, the surface was monitored by infrared spectroscopy Fourier transform (FTIR) in ATR (attenuated total reflexions) geometry and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Electrochemical behaviour of such prepared electrodes was carried out in the presence of copper ions by means of cyclic voltammetry. The recorded cyclic voltammograms showed a surface reversible process corresponding to the Cu2+/Cu+ couple in the complex Cu-GlyHisGlyHis immobilized on the silicon surface. Copper ions concentrations down than μM where detected. These results demonstrate the potential role of peptide-modified silicon electrodes in developing strategies for simple and fast detection of toxic metals in solution.

  11. Process flow to integrate nanostructures on silicon grass in surface micromachined systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, H.; Müller, L.; Biermann, S.; Hänschke, F.; Hoffmann, M.

    2016-10-01

    The process flow to integrate metallic nanostructures in surface micromachining processes is presented. The nanostructures are generated by evaporation of microstructured silicon grass with metal. The process flow is based on the lift-off of a thin amorphous silicon layer deposited using a CVD process. All steps feature a low temperature load beneath 120 °C and high compatibility with many materials as only well-established chemicals are used. As a result metallic nanostructures usable for optical applications can be generated as part of multilayered microsystems fabricated in surface micromachining.

  12. Influence of Surface Properties on the Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Acrylic and Silicone

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Cláudia; Teixeira, Pilar; Oliveira, Rosário

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of eight Staphylococcus epidermidis strains to adhere to acrylic and silicone, two polymers normally used in medical devices manufacture. Furthermore, it was tried to correlate that with the surface properties of substrata and cells. Therefore, hydrophobicity and surface tension components were calculated through contact angle measurements. Surface roughness of substrata was also assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No relationship was found between microbial surface hydrophobicity and adhesion capability. Nevertheless, Staphylococcus epidermidis IE214 showed very unique adhesion behaviour, with cells highly aggregated between them, which is a consequence of their specific surface features. All strains, determined as being hydrophilic, adhered at a higher extent to silicone than to acrylic, most likely due to its more hydrophobic character and higher roughness. This demonstrates the importance of biomaterial surface characteristics for bacterial adhesion. PMID:20126579

  13. Influence of pre-surface treatment on the morphology of silicon nanowires fabricated by metal-assisted etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Shu-Chia; Lin, Shin-Bo; Hung, Shih-Che; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2011-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate an improved metal-assisted etching method to achieve highly dense and uniform silicon nanowire arrays. A pre-surface treatment was applied on a silicon wafer before the process of metal-assisted etching in silver nitrate and hydrogen fluoride solution. The treatment made silver ion continuously reduce on silver nuclei adherence on the silicon surface, leading to formation of dense silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles acting as local redox centers cause the formation of dense silicon nanowire arrays. In contrast, an H-terminated silicon surface made silver ion reduce uniformly on the silicon surface to form silver flakes. The silicon nanowires fabricated with a pre-surface treatment reveals higher density than those fabricated without a pre-surface treatment. The volume fraction improves from 18 to 38%. This improvement reduces the solar-weighted reflectance to as low as 3.3% for silicon nanowires with a length of only 0.87 μm. In comparison, the silicon nanowires fabricated without a pre-surface treatment have to be as long as 1.812 μm to achieve the same reflectance.

  14. Nanoporous Silicon Combustion: Observation of Shock Wave and Flame Synthesis of Nanoparticle Silica.

    PubMed

    Becker, Collin R; Gillen, Greg J; Staymates, Matthew E; Stoldt, Conrad R

    2015-11-18

    The persistent hydrogen termination present in nanoporous silicon (nPS) is unique compared to other forms of nanoscale silicon (Si) which typically readily form a silicon dioxide passivation layer. The hydrogen terminated surface combined with the extremely high surface area of nPS yields a material capable of powerful exothermic reactions when combined with strong oxidizers. Here, a galvanic etching mechanism is used to produce nPS both in bulk Si wafers as well as in patterned regions of Si wafers with microfabricated ignition wires. An explosive composite is generated by filling the pores with sodium perchlorate (NaClO4). Using high-speed video including Schlieren photography, a shock wave is observed to propagate through air at 1127 ± 116 m/s. Additionally, a fireball is observed above the region of nPS combustion which persists for nearly 3× as long when reacted in air compared to N2, indicating that highly reactive species are generated that can further combust with excess oxygen. Finally, reaction products from either nPS-NaClO4 composites or nPS alone combusted with only high pressure O2 (400 psig) gas as an oxidizer are captured in a calorimeter bomb. The products in both cases are similar and verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to include nano- to micrometer scale SiOx particles. This work highlights the complex oxidation mechanism of nPS composites and demonstrates the ability to use a solid state reaction to create a secondary gas phase combustion.

  15. High efficiency silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells with two-step surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianxiong; Wang, Hao; Prakoso, Ari Bimo; Togonal, Alienor Svietlana; Hong, Lei; Jiang, Changyun; Rusli, Affa Affc

    2015-02-01

    A simple two-step surface treatment process is proposed to boost the efficiency of silicon nanowire/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The Si nanowires (SiNWs) are first subjected to a low temperature ozone treatment to form a surface sacrificial oxide, followed by a HF etching process to partially remove the oxide. TEM investigation demonstrates that a clean SiNW surface is achieved after the treatment, in contrast to untreated SiNWs that have Ag nanoparticles left on the surface from the metal-catalyzed etching process that is used to form the SiNWs. The cleaner SiNW surface achieved and the thin layer of residual SiO2 on the SiNWs have been found to improve the performance of the hybrid solar cells. Overall, the surface recombination of the hybrid SiNW solar cells is greatly suppressed, resulting in a remarkably improved open circuit voltage of 0.58 V. The power conversion efficiency has also increased from about 10% to 12.4%. The two-step surface treatment method is promising in enhancing the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid silicon solar cells, and can also be applied to other silicon nanostructure based solar cells.A simple two-step surface treatment process is proposed to boost the efficiency of silicon nanowire/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The Si nanowires (SiNWs) are first subjected to a low temperature ozone treatment to form a surface sacrificial oxide, followed by a HF etching process to partially remove the oxide. TEM investigation demonstrates that a clean SiNW surface is achieved after the treatment, in contrast to untreated SiNWs that have Ag nanoparticles left on the surface from the metal-catalyzed etching process that is used to form the SiNWs. The cleaner SiNW surface achieved and the thin layer of residual SiO2 on the SiNWs have been found to improve the performance of the hybrid solar cells. Overall, the surface recombination of the hybrid SiNW solar cells is greatly suppressed, resulting in a remarkably improved open circuit voltage of 0

  16. Biofilm formation by Candida species on silicone surfaces and latex pacifier nipples: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Luiz Cezar; Charone, Senda; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Soares, Rosangela Maria de Araújo; Portela, Maristela Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the growth and development of biofilm formation by isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis on silicone and latex pacifier nipples. The silicone and latex surfaces were evaluated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The plastic component of the nipple also seems to be an important factor regarding the biofilm formation by Candida spp. The biofilm growth was measured using the MTT reduction reaction. C. albicans was found to have a slightly greater capacity of forming biofilm compared to the other Candida species. Analysis of the pattern of biofilm development by C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis on latex and silicon pacifier shields showed an increased biofilm formation regarding the latter substrate. Silicone was shown to be more resistant to fungal colonization, particularly in the case of C. parapsilosis, despite the lack of any statistically significant differences (P > 0.05). In addition, silicone has a smoother surface compared to latex, whose surface was found to be rugose and irregular.

  17. Analysis of the silicone polymer surface aging profile with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xilin; Hong, Xiao; Wang, Han; Chen, Can; Zhao, Chenlong; Jia, Zhidong; Wang, Liming; Zou, Lin

    2017-10-01

    Silicone rubber composite materials have been widely used in high voltage transmission lines for anti-pollution flashover. The aging surface of silicone rubber materials decreases service properties, causing loss of the anti-pollution ability. In this paper, as an analysis method requiring no sample preparation that is able to be conducted on site and suitable for nearly all types of materials, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for the analysis of newly prepared and aging (out of service) silicone rubber composites. With scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hydrophobicity test, LIBS was proven to be nearly non-destructive for silicone rubber. Under the same LIBS testing parameters, a linear relationship was observed between ablation depth and laser pulses number. With the emission spectra, all types of elements and their distribution in samples along the depth direction from the surface to the inner part were acquired and verified with EDS results. This research showed that LIBS was suitable to detect the aging layer depth and element distribution of the silicone rubber surface.

  18. RIE surface texturing for optimum light trapping in multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jinsu; Cho, Junsik; Han, Kyumin; Yi, Junsin

    2012-06-01

    Optical losses by reflection and transmission of the incident light should be reduced to improve the efficiency of solar cells. Compared with antireflection coatings, surface texturing is a more persistent and effective solution aiming at reducing light reflection losses. Alkali (NaOH, KOH) or acidic (HF, HNO3, CH3COOH) chemicals are used in conventional solar cell production lines for wet chemical texturing. However, Surface texturing is too difficult to apply to solar cell fabrication with thinner wafers due to the large amount of silicon loss caused by saw damage removal (SDR) and the texturing process for multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si). In order to solve the problems, reactive ion etching (RIE) has been applied for surface texturing of solar cell wafers. The RIE method can be effective in the reducing surface reflection with low silicon loss. In this study, we, therefore, fabricated a large-area (243.3 cm2) mc-Si solar cell by maskless surface texturing using a SF6/O2 RIE process. Also, we achieved a conversion efficiency (Eff), open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) as high as 17.2%, 616 mV, 35.1 mA/cm2, and 79.6%, respectively, which are suitable for fabricating thin crystalline silicon solar cells at low cost and with high efficiency.

  19. Robust superhydrophobic silicon without a low surface-energy hydrophobic coating.

    PubMed

    Hoshian, Sasha; Jokinen, Ville; Somerkivi, Villeseveri; Lokanathan, Arcot R; Franssila, Sami

    2015-01-14

    Superhydrophobic surfaces without low surface-energy (hydrophobic) modification such as silanization or (fluoro)polymer coatings are crucial for water-repellent applications that need to survive under harsh UV or IR exposures and mechanical abrasion. In this work, robust low-hysteresis superhydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated using a novel hierarchical silicon structure without a low surface-energy coating. The proposed geometry produces superhydrophobicity out of silicon that is naturally hydrophilic. The structure is composed of collapsed silicon nanowires on top and bottom of T-shaped micropillars. Collapsed silicon nanowires cause superhydrophobicity due to nanoscale air pockets trapped below them. T-shaped micropillars significantly decrease the water contact angle hysteresis because microscale air pockets are trapped between them and can not easily escape. Robustness is studied under mechanical polishing, high-energy photoexposure, high temperature, high-pressure water shower, and different acidic and solvent environments. Mechanical abrasion damages the nanowires on top of micropillars, but those at the bottom survive. Small increase of hysteresis is seen, but the surface is still superhydrophobic after abrasion.

  20. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF{sub 2}/hydrogen-terminated diamond heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Imura, M.; Koide, Y.

    2013-03-28

    CaF{sub 2} films are deposited on hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-diamond) by a radio-frequency sputter-deposition technique at room temperature. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunction are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is confirmed that there are only C-Ca bonds at the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterointerface. Valence and conductance band offsets of the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunciton are determined to be 3.7 {+-} 0.2 and 0.3 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively. It shows a type I straddling band configuration. The large valence band offset suggests advantage of the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunciton for the development of high power and high frequency field effect transistors.

  1. Unintentional consequences of dual mode plasma reactors: Implications for upscaling lab-record silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jingnan; To, Alexander; Lennon, Alison; Hoex, Bram

    2017-08-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) synthesised by low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is the most extensively used antireflection coating for crystalline silicon solar cells because of its tunable refractive index in combination with excellent levels of surface and bulk passivation. This has attracted a significant amount of research on developing SiN x films towards an optimal electrical and optical performance. Typically, recipes are first optimised in lab-scale reactors and subsequently, the best settings are transferred to high-throughput reactors. In this paper, we show that for one particular, but widely used, PECVD reactor configuration this upscaling is severely hampered by an important experimental artefact. Specifically, we report on the unintentional deposition of a dual layer structure in a dual mode AK 400 plasma reactor from Roth & Rau which has a significant impact on its surface passivation performance. It is found that the radio frequency (RF) substrate bias ignites an unintentional depositing plasma before the ignition of the main microwave (MW) plasma. This RF plasma deposits a Si-rich intervening SiN x layer (refractive index = 2.4) while using a recipe for stoichiometric SiN x . This layer was found to be 18 nm thick in our case and had an extraordinary impact on the Si surface passivation, witnessed by a reduction in effective surface recombination velocity from 22.5 to 6.2 cm/s. This experimental result may explain some “out of the ordinary” excellent surface passivation results reported recently for nearly stoichiometric SiN x films and has significant consequences when transferring these results to high-throughput deposition systems.

  2. Automated Array Assembly Task In-depth Study of Silicon Wafer Surface Texturizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. T.; Rhee, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    Several aspects of silicon wafer surface texturizing were studied. A low cost cleaning method that utilizes recycled Freon in an ultrasonic vapor degreaser to remove organic and inorganic contaminants from the surface of silicon wafers as received from silicon suppliers was investigated. The use of clean dry air and high throughout wafer batch drying techniques was shown to lower the cost of wafer drying. A two stage texturizing process was examined for suitability in large scale production. Also, an in-depth gettering study with the two stage texturizing process was performed for the enhancement of solar cell efficiency, minimization of current versus voltage curve dispersion, and improvement in process reproducibility. The 10% efficiency improvement goal was exceeded for the near term implementation of flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction.

  3. Surface modification of silicon wafer by grafting zwitterionic polymers to improve its antifouling property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yunlong; Chen, Changlin; Xu, Heng; Lei, Kun; Xu, Guanzhe; Zhao, Li; Lang, Meidong

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (111) wafer was modified by triethoxyvinylsilane containing double bond as an intermedium, and then P4VP (polymer 4-vinyl pyridine) brush was ;grafted; onto the surface of silicon wafer containing reactive double bonds by adopting the ;grafting from; way and Si-P4VP substrate (silicon wafer grafted by P4VP) was obtained. Finally, P4VP brush of Si-P4VP substrate was modified by 1,3-propanesulfonate fully to obtain P4VP-psl brush (zwitterionic polypyridinium salt) and the functional Si-P4VP-psl substrate (silicon wafer grafted by zwitterionic polypyridinium salt based on polymer 4-vinyl pyridine) was obtained successfully. The antifouling property of the silicon wafer, the Si-P4VP substrate and the Si-P4VP-psl substrate was investigated by using bovine serum albumin, mononuclear macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATTC25922 as model bacterium. The results showed that compared with the blank sample-silicon wafer, the Si-P4VP-psl substrate had excellent anti-adhesion ability against bovine serum albumin, cells and bacterium, due to zwitterionic P4VP-psl brush (polymer 4-vinyl pyridine salt) having special functionality like antifouling ability on biomaterial field.

  4. Multifunctional porous silicon nanopillar arrays: antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Brian; Yang, Shikuan

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated porous silicon nanopillar arrays over large areas with a rapid, simple, and low-cost technique. The porous silicon nanopillars show unique longitudinal features along their entire length and have porosity with dimensions on the single-nanometer scale. Both Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence data were used to determine the nanocrystallite size to be < 3 nm. The porous silicon nanopillar arrays also maintained excellent ensemble properties, reducing reflection nearly fivefold from planar silicon in the visible range without any optimization and approaching superhydrophobic behavior with increasing aspect ratio, demonstrating contact angles up to 138°. Finally, the porous silicon nanopillar arrays were made into sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by depositing metal onto the pillars. The SERS performance of the substrates was demonstrated using a chemical dye Rhodamine 6G. With their multitude of properties (i.e., antireflection, superhydrophobicity, photoluminescence, and sensitive SERS), the porous silicon nanopillar arrays described here can be valuable in applications such as solar harvesting, electrochemical cells, self-cleaning devices, and dynamic biological monitoring. PMID:23703091

  5. Nano-structured silicon surfaces with broadband and wide-angle antireflective properties for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zi-zheng; Gao, Jin-song; Yang, Hai-gui

    2015-10-01

    Silicon with various structural morphologies is widely used for solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. We present a new chemical etching process for nanoscale texturing of Si surfaces, which results in an almost complete suppression of the reflectivity in a broad spectral range, leading to black Si surfaces. The chemical etching process affects only the topmost 200-300 nm of the Si material. And it isn't dependent on the Si surface orientation and doping. Besides, the antireflective performance of reacted Si surface will highly improve with silver catalyst effect. Hence, it can be applied to various structural forms of bulk silicon as well as to thin Si films. The optical properties of various black Si samples are presented and discussed in correlation with the surface morphology, which are measured by atomic force microscope.

  6. Fabrication of superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic silicon-based surfaces via electroless etching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Nhung; Dufour, Renaud; Thomy, Vincent; Senez, Vincent; Boukherroub, Rabah; Coffinier, Yannick

    2014-03-01

    This study reports on a simple method for the preparation of superhydrophobic and highly oleophobic nanostructured silicon surfaces. The technique relies on metal-assisted electroless etching of silicon in sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) aqueous solution. Then, silver particles were deposited on the obtained surfaces, changing their overall physical morphology. Finally, the surfaces were coated by either C4F8, a fluoropolymer deposited by plasma, or by SiOx overlayers chemically modified with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFTS) through silanization reaction. All these surfaces exhibit a superhydrophobic character (large apparent contact angle and low hysteresis with respect to water). In addition, they present high oleophobic properties, i.e. a high repellency to low surface energy liquids with various contact angle hysteresis, both depending on the morphology and type of coating.

  7. Modeling of transmittance degradation caused by optical surface contamination by atomic oxygen reaction with adsorbed silicones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Aaron; Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward

    2000-09-01

    A numerical procedure is presented to calculate transmittance degradation caused by contaminant films on spacecraft surfaces produced through the interaction of orbital atomic oxygen (AO) with volatile silicones and hydrocarbons from spacecraft components. In the model, contaminant accretion is dependent on the adsorption of species, depletion reactions due to gas-surface collisions, desorption, and surface reactions between AO and silicon producing SiOx (where x is near 2). A detailed description of the procedure used to calculate the constituents of the contaminant layer is presented, including the equations that govern the evolution of fractional coverage by specie type. As an illustrative example of film growth, calculation results using a prototype code that calculates the evolution of surface coverage by specie type is presented and discussed. An example of the transmittance degradation caused by surface interaction of AO with deposited contaminant is presented for the case of exponentially decaying contaminant flux. These examples are performed using hypothetical values for the process parameters.

  8. Effects of surface grinding conditions on the reciprocating friction and wear behavior of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Zanoria, E.S.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between two significantly different surface grinding conditions and the reciprocating ball-on-flat friction and wear behavior of a high-quality, structural silicon nitride material (GS-44) was investigated. The slider materials were silicon nitride NBD 200 and 440C stainless steel. Two machining conditions were selected based on extensive machining and flexural strength test data obtained under the auspices of an international, interlaboratory grinding study. The condition categorized as {open_quotes}low strength{close_quote} grinding used a coarse 80 grit wheel and produced low flexure strength due to machining-induced flaws in the surface. The other condition, regarded as {open_quotes}high strength grinding,{close_quotes} utilized a 320 grit wheel and produced a flexural strength nearly 70% greater. Grinding wheel surface speeds were 35 and 47 m/s. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted following the procedure described in a newly-published ASTM standard (G- 133) for linearly-reciprocating wear. Tests were performed in directions both parallel and perpendicular to the grinding marks (lay) using a 25 N load, 5 Hz reciprocating frequency, 10 mm stroke length, and 100 m of sliding at room temperature. The effects of sliding direction relative to the lay were more pronounced for stainless steel than for silicon nitride sliders. The wear of stainless steel was less than the wear of the silicon nitride slider materials because of the formation of transfer particles which covered the sharp edges of the silicon nitride grinding grooves and reduced abrasive contact. The wear of the GS-44 material was much greater for the silicon nitride sliders than for the stainless steel sliders. The causes for the effects of surface-grinding severity and sliding direction on friction and wear of GS-44 and its counterface materials are explained.

  9. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  10. Role of Surface Termination in Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride.

    PubMed

    Ande, Chaitanya Krishna; Knoops, Harm C M; de Peuter, Koen; van Drunen, Maarten; Elliott, Simon D; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-09-17

    There is an urgent need to deposit uniform, high-quality, conformal SiN(x) thin films at a low-temperature. Conforming to these constraints, we recently developed a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) process with bis(tertiary-butyl-amino)silane (BTBAS) as the silicon precursor. However, deposition of high quality SiNx thin films at reasonable growth rates occurs only when N2 plasma is used as the coreactant; strongly reduced growth rates are observed when other coreactants like NH3 plasma, or N2-H2 plasma are used. Experiments reported in this Letter reveal that NH(x)- or H- containing plasmas suppress film deposition by terminating reactive surface sites with H and NH(x) groups and inhibiting precursor adsorption. To understand the role of these surface groups on precursor adsorption, we carried out first-principles calculations of precursor adsorption on the β-Si3N4(0001) surface with different surface terminations. They show that adsorption of the precursor is strong on surfaces with undercoordinated surface sites. In contrast, on surfaces with H, NH2 groups, or both, steric hindrance leads to weak precursor adsorption. Experimental and first-principles results together show that using an N2 plasma to generate reactive undercoordinated surface sites allows strong adsorption of the silicon precursor and, hence, is key to successful deposition of silicon nitride by ALD.

  11. Fractal characterization and wettability of ion treated silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. P.; Kumar, Tanuj; Baranwal, V.; Vandana, Kumar, Manvendra; Priya, P. K.; Pandey, S. N.; Mittal, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Fractal characterization of surface morphology can be useful as a tool for tailoring the wetting properties of solid surfaces. In this work, rippled surfaces of Si (100) are grown using 200 keV Ar+ ion beam irradiation at different ion doses. Relationship between fractal and wetting properties of these surfaces are explored. The height-height correlation function extracted from atomic force microscopic images, demonstrates an increase in roughness exponent with an increase in ion doses. A steep variation in contact angle values is found for low fractal dimensions. Roughness exponent and fractal dimensions are found correlated with the static water contact angle measurement. It is observed that after a crossover of the roughness exponent, the surface morphology has a rippled structure. Larger values of interface width indicate the larger ripples on the surface. The contact angle of water drops on such surfaces is observed to be lowest. Autocorrelation function is used for the measurement of ripple wavelength.

  12. Principles of silicon surface chemistry from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    First principles theoretical studies of dissociative adsorption of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4} and other species on Si(100)-2x1 demonstrate some common principles that permit qualitative understanding of the mechanisms of reactive adsorption on Si. The structures of transition states and the interactions among surface sites can also be understood in terms of correlations between surface structure and local electron density. For example, the transition states for dissociative adsorption involve buckled surface dimers, which present both electrophilic and nucleophilic reaction sites and allow efficient addition across the dimer. A surface Diels-Alder reaction will also be described, in which symmetric addition to an unbuckled surface dimer is allowed by orbital symmetry. The Diets-Alder product establishes novel reactive surface sites that may be useful for subsequent surface modification. This work has been done in collaboration with Sharmila Pai, Robert Konecny and Anita Robinson Brown.

  13. Sensitivity Enhancement of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Silicon Nanostructure-based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Qingling; Zeng, Shuwen; Jiang, Li; Hong, Liying; Xu, Gaixia; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing; Qu, Junle; Coquet, Philippe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we designed a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor structure based on silicon nanosheet and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. This configuration contains six components: SF10 triangular prism, gold thin film, silicon nanosheet, two-dimensional MoS2/MoSe2/WS2/WSe2 (defined as MX2) layers, biomolecular analyte layer and sensing medium. The minimum reflectivity, sensitivity as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum of SPR curve are systematically examined by using Fresnel equations and the transfer matrix method in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (600 nm to 1024 nm). The variation of the minimum reflectivity and the change in resonance angle as the function of the number of MX2 layers are presented respectively. The results show that silicon nanosheet and MX2 layers can be served as effective light absorption medium. Under resonance conditions, the electrons in these additional dielectric layers can be transferred to the surface of gold thin film. All silicon-MX2 enhanced sensing models show much better performance than that of the conventional sensing scheme where pure Au thin film is used, the highest sensitivity can be achieved by employing 600 nm excitation light wavelength with 35 nm gold thin film and 7 nm thickness silicon nanosheet coated with monolayer WS2. PMID:27305974

  14. Sensitivity Enhancement of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides/Silicon Nanostructure-based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qingling; Zeng, Shuwen; Jiang, Li; Hong, Liying; Xu, Gaixia; Dinh, Xuan-Quyen; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing; Qu, Junle; Coquet, Philippe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2016-06-16

    In this work, we designed a sensitivity-enhanced surface plasmon resonance biosensor structure based on silicon nanosheet and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. This configuration contains six components: SF10 triangular prism, gold thin film, silicon nanosheet, two-dimensional MoS2/MoSe2/WS2/WSe2 (defined as MX2) layers, biomolecular analyte layer and sensing medium. The minimum reflectivity, sensitivity as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum of SPR curve are systematically examined by using Fresnel equations and the transfer matrix method in the visible and near infrared wavelength range (600 nm to 1024 nm). The variation of the minimum reflectivity and the change in resonance angle as the function of the number of MX2 layers are presented respectively. The results show that silicon nanosheet and MX2 layers can be served as effective light absorption medium. Under resonance conditions, the electrons in these additional dielectric layers can be transferred to the surface of gold thin film. All silicon-MX2 enhanced sensing models show much better performance than that of the conventional sensing scheme where pure Au thin film is used, the highest sensitivity can be achieved by employing 600 nm excitation light wavelength with 35 nm gold thin film and 7 nm thickness silicon nanosheet coated with monolayer WS2.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering dendritic substrates fabricated by deposition of gold and silver on silicon.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mingfei; Fang, Jinghuai; Cao, Min; Jin, Yonglong

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports a study on the preparation of gold nanoparticles and silver dendrites on silicon substrates by immersion plating. Firstly, gold was deposited onto silicon wafer from HF aqueous solution containing HAuCl4. Then, the silicon wafer deposited gold was dipped into HF aqueous solution of AgNO3 to form silver coating gold film. Scanning electron microscopy reveals a uniform gold film consisted of gold nanoparticles and rough silver coating gold film containing uniform dendritic structures on silicon surface. By SERS (surface-enhanced Raman scattering) measurements, the fabricated gold and silver coating gold substrates activity toward SERS is assessed. The SERS spectra of crystal violet on the fabricated substrates reflect the different SERS activities on gold nanoparticles film and silver coating gold dendrites film. Compared with pure gold film on silicon, the film of silver coating gold dendrites film significantly increased the SERS intensity. As the fabrication process is very simple, cost-effective and reproducible, and the fabricated silver coating gold substrate is of excellent enhancement ability, spatial uniformity and good stability.

  16. Bactericidal effects of plasma-modified surface chemistry of silicon nanograss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrikov, Kola; Macgregor-Ramiasa, Melanie; Cavallaro, Alex; (Ken Ostrikov, Kostya; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-08-01

    The surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials regulate the adhesion and growth of microorganisms in ways that are still poorly understood. Silicon nanograss structures prepared via inductively coupled plasma etching were coated with plasma deposited nanometer-thin polymeric films to produce substrates with controlled topography and defined surface chemistry. The influence of surface properties on Staphylococcus aureus proliferation is demonstrated and explained in terms of nanograss substrate wetting behaviour. With the combination of the nanograss topography; hydrophilic plasma polymer coatings enhanced antimicrobial activity while hydrophobic coatings reduced it. This study advances the understanding of the effects of surface wettability on the bactericidal properties of reactive nano-engineered surfaces.

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo study on the evolution of silicon surface roughness under hydrogen thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Junzhuan; Pan, Lijia; Yu, Linwei; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of a two-dimensional silicon surface under hydrogen thermal treatment is studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, focusing on the dependence of the migration behaviors of surface atoms on both the temperature and hydrogen pressure. We adopt different activation energies to analyze the influence of hydrogen pressure on the evolution of surface morphology at high temperatures. The reduction in surface roughness is divided into two stages, both exhibiting exponential dependence on the equilibrium time. Our results indicate that a high hydrogen pressure is conducive to obtaining optimized surfaces, as a strategy in the applications of three-dimensional devices.

  18. Deformation of carbon nanotubes colliding with a silicon surface and its dependence on temperature.

    PubMed

    Saha, Leton C; Mian, Shabeer A; Kim, Hyojeong; Saha, Joyanta K; Jang, Joonkyung

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) colliding with a silicon surface at a speed of 600 m/s, mimicking cold spray experiments of CNTs. Depending on temperature (300-900 K), the CNT is deposited on or bounces off the surface after impact on the surface. The CNT was more deformed as its temperature rose. The deformation of CNT was maximal for the collision geometry where the long axis of CNT lies parallel to the surface plane. However, its vibrational energy was maximal when the CNT collided with its long axis perpendicular to the surface.

  19. Lewis basicity, adhesion thermodynamic work and coordinating ability on aminated silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, M. Alejandra; Paniagua, Sergio A.; Borge, Ignacio; Viales, Christian; Montero, Mavis L.

    2014-10-01

    Silicon(1 0 0) surfaces have been modified with three different amines (aniline, benzylamine and dodecylamine) and diamines (4-aminopyridine, 4-aminomethylpyridine, 1,12-dodecyldiamine). The surface energy was measured by contact angle technique. For Si-diamine surfaces, Lewis basicity (using Fowkes-van Oss-Chaudhury-Good surface tension model) and adhesion thermodynamic work (using chemical force microscopy) were determined. We related these data, the amine/diamine nature and their geometry on the surface (via DFT calculations) with the consequent ability to coordinate copper(II) acetate. Finally, copper(II) acetate monolayers behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Effect of silicon carbide on devitrification of a glass coating for reusable surface insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransone, P. O.

    1978-01-01

    Devitrification (nucleation and growth of cristobalite) were investigated in the LI-0042 coating used for the space shuttle surface insulation. Excessive devitrification was found to be associated with the silicon carbide (SiC) constituent in the coating. Test results show that significant devitrification occurred only when SiC was present in the coating and when the thermal-exposure atmosphere was oxidizing.

  1. Dopant gas effect on silicon chemical vapor depositions: A surface potential model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    A surface potential model is proposed to consistently explain the known dopant gas effects on silicon chemical vapor deposition. This model predicts that the effects of the same dopant gases on the diamond deposition rate using methane and carbon tetrachloride should be opposite and similar to those of silane, respectively. Available data are in agreement with this prediction.

  2. Improved photoluminescence and sensing stability of porous silicon nanowires by surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; He, Haiping; Sun, Luwei; Ye, Zhizhen

    2014-01-21

    Core-shell structured silicon nanowires (Si NWs) were obtained by coating Si NWs with an HfO2 layer. Enhanced photoluminescence (PL) and a slightly decreased PL lifetime are achieved by HfO2 coating. Furthermore, the sensing stability is strongly improved. The improvement of PL properties is interpreted in terms of surface passivation and the Purcell effect.

  3. Controlling the Nanoscale Patterning of AuNPs on Silicon Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sophie E.; Davies, Philip R.; Bowen, Jenna L.; Allender, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of vapour-phase deposition for creating sub-monolayer coverage of aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) on silicon in order to exert control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition. Surface coverage was evaluated indirectly by observing the extent to which gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) deposited onto the modified silicon surface. By varying the distance of the silicon wafer from the APTES source and concentration of APTES in the evaporating media, control over subsequent gold nanoparticle deposition was achievable to an extent. Fine control over AuNP deposition (AuNPs/μm2) however, was best achieved by adjusting the ionic concentration of the AuNP-depositing solution. Furthermore it was demonstrated that although APTES was fully removed from the silicon surface following four hours incubation in water, the gold nanoparticle-amino surface complex was stable under the same conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study these affects.

  4. Influence of Surface Chemistry on the Release of an Antibacterial Drug from Nanostructured Porous Silicon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjia; Hartman, Philip S; Loni, Armando; Canham, Leigh T; Bodiford, Nelli; Coffer, Jeffery L

    2015-06-09

    Nanostructured mesoporous silicon possesses important properties advantageous to drug loading and delivery. For controlled release of the antibacterial drug triclosan, and its associated activity versus Staphylococcus aureus, previous studies investigated the influence of porosity of the silicon matrix. In this work, we focus on the complementary issue of the influence of surface chemistry on such properties, with particular regard to drug loading and release kinetics that can be ideally adjusted by surface modification. Comparison between drug release from as-anodized, hydride-terminated hydrophobic porous silicon and the oxidized hydrophilic counterpart is complicated due to the rapid bioresorption of the former; hence, a hydrophobic interface with long-term biostability is desired, such as can be provided by a relatively long chain octyl moiety. To minimize possible thermal degradation of the surfaces or drug activity during loading of molten drug species, a solution loading method has been investigated. Such studies demonstrate that the ability of porous silicon to act as an effective carrier for sustained delivery of antibacterial agents can be sensitively altered by surface functionalization.

  5. Cytotoxicity of surface-functionalized silicon and germanium nanoparticles: the dominant role of surface charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; Singh, Mani P.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Purkait, Tapas K.; Xu, Zejing; Regli, Sarah; Shukaliak, Amber; Clark, Rhett J.; Mitchell, Brian S.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Fink, Mark J.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-05-01

    Although it is frequently hypothesized that surface (like surface charge) and physical characteristics (like particle size) play important roles in cellular interactions of nanoparticles (NPs), a systematic study probing this issue is missing. Hence, a comparative cytotoxicity study, quantifying nine different cellular endpoints, was performed with a broad series of monodisperse, well characterized silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) NPs with various surface functionalizations. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and rat alveolar macrophage NR8383 cells were used to clarify the toxicity of this series of NPs. The surface coatings on the NPs appeared to dominate the cytotoxicity: the cationic NPs exhibited cytotoxicity, whereas the carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrophilic PEG- or dextran-terminated NPs did not. Within the cationic Si NPs, smaller Si NPs were more toxic than bigger ones. Manganese-doped (1% Mn) Si NPs did not show any added toxicity, which favors their further development for bioimaging. Iron-doped (1% Fe) Si NPs showed some added toxicity, which may be due to the leaching of Fe3+ ions from the core. A silica coating seemed to impart toxicity, in line with the reported toxicity of silica. Intracellular mitochondria seem to be the target for the toxic NPs since a dose-, surface charge- and size-dependent imbalance of the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed. Such an imbalance led to a series of other cellular events for cationic NPs, like decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP production, induction of ROS generation, increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ content, production of TNF-α and enhanced caspase-3 activity. Taken together, the results explain the toxicity of Si NPs/Ge NPs largely by their surface characteristics, provide insight into the mode of action underlying the observed cytotoxicity, and give directions on synthesizing biocompatible Si and Ge NPs, as this is crucial for bioimaging and other applications in for example

  6. Tuning Oleophobicity of Silicon Oxide Surfaces with Mixed Monolayers of Aliphatic and Fluorinated Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Austin W H; Gates, Byron D

    2016-12-13

    We demonstrate the formation of mixed monolayers derived from a microwave-assisted reaction of alcohols with silicon oxide surfaces in order to tune their surface oleophobicity. This simple, rapid method provides an opportunity to precisely tune the constituents of the monolayers. As a demonstration, we sought fluorinated alcohols and aliphatic alcohols as reagents to form monolayers from two distinct constituents for tuning the surface oleophobicity. The first aspect of this study sought to identify a fluorinated alcohol that formed monolayers with a relatively high surface coverage. It was determined that 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-octanol yielded high quality monolayers with a water contact angle (WCA) value of ∼110° and contact angle values of ∼80° with toluene and hexadecane exhibiting both an excellent hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Tuning of the oleophobicity of the modified silicon oxide surfaces was achieved by controlling the molar ratio of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-octanol within the reaction mixtures. Surface oleophobicity progressively decreased with a decrease in the fluorinated alcohol content while the monolayers maintained their hydrophobicity with WCA values of ∼110°. The simple and reliable approach to preparing monolayers of a tuned composition that is described in this article can be utilized to control the fluorocarbon content of the hydrophobic monolayers on silicon oxide surfaces.

  7. High efficiency silicon nanowire/organic hybrid solar cells with two-step surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxiong; Wang, Hao; Prakoso, Ari Bimo; Togonal, Alienor Svietlana; Hong, Lei; Jiang, Changyun; Rusli

    2015-03-14

    A simple two-step surface treatment process is proposed to boost the efficiency of silicon nanowire/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The Si nanowires (SiNWs) are first subjected to a low temperature ozone treatment to form a surface sacrificial oxide, followed by a HF etching process to partially remove the oxide. TEM investigation demonstrates that a clean SiNW surface is achieved after the treatment, in contrast to untreated SiNWs that have Ag nanoparticles left on the surface from the metal-catalyzed etching process that is used to form the SiNWs. The cleaner SiNW surface achieved and the thin layer of residual SiO2 on the SiNWs have been found to improve the performance of the hybrid solar cells. Overall, the surface recombination of the hybrid SiNW solar cells is greatly suppressed, resulting in a remarkably improved open circuit voltage of 0.58 V. The power conversion efficiency has also increased from about 10% to 12.4%. The two-step surface treatment method is promising in enhancing the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid silicon solar cells, and can also be applied to other silicon nanostructure based solar cells.

  8. Conducting molecular nanostructures assembled from charge-transfer complexes grafted onto silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stires, John C., IV; Kasibhatla, Bala S. T.; Siegel, Dustin S.; Kwong, Jinny C.; Caballero, Jonathan B.; Labonte, Andre P.; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Datta, Supriyo; Kubiak, Clifford P.

    2003-12-01

    Heterodimeric electon-donor/electron-acceptor charge-transfer complexes chemisorbed onto Au(111) by attachment of the electron-donor to the surface have been characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and Kelvin probe experiments. Conductance measurements exhibit nearly Ohmic I(V) responses at low bias. The electrical properties of the charge-transfer complex are vastly different than those of the electron-donor alone which exhibits insulating behavior at low bias. In an extension of this work, strategies are being developed for attachment of charge-transfer complexes to semiconducting or insulating surfaces. Fabrication of nanoscale molecular electronic devices is being investigated by attaching one component of a charge-transfer complex to a silicon surface by chemically directed self-assembly. The single component-functionalized surface is then used as a substrate on which the second component of the charge-transfer complex is deposited by the atomic force microscopy method, dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). Derivatives of hexamethylbenze (electron-donor) with terminal olefins attached to crystalline silicon surfaces via hydrosilylation form monolayer-functionalized silicon surfaces that are expected to have insulating properties. Well-defined features can be "drawn" onto the donor-functionalized surfaces by DPN using tetracyanoethylene (electron-acceptor) as the "ink." The resulting charge-transfer complex nanostructures have conducting properties suitable for device function and are flanked by an insulating monolayer, thus creating "wires" made from charge-transfer complexes.

  9. Surface fingerprints of individual silicon nanocrystals in laser-annealed Si/SiO2 superlattice: Evidence of nanoeruptions of laser-pressurized silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Timur; Kemell, Marianna; Puukilainen, Esa; Boninelli, Simona; Iacona, Fabio; Räsänen, Markku; Ritala, Mikko; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-06-01

    Silicon nanocrystals prepared by continuous-wave laser annealing of a free-standing Si/SiO2 superlattice are studied for the first time by using methods of surface analysis (scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy). The surface topology and composition are compared with transmission electron microscopy images that show a projection through the whole film, allowing us to discriminate silicon nanocrystals located near the film surface. These nanocrystals have an unusual pear-like shape with the thinner part sticking out of the laser-illuminated surface. The non-spherical shape of these nanocrystals is explained by eruption of silicon pressurized at the stage of crystallization from the melt phase. This hypothesis is supported by the micro-Raman spectra which show low stress near the surface features, in contrast to the neighbouring regions having high compressive stress.

  10. Method using laser irradiation for the production of atomically clean crystalline silicon and germanium surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ownby, Gary W.; White, Clark W.; Zehner, David M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a new method for removing surface impurities from crystalline silicon or germanium articles, such as off-the-shelf p- or n-type wafers to be doped for use as junction devices. The principal contaminants on such wafers are oxygen and carbon. The new method comprises laser-irradiating the contaminated surface in a non-reactive atmosphere, using one or more of Q-switched laser pulses whose parameters are selected to effect melting of the surface without substantial vaporization thereof. In a typical application, a plurality of pulses is used to convert a surface region of an off-the-shelf silicon wafer to an automatically clean region. This can be accomplished in a system at a pressure below 10.sup.-8 Torr, using Q-switched ruby-laser pulses having an energy density in the range of from about 60 to 190 MW/cm.sup.2.

  11. Method using laser irradiation for the production of atomically clean crystalline silicon and germanium surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ownby, G.W.; White, C.W.; Zehner, D.M.

    1979-12-28

    This invention relates to a new method for removing surface impurities from crystalline silicon or germanium articles, such as off-the-shelf p- or n-type wafers to be doped for use as junction devices. The principal contaminants on such wafers are oxygen and carbon. The new method comprises laser-irradiating the contaminated surface in a non-reactive atmosphere, using one or more of Q-switched laser pulses whose parameters are selected to effect melting of the surface without substantial vaporization thereof. In a typical application, a plurality of pulses is used to convert a surface region of an off-the-shelf silicon wafer to an atomically clean region. This can be accomplished in a system at a pressure below 10-/sup 8/ Torr, using Q-switched ruber-laser pulses having an energy density in the range of from about 60 to 190 MW/cm/sup 2/.

  12. Surface toughness of silicon nitride bioceramics: I, Raman spectroscopy-assisted micromechanics.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Enomoto, Yuto; Zhu, Wenliang; Boffelli, Marco; Marin, Elia; McEntire, Bryan J

    2016-02-01

    Indentation micro-fracture is revisited as a tool for evaluating the surface toughness of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics for artificial joint applications. Despite being unique and practical from an experimental perspective, a quantitative assessment of surface fracture toughness using this method is challenging. An improved method has been developed, consisting of coupling indentation with confocal (spatially resolved) Raman piezo-spectroscopy. Empowered by the Raman microprobe, the indentation micro-fracture method was found to be capable of providing reliable surface toughness measurements in silicon nitride biomaterials. In designing the microstructures of bioceramic bearing couples for improved tribological performance, surface toughness must be considered as a fundamentally different and distinct parameter from bulk toughness. The coupling of indention crack opening displacements (COD) with local stress field assessments by spectroscopy paves the way to reliably compare the structural properties of bioceramics and to quantitatively monitor their evolution during environmental exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct surface engineering of silicon nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse ns laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, M. H.; Momeni, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study the photoluminescence properties of colloidal silicon nanoparticles (Si NPs) in distilled water, with the aim of clarifying the role of surface characteristics on the emission properties. We will show that double-pulse ns laser ablation (DPLA) of a silicon target in water with different inter-pulse delay times of i.e. 5 and 10 ns can result in production of colloidal Si NPs with different PL emission intensities at the visible spectral range of 550-650 nm. The results reveal that DPLA process at the different delay times can induce different oxide related surface characteristics on the Si NPs through the direct surface engineering of the nanoparticles. A detailed analysis of the PL emissions using the stochastic quantum confinement model explained that the different emission behaviors of the colloids are associated with the oxide-related surface states which are contributed as radiative centers in the PL process.

  14. Oxidation of the silicon terminated (1 0 0) diamond surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, A. K.; Sear, M. J.; Tadich, A.; Stacey, A.; Pakes, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    The oxidation of the silicon terminated (1 0 0) diamond surface is investigated with a combination of high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The effects of molecular {{\\text{O}}2} and {{\\text{H}}2}\\text{O} dosing under UHV conditions, as well as exposure to ambient conditions, have been explored. Our findings indicate that the choice of oxidant has little influence over the resulting surface chemistry, and we attribute approximately 85% of the surface oxygen to a peroxide-bridging arrangement. Additionally, oxidation does not alter the silicon-carbon bonding at the surface and therefore the ≤ft(3× 1\\right) reconstruction is still present.

  15. Surface modification via wet chemical etching of single-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic application.

    PubMed

    Reshak, A H; Shahimin, M M; Shaari, S; Johan, N

    2013-11-01

    The potential of solar cells have not been fully tapped due to the lack of energy conversion efficiency. There are three important mechanisms in producing high efficiency cells to harvest solar energy; reduction of light reflectance, enhancement of light trapping in the cell and increment of light absorption. The current work represent studies conducted in surface modification of single-crystalline silicon solar cells using wet chemical etching techniques. Two etching types are applied; alkaline etching (KOH:IPA:DI) and acidic etching (HF:HNO3:DI). The alkaline solution resulted in anisotropic profile that leads to the formation of inverted pyramids. While acidic solution formed circular craters along the front surface of silicon wafer. This surface modification will leads to the reduction of light reflectance via texturizing the surface and thereby increases the short circuit current and conversion rate of the solar cells.

  16. NHS-ester functionalized poly(PEGMA) brushes on silicon surface for covalent protein immobilization.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Ma, Yong-Zheng; Qin, Ming; Ma, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Chen; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2008-10-15

    Poly(PEGMA) homopolymer brushes were developed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) on the initiator-modified silicon surface (Si-initiator). Through covalent binding, protein immobilization on the poly(PEGMA) films was enabled by further NHS-ester functionalization of the poly(PEGMA) chain ends. The formation of polymer brushes was confirmed by assessing the surface composition (XPS) and morphology (atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM)) of the modified silicon wafer. The binding performance of the NHS-ester functionalized surfaces with two proteins horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and chicken immunoglobulin (IgG) was monitored by direct observation. These results suggest that this method which incorporates the properties of polymer brush onto the binding surfaces may be a good strategy suitable for covalent protein immobilization.

  17. Biopolymers Confined in Surface-Modified Silicon Microfluidic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Pfohl, T.; Yasa, M.; Safinya, C. R.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. W.; Wen, Z.

    2001-03-01

    We have developed surface modification techniques for control of wettability and surface charge in lithographically fabricated Si microfluidic channels. Surface microstructures (patterns) with contrasting wetting properties were created using a combination of microcontact printing and polyelectrolyte adsorption. The selective control of the surface property enabled us to devise various techniques for loading and processing biomaterials in the channels. Using fluorescence and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we studied the structure of biopolymers including DNA, F-Actin and microtubules confined in the surface-modified microchannels. The polymers were observed to align linearly along the channels, which suggests that the channel arrays can be used as effective substrates for aligning filamentous proteins for structural characterization by x-ray diffraction. (Work supported by NSF-DMR-9972246, NSF-DMR-0076357, ONR-N00014-00-1-0214, UC-Biotech 99-14, and CULAR 99-216)

  18. Nanostructure formation on silicon surfaces by using low energy helium plasma exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamura, Shuichi; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Yamada, Kohei; Maenaka, Shiro; Fujita, Kazunobu; Uesugi, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    A new technology for obtaining nanostructure on silicon surface for potential applications to optical devices is represented. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated a grown nanostructure of dense forest consisting of long cylindrical needle cones with a length of approximately 300 nm and a mutual distance of approximately 200 nm. Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometry showed a good crystallinity and photon trapping, and reduced light reflectance after helium plasma exposure. The present technique consists of a simple maskless process that circumvents the use of chemical etching liquid, and utilizes soft ion bombardment on silicon substrate, keeping a good crystallinity.

  19. Super-oxidation of silicon nanoclusters: magnetism and reactive oxygen species at the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Lepeshkin, Sergey; Baturin, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Evgeny; Matsko, Nikita; Uspenskii, Yurii; Naumova, Anastasia; Feya, Oleg; Schoonen, Martin A.; Oganov, Artem R.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of silicon nanoclusters depending on the temperature and oxygen pressure is explored from first principles using the evolutionary algorithm, and structural and thermodynamic analysis. From our calculations of 90 SinOm clusters we found that under normal conditions oxidation does not stop at the stoichiometric SiO2 composition, as it does in bulk silicon, but goes further placing extra oxygen atoms on the cluster surface. These extra atoms are responsible for light emission, relevant to reactive oxygen species and many of them are magnetic. We argue that the super-oxidation effect is size-independent and discuss its relevance to nanotechnology and miscellaneous applications, including biomedical ones.

  20. Monitoring DNA hybridization on alkyl modified silicon surface through capacitance measurement.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Sun, Bin; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Xin Sheng

    2003-08-15

    Single strand oligodeoxynucleotide is attached to the alkyl modified silicon surface through a peptide bond. The oligodeoxynucleotide-modified silicon substrate is used as a working electrode in an electrochemical cell system. After the electrode is treated by a solution containing strands of complementary oligodeoxynucleotide the Mott-Schottky measurements exhibit obvious negative shift in the flat band potential of the electrode, while in a control experiment treated with a solution of non-complementary oligodeoxynucleotide such a shift does not occur. The DNA hybridization is also manifested in a real time capacitance measurement. A DNA sensor based on the capacitance measurement could be more convenient than that based on a fluorescence detection.

  1. Interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cell and the effect of front surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meijun; Bowden, Stuart; Das, Ujjwal; Birkmire, Robert

    2007-08-01

    This letter reports interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells which combine the performance benefits of both back contact and heterojunction technologies while reducing their limitations. Low temperature (<200°C) deposited p- and n-type amorphous silicon used to form interdigitated heteroemitter and contacts in the rear preserves substrate lifetime while minimizes optical losses in the front. The IBC-SHJ structure is ideal for diagnosing surface passivation quality, which is analyzed and measured by internal quantum efficiency and minority carrier lifetime measurements. Initial cells have independently confirmed efficiency of 11.8% under AM1.5 illumination. Simulations indicate efficiencies greater than 20% after optimization.

  2. Diffraction-assisted micropatterning of silicon surfaces by ns-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Haro-Poniatowski, E. Acosta-Zepeda, C.; Mecalco, G.; Hernández-Pozos, J. L.; Batina, N.; Morales-Reyes, I.; Bonse, J.

    2014-06-14

    Single-pulse (532 nm, 8 ns) micropatterning of silicon with nanometric surface modulation is demonstrated by irradiating through a diffracting pinhole. The irradiation results obtained at fluences above the melting threshold are characterized by scanning electron and scanning force microscopy and reveal a good agreement with Fresnel diffraction theory. The physical mechanism is identified and discussed on basis of both thermocapillary and chemicapillary induced material transport during the molten state of the surface.

  3. Adsorption of silicon on Au(110): An ordered two dimensional surface alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, Hanna; Mayne, Andrew; Dujardin, Gerald; Kara, Abdelkader; Vizzini, Sebastien; Roth, Silvan; Greber, Thomas; Lalmi, Boubekeur; Belkhou, Rachid; Seitsonen, Ari P; Aufray, Bernard; Oughaddou, Hamid

    2012-07-09

    We report on experimental evidence for the formation of a two dimensional Si/Au(110) surface alloy. In this study, we have used a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. A highly ordered and stable Si-Au surface alloy is observed subsequent to growth of a sub-monolayer of silicon on an Au(110) substrate kept above the eutectic temperature.

  4. Silicon nitride directional coupler interferometer for surface sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, Kyohei; Uchiyamada, Ken; Asakawa, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    A silicon nitride directional coupler (DC) used to create a biosensing device is presented. The DC detects changes in the refractive index of the cladding (nclad) as changes in the relative output intensity. The DC length (L), nclad-dependent sensitivities of the DC, and preferred dimensions of the single-mode DC waveguides are obtained through numerical simulations. The performance of the DC is evaluated through end-fire coupling measurements. The intensities measured after varying the nclad using air, water, and glycerol solutions agree well with the fitting for a wide range of L values between 60 and 600 μm, i.e., corresponding to 6 to 60 times the coupling length. The bulk refractive index sensitivity was investigated using glycerol solutions of different concentrations and was found to be 18.9 optical intensity units per refractive index unit (OIU/RIU). Biotin/streptavidin bindings were detected with a sensitivity of 60 OIU/RIU and a detection limit of 0.13 μM, suggesting the feasibility of the DC for immunosensing.

  5. Surface studies relevant to silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinespring, C. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactions of C2H4, C3H8, and CH4 on the Si(111) surface and C2H4 on the Si(100) surface were investigated for surface temperatures in the range of 1062-1495 K. Results led to the identification of the reaction products, a characterization of the solid-state transport process, a determination of the nucleation mechanism and growth kinetics, and an assessment of orientation effects. Based on these results and on the modeling studies of Stinespring and Wormhoudt (1988) on the associated gas phase chemistry, a physical model for the two-step beta-SiC CVD process is proposed.

  6. Silicone surface with drug nanodepots for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Mokkaphan, Jiratchaya; Banlunara, Wijit; Palaga, Tanapat; Sombuntham, Premsuda; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2014-11-26

    An ideal surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) medical devices requires sustained drug release to combat various tissue responses and infection. At present, a noncovalent surface coating with drug molecules using binders possesses a detachment problem, while covalently linking drug molecules to the surface provides no releasable drug. Here, a platform that allows the deposition of diverse drugs onto the PDMS surface in an adequate quantity with reliable attachment and a sustained-release character is demonstrated. First, a PDMS surface with carboxyl functionality (PDMS-COOH) is generated by subjecting a PDMS piece to an oxygen plasma treatment to obtain silanol moieties on its surface, then condensing the silanols with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane molecules to generate amino groups, and finally reacting the amino groups with succinic anhydride. The drug-loaded carriers with hydroxyl groups on their surface can then be esterified to PDMS-COOH, resulting in a PDMS surface covalently grafted with drug-filled nanocarriers so that the drugs inside the securely grafted carriers can be released. Demonstrated here is the covalent linking of the surface of a PDMS endotracheal tube with budesonide-loaded ethylcellulose nanoparticles. A secure and high drug accumulation at the surface of the tubes (0.025 mg/cm2) can be achieved without changes in its bulk property such as hardness (Shore-A), and sustained release of budesonide with a high release flux during the first week followed by a reduced release flux over the subsequent 3 weeks can be obtained. In addition, the grafted tube possesses more hydrophilic surface and thus is more tissue-compatible. The grafted PDMS pieces show a reduced in vitro inflammation in cell culture and a lower level of in vivo tissue responses, including a reduced level of inflammation, compared to the unmodified PDMS pieces, when implanted in rats. Although demonstrated with budesonide and a PDMS endotracheal tube, this platform of grafting a

  7. Hydrogen desorption kinetics for aqueous hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasma processed silicon (001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Davis, Robert F.; Carter, Richard J.; Schneider, Thomas P.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-09-15

    The desorption kinetics of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from silicon (001) surfaces exposed to aqueous hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasmas were examined using temperature programmed desorption. Multiple H{sub 2} desorption states were observed and attributed to surface monohydride (SiH), di/trihydride (SiH{sub 2/3}), and hydroxide (SiOH) species, subsurface hydrogen trapped at defects, and hydrogen evolved during the desorption of surface oxides. The observed surface hydride species were dependent on the surface temperature during hydrogen plasma exposure with mono, di, and trihydride species being observed after low temperature exposure (150 °C), while predominantly monohydride species were observed after higher temperature exposure (450 °C). The ratio of surface versus subsurface H{sub 2} desorption was also found to be dependent on the substrate temperature with 150 °C remote hydrogen plasma exposure generally leading to more H{sub 2} evolved from subsurface states and 450 °C exposure leading to more H{sub 2} desorption from surface SiH{sub x} species. Additional surface desorption states were observed, which were attributed to H{sub 2} desorption from Si (111) facets formed as a result of surface etching by the remote hydrogen plasma or aqueous hydrogen fluoride treatment. The kinetics of surface H{sub 2} desorption were found to be in excellent agreement with prior investigations of silicon surfaces exposed to thermally generated atomic hydrogen.

  8. Selective patterning of Si-based biosensor surfaces using isotropic silicon etchants.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Bradley W; Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2012-03-01

    Ultra-sensitive, label-free biosensors have the potential to have a tremendous impact on fields like medical diagnostics. For the majority of these Si-based integrated devices, it is necessary to functionalize the surface with a targeting ligand in order to perform specific biodetection. To do this, silane coupling agents are commonly used to immobilize the targeting ligand. However, this method typically results in the bioconjugation of the entire device surface, which is undesirable. To compensate for this effect, researchers have developed complex blocking strategies that result in selective patterning of the sensor surface. Recently, silane coupling agents were used to attach biomolecules to the surface of silica toroidal biosensors integrated on a silicon wafer. Interestingly, only the silica biosensor surface was conjugated. Here, we hypothesize why this selective patterning occurred. Specifically, the silicon etchant (xenon difluoride), which is used in the fabrication of the biosensor, appears to reduce the efficiency of the silane coupling attachment to the underlying silicon wafer. These results will enable future researchers to more easily control the bioconjugation of their sensor surfaces, thus improving biosensor device performance.

  9. Cavitand-functionalized porous silicon as an active surface for organophosphorus vapor detection.

    PubMed

    Tudisco, Cristina; Betti, Paolo; Motta, Alessandro; Pinalli, Roberta; Bombaci, Luigi; Dalcanale, Enrico; Condorelli, Guglielmo G

    2012-01-24

    This paper reports on the preparation of a porous silicon-based material covalently functionalized with cavitand receptors suited for the detection of organophosphorus vapors. Two different isomeric cavitands, both containing one acid group at the upper rim, specifically designed for covalent anchoring on silicon, were grafted on H-terminated porous silicon (PSi) by thermal hydrosilylation. The covalently functionalized surfaces and their complexation properties were characterized by combining different analytical techniques, namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass spectroscopy analysis coupled with thermal desorption experiments. Complexation experiments were performed by exposing both active surfaces and a control surface consisting of PSi functionalized with a structurally similar but inactive methylene-bridged cavitand (MeCav) to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) vapors. Comparison between active and inactive surfaces demonstrated the recognition properties of the new surfaces. Finally, the nature of the involved interactions, the energetic differences between active and inactive surfaces toward DMMP complexation, and the comparison with a true nerve gas agent (sarin) were studied by DFT modeling. The results revealed the successful grafting reaction, the specific host-guest interactions of the PSi-bonded receptors, and the reversibility of the guest complexation.

  10. A simple facile approach to large scale synthesis of high specific surface area silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Epur, Rigved; Minardi, Luke; Datta, Moni K.; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2013-12-15

    An inexpensive, facile, and high throughput synthesis of silicon nanoparticles was achieved by the mechano-chemical reduction reaction of magnesium silicide (Mg{sub 2}Si) and silicon monoxide (SiO) using a high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) technique followed by acid leaching. Characterization of the resultant product using X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analyses was performed at various stages of the synthesis process. XRD patterns show that the final product formed is single phase silicon and the nanocrystalline nature was confirmed by the shifted transverse optical (TO) band, characteristic of nc-Si determined by Raman analysis. SEM and TEM shows the presence of particles of different sizes in the range of few nanometers to agglomerates of few microns which is consistent with products obtained from mechanical milling. BET measurements show a very high specific surface area (SSA) of ∼190 m{sup 2}/g obtained due to acid leaching which is also validated by the porous nature of the particles confirmed by the SEM images. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing the large scale production of nanosized silicon and BET surface area of the product formed at various stages.

  11. Curved surface effect and emission on silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Yin, Jun; Zhou, Nian-Jie; Huang, Zhong-Mei; Miao, Xin-Jian; Cheng, Han-Qiong; Su, Qin; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian

    2013-10-01

    The curved surface (CS) effect on nanosilicon plays a main role in the activation for emission and photonic manipulation. The CS effect breaks the symmetrical shape of nanosilicon on which some bonds can produce localized electron states in the band gap. The investigation in calculation and experiment demonstrates that the different curvatures can form the characteristic electron states for some special bonding on the nanosilicon surface, which are related to a series of peaks in photoluminecience (PL), such as LN, LNO, LO1, and LO2 lines in PL spectra due to Si—N, Si—NO, Si=O, and Si—O—Si bonds on curved surface, respectively. Si—Yb bond on curved surface of Si nanostructures can provide the localized states in the band gap deeply and manipulate the emission wavelength into the window of optical communication by the CS effect, which is marked as the LYb line of electroluminescence (EL) emission.

  12. Anti- reflective device having an anti-reflection surface formed of silicon spikes with nano-tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsman (Inventor); Mooasser, Sohrab (Inventor); Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Bae, Kungsam (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Described is a device having an anti-reflection surface. The device comprises a silicon substrate with a plurality of silicon spikes formed on the substrate. A first metallic layer is formed on the silicon spikes to form the anti-reflection surface. The device further includes an aperture that extends through the substrate. A second metallic layer is formed on the substrate. The second metallic layer includes a hole that is aligned with the aperture. A spacer is attached with the silicon substrate to provide a gap between an attached sensor apparatus. Therefore, operating as a Micro-sun sensor, light entering the hole passes through the aperture to be sensed by the sensor apparatus. Additionally, light reflected by the sensor apparatus toward the first side of the silicon substrate is absorbed by the first metallic layer and silicon spikes and is thereby prevented from being reflected back toward the sensor apparatus.

  13. Anti-reflective device having an anti-reflective surface formed of silicon spikes with nano-tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam (Inventor); Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mobasser, Sohrab (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Described is a device having an anti-reflection surface. The device comprises a silicon substrate with a plurality of silicon spikes formed on the substrate. A first metallic layer is formed on the silicon spikes to form the anti-reflection surface. The device further includes an aperture that extends through the substrate. A second metallic layer is formed on the substrate. The second metallic layer includes a hole that is aligned with the aperture. A spacer is attached with the silicon substrate to provide a gap between an attached sensor apparatus. Therefore, operating as a Micro-sun sensor, light entering the hole passes through the aperture to be sensed by the sensor apparatus. Additionally, light reflected by the sensor apparatus toward the first side of the silicon substrate is absorbed by the first metallic layer and silicon spikes and is thereby prevented from being reflected back toward the sensor apparatus.

  14. Estimating the extent of surface oxidation by measuring the porosity dependent dielectrics of oxygenated porous silicon [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L. K.; Sun, Chang Q.; Li, C. M.

    2005-02-01

    Surface oxidation and porosity variation play significant roles in the dielectric performance of porous silicon (PS) yet discriminating the contribution of these events is a challenge. Here we present an analytical solution that covers contributions from the components of silicon oxide surface, silicon backbone and voids using a serial-parallel capacitance structure. Agreement between modeling predictions and measurement has been realized, which turns out an effective method that enables us to estimate the extent of surface oxidation of a specimen by measuring the porosity dependent dielectric response of the chemically passivated PS, and provides guidelines that could be useful for designing dielectric porous structures with surface oxidation.

  15. Formation of quasi-periodic nano- and microstructures on silicon surface under IR and UV femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ionin, Andrei A; Golosov, E V; Kolobov, Yu R; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Ligachev, A E; Makarov, Sergei V; Novoselov, Yurii N; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V

    2011-09-30

    Quasi-periodic nano- and microstructures have been formed on silicon surface using IR ( {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 744 nm) and UV ( {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 248 nm) femtosecond laser pulses. The influence of the incident energy density and the number of pulses on the structured surface topology has been investigated. The silicon nanostructurisation thresholds have been determined for the above-mentioned wavelengths. Modulation of the surface relief at the doubled spatial frequency is revealed and explained qualitatively. The periods of the nanostructures formed on the silicon surface under IR and UV femtosecond laser pulses are comparatively analysed and discussed.

  16. [The growth behavior of mouse fibroblasts on intraocular lens surface of various silicone and PMMA materials].

    PubMed

    Kammann, J; Kreiner, C F; Kaden, P

    1994-08-01

    Experience with intraocular lenses (IOL) made of PMMA dates back ca. 40 years, while silicone IOLs have been in use for only about 10 years. The biocompatibility of PMMA and silicone caoutchouc was tested in a comparative study investigating the growth of mouse fibroblasts on different IOL materials. Spectrophotometric determination of protein synthesis and liquid scintillation counting of DNA synthesis were carried out. The spreading of cells was planimetrically determined, and the DNA synthesis of individual cells in direct contact with the test sample was tested. The results showed that the biocompatibility of silicone lenses made of purified caoutchouc is comparable with that of PMMA lenses; there is no statistically significant difference. However, impurities arising during material synthesis result in a statistically significant inhibition of cell growth on the IOL surfaces.

  17. Self-aligned Cu electroplating of the front surface contact on silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurain, S. N. Sharifah; Zaidi, Saleem H.; Sulaiman, M. Y.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman

    2012-11-01

    Industrially-manufactured crystalline silicon (Si) solar cell contacts are based on screen printing of metal pastes silver (Ag) on the front and aluminum (Al) on the back surface, respectively. Screen printed contacts are inherently inefficient and requires high processing temperatures. Alternate metal contacts for silicon solar cells based on electroplating have been investigated. Metallization schemes based on electroless nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) electroplating offers a simple, costeffective, low processing temperature and reduced contact resistivity option for silicon solar cells. An ohmic contact to ndoped emitter is formed with an electroless Ni deposition process using self-aligned approach. This allows Cu electroplating only on the Ni seed layer, which eliminates the need of additional processing for protecting active device regions. This metallization scheme exhibited higher performance with higher fill factors and open-circuit voltages in contrast with screen-printed solar cells.

  18. Impurity concentrations and surface charge densities on the heavily doped face of a silicon solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Hsu, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    Increased solar cell efficiencies are attained by reduction of surface recombination and variation of impurity concentration profiles at the n(+) surface of silicon solar cells. Diagnostic techniques are employed to evaluate the effects of specific materials preparation methodologies on surface and near surface concentrations. It is demonstrated that the MOS C-V method, when combined with a bulk measurement technique, yields more complete concentration data than are obtainable by either method alone. Specifically, new solar cell MOS C-V measurements are combined with bulk concentrations obtained by a successive layer removal technique utilizing measurements of sheet resistivity and Hall coefficient.

  19. On the Mechanisms of Hydrogen Implantation Induced Silicon Surface Layer Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbauer, Tobias Franz

    2002-08-01

    The “Ion-Cut”, a layer splitting process by hydrogen ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a versatile and efficient technique of transferring thin silicon surface layers from bulk substrates onto other substrates, thus enabling the production of silicon-oninsulator (SOI) materials. Cleavage is induced by the coalescence of the highly pressurized sub-surface H2-gas bubbles, which form upon thermal annealing. A fundamental understanding of the basic mechanisms on how the cutting process occurs is still unclear, inhibiting further optimization of the Ion-Cut process. This work elucidates the physical mechanisms behind the Ion-Cut process in hydrogen-implanted silicon. The investigation of the cleavage process reveals the cut to be largely controlled by the lattice damage, generated by the hydrogen ion irradiation process, and its effects on the local stress field and the fracture toughness within the implantation zone rather than by the depth of maximum H-concentration. Furthermore, this work elucidates the different kinetics in the H-complex formations in silicon crystals with different conductivity types, and examines the mechanically induced damage accumulation caused by the crack propagation through the silicon sample in the splitting step of the Ion-Cut process. Additionally, the influence of boron pre-implantation on the Ion-Cut in hydrogen implanted silicon is investigated. These studies reveal, that both, the atomic interaction between the boron implant and the hydrogen implant and the shift of the Fermi level due to the electrical activation of the implanted boron have a tremendous enhancing effect on the Ion-Cut process.

  20. On the Mechanisms of Hydrogen Implantation Induced Silicon Surface Layer Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbauer, Tobias

    2001-11-01

    The “Ion-Cut”, a layer splitting process by hydrogen ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a versatile and efficient technique of transferring thin silicon surface layers from bulk substrates onto other substrates, thus enabling the production of silicon-oninsulator (SOI) materials. Cleavage is induced by the coalescence of the highly pressurized sub-surface H2-gas bubbles, which form upon thermal annealing. A fundamental understanding of the basic mechanisms on how the cutting process occurs is still unclear, inhibiting further optimization of the Ion-Cut process. This work elucidates the physical mechanisms behind the Ion-Cut process in hydrogen-implanted silicon. The investigation of the cleavage process reveals the cut to be largely controlled by the lattice damage, generated by the hydrogen ion irradiation process, and its effects on the local stress field and the fracture toughness within the implantation zone rather than by the depth of maximum H-concentration. Furthermore, this work elucidates the different kinetics in the H-complex formations in silicon crystals with different conductivity types, and examines the mechanically induced damage accumulation caused by the crack propagation through the silicon sample in the splitting step of the Ion-Cut process. Additionally, the influence of boron pre-implantation on the Ion-Cut in hydrogen implanted silicon is investigated. These studies reveal, that both, the atomic interaction between the boron implant and the hydrogen implant and the shift of the Fermi level due to the electrical activation of the implanted boron have a tremendous enhancing effect on the Ion-Cut process.

  1. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  2. Contact Angles and Surface Tension of Germanium-Silicon Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croell, A.; Kaiser, N.; Cobb, S.; Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Precise knowledge of material parameters is more and more important for improving crystal growth processes. Two important parameters are the contact (wetting) angle and the surface tension, determining meniscus shapes and surface-tension driven flows in a variety of methods (Czochralski, EFG, floating-zone, detached Bridgman growth). The sessile drop technique allows the measurement of both parameters simultaneously and has been used to measure the contact angles and the surface tension of Ge(1-x)Si(x) (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1.3) alloys on various substrate materials. Fused quartz, Sapphire, glassy carbon, graphite, SiC, carbon-based aerogel, pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN), AIN, Si3N4, and polycrystalline CVD diamond were used as substrate materials. In addition, the effect of different cleaning procedures and surface treatments on the wetting behavior were investigated. Measurements were performed both under dynamic vacuum and gas atmospheres (argon or forming gas), with temperatures up to 1100 C. In some experiments, the sample was processed for longer times, up to a week, to investigate any changes of the contact angle and/or surface tension due to slow reactions with the substrate. For pure Ge, stable contact angles were found for carbon-based substrates and for pBN, for Ge(1-x)Si(x) only for pBN. The highest wetting angles were found for pBN substrates with angles around 170deg. For the surface tension of Ge, the most reliable values resulted in gamma(T) = (591- 0.077 (T-T(sub m)) 10(exp -3)N/m. The temperature dependence of the surface tension showed similar values for Ge(1-x)Si(x), around -0.08 x 10(exp -3)N/m K, and a compositional dependence of 2.2 x 10(exp -3)N/m at%Si.

  3. Surface etching, chemical modification and characterization of silicon nitride and silicon oxide—selective functionalization of Si3N4 and SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-Hong; Michalak, David J.; Chopra, Tatiana P.; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Cabrera, Wilfredo; Dick, Don; Veyan, Jean-François; Hourani, Rami; Halls, Mathew D.; Zuilhof, Han; Chabal, Yves J.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to selectively chemically functionalize silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces after cleaning would open interesting technological applications. In order to achieve this goal, the chemical composition of surfaces needs to be carefully characterized so that target chemical reactions can proceed on only one surface at a time. While wet-chemically cleaned silicon dioxide surfaces have been shown to be terminated with surficial Si-OH sites, chemical composition of the HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces is more controversial. In this work, we removed the native oxide under various aqueous HF-etching conditions and studied the chemical nature of the resulting Si3N4 surfaces using infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), and contact angle measurements. We find that HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces are terminated by surficial Si-F and Si-OH bonds, with slightly subsurface Si-OH, Si-O-Si, and Si-NH2 groups. The concentration of surficial Si-F sites is not dependent on HF concentration, but the distribution of oxygen and Si-NH2 displays a weak dependence. The Si-OH groups of the etched nitride surface are shown to react in a similar manner to the Si-OH sites on SiO2, and therefore no selectivity was found. Chemical selectivity was, however, demonstrated by first reacting the -NH2 groups on the etched nitride surface with aldehyde molecules, which do not react with the Si-OH sites on a SiO2 surface, and then using trichloro-organosilanes for selective reaction only on the SiO2 surface (no reactivity on the aldehyde-terminated Si3N4 surface).

  4. Surface etching, chemical modification and characterization of silicon nitride and silicon oxide--selective functionalization of Si3N4 and SiO2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Hong; Michalak, David J; Chopra, Tatiana P; Pujari, Sidharam P; Cabrera, Wilfredo; Dick, Don; Veyan, Jean-François; Hourani, Rami; Halls, Mathew D; Zuilhof, Han; Chabal, Yves J

    2016-03-09

    The ability to selectively chemically functionalize silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces after cleaning would open interesting technological applications. In order to achieve this goal, the chemical composition of surfaces needs to be carefully characterized so that target chemical reactions can proceed on only one surface at a time. While wet-chemically cleaned silicon dioxide surfaces have been shown to be terminated with surficial Si-OH sites, chemical composition of the HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces is more controversial. In this work, we removed the native oxide under various aqueous HF-etching conditions and studied the chemical nature of the resulting Si3N4 surfaces using infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), and contact angle measurements. We find that HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces are terminated by surficial Si-F and Si-OH bonds, with slightly subsurface Si-OH, Si-O-Si, and Si-NH2 groups. The concentration of surficial Si-F sites is not dependent on HF concentration, but the distribution of oxygen and Si-NH2 displays a weak dependence. The Si-OH groups of the etched nitride surface are shown to react in a similar manner to the Si-OH sites on SiO2, and therefore no selectivity was found. Chemical selectivity was, however, demonstrated by first reacting the -NH2 groups on the etched nitride surface with aldehyde molecules, which do not react with the Si-OH sites on a SiO2 surface, and then using trichloro-organosilanes for selective reaction only on the SiO2 surface (no reactivity on the aldehyde-terminated Si3N4 surface).

  5. The nucleation and growth of copper nanoclusters on silicon surfaces from deoxygenated ultra pure water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Andy

    Due to the recent adoption of copper interconnect technology by the semiconductor industry, there has been great interest in understanding the kinetics and mechanisms of copper metal deposition on silicon wafer surfaces in ultra pure water (UPW) solutions. To study copper deposition mechanisms on silicon surfaces, silicon [100] samples were immersed in deoxygenated and non-deoxygenated UPW solutions contaminated with a copper concentration ranging from 0.01 ppb to 1000 ppb while holding the dipping time constant at 300 seconds. By using synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) in the TXRF geometry, the surface concentration as well as the chemical state of the deposited copper for ultra-low surface concentrations in the range of 4E9 atoms/cm2 (˜10 -6 ML) were determined. From these measurements, it was seen that metallic Cu is deposited in deoxygenated UPW solutions while a mixture of metallic Cu and Cu oxides are deposited in non-deoxygenated UPW solutions. In addition, the copper fluorescence signal was measured as a function of the angle of incidence of the incoming x-rays to determine whether the deposited copper was atomically dispersed or particle-like in nature. It was revealed that samples prepared in nondeoxygenated UPW had Cu that was atomically dispersed near the silicon surface, while the samples immersed in deoxygenated UPW had Cu particles that rose above the silicon surface. To further explore the growth of Cu particles in deoxygenated UPW solutions, silicon samples were immersed in deoxygenated UPW solutions copper concentrations of 100 ppb with dipping times ranging from 5 to 300 seconds. The size and surface density of the metallic copper nanoparticles deposited in deoxygenated UPW solutions was determined for the whole range of dipping times, by using AFM as well as measuring the fluorescence signal as a function of angle. Mathematical models were developed to describe

  6. Magnetic Dirac fermions and Chern insulator supported on pristine silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huixia; Liu, Zheng; Lian, Chao; Zhang, Jin; Li, Hui; Sun, Jia-Tao; Meng, Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Emergence of ferromagnetism in nonmagnetic semiconductors is strongly desirable, especially in topological materials because of the possibility of achieving the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose that for Si thin film grown on metal substrate, the pristine Si(111)-√{3 }×√{3 } surface with a spontaneous weak reconstruction has a strong tendency toward ferromagnetism and nontrivial topological properties, characterized by spin-polarized Dirac-fermion surface states. In contrast to conventional routes relying on introduction of alien charge carriers or specially patterned substrates, the spontaneous magnetic order and spin-orbit coupling on the pristine silicon surface together give rise to the quantized anomalous Hall effect with a finite Chern number C =-1 . This work suggests opportunities in silicon-based spintronics and quantum computing free from alien dopants or proximity effects.

  7. Defining nanoscale metal features on an atomically clean silicon surface with a stencil.

    PubMed

    Linklater, A; Nogami, J

    2008-07-16

    Metal features with nanometer scale edge definition have been created on an atomically clean Si(001) surface with a stencil. These features were subsequently characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stencil was brought into contact with the substrate while allowing the stencil to pivot so that it self-aligned parallel to the substrate surface. With this simple method, feature edge spreading was reduced to less than 10 nm in the best case. At the same time, atomic resolution images of the metal feature/silicon boundary showed significant spreading of a sub-monolayer of metal beyond the deposited area. This spreading may pose a limit on the ultimate resolution that can be achieved for metals deposited on atomically clean silicon surfaces.

  8. Surface structural changes of naturally aged silicone and EPDM composite insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Vlastos, A.E. ); Gubanski, S.M. )

    1991-04-01

    In a long-term outdoor test with high direct and alternating voltages, silicone and EPDM rubber composite insulators have, at the beginning, shown a superior performance to that of glass and porcelain insulators. In the long-term test, however, the silicone rubber composite insulator has, in spite of the ageing of both insulator types, kept its good performance, while the performance of the EPDM rubber composite insulator was drastically deteriorated. In order to get a better insight into results obtained, the wettability and the surface structural changes of the insulators were studied by the drop deposition method (using a goniometer) and by advanced techniques such as SEM, ESCA, FTIR and SIMS respectively. The results show that the differences in performance have to be found in the differences in the surface structural changes and in the dynamic ability of the surface to compensate the ageing.

  9. Manufacture of silicon-based devices having disordered sulfur-doped surface layers

    DOEpatents

    Carey, III, James Edward; Mazur, Eric

    2008-04-08

    The present invention provides methods of fabricating a radiation-absorbing semiconductor wafer by irradiating at least one surface location of a silicon substrate, e.g., an n-doped crystalline silicon, by a plurality of temporally short laser pulses, e.g., femtosecond pulses, while exposing that location to a substance, e.g., SF.sub.6, having an electron-donating constituent so as to generate a substantially disordered surface layer (i.e., a microstructured layer) that incorporates a concentration of that electron-donating constituent, e.g., sulfur. The substrate is also annealed at an elevated temperature and for a duration selected to enhance the charge carrier density in the surface layer. For example, the substrate can be annealed at a temperature in a range of about 700 K to about 900 K.

  10. Reducing The Light Reflected by Silicon Surface Using ZnO/TS Antireflection Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhandi, Andi; Tayubi, Yuyu R.; Wibowo, Firmanul C.; Arifin, Pepen; Supriyatman

    2017-07-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films was coated on a texturized silicon (TS) surface using a spincoating technique. The TS layer was prepared by a wet etching method using 20 % KOH solution at temperature of 80°C for 5 minutes. To prepared precursor solution for ZnO layer, zinc acetate dehydrate, 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine are used as a starting material, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The XRD and SEM measurements confirmed that the thin films grown by spincoating technique have a single oriented crystal plane and homogenous surfaces. From photoluminescence measurement found that the optical band gap of grown films to be 3.44 eV. The optical reflectance of the grown films is characterized by UV-VIS spectrometry show that the presence of anti-reflection coating ZnO/TS is proven to reduce the reflection of solar radiation by silicon surface significantly.

  11. Monolayer of Hydrazine Facilitates the Direct Covalent Attachment of C60 Fullerene to a Silicon Surface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Teplyakov, Andrew V

    2017-02-13

    The development of oxygen-free organic-inorganic interfaces has led to new schemes for the functionalization of silicon surfaces with nitrogen-based chemical groups. However, building layers of large structures directly on this functionalized surface has remained elusive. This work confirms the path to form a stable interface between silicon and buckminsterfullerene C60 based on covalent chemical bonds. The starting point for this modification is the hydrazine-reacted Si(111) surface with the diamine functionality, which is further reacted directly with the C60 molecules. The chemistry of this process is confirmed spectroscopically and microscopically and can be used to form organic-inorganic interfaces separated by a single layer of nitrogen.

  12. Surface treatment for the atomic layer deposition of HfO2 on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damlencourt, J.-F.; Renault, O.; Martin, F.; Séméria, M.-N.; Billon, T.; Bedu, F.

    2005-04-01

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 on silicon with a Cl2 surface treatment is investigated by physicochemical and electrical techniques. The specificity of this treatment is to create, on a HF-dipped silicon surface, the nucleation sites necessary for the ALD growth. The growth rates obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry and total x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the nucleation sites (i.e., the -OH groups), which are necessary to perform some bidimensional ALD growth, are generated during this surface treatment. After deposition of thin HfO2 layers (from a few monolayers up to 8.7nm), a very thin parasitic SiOx layer, underneath 1 monolayer of Hf silicate, is observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nevertheless, an equivalent oxide thickness of 1.1nm is obtained with an as-deposited 3.7nm thick HfO2 layer.

  13. Wettability behaviour of RTV silicone rubber coated on nanostructured aluminium surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, Gelareh; Farzaneh, Masoud; Jafari, Reza

    2011-05-01

    A nanostructutered superhydrophobic surface was elaborated by applying an RTV silicone rubber coating on electrochemically processed aluminium substrates. Study of anodisation voltage on surface morphology showed that higher anodising voltage led to larger pore sizes. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis showed bird's nest and beehive structures formed on anodised surfaces at 50 V and 80 V. Water static contact angle on the treated surfaces reached up to 160° at room temperature. Study of superhydrophobic surfaces at super cooled temperature showed important delayed freezing time for RTV hydrophobic surfaces when compared to non-treated aluminium. However, lower wettability was observed when surface temperature went down from 20 °C to -10 °C. Also, it was found that the capacitance of superhydrophobic surfaces decreased with increasing anodising voltage.

  14. Highly effective electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by atomic layer deposited hafnium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jie; Wan, Yimao; Cui, Yanfeng; Chen, Yifeng; Verlinden, Pierre; Cuevas, Andres

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the application of hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films to crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. Excellent passivation of both n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of thin HfO2 films prepared by atomic layer deposition. Effective surface recombination velocities as low as 3.3 and 9.9 cm s-1 have been recorded with 15 nm thick films on n- and p-type 1 Ω cm c-Si, respectively. The surface passivation by HfO2 is activated at 350 °C by a forming gas anneal. Capacitance voltage measurement shows an interface state density of 3.6 × 1010 cm-2 eV-1 and a positive charge density of 5 × 1011 cm-2 on annealed p-type 1 Ω cm c-Si. X-ray diffraction unveils a positive correlation between surface recombination and crystallinity of the HfO2 and a dependence of the crystallinity on both annealing temperature and film thickness. In summary, HfO2 is demonstrated to be an excellent candidate for surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells.

  15. Method for measuring surface activity of silicon nitride powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, Y.; Imai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous, alpha-, and beta-Si3N4 powders were activated by vibration ball milling in purified MeOH, and the surface activity of ground powders was determined by the temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method using NH3 gas. The concentration of active sites with a potential energy equivalent to the peak temperature in the spectrum increased was markedly by ball milling the amorphous Si3N4. The alpha- and beta-Si3N4 also had active sites produced by ball milling. The concentration of active site increased with increased ball milling time. A method for measuring surface activity of ceramic raw materials by TPD is proposed.

  16. Hydrogen desorption from hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasma cleaned silicon carbide (0001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Tanaka, Satoru; Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-09-15

    Due to the extreme chemical inertness of silicon carbide (SiC), in-situ thermal desorption is commonly utilized as a means to remove surface contamination prior to initiating critical semiconductor processing steps such as epitaxy, gate dielectric formation, and contact metallization. In-situ thermal desorption and silicon sublimation has also recently become a popular method for epitaxial growth of mono and few layer graphene. Accordingly, numerous thermal desorption experiments of various processed silicon carbide surfaces have been performed, but have ignored the presence of hydrogen, which is ubiquitous throughout semiconductor processing. In this regard, the authors have performed a combined temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the desorption of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and various other oxygen, carbon, and fluorine related species from ex-situ aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and in-situ remote hydrogen plasma cleaned 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces. Using XPS, the authors observed that temperatures on the order of 700–1000 °C are needed to fully desorb C-H, C-O and Si-O species from these surfaces. However, using TPD, the authors observed H{sub 2} desorption at both lower temperatures (200–550 °C) as well as higher temperatures (>700 °C). The low temperature H{sub 2} desorption was deconvoluted into multiple desorption states that, based on similarities to H{sub 2} desorption from Si (111), were attributed to silicon mono, di, and trihydride surface species as well as hydrogen trapped by subsurface defects, steps, or dopants. The higher temperature H{sub 2} desorption was similarly attributed to H{sub 2} evolved from surface O-H groups at ∼750 °C as well as the liberation of H{sub 2} during Si-O desorption at temperatures >800 °C. These results indicate that while ex-situ aqueous HF processed 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces annealed at <700 °C remain terminated by some surface C–O and

  17. Thermal analysis of the exothermic reaction between galvanic porous silicon and sodium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Becker, Collin R; Currano, Luke J; Churaman, Wayne A; Stoldt, Conrad R

    2010-11-01

    Porous silicon (PS) films up to ∼150 μm thick with specific surface area similar to 700 m(2)/g and pore diameters similar to 3 nm are fabricated using a galvanic corrosion etching mechanism that does not require a power supply. After fabrication, the pores are impregnated with the strong oxidizer sodium perchlorate (NaClO(4)) to create a composite that constitutes a highly energetic system capable of explosion. Using bomb calorimetry, the heat of reaction is determined to be 9.9 ± 1.8 and 27.3 ± 3.2 kJ/g of PS when ignited under N(2) and O(2), respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) reveals that the energy output is dependent on the hydrogen termination of the PS.

  18. Silicon surface deoxidation using strontium oxide deposited with the pulsed laser deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Zoran; Spreitzer, Matjaž; Kovač, Janez; Klement, Dejan; Suvorov, Danilo

    2014-10-22

    The epitaxial growth of functional oxides on silicon substrates requires atomically defined surfaces, which are most effectively prepared using Sr-induced deoxidation. The manipulation of metallic Sr is nevertheless very delicate and requires alternative buffer materials. In the present study the applicability of the chemically much more stable SrO in the process of native-oxide removal and silicon-surface stabilization was investigated using the pulsed-laser deposition technique (PLD), while the as-derived surfaces were analyzed in situ using reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. After the deposition of the SrO over Si/SiO2, in a vacuum, different annealing conditions, with the temperature ranging up to 850 °C, were applied. Because the deposition took place in a vacuum, a multilayer composed of SrO, Sr-silicate, modified Si, and Si as a substrate was initially formed. During the subsequent annealing the topmost layer epitaxially orders in the form of islands, while a further increase in the annealing temperature induced rapid desorption and surface deoxidation, leading to a 2 × 1 Sr-reconstructed silicon surface. However, the process is accompanied by distinctive surface roughening, and therefore the experimental conditions must be carefully optimized to minimize the effect. The results of the study revealed, for the first time, an effective pathway for the preparation of a SrO-induced buffer layer on a silicon substrate using PLD, which can be subsequently utilized for the epitaxial growth of functional oxides.

  19. Plasma-enhanced deposition of antifouling layers on silicone rubber surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan

    In food processing and medical environments, biofilms serve as potential sources of contamination, and lead to food spoilage, transmission of diseases or infections. Because of its ubiquitous and recalcitrant nature, Listeria monocytogenes biofilm is especially hard to control. Generating antimicrobial surfaces provide a method to control the bacterial attachment. The difficulty of silver deposition on polymeric surfaces has been overcome by using a unique two-step plasma-mediated method. First silicone rubber surfaces were plasma-functionalized to generate aldehyde groups. Then thin silver layers were deposited onto the functionalized surfaces according to Tollen's reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that silver particles were deposited. By exposing the silver coated surfaces to L. monocytogenes, it was demonstrated that they were bactericidal to L. monocytogenes. No viable bacteria were detected after 12 to 18 h on silver-coated silicone rubber surfaces. Another antifouling approach is to generate polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin layer instead of silver on polymer surfaces. Covalent bond of PEG structures of various molecular weights to cold-plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces, such as silicone rubber, opens up a novel way for the generation of PEG brush-like or PEG branch-like anti-fouling layers. In this study, plasma-generated surface free radicals can react efficiently with dichlorosilane right after plasma treatment. With the generation of halo-silane groups, this enables PEG molecules to be grafted onto the modified surfaces. XPS data clearly demonstrated the presence of PEG molecules on plasma-functionalized silicone rubber surfaces. AFM images showed the changed surface morphologies as a result of covalent attachment to the surface of PEG molecules. Biofilm experiment results suggest that the PEG brush-like films have the potential ability to be the next

  20. Covalent and stable CuAAC modification of silicon surfaces for control of cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Vutti, Surendra; Buch-Månson, Nina; Schoffelen, Sanne; Bovet, Nicolas; Martinez, Karen L; Meldal, Morten

    2015-03-23

    Stable primary functionalization of metal surfaces plays a significant role in reliable secondary attachment of complex functional molecules used for the interfacing of metal objects and nanomaterials with biological systems. In principle, this can be achieved through chemical reactions either in the vapor or liquid phase. In this work, we compared these two methods for oxidized silicon surfaces and thoroughly characterized the functionalization steps by tagging and fluorescence imaging. We demonstrate that the vapor-phase functionalization only provided transient surface modification that was lost on extensive washing. For stable surface modification, a liquid-phase method was developed. In this method, silicon wafers were decorated with azides, either by silanization with (3-azidopropyl)triethoxysilane or by conversion of the amine groups of an aminopropylated surface by means of the azido-transfer reaction. Subsequently, D-amino acid adhesion peptides could be immobilized on the surface by use of Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. This enabled the study of cell adhesion to the metal surface. In contrast to unmodified surfaces, the peptide-modified surfaces were able to maintain cell adhesion during significant flow velocities in a microflow reactor.

  1. A cochlear implant fabricated using a bulk silicon-surface micromachining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Tracy Elizabeth

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation presents the design and fabrication of two generations of a silicon microelectrode array for use in a cochlear implant. A cochlear implant is a device that is inserted into the inner ear and uses electrical stimulation to provide sound sensations to the profoundly deaf. The first-generation silicon cochlear implant is a passive device fabricated using silicon microprobe technology developed at the University of Michigan. It contains twenty-two iridium oxide (IrO) stimulating sites that are 250 mum in diameter and spaced at 750 mum intervals. In-vivo recordings were made in guinea pig auditory cortex in response to electrical stimulation with this device, verifying its ability to electrically evoke an auditory response. Auditory thresholds as low as 78 muA were recorded. The second-generation implant is a thirty-two site, four-channel device with on-chip CMOS site-selection circuitry and integrated position sensing. It was fabricated using a novel bulk silicon surface micromachining process which was developed as a part of this dissertation work. While the use of semiconductor technology offers many advantages in fabricating cochlear implants over the methods currently used, it was felt that even further advantages could be gained by developing a new micromachining process which would allow circuitry to be distributed along the full length of the cochlear implant substrate. The new process uses electropolishing of an n+ bulk silicon sacrificial layer to undercut and release n- epitaxial silicon structures from the wafer. An extremely abrupt etch-stop between the n+ and n- silicon is obtained, with no electropolishing taking place in the n-type silicon that is doped lower than 1 x 1017 cm-3 in concentration. Lateral electropolishing rates of up to 50 mum/min were measured using this technique, allowing one millimeter-wide structures to be fully undercut in as little as 10 minutes. The new micromachining process was integrated with a standard p

  2. Role of an Oxidant Mixture as Surface Modifier of Porous Silicon Microstructures Evaluated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-González, Zeuz; Escobar, Salvador; Nava, Rocío; del Río, J. Antonio; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Current research on porous silicon includes the construction of complex structures with luminescent and/or photonic properties. However, their preparation with both characteristics is still challenging. Recently, our group reported a possible method to achieve that by adding an oxidant mixture to the electrolyte used to produce porous silicon. This mixture can chemically modify their microstructure by changing the thickness and surface passivation of the pore walls. In this work, we prepared a series of samples (with and without oxidant mixture) and we evaluated the structural differences through their scanning electron micrographs and their optical properties determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The results showed that ellipsometry is sensitive to slight variations in the porous silicon structure, caused by changes in their preparation. The fitting process, based on models constructed from the features observed in the micrographs, allowed us to see that the mayor effect of the oxidant mixture is on samples of high porosity, where the surface oxidation strongly contributes to the skeleton thinning during the electrochemical etching. This suggests the existence of a porosity threshold for the action of the oxidant mixture. These results could have a significant impact on the design of complex porous silicon structures for different optoelectronic applications. PMID:27097767

  3. Role of an Oxidant Mixture as Surface Modifier of Porous Silicon Microstructures Evaluated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Montiel-González, Zeuz; Escobar, Salvador; Nava, Rocío; del Río, J Antonio; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia

    2016-04-21

    Current research on porous silicon includes the construction of complex structures with luminescent and/or photonic properties. However, their preparation with both characteristics is still challenging. Recently, our group reported a possible method to achieve that by adding an oxidant mixture to the electrolyte used to produce porous silicon. This mixture can chemically modify their microstructure by changing the thickness and surface passivation of the pore walls. In this work, we prepared a series of samples (with and without oxidant mixture) and we evaluated the structural differences through their scanning electron micrographs and their optical properties determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The results showed that ellipsometry is sensitive to slight variations in the porous silicon structure, caused by changes in their preparation. The fitting process, based on models constructed from the features observed in the micrographs, allowed us to see that the mayor effect of the oxidant mixture is on samples of high porosity, where the surface oxidation strongly contributes to the skeleton thinning during the electrochemical etching. This suggests the existence of a porosity threshold for the action of the oxidant mixture. These results could have a significant impact on the design of complex porous silicon structures for different optoelectronic applications.

  4. Locally oxidized silicon surface-plasmon Schottky detector for telecom regime.

    PubMed

    Goykhman, Ilya; Desiatov, Boris; Khurgin, Jacob; Shappir, Joseph; Levy, Uriel

    2011-06-08

    We experimentally demonstrate an on-chip nanoscale silicon surface-plasmon Schottky photodetector based on internal photoemission process and operating at telecom wavelengths. The device is fabricated using a self-aligned approach of local-oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) on silicon on insulator substrate, which provides compatibility with standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology and enables the realization of the photodetector and low-loss bus photonic waveguide at the same fabrication step. Additionally, LOCOS technique allows avoiding lateral misalignment between the silicon surface and the metal layer to form a nanoscale Schottky contact. The fabricated devices showed enhanced detection capability for shorter wavelengths that is attributed to increased probability of the internal photoemission process. We found the responsivity of the nanodetector to be 0.25 and 13.3 mA/W for incident optical wavelengths of 1.55 and 1.31 μm, respectively. The presented device can be integrated with other nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic structures for the realization of monolithic opto-electronic circuitry on-chip.

  5. Role of an Oxidant Mixture as Surface Modifier of Porous Silicon Microstructures Evaluated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel-González, Zeuz; Escobar, Salvador; Nava, Rocío; Del Río, J. Antonio; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Current research on porous silicon includes the construction of complex structures with luminescent and/or photonic properties. However, their preparation with both characteristics is still challenging. Recently, our group reported a possible method to achieve that by adding an oxidant mixture to the electrolyte used to produce porous silicon. This mixture can chemically modify their microstructure by changing the thickness and surface passivation of the pore walls. In this work, we prepared a series of samples (with and without oxidant mixture) and we evaluated the structural differences through their scanning electron micrographs and their optical properties determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The results showed that ellipsometry is sensitive to slight variations in the porous silicon structure, caused by changes in their preparation. The fitting process, based on models constructed from the features observed in the micrographs, allowed us to see that the mayor effect of the oxidant mixture is on samples of high porosity, where the surface oxidation strongly contributes to the skeleton thinning during the electrochemical etching. This suggests the existence of a porosity threshold for the action of the oxidant mixture. These results could have a significant impact on the design of complex porous silicon structures for different optoelectronic applications.

  6. A decade of silicone hydrogel development: surface properties, mechanical properties, and ocular compatibility.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    Since the initial launch of silicone hydrogel lenses, there has been a considerable broadening in the range of available commercial material properties. The very mobile silicon-oxygen bonds convey distinctive surface and mechanical properties on silicone hydrogels, in which advantages of enhanced oxygen permeability, reduced protein deposition, and modest frictional interaction are balanced by increased lipid and elastic response. There are now some 15 silicone hydrogel material variants available to practitioners; arguably, the changes that have taken place have been strongly influenced by feedback based on clinical experience. Water content is one of the most influential properties, and the decade has seen a progressive rise from lotrafilcon-A (24%) to efrofilcon-A (74%). Moduli have decreased over the same period from 1.4 to 0.3 MPa, but not solely as a result of changes in water content. Surface properties do not correlate directly with water content, and ingenious approaches have been used to achieve desirable improvements (e.g., greater lubricity and lower contact angle hysteresis). This is demonstrated by comparing the hysteresis value of the earliest (lotrafilcon-A, >40°) and most recent (delefilcon-A, <10°) coated silicone hydrogels. Although wettability is important, it is not of itself a good predictor of ocular response because this involves a much wider range of physicochemical and biochemical factors. The interference of the lens with ocular dynamics is complex leading separately to tissue-material interactions involving anterior and posterior lens surfaces. The biochemical consequences of these interactions may hold the key to a greater understanding of ocular incompatibility and end of day discomfort.

  7. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (< 0.1 eV) obtained by Lunar Prospector because the Kaguya orbiter did not carry a neutron detector. We used the relative change in thermal neutron flux as a function of topography measured by Lunar Prospector. Normalization of Si elemental abundance using the Kaguya data was accomplished using Apollo 11, 12, 16, and 17 archive data. The normalized Si elemental abundance of the Kaguya GRS data ranged from about 15 to 27% Si. The lowest and highest SiO _{2} abundance correspond to mineral groups like pyroxene group (PKT region) and feldspar group (Northern highlands), respectively. The Si abundance permits the quantification of the relative abundance and distribution of mafic or non-mafic lunar surfaces materials. Our KGRS data analysis shows that highland terrains are Si-enriched relative to lower basins and plains regions, which appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to

  8. Attenuation of 7 GHz surface acoustic waves on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyao; Cahill, David G.

    2016-09-01

    We measured the attenuation of GHz frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on the Si (001) surface using an optical pump-probe technique at temperatures between 300 and 600 K. SAWs are generated and detected by a 700 nm Al grating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The grating for SAW generation is separated from the grating for SAW detection by ≈150 μ m . The amplitude of SAWs is attenuated by coupling to bulk waves created by the Al grating, diffraction due to the finite size of the source, and the intrinsic relaxational Akhiezer damping of elastic waves in Si. Thermal phonon relaxation time and Grüneisen parameters are fitted using temperature-dependent measurement. The f Q product of a hypothetical micromechanical oscillator limited by Akhiezer damping at this frequency is ˜3 ×1013 Hz.

  9. Functionalization of oxidized silicon surfaces with methyl groups and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmohl, A.; Khan, A.; Hess, P.

    2004-07-01

    Oxidized silicon surfaces were functionalized with chemically bonded methyl end groups and characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method, contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Detailed results are presented for trimethylsilyl (TMS) and pentamethyldisilyl (PMDS) terminated surfaces, which were prepared by silanization with suitable chloro compounds. The IR spectra of the TMS-terminated surface exhibit two CH stretching peaks at 2904 and 2963 cm -1. In the thermal desorption experiments desorption of trimethylsilanol and methane was observed at 550 ∘C. The IR spectra of the PMDS-terminated surface show two CH stretching peaks at 2898 and 2955 cm -1. The thermal desorption spectra indicate cleavage of Si-Si bonds and desorption of trimethylsilane at 530 ∘C. The wetting behavior, adhesion, and mechanical properties were studied by contact angle measurements and SFM. The results are compared with the well-defined Si(111)-(1×1):H surface and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a silicon surface with long hydrocarbon chains, prepared with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS, H 3C(CH 2) 17SiCl 3). The water contact angle was 82 ∘ for TMS and 85 ∘ for PMDS end groups. The friction forces measured for the TMS- and PMDS-terminated surfaces were comparable and about 3 times higher than that of the H-terminated silicon and the OTS-SAM surface. The corresponding friction coefficients were 0.17, 0.18, 0.34, and 0.45 for Si(111)-(1×1):H, OTS SAM, TMS, and PMDS surfaces, respectively.

  10. Ion irradiation of porous silicon : the role of surface states

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; Bennett, B. L.; Cooke, D. W.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,

    2004-01-01

    The summary and conclusions of this paper are: (1) Ion irradiation induces PL quenching from po-Si; (2) Interaction of the implanted ions with defects generated during the irradiation process plays a major role in the PL quenching mechanism; (3) Quenching was associated with the creation of nonradiative states within the gap; and (4) Exposition to air and consequently the oxidation of the surface is shown to enhance PL emission efficiency.

  11. Surface Intermediates in Thin Film Deposition on Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-28

    aniline. Adsorption and Reaction of Benzonitrile Whereas the amino group is known to increase electrophilic reactivity of benzene the cyano group acts as...TPR results of benzonitrile shown in Figure 3 indicate that benzonitrile forms a multilayer below 180 K, and the multilayer sublimates at 230 K. i i... benzonitrile remains adsorbed which desorbs at 360 K. The monolayer is adsorbed with the cyanogroup parallel to the surface and the phenyl ring tilted

  12. Surface passivation of silicon nanowires based metal nano-particle assisted chemical etching for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Khezami, Lotfi; Jemai, Abdelbasset Bessadok; Alhathlool, Raed; Ajbar, Abdelhamid

    2017-03-01

    Metal Nano-particle Assisted Chemical Etching (MNpACE) is an extraordinary developed wet etching method for producing uniform semiconductor nanostructure (silicon nanowires) from patterned metallic film on crystalline silicon surface. The metal films facilitate the etching in HF and H2O2 solution and produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs).The creation of different SiNWs morphologies by changing the etching time and its effects on optical and optoelectronic properties was investigated. The combination effect of formed SiNWs and stain etching treatment in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution on the surface morphology of Si wafers as well as on the optical and optoelectronic properties especially a PL response at 640 nm are presented. As a results, the effective lifetime (τeff) and surface recombination velocity (Seff) evolution of SiNWs after stain etching treatment showed significant improvements and less than 1% reflectance was achieved over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm and more than 36% reduction was observed compared to untreated surface. It has, thus, been demonstrated that all these factors may lead to improved energy efficiency from 8% to nearly 14.2% for a cell with SiNWs treated in acid (HF/HNO3/H2O) solution.

  13. Nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear studies of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Tokachichu, Dharma R; Keener, Matthew T; Lee, Stephen C

    2006-01-01

    Protein layers are deployed over the surfaces of microdevices such as biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) and bioimplants as functional layers that confer specific molecular recognition or binding properties or to facilitate biocompatibility with biological tissue. When a microdevice comes in contact with any exterior environment, like tissues and/or fluids with a variable pH, the biomolecules on its surface may get abraded. Silicon based bioMEMS are an important class of devices. Adhesion, friction and wear properties of biomolecules (e.g., proteins) on silicon based surfaces are therefore important. Adhesion was studied between streptavidin and a thermally grown silica substrate in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution with various pH values as a function of the concentration of biomolecules in the solution. Friction and wear properties of streptavidin (protein) biomolecules coated on silica by direct physical adsorption and a chemical linker method were studied in PBS using the tapping mode atomic force microscopy at a range of free amplitude voltages. Fluorescence microscopy was used to study the detailed wear mechanism of the biomolecules. Based on this study, adhesion, friction and wear mechanisms of biomolecules on silicon based surfaces are discussed.

  14. High-conductivity silicon based spectrally selective plasmonic surfaces for sensing in the infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgulu, K.; Gok, A.; Yilmaz, M.; Topalli, K.; Okyay, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic perfect absorbers have found a wide range of applications in imaging, sensing, and light harvesting and emitting devices. Traditionally, metals are used to implement plasmonic structures. For sensing applications, it is desirable to integrate nanophotonic active surfaces with biasing and amplification circuitry to achieve monolithic low cost solutions. Commonly used plasmonic metals such as Au and Ag are not compatible with standard silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Here we demonstrate plasmonic perfect absorbers based on high conductivity silicon. Standard optical lithography and reactive ion etching techniques were used for the patterning of the samples. We present computational and experimental results of surface plasmon resonances excited on a silicon surface at normal and oblique incidences. We experimentally demonstrate our absorbers as ultra-low cost, CMOS-compatible and efficient refractive index sensing surfaces. The experimental results reveal that the structure exhibits a sensitivity of around 11 000 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of up to 2.5. We also show that the sensing performance of the structure can be improved by increasing doping density.

  15. In situ metalation of free base phthalocyanine covalently bonded to silicon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Fabio; Tudisco, Cristina; Bertani, Federico; Dalcanale, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Summary Free 4-undecenoxyphthalocyanine molecules were covalently bonded to Si(100) and porous silicon through thermic hydrosilylation of the terminal double bonds of the undecenyl chains. The success of the anchoring strategy on both surfaces was demonstrated by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with control experiments performed adopting the commercially available 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine, which is not suited for silicon anchoring. Moreover, the study of the shape of the XPS N 1s band gave relevant information on the interactions occurring between the anchored molecules and the substrates. The spectra suggest that the phthalocyanine ring interacts significantly with the flat Si surface, whilst ring–surface interactions are less relevant on porous Si. The surface-bonded molecules were then metalated in situ with Co by using wet chemistry. The efficiency of the metalation process was evaluated by XPS measurements and, in particular, on porous silicon, the complexation of cobalt was confirmed by the disappearance in the FTIR spectra of the band at 3290 cm−1 due to –NH stretches. Finally, XPS results revealed that the different surface–phthalocyanine interactions observed for flat and porous substrates affect the efficiency of the in situ metalation process. PMID:25551050

  16. Immobilization of [60]fullerene on silicon surfaces through a calix[8]arene layer

    SciTech Connect

    Busolo, Filippo; Silvestrini, Simone; Maggini, Michele; Armelao, Lidia

    2013-10-28

    In this work, we report the functionalization of flat Si(100) surfaces with a calix[8]arene derivative through a thermal hydrosilylation process, followed by docking with [60]fullerene. Chemical grafting of calix[8]arene on silicon substrates was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, whereas host-guest immobilization of fullerene was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy and sessile drop water contact angle measurements. Surface topographical variations, modelled on the basis of calix[8]arene and [60]fullerene geometrical parameters, are consistent with the observed morphological features relative to surface functionalization and to non-covalent immobilization of [60]fullerene.

  17. Influence on hydrophobicity of silicone rubber surface by introducing fluorocarbon functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Song-Hua; Gao, Li-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Hydrophobic modification on surface of silicone rubber (SIR) by CF4 radio frequency inductively coupled plasma is discussed. Static contact angle, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used in characterizing the hydrophobic property, surface appearance and chemical composition of the modified SIR. The results show that the improvement of surface hydrophobic property on modified SIR is attributed to the introduction of fluorocarbon functional groups (C-CF n , n = 1, 2, 3) and fluosilicic structures (Si-F and Si-F2) during the treatment.

  18. Influence on hydrophobicity of silicone rubber surface by introducing fluorocarbon functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Song-Hua; Gao, Li-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Hydrophobic modification on surface of silicone rubber (SIR) by CF4 radio frequency inductively coupled plasma is discussed. Static contact angle, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used in characterizing the hydrophobic property, surface appearance and chemical composition of the modified SIR. The results show that the improvement of surface hydrophobic property on modified SIR is attributed to the introduction of fluorocarbon functional groups (C-CF n , n = 1, 2, 3) and fluosilicic structures (Si-F and Si-F2) during the treatment.

  19. Density functional theory calculations of the stress of oxidised (1 1 0) silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, C.; Giordano, S.; Colombo, L.; Mana, G.

    2016-12-01

    The measurement of the lattice-parameter of silicon by x-ray interferometry assumes the use of strain-free crystals. This might not be the case because surface relaxation, reconstruction, and oxidation cause strains without the application of any external force. In a previous work, this intrinsic strain was estimated by a finite element analysis, where the surface stress was modeled by an elastic membrane having a 1 N m-1 tensile strength. The present paper quantifies the surface stress by a density functional theory calculation. We found a value exceeding the nominal value used, which potentially affects the measurement accuracy.

  20. The Surface of Nanoparticle Silicon as Studied by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Rebecca A.; DiVerdi, Joseph A.; Yang, Yuan; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Maciel, Gary E.

    2012-01-01

    The surface structure and adjacent interior of commercially available silicon nanopowder (np-Si) was studied using multinuclear, solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The results are consistent with an overall picture in which the bulk of the np-Si interior consists of highly ordered (“crystalline”) silicon atoms, each bound tetrahedrally to four other silicon atoms. From a combination of 1H, 29Si and 2H magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR results and quantum mechanical 29Si chemical shift calculations, silicon atoms on the surface of “as-received” np-Si were found to exist in a variety of chemical structures, with apparent populations in the order (a) (Si–O–)3Si–H > (b) (Si–O–)3SiOH > (c) (HO–)nSi(Si)m(–OSi)4−m−n ≈ (d) (Si–O–)2Si(H)OH > (e) (Si–O–)2Si(–OH)2 > (f) (Si–O–)4Si, where Si stands for a surface silicon atom and Si represents another silicon atom that is attached to Si by either a Si–Si bond or a Si–O–Si linkage. The relative populations of each of these structures can be modified by chemical treatment, including with O2 gas at elevated temperature. A deliberately oxidized sample displays an increased population of (Si–O–)3Si–H, as well as (Si–O–)3SiOH sites. Considerable heterogeneity of some surface structures was observed. A combination of 1H and 2H MAS experiments provide evidence for a substantial population of silanol (Si–OH) moieties, some of which are not readily H-exchangeable, along with the dominant Si–H sites, on the surface of “as-received” np-Si; the silanol moieties are enhanced by deliberate oxidation. An extension of the DEPTH background suppression method is also demonstrated that permits measurement of the T2 relaxation parameter simultaneously with background suppression. PMID:28809292

  1. Formation of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles in the surface layer of a silicon target during short-pulse carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remnev, G. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Naiden, E. P.; Saltymakov, M. S.; Stepanov, A. V.; Shtan'ko, V. F.

    2009-04-01

    Synthesis of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles is studied during short-pulse implantation of carbon ions and protons into a silicon target. The experiments are carried out using a TEMP source of pulsed powerful ion beams based on a magnetically insulated diode with radial magnetic field B r . The beam parameters are as follows: the ion energy is 300 keV, the pulse duration is 80 ns, the beam consists of carbon ions and protons, and the ion current density is 30 A/cm2. Single-crystal silicon wafers serve as a target. SiC nanoparticles and nanodiamonds form in the surface layer of silicon subjected to more than 100 pulses. The average coherent domain sizes in the SiC particles and nanodiamonds are 12-16 and 8-9 nm, respectively.

  2. Surface plasmon polariton mediated photoluminescence from excitons in silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Eiji; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Fujii, Minoru; Miura, Satoru; Hayashi, Shinji

    2006-09-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of a metal film can efficiently be excited when a light emitter is placed nearby. The excited SPPs are converted to photons by compensating for the momentum mismatch. The authors study SPP-mediated emission from excitons in Si nanocrystals (Si-nc's) by placing an organic grating on a thin Au film placed near Si-nc's. The dispersion relation is obtained from angle-resolved photoluminescence measurements, and all the observed modes are well explained by model calculation. The results indicate that excitons in Si-nc's can efficiently excite SPPs in thin metal films and directed photoluminescence can be realized.

  3. A novel silicon nanotips antireflection surface for the micro Sun sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonsup; Bae, Sam Y; Mobasser, Sohrab; Manohara, Harish

    2005-12-01

    We have developed a new technique to fabricate an antireflection surface using silicon nanotips for use on a micro Sun sensor for Mars rovers. We have achieved randomly distributed nanotips of radii spanning from 20 to 100 nm and aspect ratio of approximately 200 using a two-step dry etching process. The 30 degrees specular reflectance at the target wavelength of 1 microm is only about 0.09%, nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of bare silicon, and the hemispherical reflectance is approximately 8%. When the density and aspect ratio of these nanotips are changed, a change in reflectance is demonstrated. When surfaces are covered with these nanotips, the critical problem of ghost images that are caused by multiple internal reflections in a micro Sun sensor was solved.

  4. Tuning thermal transport in ultrathin silicon membranes by surface nanoscale engineering.

    PubMed

    Neogi, Sanghamitra; Reparaz, J Sebastian; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Wagner, Markus R; Sledzinska, Marianna; Shchepetov, Andrey; Prunnila, Mika; Ahopelto, Jouni; Sotomayor-Torres, Clivia M; Donadio, Davide

    2015-04-28

    A detailed understanding of the connections of fabrication and processing to structural and thermal properties of low-dimensional nanostructures is essential to design materials and devices for phononics, nanoscale thermal management, and thermoelectric applications. Silicon provides an ideal platform to study the relations between structure and heat transport since its thermal conductivity can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude by nanostructuring. Combining realistic atomistic modeling and experiments, we unravel the origin of the thermal conductivity reduction in ultrathin suspended silicon membranes, down to a thickness of 4 nm. Heat transport is mostly controlled by surface scattering: rough layers of native oxide at surfaces limit the mean free path of thermal phonons below 100 nm. Removing the oxide layers by chemical processing allows us to tune the thermal conductivity over 1 order of magnitude. Our results guide materials design for future phononic applications, setting the length scale at which nanostructuring affects thermal phonons most effectively.

  5. Native surface oxide turns alloyed silicon membranes into nanophononic metamaterials with ultralow thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shiyun; Selli, Daniele; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Donadio, Davide

    2017-05-01

    A detailed understanding of the relation between microscopic structure and phonon propagation at the nanoscale is essential to design materials with desired phononic and thermal properties. Here we uncover a new mechanism of phonon interaction in surface oxidized membranes, i.e., native oxide layers interact with phonons in ultrathin silicon membranes through local resonances. The local resonances reduce the low frequency phonon group velocities and shorten their mean free path. This effect opens up a new strategy for ultralow thermal conductivity design as it complements the scattering mechanism which scatters higher frequency modes effectively. The combination of native oxide layer and alloying with germanium in concentration as small as 5% reduces the thermal conductivity of silicon membranes to 100 times lower than the bulk. In addition, the resonance mechanism produced by native oxide surface layers is particularly effective for thermal conductivity reduction even at very low temperatures, at which only low frequency modes are populated.

  6. Direct fabrication of cone array microstructure on monocrystalline silicon surface by femtosecond laser texturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quanji; Zhou, Weidong

    2017-10-01

    Improving the utilization ratio of sunlight is a key factor for the development of solar cell. In this paper, a quasi uniform cone-array-like microstructure was directly fabricated on monocrystal silicon surface in atmosphere by using an alternative femtosecond laser texturing technique. The fabricated cone array like microstructure has a spike depth of up to 8 μm and is able to substantially reduce light reflection due to the effective optical coupling between the incident light with the cone array like microstructure. Compare to planar silicon wafer, the relative reflectance of the cone array structure has been decreased to less than 9% in the measured wavelength range from 400 to 1000 nm. This may be a promising method for the optimal fabrication of surface-microstructure photovoltaic material, such as solar cell, infrared sensor, etc.

  7. Magnetic behaviour of TbPc2 single-molecule magnets chemically grafted on silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannini, Matteo; Bertani, Federico; Tudisco, Cristina; Malavolti, Luigi; Poggini, Lorenzo; Misztal, Kasjan; Menozzi, Daniela; Motta, Alessandro; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Dalcanale, Enrico; Sessoli, Roberta

    2014-08-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are among the most promising molecular systems for the development of novel molecular electronics based on spin transport. Going beyond investigations focused on physisorbed SMMs, in this work the robust grafting of terbium(III) bis(phthalocyaninato) complexes to a silicon surface from a diluted solution is achieved by rational chemical design yielding the formation of a partially oriented monolayer on the conducting substrate. Here by exploiting the surface sensitivity of X-ray circular magnetic dichroism, we evidence an enhancement of the magnetic bistability of this SMM, in contrast to the dramatic reduction of the magnetic hysteresis that characterizes monolayer deposits evaporated on noble and ferromagnetic metals. Photoelectron spectroscopy investigations and density functional theory analysis suggest a non-innocent role played by the silicon substrate, evidencing the potentiality of this approach for robust integration of bistable magnetic molecules in electronic devices.

  8. Hypervalent surface interactions for colloidal stability and doping of silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Neale, Nathan R.; Chen, Ting; Kortshagen, Uwe R.

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals have attracted attention for cost-effective, solution-based deposition of quantum-confined thin films for optoelectronics. However, two significant challenges must be addressed before practical nanocrystal-based devices can be realized. The first is coping with the ligands that terminate the nanocrystal surfaces. Though ligands provide the colloidal stability needed to cast thin films from solution, these ligands dramatically hinder charge carrier transport in the resulting film. Second, after a conductive film is achieved, doping has proven difficult for further control of the optoelectronic properties of the film. Here we report the ability to confront both of these challenges by exploiting the ability of silicon to engage in hypervalent interactions with hard donor molecules. For the first time, we demonstrate the significant potential of applying the interaction to the nanocrystal surface. In this study, hypervalent interactions are shown to provide colloidal stability as well as doping of silicon nanocrystals. PMID:23893292

  9. A silicon-on-insulator surface plasmon interferometer for hydrogen detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Khai Q.; Ngo, Quang Minh

    2016-07-01

    A compact and integrated optical gas sensor on a silicon-on-insulator platform based on surface plasmon interference for hydrogen detection is theoretically introduced in this paper. The basic sensor element consists of a thin layer of palladium (Pd) embedded in a silicon waveguide. Two decoupled surface plasmon polariton waves propagate simultaneously on either side of the Pd layer, which combine and interfere at the end of the Pd layer. The interference mode can be either constructive or destructive, which is highly sensitive to volumetric hydrogen concentration. The proposed sensor is of great potential as a basic building block for lab-on-chip-scale devices owing to its high integration and compactness.

  10. Magnetic behaviour of TbPc2 single-molecule magnets chemically grafted on silicon surface

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Matteo; Bertani, Federico; Tudisco, Cristina; Malavolti, Luigi; Poggini, Lorenzo; Misztal, Kasjan; Menozzi, Daniela; Motta, Alessandro; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe; Sainctavit, Philippe; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.; Dalcanale, Enrico; Sessoli, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are among the most promising molecular systems for the development of novel molecular electronics based on the spin transport. Going beyond the investigations focused on physisorbed SMMs, in this work the robust grafting of Terbium(III) bis(phthalocyaninato) complexes to silicon surface from a diluted solution is achieved by rational chemical design yielding the formation of a partially oriented monolayer on the conducting substrate. Here, by exploiting the surface sensitivity of X-ray circular magnetic dichroism we evidence an enhancement of the magnetic bistability of this single-molecule magnet, in contrast to the dramatic reduction of the magnetic hysteresis that characterises monolayer deposits evaporated on noble and ferromagnetic metals. Photoelectron spectroscopy investigations and density functional theory analysis suggest a non-innocent role played by the silicon substrate, evidencing the potentiality of this approach for robust integration of bistable magnetic molecules in electronic devices. PMID:25109254

  11. Surface plasmon polaritons in a composite system of porous silicon and gold

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, J. S.; Goryachev, D. N.; Ken, O. S. Sreseli, O. M.

    2015-04-15

    A composite system of silicon quantum dots and gold particles with properties periodically changing along the surface (i.e., a system exhibiting the properties of a diffraction grating) is obtained by a one-step metal-assisted chemical etching. The spectral and angular dependences of the photoresponse for the composite system on single-crystal silicon are studied. The photoresponse peaks were observed, which behavior (the dependence on the parameters of the diffraction grating, wavelength and incidence angles of light) is attributed to the excitation of plasmon-polariton modes at the surface of the composite system with the diffraction grating. At the same time, the obtained values of the wave vectors for these modes are smaller than those calculated for plasmon polaritons excited at the interface between air and metal (gold) diffraction grating.

  12. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Luo, Guanghong; Diao, Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-04-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3×ω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ~2 µm in SF6 gas and to ~5 µm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (~10×) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits.

  13. Wurtzite-Phased InP Micropillars Grown on Silicon with Low Surface Recombination Velocity.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Sun, Hao; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-11-11

    The direct growth of III-V nanostructures on silicon has shown great promise in the integration of optoelectronics with silicon-based technologies. Our previous work showed that scaling up nanostructures to microsize while maintaining high quality heterogeneous integration opens a pathway toward a complete photonic integrated circuit and high-efficiency cost-effective solar cells. In this paper, we present a thorough material study of novel metastable InP micropillars monolithically grown on silicon, focusing on two enabling aspects of this technology-the stress relaxation mechanism at the heterogeneous interface and the microstructure surface quality. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy studies show that InP grows directly on silicon without any amorphous layer in between. A set of periodic dislocations was found at the heterointerface, relaxing the 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. Single crystalline InP therefore can grow on top of the fully relaxed template, yielding high-quality micropillars with diameters expanding beyond 1 μm. An interesting power-dependence trend of carrier recombination lifetimes was captured for these InP micropillars at room temperature, for the first time for micro/nanostructures. By simply combining internal quantum efficiency with carrier lifetime, we revealed the recombination dynamics of nonradiative and radiative portions separately. A very low surface recombination velocity of 1.1 × 10(3) cm/sec was obtained. In addition, we experimentally estimated the radiative recombination B coefficient of 2.0 × 10(-10) cm(3)/sec for pure wurtzite-phased InP. These values are comparable with those obtained from InP bulk. Exceeding the limits of conventional nanowires, our InP micropillars combine the strengths of both nanostructures and bulk materials and will provide an avenue in heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductor materials onto silicon platforms.

  14. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    SciTech Connect

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-04-13

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of

  15. Interaction of ? molecules with silicon surfaces and the formation of SiC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Chen, Dong

    1996-06-01

    We report on the results of an investigation of the interaction of submonolayers, monolayers, and multilayers of 0957-4484/7/2/009/img2 molecules with Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces at a variety of temperatures. The results shed light on the mechanism of the formation of SiC films from the decomposition of 0957-4484/7/2/009/img2 molecules at elevated temperatures, and the interaction of the released carbon atoms with the silicon substrate.

  16. Formation of Primary Amines on Silicon Nitride Surfaces: a Direct, Plasma-Based Pathway to Functionalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-19

    radio frequency glow discharge plasma fed with humidified air was examined by reaction with an amine-specific molecular label, fluorinated benzaldehyde ...nm of silicon nitride were purchased from Lance Goddard Associates (Foster City, CA). Glutaraldehyde, 4-(trifluoromethyl) benzaldehyde (TFMB...track the formation of primary amines on the surface with sub-monolayer sensitivity, a more easily detectable label is required. Benzaldehydes are known

  17. Design and fabrication of non silicon substrate based MEMS energy harvester for arbitrary surface applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balpande, Suresh S.; Pande, Rajesh S.

    2016-04-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) uses MEMS sensor nodes and actuators to sense and control objects through Internet. IOT deploys millions of chemical battery driven sensors at different locations which are not reliable many times because of frequent requirement of charging & battery replacement in case of underground laying, placement at harsh environmental conditions, huge count and difference between demand (24 % per year) and availability (energy density growing rate 8% per year). Energy harvester fabricated on silicon wafers have been widely used in manufacturing MEMS structures. These devices require complex fabrication processes, costly chemicals & clean room. In addition to this silicon wafer based devices are not suitable for curved surfaces like pipes, human bodies, organisms, or other arbitrary surface like clothes, structure surfaces which does not have flat and smooth surface always. Therefore, devices based on rigid silicon wafers are not suitable for these applications. Flexible structures are the key solution for this problems. Energy transduction mechanism generates power from free surrounding vibrations or impact. Sensor nodes application has been purposefully selected due to discrete power requirement at low duty cycle. Such nodes require an average power budget in the range of about 0.1 microwatt to 1 mW over a period of 3-5 seconds. Energy harvester is the best alternate source in contrast with battery for sensor node application. Novel design of Energy Harvester based on cheapest flexible non silicon substrate i.e. cellulose acetate substrate have been modeled, simulated and analyzed on COMSOL multiphysics and fabricated using sol-gel spin coating setup. Single cantilever based harvester generates 60-75 mV peak electric potential at 22Hz frequency and approximately 22 µW power at 1K-Ohm load. Cantilever array can be employed for generating higher voltage by replicating this structure. This work covers design, optimization, fabrication of harvester and

  18. Enantioselective extraction mediated by a chiral cavitand-salen covalently assembled on a porous silicon surface.

    PubMed

    D'Urso, Alessandro; Tudisco, Cristina; Ballistreri, Francesco P; Condorelli, Guglielmo G; Randazzo, Rosalba; Tomaselli, Gaetano A; Toscano, Rosa M; Trusso Sfrazzetto, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Andrea

    2014-05-21

    A chiral organic-inorganic hybrid material, based on a porous silicon surface functionalized with a chiral cavitand, was designed and synthesized. The affinity of this device in water toward a bromine-marked alkyl-ammonium salt has been evaluated using XPS detection. UV and CD measurements highlight the enantioselective extraction from a racemic mixture in water of the S-enantiomer of the selected guest (ee ≥ 80%).

  19. Binding of copper to nanocavity surfaces in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Bishop, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    We demonstrate that nanometer-scale voids within Si, formed by He ion implantation and annealing, trap Cu atoms with a binding energy of 2.2 {plus_minus} 0.2 eV relative to solution. This trapping saturates at a level consistent with monolayer coverage of the cavity walls, and it is ascribed to the reaction of Cu with Si dangling bonds on the internal surfaces. Our experiments also confirm the previously reported solution enthalpy of Cu in /Si relative to precipitated Cu{sub 3}Si, 1.7 eV, so that the binding at cavity traps is stronger. It is proposed that nanocavities may provide superior gettering of metallic impurities in Si.

  20. Computational Study of Field Initiated Surface Reactions for Synthesis of Diamond and Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Charles Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This project involves using quantum chemistry to simulate surface chemical reactions in the presence of an electric field for nanofabrication of diamond and silicon. A field delivered by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to a nanometer scale region of a surface affects chemical reaction potential energy surfaces (PES) to direct atomic scale surface modification to fabricate sub-nanometer structures. Our original hypothesis is that the applied voltage polarizes the charge distribution of the valence electrons and that these distorted molecular orbitals can be manipulated with the STM so as to change the relative stabilities of the electronic configurations over the reaction coordinates and thus the topology of the PES and reaction kinetics. Our objective is to investigate the effect of applied bias on surface reactions and the extent to which STM delivered fields can be used to direct surface chemical reactions on an atomic scale on diamond and silicon. To analyze the fundamentals of field induced chemistry and to investigate the application of this technique for the fabrication of nanostructures, we have employed methods capable of accurately describing molecular electronic structure. The methods we employ are density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical (QC) methods. To determine the effect of applied bias on surface reactions we have calculated the QC PESs in various applied external fields for various reaction steps for depositing or etching diamond and silicon. We have chosen reactions which are thought to play a role in etching and the chemical vapor deposition growth of Si and diamond. The PESs of the elementary reaction steps involved are then calculated under the applied fields, which we vary in magnitude and configuration. We pay special attention to the change in the reaction barriers, and transition state locations, and search for low energy reaction channels which were inaccessible without the applied bias.

  1. Silicon nanowires as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Jae Hong; Son, Eun Jin; Park, Chan Beum

    2012-11-01

    We report a new possible application of hydrogen-terminated silicon nanowires (H-SiNWs) as a rechargeable template for hydride transfer in redox biocatalysis. H-SiNWs transfer hydride efficiently to regenerate NADH by oxidizing Si-Hx bonds. The oxidized H-SiNWs were readily recharged for the continuous regeneration of NADH and enzymatic reactions.

  2. Investigation of surface passivation schemes for p-type monocrystalline silicon solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Momtazur; Udoy, Ariful Banna

    2016-10-01

    This paper represents an experiment to analyze the dark saturation current densities of passivated surfaces for monocrystalline silicon solar cells. The samples are diffused at peak temperatures of 800-950 °C. Basically, symmetrical lifetime samples with different doping profiles are prepared with alkaline textured and saw damage etched (planar) surfaces. After POCl3 diffusion, the phosphorous silicate glass layers are removed in a wet chemical etching step. Several designs are chosen for the determination of the sheet resistance ( R sh), the concentration profile for excess charge carrier and the minority carrier effective lifetime of the diffused surfaces. The dark saturation current densities ( J o ) and the doping profiles are determined accordingly via quasi-steady state photoconductance decay measurement and electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurement. Three different passivation schemes are investigated as follows: silicon nitride (SiN x ) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, silicon-rich oxynitride (SiriO x N y ) capped with a PECVD SiN x layer, and thin thermally grown oxide, capped with a PECVD SiN x layer.

  3. Study of the thermal effect on silicon surface induced by ion beam from plasma focus device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Z.; Ahmad, M.; Al-Hawat, Sh.; Akel, M.

    2017-04-01

    Structural modifications in form of ripples and cracks are induced by nitrogen ions from plasma focus on silicon surface. The investigation of such structures reveals correlation between ripples and cracks formation in peripheral region of the melt spot. The reason of such correlation and structure formation is explained as result of thermal effect. Melting and resolidification of the center of irradiated area occur within one micro second of time. This is supported by a numerical simulation used to investigate the thermal effect induced by the plasma focus ion beams on the silicon surface. This simulation provides information about the temperature profile as well as the dynamic of the thermal propagation in depth and lateral directions. In accordance with the experimental observations, that ripples are formed in latter stage after the arrival of last ion, the simulation shows that the thermal relaxation takes place in few microseconds after the end of the ion beam arrival. Additionally, the dependency of thermal propagation and relaxation on the distance of the silicon surface from the anode is presented.

  4. Three-dimensional immobilization of beta-galactosidase on a silicon surface.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Lorena; Luckarift, Heather R; Seo, Jae H; Brand, Oliver; Spain, Jim C

    2008-02-01

    Many alternative strategies to immobilize and stabilize enzymes have been investigated in recent years for applications in biosensors. The entrapment of enzymes within silica-based nanospheres formed through silicification reactions provides high loading capacities for enzyme immobilization, resulting in high volumetric activity and enhanced mechanical stability. Here we report a strategy for chemically associating silica nanospheres containing entrapped enzyme to a silicon support. beta-galactosidase from E. coli was used as a model enzyme due to its versatility as a biosensor for lactose. The immobilization strategy resulted in a three-dimensional network of silica attached directly at the silicon surface, providing a significant increase in surface area and a corresponding 3.5-fold increase in enzyme loading compared to enzyme attached directly at the surface. The maximum activity recovered for a silicon square sample of 0.5 x 0.5 cm was 0.045 IU using the direct attachment of the enzyme through glutaraldehyde and 0.16 IU when using silica nanospheres. The immobilized beta-galactosidase prepared by silica deposition was stable and retained more than 80% of its initial activity after 10 days at 24 degrees C. The ability to generate three-dimensional structures with enhanced loading capacity for biosensing molecules offers the potential to substantially amplify biosensor sensitivity.

  5. Cell adhesion response on femtosecond laser initiated liquid assisted silicon surface.

    PubMed

    Ulmeanu, M; Sima, L E; Ursescu, D; Enculescu, M; Bazan, X; Quintana, I

    2014-03-01

    Silicon substrates were irradiated at normal incidence with a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (Quatronix, 90 fs pulse duration, 1 kHz repetition rate, M(2) ~ 1.2, maximum energy peak 350 mJ ) operating at a wavelength of 400 nm and focused via a microscope objective (Newport; UV Objective Model, 37x 0.11 N.A.). The laser scanning was assisted by liquids precursors media such as methanol and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane. By altering the processing parameters, such as incident laser energy, scanning speed, and different irradiation media, various surface structures were produced on areas with 1 mm(2) dimensions. We analyzed the dependence of the surface morphology on laser pulse energy, scanning speed and irradiation media. Well ordered areas are developed without imposing any boundary conditions for the capillary waves that coarsens the ripple pattern. To assess biomaterial-driven cell adhesion response we investigated actin filaments organization and cell morphological changes following growth onto processed silicon substrates. Our study of bone cell progenitor interaction with laser nanoprocessed silicon lines has shown that cells anchor mainly to contact points along the nanostructured surface. Consequently, actin filaments are stretched towards the 15 µm wide parallel lines increasing lateral cell spreading and changing the bipolar shape of mesenchymal stem cells.

  6. Anomalous Seebeck coefficient observed in silicon nanowire micro thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, S.; Asada, S.; Xu, T.; Oba, S.; Himeda, Y.; Yamato, R.; Matsukawa, T.; Matsuki, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2017-07-01

    We have found experimentally an anomalous thermoelectric characteristic of an n-type Si nanowire micro thermoelectric generator (μTEG). The μTEG is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer by electron beam lithography and dry etching, and its surface is covered with a thermally grown silicon dioxide film. The observed thermoelectric current is opposite to what is expected from the Seebeck coefficient of n-type Si. The result is understandable by considering a potential barrier in the nanowire. Upon the application of the temperature gradient across the nanowire, the potential barrier impedes the diffusion of thermally activated majority carriers into the nanowire, and it rather stimulates the injection of thermally generated minority carriers. The most plausible origin of the potential barrier is negative charges trapped at the interface between the Si nanowire and the oxide film. We practically confirmed that the normal Seebeck coefficient of the n-type Si nanowire is recovered after the hydrogen forming gas annealing. This implies that the interface traps are diminished by the hydrogen termination of bonding defects. The present results show the importance of the surface inactivation treatment of μTEGs to suppress the potential barrier and unfavorable contribution of minority carriers.

  7. Fabrication of Silicon Nanobelts and Nanopillars by Soft Lithography for Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Photonic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Baquedano, Estela; Martinez, Ramses V.; Llorens, José M.; Postigo, Pablo A.

    2017-01-01

    Soft lithography allows for the simple and low-cost fabrication of nanopatterns with different shapes and sizes over large areas. However, the resolution and the aspect ratio of the nanostructures fabricated by soft lithography are limited by the depth and the physical properties of the stamp. In this work, silicon nanobelts and nanostructures were achieved by combining soft nanolithography patterning with optimized reactive ion etching (RIE) in silicon. Using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanopatterned layers with thicknesses ranging between 14 and 50 nm, we obtained silicon nanobelts in areas of square centimeters with aspect ratios up to ~1.6 and linewidths of 225 nm. The soft lithographic process was assisted by a thin film of SiOx (less than 15 nm) used as a hard mask and RIE. This simple patterning method was also used to fabricate 2D nanostructures (nanopillars) with aspect ratios of ~2.7 and diameters of ~200 nm. We demonstrate that large areas patterned with silicon nanobelts exhibit a high reflectivity peak in the ultraviolet C (UVC) spectral region (280 nm) where some aminoacids and peptides have a strong absorption. We also demonstrated how to tailor the aspect ratio and the wettability of these photonic surfaces (contact angles ranging from 8.1 to 96.2°) by changing the RIE power applied during the fabrication process. PMID:28492474

  8. Observation of free surface-induced bending upon nanopatterning of ultrathin strained silicon layer.

    PubMed

    Moutanabbir, Oussama; Reiche, Manfred; Zakharov, Nikolai; Naumann, Falk; Petzold, Matthias

    2011-01-28

    We provide evidence of nanopatterning-induced bending of an ultrathin tensile strained silicon layer directly on oxide. This strained layer is achieved through the epitaxial growth of silicon on a Si(0.84)Ge(0.16) virtual substrate and subsequent transfer onto a SiO(2)-capped silicon substrate by combining hydrophilic wafer bonding and the ion-cut process. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we found that the upper face of the strained silicon nanostructures fabricated from the obtained heterostructure using electron beam lithography and dry reactive ion etching displays a concave shape. This bending results from the free-surface-induced strain relaxation, which implies lattice out-of-plane expansion near the edges and concomitant contraction at the center. For a ∼ 110 nm × 400 nm × 20 nm nanostructure, the bending is associated with an angle of 1.5° between the [Formula: see text] vertical atomic planes at the edges of the ∼ 110 nm side. No bending is, however, observed at the strained Si/SiO(2) interface. This phenomenon cannot be explained by the classical Stoney's formula or related formulations developed for nanoscale thin films. Here we employed a continuum mechanical approach to describe these observations using three-dimensional numerical calculations of relaxation-induced lattice displacements.

  9. Fabrication of Silicon Nanobelts and Nanopillars by Soft Lithography for Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Photonic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Baquedano, Estela; Martinez, Ramses V; Llorens, José M; Postigo, Pablo A

    2017-05-11

    Soft lithography allows for the simple and low-cost fabrication of nanopatterns with different shapes and sizes over large areas. However, the resolution and the aspect ratio of the nanostructures fabricated by soft lithography are limited by the depth and the physical properties of the stamp. In this work, silicon nanobelts and nanostructures were achieved by combining soft nanolithography patterning with optimized reactive ion etching (RIE) in silicon. Using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanopatterned layers with thicknesses ranging between 14 and 50 nm, we obtained silicon nanobelts in areas of square centimeters with aspect ratios up to ~1.6 and linewidths of 225 nm. The soft lithographic process was assisted by a thin film of SiOx (less than 15 nm) used as a hard mask and RIE. This simple patterning method was also used to fabricate 2D nanostructures (nanopillars) with aspect ratios of ~2.7 and diameters of ~200 nm. We demonstrate that large areas patterned with silicon nanobelts exhibit a high reflectivity peak in the ultraviolet C (UVC) spectral region (280 nm) where some aminoacids and peptides have a strong absorption. We also demonstrated how to tailor the aspect ratio and the wettability of these photonic surfaces (contact angles ranging from 8.1 to 96.2°) by changing the RIE power applied during the fabrication process.

  10. Preparation of rich handles soft cellulosic fabric using amino silicone based softener. Part-I: Surface smoothness and softness properties.

    PubMed

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabassum, Shazia; Barkaat-ul-Hasin, Syed; Zuber, Mohammad; Jamil, Tahir; Jamal, Muhammad Asghar

    2011-04-01

    A series of amino silicone based softeners with different emulsifiers were prepared and adsorbed onto the surfaces of cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics. Factors affecting the performance properties of the finished substrate such as post-treatment with amino functional silicone based softener varying different emulsifiers in their formulations and its concentration on different processed fabrics were studied. Fixation of the amino-functional silicone softener onto/or within the cellulose structure is accompanied by the formation of semi-inter-penetrated network structure thereby enhancing both the extent of crosslinking and networking as well as providing very high softness. The results of the experiments indicate that the amino silicone can form a hydrophobic film on both cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics and its coating reduces the surface roughness significantly. Furthermore, the roughness becomes lesser with an increase in the applied strength of amino silicone based softener.

  11. Large spin splitting of metallic surface-state bands at adsorbate-modified gold/silicon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, L. V.; Gruznev, D. V.; Yakovlev, A. A.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Usachov, D.; Vilkov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Eremeev, S. V.; Chulkov, E. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Finding appropriate systems with a large spin splitting of metallic surface-state band which can be fabricated on silicon using routine technique is an essential step in combining Rashba-effect based spintronics with silicon technology. We have found that originally poor structural and electronic properties of the surface can be substantially improved by adsorbing small amounts of suitable species (e.g., Tl, In, Na, Cs). The resultant surfaces exhibit a highly-ordered atomic structure and spin-split metallic surface-state band with a momentum splitting of up to 0.052 Å−1 and an energy splitting of up to 190 meV at the Fermi level. The family of adsorbate-modified surfaces, on the one hand, is thought to be a fascinating playground for exploring spin-splitting effects in the metal monolayers on a semiconductor and, on the other hand, expands greatly the list of material systems prospective for spintronics applications. PMID:23661151

  12. Large spin splitting of metallic surface-state bands at adsorbate-modified gold/silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, L V; Gruznev, D V; Yakovlev, A A; Tupchaya, A Y; Usachov, D; Vilkov, O; Fedorov, A; Vyalikh, D V; Eremeev, S V; Chulkov, E V; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Finding appropriate systems with a large spin splitting of metallic surface-state band which can be fabricated on silicon using routine technique is an essential step in combining Rashba-effect based spintronics with silicon technology. We have found that originally poor structural and electronic properties of the Au/Si(111) √3 x √3 surface can be substantially improved by adsorbing small amounts of suitable species (e.g., Tl, In, Na, Cs). The resultant surfaces exhibit a highly-ordered atomic structure and spin-split metallic surface-state band with a momentum splitting of up to 0.052 Å(-1) and an energy splitting of up to 190 meV at the Fermi level. The family of adsorbate-modified Au/Si(111) √3 x √3 surfaces, on the one hand, is thought to be a fascinating playground for exploring spin-splitting effects in the metal monolayers on a semiconductor and, on the other hand, expands greatly the list of material systems prospective for spintronics applications.

  13. Structure and surface correlations to the optical properties of nonthermal plasma-produced silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Rebecca Joy

    Nanomaterials have diverse capabilities to enable new technology and to deepen our understanding of our world, providing exciting prospects for scientists and the public alike in a vast span of uses. In the past decade, however, the potential held by nanotechnology has been reframed