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Sample records for hydrogenophaga intermedia s1

  1. 4-sulfomuconolactone hydrolases from Hydrogenophaga intermedia S1 and Agrobacterium radiobacter S2.

    PubMed

    Halak, Sad; Basta, Tamara; Bürger, Sibylle; Contzen, Matthias; Wray, Victor; Pieper, Dietmar Helmut; Stolz, Andreas

    2007-10-01

    The 4-carboxymethylen-4-sulfo-but-2-en-olide (4-sulfomuconolactone) hydrolases from Hydrogenophaga intermedia strain S1 and Agrobacterium radiobacter strain S2 are part of a modified protocatechuate pathway responsible for the degradation of 4-sulfocatechol. In both strains, the hydrolase-encoding genes occur downstream of those encoding the enzymes that catalyze the lactonization of 3-sulfomuconate. The deduced amino acid sequences of the 4-sulfomuconolactone hydrolases demonstrated the highest degree of sequence identity to 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolases, which take part in the meta cleavage pathway of protocatechuate. The 4-sulfomuconolactone hydrolases did not convert 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate, and the 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 did not convert 4-sulfomuconolactone. Nevertheless, the presence of highly conserved histidine residues in the 4-sulfomuconolactone and the 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolases and some further sequence similarities suggested that both enzymes belong to the metallo-dependent hydrolases (the "amidohydrolase superfamily"). The 4-sulfomuconolactone hydrolases were heterologously expressed as His-tagged enzyme variants. Gel filtration experiments suggested that the enzymes are present as monomers in solution, with molecular weights of approximately 33,000 to 35,000. 4-Sulfomuconolactone was converted by sulfomuconolactone hydrolases to stoichiometric amounts of maleylacetate and sulfite. The 4-sulfomuconolactone hydrolases from both strains showed pH optima at pH 7 to 7.5 and rather similar catalytic constant (k(cat)/K(M))values. The suggested 4-sulfocatechol pathway from 4-sulfocatechol to maleylacetate was confirmed by in situ nuclear magnetic resonance analysis using the recombinantly expressed enzymes.

  2. Characterization of the genes encoding the 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate-lactonizing enzymes from the 4-sulfocatechol degradative pathways of Hydrogenophaga intermedia S1 and Agrobacterium radiobacter S2.

    PubMed

    Halak, Sad; Basta, Tamara; Bürger, Sibylle; Contzen, Matthias; Stolz, Andreas

    2006-11-01

    Hydrogenophaga intermedia strain S1 and Agrobacterium radiobacter strain S2 form a mixed bacterial culture which degrades sulfanilate (4-aminobenzenesulfonate) by a novel variation of the beta-ketoadipate pathway via 4-sulfocatechol and 3-sulfomuconate. It was previously proposed that the further metabolism of 3-sulfomuconate is catalysed by modified 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate-lactonizing enzymes (CMLEs) and that these 'type 2' enzymes were different from the conventional CMLEs ('type 1') from the protocatechuate pathway in their ability to convert 3-sulfomuconate in addition to 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. In the present study the genes for two CMLEs (pcaB2S1 and pcaB2S2) were cloned from H. intermedia S1 and A. radiobacter S2, respectively. In both strains, these genes were located close to the previously identified genes encoding the 4-sulfocatechol-converting enzymes. The gene products of pcaB2S1 and pcaB2S2 were therefore tentatively identified as type 2 enzymes involved in the metabolism of 3-sulfomuconate. The genes were functionally expressed and the gene products were shown to convert 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate and 3-sulfomuconate. 4-Carboxymethylene-4-sulfo-but-2-en-olide (4-sulfomuconolactone) was identified by HPLC-MS as the product, which was enzymically formed from 3-sulfomuconate. His-tagged variants of both CMLEs were purified and compared with the CMLE from the protocatechuate pathway of Pseudomonas putida PRS2000 for the conversion of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate and 3-sulfomuconate. The CMLEs from the 4-sulfocatechol pathway converted 3-sulfomuconate with considerably higher activities than 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. Also the CMLE from P. putida converted 3-sulfomuconate, but this enzyme demonstrated a clear preference for 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate as substrate. Thus it was demonstrated that in the 4-sulfocatechol pathway, distinct CMLEs are formed, which are specifically adapted for the preferred conversion of sulfonated substrates.

  3. Description of Hydrogenophaga laconesensis sp. nov. isolated from tube well water.

    PubMed

    Mantri, Soniya; Chinthalagiri, Mohan Rao; Gundlapally, Sathyanarayana Reddy

    2016-09-01

    A light cream color colony was isolated, using oligotrophic LB agar medium, from a water sample collected from a tube well and designated as HWB-10(T). Cells of strain HWB-10(T) were Gram-negative, motile rods, non-spore forming, positive for catalase, oxidase, nitrate reduction and esculin. The predominant fatty acids were C16:0, summed feature 4 (C16:1 ω7c/iso-C15:0 2-OH) and summed feature 7 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω9t and/or C18:1 ω12t), and the major ubiquinone was Q-8. NCBI-BLAST- and EzTaxon-based 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity search identified strain HWB-10(T) as a member of the genus Hydrogenophaga and H. atypica DSM 15342(T), H. defulvi DSM 15341(T), H. palleronii LMG2366(T) and H. taeniospiralis LMG7170(T) being the nearest phylogenetic species with a similarity (%) of 99.3, 99.1, 98.4 and 98.2, respectively, while the similarity was <98.0 % with other species of the genus. However, DNA-DNA similarities between HWB-10(T) and H. atypica DSM 15342(T) and H. defulvi DSM 15341(T) were 37.0 and 43.0 %, respectively, indicating that strain HWB-10(T) is a novel species. Further, the DNA fingerprinting, based on BOX-, ERIC-, (GTG)5- and REP-PCR amplifications, distinguished strain HWB-10(T) from its closest species, H. atypica DSM 15342(T) and H. defulvi DSM 15341(T) with similarity coefficients of 0.45 and 0.37, respectively, a value sufficient to establish the species status within the genus Hydrogenophaga. In addition, strain HWB-10(T) exhibited several phenotypic differences with its closely related species. Based on the above cumulative differentiating characteristics, strain HWB-10(T) was identified as a new species of the genus Hydrogenophaga and proposed as Hydrogenophaga laconesensis sp. nov. with strain HWB-10(T) (KTCC 42478(T) = LMG 28681(T)) as its type strain. PMID:27105873

  4. [Current management of thalassemia intermedia].

    PubMed

    Thuret, I

    2014-11-01

    Thalassemia intermedia is a clinical entity where anemia is mild or moderate, requiring no or occasional transfusion. Non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia encompasses 3 main clinical forms: beta-thalassemia intermedia, hemoglobin E/beta-thalassemia and alpha-thalassemia intermedia (HbH disease). Clinical severity of thalassemia intermedia increases with age, with more severe anemia and more frequent complications such as extramedullary hematopoiesis and iron overload mainly related to increased intestinal absorption. Numerous adverse events including pulmonary hypertension and hypercoagulability have been associated with splenectomy, often performed in thalassemia intermedia patients. The potential preventive benefit of transfusion and chelation therapies on the occurrence of numerous complications supports the strategy of an earlier therapeutic intervention. Increasing knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms involved in thalassemia erythropoiesis and related iron overload is currently translating in novel therapeutic approaches.

  5. The double massa intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Baydin, Serhat; Gungor, Abuzer; Baran, Oguz; Tanriover, Necmettin; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To describe the rare finding of a double massa intermedia (MI). Typically, the MI (interthalamic adhesion) is a single bridge of gray matter connecting the medial surfaces of the thalami. Methods: Twelve formalin- and alcohol-fixed human third ventricles were examined from superior to inferior by fiber dissection technique under ×6 to ×40 magnifications and with the endoscope. Results: In all hemispheres, the anterior and posterior commissure were defined. The MI, which bridges the medial surfaces of the thalami, was defined in all hemispheres. In one hemisphere, there was a second bridge between the thalami, located posteroinferior to the common MI. Endoscopic view confirmed that there was a second MI in this specimen. The MI usually traverses the third ventricle posterior to the foramen of Monro and connects the paired thalami. The MI is an important landmark during endoscopic and microscopic surgeries of the third ventricle. Although a double MI is very rare, surgeons should be aware of the possibility in their surgical planning. Conclusion: The surgeon should be aware of the possibility of a double MI to avoid confusion during third ventricle surgery. PMID:27127695

  6. Legal and institutional aspects of regulating intermedia pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Entman, R.M.

    1980-05-01

    Intermedia pollution is defined here as the creation of new environmental impacts by controlling existing ones. DOE asked four questions: (1) do the major environmental laws address intermedia pollution; (2) does the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have rules, regulations, and procedures through which it considers intermedia questions; (3) do the legislative histories of the laws indicate whether Congress intended for the EPA to consider intermedia issues; and (4) in what ways do the existing laws and regulatory procedures exacerbate intermedia pollution. The answer to the first three questions is yes; much of this report is devoted to amplifying and qualifying that response, the rest to answering the fourth question. The report frames these issues by asking how we can control the adverse environmental i.e., intermedia, impacts of EPA itself. A case study of the intermedia implications of recently issued air-pollution standards for coal-fired power plants illustrates the themes concretely. An analysis of policy alternatives for improving intermedia pollution control concludes the study. The major problems impending good intermedia policy decisions are: conflicts among and failures fully to implement environmental laws; political pressures; tendencies of EPA to minimize the adverse environmental consequences of its own actions; uncertainties caused by the rudimentary scientific understanding of intermedia pollution; and limitations on EPA's organizational ability to handle whatever complex intermedia information it does obtain. The final chapter assesses three policy responses to these problems: do nothing new; issue an incremental prod; and a new law and EPA suffice. Evaluation of these alternatives depends on how deficient current practices are thought to be.

  7. Use of Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava penetration to quantitatively assess the impact of filtration parameters for 0.2-micrometer-pore-size filters.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; McVey, J; Faustino, P; Lute, S; Sweeney, N; Pawar, V; Khan, M; Brorson, K; Hussong, D

    2010-02-01

    Filters rated as having a 0.2-microm pore size (0.2-microm-rated filters) are used in laboratory and manufacturing settings for diverse applications of bacterial and particle removal from process fluids, analytical test articles, and gasses. Using Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava, a diminutive bacterium with an unusual geometry (i.e., it is very thin), we evaluated passage through 0.2-microm-rated filters and the impact of filtration process parameters and bacterial challenge density. We show that consistent H. pseudoflava passage occurs through 0.2-microm-rated filters. This is in contrast to an absence of significant passage of nutritionally challenged bacteria that are of similar size (i.e., hydrodynamic diameter) but dissimilar geometry. PMID:19966023

  8. Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of iron chelators against Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Cheul; Lee, Hee-Su; Kim, Sung-Woon; Lee, Jin-Yong

    2013-09-01

    Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathogen, has been shown to be resistant to many antibiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of the FDA-approved iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFRA) against planktonic and biofilm cells of P. intermedia in order to evaluate the possibility of using these iron chelators as alternative control agents against P. intermedia. DFRA showed strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC values of 0.16 mg ml(-1)) against planktonic P. intermedia. At subMICs, DFRA partially inhibited the bacterial growth and considerably prolonged the bacterial doubling time. DFO was unable to completely inhibit the bacterial growth in the concentration range tested and was not bactericidal. Crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that DFRA significantly decreased the biofilm-forming activity as well as the biofilm formation, while DFO was less effective. DFRA was chosen for further study. In the ATP-bioluminescent assay, which reflects viable cell counts, subMICs of DFRA significantly decreased the bioactivity of biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. Under the scanning electron microscope, P. intermedia cells in DFRA-treated biofilm were significantly elongated compared to those in untreated biofilm. Further experiments are necessary to show that iron chelators may be used as a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease. PMID:23329319

  9. [Lysogeny among "Yersinia frederiksenii", "Y. kristensenii" and "Y. intermedia"].

    PubMed

    Calvo, C; Brault, J

    1983-01-01

    We described the lysogeny among new species of Yersinia: Y. frederiksenii (47 strains), Y. kristensenii (57 strains) and Y. intermedia (133 strains). We found that 6.3% of the strains of Y. frederiksenii, 3.5% of Y. kristensenii and 2.2% of Y. intermedia were lysogenic for bacteriophages active on Y. enterocolitica (mainly the phenotypes incriminated in human pathology) and less frequently lysogenic for some strains of Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. intermedia. One bacteriophage, isolated from the strain Y. frederiksenii 7291, should allow to discriminate between Y. enterocolitica phagovar IXa (susceptible) and IXb (resistant), and between the strains of Y. enterocolitica belonging to phagovar Xz and serovar 5 either biovar 1 (sometimes susceptible) or biovar 3 (always resistant).

  10. Severe thalassaemia intermedia with multiple fractures: role of transfusion therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saqib Qayyum; Iqbal, Mudassar; Wahla, Madiha Saeed; Tarrar, Aimel Munir

    2011-11-01

    Thalassaemia intermedia includes thalassaemias with clinical severity intermediate between asymptomatic thalassaemia minor and transfusion dependent thalassaemia major. By definition patients of thalassaemia intermedia maintain a haemoglobin level of 7-10 g/dl and do not, or only occasionally, require blood transfusion. An eight-year-old girl who was a known case of thalassaemia intermedia and had been occasionally transfused presented with fever, pain and swelling over the wrists, ankles and above the right knee joint. Radiographs showed medullary widening, cortical thinning and; multiple, recent and old, partially healed fractures of metadiaphseal regions of long bones. Her fractures have been immobilized by means of back slabs. In view of her recurrent fractures and growth retardation we advised a regular transfusion-chelation regimen to our patient to suppress her ineffective dyserythropoiesis. The treatment is expected to prevent further bone fragility and fractures, as well as improve her life quality. PMID:22125999

  11. β-Thalassemia Intermedia: A Bird’s-Eye View

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anthony; Tyan, Paul; Radwan, Amr; Mallat, Naji; Taher, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is due to a defect in the synthesis of the beta-globin chains, leading to alpha/beta imbalance, ineffective erythropoiesis, and chronic anemia. The spectrum of thalassemias is wide, with one end comprising thalassemia minor, which consists of a mild hypochromic microcytic anemia with no obvious clinical manifestations, while on the other end is thalassemia major, characterized by patients who present in their first years of life with profound anemia and regular transfusion requirements for survival. Along the spectrum lies thalassemia intermedia, a term developed to describe patients with manifestations that are neither mild enough nor severe enough to be classified in the spectrum’s extremes. Over the past decade, our understanding of β-thalassemia intermedia has increased tremendously with regards to molecular information as well as pathophysiology. It is now clear that β-thalassemia intermedia has a clinical presentation as well as complications associated with the disease that are different from those of β-thalassemia major. This review is designed to tackle issues related to β-thalassemia intermedia from the basic definition of the disease to paramedical issues, namely the quality of life in these patients. Genetics and pathophysiology are revisited, as well as the complications specific to this disease. These complications include effects on several organ systems, including the cardiovascular, hepatic, endocrine, renal, brain, and skeletal systems. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is also discussed in this article. Risk factors are highlighted and cutoffs are identified to minimize morbidities in β-thalassemia intermedia. Several treatment modalities are considered by shining a light on the pros and cons of each modality, as well as the role of special pharmacological agents in the progress of the disease and its morbidities. Finally, health-related quality of life is discussed in these patients with a direct comparison to the more severe

  12. Coccinia intermedia – a new Cucurbitaceae species from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Holstein, Norbert; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nuclear and plastid sequences from two individuals of a suspected new species of Coccinia from West Africa were added to an available molecular phylogeny for the remaining 27 species of the genus. Phylogenetic analyses of these data indicate the new species' monophyletic status and closest relatives. Based on four fertile collections, we here describe and illustrate Coccinia intermedia Holstein. We also provide a key to the Coccinia species of West Africa and map their distributions. PMID:22287923

  13. Silent cerebral infarct in child patients with beta thalassaemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Leblebisatan, Göksel; Bay, Ali; Sirikci, Akif; Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Sonmezisik, Serdar; Leblebisatan, Serife; Baspinar, Osman; Dogan, Mustafa; Yis, Uluc

    2012-10-01

    There are numerous reports that patients with thalassemia are faced with hypercoagulability leading to vascular disorders. One of these complications is known as a silent infarct, defined as a small infarct detected by cerebral imaging but without any neurological symptoms. Since it has a progressive nature, it is of vital importance because it may lead to symptomatic cerebrovascular accidents in the future. Twenty-two children with thalassemia intermedia were enrolled into the study and MRI scans were performed. All demographic data and clinical features of the patients were obtained during the follow-up period. In addition to the patients, 13 healthy controls were included to compare serum anticoagulant levels with those of the thalassemia intermedia patients. Four of the patients were found to have silent cerebral infarcts (SCIs). The lesions involved varying amounts of the deep cerebral white matter and sub-cortical areas. One patient showed 'net line' filling defects within the ambient cistern on MRI images corresponding to moyamoya vessels. Three patients had undergone splenectomy, and three were transfused irregularly and had less than six transfusions per year. More importantly, protein C levels were lower and platelet levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared with controls. We were not able to find any association between SCI and transfusion number or splenectomy. However, of the total patients four thalassemia intermedia patients had SCI in early childhood and this is an unusual finding. In order to verify the findings, further studies must be conducted involving larger numbers of patients.

  14. Thalamic Massa Intermedia Duplication in a Dysmorphic 14 month-old Toddler

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    The massa intermedia is an inconstant parenchymal band connecting the medial thalami. It may be thickened in various disease processes such as Chiari II malformation or absent in other disease states. However, the massa intermedia may also be absent in up to 30% of normal human brains. To the best of my knowledge, detailed imaging findings of massa intermedia duplication have only been described in a single case report. An additional case of thalamic massa intermedia duplication discovered on a routine brain MR performed for dysmorphic facial features is reported herein. PMID:26622932

  15. Beta-thalassemia intermedia associated with moyamoya syndrome.

    PubMed

    Göksel, Basak Karakurum; Ozdogu, Hakan; Yildirim, Tulin; Oğuzkurt, Levent; Asma, Suheyl

    2010-07-01

    Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) is a progressive disorder. We report a 19-year-old boy with beta-thalassemia who presented with a left hemiparesis. Brain MRI showed old middle cerebral artery and left frontal subcortical white matter infarcts. Brain magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries with a rich network of basal collateral vessels. To our knowledge this is the third report of beta-thalassemia intermedia and MMS, and the first report of a patient in Turkey. It emphasizes the potential for cerebral infarct due to anemia, protein S and thrombocytosis.

  16. Spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis in β-thalassaemia intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kin Hoi; Li, Allen; Lui, Tun Hing; Sit, Yan Kit

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old man known to have β-thalassaemia intermedia since childhood presented with bilateral lower limb weakness after spinal anaesthesia for an elective minor operation of his left leg. MRI and CT scans were performed to rule out acute epidural haematoma; coincidental imaging features of marrow hyperplasia and spinal epidural extramedullary haematopoiesis were found. This article will present and discuss the imaging features, differential diagnosis, management and literature review of the rare occurrence of extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spinal epidural space. PMID:24390965

  17. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  18. β -thalassemia intermedia in Northern Iraq: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Al-Allawi, Nasir A S; Jalal, Sana D; Mohammad, Ameen M; Omer, Sharaza Q; Markous, Raji S D

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of β -thalassemia intermedia in Northern Iraq and evaluate its management practices, a total of 74 patients from 51 families were enrolled. The patients were clinically and hematologically reevaluated, and had their β-thalassemia mutations characterized, as well as the number of α-globin genes and Xmn I (G)γ-158 (C>T) polymorphism studied. Out of 14 β-thalassemia mutations identified, the four most common were IVS-I-6 (T>C) [33.3%], IVS-II-I (G>A) [21.1%], codon 82/83(-G)[10.1%], and codon 8 (-AA) [8.1%]. The most common contributing factors to the less severe phenotype of thalassemia intermedia were found to be the inheritance of mild β-thalassemia alleles and the Xmn I polymorphism, while concomitant α-thalassemia had a limited role. Several complications were documented including: pulmonary hypertension in 20.4%, diabetes mellitus in 1.4%, hypothyroidism in 2.9%, and heart failure in 2.7%, while no documented cases of venous thrombosis were found. Compared to their counterparts in several Mediterranean countries, it appears that our patients were much less frequently transfused and had a lower proportion of patients who were splenectomized, on iron chelation, or hydroxycarbamide therapy. Such practices require further scrutiny to ensure that a better level of care is provided and that growth retardation, skeletal changes, and other complications are prevented or reduced.

  19. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  20. Gravi-photomorphogenesis of the moss Pottia intermedia protonemata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkiv, O. T.; Kyjak, N. Y.; Khorkavtsiv, Y. D.; Kit, N. A.

    The protonemata development proceeds in the process of gradual differentiation of growing apical cells and intercalar cells the shortened lateral branches of the latters being transformed into three-dimensional gametophore buds (Demkiv et al., 1991). Normal course of plant development needs favourable external conditions. Sometimes, however, external environment agents can accelerate the development of organism. So, apical protonema cells of darkgrown gravitropic P. intermedia differentiate gametophore-buds in light of low intensity (Ripetskyj, 1999). We investigate the influence of gravistimulation on bud formation in haploid and diploid P. intermedia protonema. Diploid protonema was found to react on light weaker than haploid one. Under the influence of light the darkgrown apical cells and lateral branches of haploid protonema were directly transformed into buds, while in diploid protonema at first the formation of bundles of rhizoid type filaments takes place on the tips of caulonema and buds appeared in center of such bundles. The participation of gravity in gametophore bud formation was assessed by clinorotating protonema in darkness. Being illuminated such protonema also developed buds quickly the latters being formed along all stolon. It can be suggested that at 1g the growth zone of apical cells actively attract inductors of bud formation. During clinorotation the inductors probably are transferred much more slower than under stationary state and that is why the buds arised not only at the tips of stolons but along all their length. It is known that gametophore bud formation can be stimulated by exogenous phytohormones. As M. Bopp (1980) has shown, that kinetin selectively promotes bud formation on moss protonema. Our observations have shown 0,5 -- 50 μ M of kinetin stimulate the bud formation on diploid aposporic protonema much more effectively that on haploid one. It can be concluded that the amount of endogenous cytokinins in haploid protonemal cells is

  1. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida intermedia.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Li, G Q; Zhang, J; Yang, L; Che, H J; Jiang, D H; Huang, H C

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to identify volatile organic compounds or volatiles produced by Candida intermedia strain C410 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine efficacy of the volatiles of C. intermedia in suppression of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. Results showed that, among 49 volatiles (esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, organic acids, ketones, and aldehydes) identified from C. intermedia cultures on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar, two compounds, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 3-methyl-1-butanol, were the most abundant. Synthetic chemicals of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene; 3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-nonanone; pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-, ethyl ester; 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetate; acetic acid, pentyl ester; and hexanoic acid, ethyl ester were highly inhibitory to conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea by volatiles of C. intermedia was also observed. Meanwhile, results showed that incidence and severity of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced by exposure of the strawberry fruit to the volatiles from C. intermedia cultures or C. intermedia-infested strawberry fruit. These results suggest that the volatiles of C. intermedia C410 are promising biofumigants for control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry.

  2. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida intermedia.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Li, G Q; Zhang, J; Yang, L; Che, H J; Jiang, D H; Huang, H C

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to identify volatile organic compounds or volatiles produced by Candida intermedia strain C410 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine efficacy of the volatiles of C. intermedia in suppression of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. Results showed that, among 49 volatiles (esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, organic acids, ketones, and aldehydes) identified from C. intermedia cultures on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar, two compounds, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 3-methyl-1-butanol, were the most abundant. Synthetic chemicals of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene; 3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-nonanone; pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-, ethyl ester; 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetate; acetic acid, pentyl ester; and hexanoic acid, ethyl ester were highly inhibitory to conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea by volatiles of C. intermedia was also observed. Meanwhile, results showed that incidence and severity of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced by exposure of the strawberry fruit to the volatiles from C. intermedia cultures or C. intermedia-infested strawberry fruit. These results suggest that the volatiles of C. intermedia C410 are promising biofumigants for control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. PMID:21323467

  3. A thalassaemia intermedia case with concomitant left atrial thrombus.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Cem; Basaran, Ozcan; Topal, Yasar; Akin, Fatih

    2014-06-20

    Although marked improvements have been observed in the life expectancy of patients with thalassaemia by regular blood transfusion and strict iron chelation therapies in recent years, these patients still have to deal with several complications, mainly cardiovascular. One of the life-threatening complications is the chronic hypercoagulable state and thromboembolic events which develop due to haemostatic alterations in patients with thalassaemia, although they are more frequently seen in those with thalassaemia intermedia. Many thromboembolic complications, mainly deep venous thrombosis and cerebral thrombosis, have been reported in thalassaemia. However, intracardiac thrombosis is rarely seen. In this manuscript, we presented a case that underwent splenectomy 6 years ago but not regularly attended the control visits and presented to our clinic with gradually increasing exercise dyspnoea for 2 months.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Brachyspira intermedia isolates from European layers.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Marc; Boyen, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Garmyn, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An

    2011-09-01

    A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia isolates obtained from different layer flocks in Belgium and The Netherlands between 2008 and 2010. The antimicrobial agents used were tylosin, tilmicosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, and lincomycin. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution patterns of tylosin, tilmicosin, lincomycin, and doxycycline were bimodal, demonstrating acquired resistance against doxycycline in three strains, against the macrolides in two strains, and against lincomycin in one strain. The MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin showed a monomodal distribution, but with tailing toward the higher MIC values, possibly suggesting low-level acquired resistance in six isolates. Sequencing revealed a G1058C mutation in the 16S rRNA gene in all doxycycline-resistant strains. The strain resistant to tylosin, tilmicosin, and lincomycin had an A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. PMID:21663534

  5. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  6. Production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) P(3HB-co-3HV) from synthetic wastewater using Hydrogenophaga palleronii.

    PubMed

    Venkateswar Reddy, M; Mawatari, Yasuteru; Yajima, Yuka; Satoh, Kohki; Venkata Mohan, S; Chang, Young-Cheol

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, synthetic wastewater (SW) was used for production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) P(3HB-co-3HV) using the bacteria Hydrogenophaga palleronii. SW at various volatile fatty acids concentrations (5-60g/l) was evaluated for the growth and biopolymer production using H. palleronii. Substrate degradation was analyzed using total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). H. palleronii showed highest and lowest removal of TOC at 5g/l (88±4%) and 60g/l (15±6%) respectively. Among all the concentrations evaluated, bacteria showed highest biopolymer production with 20g/l (63±5%), followed by 30g/l (58±3%) and 40g/l (56±2%). Lowest biopolymer production was observed at 5g/l concentration (21±3%). Structure, molecular weight, and thermal properties of the produced biopolymer were analyzed. These results denoted that the strain H. palleronii can be used for degradation of high concentration of volatile fatty acids persistent in wastewaters and their subsequent conversion into useable biopolymers. PMID:26995321

  7. Gravitropism in caulonemata of the moss Pottia intermedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, C. I.; Kern, V. D.; Ripetskyj, R. T.; Demkiv, O. T.; Sack, F. D.

    1998-01-01

    The gravitropism of caulonemata of Pottia intermedia is described and compared with that of other mosses. Spore germination produces primary protonemata including caulonemata which give rise to buds that form the leafy moss plant, the gametophore. Primary caulonemata are negatively gravitropic but their growth and the number of filaments are limited in the dark. Axenic culture of gametophores results in the production of secondary caulonemata that usually arise near the leaf base. Secondary protonemata that form in the light are agravitropic. Secondary caulonemata that form when gametophores are placed in the dark for several days show strong negative gravitropism and grow well in the dark. When upright caulonemata are reorientated to the horizontal or are inverted, upward bending can be detected after 1 h and caulonemata reach the vertical within 1-2 d. Clear amyloplast sedimentation occurs 10-15 minutes after horizontal placement and before the start of upward curvature. This sedimentation takes place in a sub-apical zone. Amyloplast sedimentation also takes place along the length of upright and inverted Pottia protonemata. These results support the hypothesis that amyloplast sedimentation functions in gravitropic sensing since sedimentation occurs before gravitropism in Pottia and since the location and presence of a unique sedimentation zone is conserved in all four mosses known to gravitropic protonomata.

  8. Stereospecificity of (+)-pinoresinol and (+)-lariciresinol reductases from Forsythia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Chu, A; Dinkova, A; Davin, L B; Bedgar, D L; Lewis, N G

    1993-12-25

    Pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase catalyzes the first known example of a highly unusual benzylic ether reduction in plants; its mechanism of hydride transfer is described. The enzyme was found in Forsythia intermedia and catalyzes the presumed regulatory branch-points in the pathway leading to benzylaryltetrahydrofuran, dibenzylbutane, dibenzylbutyrolactone, and aryltetrahydronaphthalene lignans. Using [7,7'-2H2]-pinoresinol and [7,7'-2H3]lariciresinol as substrates, the hydride transfers of the highly unusual reductase were demonstrated to be completely stereospecific (> 99%). The incoming hydrides were found to take up the pro-R position at C-7' (and/or C-7) in lariciresinol and secoisolariciresinol, thereby eliminating the possibility of random hydride delivery to a planar quinone methide intermediate. As might be expected, the mode of hydride abstraction from NADPH was also stereospecific: using [4R-3H] and [4S-3H]NADPH, it was found that only the 4 pro-R hydrogen was abstracted for enzymatic hydride transfer.

  9. Characterization of Atypical Isolates of Yersinia intermedia and Definition of Two New Biotypes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Liliane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Savin, Cyril; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The species Yersinia intermedia is a member of the genus Yersinia which belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is divided into eight biotypes, according to Brenner's biotyping scheme. This scheme relies on five tests (utilization of Simmons citrate and acid production from d-melibiose, d-raffinose, α-methyl-d-glucoside [αMG], and l-rhamnose). The collection of the French Yersinia Reference Laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France) contained 44 strains that were originally identified as Y. intermedia but whose characteristics did not fit into the biotyping scheme. These 44 strains were separated into two biochemical groups: variant 1 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG and positive for Simmons citrate utlization) and variant 2 (positive for acid production from l-rhamnose and αMG). These atypical strains could correspond to new biotypes of Y. intermedia, to Y. frederiksenii strains having the atypical property of fermenting αMG, or to new Yersinia species. These strains did not exhibit growth or phenotypic properties different from those of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii and did not harbor any of the virulence traits usually found in pathogenic species. DNA-DNA hybridizations performed between one strain each of variants 1 and 2 and the Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii type strains demonstrated that these variants do belong to the Y. intermedia species. We thus propose that Brenner's biotyping scheme be updated by adding two new biotypes: 9 (for variant 1) and 10 (for variant 2) to the species Y. intermedia. PMID:19494062

  10. In Vitro Effects of Polyphosphate against Prevotella intermedia in Planktonic Phase and Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun-Young; Kim, Minjung; Noh, Mi Hee

    2015-01-01

    Polyphosphate (polyP) has gained a wide interest in the food industry due to its potential as a decontaminating agent. In this study, we examined the effect of sodium tripolyphosphate (polyP3; Na5P3O10) against planktonic and biofilm cells of Prevotella intermedia, a major oral pathogen. The MIC of polyP3 against P. intermedia ATCC 49046 determined by agar dilution method was 0.075%, while 0.05% polyP3 was bactericidal against P. intermedia in time-kill analysis performed using liquid medium. A crystal violet binding assay for the assessment of biofilm formation by P. intermedia showed that sub-MICs of polyP3 significantly decreased biofilm formation. Under the scanning electron microscope, decreased numbers of P. intermedia cells forming the biofilms were observed when the bacterial cells were incubated with 0.025% or higher concentrations of polyP3. Assessment of biofilm viability with LIVE/DEAD staining and viable cell count methods showed that 0.05% or higher concentrations of polyP3 significantly decreased the viability of the preformed biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. The zone sizes of alpha-hemolysis formed on horse blood agar produced by P. intermedia were decreased in the presence of polyP3. The expression of the genes encoding hemolysins and the genes of the hemin uptake (hmu) locus was downregulated by polyP3. Collectively, our results show that polyP is an effective antimicrobial agent against P. intermedia in biofilms as well as planktonic phase, interfering with the process of hemin acquisition by the bacterium. PMID:26596937

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Brachyspira intermedia and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates from Australian chickens.

    PubMed

    Hampson, D J; Stephens, C P; Oxberry, S L

    2006-02-01

    Susceptibilities of predominantly Australian isolates of the pathogenic intestinal spirochaetes Brachyspira intermedia (n = 25) and Brachyspira pilosicoli (n = 17) from chickens were tested in agar dilution against four concentrations each of the antimicrobials tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, metronidazole, tetracycline and ampicillin. Based on available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoint values for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae or other Gram-negative enteric veterinary pathogens, isolates of both species generally were susceptible to tiamulin, lincomycin, metronidazole and tetracycline. Although not classed as resistant, four isolates of B. intermedia had an elevated MIC range for tiamulin (1 to 4 mg/l), 11 isolates of B. intermedia and five of B. pilosicoli had an elevated MIC range for lincomycin (10 to 50 mg/l), one isolate of B. pilosicoli had an elevated MIC range for tetracycline (10 to 20 mg/l), and one isolate of B. intermedia and five of B. pilosicoli had an elevated MIC range for ampicillin (10 to 50 mg/l). A clear lack of susceptibility to tylosin (MIC > 4 mg/l) was seen in 11 isolates each of B. intermedia and B. pilosicoli, and to ampicillin (MIC > 32 mg/l) in two isolates of B. pilosicoli. These data suggest that some resistance to common antimicrobials exists among intestinal spirochetes obtained from laying hens and supports the need of MIC data for clinical isolates before any treatment is considered. PMID:16448937

  12. Endocrine and Bone Complications in β-Thalassemia Intermedia: Current Understanding and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, MohammadHassan A.; Abbas, Hussein A.

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia intermedia (TI), also known as nontransfusion dependent thalassemia (NTDT), is a type of thalassemia where affected patients do not require lifelong regular transfusions for survival but may require occasional or even frequent transfusions in certain clinical settings and for defined periods of time. NTDT encompasses three distinct clinical forms: β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI), Hb E/β-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia intermedia (Hb H disease). Over the past decade, our understanding of the molecular features, pathophysiology, and complications of NTDT particularly β-TI has increased tremendously but data on optimal treatment of disease and its various complications are still lacking. In this paper, we shall review a group of commonly encountered complications in β-TI, mainly endocrine and bone complications. PMID:25834825

  13. Molecular Characterization of β-Thalassemia Intermedia in Southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Miri-Moghaddam, Ebrahim; Bahrami, Sara; Naderi, Majid; Bazi, Ali; Karimipoor, Morteza

    2016-06-01

    Inheritance of mild mutations within the β-globin gene and coinheritance of α-thalassemia (α-thal) are known as two important genetic modifiers in β-thalassemia (β-thal) intermedia (β-TI). We aimed to evaluate the spectrum of β- and α-thal mutations in β-TI patients in Southeast Iran. Common β- and α-globin gene mutations were detected by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and multiplex gap-PCR, respectively. There were 26 male (57.8%) and 19 female (42.2%) patients. HBB: c.92 + 5T > C [IVS-I-5 (G > C)] and HBB: c.-138C + 1G > A [IVS-II-I (G > A)] represented the prevalent alleles with respective frequencies of 60.0 and 10.0%. Other β-globin mutations included HBB: c.-138C > T [-88 (C > T)], HBB: c.27_28insG [frameshift codons (FSC) 8/9 (+G)], HBB: c.46delT [codon 15 (-T)], HBB: c.93-22_95del (IVS-I, 25 del), and the 619 bp deletion (NG_000007.3: g.71609_72227del619). The predominant genotypic combinations were β(0)/β(0) (68.9%), β(0)/β(+ )(8.9%) and β(+)/β(+ )(2.2%). Coinheritance of α-thal was observed in 33.0% of the patients, with the -α(3.7) (rightward) (NG_000006.1: g.34164_37967del3804) as the most common deletion (86.0%). One patient was diagnosed with the -α(4.2) (leftward) (AF221717) and one with the - -(MED) (g.24664_41064del16401) deletions, while no patients carried the -(α)(20.5) (g.15164_37864del22701), α(-5 nt) (HBA2: c.95 + 2_95_6delTGAGG) or codon 19 (-G) (HBA2: c.56delG) mutations. The alleviating molecular mechanism was not explainable by β(+ )or concurrent α-thal in more than half of our β-TI patients. This encourages conducting more studies to identify other contributing factors, especially Hb F-inducing genetic modifiers. PMID:27117567

  14. Issues in Designing a Hypermedia Document System: The Intermedia Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Intermedia, a hypermedia system developed at Brown University's Institute for Research (Rhode Island) in Information and Scholarship, is first described, and then used as a case study to explore a number of key issues that software designers must consider in the development of hypermedia document systems. A hypermedia document system is defined as…

  15. Ectoparasites of the critically endangered insular cavy, Cavia intermedia (Rodentia: Caviidae), southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106

  16. Composition, Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Iriti, Marcello; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the essential oil (EO) constituents from the aerial parts of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey were detected by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of EO on oral pathogens and its cytotoxicity to human cancer cells were determined by the microbroth dilution method and the crystal violet staining method, respectively. Thirty-nine compounds were identified and the main EO constituents were γ-terpinene (37.1%), thymol (30.2%), p-cymene (16.2%), limonene (3.9%), α-terpinene (3.3%), myrcene (2.5%), germacrene B (1.4%), elemicine (1.1%) and carvacrol (0.5%). The S. intermedia EO showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability of Hep-G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) human cancer cell lines (p < 0.05). Antimicrobial screening of S. intermedia EO demonstrated slight antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus mutants, S. salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Further preclinical studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of S. intermedia EO as a new promising anticancer agent. PMID:26247936

  17. Formation of Lignans(-)-Secoisolariciresinol and (-)-Matairesinol with Forsythia intermedia Cell-Free Extracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umezawa, Toshiaki; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    1991-01-01

    In vivo labeling experiments of Forsythia intermedia plant tissue with [8-(C-14)]- and [9,9-(2)H2,OC(2)H3]coniferyl alcohols revealed that the lignans, (-)-secoisolariciresinol and (-)-matairesinol, were derived from two coniferyl alcohol molecules; no evidence for the formation of the corresponding (+)-enantiomers was found. Administration of (+/-)-[Ar-(H-3)] secoisolariciresinols to excised shoots of F.intermedia resulted in a significant conversion into (-)-matairesinol; again, the (+)-antipode was not detected. Experiments using cell-free extracts of F.intermedia confirmed and extended these findings. In the presence of NAD(P)H and H2O2, the cell-free extracts catalyzed the formation of (-)- secoisolariciresinol, with either [8-(C-14)]- or [9,9-(2)H2,OC(2)H3]coniferyl alcohols as substrates. The (+)- enantiomer was not formed. Finally, when either (-)-[Ar-(H-3)] or (+/-)-[Ar-(H-2)]secoisolariciresinols were used as substrates, in the presence of NAD(P), only (-)- and not (+)-matairesinol formation occurred. The other antipode, (+)-secoisolariciresinol, did not serve as a substrate for the formation of either (+)- or (-)-matairesinol. Thus, in F.intermedia, the formation of the lignan, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, occurs under strict stereochemical control, in a reaction or reactions requiring NAD(P)H and H2O2 as cofactors. This stereoselectivity is retained in the subsequent conversion into (-)-matairesinol, since (+)-secoisolariciresinol is not a substrate. These are the first two enzymes to be discovered in lignan formation.

  18. Dilated Cardiomyopathy in a Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) in Southern Utah, USA, 2013.

    PubMed

    Frame, David D; Kelly, E Jane; Van Wettere, Arnaud

    2015-07-01

    A male Rio Grande Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) living in semidomestication was submitted for necropsy. Emaciation, a greatly enlarged heart, and chronic passive congestion of the liver were present. Dilated cardiomyopathy occurs in domestic turkey flocks but has not been reported in Wild Turkeys.

  19. Composition, Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Iriti, Marcello; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Sharifi-Rad, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the essential oil (EO) constituents from the aerial parts of Satureja intermedia C.A.Mey were detected by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of EO on oral pathogens and its cytotoxicity to human cancer cells were determined by the microbroth dilution method and the crystal violet staining method, respectively. Thirty-nine compounds were identified and the main EO constituents were γ-terpinene (37.1%), thymol (30.2%), p-cymene (16.2%), limonene (3.9%), α-terpinene (3.3%), myrcene (2.5%), germacrene B (1.4%), elemicine (1.1%) and carvacrol (0.5%). The S. intermedia EO showed a concentration-dependent decrease in viability of Hep-G2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma) human cancer cell lines (p < 0.05). Antimicrobial screening of S. intermedia EO demonstrated slight antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus mutants, S. salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Further preclinical studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of S. intermedia EO as a new promising anticancer agent. PMID:26247936

  20. Comparison of the virulence of exopolysaccharide-producing Prevotella intermedia to exopolysaccharide non-producing periodontopathic organisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence in the literature suggests that exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacterial cells are essential for the expression of virulence in these organisms. Secreted EPSs form the framework in which microbial biofilms are built. Methods This study evaluates the role of EPS in Prevotella intermedia for the expression of virulence. This evaluation was accomplished by comparing EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 with non-producing P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and Porphyromonas gingivalis strains ATCC 33277, 381 and W83 for their ability to induce abscess formation in mice and evade phagocytosis. Results EPS-producing P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 induced highly noticeable abscess lesions in mice at 107 colony-forming units (CFU). In comparison, P. intermedia ATCC 25611 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, 381 and W83, which all lacked the ability to produce viscous materials, required 100-fold more bacteria (109 CFU) in order to induce detectable abscess lesions in mice. Regarding antiphagocytic activity, P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 were rarely internalized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but other strains were readily engulfed and detected in the phagosomes of these phagocytes. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the production of EPS by P. intermedia strains 17 and OD1-16 could contribute to the pathogenicity of this organism by conferring their ability to evade the host's innate defence response. PMID:21864411

  1. Development of Prevotella intermedia-specific PCR primers based on the nucleotide sequences of a DNA probe Pig27.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jung; Hwang, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Young-Seok; Park, Jae-Yoon; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop Prevotella intermedia-specific PCR primers based on the P. intermedia-specific DNA probe. The P. intermedia-specific DNA probe was screened by inverted dot blot hybridization and confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. The nucleotide sequences of the species-specific DNA probes were determined using a chain termination method. Southern blot analysis showed that the DNA probe, Pig27, detected only the genomic DNA of P. intermedia strains. PCR showed that the PCR primers, Pin-F1/Pin-R1, had species-specificity for P. intermedia. The detection limits of the PCR primer sets were 0.4pg of the purified genomic DNA of P. intermedia ATCC 49046. These results suggest that the PCR primers, Pin-F1/Pin-R1, could be useful in the detection of P. intermedia as well as in the development of a PCR kit in epidemiological studies related to periodontal diseases. PMID:21192988

  2. Production of bacteriocin-like substances by Yersinia frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, and Y. intermedia strains.

    PubMed

    Calvo, C; Brault, J; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Mollaret, H H

    1986-01-01

    The production of bacteriocin-like substances by strains of Yersinia frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. intermedia in broth culture was established. These substances showed a selective activity against Y. enterocolitica, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. intermedia strains. Electron micrographs revealed the presence of phage tails in culture media. The production of these substances was detected in cultures grown at 25 degrees C but not in those grown at 37 degrees C, while these bacteriocin-like substances were active at 25 and 37 degrees C. Y. enterocolitica serogroups 0:3 and 0:9 were more susceptible to these bacterin-like substances than strains of Yersinia isolated from environmental sources.

  3. Perianesthetic development of diaphragmatic hernia in a horse with equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID)

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Molly K.; Lee, Wesley L.; Eggleston, Randy B.

    2015-01-01

    A 21-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with a history of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) presented with priapism of 2 days’ duration. The horse received a caudal morphine epidural and then underwent corpus cavernosum lavage and phallectomy under general anesthesia. The patient’s recovery featured multiple unsuccessful attempts to stand and his respiratory distress persisted for several hours until he acutely developed severe colic and was euthanized. Necropsy findings revealed a pituitary adenoma of the pars intermedia, bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia, and diaphragmatic herniation. This report suggests that horses with PPID may present a greater risk for diaphragmatic hernia under general anesthesia or during procedures placing stress on the diaphragm, including anesthetic recovery. PMID:25565714

  4. Thalassemia major and intermedia in jammu and kashmir, India: a regional transfusion centre experience.

    PubMed

    Vasudev, Rahul; Sawhney, Vijay

    2014-12-01

    Data on status of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies from the extreme northern part of India is scarce. We investigated socio-demographic characteristics and management issues related to β-thalassemia in Jammu and Kashmir, India. Data from 96 thalassemia major and intermedia patients visiting the department of transfusion medicine for their transfusion needs was collected. Parameters recorded included age group, age at diagnosis, gender, religion, districts of the state they belonged to, family history of thalassemia, blood group, type of thalassemia (major/intermedia), total number of transfusions received and chelation therapy status. Thalassemia major patients comprised 92 (95.8 %) and intermedia 4 (4.2 %) of the cohort. Most cases were diagnosed in infancy or early childhood. The districts of Jammu and Rajouri together contributed 53 % of the cases. Most patients were Hindu (76/96, 79.2 %). A positive family history was most often obtained from Muslim patients (8/18, 44.4 %). Only 50 % cases were on iron chelation therapy. There is a need to come up with a national/local policy to manage disease in endemic areas and a policy formulated to help families and patients. Data such as ours may help in health management planning for thalassemic patients in this region.

  5. Brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom triggers endothelial cells death by anoikis.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Jenifer; Sene, Reginaldo Vieira; Paludo, Katia Sabrina; Rizzo, Luiz Eduardo; Souza-Fonseca-Guimarães, Fernando; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Franco, Célia Regina C; Trindade, Edvaldo S

    2012-09-01

    Brown spider (Loxosceles sp.) venom affects the endothelium of vessels and triggers disruptive activity in the subendothelial matrix. The vascular disorders observed after venom exposure include leukocyte and platelet activation, disseminated intravascular coagulation, an increase in vessel permeability and hemorrhage into the dermis. In this study, we report additional evidence regarding the mechanism of endothelial cell cytotoxicity induced by Loxosceles intermedia venom. Exposure to venom led to endothelial cell detachment in a time-dependent manner. Loss of cell anchorage and cell-cell adhesion following venom exposure was accompanied by changes in the distribution of the α₅β₁ integrin and VE-cadherin. An ultrastructural analysis of cells treated with venom revealed morphological alterations characteristic of apoptosis. Moreover, after venom exposure, the ratio between Bax and Bcl-2 proteins was disturbed in favor of Bax. In addition, late apoptosis was only observed in cells detached by the action of venom. Accordingly, there was no increase in apoptosis when cells were exposed to L. intermedia venom in suspension, suggesting that the loss of cell anchorage provides the signal to initiate apoptosis. Thus, L. intermedia venom likely triggers endothelial cell death indirectly through an apoptotic mechanism known as anoikis.

  6. Characterization of the human immunoglobulin G Fc-binding activity in Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed Central

    Labbé, S; Grenier, D

    1995-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria possess cell surface receptors which can bind immunoglobulins via the Fc portion. The aim of this study was to characterize the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc-binding activity of Prevotella intermedia, a suspected etiologic agent of adult chronic periodontitis. The Fc-binding activity of P. intermedia on whole cells and on extracellular vesicles was demonstrated. Incubation of P. intermedia cells in the presence of Zwittergent 3-14 allowed complete solubilization of the Fc receptor from the cell surface. This cell envelope extract was thus used to characterize the Fc-binding activity. A microtiter plate assay using alkaline phosphatase-labeled Fc fragments showed that preincubation of the cell envelope extract with human IgG, human IgG Fc fragments, or human serum completely inhibited the Fc-binding activity. Partial inhibition was obtained with human IgG F(ab')2 fragments, whereas no inhibition occurred following preincubation with human IgA, carbohydrates, and selected proteins. Preincubation of the cell envelope extract with IgG from a variety of animals demonstrated that rabbit, mouse, rat, goat, and sheep IgG did not inhibit Fc-binding activity, whereas cow, pig, and dog IgG partially inhibited Fc-binding activity. A strong inhibition comparable to that obtained with human IgG was noted with monkey IgG. The Fc receptor of P. intermedia is thus different from the six types previously reported in other nonoral bacteria. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting (immunoblotting) analysis of the cell envelope extract revealed a major band with a molecular mass of approximately 65 kDa which reacted with peroxidase-labeled human IgG Fe fragments. Transmission electron microscopy showed a uniform distribution of the Fc receptor on the bacterial surface, as revealed by gold labeling. The Fc-binding activity demonstrated in this study may act as an additional virulence factor for P. intermedia by reducing IgG reactions with the

  7. Expression Profiles of TGF-β and TLR Pathways in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia Challenged Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Kubra; Ekinci, Fatma Yesim; Korachi, May

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of certain oral pathogens at implant sites can hinder the osseointegration process. However, it is unclear how and by what microorganisms it happens. Objectives: This study investigated whether the presence of oral pathogens of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia individually, play a role in the failure of bone formation by determining the expression profiles of Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β/Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) pathways in challenged osteoblasts. Materials and Methods: Cell viability of P. gingivalis and P. intermedia challenged osteoblasts were determined by WST assay. Changes in osteoblast morphology and inhibition of mineralization were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Von Kossa staining, respectively. Expression of TGF-β and TLR pathway genes on challenged cells were identified by RT profiler array. Both P. gingivalis and P. intermedia challenges resulted in reduced viability and mineralization of osteoblasts. Results: Viability was reduced to 56.8% (P. gingivalis) and 52.75% (P. intermedia) at 1000 multiplicity. Amongst 48 genes examined, expressions of BMPER, SMAD1, IL8 and NFRKB were found to be highly upregulated by both bacterial challenges (Fold Change > 4). Conclusions: P. gingivalis and P. intermedia could play a role in implant failure by changing the expression profiles of genes related to bone formation and resorption. PMID:26034550

  8. Repeated exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia sand fly saliva induces local expression of interferon-inducible genes both at the site of injection in mice and in human blood.

    PubMed

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I; de Carvalho, Augusto M; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate

  9. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  10. Functional Transcriptomics of Wild-Caught Lutzomyia intermedia Salivary Glands: Identification of a Protective Salivary Protein against Leishmania braziliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Marcia W.; Miranda, José Carlos; Clarêncio, Jorge; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral, Aldina; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania parasites are transmitted in the presence of sand fly saliva. Together with the parasite, the sand fly injects salivary components that change the environment at the feeding site. Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland (SG) homogenate are protected against Leishmania major infection, while immunity to Lutzomyia intermedia SG homogenate exacerbated experimental Leishmania braziliensis infection. In humans, antibodies to Lu. intermedia saliva are associated with risk of acquiring L. braziliensis infection. Despite these important findings, there is no information regarding the repertoire of Lu. intermedia salivary proteins. Methods and Findings A cDNA library from the Salivary Glands (SGs) of wild-caught Lu. intermedia was constructed, sequenced, and complemented by a proteomic approach based on 1D SDS PAGE and mass/mass spectrometry to validate the transcripts present in this cDNA library. We identified the most abundant transcripts and proteins reported in other sand fly species as well as novel proteins such as neurotoxin-like proteins, peptides with ML domain, and three small peptides found so far only in this sand fly species. DNA plasmids coding for ten selected transcripts were constructed and used to immunize BALB/c mice to study their immunogenicity. Plasmid Linb-11—coding for a 4.5-kDa protein—induced a cellular immune response and conferred protection against L. braziliensis infection. This protection correlated with a decreased parasite load and an increased frequency of IFN-γ-producing cells. Conclusions We identified the most abundant and novel proteins present in the SGs of Lu. intermedia, a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Americas. We also show for the first time that immunity to a single salivary protein from Lu. intermedia can protect against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. PMID:23717705

  11. Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Natalia M.; Silva, Robson A.; Costa, Dirceu J.; Pitombo, Maiana A.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Miranda, José C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmania transmission occurs in the presence of insect saliva. Immunity to Phlebotomus papatasi or Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary components confers protection against an infection by Leishmania in the presence of the homologous saliva. However, immunization with Lutzomyia intermedia saliva did not protect mice against Leishmania braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. In the present study, we have studied whether the immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with LJM19 DNA plasmid induced a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response against Lu. longipalpis as well as against a Lu. intermedia saliva challenge. Immunized and unimmunized control hamsters were then intradermally infected in the ears with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia saliva. Animals immunized with Lu. longipalpis saliva exhibited smaller lesion sizes as well as reduced disease burdens both at lesion site and in the draining lymph nodes. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Animals immunized with LJM19 DNA plasmid presented similar findings in protection and immune response and additionally increased IFN-γ expression. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with a DNA plasmid coding LJM19 salivary protein induced protection in hamsters challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. These findings point out an important role of immune response against saliva components, suggesting the possibility to develop a vaccine using a single component of Lu. longipalpis saliva to generate protection against different species of Leishmania, even those transmitted by a different

  12. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin on Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, O; Andrés, M T; Heath, J; Fierro, J F; Douglas, C W

    1998-05-01

    The antimicrobial effect of lactoferrin (apoLf) on the oral, black-pigmented anaerobes Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and P. nitrescens has been studied. ApoLf did not kill any of these species but it did inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis, while iron-saturated Lf (FeLf) had no effect. The other two species were unaffected by apoLf. This growth inhibitory effect of apoLf could not be explained on the basis of chelation of inorganic iron, since growth of P. gingivalis occurred in the presence of ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid provided haemin was added. Both apoLf and FeLf reduced haemin uptake by all three species and caused the release of cell-bound haemin in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, haemin reduced the binding of both apoLf and FeLf to P. intermedia and P. nigrescens but stimulated the binding of Lf by P. gingivalis. These data suggest that Lf forms complexes with haemin in solution and competes for the binding of haemin to certain cell receptors, possibly lipopolysaccharides, but this is not sufficient to inhibit growth of the bacteria. P. gingivalis appears to bind Lf-haemin complexes, as well as haemin alone, which may facilitate access of the Lf to the outer and cytoplasmic membranes of P. gingivalis, so disrupting function.

  13. Differentially regulated proteins in Prevotella intermedia after oxidative stress analyzed by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Simone G; Diniz, Cláudio G; Silva, Vânia L; Lima, Francisca L; Andrade, Hélida M; Chapeaurouge, Donat A; Perales, Jonas; Serufo, José Carlos; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora R; Farias, Luiz M

    2012-02-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium found in human indigenous microbiota that plays an important role in opportunistic infections. The successful colonization depends on the ability of anaerobes to respond to oxidative stress (OS) in oxygenated tissues as well as to resist oxidative events from the host immune system until anaerobic conditions are present at the infection site. As knowledge of the mechanisms of protection against OS in Prevotella is limited, studies are needed to clarify aspects of molecular biology, physiology and ecology of this bacterium. The aim of this study was to access the proteins differentially regulated in P. intermedia after exposure to molecular oxygen by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) associated with the approach of MALDI-TOF/TOF Tandem Mass Spectrometry. The identity of the protein was evaluated by database search for homologous genomic sequences of P. intermedia strain 17 (TIGR). Twenty five out of 72 proteins found were identified as up-regulated (17) or down-regulated (9). These proteins were related to a variety of metabolic process, some of which could be associated to antioxidant and redox regulatory roles. Our data indicate that OS may stimulate an adaptive response in P. intermedia whose effect on its biology may be evidenced by the increase in aerotolerance and changes in protein abundance in the oxygen adapted cells. PMID:22193554

  14. Desarrollo curricular, conciencia ambiental y tecnologia para estudiantes de intermedia: Una investigacion en accion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Ramos, Teresita

    Se llevó a cabo una investigación en acción con los propósitos de 1) documentar las relaciones de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en las clases de ciencias de escuela intermedia como elemento de apoyo cuando se aborda el tema ambiental y sus conceptos pertinentes, a partir de las observaciones de la investigadora, así como las entrevistas y diarios reflexivos de los estudiantes de una escuela intermedia en la zona metropolitana, y luego 2) diseñar una unidad instruccional sobre el tema ambiental que integre actividades tecnologías para el curso de ciencias de la escuela intermedia según el modelo PROCIC y las observaciones que hayan iniciado los estudiantes participantes. Finalmente, se plantearon las implicaciones educativas para el currículo del Programa de Ciencias al instrumentar este modelo de unidad mediante PROCIC, e integrado la tecnología y el tema ambiental. Los hallazgos se analizaron y se categorizaron de acuerdo con las preguntas de investigación. El hallazgo principal de la investigación aborda las cuatro relaciones centrales en las que se articula la utilización de las tecnologías y sus aplicaciones en la clase de ciencias. Estas cuatro relaciones que recogen la posición de los estudiantes son: 1) Perspectiva de los estudiantes hacia la tecnología. 2) Participación de los estudiantes en los aspectos docentes. 3) Aprendizaje estudiantil sobre el ambiente, y 4) Conciencia ambiental en relación con la vida diaria. Estas relaciones ponen de manifiesto,cómo se plantea en las implicaciones, la necesidad de más investigación en acción en la sala de clases, la importancia—como tema transversal—de la conciencia ambiental mediante la tecnología al construir conocimientos significativos dentro y fuera de la escuela, asó como, valorar la investigación y la dialogicidad en la sala de clases como actividades que obligan al reexamen de la práctica didáctica en su formas curriculares de objetivos, recursos

  15. Different Water Use Strategies of Juvenile and Adult Caragana intermedia Plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Liu, Liying

    2012-01-01

    Background In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE), plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0–30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0–50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0–50 cm and 0–60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations. Conclusions The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE. PMID:23029303

  16. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  17. Thalassaemia intermedia in a family with beta 0-thalassaemia and Hb Hasharon.

    PubMed Central

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F; Bottura, C

    1982-01-01

    A Brazilian family of Italian descent is described in which the beta-thalassaemia gene is interacting with an alpha chain variant Hb Hasharon (alpha 47 Asp leads to His). One patient who was affected by homozygous beta 0-thalassaemia and heterozygous alpha Hasharon displayed the clinical picture of thalassaemia intermedia. Her haemolysate contained 8.6% Hb F Hasharon (alpha 2 Hasharon gamma 2) and 1.1% Hb A2, the remaining haemoglobin being Hb F. Hb A was not detected. Globin chain synthesis in reticulocytes showed non-alpha/total alpha ratios of 0.29, 0.39, and 0.73 respectively for the patient, the mother, and the father, who is heterozygous for both the beta 0-thalassemia and Hb Hasharon genes. The possible contribution of Hb Hasharon heterozygosity to the less severe expression of homozygous beta 0-thalassaemia is discussed. Images PMID:7154040

  18. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (equine Cushing’s disease) in a Thoroughbred stallion: a single report

    PubMed Central

    HATAZOE, Takashi; KAWAGUCHI, Hiroaki; HOBO, Seiji; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) generally occurs in older horses showing hirsutism, delayed molting, weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria, laminitis, and reproductive disorders (in broodmares), but there have been no reports on stallions. This report presents a case of a 21-year-old Thoroughbred stallion that developed hirsutism and experienced delayed molting. There were no abnormal findings for semen quality or the stallion’s sexual desire. The horse was diagnosed with PPID based on dexamethasone suppression test and plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone. It was then medicated with pergolide mesylate. Since the horse died due to humerus fracture, an autopsy was conducted, and pituitary adenoma was confirmed. No pathological findings were defined in the testicles; therefore, reproductive activity might not have been impaired. PMID:26858577

  19. Characterization of two new plasmid DNAs found in mitochondria of wild-type Neurospora intermedia strains.

    PubMed Central

    Stohl, L L; Collins, R A; Cole, M D; Lambowitz, A M

    1982-01-01

    Mitochondria from two Neurospora intermedia strains (P4O5-Labelle and Fiji N6-6) were found to contain plasmid DNAs in addition to the standard mitochondrial DNA species. The plasmid DNAs consist of monomeric circles (4.1-4.3 kbp and 5.2-5.3 kbp for Labelle and Fiji, respectively) and oligomers in which monomers are organized as head-to-tail repeats. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that the plasmids have no substantial sequence homology to mtDNA, to each other, or to a previously characterized mitochondrial plasmid from N. crassa strain Mauriceville-lc (Collins et al. Cell 24, 443-452, 1981). The intramitochondrial location of the plasmids was established by cell fractionation and nuclease protection experiments. In sexual crosses, the plasmids showed strict maternal inheritance, the same as Neurospora mitochondrial DNA. The plasmids may represent a novel class of mitochondrial genetic elements. Images PMID:6280144

  20. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (equine Cushing's disease) in a Thoroughbred stallion: a single report.

    PubMed

    Hatazoe, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Hobo, Seiji; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) generally occurs in older horses showing hirsutism, delayed molting, weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria, laminitis, and reproductive disorders (in broodmares), but there have been no reports on stallions. This report presents a case of a 21-year-old Thoroughbred stallion that developed hirsutism and experienced delayed molting. There were no abnormal findings for semen quality or the stallion's sexual desire. The horse was diagnosed with PPID based on dexamethasone suppression test and plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone. It was then medicated with pergolide mesylate. Since the horse died due to humerus fracture, an autopsy was conducted, and pituitary adenoma was confirmed. No pathological findings were defined in the testicles; therefore, reproductive activity might not have been impaired. PMID:26858577

  1. Cyclic exchanges and level of coupling between environmental media: intermedia feedback in multimedia fate models.

    PubMed

    Margni, M; Pennington, D W; Bennett, D H; Jolliet, O

    2004-10-15

    The importance of cyclic transport of chemicals between media in the environment can be expressed in terms of the Feedback correction factor--a multiplier that accounts for the fraction of an emission that returns to the medium of release after transfer to other media. This factor is calculated analytically by explicitly solving the appropriate system of mass balance equations or using matrix techniques. It generalizes the concept of stickiness, the ratio between the net and the overall deposition rate constants, to multipathway feedback, while providing a clearer view of the level of coupling between media and analyzing the importance of coupling. This paper first shows the usefulness of the total removal rate coefficient in each media (sum of degradation rate and all intermedia transfer rates) as a baseline to determine the chemical mass in different media, the characteristic travel distance and to understand the cyclic behavior, rather than starting from the degradation lifetimes or the overall persistence in the environment. Starting from this baseline, the importance of feedback is limited for most organic chemicals. The predicted media concentrations are influenced by less than 10% due to the cyclic nature of the intermedia transport for more than 90% of the 317 tested chemicals in a 4-compartment, steady-state, closed-system multimedia model. The Feedback correction factor is always less than a factor of 5 with the greatest values when transfer fractions are important in both directions for adjacent media. This corresponds to a restricted range in the K(AW) and K(OA) space with long chemical lifetimes in both adjacent media. This analysis of the importance of the Feedback correction factor, in conjunction with resultant criteria for when cyclic exchanges between media are likely to be significant, facilitates a more transparent understanding of how substance masses are distributed in the modeled system. It is one of the important criteria to determine to

  2. Complications of β-thalassemia intermedia in Iran during 1996-2010 (single-center study).

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Khadijeh Arjmandi; Mafi, Negar; Tafreshi, R Isa

    2011-09-01

    Patients with thalassemia intermedia (TI) experience many complications, of which the incidence varies greatly among cases. Considering the high prevalence of thalassemia in Iran, the study was carried out to determine the frequency of TI complications in Iranian patients and to find possible risk factors for each of them. Using the sampling method of "census," the authors included 153 patients who were seen in their tertiary hematology clinic with the diagnosis of TI during 1996-2010; an analytical cross-sectional study was performed and the data was analyzed by SPSS software using univariate and regression analyses. Mean age of the patients at the time of the study was 17.4 years and 36.5% were receiving transfusions (regularly or occasionally). Mean hemoglobin was 9.2 g/dL and mean serum ferritin was 858 ng/mL. Splenectomy was performed in 46.9% and it was correlated with age and the age at diagnosis in regression analysis. Cholelithiasis was found in 25.5% and was correlated with age and history of splenectomy. Pulmonary hypertension, detected in 23.5%, was correlated with thrombocytosis and mitral valve regurgitation in univariate analysis. Endocrine disease (hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency) was detected in 8% of the patients. In univariate analysis, endocrine disease was correlated with age of the patients. Regarding bone density of the spine, 53% of cases had osteoporosis. Thrombocytosis was present in 42% of patients and was correlated with their age. Since the severity of thalassemia intermedia vary greatly among patients, a careful evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and genetic aspects is necessary to differentiate TI in a patient at presentation. Moreover, TI patients should be carefully followed up for early detection and management of newly developed complications. The authors also suggest confirmatory controlled studies with larger sample sizes to assist in developing guidelines for surveillance and treatment of TI. PMID

  3. Protection against the toxic effects of Loxosceles intermedia spider venom elicited by mimotope peptides.

    PubMed

    de Moura, J; Felicori, L; Moreau, V; Guimarães, G; Dias-Lopes, C; Molina, L; Alvarenga, L M; Fernandes, P; Frézard, F; Ribeiro, R R; Fleury, C; Nguyen, C; Molina, F; Granier, C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2011-10-19

    The venom of Loxosceles intermedia (Li) spiders is responsible for cutaneous lesions and other clinical manifestations. We previously reported that the monoclonal antibody LimAb7 can neutralize the dermonecrotic activity of crude Li venom. In this study, we observed that this antibody recognizes several proteins from the venom dermonecrotic fraction (DNF), including LiD1. Identifying the epitope of such a neutralizing antibody could help designing immunogens for producing therapeutic sera or vaccination approaches. To this aim, two sets of 25- and 15-mer overlapping peptides that cover the complete amino acid sequence of LiD1 were synthesized using the SPOT technique. None of them was recognized by LimAb7, suggesting that the epitope is discontinuous. Then, the screening of four peptide phage-display libraries yielded four possible epitope mimics that, however, did not show any obvious similarity with the LiD1 sequence. These mimotopes, together with a 3D model of LiD1, were used to predict with the MIMOP bioinformatic tool the putative epitope region (residues C197, Y224, W225, T226, D228, K229, R230, T232 and Y248 of LiD1) recognized by LimAb7. This analysis and the results of alanine-scanning experiments highlighted a few residues (such as W225 and D228) that are found in the active site of different SMases D and that may be important for LiD1 enzymatic activity. Finally, the only mimotope NCNKNDHLFACW that interacts with LimAb7 by SPOT and its analog NSNKNDHLFASW were used as immunogens in rabbits. The resulting antibodies could neutralize some of the biological effects induced by crude Li venom, demonstrating a mimotope-induced protection against L. intermedia venom.

  4. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  5. Production of monoclonal antibodies capable of neutralizing dermonecrotic activity of Loxosceles intermedia spider venom and their use in a specific immunometric assay.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Larissa M; Martins, Maria S; Moura, Juliana F; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Oliveira, Júlio C; Mangili, Oldemir C; Granier, Claude; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2003-12-01

    We have produced 13 mAbs for Loxosceles intermedia crude venom. Twelve were reactive against proteins of 32-35 kDa and one of these Li mAb(7) showed high neutralizing potency for the dermonecrotic activity of L. intermedia venom. This Li mAb(7) showed no cross-reactivity, with Loxosceles laeta (Brazil), L. laeta (Perú) and Loxosceles gaucho venoms. The mAbs were produced by immunization with the crude venom and screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using L. intermedia whole venom or dermonecrotic fraction (DNF) as antigens coated onto microtitre plates. A sensitive two-site immunometric assay was designed and shown to be useful for identifying and quantifying DNF from L. intermedia in biological samples. The Li mAb(7) coated onto microtitre plates and hyperimmune horse anti-L. intermedia IgGs prepared by immunoaffinity chromatography and conjugated to horseradish peroxidase were used to set up a sandwich-type ELISA. Measurable absorbance signals were obtained with 0.2 ng of L. intermedia crude venom per assay.

  6. [Effects of cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Chai, Yong-Qing; Yang, Xin-Guo; Song, Nai-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yun; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Taking a 25-year-old Caragana intermedia forest in desert steppe as test object, an investigation was conducted on the ground-dwelling arthropod community in cutting and no-cutting stands with and without reseeding, aimed to understand the effects of cutting, reseeding and their interaction on the individual number and group richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in C. intermedia forest. There were significantly lower number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces than under the shrubs in the no-cutting and no-reseeding stands. Cutting, reseeding and both of them could significantly increase the number and richness of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces, but not under the shrubs, compared with no cutting or reseeding. Consequently, there were no significant differences in the distribution of ground-dwelling arthropod in the open spaces and under the shrubs in the cutting, reseeding, or cutting and reseeding stands. Further, there was a similar buffer effect between cutting and reseeding on the ground-dwelling arthropod. No significant differences were observed in the ground-dwelling arthropod distribution, between cutting stand and reseeding stand, between cutting stand and cutting and reseeding stand, and between reseeding stand and cutting and reseeding stand. It was suggested that cutting, reseeding, or both of them could significantly improve the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity especially in the open spaces, being beneficial for the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem and the rational management on artificial C. intermedia forest in desert steppe.

  7. Fatty acid methyl ester from Neurospora intermedia N-1 isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom merah).

    PubMed

    Priatni, S; Hartati, S; Dewi, P; Kardono, L B S; Singgih, M; Gusdinar, T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) from Neurospora intermedia N-1 that isolated from Indonesian red peanut cake (oncom). FAME profiles have been used as biochemical characters to study many different groups of organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts. FAME from N. intermedia N-1 was obtained by some stages of extraction the orange spores and fractination using a chromatotron. The pure compound (1) was characterized by 500 mHz NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR and LC-MS. Summarized data's of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of compound 1 contained 19 Carbon, 34 Hydrogen and 2 Oxygen (C19H34O2). The position of the double bonds at carbon number 8 and 12 were indicated in the HMBC spectrum (2D-NMR). LC-MS spectrum indicates molecular weight of the compound 1 as 294 which is visible by the presence of protonated molecular ion [M+H] at m/z 295. Methyl esters of long chain fatty acids was presented by a 3 band pattern of IR spectrum with bands near 1249, 1199 and 1172 cm(-1). We suggested that the structure of the pure compound 1 is methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate. The presence methyl octadeca-8,12-dienoate in N. intermedia is the first report.

  8. A new autocatalytic activation mechanism for cysteine proteases revealed by Prevotella intermedia interpain A

    PubMed Central

    Mallorquí-Fernández, Noemí; Manandhar, Surya P.; Mallorquí-Fernández, Goretti; Usón, Isabel; Wawrzonek, Katarzyna; Kantyka, Tomasz; Solà, Maria; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F.Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a major periodontopathogen contributing to human gingivitis and periodontitis. Such pathogens release proteases as virulence factors that cause deterrence of host defences and tissue destruction. A new cysteine protease from the cysteine-histidine-dyad class, interpain A, was studied in its zymogenic and its self-processed mature form. The latter consists of a bivalved moiety made up by two subdomains. In the structure of a catalytic cysteine-to-alanine zymogen variant, the right subdomain interacts with an unusual prodomain, thus contributing to latency. Unlike the catalytic cysteine residue, already in its competent conformation in the zymogen, the catalytic histidine is swung out from its active conformation and trapped in a cage shaped by a backing helix, a zymogenic hairpin and a latency flap in the zymogen. Dramatic rearrangement of up to 20Å of these elements triggered by a tryptophan switch occurs during activation and accounts for a new activation mechanism for proteolytic enzymes. These findings can be extrapolated to related potentially pathogenic cysteine proteases such as Streprococcus pyogenes SpeB and Porphyromonas gingivalis periodontain. PMID:17993455

  9. Old fronds serve as a vernal carbon source in the wintergreen fern Dryopteris intermedia (Aspleniaceae).

    PubMed

    Tessier, Jack T; Bornn, Matthew P

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining green leaves beyond the growing season has been hypothesized to benefit plants by supplying either a nutrient or a carbon source. Understanding such ecophysiological aspects of plants will help us to appreciate how a species functions in its environment and predict how it might be affected by future changes in that environment. The wintergreen fern species Dryopteris intermedia does not retranslocate nitrogen and phosphorus from old fronds in spring, but photosynthesis does take place in the old fronds during this season. To determine if carbon fixed in the old fronds is translocated to other parts of the plant, we labeled old fronds with (13)C via photosynthetic uptake and examined old fronds, new fronds, fine roots, and rhizomes for (13)C content 1 day and 1 month after labeling the old fronds. Vernally fixed carbon was translocated to the new fronds but not significantly to the below ground tissues. Old fronds in this species, therefore, serve as a carbon source for vernal growth of new fronds. This is the first study in which a fern was labeled with (13)C to track vernally fixed carbon from old fronds to the rest of the plant in a wintergreen species. Future research should examine the precise timing of this carbon movement and examine other species for a similar or contrasting strategy.

  10. Characterization of Brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) hemolymph: cellular and biochemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Bednaski, A V; Trevisan-Silva, D; Matsubara, F H; Boia-Ferreira, M; Olivério, M M; Gremski, L H; Cavalheiro, R P; De Paula, D M B; Paredes-Gamero, E J; Takahashi, H K; Toledo, M S; Nader, H B; Veiga, S S; Chaim, O M; Senff-Ribeiro, A

    2015-05-01

    This is the first study on the hemolymph from a spider of the Loxosceles genus. These animals are responsible for a great number of envenomation cases worldwide. Several studies on Loxosceles venoms have been published, and the knowledge about the venom and its toxins is considerable, not only regarding the biological and biochemical characterization, but also regarding structural, genetic and phylogenetic approaches. However, the literature on Loxosceles hemolymph is nonexistent. The main goal of the present study was to characterize biochemically the hemolymph content, and especially, to identify its different hemocytes. Moreover, many papers have already shown molecules whose source is the hemolymph and their very interesting activities and biomedical applications, for example, antifungal and antibacterial activities. A 2D-SDS-PAGE of brown spider hemolymph showed approximately 111 spots for pH 3-10 and 150 spots for pH 4-7. A lectin-blotting assay showed that hemolymph carbohydrate residues were similar to those found in venom. Several types of TAG and DAG phospholipids were found in the hemolymph and characterized by HPTLC and mass spectrometry. Four different hemocytes were characterized in Loxosceles intermedia hemolymph: prohemocyte, plasmatocyte, granulocyte and adipohemocyte. This paper opens new possibilities on toxinology, studying an unknown biological material, and it characterizes a source of molecules with putative biotechnological applications.

  11. Treatment with pergolide or cyproheptadine of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (equine Cushing's disease).

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Mark T; LaMonte, Bernadette H; Morresey, Peter; Smith, Gary; Beech, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Medical records of 27 horses (including 13 ponies) treated with pergolide or cyproheptadine for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction were reviewed to determine the effect of treatment on plasma ACTH, insulin, and glucose concentrations and clinical signs. Prior to treatment, the most common clinical signs were laminitis, hirsutism, and abnormal body fat distribution. The median pergolide dose was 3.0 microg/kg p.o. q24h (range, 1.7-5.5 microg/kg). All horses treated with cyproheptadine were given 0.25 mg/kg p.o. q24h. After pergolide treatment, ACTH concentrations (n = 20; median = 30.4 pg/ml; range, 4.2-173) were significantly lower (P < .01) than those in horses treated with cyproheptadine (n = 7; median = 141.0 pg/ml: range, 10-1,230). Among horses treated with pergolide, there was a correlation between ACTH concentration after treatment and the duration of treatment (P < .001) and pergolide dose (P = .04). Significantly (P = .02) more owners of horses treated with pergolide (85%, 17/20) reported an improvement in clinical signs compared to owners of horses treated with cyproheptadine (28%, 2/7).

  12. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R R; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Morari, Joseane; Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Razolli, Daniela S; Rocha, Guilherme Z; de Souza, Claudio T; Ryu, Dongryeol; Prada, Patrícia O; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that has a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that the S1P/S1PR1 signalling pathway in hypothalamic neurons regulates energy homeostasis in rodents. We demonstrate that S1PR1 protein is highly enriched in hypothalamic POMC neurons of rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of the bioactive lipid, S1P, reduce food consumption and increase rat energy expenditure through persistent activation of STAT3 and the melanocortin system. Similarly, the selective disruption of hypothalamic S1PR1 increases food intake and reduces the respiratory exchange ratio. We further show that STAT3 controls S1PR1 expression in neurons via a positive feedback mechanism. Interestingly, several models of obesity and cancer anorexia display an imbalance of hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 axis, whereas pharmacological intervention ameliorates these phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the neuronal S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 signalling axis plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis in rats. PMID:25255053

  13. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  14. Early Predictors of Renal Dysfunction in Egyptian Patients with β-Thalassemia Major and Intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Azza A.G.; El Bablawy, Nagham; Adly, Amira A.M.; Ebeid, Fatma S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Better survival of thalassemia patients allowed previously unrecognized renal complications to emerge. Objectives Assess prevalence and early predictors of renal dysfunction in young β-thalassemia major (β-TM) and intermedia (β-TI) patients. Subjects 66 β-TM (group I), 26 β-TI (group II) Egyptian patients and 40 healthy controls. Methods Clinical assessment and laboratory data including kidney and liver function tests, such as serum ferritin, serum bicarbonate, plasma osmolality and urinary total proteins, microalbuminuria (MAU), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), retinol binding protein (RBP), α-1 microglobulin, bicarbonate, osmolality, creatinine clearance (CrCl), % fractional excretion of bicarbonate (% FE-HCO3). Results The prevalent renal abnormality was proteinuria (71%), followed by increased urinary level of RBP (69.4%), NAG (58.1%), α-1 microglobulin (54.8%) and microalbuminuria (29%) and also decreased urinary osmolality (58.1%). CrCl was a better assessment of renal function and significantly lowered in thalassemia patients. Tubular dysfunctions were more significant in splenectomized β-TM patients who showed more elevation of NAG and α-1 microglobulin and lower urinary osmolality. NAG, RBP and α-1 microglobulin were negatively correlated with CrCl and positively correlated with serum ferritin and urinary total protein. Z-score analysis for identifying patients with renal dysfunction proved superiority of urine total protein and RBP. Comparative statistics of different frequencies revealed significant difference between the urinary total protein and both MAU and % FE-HCO3. Conclusion Asymptomatic renal dysfunctions are prevalent in young β-TM and β-TI patients that necessitate regular screening. Urinary total protein and RBP may be cost-effective for early detection. PMID:25237470

  15. Expression of reelin in adult mammalian blood, liver, pituitary pars intermedia, and adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Smalheiser, N R; Costa, E; Guidotti, A; Impagnatiello, F; Auta, J; Lacor, P; Kriho, V; Pappas, G D

    2000-02-01

    Reelin regulates telencephalic and cerebellar lamination during mammalian development and is expressed in several structures of the adult brain; however, only traces of reelin were believed to be in peripheral tissues. Because reelin structurally resembles extracellular matrix proteins, and because many of these proteins are expressed in blood, we hypothesized that reelin also might be detectable in the circulation. Reelin (420 kDa) and two reelin-like immunoreactive bands (310 and 160 kDa) are expressed in serum and platelet-poor plasma of rats, mice, and humans, but these three bands were not detectable in serum of homozygous reeler (rl/rl) mice. Reelin plasma levels in heterozygous (rl/+) mice were half of those in wild-type littermates. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry using antireelin mAbs indicated that reelin-like immunoreactivity was expressed in a subset of chromaffin cells within the rat adrenal medulla and in a subset of cells coexpressing alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone within the pituitary pars intermedia. However, surgical removal of adrenal or pituitary failed to decrease the amount of reelin (420-kDa band) expressed in serum. Adult liver expressed one-third of the reelin mRNA concentration expressed in adult mouse cerebral cortex. Full-length reelin protein was detectable in liver extracts in situ; acutely isolated liver cells also secreted full-length reelin in vitro. Liver appears to be a prime candidate to produce and maintain the circulating reelin pool. It now becomes relevant to ask whether circulating reelin has a physiologic role on one or more peripheral target tissues.

  16. Expression of reelin in adult mammalian blood, liver, pituitary pars intermedia, and adrenal chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, Neil R.; Costa, Erminio; Guidotti, Alessandro; Impagnatiello, Francesco; Auta, James; Lacor, Pascale; Kriho, Virginia; Pappas, George D.

    2000-01-01

    Reelin regulates telencephalic and cerebellar lamination during mammalian development and is expressed in several structures of the adult brain; however, only traces of reelin were believed to be in peripheral tissues. Because reelin structurally resembles extracellular matrix proteins, and because many of these proteins are expressed in blood, we hypothesized that reelin also might be detectable in the circulation. Reelin (420 kDa) and two reelin-like immunoreactive bands (310 and 160 kDa) are expressed in serum and platelet-poor plasma of rats, mice, and humans, but these three bands were not detectable in serum of homozygous reeler (rl/rl) mice. Reelin plasma levels in heterozygous (rl/+) mice were half of those in wild-type littermates. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry using antireelin mAbs indicated that reelin-like immunoreactivity was expressed in a subset of chromaffin cells within the rat adrenal medulla and in a subset of cells coexpressing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone within the pituitary pars intermedia. However, surgical removal of adrenal or pituitary failed to decrease the amount of reelin (420-kDa band) expressed in serum. Adult liver expressed one-third of the reelin mRNA concentration expressed in adult mouse cerebral cortex. Full-length reelin protein was detectable in liver extracts in situ; acutely isolated liver cells also secreted full-length reelin in vitro. Liver appears to be a prime candidate to produce and maintain the circulating reelin pool. It now becomes relevant to ask whether circulating reelin has a physiologic role on one or more peripheral target tissues. PMID:10655522

  17. Acquisition of complement inhibitor serine protease factor I and its cofactors C4b-binding protein and factor H by Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Malm, Sven; Jusko, Monika; Eick, Sigrun; Potempa, Jan; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Prevotella intermedia gives rise to periodontitis and a growing number of studies implies an association of P. intermedia with rheumatoid arthritis. The serine protease Factor I (FI) is the central inhibitor of complement degrading complement components C3b and C4b in the presence of cofactors such as C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and Factor H (FH). Yet, the significance of complement inhibitor acquisition in P. intermedia infection and FI binding by Gram-negative pathogens has not been addressed. Here we show that P. intermedia isolates bound purified FI as well as FI directly from heat-inactivated human serum. FI bound to bacteria retained its serine protease activity as shown in degradation experiments with (125)I-labeled C4b. Since FI requires cofactors for its activity we also investigated the binding of purified cofactors C4BP and FH and found acquisition of both proteins, which retained their activity in FI mediated degradation of C3b and C4b. We propose that FI binding by P. intermedia represents a new mechanism contributing to complement evasion by a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen associated with chronic diseases.

  18. Biogeographical aspects of the occurrence of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a sympatric area of the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Lara; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Carvalho, Deborah Aparecida Alves de; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2012-11-01

    Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai constitute a species complex associated with Leishmania transmission. The aim of this study was to analyse the ecological profiles of the Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai populations in a sympatric area in the Brazilian savannah along the banks of the Velhas River. Captures were performed from July 2003-June 2005 in two distinct environments: a gallery forest with various degrees of anthropogenic modification and animal shelters. A total of 20,508 Ny. neivai (86%) and Ny. intermedia (14%) sandflies were collected. The difference between the proportions of the sandflies that were collected (Ny. neivai/Ny. intermedia) per bank was significant. The right bank presented a greater number of sandflies (65%) and more preserved vegetation. The abundance of Ny. neivai was higher than that of Ny. intermedia on both banks. The results demonstrate that anthropic activities can affect the sandfly populations in this area, thereby leading to a reduction in species abundance. Nevertheless, the environments with higher levels of antropogenic modification displayed sandfly population numbers that favour the Leishmania transmission cycle.

  19. Identification of benzoxazole analogs as novel, S1P(3) sparing S1P(1) agonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guanghui; Meng, Qinghua; Liu, Qian; Xu, Xuesong; Xu, Qiongfeng; Ren, Feng; Guo, Taylor B; Lu, Hongtao; Xiang, Jia-Ning; Elliott, John D; Lin, Xichen

    2012-06-15

    A novel series of benzoxazole-derived S1P(1) agonists were designed based on scaffold hopping molecular design strategy combined with computational approaches. Extensive SAR studies led to the discovery of compound 17d as a selective S1P(1) agonist (over S1P(3)) with high CNS penetration and favorable DMPK properties. 17d also demonstrated in vivo pharmacological efficacy to reduce blood lymphocyte in mice after oral administration.

  20. Characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes (blaA and blaB) in Yersinia intermedia and Y. frederiksenii

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Shilpi; Mallik, Sarita; Sharma, Sachin; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of β-lactamases in Y. enterocolitica has been reported to vary with serovars, biovars and geographical origin of the isolates. An understanding of the β-lactamases in other related species is important for an overall perception of antibiotic resistance in yersiniae. The objective of this work was to study the characteristics of β-lactamases and their genes in strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii, isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources in India. Results The enzymes, Bla-A (a constitutive class A penicillinase) and Bla-B (an inducible class C cephalosporinase) were found to be present in all the clinical and non-clinical strains of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii by double disc diffusion method. The results showed differential expression of Bla-A as indicated by presence/absence of synergy whereas expression of Bla-B was quite consistent. The presence of these enzymes was also reflected in the high minimum inhibitory concentrations, MIC50 (126–1024 mg/L) and MIC90 (256–1024 mg/L) of β-lactam antibiotics against these species. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed heterogeneity in both blaA and blaB genes of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii. The blaA gene of Y. intermedia shared significant sequence identity (87–96%) with blaA of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 4. The sequence identity of blaA of Y. frederiksenii with these biovars was 77–79%. The sequence identity of blaB gene of Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii was more (85%) with that of Y. enterocolitica biovars 1A, 1B and 2 compared to other species viz., Y. bercovieri, Y. aldovae and Y. ruckeri. Isoelectric focusing data further revealed that both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii produced Bla-A (pI 8.7) and "Bla-B like" (pI 5.5–7.1) enzymes. Conclusion Both Y. intermedia and Y. frederiksenii showed presence of blaA and blaB genes and unequivocal expression of the two β-lactamases. Limited heterogeneity was detected in bla

  1. Evolución de estrellas enanas blancas de Helio de masa baja e intermedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Numerosas observaciones realizadas particularmente en los últimos dos años parecen confirmar que las enanas blancas (EB) de helio de masa baja e intermedia son el resultado de la evolución de sistemas binarios cercanos. Con el objeto de realizar una adecuada interpretación de estos objetos son necesarios modelos de EBs de helio lo más detallado posibles. En este estudio presentamos cálculos detallados de la evolución de EBs de helio con masas entre M=0.1Msolar y M=0.5Msolar a intervalos de 0.05Msolar . Para ello, hemos tenido en cuenta los efectos de temperatura finita mediante un código de evolución estelar lo más actualizado posible. En particular, el transporte de energía es descripto en el marco del nuevo modelo para la convección turbulenta desarrollado por Canuto - Mazzitelli. Además hemos considerado la nueva ecuación de estado para plasmas de helio de Saumon et al. y nuevas opacidades radiativas OPAL. Las pérdidas por neutrinos fueron asimismo tenidas en cuenta. Excepto para las EBs más masivas, nuestros modelos iniciales están ubicados en las cercanías de la correspondiente línea de Hayashi para configuraciones de helio. Nuestros resultados muestran que existe una región prohibida en el diagrama observacional HR donde ninguna EB de helio puede encontrarse. Dicha región es para log{(L/Lsolar )}>= -0.25 and log{Teff} >= 4.45. Hemos encontrado también que los tracks evolutivos en el diagrama HR en el dominio de alta luminosidad (pre - EB) son fuertemente afectados por la eficiencia convectiva y que las pérdidas por neutrinos son importantes en los modelos más masivos. Finalmente hemos analizado la estructura de la zona convectiva externa encontrando que la teoría de Canuto - Mazzitelli conduce a un perfil convectivo muy diferente del dado por cualquier versión de la popular teoría de la mixing length. Si bién este comportamiento es decisivo en el contexto de las inestabilides pulsacionales, los radios y gravedades superficiales de

  2. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of pH upon Fluorescence in Suspensions of Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Hope, Christopher K; Billingsley, Karen; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of fluorescence in dental plaque is currently being developed as a diagnostic tool to help inform and improve oral health. The oral anaerobe Prevotella intermedia exhibits red fluorescence due to the accumulation of porphyrins. pH affects the fluorescence of abiotic preparations of porphyrins caused by changes in speciation between monomers, higher aggregates and dimers, but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in bacteria. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from suspensions of P. intermedia that were adjusted to pHs commensurate with the range found within dental plaque. Two fluorescent motifs were identified; 410 nm excitation / 634 nm emission (peak A) and 398 nm excitation / 622 nm emission (peak B). A transition in the fluorescence spectra was observed from peak A to peak B with increasing pH which was also evident as culture age increased from 24 hours to 96 hours. In addition to these 'blue-shifts', the intensity of peak A increased with pH whilst decreasing with culture age from 24 to 96 hours. A bacterium's relationship with the local physiochemical environment at the time of image capture may therefore affect the quantification of dental plaque fluorescence. PMID:27441707

  3. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of pH upon Fluorescence in Suspensions of Prevotella intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Christopher K.; Billingsley, Karen; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of fluorescence in dental plaque is currently being developed as a diagnostic tool to help inform and improve oral health. The oral anaerobe Prevotella intermedia exhibits red fluorescence due to the accumulation of porphyrins. pH affects the fluorescence of abiotic preparations of porphyrins caused by changes in speciation between monomers, higher aggregates and dimers, but this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in bacteria. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from suspensions of P. intermedia that were adjusted to pHs commensurate with the range found within dental plaque. Two fluorescent motifs were identified; 410 nm excitation / 634 nm emission (peak A) and 398 nm excitation / 622 nm emission (peak B). A transition in the fluorescence spectra was observed from peak A to peak B with increasing pH which was also evident as culture age increased from 24 hours to 96 hours. In addition to these ‘blue-shifts’, the intensity of peak A increased with pH whilst decreasing with culture age from 24 to 96 hours. A bacterium’s relationship with the local physiochemical environment at the time of image capture may therefore affect the quantification of dental plaque fluorescence. PMID:27441707

  4. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of nine triterpenoid saponins for the quality control of Stauntonia obovatifoliola Hayata subsp. intermedia stems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuran; Qiu, Feng; Pan, Xueqiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Manyuan; Gong, Muxin

    2014-12-01

    Stauntonia obovatifoliola Hayata subsp. intermedia is used in China to treat rheumatic arthralgia, hernia pain, and traumatic pain. An accurate and reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of nine triterpenoid saponins in this herb. By using a Kromasil 100-5 C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), nine analytes were separated by gradient elution over a running time of 45.0 min. All standard calibration curves demonstrated satisfactory linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9995) within a relatively wide range. The precision was evaluated by intra- and interday tests, which revealed relative standard deviation values within the ranges of 0.20-2.83 and 0.51-2.79%, respectively. The recoveries for the nine target compounds were between 84.6 and 103% with relative standard deviation values less than 2.67%. The samples were also analyzed on a linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in negative mode to confirm the quantification results. In conclusion, the present high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection method could serve as an accurate and reliable method for the quality evaluation of Stauntonia obovatifoliola Hayata subsp. intermedia stems. PMID:25315436

  5. Thalassemia Intermedia Caused by 16p13.3 Sectional Duplication in a β-Thalassemia Heterozygous Child.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sha; Jiang, Hua; Wu, Man-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Ling; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia intermedia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder characterized by a significant genetic and clinical heterogeneity. A wide spectrum of different genotypes-homozygous, heterozygous, and compound heterozygous-have been found to be responsible for it. The authors describe a Chinese child of β-thalassemia heterozygote with the mutation IVS2-654 (C→T) (HBB:c.316-197C→T) presenting with severe thalassemia intermedia. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses of the α gene cluster revealed an approximate 146-kb duplication at 16p13.3 including the complete α gene cluster. The duplicated allele and the normal allele in trans result in a total of 6 active α genes. The severe clinical phenotype seemed to be related to the considerable excess of the α-globin and the β-globin deficit caused by the presence of the β-thalassemia. The α gene duplication should be considered in patients heterozygous for β-thalassemia who show a more severe phenotype than β-thalassemia trait.

  6. Differential Midgut Attachment of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in the Sand Flies Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rodrigo P.; Margonari, Carina; Secundino, Nágila C.; Macêdo, Maria E.; da Costa, Simone M.; Rangel, Elizabeth F.; Pimenta, Paulo F.; Turco, Salvatore J.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between Leishmania and sand flies has been demonstrated in many Old and New World species. Besides the morphological differentiation from procyclic to infective metacyclic promastigotes, the parasite undergoes biochemical transformations in its major surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG). An upregulation of β-glucose residues was previously shown in the LPG repeat units from procyclic to metacyclic phase in Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, which has not been reported in any Leishmania species. LPG has been implicated as an adhesion molecule that mediates the interaction with the midgut epithelium of the sand fly in the Subgenus Leishmania. These adaptations were explored for the first time in a species from the Subgenus Viannia, L. (V.) braziliensis with its natural vectors Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani. Using two in vitro binding techniques, phosphoglycans (PGs) derived from procyclic and metacyclic parasites were able to bind to the insect midgut and inhibit L. braziliensis attachment. Interestingly, L. braziliensis procyclic parasite attachment was ∼11-fold greater in the midgut of L. whitmani than in L. intermedia. The epidemiological relevance of L. whitmani as a vector of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil is discussed. PMID:20011070

  7. [Variations of ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of artificial sand-fixing Caragana intermedia plantations in desert steppe].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Chai, Yong-Qing; Xu, Kun; Zhu, Fan

    2012-11-01

    To study the variation characteristics of ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of Caragana intermedia plantations in desert steppe is of scientific significance in revealing the ecological effect of the plantations on the restoration of desertified grassland ecosystem. In this paper, an investigation was conducted on the ground vegetation and soil properties in 6-, 15-, 24-, and 36-yr artificial sand-fixing C. intermedia plantations in desert steppe of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the variation characteristics of the ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of the C. intermedia plantations analyzed. With the growth and development of the plantations, the shrub crown width, height, sprout number, and basal diameter all increased significantly, the contents of soil coarse sand and fine sand had significant decrease while those of very fine sand and clay silt were in adverse, the soil organic carbon, total N, and total P contents increased linearly, and the soil pH decreased significantly. During the growth process of the plantations, the species number and individual number of ground vegetation increased significantly, and the vegetation coverage and height presented the order of 24- > 15- > 6- > 36-yr plantation. The soil texture, bulk density, nutrient contents, and pH value were the main factors affecting the species and individual number as well as the coverage of ground vegetation in C. intermedia plantations. It was suggested that in desert steppe, the growth process of artificial sand-fixing C. intermedia plantation benefited the improvement of soil conditions and the recovery of ground vegetation, and promoted the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem in desert steppe.

  8. International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shown here is the International Space Station (ISS) S1 Truss in preparation for installation in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at NASA's Kennedy Space Center )KSC)in Florida. The truss launched October 7, 2002 on the STS-112 mission and will be attached during three spacewalks. Constructed primarily of aluminum, it measures 45 feet long, 15 feet wide, 10 feet tall, and weighs over 27,000 pounds. It is one of nine similar truss segments that, combined, will serve as the Station's main backbone, measuring 356 feet from end to end upon completion. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss was flown to the Marshall Space Flight Center, in Huntsville, Alabama where brackets, cable trays, fluid tubing, and other secondary components and outfitting items were added. In Huntsville, it was screened for manufacturing flaws, including pressure and leak checking tubing, and electrical checks for cabling, before being shipped to KSC for final hardware installation and testing. The Space Station's labs, living modules, solar arrays, heat radiators, and other main components will be attached to the truss.

  9. Protective antibodies against a sphingomyelinase D from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom elicited in mice with different genetic background.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Franco Batista; Vilela, Andrea; Coura, Luis Augusto M; Rodrigues, Fernandes Tenório Gomes; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Maioli, Tatiani U; Felicori, Liza F

    2016-07-19

    In the present investigation we used a recombinant LiD1 toxin, named rLiD1his, from Loxosceles intermedia brown spider to elicit specific antibodies in mice carrying different Human Leukocyte Antigens class II (HLAII) {DRB1.0401 (DR4), DQB1.0601 (DQ6) and DQB1.0302 (DQ8)} as well as in BALB/C and C57BL/6 control mice. All mice strains produced high antibody titers against rLiD1his but DR4 mice antibodies (the lower responder mice) were not able to recognize L. intermedia crude venom. The anti-rLiD1his sera, except from DR4 mice, were able to neutralize dermonecrotic, hemorrhagic and edematogenic effects of rLiD1his in naïve rabbits. Overlapping peptides from the amino acid sequence of LiD1 toxin were prepared by SPOT method and differences in LiD1 epitope recognition were observed using different mice anti-rLiD1his sera. The region (160)DKVGHDFSGNDDISDVGK(177) was recognized by transgenic DQ8 and DQ6 mice sera. Other epitopes were recognized by at least two different animals' sera including (10)MGHMVNAIGQIDEFVNLG(27), (37)FDDNANPEYTYHGIP(51), (70)GLRSATTPGNSKYQEKLV(87) and (259)AAYKKKFRVATYDDN(273). Among these epitopes, the epitopes 37-51 and 160-177 have already been shown in previously studies as good candidates to be used alone or combined with other peptides to induce protective immune response against Loxosceles venoms. The results presented here highlight the importance of HLAII in antibody response and recognition of specific B-cell epitopes of rLiD1his spider toxin according to HLAII type and impact in the epitopic vaccine development against this spider. PMID:27265457

  10. Protective antibodies against a sphingomyelinase D from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom elicited in mice with different genetic background.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Franco Batista; Vilela, Andrea; Coura, Luis Augusto M; Rodrigues, Fernandes Tenório Gomes; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Chávez-Olortegui, Carlos; Maioli, Tatiani U; Felicori, Liza F

    2016-07-19

    In the present investigation we used a recombinant LiD1 toxin, named rLiD1his, from Loxosceles intermedia brown spider to elicit specific antibodies in mice carrying different Human Leukocyte Antigens class II (HLAII) {DRB1.0401 (DR4), DQB1.0601 (DQ6) and DQB1.0302 (DQ8)} as well as in BALB/C and C57BL/6 control mice. All mice strains produced high antibody titers against rLiD1his but DR4 mice antibodies (the lower responder mice) were not able to recognize L. intermedia crude venom. The anti-rLiD1his sera, except from DR4 mice, were able to neutralize dermonecrotic, hemorrhagic and edematogenic effects of rLiD1his in naïve rabbits. Overlapping peptides from the amino acid sequence of LiD1 toxin were prepared by SPOT method and differences in LiD1 epitope recognition were observed using different mice anti-rLiD1his sera. The region (160)DKVGHDFSGNDDISDVGK(177) was recognized by transgenic DQ8 and DQ6 mice sera. Other epitopes were recognized by at least two different animals' sera including (10)MGHMVNAIGQIDEFVNLG(27), (37)FDDNANPEYTYHGIP(51), (70)GLRSATTPGNSKYQEKLV(87) and (259)AAYKKKFRVATYDDN(273). Among these epitopes, the epitopes 37-51 and 160-177 have already been shown in previously studies as good candidates to be used alone or combined with other peptides to induce protective immune response against Loxosceles venoms. The results presented here highlight the importance of HLAII in antibody response and recognition of specific B-cell epitopes of rLiD1his spider toxin according to HLAII type and impact in the epitopic vaccine development against this spider.

  11. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A.; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Lennartsson, Patrik R.

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year. PMID:26682213

  12. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  13. S1PR1 Tyr143 phosphorylation downregulates endothelial cell surface S1PR1 expression and responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Alejandra; Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Yazbeck, Pascal; Rajput, Charu; Desai, Bhushan; Sukriti, Sukriti; Giantsos-Adams, Kristina; Knezevic, Nebojsa; Malik, Asrar B.; Mehta, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) plays a key role in repairing endothelial barrier function. We addressed the role of phosphorylation of the three intracellular tyrosine residues of S1PR1 in endothelial cells in regulating the receptor responsiveness and endothelial barrier function regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated activation of S1PR1. We demonstrated that phosphorylation of only Y143 site was required for S1PR1 internalization in response to S1P. Maximal S1PR1 internalization was seen in 20 min but S1PR1 returned to the cell surface within 1 h accompanied by Y143-dephosphorylation. Cell surface S1PR1 loss paralleled defective endothelial barrier enhancement induced by S1P. Expression of phospho-defective (Y143F) or phospho-mimicking (Y143D) mutants, respectively, failed to internalize or showed unusually high receptor internalization, consistent with the requirement of Y143 in regulating cell surface S1PR1 expression. Phosphorylation of the five S1PR1 C-terminal serine residues did not affect the role of Y143 phosphorylation in signaling S1PR1 internalization. Thus, rapid reduction of endothelial cell surface expression of S1PR1 subsequent to Y143 phosphorylation is a crucial mechanism of modulating S1PR1 signaling, and hence the endothelial barrier repair function of S1P. PMID:25588843

  14. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain. PMID:26576074

  15. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  16. Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. intermedia, Y. aldovae, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. pseudotuberculosis by electrophoretic polymorphism of acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Goullet, P; Picard, B

    1988-02-01

    Acid phosphatase, esterases, and glutamate and malate dehydrogenases of 192 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. intermedia, Y. aldovae, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii and Y. pseudotuberculosis were analysed by horizontal polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and by isoelectrofocusing in thin-layer polyacrylamide gels. The six species were clearly separated from each other by their distinct enzyme electrophoretic polymorphism. For Y. enterocolitica, the strains of biotype 5 were differentiated from the other biotypes by the mobility of glutamate dehydrogenase. For Y. frederiksenii, six zymotypes were delineated by pI and by the mobility of the enzymes. Variation in number or mobility of esterases within each species could represent a marker for epidemiological and ecological analyses. A linear relationship was obtained between the mean genetic diversity coefficient of enzymes and the mean percentage DNA-DNA relatedness of Y. intermedia, Y. aldovae, Y. enterocolitica and Y. frederiksenii.

  17. Conformationally Constrained, Stable, Triplet Ground State (S = 1) Nitroxide Diradicals. Antiferromagnetic Chains of S = 1 Diradicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Takahashi, Masahiro; Pink, Maren; Spagnol, Gaelle; Rajca, Suchada

    2008-06-30

    Nitroxide diradicals, in which nitroxides are annelated to m-phenylene forming tricyclic benzobisoxazine-like structures, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, as well as magnetic studies in solution and in solid state. For the octamethyl derivative of benzobisoxazine nitroxide diradical, the conformationally constrained nitroxide moieties are coplanar with the m-phenylene, leading to large values of 2J (2J/k > 200 K in solution and 2J/k >> 300 K in the solid state). For the diradical, in which all ortho and para positions of the m-phenylene are sterically shielded, distortion of the nitroxide moieties from coplanarity is moderate, such that the singlet-triplet gaps remain large in both solution (2J/k > 200 K) and the solid state (2J/k {approx} 400-800 K), though an onset of thermal depopulation of the triplet ground state is detectable near room temperature. These diradicals have robust triplet ground states with strong ferromagnetic coupling and good stability at ambient conditions. Magnetic behavior of the nitroxide diradicals at low temperature is best fit to the model of one-dimensional S = 1 Heisenberg chains with intrachain antiferromagnetic coupling. The antiferromagnetic coupling between the S = 1 diradicals may be associated with the methyl nitroxide C-H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts, including nonclassical hydrogen bonds. These unprecedented organic S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains are highly isotropic, compared to those of the extensively studied Ni(II)-based chains.

  18. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil “fertile islands” were formed, and the “fertile islands” were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous

  19. Interaction of Prevotella intermedia strain 17 leucine-rich repeat domain protein AdpF with eukaryotic cells promotes bacterial internalization.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Dipanwita; Kang, Dae-Joong; Anaya-Bergman, Cecilia; Wyant, Tiana; Ghosh, Arnab K; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Lewis, Janina P

    2014-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia is an oral bacterium implicated in a variety of oral diseases. Although internalization of this bacterium by nonphagocytic host cells is well established, the molecular players mediating the process are not well known. Here, the properties of a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain protein, designated AdpF, are described. This protein contains a leucine-rich region composed of 663 amino acid residues, and molecular modeling shows that it folds into a classical curved solenoid structure. The cell surface localization of recombinant AdpF (rAdpF) was confirmed by electron and confocal microscopy analyses. The recombinant form of this protein bound fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the protein was internalized by host cells, with the majority of the process accomplished within 30 min. The internalization of rAdpF was inhibited by nystatin, cytochalasin, latrunculin, nocodazole, and wortmannin, indicating that microtubules, microfilaments, and signal transduction are required for the invasion. It is noteworthy that preincubation of eukaryotic cells with AdpF increased P. intermedia 17 internalization by 5- and 10-fold for HeLa and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines, respectively. The addition of the rAdpF protein was also very effective in inducing bacterial internalization into the oral epithelial cell line HN4, as well as into primary cells, including human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Finally, cells exposed to P. intermedia 17 internalized the bacteria more readily upon reinfection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rAdpF plays a role in the internalization of P. intermedia 17 by a variety of host cells.

  20. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil "fertile islands" were formed, and the "fertile islands" were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous shrub.

  1. Analytical performance of an immunologic-based periodontal bacterial test for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Snyder, B; Ryerson, C C; Corona, H; Grogan, E A; Reynolds, H S; Contestable, P B; Boyer, B P; Mayer, J; Mangan, T; Norkus, N; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1996-05-01

    The analytical performance of a membrane-based immunoassay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia (including Prevotella nigrescens) was investigated. Positive reactions were observed for 71 of 71 reference strains and recent oral isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and P. intermedia. No cross-reactivity was observed with 39 other common oral and environmental species. The specificity of the test was unaffected by the presence of potential oral interferents including whole blood, white blood cells, mucin, saliva, toothpastes, and oral rinses. A proficiency test by dental professionals using a standardized set of unknown simulated samples yielded a sensitivity of 97% (116/120) and a 100% specificity (240/ 240). An additional group including dental professionals and high school students was shown to be 99% proficient (1385/1397) in distinguishing proper from improper test function when processing control samples with normal test devices and devices with simulated error conditions. Comparisons to a culture standard for 104 subgingival plaque samples collected from 26 adult periodontitis patients yielded > 98% specificity for each of the test bacteria. In addition, the detection threshold for the test was determined to be equivalent to 10(4) cultivable test bacteria when compared to the culture standard. The data indicate that this membrane immunoassay is a valid and easy-to-use method for the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and P. intermedia in subgingival plaque, at levels above the detection threshold of the test.

  2. Postnatal development of the interstitial cells (palisade cells) of the pars intermedia in the cat pituitary gland. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Marín, J F; Boya, J

    1991-01-01

    The postnatal development of the interstitial agranulated cells (so-called palisade cells) of the pars intermedia in the cat was investigated immunocytochemically and at the ultrastructural level. Since the first postnatal days, a strong vimentin immunoreactivity and a weaker S-100 protein immunoreactivity were detected in the marginal cells lining the pituitary cleft and in the interstitial bipolar cells located within the pars intermedia. No glial fibrillary acidic protein cells have been found in the pars intermedia of any of the animals studied. This immunocytochemical pattern was maintained throughout the postnatal development. Ultrastructurally these cells showed a vast number of cytoplasmic filaments and well-developed junctional complexes. Secretory granules were never seen. In older animals they lined microcavities and microchannels where they project microvilli and present pinocytotic vesicles on their apical surface. No transitional forms between these cells and granulated secretory cells were found. There is a large number of axons and synaptic endings in contact with the granulated secretory cells. From our findings we guess that palisade cells are not a glial derivative, but they may share a common origin with secretory granulated cells.

  3. New bacteriophage typing system for Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia frederiksenii, and Yersinia intermedia: correlation with serotyping, biotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Baker, P M; Farmer, J J

    1982-03-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is listed as a single species in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, but has recently been split into "true" Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. frederiksenii. From 48 bacteriophages isolated from raw sewage, 24 were chosen as being the most useful for differentiating strains within the four Yersinia species. The composite set of 24 phages typed 92% of 236 Y. enterocolitica strains, 100% of 16 Y. kristensenii strains, 97% of 29 Y. frederiksenii strains, and 90% of 20 Y. intermedia strains. The most common phage type in any of the groups contained 22% of the strains tested, but most of the phage types contained greater than 5% of the strains. The new typing schema was tested in three outbreaks of Y. enterocolitica, and the results agreed well with serotyping and epidemiological findings. In the same outbreaks, biotyping (API 20E profiles; Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and antibiograms were less reliable markers and probably should be used only in conjunction with serotyping or phage typing or both. Caution should be used in identifying cultures of Y. frederiksenii and Y. intermedia with the API 20E system, since the tests at 37 degrees C for L-rhamnose and melibiose fermentation are often delayed past 24 h, which is the cut-off point for the final reading in the API system. There were distinct differences in the susceptibilities of Y. enterocolitica and Y. kristensenii to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephalothin, which adds further support for classifying the latter as a separate species.

  4. An Extraordinary Accumulation of (-)-Pinoresinol in Cell-Free Extracts of Forsythia intermedia: Evidence for Enantiospecific Reduction of (+)-Pinoresinol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katayama, Takeshi; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    1992-01-01

    Stereoselective and enantiospecific transformation mechanisms in lignan biogenesis are only now yielding to scientific inquiry: it has been shown that soluble cell-free preparations from Forsythia intermedia catalysis the formation of the enantiomerically pure lignan, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, when incubated with coniferyl alcohol in the presence of NAD(P)H and H2O2. Surprisingly, (-)-pinoresinol also accumulates in this soluble cell-free assay mixture in greater than 96% enantiomeric excess, even though it is not the naturally occurring antipode present in Forsythia sp. But these soluble cell-free preparations do not engender stereoselective coupling; instead, racemic pinoresinols are first formed, catalysed by an H2O2-dependent peroxidase reaction. An enantiospecific NAD(P)H reductase then converts (+)- pinoresinol, and not the (-)-antipode, into (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Stereoselective syntheis of(+)-pinoresinol from E-coniferyl alcohol is, however, catalysed by an insoluble enzyme preparation in F. suspensa, obtained following removal of readily soluble and ionically bound enzymes; no exogenously supplied cofactors were required other than oxygen, although the reaction was stimulated by NAD-malate addition. Thus, the overall biochemical pathway to enantiomerically pure (-)-secoisolariciresinol has been delineated.

  5. Brain positron emission tomography in splenectomized adults with β-thalassemia intermedia: uncovering yet another covert abnormality.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Khaled M; Nasreddine, Wassim; Beydoun, Ahmad; Hourani, Roula; Hankir, Ahmed; Koussa, Suzanne; Haidar, Mohamad; Taher, Ali T

    2012-02-01

    Covert brain infarction is an emerging concern in patients with β-thalassemia intermedia (TI). We have recently observed a high prevalence (60%) of silent brain infarction on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 30 splenectomized adults with TI. In this work, we further evaluate cerebral involvement in the same 30 patients using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanning. The median age was 32 years (range, 18-54 years) with a male to female ratio of 13:17. Nineteen patients (63.3%) had evidence of decreased neuronal function on PET-CT. Involvement was mostly left sided, multiple, and most commonly in the temporal and parietal lobes. Elevated liver iron concentration, beyond 15 mg Fe/g dry weight, characterized patients with decreased neuronal function. The concordance rate between brain MRI and PET-CT for the detection of brain abnormality was only 36.7% (Kappa 0.056, P = 0.757), highlighting that both modalities reveal different types of brain pathology. Decreased neuronal function is a common finding in patients with TI and is associated with iron overload. Moreover, the addition of PET-CT to MRI identifies a greater proportion of TI patients with silent neuroimaging abnormalities.

  6. An extraordinary accumulation of (-)-pinoresinol in cell-free extracts of Forsythia intermedia: evidence for enantiospecific reduction of (+)-pinoresinol.

    PubMed

    Katayama, T; Davin, L B; Lewis, N G

    1992-11-01

    Stereoselective and enantiospecific transformation mechanisms in lignan biogenesis are only now yielding to scientific inquiry: it has been shown that soluble cell-free preparations from Forsythia intermedia catalyse the formation of the enantiomerically pure lignan, (-)-secoisolariciresinol, when incubated with coniferyl alcohol in the presence of NAD(P)H and H2O2. Surprisingly, (-)-pinoresinol also accumulates in this soluble cell-free assay mixture in > 96% enantiomeric excess, even though it is not the naturally occurring antipode present in Forsythia sp. But these soluble cell-free preparations do not engender stereoselective coupling; instead, racemic pinoresinols are first formed, catalysed by an H2O2-dependent peroxidase reaction. An enantiospecific NAD(P)H reductase then converts (+)-pinoresinol, and not the (-)-antipode, into (-)-secoisolariciresinol. Stereoselective synthesis [correction of syntheis] of (+)-pinoresinol from E-coniferyl alcohol is, however, catalysed by an insoluble enzyme preparation in F. suspensa, obtained following removal of readily soluble and ionically bound enzymes; no exogenously supplied cofactors were required other than oxygen, although the reaction was stimulated by NAD-malate addition. Thus, the overall biochemical pathway to enantiomerically pure (-)-secoisolariciresinol has been delineated.

  7. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  8. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  9. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  12. Evolution of SINE S1 retroposons in Cruciferae plant species.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, A; Cournoyer, B; Warwick, S; Picard, G; Deragon, J M

    1997-09-01

    The S1 element is a plant short interspersed element (SINE) that was first described and studied in Brassica napus. In this work, we investigated the distribution and the molecular phylogeny of the S1 element within the Cruciferae (= Brassicaceae). S1 elements were found to be widely distributed within the Cruciferae, especially in species of the tribe Brassiceae. The molecular phylogeny of S1 elements in eight Cruciferae species (Brassica oleracea, Brassica rapa, Brassica napus, Brassica nigra, Sinapis, arvensis, Sinapis pubescens, Coincya monensis, and Vella spinosa) was inferred using 14-36 elements per species. Significant neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic clusters, supported by high bootstrap P values and/or represented in 100% of the most-parsimonious trees, were observed for each species. Most of these clusters probably correspond to recent species-specific bursts of S1 amplification. Since these species diverged recently, S1 amplification in Cruciferae plants is proposed to be a highly dynamic process that could contribute to genome rearrangements and eventually lead to reproductive isolation. S1 sequence analysis also revealed putative gene conversion events that occurred between different S1 elements of a given species. These events suggest that gene conversion is a minor but significant component of the molecular drive governing S1 concerted evolution.

  13. Circumpolar diversity and geographic differentiation of mtDNA in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia).

    PubMed

    Sremba, Angela L; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany; Branch, Trevor A; LeDuc, Rick L; Baker, C Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) was hunted to near extinction between 1904 and 1972, declining from an estimated initial abundance of more than 250,000 to fewer than 400. Here, we describe mtDNA control region diversity and geographic differentiation in the surviving population of the Antarctic blue whale, using 218 biopsy samples collected under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) during research cruises from 1990-2009. Microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA sequences identified 166 individuals among the 218 samples and documented movement of a small number of individuals, including a female that traveled at least 6,650 km or 131° longitude over four years. mtDNA sequences from the 166 individuals were aligned with published sequences from 17 additional individuals, resolving 52 unique haplotypes from a consensus length of 410 bp. From this minimum census, a rarefaction analysis predicted that only 72 haplotypes (95% CL, 64, 86) have survived in the contemporary population of Antarctic blue whales. However, haplotype diversity was relatively high (0.968±0.004), perhaps as a result of the longevity of blue whales and the relatively recent timing of the bottleneck. Despite the potential for circumpolar dispersal, we found significant differentiation in mtDNA diversity (F(ST) = 0.032, p<0.005) and microsatellite alleles (F(ST) = 0.005, p<0.05) among the six Antarctic Areas historically used by the IWC for management of blue whales. PMID:22412889

  14. Identification, cloning, expression and functional characterization of an astacin-like metalloprotease toxin from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Rafael B; Wille, Ana C M; Chaim, Olga M; Appel, Marcia H; Silva, Dilza T; Franco, Célia R C; Toma, Leny; Mangili, Oldemir C; Gremski, Waldemiro; Dietrich, Carl P; Nader, Helena B; Veiga, Silvio S

    2007-09-01

    Injuries caused by brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) are associated with dermonecrotic lesions with gravitational spreading and systemic manifestations. The venom has a complex composition containing many different toxins, of which metalloproteases have been described in many different species of this genus. These toxins may degrade extracellular matrix constituents acting as a spreading factor. By using a cDNA library from an Loxosceles intermedia venom gland, we cloned and expressed a 900 bp cDNA, which encoded a signal peptide and a propeptide, which corresponded to a 30 kDa metalloprotease, now named LALP (Loxosceles astacin-like protease). Recombinant LALP was refolded and used to produce a polyclonal antiserum, which showed cross-reactivity with a 29 kDa native venom protein. CD analysis provided evidence that the recombinant LALP toxin was folded correctly, was still in a native conformation and had not aggregated. LALP addition to endothelial cell cultures resulted in de-adhesion of the cells, and also in the degradation of fibronectin and fibrinogen (this could be inhibited by the presence of the bivalent chelator 1,10-phenanthroline) and of gelatin in vitro. Sequence comparison (nucleotide and deduced amino acid), phylogenetic analysis and analysis of the functional recombinant toxin revealed that LALP is related in both structure and function to the astacin family of metalloproteases. This suggests that an astacin-like toxin is present in a animal venom secretion and indicates that recombinant LALP will be a useful tool for future structural and functional studies on venom and the astacin family.

  15. Circumpolar diversity and geographic differentiation of mtDNA in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia).

    PubMed

    Sremba, Angela L; Hancock-Hanser, Brittany; Branch, Trevor A; LeDuc, Rick L; Baker, C Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) was hunted to near extinction between 1904 and 1972, declining from an estimated initial abundance of more than 250,000 to fewer than 400. Here, we describe mtDNA control region diversity and geographic differentiation in the surviving population of the Antarctic blue whale, using 218 biopsy samples collected under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) during research cruises from 1990-2009. Microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA sequences identified 166 individuals among the 218 samples and documented movement of a small number of individuals, including a female that traveled at least 6,650 km or 131° longitude over four years. mtDNA sequences from the 166 individuals were aligned with published sequences from 17 additional individuals, resolving 52 unique haplotypes from a consensus length of 410 bp. From this minimum census, a rarefaction analysis predicted that only 72 haplotypes (95% CL, 64, 86) have survived in the contemporary population of Antarctic blue whales. However, haplotype diversity was relatively high (0.968±0.004), perhaps as a result of the longevity of blue whales and the relatively recent timing of the bottleneck. Despite the potential for circumpolar dispersal, we found significant differentiation in mtDNA diversity (F(ST) = 0.032, p<0.005) and microsatellite alleles (F(ST) = 0.005, p<0.05) among the six Antarctic Areas historically used by the IWC for management of blue whales.

  16. Emissions in potassium vapour under 4S1/2-7S1/2 two-photon nsec excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, D.; Chatzikyriakos, G.; Armyras, A.; Efthimiopoulos, T.

    2010-11-01

    The two-photon excitation of 4S1/2-7S1/2 transition of potassium atoms is studied. Several coherent emissions and processes are possible, such as parametric four-wave (PFWM), parametric six-wave (PSWM) mixing and competition with the stimulated hyper Raman (SHRS) and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The radiations at the transitions 6P3/2,1/2-4S1/2, 6S1/2-4P3/2,1/2 and 5P3/2,1/2-4S1/2 are emitted only in the forward direction (indicating a parametric process), while the radiation at the transition 4P3/2,1/2-4S1/2 is emitted in the forward and in the backward direction, indicating an ASE process.

  17. The complete genome sequencing of Prevotella intermedia strain OMA14 and a subsequent fine-scale, intra-species genomic comparison reveal an unusual amplification of conjugative and mobile transposons and identify a novel Prevotella-lineage-specific repeat

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Mariko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Shoji, Mikio; Okamoto, Masaaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a pathogenic bacterium involved in periodontal diseases. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a clinical strain, OMA14, of this bacterium along with the results of comparative genome analysis with strain 17 of the same species whose genome has also been sequenced, but not fully analysed yet. The genomes of both strains consist of two circular chromosomes: the larger chromosomes are similar in size and exhibit a high overall linearity of gene organizations, whereas the smaller chromosomes show a significant size variation and have undergone remarkable genome rearrangements. Unique features of the Pre. intermedia genomes are the presence of a remarkable number of essential genes on the second chromosomes and the abundance of conjugative and mobilizable transposons (CTns and MTns). The CTns/MTns are particularly abundant in the second chromosomes, involved in its extensive genome rearrangement, and have introduced a number of strain-specific genes into each strain. We also found a novel 188-bp repeat sequence that has been highly amplified in Pre. intermedia and are specifically distributed among the Pre. intermedia-related species. These findings expand our understanding of the genetic features of Pre. intermedia and the roles of CTns and MTns in the evolution of bacteria. PMID:26645327

  18. The complete genome sequencing of Prevotella intermedia strain OMA14 and a subsequent fine-scale, intra-species genomic comparison reveal an unusual amplification of conjugative and mobile transposons and identify a novel Prevotella-lineage-specific repeat.

    PubMed

    Naito, Mariko; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Shoji, Mikio; Okamoto, Masaaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Prevotella intermedia is a pathogenic bacterium involved in periodontal diseases. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a clinical strain, OMA14, of this bacterium along with the results of comparative genome analysis with strain 17 of the same species whose genome has also been sequenced, but not fully analysed yet. The genomes of both strains consist of two circular chromosomes: the larger chromosomes are similar in size and exhibit a high overall linearity of gene organizations, whereas the smaller chromosomes show a significant size variation and have undergone remarkable genome rearrangements. Unique features of the Pre. intermedia genomes are the presence of a remarkable number of essential genes on the second chromosomes and the abundance of conjugative and mobilizable transposons (CTns and MTns). The CTns/MTns are particularly abundant in the second chromosomes, involved in its extensive genome rearrangement, and have introduced a number of strain-specific genes into each strain. We also found a novel 188-bp repeat sequence that has been highly amplified in Pre. intermedia and are specifically distributed among the Pre. intermedia-related species. These findings expand our understanding of the genetic features of Pre. intermedia and the roles of CTns and MTns in the evolution of bacteria.

  19. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  20. Expression and immunological cross-reactivity of LALP3, a novel astacin-like metalloprotease from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom.

    PubMed

    Morgon, Adriano M; Belisario-Ferrari, Matheus R; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Meissner, Gabriel O; Vuitika, Larissa; Marin, Brenda; Tashima, Alexandre K; Gremski, Luiza H; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio S; Chaim, Olga M

    2016-01-01

    Loxosceles spiders' venom comprises a complex mixture of biologically active toxins, mostly consisting of low molecular mass components (2-40 kDa). Amongst, isoforms of astacin-like metalloproteases were identified through transcriptome and proteome analyses. Only LALP1 (Loxosceles Astacin-Like protease 1) has been characterized. Herein, we characterized LALP3 as a novel recombinant astacin-like metalloprotease isoform from Loxosceles intermedia venom. LALP3 cDNA was cloned in pET-SUMO vector, and its soluble heterologous expression was performed using a SUMO tag added to LALP3 to achieve solubility in Escherichia coli SHuffle T7 Express LysY cells, which express the disulfide bond isomerase DsbC. Protein purification was conducted by Ni-NTA Agarose resin and assayed for purity by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Immunoblotting analyses were performed with specific antibodies recognizing LALP1 and whole venom. Western blotting showed linear epitopes from recombinant LALP3 that cross-reacted with LALP1, and dot blotting revealed conformational epitopes with native venom astacins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the recombinant expressed protein is an astacin-like metalloprotease from L. intermedia venom. Furthermore, molecular modeling of LALP3 revealed that this isoform contains the zinc binding and Met-turn motifs, forming the active site, as has been observed in astacins. These data confirmed that LALP3, which was successfully obtained by heterologous expression using a prokaryote system, is a new astacin-like metalloprotease isoform present in L. intermedia venom. PMID:27343628

  1. Detection and genetic characterization of β-lactamases in Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolated from oral cavity infections and peritonsillar abscesses.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Canigia, Liliana; Cejas, Daniela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Radice, Marcela

    2015-06-01

    A prospective analysis on β-lactam resistance mechanisms and β-lactamase prevalence was conducted on Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens recovered from patients with chronic periodontitis and peritonsillar abscesses. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were performed to characterize the β-lactamases, their coding genes and their genetic contexts. Overall, β-lactamase production was observed in 64% (16/25) P. intermedia and 23.8% (5/21) P. nigrescens (p < 0.01). Besides higher β-lactamase production rates were observed in P. intermedia (8/16) than in P. nigrescens (2/16) recovered from chronic periodontitis, almost all isolates from peritonsillar abscesses were producers (8/9 and 3/3, respectively). cfxA, but not cepA and cblA, was detected in those isolates, which were previously categorized as β-lactamase producers. CfxA producing isolates displayed higher β-lactam MICs than non-producers in both species. The most frequent allele was cfxA2, followed by cfxA3 and a new allelic variant named cfxA6. The analysis of the downstream flanking region in the three cfxA variants revealed the association with mobA of Tn4555, suggesting their localization in a mobilizable element. β-lactam resistance and cfxA carriage prevalence seems to be not only related to the bacterial species but also to the infection site.

  2. Expression and immunological cross-reactivity of LALP3, a novel astacin-like metalloprotease from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom.

    PubMed

    Morgon, Adriano M; Belisario-Ferrari, Matheus R; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Meissner, Gabriel O; Vuitika, Larissa; Marin, Brenda; Tashima, Alexandre K; Gremski, Luiza H; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio S; Chaim, Olga M

    2016-01-01

    Loxosceles spiders' venom comprises a complex mixture of biologically active toxins, mostly consisting of low molecular mass components (2-40 kDa). Amongst, isoforms of astacin-like metalloproteases were identified through transcriptome and proteome analyses. Only LALP1 (Loxosceles Astacin-Like protease 1) has been characterized. Herein, we characterized LALP3 as a novel recombinant astacin-like metalloprotease isoform from Loxosceles intermedia venom. LALP3 cDNA was cloned in pET-SUMO vector, and its soluble heterologous expression was performed using a SUMO tag added to LALP3 to achieve solubility in Escherichia coli SHuffle T7 Express LysY cells, which express the disulfide bond isomerase DsbC. Protein purification was conducted by Ni-NTA Agarose resin and assayed for purity by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Immunoblotting analyses were performed with specific antibodies recognizing LALP1 and whole venom. Western blotting showed linear epitopes from recombinant LALP3 that cross-reacted with LALP1, and dot blotting revealed conformational epitopes with native venom astacins. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the recombinant expressed protein is an astacin-like metalloprotease from L. intermedia venom. Furthermore, molecular modeling of LALP3 revealed that this isoform contains the zinc binding and Met-turn motifs, forming the active site, as has been observed in astacins. These data confirmed that LALP3, which was successfully obtained by heterologous expression using a prokaryote system, is a new astacin-like metalloprotease isoform present in L. intermedia venom.

  3. New bacteriophage typing system for Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia frederiksenii, and Yersinia intermedia: correlation with serotyping, biotyping, and antibiotic susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, P M; Farmer, J J

    1982-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is listed as a single species in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, but has recently been split into "true" Y. enterocolitica, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, and Y. frederiksenii. From 48 bacteriophages isolated from raw sewage, 24 were chosen as being the most useful for differentiating strains within the four Yersinia species. The composite set of 24 phages typed 92% of 236 Y. enterocolitica strains, 100% of 16 Y. kristensenii strains, 97% of 29 Y. frederiksenii strains, and 90% of 20 Y. intermedia strains. The most common phage type in any of the groups contained 22% of the strains tested, but most of the phage types contained greater than 5% of the strains. The new typing schema was tested in three outbreaks of Y. enterocolitica, and the results agreed well with serotyping and epidemiological findings. In the same outbreaks, biotyping (API 20E profiles; Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and antibiograms were less reliable markers and probably should be used only in conjunction with serotyping or phage typing or both. Caution should be used in identifying cultures of Y. frederiksenii and Y. intermedia with the API 20E system, since the tests at 37 degrees C for L-rhamnose and melibiose fermentation are often delayed past 24 h, which is the cut-off point for the final reading in the API system. There were distinct differences in the susceptibilities of Y. enterocolitica and Y. kristensenii to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and cephalothin, which adds further support for classifying the latter as a separate species. Images PMID:7076822

  4. Human casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) skews in vitro differentiation of monocytes towards macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The milk-derived protein human Casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) has recently been detected in blood cells and was shown to possess proinflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CSN1S1 on the differentiation of monocytes. Methods Primary human monocytes were stimulated with recombinant CSN1S1 and compared to cells stimulated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or M-CSF/IFNγ. Morphological changes were assessed by microscopy and quantification of surface markers of differentiation by FACS analysis. Phagocytic activity of CSN1S1 stimulated cells was measured by quantification of zymosan labeled particle uptake. The role of mitogen activated protein kinases for CSN1S1-induced differentiation of monocytes and proinflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by supplementation of specific inhibitors. Results CSN1S1 at a concentration of 10 μg/ml resulted in morphological changes (irregular shape, pseudopodia) and aggregation of cells, comparable to changes observed in M-CSF/IFNγ differentiated macrophages. Surface marker expression was altered after 24 h with an upregulation of CD14 (mean 2.5 fold) and CD64 (1.9 fold) in CSN1S1 stimulated cells. CSN1S1 treated cells showed a characteristic surface marker pattern for macrophages after 120 h of incubation (CD14high, CD64high, CD83low, CD1alow) comparable to changes observed in M-CSF/IFNγ treated monocytes. Furthermore, phagocytic activity was increased 1.4 and 1.9 fold following stimulation with 10 μg/ml CSN1S1 after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Early GM-CSF, but not GM-CSF/IL-4 induced differentiation of monocytes towards dendritic cells (DC) was inhibited by addition of CSN1S1. Finally, CSN1S1 induced upregulation of CD14 was impeded by inhibition of ERK1/2, while inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases JNK and p38 did not influence cellular differentiation. However, JNK and p38 inhibitors impeded CSN1S1 induced secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1b or IL-6. Conclusions CSN1S1

  5. Anti-loxoscelic horse serum produced against a recombinant dermonecrotic protein of Brazilian Loxosceles intermedia spider neutralize lethal effects of Loxosceles laeta venom from Peru.

    PubMed

    Duarte, C G; Bonilla, C; Guimarães, G; Machado de Avila, R A; Mendes, T M; Silva, W; Tintaya, B; Yarleque, A; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an anti-loxoscelic serum was produced by immunizing horses with a recombinant dermonecrotic protein from Loxosceles intermedia (rLiD1). Anti-rLiD1 antibodies were able to recognize different species of Loxosceles venoms by Western Blot and ELISA. The efficacy of anti-rLiD1 serum against the toxic effects of Loxosceles laeta (Peru) venom was tested, showing that anti-rLiD1 serum can neutralize those effects. This study confirms that recombinant proteins can be good candidates to replace crude venoms for antivenom production.

  6. Hb Filottrano [codon 120 (-A)]: a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the β-globin gene causing dominantly inherited β-thalassemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Perri, Maria; Zaghis, Ivo; Mastropietro, Fabrizio; Ponzini, Donatella; Di Biagio, Paola; Piscitelli, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel frameshift mutation in exon 3 of the β-globin gene, that, in the heterozygous state, leads to a β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) phenotype (marked anemia, splenomegaly, hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice, unbalanced synthesis of α/non-α chains in a 34-year-old Italian woman. This frameshift mutation, due to the deletion of the first nucleotide (-A) at codon 120, results in a β-globin chain that is elongated to 156 amino acid residues. These highly unstable abnormal chains precipitate in the erythroblasts as inclusion bodies, thus causing inefficient erythropoiesis and ultimately resulting in the observed dominant clinical phenotype.

  7. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1). PMID:19881852

  8. Interleukin 10–Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C.; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Results. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4+CD25+ T cells, including Foxp3+ cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P < .05) in macrophages cocultured with saliva-stimulated lymphocytes from exposed individuals and addition of anti–IL-10 reverted this effect. Positive correlation between antibody response to saliva and cellular response to Leishmania was not found. Importantly, individuals seropositive to saliva are 2.1 times more likely to develop CL (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.2; P < .05). Conclusions. Exposure to L. intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. PMID:25596303

  9. Molecular cloning, heterologous expression and functional characterization of a novel translationally-controlled tumor protein (TCTP) family member from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom.

    PubMed

    Sade, Youssef B; Bóia-Ferreira, Marianna; Gremski, Luiza H; da Silveira, Rafael B; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga M; Veiga, Silvio S

    2012-01-01

    Envenoming with brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) is common throughout the world. Cutaneous symptoms following spider bite accidents include dermonecrosis, erythema, itching and pain. In some cases, accidents can cause hypersensibility or even allergic reactions. These responses could be associated with histaminergic events, such as an increase in vascular permeability and vasodilatation. A protein that may be related to the effects of spider venom was identified from a previously obtained cDNA library of the L. intermedia venom gland. The amino acid sequence of this protein is homologous to proteins from the TCTP (translationally-controlled tumor protein) family, which are extracellular histamine-releasing factors (HRF) that are associated with the allergic reactions to parasites. Herein, we described the cloning, heterologous expression, purification and functional characterization of a novel member of the TCTP family from the Loxosceles intermedia venom gland. This recombinant protein, named LiRecTCTP, causes edema, enhances vascular permeability and is likely related to the inflammatory activity of the venom. Moreover, LiRecTCTP presents an immunological relationship with mammalian TCTPs.

  10. Pattern of inflammatory response to Loxosceles intermedia venom in distinct mouse strains: a key element to understand skin lesions and dermonecrosis by poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M F; Oliveira, F L; Monteiro-Machado, M; Cardoso, P F; Guilarducci-Ferraz, V V C; Melo, P A; Souza, C M V; Calil-Elias, S

    2015-03-01

    Envenomation caused by spiders Loxosceles induce intense dermonecrosis at the bite site and systemic disease. In this work we described the hyaluronidase and collagenase activities in vitro of the Loxosceles intermedia venom, but no phospholipase A2 activity. In vivo, we evaluated the effect of L. intermedia venom used different strain of mice, C57BL/6, BALB/c and Swiss. All mice developed paw edema after venom injection, persistent for 24 h in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Histopathological analysis of the skin after venom injection revealed vascular congestion in Swiss mice and an inflammatory reaction in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. The mobilization of inflammatory cells from bone marrow, spleen and blood was investigated. Typical innate immune response with mobilization of myeloid cells and cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes was observed in C57BL/6 mice. In contrast, typical acquired/humoral immune response was observed in BALB/c mice, with preferential involvement of conventional B lymphocytes and CD4 T helper cells. The skin inflammation associated to mobilization of inflammatory cells indicated that mice models are strongly recommended to investigate specific cell types involved with immune response to the envenomation and mechanisms to inhibit skin lesions.

  11. Molecular cloning, heterologous expression and functional characterization of a novel translationally-controlled tumor protein (TCTP) family member from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom.

    PubMed

    Sade, Youssef B; Bóia-Ferreira, Marianna; Gremski, Luiza H; da Silveira, Rafael B; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga M; Veiga, Silvio S

    2012-01-01

    Envenoming with brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) is common throughout the world. Cutaneous symptoms following spider bite accidents include dermonecrosis, erythema, itching and pain. In some cases, accidents can cause hypersensibility or even allergic reactions. These responses could be associated with histaminergic events, such as an increase in vascular permeability and vasodilatation. A protein that may be related to the effects of spider venom was identified from a previously obtained cDNA library of the L. intermedia venom gland. The amino acid sequence of this protein is homologous to proteins from the TCTP (translationally-controlled tumor protein) family, which are extracellular histamine-releasing factors (HRF) that are associated with the allergic reactions to parasites. Herein, we described the cloning, heterologous expression, purification and functional characterization of a novel member of the TCTP family from the Loxosceles intermedia venom gland. This recombinant protein, named LiRecTCTP, causes edema, enhances vascular permeability and is likely related to the inflammatory activity of the venom. Moreover, LiRecTCTP presents an immunological relationship with mammalian TCTPs. PMID:22051631

  12. Changes in S1 Neural Responses During Tactile Discrimination Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wiest, Michael C.; Pantoja, Janaina; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2010-01-01

    In freely moving rats that are actively performing a discrimination task, single-unit responses in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) are strikingly different from responses to comparable tactile stimuli in immobile rats. For example, in the active discrimination context prestimulus response modulations are common, responses are longer in duration and more likely to be inhibited. To determine whether these differences emerge as rats learned a whisker-dependent discrimination task, we recorded single-unit S1 activity while rats learned to discriminate aperture-widths using their whiskers. Even before discrimination training began, S1 responses in freely moving rats showed many of the signatures of active responses, such as increased duration of response and prestimulus response modulations. As rats subsequently learned the discrimination task, single unit responses changed: more cortical units responded to the stimuli, neuronal sensory responses grew in duration, and individual neurons better predicted aperture-width. In summary, the operant behavioral context changes S1 tactile responses even in the absence of tactile discrimination, whereas subsequent width discrimination learning refines the S1 representation of aperture-width. PMID:20445033

  13. The Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One) Buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image shows the Integrated Truss Assembly S-1 (S-One), the Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss, for the International Space Station (ISS) undergoing final construction in the Space Station manufacturing facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. Delivered and installed by the STS-112 mission, the S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing.

  14. S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Min, Ke; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Ni

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: We extracted reported endpoints, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse effects, from randomized controlled trials identified in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Science Direct, EMBASE and American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings. Stata software was used to calculate the pooled values. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials involving 2176 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to non-S-1-based regimens, the use of S-1-based regimens were associated with an increase in ORR (RR = 1.300; 95%CI: 1.028-1.645); OS (HR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.99; P = 0.025), TTF (HR = 0.83; 95%CI: 0.75-0.92; P = 0.000), and a lower risk of febrile neutropenia (RR = 0.225; P = 0.000) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032). OS, PFS and TTF were prolonged, especially in the Asian population. In subgroup analysis, statistically significant increases in ORR (RR = 1.454; P = 0.029), OS (HR = 0.895; P = 0.041) and TTF (HR = 0.832; P = 0.000) were found when S-1-based chemotherapy was compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. The incidence of leukopenia (RR = 0.584; P = 0.002) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032) was higher in the 5-FU-based arm. S-1-based regimens had no advantage in ORR, OS, PFS, TTF and grade 3 or 4 adverse events over capecitabine-based regimens. CONCLUSION: S-1-based chemotherapy may be a good choice for AGC because of longer survival times, better tolerance and more convenient use. PMID:25206296

  15. Production of recombinant Conkunitzin-S1 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bayrhuber, Monika; Graf, Roland; Ferber, Michael; Zweckstetter, Markus; Imperial, Julita; Garrett, James E; Olivera, Baldomero M; Terlau, Heinrich; Becker, Stefan

    2006-06-01

    Conkunitzin-S1 from the cone snail Conus striatus is the first member of a new neurotoxin family with a canonical Kunitz domain fold. Conk-S1 is 60 amino acids long and lacks one of the three conserved disulfide bonds typically found in Kunitz domain modules. It binds specifically to voltage activated potassium channels of the Shaker family. The peptide was expressed in insoluble form in fusion with an N-terminal intein. Refolding in the presence of glutathione followed by pH shift-induced cleavage of the fusion protein resulted in a functional toxin as demonstrated by voltage-clamp measurements. PMID:16542850

  16. The S=1 Underscreened Anderson Lattice model for Uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the degenerate Anderson Lattice Hamiltonian, describing a 5f2 electronic configuration with S = 1 spins. Through the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, both an exchange Kondo interaction for the S = 1 f-spins and an effective f-band term are obtained, allowing to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and a weak delocalization of the 5f-electrons. We calculate the Kondo and Curie temperatures and we can account for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of UTe.

  17. Winding Hopfions on R2×S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-11-01

    We study Hopfions in the Faddeev-Skyrme model with potential terms on R2×S1. Apart from the conventional Hopfions, there exist winding Hopfions, that is, the lump (baby Skyrmion) strings with the lump charge Q with the U(1) modulus twisted P times along S1, having the Hopf charge PQ. We consider two kinds of potential terms, that is, the potential linear in the field and the ferromagnetic potential with two easy axes, and present stable solutions numerically. We also point out that a Q-lump carries the unit Hopf charge per the period in d=2+1.

  18. Bacterial versus human sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) in the design of potential S1PL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sanllehí, Pol; Abad, José-Luis; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-09-15

    A series of potential active-site sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) inhibitors have been designed from scaffolds 1 and 2, arising from virtual screening using the X-ray structures of the bacterial (StS1PL) and the human (hS1PL) enzymes. Both enzymes are very similar at the active site, as confirmed by the similar experimental kinetic constants shown by the fluorogenic substrate RBM13 in both cases. However, the docking scoring functions used probably overestimated the weight of electrostatic interactions between the ligands and key active-site residues in the protein environment, which may account for the modest activity found for the designed inhibitors. In addition, the possibility that the inhibitors do not reach the enzyme active site should not be overlooked. Finally, since both enzymes show remarkable structural differences at the access channel and in the proximity to the active site cavity, caution should be taken when designing inhibitors acting around that area, as evidenced by the much lower activity found in StS1PL for the potent hS1PL inhibitor D. PMID:27475537

  19. Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda).

    PubMed

    Gvoždík, Václav; Canestrelli, Daniele; García-París, Mario; Moravec, Jiří; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Recuero, Ernesto; Teixeira, José; Kotlík, Petr

    2015-02-01

    European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridization were detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felix arabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show

  20. Emerging role of S-1 in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Eriseld; Pellicori, Stefania; Formica, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most important malignancies worldwide in terms of incidence and mortality. The treatment is based on the combination of local surgery and radiation therapy as well as systemic chemotherapy and targeted molecules. Fluoropyrimidines and particularly 5-fluorouracil (FU) represent still the backbone for gastric cancer chemotherapy and new molecular versions of this molecule have been brought to clinical practice in order to improve benefits and reduce adverse effects. S-1 is an oral prodrug of 5-FU, which has demonstrated high effectiveness for gastric cancer treatment and a favorable safety profile. Currently, there are geographic differences in the treatment of gastric cancer and in the use of S-1, which is a mainstay of gastric cancer management in Eastern countries, but is not part of the standard care in the rest of the world. In this review, we gathered data from phase I, II, and III trials of S-1 in gastric cancer, in order to define its real benefit-risk ratio and assess whether geographic differences in S-1 use are justified by unchangeable factors.

  1. L5-S1 Laparoscopic Anterior Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zeni, Tallal M.; Phillips, Frank M.; Mathur, Sameer; Zografakis, John G.; Moore, Ronald M.; Laguna, Luis E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated our experience with laparoscopic L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). Methods: This represents a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent L5-S1 laparoscopic ALIF between February 1998 and August 2003. Results: Twenty-eight patients underwent L5-S1 LAIF (15 males and 13 females). The mean age was 43 years (range, 26 to 67). Mean operative time was 225 minutes (range, 137 to 309 minutes). No conversions to an open procedure were necessary. Twenty-four (85.7%) patients underwent successful bilateral cage placement. Four patients (14.3%) in whom only a single cage could be placed underwent supplementary posterior pedicle screw placement. Mean length of stay (LOS) was 4.1 days (range, 2 to 15). Two patients underwent reoperation subacutely secondary to symptomatic lateral displacement of the cage. One patient developed radiculopathy 6 months postoperatively and required reoperation. One patient developed a small bowel obstruction secondary to adhesions to the cage requiring laparoscopic reoperation. Fusion was achieved in all patients. Visual analogue scale scores for back pain were significantly improved from 8.6±0.8 to 2.8±0.8 (P<0.0001) at 1 year. Conclusion: L5-S1 LAIF is feasible and safe with all the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. Fusion rates and pain improvement were comparable to those with an open repair. PMID:17575763

  2. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. PMID:26687487

  3. Determination of antibacterial activity of green coffee bean extract on periodontogenic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, Nagaraj; Sowmya, Nagur Karibasappa; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of pure green coffee bean extract on periodonto pathogenic bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were used to assess the antibacterial effect of pure green coffee bean extract against periodonto pathogenic bacteria by micro dilution method and culture method, respectively. Results: MIC values of Pg, Pi and Aa were 0.2 μg/ml whereas Fn showed sensitive at concentration of 3.125 μg/ml. MBC values mirrors the values same as that of MIC. Conclusion: Antimicrobial activity of pure green coffee bean extract against Pg, Pi, Fn and Aa suggests that it could be recommended as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. PMID:26097349

  4. A novel ICK peptide from the Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom gland: cloning, heterologous expression and immunological cross-reactivity approaches.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Meissner, Gabriel Otto; Constantino Lopes, Eduardo Soares; Gremski, Waldemiro; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-09-01

    The venom of a Loxosceles spider is composed of a complex mixture of biologically active components, consisting predominantly of low molecular mass molecules (3-45 kDa). Transcriptome analysis of the Loxosceles intermedia venom gland revealed ESTs with similarity to the previously described LiTx peptides. Sequences similar to the LiTx3 isoform were the most abundant, representing approximately 13.9% of all ESTs and 32% of the toxin-encoding messengers. These peptides are grouped in the ICK (Inhibitor Cystine Knot) family, which contains single chain molecules with low molecular mass (3-10 kDa). Due to their high number of cysteine residues, ICK peptides form intramolecular disulfide bridges. The aims of this study were to clone and express a novel ICK peptide isoform, as well as produce specific hyperimmune serum for immunoassays. The corresponding cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers containing restriction sites for the XhoI and BamHI enzymes; this PCR product was then ligated in the pET-14b vector and transformed into E. coli AD494 (DE3) cells. The peptide was expressed by IPTG induction for 4 h at 30 °C and purified by affinity chromatography with Ni-NTA resin. Hyperimmune serum to the recombinant peptide was produced in rabbits and was able to specifically recognize both the purified recombinant peptide and the native form present in the venom. Furthermore, the recombinant peptide was recognized by antisera raised against L. intermedia, L. gaucho and L. laeta whole venoms. The recombinant peptide obtained will enable future studies to characterize its biological activity, as well as investigations regarding possible biotechnological applications.

  5. Molecular cloning and in silico characterization of knottin peptide, U2-SCRTX-Lit2, from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom glands.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Gabriel Otto; de Resende Lara, Pedro Túlio; Scott, Luis Paulo Barbour; Braz, Antônio Sérgio Kimus; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Soares, Eduardo Mendonça; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Chaim, Olga Meiri

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitor cystine knots (ICKs) are a family of structural peptides with a large number of cysteine residues that form intramolecular disulfide bonds, resulting in a knot. These peptides are involved in a variety of biological functions including predation and defense, and are found in various species, such as spiders, scorpions, sea anemones, and plants. The Loxosceles intermedia venom gland transcriptome identified five groups of ICK peptides that represent more than 50 % of toxin-coding transcripts. Here, we describe the molecular cloning of U2-Sicaritoxin-Lit2 (U2-SCRTX-Lit2), bioinformatic characterization, structure prediction, and molecular dynamic analysis. The sequence of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 obtained from the transcriptome is similar to that of μ-Hexatoxin-Mg2, a peptide that inhibits the insect Nav channel. Bioinformatic analysis of sequences classified as ICK family members also showed a conservation of cysteine residues among ICKs from different spiders, with the three dimensional molecular model of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 similar in structure to the hexatoxin from μ-hexatoxin-Mg2a. Molecular docking experiments showed the interaction of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 to its predictable target-the Spodoptera litura voltage-gated sodium channel (SlNaVSC). After 200 ns of molecular dynamic simulation, the final structure of the complex showed stability in agreement with the experimental data. The above analysis corroborates the existence of a peptide toxin with insecticidal activity from a novel ICK family in L. intermedia venom and demonstrates that this peptide targets Nav channels.

  6. Molecular cloning and in silico characterization of knottin peptide, U2-SCRTX-Lit2, from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom glands.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Gabriel Otto; de Resende Lara, Pedro Túlio; Scott, Luis Paulo Barbour; Braz, Antônio Sérgio Kimus; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Matsubara, Fernando Hitomi; Soares, Eduardo Mendonça; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Chaim, Olga Meiri

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitor cystine knots (ICKs) are a family of structural peptides with a large number of cysteine residues that form intramolecular disulfide bonds, resulting in a knot. These peptides are involved in a variety of biological functions including predation and defense, and are found in various species, such as spiders, scorpions, sea anemones, and plants. The Loxosceles intermedia venom gland transcriptome identified five groups of ICK peptides that represent more than 50 % of toxin-coding transcripts. Here, we describe the molecular cloning of U2-Sicaritoxin-Lit2 (U2-SCRTX-Lit2), bioinformatic characterization, structure prediction, and molecular dynamic analysis. The sequence of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 obtained from the transcriptome is similar to that of μ-Hexatoxin-Mg2, a peptide that inhibits the insect Nav channel. Bioinformatic analysis of sequences classified as ICK family members also showed a conservation of cysteine residues among ICKs from different spiders, with the three dimensional molecular model of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 similar in structure to the hexatoxin from μ-hexatoxin-Mg2a. Molecular docking experiments showed the interaction of U2-SCRTX-Lit2 to its predictable target-the Spodoptera litura voltage-gated sodium channel (SlNaVSC). After 200 ns of molecular dynamic simulation, the final structure of the complex showed stability in agreement with the experimental data. The above analysis corroborates the existence of a peptide toxin with insecticidal activity from a novel ICK family in L. intermedia venom and demonstrates that this peptide targets Nav channels. PMID:27488102

  7. Effects of immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia on progression of ligature-induced periodontitis in the nonhuman primate Macaca fascicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, J L; Brunsvold, M; Steffensen, B; Wood, R; Holt, S C

    1991-01-01

    The nonhuman primate (Nhp) has proven to be a useful model of human periodontitis. This study describes the immunological characteristics of this model and the ability of active immunization to interfere with ecological changes in the microbiota and its associated disease symptoms. Nhps were parenterally immunized with whole-cell antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. The immunization elicited an approximate 2-log increase in serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA isotype antibody that was highly specific for these immunogens. Postimmunization and postligation, there was minimal change in the levels of specific antibody. P. gingivalis immunization significantly inhibited the emergence of this species during disease progression. In contrast, induction of anti-P. intermedia antibody had a minimal effect on this species within the subgingival plaque. Plaque indices showed few changes that could be attributed to active immunization. Both bleeding on probing and loss of attachment were higher in ligated sites of immunized animals than in the placebo-treated group. A significant increase in bone density loss was observed in the ligated teeth from immunized versus control animals. These findings indicate that active immunization of Nhps can elicit a substantial systemic immune response; however, while this response may effect the emergence of an individual microorganism, it appears that other ecological considerations are critical in disease progression. It is also possible that the induction of a broad-based immune response to multiple bacterial antigens can result in increased disease, potentially associated with hypersensitivity reactions to the bacteria in the subgingival plaque. PMID:1894349

  8. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, a strongback is lowered toward the S1 truss below it in order to lift the truss from the Guppy cargo carrier that protected it during flight and transfer. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When full y outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001

  9. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, the top of the Guppy cargo carrier is lifted off the S1 truss (background). Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communica tions systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 200 1

  10. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A KSC transporter moves the Guppy cargo carrier encasing the S1 truss into the Operations and Checkout Building. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001.

  11. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, a strongback lifts the S1 truss from the Guppy cargo carrier that protected it during flight and transfer. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss se gment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The tr uss is slated for flight in 2001

  12. Spatially frustrated S = 1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single ion anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2016-10-01

    Using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism, I study the S = 1 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, at zero temperature, with spatially anisotropic nearest-neighbor couplings frustrated by a next-nearest neighbor interaction and single ion anisotropy. The phase diagram at zero temperature is presented. My calculations show two magnetically ordered phases separated by a quantum-disordered region for all values of the anisotropy.

  13. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  14. Angular momentum budget of the radiational S1 ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk; Poropat, Lea; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The balance of diurnal S1 oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations through torques at the sea surface and the bottom topography is validated using both a barotropic and a baroclinic numerical tide model. This analysis discloses the extent to which atmosphere-driven S1 forward simulations are reliable for use in studies of high-frequency polar motion and changes in length-of-day. Viscous and dissipative torques associated with wind stress, bottom friction, as well as internal tidal energy conversion are shown to be small, and they are overshadowed by gravitational and pressure-related interaction forces. In particular, the zonal OAM variability of S1 is almost completely balanced by the water pressure torque on the local bathymetry, whereas in the prograde equatorial case also the air pressure torque on the seafloor as well as ellipsoidal contributions from the non-spherical atmosphere and solid Earth must be taken into account. Overall, the OAM budget is well closed in both the axial and the equatorial directions, thus allowing for an identification of the main diurnal angular momentum sinks in the ocean. The physical interaction forces are found to be largest at shelf breaks and continental slopes in low latitudes, with the most dominant contribution coming from the Indonesian archipelago.

  15. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  16. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  17. Spangolite: an s = 1/2 maple leaf lattice antiferromagnet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, T.; Piatek, J. O.; Stephenson, R. A.; Nilsen, G. J.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2011-04-01

    Spangolite, Cu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl·3H2O, is a hydrated layered copper sulfate mineral. The Cu2 + ions of each layer form a systematically depleted triangular lattice which approximates a maple leaf lattice. We present details of the crystal structure, which suggest that in spangolite this lattice actually comprises two species of edge linked trimers with different exchange parameters. However, magnetic susceptibility measurements show that despite the structural trimers, the magnetic properties are dominated by dimerization. The high temperature magnetic moment is strongly reduced below that expected for the six s = 1/2 in the unit cell.

  18. Local carbon diffusion coefficient measurement in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, R.M.; Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Chu, T.K.; Paul, S.F.; Yamada, M.

    1988-10-01

    The local carbon diffusion coefficient was measured in the S - 1 spheromak by detecting the radial spread of injected carbon impurity. The radial impurity density profile is determined by the balance of ionization and diffusion. Using measured local electron temperature T/sub e/ and density n/sub e/, the ionization rate is determined from which the particle diffusion coefficient is inferred. The results found in this work are consistent with Bohm diffusion. The absolute magnitude of D/sub /perpendicular// was determined to be (4/approximately/6) /times/ D/sub Bohm/. 25 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Shuttle Landing Facility, the newly arrived S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is offloaded from NASA's Super Guppy aircraft. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated fo r flight in 2001. The Super Guppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to b e moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is being transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building.

  20. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Escort vehicles prepare to leave the Shuttle Landing Facility with the S1 truss (at right) on its trek to the Operations and Checkout Building. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The truss arrived at KSC aboard NASA's Super Guppy, seen in the background. The aircraft is uniquely built with a 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads and a 'fold-away' nose that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight

  1. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At the Shuttle Landing Facility, workers attach cranes to the S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station, to lift the truss to a payload transporter for its transfer to the Operations and Checkout Building. Manufa ctured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully out fitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The truss arrived at KSC aboard NASA's Super Guppy, with a 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails al low pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight

  2. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA's Super Guppy airplane, with the International Space Station's (ISS) S1 truss aboard, arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility from Marshall Space Flight Center. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif ., this component of the ISS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment al so will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is s lated for flight in 2001. The Super Guppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircr aft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtu res to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is to be moved to the Operations and Checkout Building

  3. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA's Super Guppy airplane, with the International Space Station's (ISS) S1 truss aboard, rolls to a stop at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the I SS is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communicatio ns systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The Super Guppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to be moved by an elec tric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is to be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building

  4. STS-112 S1 Truss Payload arrives at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, NASA's Super Guppy opens to reveal its cargo, the International Space Station's (ISS) S1 truss. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the ISS is the f irst starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001. The Super G uppy, with its 25-foot diameter fuselage designed to handle oversized loads, is well prepared to transport the truss and other ISS segments. Loading the Guppy is easy because of the unique 'fold-away' nose of the aircraft that opens 110 degrees for cargo loading. A system of rails in the cargo compartment, used with either Guppy pallets or fixtures designed for specific cargo, makes cargo loading simple and efficient. Rollers mounted in the rails allow pallets or fixtures to be moved by an electric winch mounted beneath the cargo floor. Automatic hydraulic lock pins in each rail secure the pallet for flight. The truss is to be transferred to the Operations and Checkout Building

  5. Argyres-Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S 1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S 3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases—with the exception of the reduction of the ({A}1,{D}4) SCFT—certain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as R symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S 1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional { N }=2 superconformal U{(1)}R symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the four-dimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general { N }=2 SCFTs.

  6. S1P metabolism in cancer and other pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Leong, Weng In; Saba, Julie D

    2010-06-01

    Nearly two decades ago, the sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate was discovered to function as a lipid mediator and regulator of cell proliferation. Since that time, sphingosine 1-phosphate has been shown to mediate a diverse array of fundamental biological processes including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, vascular maturation and lymphocyte trafficking. Sphingosine 1-phosphate acts primarily via signaling through five ubiquitously expressed G protein-coupled receptors. Intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate molecules are transported extracellularly and gain access to cognate receptors for autocrine and paracrine signaling and for signaling at distant sites reached through blood and lymphatic circulation systems. Intracellular pools of sphingosine 1-phosphate available for signaling are tightly regulated primarily by three enzymes: sphinosine kinase, S1P lyase and S1P phosphatase. Alterations in sphingosine 1-phosphate as well as the enzymes involved in its synthesis and catabolism have been observed in many types of malignancy. These enzymes are being evaluated for their role in mediating cancer formation and progression, as well as their potential to serve as targets of anti-cancer therapeutics. In this review, the impact of sphingosine 1-phosphate, its cognate receptors, and the enzymes of sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolism on cell survival, apoptosis, autophagy, cellular transformation, invasion, angiogenesis and hypoxia in relation to cancer biology and treatment are discussed.

  7. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  8. Effects of long-term exposure to two fungicides, pyrimethanil and tebuconazole, on survival and life history traits of Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia).

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; Macirella, Rachele; Sesti, Settimio; Crescente, Antonio; Brunelli, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the hazards associated with the extensive use of fungicides have become an issue of great concern but, at present, the effects of these substances on amphibians remain poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of two commonly used fungicides, tebuconazole and pyrimethanil, on Italian Tree Frog (Hyla intermedia), a species frequently found in agricultural areas. Tadpoles were exposed to fungicides from developmental Gosner stage 25 (GS 25) to completion of metamorphosis (GS 46) and the whole exposure period lasted 78 days. For both tested fungicides we used two concentrations (5 and 50μg/L) that are comparable to those detected in surface waters, near agricultural fields. A variety of sublethal effects-on growth, development, behavior, and physiology-may be used for evaluating alterations induced by pollutants in amphibians. We estimated whether pyrimethanil and tebuconazole exposure impacted on H. intermedia life history traits. For this purpose, survival, growth, development, initiation of metamorphosis, success and size at metamorphosis, time to metamorphosis, and frequency of morphological abnormalities were evaluated. We showed, for all considered endpoints, that the exposure to tebuconazole exerts more harmful effects on H. intermedia than does exposure to pyrimethanil. Before the onset of metamorphic climax we showed, for both fungicides, that the low concentrations (5μg/L) induced significantly greater effects than the higher ones (50μg/L) on survival and deformity incidence. During the metamorphic climax, a complete reversal of this nonlinear trend takes place, and the percentage of animals initiating metamorphosis was reduced in fungicide-exposed groups in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, a strong correlation emerged between fungicide exposure and the incidence of morphological abnormalities such as tail malformations, scoliosis, edema, mouth and limb deformities. Exposure to tested

  9. Effects of long-term exposure to two fungicides, pyrimethanil and tebuconazole, on survival and life history traits of Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia).

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; Macirella, Rachele; Sesti, Settimio; Crescente, Antonio; Brunelli, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the hazards associated with the extensive use of fungicides have become an issue of great concern but, at present, the effects of these substances on amphibians remain poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of two commonly used fungicides, tebuconazole and pyrimethanil, on Italian Tree Frog (Hyla intermedia), a species frequently found in agricultural areas. Tadpoles were exposed to fungicides from developmental Gosner stage 25 (GS 25) to completion of metamorphosis (GS 46) and the whole exposure period lasted 78 days. For both tested fungicides we used two concentrations (5 and 50μg/L) that are comparable to those detected in surface waters, near agricultural fields. A variety of sublethal effects-on growth, development, behavior, and physiology-may be used for evaluating alterations induced by pollutants in amphibians. We estimated whether pyrimethanil and tebuconazole exposure impacted on H. intermedia life history traits. For this purpose, survival, growth, development, initiation of metamorphosis, success and size at metamorphosis, time to metamorphosis, and frequency of morphological abnormalities were evaluated. We showed, for all considered endpoints, that the exposure to tebuconazole exerts more harmful effects on H. intermedia than does exposure to pyrimethanil. Before the onset of metamorphic climax we showed, for both fungicides, that the low concentrations (5μg/L) induced significantly greater effects than the higher ones (50μg/L) on survival and deformity incidence. During the metamorphic climax, a complete reversal of this nonlinear trend takes place, and the percentage of animals initiating metamorphosis was reduced in fungicide-exposed groups in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, a strong correlation emerged between fungicide exposure and the incidence of morphological abnormalities such as tail malformations, scoliosis, edema, mouth and limb deformities. Exposure to tested

  10. Discovery of potent 3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1) receptor agonists with exceptional selectivity against S1P2 and S1P3.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Chen, Weirong; Hale, Jeffrey J; Lynch, Christopher L; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Parent, Stephen A; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Forrest, Michael; Quackenbush, Elizabeth J; Wickham, L Alexandra; Vargas, Hugo; Evans, Rose M; Rosen, Hugh; Mandala, Suzanne

    2005-10-01

    A class of 3,5-diphenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole based compounds have been identified as potent sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 (S1P1) receptor agonists with minimal affinity for the S1P2 and S1P3 receptor subtypes. Analogue 26 (S1P1 IC50 = 0.6 nM) has an excellent pharmacokinetics profile in the rat and dog and is efficacious in a rat skin transplant model, indicating that S1P3 receptor agonism is not a component of immunosuppressive efficacy.

  11. Dynamical instability in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Rui; Tsuchiura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Makoto; Toga, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamical instabilities of superfluid flows in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model. The time evolution of each spin component in a condensate is calculated based on the dynamical Gutzwiller approximation for a wide range of interactions, from a weakly correlated regime to a strongly correlated regime near the Mott-insulator transition. Owing to the spin-dependent interactions, the superfluid flow of the spin-1 condensate decays at a different critical momentum from a spinless case when the interaction strength is the same. We furthermore calculate the dynamical phase diagram of this model and clarify that the obtained phase boundary has very different features depending on whether the average number of particles per site is even or odd. Finally, we analyze the density and spin modulations that appear in association with the dynamical instability. We find that spin modulations are highly sensitive to the presence of a uniform magnetic field.

  12. Lattice study of the exotic s = +1 baryon.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shoichi

    2004-10-01

    We propose S = +1 baryon interpolating operators, which are based on an exotic description of the antidecuplet baryon, like the diquark-diquark-antiquark structure. By using one of the new operators, the mass spectrum of the spin-1/2 pentaquark states is calculated in quenched lattice QCD at beta = 6/g(2) = 6.2 on a 32(3) x 48 lattice. It is found that the J(P) assignment of the lowest Theta(uudds) state is most likely (1/2)(-). We also calculate the mass of the charm analog of the Theta and find that the Theta(c)(uuddc) state lies much higher than the DN threshold, in contrast to several model predictions. PMID:15524864

  13. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  14. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E; O'Carroll, Simon J; Graham, E Scott

    2016-01-27

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors.

  15. Selecting against S1P3 enhances the acute cardiovascular tolerability of 3-(N-benzyl)aminopropylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Hale, Jeffrey J; Doherty, George; Toth, Leslie; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Rosenbach, Mark; Milligan, James; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Forrest, Michael; Sun, Shu-Yu; West, Sarah; Xie, Huijuan; Nomura, Naomi; Rosen, Hugh; Mandala, Suzanne

    2004-07-01

    Structurally modified 3-(N-benzylamino)propylphosphonic acid S1P receptor agonists that maintain affinity for S1P1, and have decreased affinity for S1P3 are efficacious, but exhibit decreased acute cardiovascular toxicity in rodents than do nonselective agonists.

  16. Fermentation and aerobic metabolism of cellodextrins by yeasts. [Candida wickerhamii; C. guiliermondii; C. molischiana; Debaryomyces polymorphus; Pichia guilliermondii; Clavispora lusitaniae; Kluyveromyces lactis; Brettanomyces claussenii; Rhodotorula minuta; Dekkera intermedia

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, S.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The fermentation and aerobic metabolism of cellodextrins by 14 yeast species or strains was monitored. When grown aerobically, Candida wickerhamii, C. guilliermondii, and C. molischiana metabolized cellodextrins of degree of polymerization 3 to 6. C. wicherhamii and C. molischiana also fermented these substrates, while C. guilliermondii fermented only cellodextrins of degree of polymerization {<=} 3. Debaryomyces polymorphus, Pichia guilliermondii, Clavispora lusitaniae, and one of two strains of Kluyveromyces lactis metabolized glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose when grown aerobically. These yeasts also fermented these substrates, except for K. lactis, which fermented only glucose and cellobiose. The remaining species/strains tested, K. lactis, Brettanomyces claussenii, Brettanomyces anomalus, Kluyveromyces dobzhanskii, Rhodotorula minuta, and Dekkera intermedia, both fermented and aerobically metabolized glucose and cellobiose. Crude enzyme preparations from all 14 yeast species or strains were tested for ability to hydrolyze cellotriose and cellotretose. Most of the yeasts produced an enzyme(s) capable of hydrolyzing cellotriose. However, with two exceptions, R. minuta and P. guilliermondii, only the yeasts that metabolized cellodextrins of degree of polymerization >3 produced an enzyme(s) that hydrolyzed cellotretose.

  17. Generation and characterization of a recombinant chimeric protein (rCpLi) consisting of B-cell epitopes of a dermonecrotic protein from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom.

    PubMed

    Mendes, T M; Oliveira, D; Figueiredo, L F M; Machado-de-Avila, R A; Duarte, C G; Dias-Lopes, C; Guimarães, G; Felicori, L; Minozzo, J C; Chávez-Olortegui, C

    2013-06-01

    A chimeric protein was constructed expressing three epitopes of LiD1, a dermonecrotic toxin from the venom of Loxosceles intermedia spider. This species is responsible for a large number of accidents involving spiders in Brazil. We demonstrated that the chimeric protein (rCpLi) generated is atoxic and that antibodies previously developed in rabbits against synthetic epitopes reactive with rCpLi in ELISA and immunoblot assays. The antibody response in rabbits against the rCpLi was evaluated by ELISA and we have detected an antibody response in all immunized animals. Overlapping peptides covering the amino acid sequence of the rCpLi were synthesized on a cellulose membrane, and their recognition by rabbit anti-rCpLi serum assessed. Three different antigenic regions were identified. The percentage of inhibition of the dermonecrotic, hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities caused by the recombinant protein LiD1r in naïve rabbits was assessed by pre-incubation with anti-rCpLi antibodies. Anti-rCpLi induced good dermonecrotic and hemorrhagic protection. The levels of protection were similar to the antiboides anti-LiD1r. In summary, we have developed a polyepitope recombinant chimeric protein capable of inducing multiple responses of neutralizing antibodies in a rabbit model. This engineered protein may be a promising candidate for therapeutic serum development or vaccination.

  18. Natural antimicrobial susceptibilities and biochemical profiles of Yersinia enterocolitica-like strains: Y. frederiksenii, Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and Y. rohdei.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo; Wiedemann, Bernd

    2003-09-22

    The natural susceptibility of 131 Yersinia strains of Y. frederiksenii (n=38), Y. intermedia (n=48), Y. kristensenii (n=26) and Y. rohdei (n=19) to 70 antibiotics was tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined with a microdilution procedure in IsoSensitest broth (all strains) and cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth (some strains). All species were naturally sensitive or sensitive and of intermediate susceptibility to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, acylureidopenicillins, numerous cephalosporins, carbapenems, aztreonam, quinolones, chloramphenicol, folate-pathway inhibitors, nitrofurantoin, and fosfomycin. Uniform natural resistance was found with penicillin G, oxacillin, several macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramins, glycopeptides, rifampicin and fusidic acid. Species-specific differences in susceptibility affecting clinical assessment criteria were seen with aminopenicillins (in the presence and absence of beta-lactamase inhibitors), ticarcillin and some cephalosporins. Major medium-dependent susceptibilities were found with fosfomycin. beta-Lactam MIC susceptibility patterns suggested that most strains of the species tested produce both class A and class C (AmpC) beta-lactamases that are characteristic for the species. The present study describes a database concerning the natural susceptibility of some Y. enterocolitica-like species to a wide range of antibiotics, which can be applied to validate forthcoming antibiotic susceptibility tests of these strains and might contribute to their identification. An evaluation of 30 biochemical tests that secured phenotypic identification to the Yersinia species level is presented.

  19. Shoot-tip cryopreservation by droplet vitrification of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.: a woody tropical and medicinal plant species from Brazilian cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silva, L C; Paiva, R; Swennen, R; Andre, E; Panis, B

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of plant species is poorly investigated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve Byrsonima intermedia shoot apical meristems through droplet vitrification. A culture medium for shoot-tips growth was established using the Woody Plant Medium supplemented with 2.22 uM 6-benzylaminopurine. Excised shoot-tips were subjected to pre-culture and/or post-culture treatments on Murashige and Skoog medium with 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior dehydration on PVS2 at 0°C for 15, 30 or 45 minutes prior to plunging in liquid nitrogen. The effect of 15 days of shoot pre-growth on a high osmotic medium (0.3 M sucrose or 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose) prior to meristem excision and cryopreservation was also investigated. Pre-culturing shoot-tips on 0.3 M sucrose for 24 h prior to cryopreservation increased the regrowth level after thawing to 90%. Shoot-tips excised from shoots pre-grown on MS + 0.21 M sorbitol + 0.09 M sucrose for 15 days presented a satisfactory regrowth level (67%).

  20. Differential accumulation of volatile terpene and terpene synthase mRNAs during lavender (Lavandula angustifolia and L. x intermedia) inflorescence development.

    PubMed

    Guitton, Yann; Nicolè, Florence; Moja, Sandrine; Valot, Nadine; Legrand, Sylvain; Jullien, Frédéric; Legendre, Laurent

    2010-02-01

    Despite the commercial importance of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and L. x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel floral essential oils (EOs), no information is currently available on potential changes in individual volatile organic compound (VOC) content during inflorescence development. Calyces were found to be the main sites of VOC accumulation. The 20 most abundant VOCs could be separated into three sub-groups according to their patterns of change in concentration The three groups of VOCs sequentially dominated the global scent bouquet of inflorescences, the transition between the first and second groups occurring around the opening of the first flower of the inflorescence and the one between the second and third groups at the start of seed set. Changes in calyx VOC accumulation were linked to the developmental stage of individual flowers. Leaves accumulated a smaller number of VOCs which were a subset of those seen in preflowering inflorescences. Their nature and content remained constant during the growing season. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction assessments of the expression of two terpene synthase (TPS) genes, LaLIMS and LaLINS, revealed similar trends between their patterns of expression and those of their VOC products. Molecular and chemical analyses suggest that changes in TPS expression occur during lavender inflorescence development and lead to changes in EO composition. Both molecular data and terpene analysis support the findings that changes in biosynthesis of terpene occurred during inflorescence development.

  1. Environmental Niche Modelling of Phlebotomine Sand Flies and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Identifies Lutzomyia intermedia as the Main Vector Species in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meneguzzi, Viviane Coutinho; dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Fux, Blima; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was applied to sand fly species and CL cases in ES to identify the principal vector and risk areas of the disease. Sand flies were collected in 466 rural localities between 1997 and 2013 using active and passive capture. Insects were identified to the species level, and the localities were georeferenced. Twenty-one bioclimatic variables were selected from WorldClim. Maxent was used to construct models projecting the potential distribution for five Lutzomyia species and CL cases. ENMTools was used to overlap the species and the CL case models. The Kruskal–Wallis test was performed, adopting a 5% significance level. Approximately 250,000 specimens were captured, belonging to 43 species. The area under the curve (AUC) was considered acceptable for all models. The slope was considered relevant to the construction of the models for all the species identified. The overlay test identified Lutzomyia intermedia as the main vector of CL in southeast Brazil. ENM tools enable an analysis of the association among environmental variables, vector distributions and CL cases, which can be used to support epidemiologic and entomological vigilance actions to control the expansion of CL in vulnerable areas. PMID:27783641

  2. Inhibition of tumour promotion in mouse skin by extracts of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia), unique South African herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Jeanine; Joubert, Elizabeth; Joseph, Shamiel; Swanevelder, Sonja; Swart, Pieter; Gelderblom, Wentzel

    2005-06-28

    The modulating effect of ethanol/acetone (E/A) soluble fractions, prepared from methanolic extracts of processed and unprocessed rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) as well as green (Camellia sinensis) teas was established in a two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis assay. Topical application of the tea fractions prior to the tumour promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on ICR mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) suppressed skin tumorigenesis significantly (P<0.001) with the green tea E/A fraction exhibiting a 100% inhibition, unprocessed honeybush 90%, processed honeybush 84.2%, processed rooibos 75% and unprocessed rooibos 60%. The green tea fraction, with the highest flavanol/proanthocyanidin content, also exhibited the highest protective activity (99%) against hepatic microsomal lipid peroxidation, and completely inhibited skin tumour formation. Differences in the flavanol/proanthocyanidin and flavonol/flavone composition and/or non polyphenolic constituents are likely to be important determinants in the inhibition of tumour promotion by the herbal tea E/A fractions in mouse skin.

  3. [Modulation of S-1 conformation and inhibition of the skeletal muscle S-1-ATPase by calponin of the mussel].

    PubMed

    Sirenko, V V; Simonian, A O; Dobrzhanskaia, A V; Shelud'ko, N S; Borovikov, Iu S

    2014-01-01

    A novel 40 kDa protein has been detected in native thin filaments from catch muscles of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. In this study, using skeletal muscle actin and S-1, we investigated the effects of the mussel 40-kDa actin-binding protein on the acto · S-1 ATPase activity. On increasing the 40-kDa actin-binding protein (CaP-40) concentration, the actin-activated ATPase activity decreased, and was inhibited 80% at a CaP-40 to actin ratio of 0.5. Polarized fluorimetry technique and glycerinated muscle fibers were used to study effects of CaP-40 on the orientation and mobility of fluorescent label 1.5-IAEDANS specifically bound to CyS-707 of myosin subfragment-1 in the absence of nucleotide, and in the presence of MgADP or MgATP. We have concluded that CaP-40 binding to actin affects the strong binding of myosin to actin but has no effect on the weak binding. Thus, the influence of the CaP-40 on the formation of strong actomyosin binding forms A · M and A · M · ADP manifests itself by a decrease in the relative content of myosin cross-bridges strongly bound with actin, which probably results in a decrease in the relative content of "switch on" actin monomers in thin filaments. This suggests that, as calponin CaP-40 selects its target the phase of strong actomyosin binding binding which preceded by a phase generating power stroke.

  4. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work

  5. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3–4 compared to those with 0–2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  6. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  7. Gravitational dynamics in s+1+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, László Á.; Kovács, Zoltán

    2005-09-01

    We present the concomitant decomposition of an (s+2)-dimensional space-time both with respect to a timelike and a spacelike direction. The formalism we develop is suited for the study of the initial value problem and for canonical gravitational dynamics in braneworld scenarios. The bulk metric is replaced by two sets of variables. The first set consists of one tensorial (the induced metric gij), one vectorial (Mi) and one scalar (M) dynamical quantity, all defined on the s space. Their time evolutions are related to the second fundamental form (the extrinsic curvature Kij), the normal fundamental form (Ki) and normal fundamental scalar (K), respectively. The nondynamical set of variables is given by the lapse function and the shift vector, which however has one component less. The missing component is due to the externally imposed constraint, which states that physical trajectories are confined to the (s+1)-dimensional brane. The pair of dynamical variables (gij, Kij), well known from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition is supplemented by the pairs (Mi, Ki) and (M, K) due to the bulk curvature. We give all projections of the junction condition across the brane and prove that for a perfect fluid brane neither of the dynamical variables has jump across the brane. Finally we complete the set of equations needed for gravitational dynamics by deriving the evolution equations of Kij, Ki and K on a brane with arbitrary matter.

  8. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  9. Will Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) Survive Perihelion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-01

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ~200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm-3 are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm-3, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  10. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptor Agonists Mediate Pro-fibrotic Responses in Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 Receptors and Smad-independent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H.; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways. PMID:23589284

  11. The turbomachine blading design using S2-S1 approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, T. S.; Bencherif, L.; Viney, B.; Duc, J. M. Nguyen

    1991-01-01

    The boundary conditions corresponding to the design problem when the blades being simulated by the bound vorticity distribution are presented. The 3D flow is analyzed by the two steps S2 - S1 approach. In the first step, the number of blades is supposed to be infinite, the vortex distribution is transformed into an axisymmetric one, so that the flow field can be analyzed in a meridional plane. The thickness distribution of the blade producing the flow channel striction is taken into account by the modification of metric tensor in the continuity equation. Using the meridional stream function to define the flow field, the mass conservation is satisfied automatically. The governing equation is deduced from the relation between the azimuthal component of the vorticity and the meridional velocity. The value of the azimuthal component of the vorticity is provided by the hub to shroud equilibrium condition. This step leads to the determination of the axisymmetric stream sheets as well as the approximate camber surface of the blade. In the second step, the finite number of blades is taken into account, the inverse problem corresponding to the blade to blade flow confined in each stream sheet is analyzed. The momentum equation implies that the free vortex of the absolute velocity must be tangential to the stream sheet. The governing equation for the blade to blade flow stream function is deduced from this condition. At the beginning, the upper and the lower surfaces of the blades are created from the camber surface obtained from the first step with the assigned thickness distribution. The bound vorticity distribution and the penetrating flux conservation applied on the presumed blade surface constitute the boundary conditions of the inverse problem. The detection of this flux leads to the rectification of the geometry of the blades.

  12. Nijmegen Baryon-Baryon Interactions for S = -1, -2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, Th. A.; Nagels, M. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    We present and discuss the most recent version of the extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions. The ESC-model describes the nucleon-nucleon (NN), hyperon-nucleon (YN), and hyperon-hyperon (YY), in terms of meson-exchanges using (broken) SUF(3)-symmetry. In this approach to baryon-baryon (BB) the dynamics is derived from (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), (ii) two-meson-exchanges (TME), and (iii) meson-pair-exchanges (MPE), (iv) gluon-exchanges, and (v) quark-core effects. In the OBE-sector, a special feature is the importance of the axial-vector meson potentials, and the inclusion of a zero in the scalar- and axial- meson form-factors. Novelties are the inclusion of (a) odderon-exchange, and (b) special pronounced effects of the appearance of forbidden six-quark configurations. With these ingredients, a rather flexible dynamical framework is constructed. Namely, it appeared feasible to keep the parameters of the model in reasonable accordance with the predictions of the 3P0 quark-pair-creation model (QPC). This is the case for the meson- and meson-pair-baryon coupling constants and the F/(F + D)-ratio's as well. The NN, YN, and YY results for this model are rather promising. In particular, we improved the ΛN spin-orbit interaction greatly by the inclusion of (a) the Brown, Downs, and Iddings anti-symmetric spin-orbit potentials, and (b) new corrections to the MPE-potentials. Also, the special quark-core effects provide ample repulsion in the Σ+p(3S1,T = 3/2)- and ΣN(1S0,T = 1/2)-channels. The new version of the ESC-model reported here will be referred to as ESC07 henceforth.

  13. Nijmegen Baryon-Baryon Interactions for S = -1, -2 Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, Th. A.; Nagels, M. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2010-10-01

    We present and discuss the most recent version of the extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions. The ESC-model describes the nucleon-nucleon (NN), hyperon-nucleon (YN), and hyperon-hyperon (YY), in terms of meson-exchanges using (broken) SUF(3)-symmetry. In this approach to baryon-baryon (BB) the dynamics is derived from (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), (ii) two-meson-exchanges (TME), and (iii) meson-pair-exchanges (MPE), (iv) gluon-exchanges, and (v) quark-core effects. In the OBE-sector, a special feature is the importance of the axial-vector meson potentials, and the inclusion of a zero in the scalar- and axial- meson form-factors. Novelties are the inclusion of (a) odderon-exchange, and (b) special pronounced effects of the appearance of forbidden six-quark configurations. With these ingredients, a rather flexible dynamical framework is constructed. Namely, it appeared feasible to keep the parameters of the model in reasonable accordance with the predictions of the 3P0 quark-pair-creation model (QPC). This is the case for the meson- and meson-pair-baryon coupling constants and the F/(F + D)-ratio's as well. The NN, YN, and YY results for this model are rather promising. In particular, we improved the ΛN spin-orbit interaction greatly by the inclusion of (a) the Brown, Downs, and Iddings anti-symmetric spin-orbit potentials, and (b) new corrections to the MPE-potentials. Also, the special quark-core effects provide ample repulsion in the Σ+p(3S1, T = 3/2)- and ΣN(1S0,T = l/2)-channels. The new version of the ESC-model reported here will be referred to as ESC07 henceforth.

  14. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ∼200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  15. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  16. Development of Activity in Comet C/2012 S1 ISON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, K. J.; Yang, B.; Keane, J.; Ansdell, M.; Riesen, T.; Kleyna, J.; Hsieh, H.; Mottola, S.; Kuhrt, E.; Chiang, H.; Reipurth, B.; Michaud, P.; Rector, T.

    2013-12-01

    We report photometric observations for comet C/2012 S1 ISON obtained immediately after discovery (22 Sep. 2012; r = 6.28 AU) until moving into solar conjunction in mid-June 2013 using the UH2.2m, and Gemini North 8-m telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Lowell 1.8m in Flagstaff, the Calar Alto 1.2m telescope in Spain, and the VYSOS-5 and VYSOS-20 telescopes on Mauna Loa Hawai'i. An additional pre-discovery data point from the Pan STARRS1 survey extends the light curve back to 28 Jan. 2012 (r = 8.4 AU). The images showed similar tail morphology throughout this period, largely because of projection effects. Additional observations at sub-mm wavelengths using the JCMT on 15 nights between 9 March (r = 4.52 AU) and 16 June 2013 (r = 3.35 AU) were used to search for CO J(3-2), CO J(2-1), HCN J(4-3), and HCN J(3-2) rotation lines. No gas was detected, with preliminary upper limits for CO during 14-15 June (r = 3.3 AU) of Q < 6.4 x 10^27 molec/s based on the observations of the CO J(2-1) line. Using these production rates, the Q(H2O) published by Schleicher (2013; IAUC 9254), and the preliminary radius from the HST measurements (J.-Y. Li et al., 2013; STScI-2013-14) we have generated ice sublimation models consistent with the photometric light curve. The inbound light curve is likely controlled by sublimation of CO or CO2; at these distances water is not a strong contributor to the outgassing. Without more sensitive limits on CO, we cannot yet constrain which of these volatiles is controlling the activity. It is clear from the photometric light curve that the fractional active area of the nucleus increased linearly by about a factor of 2 from Jan. 2012 until mid Jan. 2013 (r ~ 5 AU) at which point the activity decreased by 30% by early May 2013. We will discuss these models and data obtained from Mauna Kea after the comet comes out of solar conjunction in late August 2013. Our team has a comprehensive plan of observation to look at the evolution of activity as the comet goes

  17. Development of Activity in Comet C/2012 S1 ISON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, B.; Keane, J. V.; Ansdell, M.; Riesen, T. E.; Kleyna, J.; Hsieh, H.; Mottola, S.; Kuehrt, E.; Chiang, H.; Reipurth, B.; Milani, G.; Bryssinck, E.; Michaud, P.; Rector, T.

    2013-10-01

    We report photometric observations for comet C/2012 S1 ISON obtained immediately after discovery (22 Sep. 2012; r = 6.28 AU) until moving into solar conjunction in mid-June 2013 using the UH2.2m, and Gemini North 8-m telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Lowell 1.8m in Flagstaff, the Calar Alto 1.2m telescope in Spain, and the VYSOS-5 and VYSOS-20 telescopes on Mauna Loa Hawai’i. An additional pre-discovery data point from the Pan STARRS1 survey extends the light curve back to 28 Jan. 2012 (r = 8.4 AU). The images showed similar tail morphology throughout this period, largely because of projection effects. Additional observations at sub-mm wavelengths using the JCMT on 15 nights between 9 March (r = 4.52 AU) and 16 June 2013 (r = 3.35 AU) were used to search for CO J(3-2), CO J(2-1), HCN J(4-3), and HCN J(3-2) rotation lines. No gas was detected, with preliminary upper limits for CO during 14-15 June (r = 3.3 AU) of Q < 6.4 x 10^27 molec/s based on the observations of the CO J(2-1) line. Using these production rates, the Q(H2O) published by Schleicher (2013; IAUC 9254), and the preliminary radius from the HST measurements (J.-Y. Li et al., 2013; STScI-2013-14) we have generated ice sublimation models consistent with the photometric light curve. The inbound light curve is likely controlled by sublimation of CO or CO2; at these distances water is not a strong contributor to the outgassing. Without more sensitive limits on CO, we cannot yet constrain which of these volatiles is controlling the activity. It is clear from the photometric light curve that the fractional active area of the nucleus increased linearly by about a factor of 2 from Jan. 2012 until mid Jan. 2013 (r ~ 5 AU) at which point the activity decreased by 30% by early May 2013. This suggests that a limited supply of volatile material was driving the current activity.

  18. A practical process for the preparation of [32P]S1P and binding assay for S1P receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Adam J.; Liu, Hui; Tu, Zhude

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are important regulators of vascular permeability, inflammation, angiogenesis and vascular maturation. Identifying a specific S1PR PET radioligand is imperative, but it is hindered by the complexity and variability of current for binding affinity measurement procedures. Herein, we report a streamlined protocol for radiosynthesis of [32P]S1P with good radiochemical yield (36 – 50%) and high radiochemical purity (>99%). We also report a reproducible procedure for determining the binding affinity for compounds targeting S1PRs in vitro. PMID:25931137

  19. Full pharmacological efficacy of a novel S1P1 agonist that does not require S1P-like head-group interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, Pedro J.; Jo, Euijung; Sanna, M. Germana; Brown, Steven; Leaf, Nora; Marsolais, David; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Cameron, Michael; Guerrero, Miguel; Roberts, Edward; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for interactions of zwitterionic phosphate and amine groups in Sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) to conserved R and E residues present at the extracellular face of transmembrane-3 (TM3) of S1P receptors. The contribution of R120 and E121 for high affinity ligand-receptor interactions is essential, as single-point R120A or E121A S1P1 mutants neither bind S1P nor transduce S1P function. Because S1P receptors are therapeutically interesting, identifying potent selective agonists with different binding modes and in vivo efficacy is of pharmacological importance. Here we describe a modestly water-soluble highly-selective S1P1 agonist (CYM-5442) that does not require R120 or E121 residues for activating S1P1-dependent p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation, which defines a new hydrophobic pocket in S1P1. CYM-5442 is a full agonist in vitro for S1P1 internalization, phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Importantly, CYM-5442 was a full agonist for induction and maintenance of S1P1-dependent lymphopenia, decreasing B-lymphocytes by 65% and T-lymphocytes by 85% of vehicle. Induction of CYM-5442 lymphopenia was dose and time-dependent, requiring serum concentrations in the 50 nM range. In vitro measures of S1P1 activation by CYM-5442 were non-competitively inhibited by a specific S1P1 antagonist (W146), competitive for S1P, FTY720-P and SEW2871. In addition, lymphopenia by CYM-5442 was reversed by W146 administration or upon pharmacokinetic agonist clearance. Pharmacokinetics in mice also indicated that CYM-5442 partitions significantly in central nervous tissue. These data show that CYM-5442 activates S1P1-dependent pathways in vitro and to levels of full efficacy in vivo through a hydrophobic pocket, separable from the orthosteric site of S1P binding that is headgroup dependent. PMID:18708635

  20. Ligand-binding pocket shape differences between S1P1 and S1P3 determine efficiency of chemical probe identification by uHTS

    PubMed Central

    Schürer, Stephan C.; Brown, Steven J.; Cabrera, Pedro Gonzales; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Jo, Euijung; Chase, Peter; Spicer, Tim; Hodder, Peter; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor system to better understand why certain molecular targets within a closely related family are much more tractable when identifying compelling chemical leads. Five medically important G protein-coupled receptors for S1P regulate heart rate, coronary artery caliber, endothelial barrier integrity, and lymphocyte trafficking. Selective S1P receptor agonist probes would be of great utility to study receptor subtype-specific function. Through systematic screening of the same libraries, we identified novel selective agonists chemotypes for each of the S1P1 and S1P3 receptors. uHTS for S1P1 was more effective than for S1P3, with many selective, low nanomolar hits of proven mechanism emerging for. Receptor structure modeling and ligand docking reveal differences between the receptor binding pockets, which are the basis for sub-type selectivity. Novel selective agonists interact primarily in the hydrophobic pocket of the receptor in the absence of head-group interactions. Chemistry-space and shape-based analysis of the screening libraries in combination with the binding models explain the observed differential hit rates and enhanced efficiency for lead discovery for S1P1 vs. S1P3 in this closely related receptor family. PMID:18590333

  1. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P.; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R.; Herr, Deron R.; Murray, Paul G.; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27160553

  2. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  3. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam.

  4. A Prokaryotic S1P Lyase Degrades Extracellular S1P In Vitro and In Vivo: Implication for Treating Hyperproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Huwiler, Andrea; Bourquin, Florence; Kotelevets, Nataliya; Pastukhov, Oleksandr; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus G.; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a broad spectrum of fundamental cellular processes like proliferation, death, migration and cytokine production. Therefore, elevated levels of S1P may be causal to various pathologic conditions including cancer, fibrosis, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and aberrant angiogenesis. Here we report that S1P lyase from the prokaryote Symbiobacterium thermophilum (StSPL) degrades extracellular S1P in vitro and in blood. Moreover, we investigated its effect on cellular responses typical of fibrosis, cancer and aberrant angiogenesis using renal mesangial cells, endothelial cells, breast (MCF-7) and colon (HCT 116) carcinoma cells as disease models. In all cell types, wild-type StSPL, but not an inactive mutant, disrupted MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by exogenous S1P. Functionally, disruption of S1P receptor signaling by S1P depletion inhibited proliferation and expression of connective tissue growth factor in mesangial cells, proliferation, migration and VEGF expression in carcinoma cells, and proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Upon intravenous injection of StSPL in mice, plasma S1P levels rapidly declined by 70% within 1 h and then recovered to normal 6 h after injection. Using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model we further demonstrate that also under in vivo conditions StSPL, but not the inactive mutant, inhibited tumor cell-induced angiogenesis as an S1P-dependent process. Our data demonstrate that recombinant StSPL is active under extracellular conditions and holds promise as a new enzyme therapeutic for diseases associated with increased levels of S1P and S1P receptor signaling. PMID:21829623

  5. Cardiomyocyte S1P1 Receptor–mediated Extracellular Signal–related Kinase Signaling and Desensitization

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rong; Hoover, Holly E.; Zhang, Jianqing; Honbo, Norman; Alano, Conrad C.; Karliner, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the ability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) to desensitize extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase linked to antiapoptotic responses in the heart. In isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes, S1P (10 nM–5 μM) induced ERK phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. S1P stimulation of ERK was completely inhibited by an S1P1/3 subtype receptor antagonist (VPC23019), by a Gi protein inhibitor (pertussis toxin) and by a mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor (PD98059). A selective S1P3 receptor antagonist (CAY10444) had no effect on S1P-induced ERK activation. The selective S1P1 agonist SEW2871 also induced ERK phosphorylation. Activation of ERK by restimulation with 100 nM S1P was suppressed after 1 hour of preincubation with 100 nM S1P but recovered fully the next day, suggesting receptor recycling. Similar results were obtained in protein kinase Cε-null cardiomyocytes. Treatment with the nonselective S1P receptor agonist FTY720 for 1 hour also reduced phospho-ERK expression in response to subsequent S1P stimulation. In contrast to S1P, some desensitization to FTY720 persisted after overnight exposure. Cell death induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation was reduced by pretreatment with exogenous S1P. This enhanced survival was abrogated by pretreatment with PD98059, VPC23019, or pertussis toxin. Thus, exogenous S1P induces rapid and reversible S1P1-mediated ERK phosphorylation. S1P-induced adult mouse cardiomyocyte survival requires ERK activation mediated via an S1P1–Gi pathway. PMID:19433984

  6. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  7. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes breast cancer stem cell expansion via SPHK1/S1P/S1PR3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lee, Jau-Nan; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms unique to breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is required to control breast cancer metastasis. We found that phthalates promote BCSCs in human breast cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. A toxic phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer cells to stimulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) signaling and enhance formation of metastasis-initiating BCSCs. BBP induced histone modifications in S1PR3 in side population (SP) cells, but not in non-SP cells. SPHK1 or S1PR3 knockdown in breast cancer cells effectively reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest S1PR3 is a determinant of phthalate-driven breast cancer metastasis and a possible therapeutic target for regulating BCSC populations. Furthermore, the association between breast carcinogenesis and environmental pollutants has important implications for public health.

  8. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  10. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  11. The Clinically-tested S1P Receptor Agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, Demonstrate Subtype-Specific Bradycardia (S1P1) and Hypertension (S1P3) in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C.; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E.; Dinallo, Roger M.; Horan, Joshua C.; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K.; Reinhart, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1PX receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2–3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P1,5 agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P1 mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P3 receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P1 receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P3 receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  12. The clinically-tested S1P receptor agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, demonstrate subtype-specific bradycardia (S1P₁) and hypertension (S1P₃) in rat.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Ryan M; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E; Dinallo, Roger M; Horan, Joshua C; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K; Reinhart, Glenn A

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1P(X) receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2-3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P₁,₅ agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P₁ mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P₃ receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P₁ receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P₃ receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Treponema denticola / Prevotella intermedia Co-Infection Are Associated with Severe Periodontitis in a Thai Population.

    PubMed

    Torrungruang, Kitti; Jitpakdeebordin, Supawadee; Charatkulangkun, Orawan; Gleebbua, Yingampa

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial infection of tooth-supporting tissues. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between five target species and severe periodontitis in a Thai population. Using the CDC/AAP case definition, individuals diagnosed with no/mild and severe periodontitis were included. Quantitative analyses of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) in subgingival plaque were performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between target species and severe periodontitis was examined using logistic regression analysis. The study subjects comprised 479 individuals with no/mild periodontitis and 883 with severe periodontitis. Bacterial prevalence and quantity were higher in subjects with severe periodontitis than in those with no/mild disease. In the fully adjusted model, all species except Tf showed a dose-dependent relationship with periodontitis. The mere presence of Pg, even in low amount, was significantly associated with severe periodontitis, while the amount of Aa, Td, and Pi had to reach the critical thresholds to be significantly associated with disease. Compared to individuals with low levels of both Td and Pi, high colonization by either Td or Pi alone significantly increased the odds of having severe periodontitis by 2.5 (95%CI 1.7-3.5) folds. The odds ratio was further increased to 14.8 (95%CI 9.2-23.8) in individuals who were highly colonized by both species. Moreover, the presence of Pg and high colonization by Aa were independently associated with severe periodontitis with odds ratios of 5.6 (95%CI 3.4-9.1) and 2.2 (95%CI 1.5-3.3), respectively. Our findings suggest that the presence of Pg and high colonization by Aa, Td, and Pi play an important role in severe periodontitis in this study population. We also demonstrate for the first time that individuals co-infected with Td and Pi

  14. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Treponema denticola / Prevotella intermedia Co-Infection Are Associated with Severe Periodontitis in a Thai Population

    PubMed Central

    Torrungruang, Kitti; Jitpakdeebordin, Supawadee; Charatkulangkun, Orawan; Gleebbua, Yingampa

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial infection of tooth-supporting tissues. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between five target species and severe periodontitis in a Thai population. Using the CDC/AAP case definition, individuals diagnosed with no/mild and severe periodontitis were included. Quantitative analyses of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) in subgingival plaque were performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between target species and severe periodontitis was examined using logistic regression analysis. The study subjects comprised 479 individuals with no/mild periodontitis and 883 with severe periodontitis. Bacterial prevalence and quantity were higher in subjects with severe periodontitis than in those with no/mild disease. In the fully adjusted model, all species except Tf showed a dose-dependent relationship with periodontitis. The mere presence of Pg, even in low amount, was significantly associated with severe periodontitis, while the amount of Aa, Td, and Pi had to reach the critical thresholds to be significantly associated with disease. Compared to individuals with low levels of both Td and Pi, high colonization by either Td or Pi alone significantly increased the odds of having severe periodontitis by 2.5 (95%CI 1.7–3.5) folds. The odds ratio was further increased to 14.8 (95%CI 9.2–23.8) in individuals who were highly colonized by both species. Moreover, the presence of Pg and high colonization by Aa were independently associated with severe periodontitis with odds ratios of 5.6 (95%CI 3.4–9.1) and 2.2 (95%CI 1.5–3.3), respectively. Our findings suggest that the presence of Pg and high colonization by Aa, Td, and Pi play an important role in severe periodontitis in this study population. We also demonstrate for the first time that individuals co-infected with Td

  15. A randomized phase II study of S-1 plus oral leucovorin versus S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, M.; Okusaka, T.; Omuro, Y.; Isayama, H.; Fukutomi, A.; Ikeda, M.; Mizuno, N.; Fukuzawa, K.; Furukawa, M.; Iguchi, H.; Sugimori, K.; Furuse, J.; Shimada, K.; Ioka, T.; Nakamori, S.; Baba, H.; Komatsu, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Hyodo, I.; Boku, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding oral leucovorin (LV) to S-1 when compared with S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC). Patients and methods Gemcitabine-refractory PC patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive S-1 at 40, 50, or 60 mg according to body surface area plus LV 25 mg, both given orally twice daily for 1 week, repeated every 2 weeks (SL group), or S-1 monotherapy at the same dose as the SL group for 4 weeks, repeated every 6 weeks (S-1 group). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results Among 142 patients enrolled, 140 were eligible for efficacy assessment (SL: n = 69 and S-1: n = 71). PFS was significantly longer in the SL group than in the S-1 group [median PFS, 3.8 versus 2.7 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37–0.85; P = 0.003]). The disease control rate was significantly higher in the SL group than in the S-1 group (91% versus 72%; P = 0.004). Overall survival (OS) was similar in both groups (median OS, 6.3 versus 6.1 months; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54–1.22; P = 0.463). After adjusting for patient background factors in a multivariate analysis, OS tended to be better in the SL group (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47–1.07; P = 0.099). Both treatments were well tolerated, although gastrointestinal toxicities were slightly more severe in the SL group. Conclusion The addition of LV to S-1 significantly improved PFS in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced PC, and a phase III trial has been initiated in a similar setting. Clinical trials number Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center: JapicCTI-111554. PMID:26681680

  16. Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oil from Spain: determination of aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oils (EOs), from Abrial, Super and Grosso cultivars, cultivated and extracted in the South East of Spain, were analysed by using GC/MS to determine their composition, in both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (34-47%), linalyl acetate (17-34%), camphor (4-9%) and eucalyptol (3-7%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with the enantioselective gas chromatography, where ( - )-linalool, (+)-camphor and ( - )-linalyl acetate were determined as the main components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods: activity against free radicals, chelating and reducing power, probably due to linalool and linalyl acetate. Mild inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool and camphor. These properties support the potential use of L. × intermedia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredient to fight several skin diseases. PMID:26106980

  17. A randomized Phase I/II Trial of HQK-1001, an oral fetal globin gene inducer, in β–thalassaemia intermedia and HbE/β–thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Fucharoen, Suthat; Inati, Adlette; Siritanaratku, Noppadol; Thein, Swee Lay; Wargin, William C.; Koussa, Suzanne; Taher, Ali; Chaneim, Nattawara; Boosalis, Michael; Berenson, Ronald; Perrine, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    β–thalassemia intermedia syndromes (BTI) cause hemolytic anemia, ineffective erythropoiesis, and widespread complications. Higher fetal globin expression within genotypes reduces globin imbalance and ameliorates anemia. Sodium 2,2 dimethylbutyrate (HQK-1001), an orally bioavailable short-chain fatty acid derivative, induces γ-globin expression experimentally and is well-tolerated in normal subjects. Accordingly, a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase I/II trial was performed in 21 adult BTI patients (14 with HbE/β0 thalassemia and 7 with β+/β0 thalassemia intermedia, to determine effective doses for fetal globin induction, safety, and tolerability. HQK-1001 or placebo were administered once daily for 8 weeks at four dose levels (10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg/day), and subjects were monitored for laboratory and clinical events. Pharmacokinetic profiles demonstrated a t1/2 of 10–12 hours. Adverse events with HQK-1001 treatment were not significantly different from placebo treatment. Median HbF increased with the 20 mg/kg treatment doses above baseline levels by 6.6% and 0.44 g/dL (p <0.01) in 8/9 subjects; total hemoglobin (Hgb) increased by a mean of 1.1 gm/dL in 4/9 subjects. These findings identify a safe oral therapeutic which induces fetal globin in BTI. Further investigation of HQK-1001 with longer dosing to definitively evaluate its hematologic potential appears warranted. PMID:23530969

  18. Localization of amylin-like immunoreactivity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone-containing cells of the pars intermedia but not those of the pars distalis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactivity in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Amylin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the pars intermedia, and these cells were found to be immunoreactive for α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) as well. In contrast, αMSH-immunoreactive cells in the pars distalis were immuno-negaitive for amylin. These light microscopic findings were confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Amylin-immunoreactive signals were located on the haloes of presumable secretory granules in association with αMSH-immunoreactive signals in the amylin-positive cells. However, in the pars distalis, the αMSH-positive cells did not contain amylin-immunoreactive secretory granules. Western blot analysis of axolotl pituitary extracts revealed the labeling of a protein band at approximately 10.5-kDa by the anti-rat amylin serum, which was not labeled by the anti-αMSH antibody. These findings indicate that amylin secreted from MSH-producing cells in the pars intermedia may modulate MSH secretion in an autocrine fashion and may participate in MSH functions such as fatty homeostasis together with MSH.

  19. Localization of amylin-like immunoreactivity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone-containing cells of the pars intermedia but not those of the pars distalis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to investigate the distribution of amylin-like immunoreactivity in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) pituitary. Amylin-immunoreactive cells were observed in the pars intermedia, and these cells were found to be immunoreactive for α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) as well. In contrast, αMSH-immunoreactive cells in the pars distalis were immuno-negaitive for amylin. These light microscopic findings were confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Amylin-immunoreactive signals were located on the haloes of presumable secretory granules in association with αMSH-immunoreactive signals in the amylin-positive cells. However, in the pars distalis, the αMSH-positive cells did not contain amylin-immunoreactive secretory granules. Western blot analysis of axolotl pituitary extracts revealed the labeling of a protein band at approximately 10.5-kDa by the anti-rat amylin serum, which was not labeled by the anti-αMSH antibody. These findings indicate that amylin secreted from MSH-producing cells in the pars intermedia may modulate MSH secretion in an autocrine fashion and may participate in MSH functions such as fatty homeostasis together with MSH. PMID:26797189

  20. Discovery of Tetrahydropyrazolopyridine as Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 3 (S1P3)-Sparing S1P1 Agonists Active at Low Oral Doses.

    PubMed

    Demont, Emmanuel H; Bailey, James M; Bit, Rino A; Brown, Jack A; Campbell, Colin A; Deeks, Nigel; Dowell, Simon J; Eldred, Colin; Gaskin, Pam; Gray, James R J; Haynes, Andrea; Hirst, David J; Holmes, Duncan S; Kumar, Umesh; Morse, Mary A; Osborne, Greg J; Renaux, Jessica F; Seal, Gail A L; Smethurst, Chris A; Taylor, Simon; Watson, Robert; Willis, Robert; Witherington, Jason

    2016-02-11

    FTY720 is the first oral small molecule approved for the treatment of people suffering from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is a potent agonist of the S1P1 receptor, but its lack of selectivity against the S1P3 receptor has been linked to most of the cardiovascular side effects observed in the clinic. These findings have triggered intensive efforts toward the identification of a second generation of S1P3-sparing S1P1 agonists. We have recently disclosed a series of orally active tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) compounds matching these criteria. In this paper we describe how we defined and implemented a strategy aiming at the discovery of selective structurally distinct follow-up agonists. This effort culminated with the identification of a series of orally active tetrahydropyrazolopyridines. PMID:26751273

  1. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, MI; Valdivia, A; Martínez, P; Palacios, JL; Harris, P; Novales, J; Garrido, E; Valderrama, D; Shilling, C; Kirberg, A; Hebel, E; Fierro, J; Bravo, R; Siegel, F; Leon, G; Klapp, G; Venegas, A

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers. METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing. RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype in Chilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%). The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes. Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India. CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vacA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype. Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2 recedes H Pylori strain distribution in Spain and Portugal. PMID:16419167

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of gemcitabine, S-1 and gemcitabine plus S-1 for treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer based on GEST study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Rongce; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Pengfei; Tang, Ruilei; Du, Zedong; He, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Qiu

    2015-04-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM) alone, S-1 alone and gemcitabine plus S-1 (GS) have shown a marginal clinical benefit for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. However, there is no clearly defined optimal cost-effectiveness treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of GEM alone, S-1 alone and GS for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer based on GEST study for public payers. A decision model compared GEM alone, S-1 alone and GS. Primary base case data were identified using the GEST study and the literatures. Costs were estimated from West China Hospital, Sichuan University, China, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Survival benefits were reported in quality-adjusted life-months (QALMs). Sensitive analyses were performed by varying potentially modifiable parameters of the model. The base case analysis showed that the GEM cost $21,912 and yielded survival of 6.93 QALMs, S-1 cost $19,371 and yielded survival of 7.90 QALMs and GS cost $22,943 and yielded survival of 7.46 QALMs in the entire treatment. The one-way sensitivity analyses showed that the ICER of S-1 was driven mostly by the S-1 group utility score of stable state compared with GEM, and the GEM group utility score of progressed state played a key role on the ICER of GS compared with GEM. S-1 represents an attractive cost-effective treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer, given the favorable cost per QALM and improvement in clinical efficacy, especially the limited available treatment options.

  3. Factor Xa inhibitors: S1 binding interactions of a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chuen; Borthwick, Alan D; Brown, David; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Campbell, Matthew; Chaudry, Laiq; Chung, Chun-wa; Convery, Máire A; Hamblin, J Nicole; Johnstone, Lisa; Kelly, Henry A; Kleanthous, Savvas; Patikis, Angela; Patel, Champa; Pateman, Anthony J; Senger, Stefan; Shah, Gita P; Toomey, John R; Watson, Nigel S; Weston, Helen E; Whitworth, Caroline; Young, Robert J; Zhou, Ping

    2007-04-01

    Factor Xa inhibitory activities for a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides with different P1 groups are described. These data provide insight into binding interactions within the S1 primary specificity pocket; rationales are presented for the derived SAR on the basis of electronic interactions through crystal structures of fXa-ligand complexes and molecular modeling studies. A good correlation between in vitro anticoagulant activities with lipophilicity and the extent of human serum albumin binding is observed within this series of potent fXa inhibitors. Pharmacokinetic profiles in rat and dog, together with selectivity over other trypsin-like serine proteases, identified 1f as a candidate for further evaluation.

  4. S1PR1-mediated IFNAR1 degradation modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon-α autoamplification

    PubMed Central

    Teijaro, John R.; Studer, Sean; Leaf, Nora; Kiosses, William B.; Nguyen, Nhan; Matsuki, Kosuke; Negishi, Hideo; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Oldstone, Michael B. A.; Rosen, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Blunting immunopathology without abolishing host defense is the foundation for safe and effective modulation of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonists are effective in treating infectious and multiple autoimmune pathologies; however, mechanisms underlying their clinical efficacy are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we uncover an unexpected mechanism of convergence between S1PR1 and interferon alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1) signaling pathways. Activation of S1PR1 signaling by pharmacological tools or endogenous ligand sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) inhibits type 1 IFN responses that exacerbate numerous pathogenic conditions. Mechanistically, S1PR1 selectively suppresses the type I IFN autoamplification loop in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a specialized DC subset, for robust type I IFN release. S1PR1 agonist suppression is pertussis toxin-resistant, but inhibited by an S1PR1 C-terminal–derived transactivating transcriptional activator (Tat)-fusion peptide that blocks receptor internalization. S1PR1 agonist treatment accelerates turnover of IFNAR1, suppresses signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, and down-modulates total STAT1 levels, thereby inactivating the autoamplification loop. Inhibition of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in vivo using the selective antagonist Ex26 significantly elevates IFN-α production in response to CpG-A. Thus, multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that S1PR1 signaling sets the sensitivity of pDC amplification of IFN responses, thereby blunting pathogenic immune responses. These data illustrate a lipid G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-IFNAR1 regulatory loop that balances effective and detrimental immune responses and elevated endogenous S1PR1 signaling. This mechanism will likely be advantageous in individuals subject to a range of inflammatory conditions. PMID:26787880

  5. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1(1ππ∗) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ˜5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC corr = 1 % -5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ṡ 109 s-1, the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1 to the T1(3ππ∗) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of 1nOπ∗ character into the S1(1ππ∗) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm-1 in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ṡ 1010 s-1, (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 (1ππ∗⇝3ππ∗) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ˜ 550 cm-1 the IC rate increases by ˜50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  6. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN. PMID:22959943

  7. Short communication: CSN1S1-CSN3 (α(S1)-κ-casein) composite genotypes affect detailed milk protein composition of Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Giantin, M; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Dacasto, M; Carnier, P

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of composite CSN1S1-CSN3 [α(S1)-κ-casein (CN)] genotype on milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κ-CN, glycosylated and unglycosylated κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC using 621 individual milk samples. Genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were also obtained by reversed-phase HPLC. Two alleles were detected at CSN1S1 (corresponding to the A and B variants, O62823: p.Leu193Ser,) and at CSN3 (corresponding to the X1 and X2 variants, CAP12622.1: p.Ile156Thr). Increased proportions of α(S1)-CN in total casein (TCN) were associated with genotypes carrying CSN1S1 A. Genotypes associated with a marked decrease of the proportion of α(S1)-CN in TCN (composite genotypes AB-X1X1 and BB-X1X2) were associated with marked increases in the proportion of α(S2)-CN. In addition, composite genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 were associated with a greater proportion of α(S2)-CN in TCN relative to those carrying CSN3 X2. Composite genotypes greatly affected also the variability of ratios of κ-CN to TCN, with genotypes carrying the X1 allele at CSN3 being associated with decreased ratios. The decreased content of glycosylated κ-CN associated with CSN3 X1 was responsible for the overall lower content of total κ-CN in milk of X1-carrying animals. Increasing the frequency of specific genotypes might be an effective way to alter milk protein composition, namely the proportion of α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, and κ-CN in TCN, and the degree of glycosylation of κ-CN.

  8. S1←S0 vibronic spectra and structure of cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde molecule in the S1 lowest excited singlet electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godunov, I. A.; Yakovlev, N. N.; Terentiev, R. V.; Maslov, D. V.; Bataev, V. A.; Abramenkov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The S1←S0 vibronic spectra of gas-phase absorption at room temperature and fluorescence excitation of jet-cooled cyclopropanecarboxaldehyde (CPCA, c-C3H5CHO)were obtained and analyzed. In addition, the quantum chemical calculation (CASPT2/cc-pVTZ)was carried out for CPCA in the ground (S0) and lowest excited singlet (S1) electronic states. As a result, it was proved that the S1←S0 electronic excitation of the CPCA conformers (syn and anti) causes (after geometrical relaxation) significant structural changes, namely, the carbonyl fragments become non-planar and the cyclopropyl groups rotate around the central C-C bond. As a consequence, the potential energy surface of CPCA in the S1 state has six minima, 1ab, 2ab, and 3ab, corresponding to three pairs of mirror symmetry conformers: a and b. It was shown that vibronic bands of experimental spectra can be assigned to the 2(S1)←syn(S0) electronic transition with the origin at 30,481 cm-1. A number of fundamental vibrational frequencies for the 2 conformer of CPCA were assigned. In addition, several inversional energy levels for the 2 conformer were found and the 2a↔2b potential function of inversion was determined. The experimental barrier to inversion and the equilibrium angle between the CH bond and the CCO plane were calculated as 570 cm-1 and 28°, respectively.

  9. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes breast cancer stem cell expansion via SPHK1/S1P/S1PR3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lee, Jau-Nan; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms unique to breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is required to control breast cancer metastasis. We found that phthalates promote BCSCs in human breast cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. A toxic phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer cells to stimulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) signaling and enhance formation of metastasis-initiating BCSCs. BBP induced histone modifications in S1PR3 in side population (SP) cells, but not in non-SP cells. SPHK1 or S1PR3 knockdown in breast cancer cells effectively reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest S1PR3 is a determinant of phthalate-driven breast cancer metastasis and a possible therapeutic target for regulating BCSC populations. Furthermore, the association between breast carcinogenesis and environmental pollutants has important implications for public health. PMID:27129165

  10. Involvement of sphingosine-1-phosphate and S1P1 in angiogenesis: analyses using a new S1P1 antagonist of non-sphingosine-1-phosphate analog.

    PubMed

    Yonesu, Kiyoaki; Kawase, Yumi; Inoue, Tatsuya; Takagi, Nana; Tsuchida, Jun; Takuwa, Yoh; Kumakura, Seiichiro; Nara, Futoshi

    2009-03-15

    Chemical lead 2 (CL2) is the first non-sphingosine-1-phosphate (Sph-1-P) analog type antagonist of endothelial differentiation gene-1 (Edg-1/S1P(1)), which is a member of the Sph-1-P receptor family. CL2 inhibits [(3)H]Sph-1-P/S1P(1) binding and shows concentration-dependent inhibition activity against both intracellular cAMP concentration decrease and cell invasion induced by the Sph-1-P/S1P(1) pathway. It also inhibits normal tube formation in an angiogenesis culture model, indicating that CL2 has anti-angiogenesis activity. This compound improved the disease conditions in two angiogenic models in vivo. It significantly inhibited angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor in a rabbit cornea model as well as the swelling of mouse feet in an anti-type II collagen antibody-induced arthritis model. These results indicate that the Sph-1-P/S1P(1) pathway would have an important role in disease-related angiogenesis, especially in the processes of migration/invasion and tube formation. In addition, CL2 would be a powerful tool for the pharmacological study of the mechanisms of the Sph-1-P/S1P(1) pathway in rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes retinopathy, and solid tumor growth processes. PMID:19150609

  11. Benzyl butyl phthalate promotes breast cancer stem cell expansion via SPHK1/S1P/S1PR3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Sheng; Lee, Jau-Nan; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms unique to breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is required to control breast cancer metastasis. We found that phthalates promote BCSCs in human breast cancer cell cultures and xenograft tumors. A toxic phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor in breast cancer cells to stimulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1)/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) signaling and enhance formation of metastasis-initiating BCSCs. BBP induced histone modifications in S1PR3 in side population (SP) cells, but not in non-SP cells. SPHK1 or S1PR3 knockdown in breast cancer cells effectively reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest S1PR3 is a determinant of phthalate-driven breast cancer metastasis and a possible therapeutic target for regulating BCSC populations. Furthermore, the association between breast carcinogenesis and environmental pollutants has important implications for public health. PMID:27129165

  12. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  13. Isotope shift of the 32S 1/2 -22S 1/2 transition in lithium and the nuclear polarizability.

    PubMed

    Puchalski, M; Moro, A M; Pachucki, K

    2006-09-29

    High precision calculation of the isotope shift of the 3(2)S(1/2)-2(2)S(1/2) transition in lithium is presented. The wave function and matrix elements of relativistic operators are obtained by using recursion relations. Apart from the relativistic contribution, we obtain the nuclear polarizability correction for 11Li. The resulting difference of the squared charge radii 11Li-7Li based on the measurements of Sánchez et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033002 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.033002] is deltar(ch)(2)=0.157(81) fm(2), which significantly differs from the previous evaluation.

  14. Enhanced Raman scattering from cesium suboxides on silver particles and the structure of S-1 photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation is given for the results of recent enhanced Raman scattering studies of photomultiplier tubes with S-1 photocathode surfaces which indicated the presence of Cs11O3 but not Cs2O. The reason for the discrepancy between the currently accepted model of the S-1 and this recent result is discussed.

  15. Mechanism of the S1 excited state internal conversion in vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Lodowski, Piotr; Jaworska, Maria; Andruniów, Tadeusz; Garabato, Brady D; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2014-09-21

    To explain the photostability of vitamin B12, internal conversion of the S1 state was investigated using TD-DFT. The active coordinates for radiationless deactivation were determined to be elongated axial bonds, overcoming a 5.0 kcal mol(-1) energy barrier between the relaxed ligand-to-metal charge transfer (S1), and the ground (S0) states.

  16. VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST END OF QUARRY LOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Submarine Base, Berthing Wharf S1, South Waterfront Road along north side of Quarry Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus S-1, an Efficient Isoeugenol-Utilizing Producer for Natural Vanillin

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Zhang, Zhaobin; Wang, Xiaoyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Tao, Fei; Tai, Cui; Wu, Qiulin; Wu, Geng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus S-1 is an efficient isoeugenol-utilizing producer of natural vanillin. The genome of B. pumilus S-1 contains the epoxide hydrolase and six candidate monooxygenases that make it possible to explore the mechanism involved in conversion of isoenguenol to vanillin in the B. pumilus strain. PMID:22038964

  18. An anatomical update on the morphologic variations of S1 and S2.

    PubMed

    Karachalios, Theofilos; Zibis, Aristides H; Zintzaras, Elias; Bargiotas, Konstantinos; Karantanas, Apostolos H; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2010-10-11

    Although percutaneous fixation with iliosacral screws has been shown to be a safe and reproducible method for sacroiliac dislocation and sacral fractures, it is a technically demanding technique, and one of its contraindications is sacral anatomical variations and dysmorphism. The incidence and pattern of S1 and S2 anatomical variations were evaluated in 61 patients (35 women and 26 men) using magnetic resonance imaging of the sacrum in an attempt to explore the possible existence of groups of individuals in whom percutaneous sacroiliac fixation is difficult due to local anatomy. S1 and S2 dimensions in both the transverse and coronal planes were recorded and evaluated. In each individual, S1 and S2 dimensions both in the coronal and transverse planes were proportional, with S2 dimensions being 80% of those of S1 on average. Patients were separated into 4 groups based on the S1 and S2 body size and the asymmetry of dimensions in the transverse and coronal planes. In 48 patients (78.6%), dimensions in both planes were symmetrical despite the varying size of the S1 and S2 body. In 2 patients (3.3%) there was a combination of large transverse plane and small coronal plane dimensions, with large S1 and S2 body size. In 9 patients (14.8%), coronal plane dimensions were disproportionately smaller compared to those of the transverse plane, with a varying size of S1 and S2 body making effective sacroiliac screw insertion a difficult task. Thus, a preoperative imaging study, preferably computed tomography scan, of S1 and S2 body size and coronal plane dimensions and an intraoperative fluoroscopic control of S1 and S2 dimensions on the coronal plane are suggested for safe sacroiliac screw fixation.

  19. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  20. Detection of anti-preS1 antibodies for recovery of hepatitis B patients by immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Wang, Yu-Qin; Lu, Zhi-Meng; Li, Guang-Di; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Zu-Chuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To establish a convenient immunoassay method based on recombinant antigen preS1(21-119 aa) to detect anti-preS1 antibodies and evaluate the clinical significance of antibodies in hepatitis B. METHODS: The expression plasmid pET-28a-preS1 was constructed, and a large quantity of preS1(21-119 aa) fragment of the large HBsAg protein was obtained. The preS1 fragment purified by Ni2+-IDA affinity chromatography was used as coated antigen to establish the indirect ELISA based on streptavidin-biotin system for detection of the anti-preS1 antibodies in sera from HBV-infected patients. For follow-up study, serial sera were collected during the clinical course of 21 HBV-infected patients and anti-preS1 antibodies, preS1 antigen, HBV-DNA and other serological HBV markers were analyzed. RESULTS: preS1(21-119 aa) fragment was highly expressed from the plasmid pET-28a-preS1 in a soluble form in E. coli (30 mg•L⁻¹), and easily purified to high purity over 90% by one step of Ni2+-IDA-sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. The purity and antigenicity of the purified preS1(21-119 aa) protein was determined by 150 g•L⁻¹ SDS-PAGE, Western blot and a direct ELISA. Recombinant preS1(21-119 aa) protein was successfully applied in the immunoassay which could sensitively detect the anti-preS1 antibodies in serum specimens of acute or chronic hepatitis B patients. Results showed that more than half of 19 acute hepatitis B patients produced anti-preS1 antibodies during recovery of the disease, however, the response was only found in a few of chronic patients. In the clinical follow-up study of 11 patients with anti-preS1 positive serological profile, HBsAg and HBV-DNA clearance occurred in 6 of 10 acute hepatitis B patients in 5-6 mo, and seroconversion of HBeAg and disappearance of HBV-DNA occurred in 1 chronic patients treated with lavumidine, a antiviral agent. CONCLUSION: The high-purity preS1(21-119 aa) coated antigen was successfully prepared by gene expression and

  1. Phosphorylation of αS1-casein is regulated by different genes.

    PubMed

    Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Bovenhuis, H

    2014-11-01

    Casein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by kinase enzymes that attach phosphate groups to specific AA in the protein sequence. This modification is one of the key factors responsible for the stabilization of calcium phosphate nanoclusters in casein micelles and for the internal structure of the casein micelles. α(S1)-Casein (α(s1)-CN) is of special interest because it constitutes up to 40% of the total casein fraction in milk, and it has 2 common phosphorylation states, with 8 (α(S1)-CN-8P) and 9 (α(S1)-CN-9P) phosphorylated serine residues. Factors affecting this variation in the degree of phosphorylation are not currently known. The objective of this research was to determine the genetic background of α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P. The genetic and phenotypic correlation between α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P was low (0.18 and 0.19, respectively). This low genetic correlation suggests a different genetic background. These differences were further investigated by means of a genome-wide association study, which showed that both α(S1)-CN-8P and α(S1)-CN-9P were affected by a region on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, but only α(S1)-CN-8P was affected by a region on BTA11 that contains the gene that encodes for β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and only α(S1)-CN-9P was affected by a region on BTA14 that contains the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Estimated effects of β-LG protein genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-8P was associated with the β-LG A/B polymorphism (g.1772G>A and g.3054C>T); the AA genotype of β-LG was associated with a lower concentration of α(S1)-CN-8P (-0.32% wt/wt) than the BB genotype (+0.41% wt/wt). Estimated effects of DGAT1 K232A genotypes showed that only α(S1)-CN-9P was associated with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism; DGAT1 AA genotype was associated with a higher α(S1)-CN-9P concentration (+0.53% wt/wt) than the DGAT1 KK genotype (-0.44% wt/wt). The results give insight in phosphorylation of α(S1

  2. [Combination therapy with S-1 and CDDP for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masato

    2006-06-01

    The combination with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU is considered the first choice chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). S-1, a modulation of tegafur developed in Japan, is an active agent for HNSCC. Some clinical phase I/II studies about the combination with CDDP and S-1 have been reported. The combination showed a good response rate of 67.6% for advanced and recurrent HNSCC in our clinical phase I/II study. The regimens of S-1 combined with carboplatin or nedaplatin have also been reported. Regimens containing S-1 appear to have been effective for HNSCC. Multi-institutional phase II studies with a large sample size are needed in the future. The compliance for patients is better than a 5-FU injection because S-1 is orally administrated. The adverse effect, especially for bone mallow toxicity, is equal or upgraded compared with a 5-FU injection. The efficacy and adverse effects of CDDP plus S-1 should be studied in carefully designed phase II/III trials. S-1 will be one of the key drugs for HNSCC in the future. PMID:16897992

  3. One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Hikmet Turan; Celikoglu, Erhan; Borekcı, Ali; Hıcdonmez, Tufan; Suslu, Hüsnü

    2011-01-01

    Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches. PMID:23125496

  4. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  5. Safety, compliance, and predictive parameters for dosage modification in adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Keun-Wook

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the compliance, safety, dosage modifications (dose reduction and/or schedule change [including permanent S-1 withdrawal]), and clinical parameters that predict S-1 dosage modification in gastric cancer patients receiving adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy. One hundred and forty-nine patients who underwent curative D2 surgery and received adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy were enrolled. S-1 was administered orally (40 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-28 every 6 weeks) for 1 year. For patients unable to tolerate S-1, the dosage was reduced or the schedule was changed to a 3-weekly schedule of 2 weeks on treatment followed by 1 week off treatment. The planned 1-year treatment was completed in 73.8% of patients; 69 patients required dosage modification because of toxicity. The most frequent cause of dosage modification was enterocolitis (37 patients; defined as ≥ grade 2 abdominal pain and/or ≥ grade 2 diarrhea). Most dosage modification occurred during the early cycles of treatment (within the first 3 months). Severe toxicities (≥ grade 3) included neutropenia (13.4%), abdominal pain (8.1%) and diarrhea (8.1%). In multivariate analyses, decreased relative dose intensity was related to poor disease-free survival independent of stage, and only low creatinine clearance predicted S-1 dosage modification. In conclusion, although adjuvant S-1 therapy has a high compliance rate, meticulous monitoring of adverse events is required in the early period of treatment. Decreased creatinine clearance was the only factor that predicted dosage modification. In patients with creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, dosage reduction should be considered from the initiation of S-1 treatment.

  6. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J.; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A.; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-e-Huma; Smith, Joshua D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B.; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2−/− mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2−/− mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  7. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  8. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-E-Huma; Smith, Joshua D; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-02-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2(-/-) mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2(-/-) mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  9. S = 1 Excitations in Heat Capacity of the Haldane Compound TMNIN Doped with a Nonmagnetic Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawae, Tatsuya; Ito, Masakazu; Mito, Masaki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the field dependence of the heat capacity of a typicalHaldane antiferromagnet (CH3)4NNi(NO)3 (TMNIN) doped with thenonmagnetic impurity Zn2+, as well as of a pure TMNIN. The overallfeatures of the magnetic heat capacity, including the characteristic broadmaximum, are almost reproduced by the theoretical curve with J/k B =-12 K for both systems in zero field. The field dependence in the impuresystems is described well by assuming the Schottky heat capacity with S =1, not S = 1/2 expected from the VBS model. A possible reason why the S= 1 model is suitable is discussed.

  10. 2-pyridone: The role of out-of-plane vibrations on the S1<-->S0 spectra and S1 state reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Jann A.; Leist, Roman; Tanner, Christian; Frey, Hans-Martin; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2006-09-01

    The S1↔S0 vibronic spectra of supersonic jet-cooled 2-pyridone [pyridin-2-one (2PY)] and its N-H deuterated isotopomer (d-2PY) have been recorded by two-color resonant two-photon ionization, laser-induced fluorescence and emission, and fluorescence depletion spectroscopies. By combining these methods, the B origin of 2PY at 000+98cm-1 and the bands at +218 and +252cm-1 are identified as overtones of the S1 state out-of-plane vibrations ν1' and ν2', as are the analogous bands of d-2PY. Anharmonic double-minimum potentials are derived for the respective out-of-plane coordinates that predict further ν1' and ν2' overtones and combinations, reproducing ˜80% of the vibronic bands up to 600cm-1 above the 000 band. The fluorescence spectra excited at the electronic origins and the ν1' and ν2' out-of-plane overtone levels confirm these assignments. The S1 nonplanar minima and S1←S0 out-of-plane progressions are in agreement with the determination of nonplanar vibrationally averaged geometries for the 000 and 000+98cm-1 upper states by Held et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 95, 8732 (1991)]. The fluorescence lifetimes of the S1 state vibrations show strong mode dependence: Those of the out-of-plane levels decrease rapidly above 200cm-1 excess vibrational energy, while the in-plane vibrations ν5', ν8', and ν9' have longer lifetimes, although they are above or interspersed with the "dark" out-of-plane states. This is interpreted in terms of an S1' state reaction with a low barrier towards a conical intersection with a prefulvenic geometry. Out-of-plane vibrational states can directly surmount this barrier, whereas in-plane vibrations are much less efficient in this respect. Analysis of the fluorescence spectra allows to identify nine in-plane S0' state fundamentals, overtones of the S0 state ν1″ and ν2″ out-of-plane vibrations, and >30 other overtones and combination bands. The B3LYP /6-311++G(d,p) calculated anharmonic wave numbers are in very good agreement with the

  11. Expression of S1P metabolizing enzymes and receptors correlate with survival time and regulate cell migration in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bien-Möller, Sandra; Lange, Sandra; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Paland, Heiko; Küpper, Johannes; Herzog, Susann; Weitmann, Kerstin; Havemann, Christoph; Vogelgesang, Silke; Marx, Sascha; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W.S.; Rauch, Bernhard H.

    2016-01-01

    A signaling molecule which is involved in proliferation and migration of malignant cells is the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). There are hints for a potential role of S1P signaling in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is characterized by a poor prognosis. Therefore, a comprehensive expression analysis of S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P5) and S1P metabolizing enzymes in human GBM (n = 117) compared to healthy brain (n = 10) was performed to evaluate their role for patient's survival. Furthermore, influence of S1P receptor inhibition on proliferation and migration were studied in LN18 GBM cells. Compared to control brain, mRNA levels of S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P generating sphingosine kinase-1 were elevated in GBM. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated an association between S1P1 and S1P2 with patient's survival times. In vitro, an inhibitory effect of the SphK inhibitor SKI-II on viability of LN18 cells was shown. S1P itself had no effect on viability but stimulated LN18 migration which was blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P2. The participation of S1P1 and S1P2 in LN18 migration was further supported by siRNA-mediated silencing of these receptors. Immunoblots and inhibition experiments suggest an involvement of the PI3-kinase/AKT1 pathway in the chemotactic effect of S1P in LN18 cells. In summary, our data argue for a role of S1P signaling in proliferation and migration of GBM cells. Individual components of the S1P pathway represent prognostic factors for patients with GBM. Perspectively, a selective modulation of S1P receptor subtypes could represent a therapeutic approach for GBM patients and requires further evaluation. PMID:26887055

  12. Components-dependent optical nonlinearity in a series of CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunlong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Qian; Li, Songtao; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    The different compositions of the ternary alloyed CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(CSQDs) have been synthesized by the chemical routes. The nonlinear optical properties of these QDs were investigated using Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picosecond laser pulse. The Z-scan results reveal that the nonlinear refractive indices of these QDs can be tuned by changing the ratio of Se and S components. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been shown to be enhanced in CSQDs as compared to their core semiconductor counterparts. These QDs exhibit the components-tuned nonlinear refraction indices, which lead to a wide application in the photonic field.

  13. PMMA Cementoplasty in Symptomatic Metastatic Lesions of the S1 Vertebral Body

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Amir R.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Jean, Beatrix; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2000-03-15

    We describe a lateral transiliac direct puncture approach to the S1 vertebral body for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty of painful metastatic lesions. This approach was performed using a 15-cm-long trocar needle with 3-mm outer diameter, introduced under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic control. A lateral projection was used to center the needle just in front of the spinal canal and subjacent to the superior plate of the S1 vertebral body. Needle progression was controlled using anteroposterior and lateral fluoroscopic projections alternately with a needle course parallel to an axial plane, avoiding conflict with the S1 foramen. After needle tip placement in the center of the S1 vertebral body, diluted PMMA with a setting time of 8 min was delivered. Ipsilateral lesions of the lateral sacral compartment were filled with the same needle by stepwise withdrawal and continuous PMMA injection.

  14. Characterization of the sugar-O-methyltransferase LobS1 in lobophorin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ji; Zhang, Qingbo; Zhu, Yiguang; Li, Sumei; Zhang, Guangtao; Zhang, Haibo; Saurav, Kumar; Zhang, Changsheng

    2013-10-01

    Lobophorins A (1) and B (2) belong to a large group of spirotetronate natural products with potent antibacterial and antitumor activities. The cloning of the lobophorin biosynthesis gene cluster from the deep-sea-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01127 identified a sugar-O-methyltransferase-encoding gene lobS1. The lobS1 inactivation mutant accumulated two new lobophorin analogs 3 and 4, different from 1 and 2 by lacking the 4-methyl group at the terminal L-digitoxose, respectively. Biochemical experiments verified that LobS1 was a SAM-dependent sugar-O-methyltransferase that required divalent metal ions for better activity. Antibacterial assays revealed compounds 3 and 4 were generally less potent than compounds 1 and 2. These findings suggest that the methylation on the terminal digitoxose by LobS1 tailors lobophorin biosynthesis and highlights the importance of this methylation for antibacterial potence.

  15. 6S-1 RNA function leads to a delay in sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Amy T; Wassarman, Karen M

    2013-05-01

    We have discovered that 6S-1 RNA (encoded by bsrA) is important for appropriate timing of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis in that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA sporulate earlier than wild-type cells. The time to generate a mature spore once the decision to sporulate has been made is unaffected by 6S-1 RNA, and, therefore, we propose that it is the timing of onset of sporulation that is altered. Interestingly, the presence of cells lacking 6S-1 RNA in coculture leads to all cell types exhibiting an early-sporulation phenotype. We propose that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA modify their environment in a manner that promotes early sporulation. In support of this model, resuspension of wild-type cells in conditioned medium from ΔbsrA cultures also resulted in early sporulation. Use of Escherichia coli growth as a reporter of the nutritional status of conditioned media suggested that B. subtilis cells lacking 6S-1 RNA reduce the nutrient content of their environment earlier than wild-type cells. Several pathways known to impact the timing of sporulation, such as the skf- and sdp-dependent cannibalism pathways, were eliminated as potential targets of 6S-1 RNA-mediated changes, suggesting that 6S-1 RNA activity defines a novel mechanism for altering the timing of onset of sporulation. In addition, 6S-2 RNA does not influence the timing of sporulation, providing further evidence of the independent influences of these two related RNAs on cell physiology. PMID:23457253

  16. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-01

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics.

  17. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-01

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics. PMID:27017302

  18. CYP2S1 is negatively regulated by corticosteroids in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bebenek, Ilona G; Solaimani, Parrisa; Bui, Peter; Hankinson, Oliver

    2012-02-25

    Cytochrome P450s are monooxygenase proteins involved in the metabolism of both exogenous and endogenous compounds. CYP2S1 can metabolize eicosanoids in the absence of both NADPH and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, and can also activate the anticancer agent 1 AQ4N [1,4-bis{[2-(dimethylamino-N-oxide)ethyl]amino}-5,8-dihydroxy anthracene-9,10-dione]. CYP2S1 is mainly expressed in extrahepatic tissues such as the trachea, lung, stomach, small intestine, spleen, skin, breast, kidney and placenta. Furthermore, increased expression of CYP2S1 occurs in several tumors of epithelial origin, making the characterization of CYP2S1 regulation relevant to the treatment of disease. We report that the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor ligand dexamethasone (DEX) represses CYP2S1 expression. The ED(50) is between 1 nM and 3 nM and maximal repression is reached by 48 h. Other corticosteroids are also effective at repressing CYP2S1. We show that repression by DEX is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor and requires histone deacetylase activity.

  19. A novel role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1pr1 in mouse thrombopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Orban, Martin; Lorenz, Michael; Barocke, Verena; Braun, Daniel; Urtz, Nicole; Schulz, Christian; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Tirniceriu, Anca; Gaertner, Florian; Proia, Richard L.; Graf, Thomas; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Montanez, Eloi; Prinz, Marco; Müller, Alexandra; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Billich, Andreas; Sixt, Michael; Fässler, Reinhard; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Junt, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Millions of platelets are produced each hour by bone marrow (BM) megakaryocytes (MKs). MKs extend transendothelial proplatelet (PP) extensions into BM sinusoids and shed new platelets into the blood. The mechanisms that control platelet generation remain incompletely understood. Using conditional mutants and intravital multiphoton microscopy, we show here that the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) serves as a critical directional cue guiding the elongation of megakaryocytic PP extensions from the interstitium into BM sinusoids and triggering the subsequent shedding of PPs into the blood. Correspondingly, mice lacking the S1P receptor S1pr1 develop severe thrombocytopenia caused by both formation of aberrant extravascular PPs and defective intravascular PP shedding. In contrast, activation of S1pr1 signaling leads to the prompt release of new platelets into the circulating blood. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel function of the S1P–S1pr1 axis as master regulator of efficient thrombopoiesis and might raise new therapeutic options for patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:23148237

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Ganglioside Hp-s1 Analogues Varying at Glucosyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jung-Tung; Yeh, Chun-Hong; Yang, Shih-An; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Tai, Hung-Ju; Shelke, Ganesh B; Reddy, Daggula Mallikarjuna; Yu, Alice L; Luo, Shun-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    Ganglioside Hp-s1 is isolated from the ovary of sea urchin Diadema setosum. It exhibited better neuritogenic activity than GM1 in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. To explore the roles of glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 in contributing to the neurogenic activity, we developed feasible procedures for synthesis of Hp-s1 analogues (2a-2f). The glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 was replaced with α-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose, and their biological activities on SH-SY5Y cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells were evaluated. We found that the orientation of C-2 hydroxyl group at glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 plays an important role to induce neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Surprisingly, compound 2d could activate NKT cells to produce interleukin 2, although it did not show great activity on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. In general, the Hp-s1 might be considered as a lead compound for the development of novel drugs aimed at modulating the activity of neuronal cells. PMID:27276519

  1. Isolation of new Stenotrophomonas bacteriophages and genomic characterization of temperate phage S1.

    PubMed

    García, Pilar; Monjardín, Cristina; Martín, Rebeca; Madera, Carmen; Soberón, Nora; Garcia, Eva; Meana, Alvaro; Suárez, Juan E

    2008-12-01

    Twenty-two phages that infect Stenotrophomonas species were isolated through sewage enrichment and prophage induction. Of them, S1, S3, and S4 were selected due to their wide host ranges compared to those of the other phages. S1 and S4 are temperate siphoviruses, while S3 is a virulent myovirus. The genomes of S3 and S4, about 33 and 200 kb, were resistant to restriction digestion. The lytic cycles lasted 30 min for S3 and about 75 min for S1 and S4. The burst size for S3 was 100 virions/cell, while S1 and S4 produced about 75 virus particles/cell. The frequency of bacteriophage-insensitive host mutants, calculated by dividing the number of surviving colonies by the bacterial titer of a parallel, uninfected culture, ranged between 10(-5) and 10(-6) for S3 and 10(-3) and 10(-4) for S1 and S4. The 40,287-bp genome of S1 contains 48 open reading frames (ORFs) and 12-bp 5' protruding cohesive ends. By using a combination of bioinformatics and experimental evidence, functions were ascribed to 21 ORFs. The morphogenetic and lysis modules are well-conserved, but no lysis-lysogeny switch or DNA replication gene clusters were recognized. Two major clusters of genes with respect to transcriptional orientation were observed. Interspersed among them were lysogenic conversion genes encoding phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase and GspM, a protein involved in the general secretion system II. The attP site of S1 may be located within a gene that presents over 75% homology to a Stenotrophomonas chromosomal determinant.

  2. The Effects of Spinopelvic Parameters and Paraspinal Muscle Degeneration on S1 Screw Loosening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Bum; Lee, Young-Seok; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-Sook; Kim, Young-Baeg

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for S1 screw loosening after lumbosacral fusion, including spinopelvic parameters and paraspinal muscles. Methods We studied with 156 patients with degenerative lumbar disease who underwent lumbosacral interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation including the level of L5-S1 between 2005 and 2012. The patients were divided into loosening and non-loosening groups. Screw loosening was defined as a halo sign larger than 1 mm around a screw. We checked cross sectional area of paraspinal muscles, mean signal intensity of the muscles on T2 weight MRI as a degree of fatty degeneration, spinopelvic parameters, bone mineral density, number of fusion level, and the characteristic of S1 screw. Results Twenty seven patients showed S1 screw loosening, which is 24.4% of total. The mean duration for S1 screw loosening was 7.3±4.1 months after surgery. Statistically significant risk factors were increased age, poor BMD, 3 or more fusion levels (p<0.05). Among spinopelvic parameters, a high pelvic incidence (p<0.01), a greater difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordotic angle preoperatively (p<0.01) and postoperatively (p<0.05). Smaller cross-sectional area and high T2 signal intensity in both multifidus and erector spinae muscles were also significant muscular risk factors (p<0.05). Small converging angle (p<0.001) and short intraosseous length (p<0.05) of S1 screw were significant screw related risk factors (p<0.05). Conclusion In addition to well known risk factors, spinopelvic parameters and the degeneration of paraspinal muscles also showed significant effects on the S1 screw loosening. PMID:26587190

  3. Isolation of New Stenotrophomonas Bacteriophages and Genomic Characterization of Temperate Phage S1

    PubMed Central

    García, Pilar; Monjardín, Cristina; Martín, Rebeca; Madera, Carmen; Soberón, Nora; Garcia, Eva; Meana, Álvaro; Suárez, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-two phages that infect Stenotrophomonas species were isolated through sewage enrichment and prophage induction. Of them, S1, S3, and S4 were selected due to their wide host ranges compared to those of the other phages. S1 and S4 are temperate siphoviruses, while S3 is a virulent myovirus. The genomes of S3 and S4, about 33 and 200 kb, were resistant to restriction digestion. The lytic cycles lasted 30 min for S3 and about 75 min for S1 and S4. The burst size for S3 was 100 virions/cell, while S1 and S4 produced about 75 virus particles/cell. The frequency of bacteriophage-insensitive host mutants, calculated by dividing the number of surviving colonies by the bacterial titer of a parallel, uninfected culture, ranged between 10−5 and 10−6 for S3 and 10−3 and 10−4 for S1 and S4. The 40,287-bp genome of S1 contains 48 open reading frames (ORFs) and 12-bp 5′ protruding cohesive ends. By using a combination of bioinformatics and experimental evidence, functions were ascribed to 21 ORFs. The morphogenetic and lysis modules are well-conserved, but no lysis-lysogeny switch or DNA replication gene clusters were recognized. Two major clusters of genes with respect to transcriptional orientation were observed. Interspersed among them were lysogenic conversion genes encoding phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase and GspM, a protein involved in the general secretion system II. The attP site of S1 may be located within a gene that presents over 75% homology to a Stenotrophomonas chromosomal determinant. PMID:18952876

  4. Roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors in malignant behavior of glioma cells. Differential effects of S1P{sub 2} on cell migration and invasiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Nicholas; Van Brocklyn, James R. . E-mail: james.vanbrocklyn@osumc.edu

    2007-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that signals through a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors, termed S1P{sub 1-5}. S1P stimulates growth and invasiveness of glioma cells, and high expression levels of the enzyme that forms S1P, sphingosine kinase-1, correlate with short survival of glioma patients. In this study we examined the mechanism of S1P stimulation of glioma cell proliferation and invasion by either overexpressing or knocking down, by RNA interference, S1P receptor expression in glioma cell lines. S1P{sub 1}, S1P{sub 2} and S1P{sub 3} all contribute positively to S1P-stimulated glioma cell proliferation, with S1P{sub 1} being the major contributor. Stimulation of glioma cell proliferation by these receptors correlated with activation of ERK MAP kinase. S1P{sub 5} blocks glioma cell proliferation, and inhibits ERK activation. S1P{sub 1} and S1P{sub 3} enhance glioma cell migration and invasion. S1P{sub 2} inhibits migration through Rho activation, Rho kinase signaling and stress fiber formation, but unexpectedly, enhances glioma cell invasiveness by stimulating cell adhesion. S1P{sub 2} also potently enhances expression of the matricellular protein CCN1/Cyr61, which has been implicated in tumor cell adhesion, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis. A neutralizing antibody to CCN1 blocked S1P{sub 2}-stimulated glioma invasion. Thus, while S1P{sub 2} decreases glioma cell motility, it may enhance invasion through induction of proteins that modulate glioma cell interaction with the extracellular matrix.

  5. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50–0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27–0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9<466 U/ml were more responsive to chemotherapeutic agents than those with CA19-9≥571 U/ml (88.9% vs 0%, P<0.001). We conclude that the combination of GEM plus S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733). PMID:27058753

  6. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Zheng-Yun; Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen

    2016-05-01

    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50-0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27-0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9<466 U/ml were more responsive to chemotherapeutic agents than those with CA19-9≥571 U/ml (88.9% vs 0%, P<0.001). We conclude that the combination of GEM plus S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733).

  7. Coherent quantum control of internal conversion: {S}_{2}\\;\\leftrightarrow \\;{S}_{1} in pyrazine via {S}_{0}\\;\\to \\;{S}_{2}/{S}_{1} weak field excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinev, Timur; Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Coherent control of internal conversion (IC) between the first (S1) and second (S2) singlet excited electronic states in pyrazine, where the S2 state is populated from the ground singlet electronic state S0 by weak field excitation, is examined. Control is implemented by shaping the laser which excites S2. Excitation and IC are considered simultaneously, using the recently introduced resonance-based control approach. Highly successful control is achieved by optimizing both the amplitude and phase profiles of the laser spectrum. The dependence of control on the properties of resonances in S2 is demonstrated.

  8. Vibration wavenumbers of 3-aminobenzotrifluoride in the ground and S1 electronic states from its infrared, Raman, and supersonic jet S1- S0 fluorescence spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.; Teixeira-Dias, JoséJ. C.; Gordon, Robert D.; Hollas, J. Michael

    1991-11-01

    Raman and infrared spectra of 3-aminobenzotrifluoride, in the liquid phase, and single vibronic level fluorescence spectra, in a supersonic jet, have been obtained and interpreted to give a fairly complete set of vibrational assignments in S0. These include the observation of the I 20 band in fluorescence, where ν1 is the NH 2-inversion vibration, in agreement with a previous interpretation of the gas phase far infrared spectrum. A strong Fermi resonance between one quantum of the a'CCF 3 bending vibration and two quanta of the a″CCF 3 bending vibration has been identified in S1.

  9. [Clinical Response of Metastatic Colon Cancer to Chemotherapy with S-1 and Oxaliplatin - A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Tomonori; Yata, Yoshihiro; Yonenaga, Yoshikuni; Hanaki, Kouji; Mise, Masahiro; Higaside, Shunichi; Kanda, Yuuji; Noda, Hideki

    2015-06-01

    Chemotherapy with S-1 and oxaliplatin is a new treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We present the first case of S-1, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab therapy in our hospital. The patient was a 69-year-old woman with ascending colon cancer and multiple lung and liver metastases. She tended to suffer from constipation; stenoses at the cecum and colon cancer were detected by colon fiberscopy. Following surgical resection of the primary tumor, the patient received systemic chemotherapy with S-1, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab. Following chemotherapy, CT showed no cancer in the lung and cancer reduction in the liver or dissemination. The patient had diarrhea and no appetite at first, so we reduced the oxaliplatin dose by 80%. After reduction of the oxaliplatin dose, we could treat the patient with S-1 and oxaliplatin continuously with no toxicity. S-1 and oxaliplatin chemotherapy is cost-effective, and has less toxicity than other chemotherapies, if proper measures are taken. It seemed to have a non-inferior response rate and disease control compared to other chemotherapies, such as FOLFOX. Thus, this chemotherapy is a valid choice for metastatic colorectal cancer.

  10. Far-ultraviolet Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2016-09-01

    We have used the unique far-UV imaging capability offered by a sounding-rocket-borne instrument to acquire observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) when its angular separation with respect to the Sun was 26.°3 on 2013 November 20.49. At the time of observation, the comet’s heliocentric distance and velocity relative to the Sun were r h = 0.43 au and {\\dot{r}}h = -62.7 km s-1. Images dominated by C i λ1657 and H i λ1216 were acquired over a 106 × 106 km2 region. The water production rate implied by the Lyα observations is constrained to be {Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}}≈ 8 × 1029 s-1 while the neutral carbon production rate was {Q}C ≈ 4 ×1028 s-1. The radial profile of C i was consistent with it being a dissociation product of a parent molecule with a lifetime τ ˜ 5 × 104 s, favoring a parent other than CO. We constrain the Q CO production rate to {5}-7.5+1.5 × 1028 s-1 with 1σ errors derived from photon statistics. The upper limit on the Q CO/{Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}} is ≲6%.

  11. Expression of elongation factor-1 alpha and S1 in young and old human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Welle, S; Thornton, C; Bhatt, K; Krym, M

    1997-09-01

    Previous research has indicated that reduced expression of elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) may be an important determinant of the reduced rate of protein synthesis in senescent animals and cultured cells. The present study examined whether expression of EF-1 alpha or S1, a homologous protein found exclusively in postmitotic tissues, is reduced in senescent human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscles of healthy young (22-31 yr old) and old (61-74 yr old) subjects. As reported previously, myofibrillar protein synthesis was approximately 40% slower in the older muscle (p < .001) as determined by incorporation of a stable isotope. Immunoblotting revealed no difference in the concentration of EF-1 alpha + S1 between younger and older muscle. RT-PCR assays indicated that S1 mRNA was much more abundant than EF-1 alpha mRNA in muscles of both age groups, with no reduction in either EF-1 alpha or S1 mRNA abundance in older muscles. We conclude that expression of EF-1 alpha and S1 is not diminished in older muscles and does not explain the age-related slowing of protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the activity of these proteins declines during senescence due to post-translational modifications. PMID:9310071

  12. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by a preS1-binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ming; He, Yonggang; Wan, Yanmin; Bai, Weiya; Tao, Shuai; Ren, Yanqin; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Jianqing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Junqi; Hu, Kanghong; Xie, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Entry inhibitors are promising novel antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The existing potential entry inhibitors have targeted the cellular receptor(s). In this study, we aim to develop the first entry inhibitor that inhibits HBV infection via targeting viral particles. The preS1 segment of the large envelope glycoprotein of HBV is essential for virion attachment and infection. Previously, we obtained a preS1-binding short peptide B10 by screening a phage display peptide library using the N-terminal half of preS1 (residues 1 to 60, genotype C). We report here that by means of concatenation of B10, we identified a quadruple concatemer 4B10 that displayed a markedly increased preS1-binding activity. The main binding site of 4B10 in preS1 was mapped to the receptor binding enhancing region. 4B10 blocked HBV attachment to hepatic cells and inhibited HBV infection of primary human and tupaia hepatocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. The 4B10-mediated inhibition of HBV infection is specific as it did not inhibit the infection of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Moreover, 4B10 showed no binding activity to hepatic cells. In conclusion, we have identified 4B10 as a promising candidate for a novel class of HBV entry inhibitors. PMID:27384014

  13. Novel S1P(1) receptor agonists--part 3: from thiophenes to pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Abele, Stefan; Birker, Magdalena; Bravo, Roberto; Bur, Daniel; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Grimont, Julien; Hess, Patrick; Lescop, Cyrille; Mathys, Boris; Müller, Claus; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Scherz, Michael; Schmidt, Gunther; Seifert, Jürgen; Steiner, Beat; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In preceding communications we summarized our medicinal chemistry efforts leading to the identification of potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 agonists such as the thiophene derivative 1. As a continuation of these efforts, we replaced the thiophene in 1 by a 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridine and obtained less lipophilic, potent, and selective S1P1 agonists (e.g., 2) efficiently reducing blood lymphocyte count in the rat. Structural features influencing the compounds' receptor affinity profile and pharmacokinetics are discussed. In addition, the ability to penetrate brain tissue has been studied for several compounds. As a typical example for these pyridine based S1P1 agonists, compound 53 showed EC50 values of 0.6 and 352 nM for the S1P1 and S1P3 receptor, respectively, displayed favorable PK properties, and penetrated well into brain tissue. In the rat, compound 53 maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral dosing of 3 mg/kg. PMID:24367923

  14. Involvement of sphingosine 1-phosphate (SIP)/S1P3 signaling in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyong; Jiang, Xiangming; Yang, Lin; Liu, Xihong; Yue, Shi; Li, Liying

    2009-10-01

    Bioactive sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PRs) have been implicated in many critical cellular events, including inflammation, cancer, and angiogenesis. However, the role of S1P/S1PR signaling in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis has not been well documented. In this study, we found that S1P levels and S1P(3) receptor expression in liver tissue were markedly up-regulated in a mouse model of cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis. In addition, the S1P(3) receptor was also expressed in green fluorescent protein transgenic bone marrow (BM)-derived cells found in the damaged liver of transplanted chimeric mice that underwent bile duct ligation. Silencing of S1P(3) expression significantly inhibited S1P-induced BM cell migration in vitro. Furthermore, a selective S1P(3) receptor antagonist, suramin, markedly reduced the number of BM-derived cells during cholestasis. Interestingly, suramin administration clearly ameliorated bile duct ligation-induced hepatic fibrosis, as demonstrated by attenuated deposition of collagen type I and III, reduced smooth muscle alpha-actin expression, and decreased total hydroxyproline content. In conclusion, our data suggest that S1P/S1P(3) signaling plays an important role in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis through mediating the homing of BM cells. Modulation of S1PR activity may therefore represent a new antifibrotic strategy.

  15. Modulation of membrane phospholipids, the cytosolic calcium influx and cell proliferation following treatment of B16-F10 cells with recombinant phospholipase-D from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom.

    PubMed

    Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Magnoni, Mariana Gabriel; Boia-Ferreira, Marianna; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Gremski, Waldemiro; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism through which brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) cause dermonecrosis, dysregulated inflammatory responses, hemolysis and platelet aggregation, which are effects reported following spider bites, is currently attributed to the presence of phospholipase-D in the venom. In the present investigation, through two-dimensional immunoblotting, we observed immunological cross-reactivity for at least 25 spots in crude Loxosceles intermedia venom, indicating high expression levels for different isoforms of phospholipase-D. Using a recombinant phospholipase-D from the venom gland of L. intermedia (LiRecDT1) in phospholipid-degrading kinetic experiments, we determined that this phospholipase-D mainly hydrolyzes synthetic sphingomyelin in a time-dependent manner, generating ceramide 1-phosphate plus choline, as well as lysophosphatidylcholine, generating lysophosphatidic acid plus choline, but exhibits little activity against phosphatidylcholine. Through immunofluorescence assays with antibodies against LiRecDT1 and using a recombinant GFP-LiRecDT1 fusion protein, we observed direct binding of LiRecDT1 to the membrane of B16-F10 cells. We determined that LiRecDT1 hydrolyzes phospholipids in detergent extracts and from ghosts of B16-F10 cells, generating choline, indicating that the enzyme can access and modulate and has activity against membrane phospholipids. Additionally, using Fluo-4, a calcium-sensitive fluorophore, it was shown that treatment of cells with phospholipase-D induced an increase in the calcium concentration in the cytoplasm, but without altering viability or causing damage to cells. Finally, based on the known endogenous activity of phospholipase-D as an inducer of cell proliferation and the fact that LiRecDT1 binds to the cell surface, hydrolyzing phospholipids to generate bioactive lipids, we employed LiRecDT1 as an exogenous source of phospholipase-D in B16-F10 cells. Treatment of the cells was effective in increasing their proliferation in a

  16. Direct VLBI detection of the magnetosphere surrounding the young star S1 in Rho Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Philippe; Phillips, Robert B.; Lestrade, Jean-Francois; Klein, Karl-Ludwig

    1991-01-01

    VLBI 6-mm data are presently used to investigate the circularly polarized radio core previously identified around the young B3 star S1 in Rho Ophiuchi. The measured angular diameter and brightness temperature are found to be consistent with gyrosynchrotrom radiation emission from mildly relativistic electrons. A simple model based on a pole-on dipolar magnetic field of about 2 kG at the stellar surface suggests itself as consistent with the main observed features of the S1 magnetosphere; an important feature of the model is its taking the influence of the X-ray-emitting plasma into account. S1 may represent a new type of young stellar object, characterized by very extended magnetic fields.

  17. The 2(2S + 1)-formalism and its connection with other descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of the Joos-Weinberg 2(2S + 1)-theory for massless particles, the dynamical invariants have been derived from the Lagrangian density which is considered to be a 4-vector. A la Majorana interpretation of the 6-component “spinors”, the field operators of S = 1 particles, as the left- and right-circularly polarized radiation, leads us to the conserved quantities which are analogous to those obtained by Lipkin and Sudbery. The scalar Lagrangian of the Joos-Weinberg theory is shown to be equivalent to the Lagrangian of a free massless field, introduced by Hayashi. As a consequence of a new “gauge” invariance this skew-symmetric field describes physical particles with the longitudinal components only. The interaction of the spinor field with the Weinberg’s 2(2S + 1)-component massless field is considered. New interpretation of the Weinberg field function is proposed.

  18. Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation inferred from the conditions of S1 sapropel deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, K.; Vidal, L.; Cornuault, M.; Garcia, M.; Pothin, A.; Sonzogni, C.; Bard, E.; Menot, G.; Revel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Holocene Eastern Mediterranean Sea sediments contain an organic-rich sapropel S1 layer that was formed in oxygen-depleted waters. The spatial distribution of this layer revealed that during S1 deposition deep waters were permanently anoxic below 1800 m in water depth. To provide further insight into past Eastern Mediterranean Sea circulation, a multi-proxy approach was applied to a core retrieved close to the 1800 m boundary (at 1780 m). We measured the bulk sediment elemental composition, the stable isotopic composition of the planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber, and the abundance of benthic foraminifera since the last deglaciation. The result indicates that authigenic U and Mo accumulation began around 13-12 cal ka BP, in concert with surface water freshening estimated from the G. ruber δ18O record. The onset of bottom/pore water oxygen depletion occurred prior to S1 deposition inferred from barium enrichment. In the middle of the S1 deposition period, between 9 and 8 cal ka BP, reduced authigenic V, Fe and As contents and Br / Cl ratio indicated short-term bottom water re-oxygenation. A sharp Mn peak and maximal abundance for benthic foraminifera marked a total recovery for circulation at approximately 7 cal ka BP. Based on our results and existing data, we suggest that S1 formation withinthe upper 1780 m of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was preconditioned by reduced ventilation, resulting from excess fresh water inputs due to insolation changes under deglacial conditions, that initiated between 15 and 12 ka. Short-term re-oxygenation in the Levantine Basin is estimated to have affected bottom water below and above the anoxic boundary. We tentatively propose that complete ventilation recovery at the S1 termination was attained earlier within the upper 1780 m than at deeper water depths. Our results provided new constraints for eastern Mediterranean Sea thermohaline circulation.

  19. Autoantibodies to αS1-Casein Are Induced by Breast-Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Petermann, Klaudia; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Maas, Ruth; Braukmann, Achim; Bleck, Ellen; Saenger, Thorsten; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Background The generation of antibodies is impaired in newborns due to an immature immune system and reduced exposure to pathogens due to maternally derived antibodies and placental functions. During nursing, the immune system of newborns is challenged with multiple milk-derived proteins. Amongst them, caseins are the main constituent. In particular, human αS1-casein (CSN1S1) was recently shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. We were thus interested to determine if auto-antibodies to CSN1S1 are induced by breast-feeding and may be sustained into adulthood. Methods 62 sera of healthy adult individuals who were (n = 37) or were not (n = 25) breast-fed against human CSN1S1 were investigated by a new SD (surface display)-ELISA. For cross-checking, these sera were tested for anti Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies by a commercial ELISA. Results IgG-antibodies were predominantly detected in individuals who had been nursed. At a cut-off value of 0.4, the SD-ELISA identified individuals with a history of having been breast-fed with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 92%. Under these conditions, 35 out of 37 sera from healthy donors, who where breast-fed, reacted positively but only 5 sera of the 25 donors who were not breast-fed. The duration of breast-feeding was of no consequence to the antibody reaction as some healthy donors were only short term breast-fed (5 days minimum until 6 weeks maximum), but exhibited significant serum reaction against human CSN1S1 nonetheless. Conclusion We postulate that human CSN1S1 is an autoantigen. The antigenicity is orally determined, caused by breast-feeding, and sustained into adulthood. PMID:22496735

  20. Characterization and genetic analysis of bovine alpha S1-casein I variant.

    PubMed

    Lühken, G; Caroli, A; Ibeagha-Awemu, E M; Erhardt, G

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic origin underlying the I variant of alpha(s1)-casein and to develop a DNA-based test for this polymorphism as a tool for genetic analyses independent of milk sample testing. All coding exons and flanking regions of the alpha(s1)-casein gene were sequenced in DNA samples from cattle of known alpha(s1)-casein genotypes (BI, CI, II, CC), determined by isoelectric focusing of milk samples. A nucleotide substitution (A>T) in exon 11 (g.19836A>T) leads to the exchange of Glu with Asp at amino acid position 84 of the mature protein (p.Glu84Asp) and perfectly co-segregated with the presence of the alpha(s1)-casein I variant in the milk of the analysed animals. Genotyping of a total of 680 DNA samples from 31 Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle breeds and from Bos grunniens, Bison bison and Bison bonasus by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed the occurrence of Asp at position 84 at low frequencies in Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds and established its origin from the alpha(s1)-casein C variant (p.Glu192Gly). Ten different intragenic haplotypes in the gene region from intron 8 to intron 12 were observed by sequencing, of which two occurred in Bison bison and one in Bison bonasus only. Using available casein gene complex information, an association of Asp at position 84 to beta-casein A(2) and kappa-casein B was shown in the Bos indicus breed Banyo Gudali. Taken together, we can postulate that the alpha(s1)-casein variant I is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in exon 11 of the gene and that it originated within Bos indicus and spread to Bos taurus subsequently.

  1. Structural interactions between lipids, water and S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains.

    PubMed

    Krepkiy, Dmitriy; Gawrisch, Klaus; Swartz, Kenton J

    2012-11-01

    Membrane proteins serve crucial signaling and transport functions, yet relatively little is known about their structures in membrane environments or how lipids interact with these proteins. For voltage-activated ion channels, X-ray structures suggest that the mobile voltage-sensing S4 helix would be exposed to the membrane, and functional studies reveal that lipid modification can profoundly alter channel activity. Here, we use solid-state NMR to investigate structural interactions of lipids and water with S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains and to explore whether lipids influence the structure of the protein. Our results demonstrate that S1-S4 domains exhibit extensive interactions with lipids and that these domains are heavily hydrated when embedded in a membrane. We also find evidence for preferential interactions of anionic lipids with S1-S4 domains and that these interactions have lifetimes on the timescale of ≤ 10(-3)s. Arg residues within S1-S4 domains are well hydrated and are positioned in close proximity to lipids, exhibiting local interactions with both lipid headgroups and acyl chains. Comparative studies with a positively charged lipid lacking a phosphodiester group reveal that this lipid modification has only modest effects on the structure and hydration of S1-S4 domains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Arg residues in S1-S4 voltage-sensing domains reside in close proximity to the hydrophobic interior of the membrane yet are well hydrated, a requirement for carrying charge and driving protein motions in response to changes in membrane voltage.

  2. Molecular and immunological characterization of the glycosylated orange allergen Cit s 1.

    PubMed

    Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B H

    2007-02-01

    The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) binds a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analyzed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognize a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing beta1,2-xylose and core alpha1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with patients' sera, thus underlining the critical role of glycosylation in the recognition of this protein by patients' IgE and extending previous data showing that deglycosylated Cit s 1 does not possess IgE epitopes. In parallel, we examined the peptide sequence and glycan structure of Cit s 1, using mass spectrometric techniques. Indeed, we achieved complete sequence coverage of the mature protein compared with the translation of an expressed sequence tag cDNA clone and demonstrated that the single N-glycosylation site of this protein carries oligosaccharides with xylose and fucose residues. Owing to the presumed requirement for multivalency for in vivo allergenicity, our molecular data showing that Cit s 1 is monovalent as regards glycosylation and that the single N-glycan is the target of the IgE response to this protein explain the immunological cross-reactive properties of Cit s 1 as well as its equivocal nature as a clinically relevant allergen. PMID:17095532

  3. Sequence selective double strand DNA cleavage by peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting using nuclease S1.

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, V; Frank-Kamenetskii, M D; Egholm, M; Buchardt, O; Nielsen, P E

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for sequence specific double strand DNA cleavage using PNA (peptide nucleic acid) targeting is described. Nuclease S1 digestion of double stranded DNA gives rise to double strand cleavage at an occupied PNA strand displacement binding site, and under optimized conditions complete cleavage can be obtained. The efficiency of this cleavage is more than 10 fold enhanced when a tandem PNA site is targeted, and additionally enhanced if this site is in trans rather than in cis orientation. Thus in effect, the PNA targeting makes the single strand specific nuclease S1 behave like a pseudo restriction endonuclease. Images PMID:8502550

  4. New fluorinated agonists for targeting the sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rizwan S; Keul, Petra; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-11-15

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as regulation of immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier function and angiogenesis. This Letter presents multistep syntheses of various fluorine substituted 12-aryl analogues of the drug fingolimod (FTY720) and a seven-steps route to 2-amino-17,17-difluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)heptadecan-1-ol. In vitro and in vivo tests proved all these compounds as potent S1P1 receptor agonists.

  5. Negative infrared photoconductivity in CdS1-xSex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdinov, A. S.; Jafarov, M. A.; Mamedov, H. M.; Nasirov, E. F.

    2003-09-01

    The negative infrared photoconductivity (NPH) has been observed for the first time in CdS1-xSex films, in the wavelength region of 0.700 - 1.23 μm. at values of stimulating light intensity Φ = 100 - 400 Lk. electrical field E = 0.5 - 130 V/cm and temperature T = 265 - 310 Κ. It is established, that basic laws of NPH explains on the basis of two-barrier model and in the considered conditions a charge carriers, overcome a barrier by tunneling. A films of CdS1-xSex can be used in IR engineering and negatronics.

  6. Genetic Evidence for Involvement of Neuronally Expressed S1P1 Receptor in Nociceptor Sensitization and Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Norbert; Benetti, Camilla; Andratsch, Manfred; Leitner, Michael G.; Constantin, Cristina E.; Camprubí-Robles, Maria; Quarta, Serena; Biasio, Wolfgang; Kuner, Rohini; Gibbins, Ian L.; Kress, Michaela; Haberberger, Rainer V.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a key regulator of immune response. Immune cells, epithelia and blood cells generate high levels of S1P in inflamed tissue. However, it is not known if S1P acts on the endings of nociceptive neurons, thereby contributing to the generation of inflammatory pain. We found that the S1P1 receptor for S1P is expressed in subpopulations of sensory neurons including nociceptors. Both S1P and agonists at the S1P1 receptor induced hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation in vitro and in vivo. S1P-induced hypersensitivity was strongly attenuated in mice lacking TRPV1 channels. S1P and inflammation-induced hypersensitivity was significantly reduced in mice with a conditional nociceptor-specific deletion of the S1P1 receptor. Our data show that neuronally expressed S1P1 receptors play a significant role in regulating nociceptor function and that S1P/S1P1 signaling may be a key player in the onset of thermal hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia associated with inflammation. PMID:21359147

  7. Effect of Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation to Achieve against Teacher Professional Capability for Student S1 PGSD of Science Field Compared with Regular Student S1 PGSD at UPBJJ Serang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2015-01-01

    This study is to know effect of self-regulated learning and motivation to achieve against teacher professional capability for student S1 PGSD of science field compared with regular student S1 PGSD. The student uses grades of Classroom Action Research (CAR) and Stabilization of Professional Capability (SPC) on curriculum of S1 PGSD to see…

  8. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of the cesium 7S1/2 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of the cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical–optical double-resonance spectroscopy with the Cs 6S1/2–6P3/2–7S1/2 (852 nm  +  1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry–Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between the F″  =  3 and F″  =  4 manifolds of the Cs 7S1/2 state (HFS  =  2183.273  ±  0.062 MHz), we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant (A  =  545.818  ±  0.016 MHz), which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more precise.

  9. Student Participation in Decision-Making. The Individualized System. H.S.1 Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, William E.; Farrell, Joseph P.

    With Circular H.S.1 1972/73, the Ministry of Education directed Ontario's secondary schools to provide an increased range of course offerings and to allow students as much freedom as possible to choose their own courses. To identify the effects of the individualized "credit system" established by this controversial circular, a number of studies…

  10. Engagement of S1P1-degradative mechanisms leads to vascular leak in mice

    PubMed Central

    Oo, Myat Lin; Chang, Sung-Hee; Thangada, Shobha; Wu, Ming-Tao; Rezaul, Karim; Blaho, Victoria; Hwang, Sun-Il; Han, David K.; Hla, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    GPCR inhibitors are highly prevalent in modern therapeutics. However, interference with complex GPCR regulatory mechanisms leads to both therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects. Recently, the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor inhibitor FTY720 (also known as Fingolimod), which induces lymphopenia and prevents neuroinflammation, was adopted as a disease-modifying therapeutic in multiple sclerosis. Although highly efficacious, dose-dependent increases in adverse events have tempered its utility. We show here that FTY720P induces phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) at multiple sites, resulting in GPCR internalization, polyubiquitinylation, and degradation. We also identified the ubiquitin E3 ligase WWP2 in the GPCR complex and demonstrated its requirement in FTY720-induced receptor degradation. GPCR degradation was not essential for the induction of lymphopenia, but was critical for pulmonary vascular leak in vivo. Prevention of receptor phosphorylation, internalization, and degradation inhibited vascular leak, which suggests that discrete mechanisms of S1P receptor regulation are responsible for the efficacy and adverse events associated with this class of therapeutics. PMID:21555855

  11. Installation of the S1 Truss to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts Piers J. Sellers (left ) and David A. Wolf work on the newly installed Starboard One (S1) truss to the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-112 mission. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  12. Phase diagrams of the Ising-Heisenberg chain with S = 1/2 triangular XXZ clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ohanyan, V.

    2010-03-15

    The one-dimensional spin system consisted of triangular S = 1/2 XXZ Heisenberg clusters alternating with single Ising spins is considered. Partition function of the system is calculated exactly within the transfer-matrix formalism. T = 0 ground state phase diagrams, corresponding to different regions of the values of system parameters, are obtained.

  13. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production.

  14. Determination of the hyperfine coupling constant of the cesium 7S1/2 state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jie; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Junmin

    2016-08-01

    We report the hyperfine splitting (HFS) measurement of the cesium (Cs) 7S1/2 state by optical-optical double-resonance spectroscopy with the Cs 6S1/2-6P3/2-7S1/2 (852 nm  +  1470 nm) ladder-type system. The HFS frequency calibration is performed by employing a phase-type waveguide electro-optic modulator together with a stable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity. From the measured HFS between the F″  =  3 and F″  =  4 manifolds of the Cs 7S1/2 state (HFS  =  2183.273  ±  0.062 MHz), we have determined the magnetic dipole hyperfine coupling constant (A  =  545.818  ±  0.016 MHz), which is in good agreement with the previous work but much more precise.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of the yeast Malassezia sympodialis allergen Mala s 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vilhelmsson, Monica; Hallberg, B. Martin; Rasool, Omid; Zargari, Arezou; Scheynius, Annika; Achour, Adnane

    2006-02-01

    Crystals of the M. sympodialis allergen Mala s 1 have been obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected from native crystals to 1.35 Å resolution. The opportunistic yeast Malassezia sympodialis can act as an allergen and elicit specific IgE- and T-cell reactivity in patients with atopic eczema. The first identified major allergen from M. sympodialis, Mala s 1, is present on the cell surface of the yeast. Recombinant Mala s 1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and refolded in a soluble form. Crystals of Mala s 1 were obtained in 25% PEG 8K, 0.2 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.4, b = 163.7, c = 50.6 Å, and diffract to 1.35 Å resolution.

  16. Search for S = - 1 strange dibaryons by means of the reaction pp → K+X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frascaria, R.

    An experimental search for strange S = - 1 dibaryons, performed at Saturne National Laboratory by means of pp → K+X is described. The experimental status and the theoretical previsions are presented first. A presentation of our preliminary results is then given , with a discussion on further developments.

  17. The 3P0-VERSUS 3S1-MODELS for Quark-Antiquark Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. M.; Niskanen, J. A.

    A comparison is made between the 3S1- and 3P0-models for quark-antiquark annihilation or creation. Even though the former appears, at first sight, to be superior for Nbar {N} annihilation into two mesons, it is argued from their effects in meson decays that this conclusion is premature.

  18. Conference on Learning Disabilities: A Review of Indiana's Rule S-1. LD Series #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Patricia H., Ed.; Middleton, Thomas O., Ed.

    The document is a collection of papers presented at a conference on the delivery of services to learning disabled children in Indiana that focused on Indiana's Rule S-1, which implements the mandatory special education act through multidisciplinary identification, assessment, and placement of handicapped children. Titles and authors include "The…

  19. Bioremediation of wastewater from edible oil refinery factory using oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Mar, Cho Cho; Fan, Yong; Li, Fu-Li; Hu, Guang-Rong

    2016-12-01

    Edible oil industry produced massive wastewater, which requires extensive treatment to remove pungent smell, high phosphate, carbon oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions prior to discharge. Traditional anaerobic and aerobic digestion could mainly reduce COD of the wastewater from oil refinery factories (WEORF). In this study, a robust oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus sp. S1 was adapted to grow in WEORF. The biomass and lipid content of Desmodesmus sp. S1 cultivated in the WEORF supplemented with sodium nitrate were 5.62 g·L(-1) and 14.49%, whereas those in the WEORF without adding nitrate were 2.98 g·L(-1) and 21.95%. More than 82% of the COD and 53% of total phosphorous were removed by Desmodesmus sp. S1. In addition, metal ions, including ferric, aluminum, manganese and zinc were also diminished significantly in the WEORF after microalgal growth, and pungent smell vanished as well. In comparison with the cells grown in BG-11 medium, the cilia-like bulges and wrinkles on the cell surface of Desmodesmus sp. S1 grown in WEORF became out of order, and more polyunsaturated fatty acids were detected due to stress derived from the wastewater. The study suggests that growing microalgae in WEORF can be applied for the dual roles of nutrient removal and biofuel feedstock production. PMID:27260474

  20. Ultrafast excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states of triphenylmethane dyes.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Pallavi; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2014-08-21

    Excited state dynamics of S2 and S1 states for a series of TPM dyes, pyrogallol red (PGR), bromopyrogallol red (Br-PGR) and aurin tricarboxylic acid (ATC), have been monitored by using ultrafast transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion techniques. Optical absorption studies indicate that all the TPM dyes exist as keto-enol tautomers depending upon the pH of the solution. Interestingly, all the TPM dyes give S2 emission (major emitting state) in addition to weak S1 emission. S2 emission lifetimes as fast as ∼150-300 fs and S1 emission lifetimes of 2-5 ns were observed depending upon the molecular structure of the dyes. Femtosecond transient absorption studies suggest the presence of an ultrafast non-radiative decay channel from the S2 state in addition to S2 luminescence. The vibrational relaxation time from hot S1 state is found to be 2-6 ps. The heavy atom effect has been observed in ultrafast relaxation dynamics of Br-PGR.

  1. Genome sequence of the broad-host-range Pseudomonas phage Φ-S1.

    PubMed

    Sillankorva, Sanna; Kropinski, Andrew M; Azeredo, Joana

    2012-09-01

    The broad-host-range lytic Pseudomonas phage Φ-S1 possess a 40,192 bp double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome of 47 open reading frames (ORFs) and belongs to the family Podoviridae, subfamily Autographivirinae, genus T7likevirus.

  2. SKI-1/S1P inhibitor PF-429242 impairs the onset of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Matthieu; Sureau, Camille; Guévin, Carl; Seidah, Nabil G; Labonté, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, approximately 170 million individuals are afflicted with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To prevent the development of inherent diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, tremendous efforts have been made, leading to the development of promising new treatments. However, their efficiency is still dependent on the viral genotype. Additionally, these treatments that target the virus directly can trigger the emergence of resistant variants. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a long-term (72h) inhibition of SKI-1/S1P, a master lipogenic pathway regulator through activation of SREBP, resulted in impaired HCV genome replication and infectious virion secretion. In the present study, we sought to investigate the antiviral effect of the SKI-1/S1P small molecule inhibitor PF-429242 at the early steps of the HCV lifecycle. Our results indicate a very potent antiviral effect of the inhibitor early in the viral lifecycle and that the overall action of the compound relies on two different contributions. The first one is SREBP/SKI-1/S1P dependent and involves LDLR and NPC1L1 proteins, while the second one is SREBP independent. Overall, our study confirms that SKI-1/S1P is a relevant target to impair HCV infection and that PF-429242 could be a promising candidate in the field of HCV infection treatment.

  3. Spin-dependent, optogalvanic effects of laser-pumped He(2/3/S1) atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schearer, L. D.; Tin, Pedetha

    1989-10-01

    Spin-dependent optogalvanic effects of laser-pumped He(2/3/S1) atoms are demonstrated. As helium atoms are excited with an IR tunable laser, changes in the conductivity of helium radio-frequency discharge are observed. With approximately 1 mW/sq cm of tunable laser power near 1.083 microns, the intensity-modulated optogalvanic effect signals are obtained as the laser is tuned through the D0(2/3/S1-2/3/P0), D1(2/3/S1-2/3/P1), and D2(2/3/S1-2/3/P2) transitions at 1.082908, 1.083025, and 1.083034 microns, respectively. If the laser emission is now circularly polarized and directed onto the helium discharge cell with the applied field parallel to the pump axis, some of the metastable atoms are oriented with their electronic spins along the field direction, modulating the coil current. One of the important applications of spin-polarized ensembles of metastable 4He is in extremely sensitive magnetic-field measuring devices.

  4. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  5. The glucose/xylose facilitator Gxf1 from Candida intermedia expressed in a xylose-fermenting industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases xylose uptake in SSCF of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, César; Olofsson, Kim; Ferreira, Carla; Runquist, David; Fonseca, Luís L; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Lidén, Gunnar

    2011-05-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose raw materials requires industrial xylose-fermenting strains capable of complete and efficient D-xylose consumption. A central question in xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose fermentation is to improve the xylose uptake. In the current study, the glucose/xylose facilitator Gxf1 from Candida intermedia, was expressed in three different xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strains of industrial origin. The in vivo effect on aerobic xylose growth and the initial xylose uptake rate were assessed. The expression of Gxf1 resulted in enhanced aerobic xylose growth only for the TMB3400 based strain. It displayed more than a 2-fold higher affinity for D-xylose than the parental strain and approximately 2-fold higher initial specific growth rate at 4 g/L D-xylose. Enhanced xylose consumption was furthermore observed when the GXF1-strain was assessed in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of pretreated wheat straw. However, the ethanol yield remained unchanged due to increased by-product formation. Metabolic flux analysis suggested that the expression of the Gxf1 transporter had shifted the control of xylose catabolism from transport to the NAD(+) dependent oxidation of xylitol to xylulose. PMID:22113025

  6. Scaling and root planning, and locally delivered minocycline reduces the load of Prevotella intermedia in an interdependent pattern, correlating with symptomatic improvements of chronic periodontitis: a short-term randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shuli; Wang, Ying; Sun, Wei; Chen, Hui; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the respective or combinatory efficacy of locally delivered 2% minocycline (MO), and scaling and root planning (SRP) by assessing both clinical parameters and the loads of four main periodontal pathogens in treating chronic periodontitis (CP). Methods Seventy adults with CP were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups: 1) SRP alone; 2) MO alone; and 3) combinatory use of SRP and MO (SRP + MO). Before and 7 days after the treatments, we evaluated both clinical parameters (pocket depth [PD] and sulcus bleeding index [SBI]) and the gene load of four main periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], and Prevotella intermedia [Pi]). Results The bacterial prevalence per patient was: Aa, 31.25%; Fn, 100%; Pg, 95.31%; and Pi, 98.44%. Seven days after treatment, the three treatments significantly reduced both PD and SBI, but not detection frequencies of the four pathogens. For PD, the reduction efficacy of SRP + MO was significantly higher than that of either MO or SRP. Only Pg responded significantly to SRP. Pg and Fn were significantly reduced in the presence of MO. Only SRP + MO showed a significant reduction effect on the gene load of Pi. The reduction of PD significantly correlated with the gene load of Pi (r=0.26; P=0.042) but not of the other bacteria. Conclusion SRP and MO reduced the load of Pi in an interdependent pattern, which correlated with symptomatic improvements of CP. PMID:26676022

  7. The S1 Truss Prior to Installation on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Being attached to the Canadarm2 on the International Space Station (ISS), the Remote Manipulator System arm built by the Canadian Space Agency, the Integrated Truss Assembly (S1) Truss is suspended over the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' cargo bay. Astronauts Sandra H. Magnus, STS-112 mission specialist, and Peggy A. Whitson, Expedition Five flight engineer, used the Canadarm2 from inside the Destiny laboratory on the ISS to lift the S1 truss out of the orbiter's cargo bay and move it into position prior to its installation on the ISS. The primary payloads of this mission, ISS Assembly Mission 9A, were the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (S One), the starboard side thermal radiator truss, and the Crew Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss was attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, which was launched on April 8, 2002 aboard the STS-110, and flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat-rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA cart was attached to the Mobil Transporter and will be used by assembly crews on later missions. Manufactured by the Boeing Company in Huntington Beach, California, the truss primary structure was transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center in February 1999 for hardware installations and manufacturing acceptance testing. The launch of the STS-112 mission occurred on October 7, 2002, and its 11-day mission ended on October 18, 2002.

  8. Centennial-scale paleoceanography during sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triantaphyllou, Maria; Gogou, Alexandra; Dimiza, Margarita; Kostopoulou, Sofia; Parinos, Constantine; Roussakis, Grigoris; Geraga, Maria; Skampa, Elisavet; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Fleitmann, Dominik; Zervakis, Vassilis; Velaoras, Dimitris; Diamantopoulou, Antonia; Sampatakaki, Angeliki; Lykousis, Vassilis

    2016-04-01

    Combined micropaleontological and geochemical analyses in the high-sedimentation gravity core M-4G, provided new centennial scale paleoceanographic data for the sapropel S1 deposition in the NE Aegean Sea. Sapropel layer S1a (10.2-8.0 ka) is deposited in dysoxic to oxic bottom waters; sediments are characterized by the high abundance of benthic foraminifers Chilostomella mediterranensis and Globobulimina affinis that are able to tolerate surface sediment and/or pore water oxygen depletion and the presence of the oxic mesotrophic-eutrophic U. mediterranea. Adequate preservation of organic matter is proven by the high organic carbon and loliolide and isololiolide contents, whereas the biomarker record and the abundances of eutrophic planktonic foraminifera document enhanced productivity. Both alkenone-based SSTs and δO18 G. bulloides records indicate coolings at 8.2 ka (S1a) and at ~7.8 ka (S1 interruption). Sapropelic layer S1b (7.7-6.4 ka) is characterized by rather oxic conditions marked by the prominent increase of U. mediterranea. The highly fluctuating SSTs demonstrate repeated coolings and associated dense water formation; major event at 7.4 ka, followed by cold spells at 7.0, 6.8, 6.5 ka. Besides, the increase of algal biomarkers, labile organic matter-feeding foraminifera and eutrophic planktonic species pinpoints rise in in situ marine productivity, which is enhanced by more efficient vertical convection due to repeated cold events. The associated contributions of labile marine organic matter (OM) along with fresher terrestrial OM inputs after ~7.7 ka BP imply alternative/ additional than the north Aegean riverine borderland sources for the influx of organic matter at the south Limnos Basin, also related to the inflow of highly productive Marmara/Black Sea waters

  9. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  10. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  11. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  12. Bioactivity and structural properties of chimeric analogs of the starfish SALMFamide neuropeptides S1 and S2.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher E; Otara, Claire B; Younan, Nadine D; Viles, John H; Elphick, Maurice R

    2014-10-01

    The starfish SALMFamide neuropeptides S1 (GFNSALMFamide) and S2 (SGPYSFNSGLTFamide) are the prototypical members of a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. Comparison of the bioactivity of S1 and S2 as muscle relaxants has revealed that S2 is ten times more potent than S1. Here we investigated a structural basis for this difference in potency by comparing the bioactivity and solution conformations (using NMR and CD spectroscopy) of S1 and S2 with three chimeric analogs of these peptides. A peptide comprising S1 with the addition of S2's N-terminal tetrapeptide (Long S1 or LS1; SGPYGFNSALMFamide) was not significantly different to S1 in its bioactivity and did not exhibit concentration-dependent structuring seen with S2. An analog of S1 with its penultimate residue substituted from S2 (S1(T); GFNSALTFamide) exhibited S1-like bioactivity and structure. However, an analog of S2 with its penultimate residue substituted from S1 (S2(M); SGPYSFNSGLMFamide) exhibited loss of S2-type bioactivity and structural properties. Collectively, our data indicate that the C-terminal regions of S1 and S2 are the key determinants of their differing bioactivity. However, the N-terminal region of S2 may influence its bioactivity by conferring structural stability in solution. Thus, analysis of chimeric SALMFamides has revealed how neuropeptide bioactivity is determined by a complex interplay of sequence and conformation.

  13. 40 CFR Table S-1 to Subpart S of... - Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Basic Parameters for the Calculation of Emission Factors for Lime Production S Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. S, Table S-1 Table S-1 to Subpart S of Part 98—Basic Parameters for the...

  14. Discovery of 3-arylpropionic acids as potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) with high selectivity against all other known S1P receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Huo, Pei; Doherty, George; Toth, Lesile; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Quackenbush, Elizabeth; Wickham, Alexandra; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-07-15

    A series of 3-arylpropionic acids were synthesized as S1P1 receptor agonists. Structure-activity relationship studies on the pendant phenyl ring revealed several structural features offering selectivity of S1P1 binding against S1P2-5. These highly selective S1P1 agonists induced peripheral blood lymphocyte lowering in mice and one of them was found to be efficacious in a rat skin transplantation model, supporting that S1P1 agonism is primarily responsible for the immunosuppressive efficacy observed in preclinical animal models.

  15. The Character of the Long-Lived State Formed from S_1 of Phenylacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Sears, Trevor J.

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other small aromatic molecules, phenylacetylene (PA) and benzonitrile exhibit strikingly anomalous photophysics on excitation to the S_1 state. Firstly, products are formed on S_1 excitation of a beam-cooled sample that seem to live indefinitely (as defined by the flight time through the apparatus), while action spectra of their formation mirror the rotationally-resolved absorption spectrum of the monomer. Secondly, the long lived products appear immediately during the nsec. laser pulse rather than build up during the lifetime of the singlet level, as is seen in benzene, for example. The question has therefore arisen: is the long lived product of the S_1 excitation the triplet state, as is assumed in all previous work on other molecules, or is it an isomer of some sort? New pump-probe ionization mass spectroscopy experiments have been performed to study the distribution of fragments and metastable ions produced by PA cation derived from the neutral S_1 state, and from the long-lived species. These combined with other experimental results showing weak long-lived components in both the S_1 fluorescence and pump-probe photoelectron spectra that we interpret as recurrence behavior, definitively show the long-lived state is a triplet state of PA, not an isomer. PA with a singlet-triplet gap of 10000 cm^{-1} is acting like intermediate case molecules with much smaller singlet-triplet gaps such as pyrazine and pyrimidine. Calculations point to the existence of four triplet states of PA at or below the energy of S_1 providing a very large density of vibronic states in which to distribute the energy from singlet-triplet crossing. PA T_1 is calculated to be non-planar, in contrast to what is found in benzene, possibly helping to explain the different photophysics. Acknowledgments: We gratefully acknowledge G. V. Lopez for his contributions to some of the experimental masurements. Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02

  16. STS-112 S1 truss segment in O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, the S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station, is lowered toward workstand number three. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment also will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001

  17. STS-112 S1 truss segment in O&C Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Inside the Operations and Checkout Building, the S1 truss, a segment of the International Space Station, is moved toward workstand number three. Manufactured by the Boeing Co. in Huntington Beach, Calif., this component of the International Space Station is the first starboard (right-side) truss segment, whose main job is providing structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels that cool the Space Station's complex power system. The S1 truss segment a lso will house communications systems, external experiment positions and other subsystems. Primarily constructed of aluminum, the truss segment is 45 feet long, 15 feet wide and 6 feet tall. When fully outfitted, it will weigh 31,137 pounds. The truss is slated for flight in 2001

  18. Low-temperature magnetic measurements of an [ital S]=1 linear-chain Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Avenel, O.; Xu, J.; Xia, J.S.; Xu, M.; Andraka, B.; Lang, T.; Moyland, P.L.; Ni, W.; Signore, P.J.C.; van Woerkens, C.M.C.M.; Adams, E.D.; Ihas, G.G.; Meisel, M.W.; Nagler, S.E.; Sullivan, N.S.; Takano, Y. ); Talham, D.R. ); Goto, T. ); Fujiwara, N. )

    1992-10-01

    The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, [chi]([ital T]), of two pure samples of the [ital S]=1 linear-chain Heisenberg antiferromagnet Ni(C[sub 2]H[sub 8]N[sub 2])[sub 2]NO[sub 2](ClO[sub 4]), commonly known as NENP, has been measured from approximately 300 K to 300 [mu]K. Our measurements of [chi]([ital T]) are in agreement with existing results of other researchers who worked above 1.2 K. Below 1.2 K, [chi]([ital T]) increases with decreasing temperature. The results suggest that the low-temperature increase of [chi]([ital T]) is not a consequence of a single source of paramagnetic impurities in the samples but may arise from [ital S]=1/2 end-chain interactions.

  19. The occurrence of type S1A serine proteases in sponge and jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F

    2006-12-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by the 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution, being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is largely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occurrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be entirely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them have been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria. We now report the existence of Group S1A serine proteases in a sponge (phylum Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conclude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  20. Direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) at the lumbosacral junction L5-S1.

    PubMed

    Shirzadi, Ali; Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank

    2012-07-01

    The direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF), a minimally invasive lateral approach for placement of an interbody fusion device, does not require nerve root retraction or any contact with the great vessels and can lead to short operative times with little blood loss. Due to anatomical restrictions, this procedure has not been used at the lumbosacral (L5-S1) junction. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV), a structural anomaly of the lumbosacral spine associated with low back pain, can result in a level being wrongly identified pre-operatively due to misnumbering of the vertebral levels. To our knowledge, use of the DLIF graft in this patient is the first report of an interbody fusion graft being placed at the disc space between the LSTV and S1 via the transpsoas route. We present a review of the literature regarding the LSTV variation as well as the lateral placement of interbody fusion grafts at the lumbosacral junction.

  1. Atheroprotective role of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P).

    PubMed

    Potì, Francesco; Simoni, Manuela; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2014-08-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies documented an inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the extent of atherosclerotic disease. However, clinical interventions targeting HDL cholesterol failed to show clinical benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk reduction, suggesting that HDL components distinct from cholesterol may account for anti-atherogenic effects attributed to this lipoprotein. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-a lysosphingolipid exerting its biological activity via binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors and regulating a wide array of biological responses in a variety of different organs and tissues including the cardiovascular system-has been identified as an integral constituent of HDL particles. In the present review, we discuss current evidence from epidemiological studies, experimental approaches in vitro, and animal models of atherosclerosis, suggesting that S1P contributes to atheroprotective effects exerted by HDL particles. PMID:24891400

  2. L4-L5-S1 human dermatomes: a clinical, electromyographical, imaging and surgical findings.

    PubMed

    Faleiros, Antonio Tadeu de Souza; Resende, Luiz Antonio de Lima; Zanini, Marco Antonio; Castro, Heloisa Amélia de Lima; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2009-06-01

    There is substantial controversy in literature about human dermatomes. We studied L4, L5, and S1 inferior limb dermatomes by comparing clinical signs and symptoms with conduction studies, electromyographical data, neurosurgical findings, and imaging data from computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After analyzing 60 patients, we concluded that L4 is probably located in the medial aspect of the leg, L5 in the lateral aspect of the leg and foot dorsus, and S1 in the posterior aspect of the backside, tight, leg and plantar foot skin. This is the first time that these human dermatomes have been evaluated by combined analysis of clinical, electromyographical, neurosurgical, and imaging data.

  3. Photon + Jet production at sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Deluca, Carolina

    2009-05-01

    Prompt photon production results by the CDF and D0 Collaborations in the Tevatron Run II at a center of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented. Cross sections for central isolated photons, photon+jet production and photons produced in association with a heavy flavor quark are reported. The measurements are compared to Next-to-Leading order perturbative QCD predictions.

  4. Regarding the Charmed-Strange Member of the 23S1 Meson State

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xue-Chao; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    By employing the mass relations derived from the mass matrix and Regge trajectory, we investigate the masses of charmed and charmed-strange members of the 23S1 meson. The masses are compared with the values predicted by other theoretical approaches and experimental data. The results may be useful for the discovery of the unobserved meson and the determination of the quantum number of the newly discovered states. PMID:24250272

  5. A hybrid vanadium fluoride with structurally isolated S = 1 kagome layers.

    PubMed

    Aidoudi, Farida H; Downie, Lewis J; Morris, Russell E; A de Vries, Mark; Lightfoot, Philip

    2014-05-01

    A new organically-templated vanadium(III) fluoride, (NH4)2(C2H8N)[V3F12], has been prepared using an ionothermal approach. This compound has a unique layered structure featuring distorted S = 1 kagome planes separated by the cationic species. The compound exhibits magnetic frustration, with a canted antiferromagnetic ground state. On further cooling in the ground state a pronounced change in magnetisation kinetics is observed.

  6. Adjoint QCD on ℝ3 × S 1 with twisted fermionic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Kanazawa, Takuya

    2014-06-01

    We investigate QCD with adjoint Dirac fermions on ℝ3 × S 1 with generic boundary conditions for fermions along S 1. By means of perturbation theory, semiclassical methods and a chiral effective model, we elucidate a rich phase structure in the space spanned by the S 1 compactification scale L, twisted fermionic boundary condition ϕ and the fermion mass m. We found various phases with or without chiral and center symmetry breaking, separated by first- and second-order phase transitions, which in specific limits ( ϕ = 0, ϕ = π, L → 0 and m → ∞) reproduce known results in the literature. In the center- symmetric phase at small L, we show that Ünsal's bion-induced confinement mechanism is at work but is substantially weakened at ϕ = 0 by a linear potential between monopoles. Through an analytic and numerical study of the PNJL model, we show that the order parameters for center and chiral symmetries (i.e., Polyakov loop and chiral condensate) are strongly intertwined at ϕ = 0. Due to this correlation, a deconfined phase can intervene between a weak-coupling center-symmetric phase at small L and a strong-coupling one at large L. Whether this happens or not depends on the ratio of the dynamical fermion mass to the energy scale of the Yang-Mills theory. Implication of this possibility for resurgence in gauge theories is briefly discussed. In an appendix, we study the index of the adjoint Dirac operator on ℝ3 × S 1 with twisted boundary conditions, which is important for semiclassical analysis of monopoles.

  7. Reovirus inhibition of cellular DNA synthesis: role of the S1 gene.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A H; Fields, B N

    1981-04-01

    Type 3 reovirus inhibits L cell DNA synthesis, whereas type 1 reovirus exerts little or no effect on L cell DNA synthesis. By using recombinant viruses containing both type 1 and type 3 double-standard RNA segments, we determined that one double-stranded RNA segment, the reovirus type 3 S1 double-stranded RNA segment which encodes the viral hemagglutinin, segregates with and is responsible for the capacity of reovirus type 3 to inhibit L cell DNA synthesis.

  8. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S(1) state of C2H2. II. The S(1) rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization.

    PubMed

    Changala, P Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H; Stanton, John F; Merer, Anthony J; Field, Robert W

    2014-01-14

    Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S1 state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm(-1) above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm(-1) above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν4 (torsion) and ν6 (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x36 cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν6 and ν3 (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C-C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier. PMID:24437883

  9. Reduced dimension rovibrational variational calculations of the S(1) state of C2H2. II. The S(1) rovibrational manifold and the effects of isomerization.

    PubMed

    Changala, P Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H; Stanton, John F; Merer, Anthony J; Field, Robert W

    2014-01-14

    Reduced dimension variational calculations have been performed for the rovibrational level structure of the S1 state of acetylene. The state exhibits an unusually complicated level structure, for various reasons. First, the potential energy surface has two accessible conformers, trans and cis. The cis conformer lies about 2700 cm(-1) above the trans, and the barrier to cis-trans isomerization lies about 5000 cm(-1) above the trans minimum. The trans vibrations ν4 (torsion) and ν6 (asym. bend) interact very strongly by Darling-Dennison and Coriolis resonances, such that their combination levels and overtones form polyads with unexpected structures. Both conformers exhibit very large x36 cross-anharmonicity since the pathway to isomerization is a combination of ν6 and ν3 (sym. bend). Near the isomerization barrier, the vibrational levels show an even-odd K-staggering of their rotational levels as a result of quantum mechanical tunneling through the barrier. The present calculations address all of these complications, and reproduce the observed K-structures of the bending and C-C stretching levels with good qualitative accuracy. It is expected that they will assist with the assignment of the irregular patterns near the isomerization barrier.

  10. Mutations in AP2S1 cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, M Andrew; Hannan, Fadil M; Howles, Sarah A; Reed, Anita A C; Cranston, Treena; Thakker, Clare E; Gregory, Lorna; Rimmer, Andrew J; Rust, Nigel; Graham, Una; Morrison, Patrick J; Hunter, Steven J; Whyte, Michael P; McVean, Gil; Buck, David; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2013-01-01

    Adaptor protein-2 (AP2), a central component of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), is pivotal in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which internalizes plasma membrane constituents such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). AP2, a heterotetramer of α, β, μ and σ subunits, links clathrin to vesicle membranes and binds to tyrosine- and dileucine-based motifs of membrane-associated cargo proteins. Here we show that missense mutations of AP2 σ subunit (AP2S1) affecting Arg15, which forms key contacts with dileucine-based motifs of CCV cargo proteins, result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 (FHH3), an extracellular calcium homeostasis disorder affecting the parathyroids, kidneys and bone. We found AP2S1 mutations in >20% of cases of FHH without mutations in calcium-sensing GPCR (CASR), which cause FHH1. AP2S1 mutations decreased the sensitivity of CaSR-expressing cells to extracellular calcium and reduced CaSR endocytosis, probably through loss of interaction with a C-terminal CaSR dileucine-based motif, whose disruption also decreased intracellular signaling. Thus, our results identify a new role for AP2 in extracellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:23222959

  11. Short Time-Scale Sensory Coding in S1 during Discrimination of Whisker Vibrotactile Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Miyashita, Toshio; Lee, Daniel J.; Smith, Katherine A.; Feldman, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5–20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies. Despite this, 52% of S1 units, including 73% of units in L4 and L2/3, encoded sequences at fast time scales (≤20 ms, mostly 5–10 ms), accurately reflecting single impulse kinematics. 17% of units, mostly in L5, showed weaker impulse responses and a slow firing rate increase during sequences. However, these units did not effectively integrate whisker impulses, but instead combined weak impulse responses with a distinct, slow signal correlated to behavioral choice. A neural decoder could identify sequences from fast unit spike trains and behavioral choice from slow units. Thus, S1 encoded fast time scale whisker input without substantial temporal integration across whisker impulses. PMID:27574970

  12. Mutations in AP2S1 cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, M Andrew; Hannan, Fadil M; Howles, Sarah A; Reed, Anita A C; Cranston, Treena; Thakker, Clare E; Gregory, Lorna; Rimmer, Andrew J; Rust, Nigel; Graham, Una; Morrison, Patrick J; Hunter, Steven J; Whyte, Michael P; McVean, Gil; Buck, David; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2013-01-01

    Adaptor protein-2 (AP2), a central component of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), is pivotal in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which internalizes plasma membrane constituents such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). AP2, a heterotetramer of α, β, μ and σ subunits, links clathrin to vesicle membranes and binds to tyrosine- and dileucine-based motifs of membrane-associated cargo proteins. Here we show that missense mutations of AP2 σ subunit (AP2S1) affecting Arg15, which forms key contacts with dileucine-based motifs of CCV cargo proteins, result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 3 (FHH3), an extracellular calcium homeostasis disorder affecting the parathyroids, kidneys and bone. We found AP2S1 mutations in >20% of cases of FHH without mutations in calcium-sensing GPCR (CASR), which cause FHH1. AP2S1 mutations decreased the sensitivity of CaSR-expressing cells to extracellular calcium and reduced CaSR endocytosis, probably through loss of interaction with a C-terminal CaSR dileucine-based motif, whose disruption also decreased intracellular signaling. Thus, our results identify a new role for AP2 in extracellular calcium homeostasis.

  13. Cloning and characterization of a gene from Rhizobium melilotii 2011 coding for ribosomal protein S1.

    PubMed Central

    Schnier, J; Thamm, S; Lurz, R; Hussain, A; Faist, G; Dobrinski, B

    1988-01-01

    A 7 kb chromosomal DNA fragment from R. melilotii was cloned, which complemented temperature-sensitivity of an E. coli amber mutant in rpsA, the gene for ribosomal protein S1 (ES1). From complementation and maxicell analysis a 58 kd protein was identified as the homolog of protein S1 (RS1). DNA sequence analysis of the R. melilotii rpsA gene identified a protein of 568 amino acids, which showed 47% identical amino acid homology to protein S1 from E. coli. The RS1 protein lacked the two Cys residues which had been reported to play an important role for the function of ES1. Two repeats containing Shine-Dalgarno sequences were identified upstream of the structural gene. Binding studies with RNA polymerase from E. coli and Pseudomonas putida located one RNA-polymerase binding site close to the RS1 gene and another one several hundred basepairs upstream. One possible promoter was also identified by DNA sequence comparison with the corresponding E. coli promoter. Images PMID:3368316

  14. Use of fluorescence polarization to observe changes in attitude of S-1 moieties in muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Nihei, T; Mendelson, R A; Botts, J

    1974-03-01

    The fluorophore, N(iodoacetylamino)-1-naphthylamine-5-sulfonic acid (1,5-IAEDANS), incubated with glycerinated psoas fibers primarily labels the S-1 moieties of such fibers, but it does not impair fiber contractility even when the degree of labeling is as high as 0.8 moles fluorophore per mole myosin. The polarization of the on-axis fluorescence from either the IAEDANS fluorophore, or the intrinsic tryptophane fluorophore, depends on whether the fiber is relaxed, in rigor, or developing isometric tension; furthermore, the changes in polarization on going from one state to another are much the same with either tryptophane or IAEDANS fluorophores. The foregoing is true whether the plane of the exciting light is parallel or perpendicular to the fiber axis. Also, if a fiber is first freed of its myosin by extraction, and is then incubated with IAEDANS-labeled S-1 the resulting polarization approaches that observed with a labeled, unextracted fiber in rigor. By contrast, incubation with the fluorophore, 7-nitro-4-chlorobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl) confers fluorescence only on actin, without impairing contractility, but the polarization of such fluorescence changes in a different direction and magnitude from myosin-originating fluorescence. It is concluded from these various observations that whether the fluorophore is IAEDANS or tryptophane the polarization change with change in physiological state originates in the S-1 moieties of fibers, and relates to the space attitude of these moieties.

  15. Application of the S=1 underscreened Anderson lattice model to Kondo uranium and neptunium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing the coexistence of the Kondo screening effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the Anderson lattice Hamiltonian with a two-fold degenerate f level in each site, corresponding to 5f2 electronic configuration with S=1 spins. A derivation of the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation is presented and the resulting Hamiltonian has an effective f-band term, in addition to the regular exchange Kondo interaction between the S=1 f spins and the s=1/2 spins of the conduction electrons. The resulting effective Kondo lattice model can describe both the Kondo regime and a weak delocalization of the 5f electrons. Within this model we compute the Kondo and Curie temperatures as a function of model parameters, namely the Kondo exchange interaction constant JK, the magnetic intersite exchange interaction JH, and the effective f bandwidth. We deduce, therefore, a phase diagram of the model which yields the coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and also accounts for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of uranium compounds such as UTe.

  16. Short Time-Scale Sensory Coding in S1 during Discrimination of Whisker Vibrotactile Sequences.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Leah M; Telian, Gregory; Laboy-Juárez, Keven J; Miyashita, Toshio; Lee, Daniel J; Smith, Katherine A; Feldman, Daniel E

    2016-08-01

    Rodent whisker input consists of dense microvibration sequences that are often temporally integrated for perceptual discrimination. Whether primary somatosensory cortex (S1) participates in temporal integration is unknown. We trained rats to discriminate whisker impulse sequences that varied in single-impulse kinematics (5-20-ms time scale) and mean speed (150-ms time scale). Rats appeared to use the integrated feature, mean speed, to guide discrimination in this task, consistent with similar prior studies. Despite this, 52% of S1 units, including 73% of units in L4 and L2/3, encoded sequences at fast time scales (≤20 ms, mostly 5-10 ms), accurately reflecting single impulse kinematics. 17% of units, mostly in L5, showed weaker impulse responses and a slow firing rate increase during sequences. However, these units did not effectively integrate whisker impulses, but instead combined weak impulse responses with a distinct, slow signal correlated to behavioral choice. A neural decoder could identify sequences from fast unit spike trains and behavioral choice from slow units. Thus, S1 encoded fast time scale whisker input without substantial temporal integration across whisker impulses. PMID:27574970

  17. Correlation of charge, hydrophobicity, and structure with antimicrobial activity of S1 and MIRIAM peptides.

    PubMed

    Leptihn, Sebastian; Har, Jia Yi; Wohland, Thorsten; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2010-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are key elements of the innate immune system. Many of them interact with membranes of bacteria leading to perturbation of the lipid bilayer and eventually to inactivation of the pathogen. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has necessitated innovations of new and more powerful classes of antimicrobials. Here we present the in-depth study of an antimicrobial peptide, MIRIAM, derived from Sushi1 (S1), a well-characterized peptide from the horseshoe crab. MIRIAM interacts strongly with negatively charged lipids, forming an α-helical structure. MIRIAM was found to neutralize LPS and kill Gram-negative bacteria with high efficiency, while not releasing LPS. The promising therapeutic potential of MIRIAM is shown by hemolytic assays, which demonstrate that eukaryotic membranes are unaffected at bactericidal concentrations. Nanoparticle-conjugated MIRIAM used in single-molecule fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments showed that MIRIAM targets bacterial membranes to kill bacteria similarly to parental S1. Furthermore, fragments derived from MIRIAM and S1 provided insights on their molecular mechanisms of action, in particular, the relationships of functional motifs comprised by charge, hydrophobicity, and structure within each peptide. We conclude that the combination of charge, hydrophobicity, and length of the peptide is important. A close interaction of amino acids in a single molecule in a carefully balanced ensemble of sequence position and secondary structure is crucial.

  18. Hyperconjugation in the S1 State of Substituted Toluene Probed by Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Takashi; Okuyama, Katsuhiko; Fujii, Asuka

    2016-06-01

    Internal rotation of the methyl group in substituted toluenes is one of prototypes of large amplitude motions in polyatomic molecules. The internal rotation of o-fluorotoluene is strongly hindered in the S0 state, but that of m-fluorotoluene is almost free. For the S1 state, however, the substantial changes of the internal rotation potentials have been reported; while the potential barrier in the o-isomer drastically decreases and the methyl group becomes almost a free rotor, the barrier in the m-isomer largely increases. These surprising barrier changes have been attributed to the methyl conformation-dependent stabilization in the S1 state by the π*-σ* hyperconjugation. In the present study, to test this interpretation, we observed infrared spectra of o- and m-fluorotoluenes in the S0 and S1 states. Both the isomers showed decrease of the methyl CH stretch frequencies upon the electronic excitation. We concluded that this frequency decrease is the evidence of the π*-σ* hyperconjugation. K,Okuyama.;N,Mikami.;M,Ito. J.Phys.Chem. 1985, 89, 5617 H,Nakai.;M,Kawai. Chem.Phys.Lett 1999, 307, 272

  19. On the Absence of EUV Emission from Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2016-05-01

    When the sungrazing comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) made its perihelion passage within two solar radii of the Sun’s surface, it was expected to be a bright emitter at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. However, despite solar EUV telescopes repointing to track the orbit of the comet, no emission was detected. This “null result” is interesting in its own right, offering the possibility of placing limits on the size and composition of the nucleus. We explain the lack of detection by considering the properties of the comet and the solar atmosphere that determine the intensity of EUV emission from sungrazing comets. By comparing these properties with those of sungrazing comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), which did emit in the EUV, we conclude that the primary factor resulting in non-detectable EUV emission from C/2012 S1 (ISON) was an insufficiently large nucleus. We conclude that the radius of C/2012 S1 (ISON) was at least a factor of four less than that of C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy). This is consistent with white-light observations in the days before perihelion that suggested the comet was dramatically reducing in size on approach.

  20. Alternative nonallelic deletion is constitutive of ruminant alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, P; Lilla, S; Chianese, L; Addeo, F

    1999-07-01

    Multiple forms of alpha(s1)-casein were identified in the four major ruminant species by structural characterization of the protein fraction. While alpha(s1)-casein phenotypes were constituted by a mixture of at least seven molecular forms in ovine and caprine species, there were only two forms in bovine and water buffalo species. In ovine and caprine forms the main component corresponded to the 199-residue-long form, and the deleted proteins differed from the complete one by the absence of peptides 141-148, 110-117, or Gln78, or a combination of such deletions. The deleted segments corresponded to the sequence regions encoded by exons 13 and 16, and by the first triplet of exon 11 (CAG), suggesting that the occurrence of the short protein forms is due to alternative skipping, as previously demonstrated for some caprine and ovine phenotypes. The alternative deletion of Gln78 in alpha(s1)-casein, the only form common to the milk of all the species examined and located in a sequence region joining the polar phosphorylation cluster and the hydrophobic C-terminal domain of the protein, may play a functional role in the stabilization of the milk micelle structure.

  1. S1P lyase regulates DNA damage responses through a novel sphingolipid feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Oskouian, B; Fyrst, H; Zhang, M; Paris, F; Saba, J D

    2011-01-01

    The injurious consequences of ionizing radiation (IR) to normal human cells and the acquired radioresistance of cancer cells represent limitations to cancer radiotherapy. IR induces DNA damage response pathways that orchestrate cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or apoptosis such that irradiated cells are either repaired or eliminated. Concomitantly and independent of DNA damage, IR activates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), which generates ceramide, thereby promoting radiation-induced apoptosis. However, ceramide can also be metabolized to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which acts paradoxically as a radioprotectant. Thus, sphingolipid metabolism represents a radiosensitivity pivot point, a notion supported by genetic evidence in IR-resistant cancer cells. S1P lyase (SPL) catalyzes the irreversible degradation of S1P in the final step of sphingolipid metabolism. We show that SPL modulates the kinetics of DNA repair, speed of recovery from G2 cell cycle arrest and the extent of apoptosis after IR. SPL acts through a novel feedback mechanism that amplifies stress-induced ceramide accumulation, and downregulation/inhibition of either SPL or ASMase prevents premature cell cycle progression and mitotic death. Further, oral administration of an SPL inhibitor to mice prolonged their survival after exposure to a lethal dose of total body IR. Our findings reveal SPL to be a regulator of ASMase, the G2 checkpoint and DNA repair and a novel target for radioprotection.

  2. Direct interaction of the N-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S1 with protein S2 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Byrgazov, Konstantin; Manoharadas, Salim; Kaberdina, Anna C; Vesper, Oliver; Moll, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    Despite of the high resolution structure available for the E. coli ribosome, hitherto the structure and localization of the essential ribosomal protein S1 on the 30 S subunit still remains to be elucidated. It was previously reported that protein S1 binds to the ribosome via protein-protein interaction at the two N-terminal domains. Moreover, protein S2 was shown to be required for binding of protein S1 to the ribosome. Here, we present evidence that the N-terminal domain of S1 (amino acids 1-106; S1(106)) is necessary and sufficient for the interaction with protein S2 as well as for ribosome binding. We show that over production of protein S1(106) affects E. coli growth by displacing native protein S1 from its binding pocket on the ribosome. In addition, our data reveal that the coiled-coil domain of protein S2 (S2α(2)) is sufficient to allow protein S1 to bind to the ribosome. Taken together, these data uncover the crucial elements required for the S1/S2 interaction, which is pivotal for translation initiation on canonical mRNAs in gram-negative bacteria. The results are discussed in terms of a model wherein the S1/S2 interaction surface could represent a possible target to modulate the selectivity of the translational machinery and thereby alter the translational program under distinct conditions.

  3. Quantification of αS1-casein in breast milk using a targeted mass spectrometry-based approach.

    PubMed

    Altendorfer, Irina; König, Simone; Braukmann, Achim; Saenger, Thorsten; Bleck, Ellen; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Kubiak, Anna; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2015-01-25

    The caseins comprise a milk protein fraction of high nutritional value and, as more recently discovered, of immunologic relevance. In particular, αS1-casein (CSN1S1) is of interest being a potential autoantigen. So far, the concentration of caseins in human milk was primarily determined by indirect methods. The aim of this study was to directly measure the CSN1S1 content in breast milk using mass spectrometry (MS). The quantification was based on tryptic CSN1S1 peptides with the best response in liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Targeted experiments allowed both specific and sensitive detection at the low fmol level. For this pilot study, twenty breast milk samples of the first week post-partum were analyzed and contained between 3 and 540μg/ml CSN1S1. Limitations of CSN1S1 quantification are discussed. PMID:25462120

  4. Quantification of αS1-casein in breast milk using a targeted mass spectrometry-based approach.

    PubMed

    Altendorfer, Irina; König, Simone; Braukmann, Achim; Saenger, Thorsten; Bleck, Ellen; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Kubiak, Anna; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2015-01-25

    The caseins comprise a milk protein fraction of high nutritional value and, as more recently discovered, of immunologic relevance. In particular, αS1-casein (CSN1S1) is of interest being a potential autoantigen. So far, the concentration of caseins in human milk was primarily determined by indirect methods. The aim of this study was to directly measure the CSN1S1 content in breast milk using mass spectrometry (MS). The quantification was based on tryptic CSN1S1 peptides with the best response in liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Targeted experiments allowed both specific and sensitive detection at the low fmol level. For this pilot study, twenty breast milk samples of the first week post-partum were analyzed and contained between 3 and 540μg/ml CSN1S1. Limitations of CSN1S1 quantification are discussed.

  5. S0 → Sn and S1 → Sn absorption spectra of thio-distyrylbenzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraldi, Ivan; Ginocchietti, Gabriella; Mazzucato, Ugo; Spalletti, Anna

    2007-08-01

    The molecular structures and the S0 → Sn and S1 → Sn absorption spectra of 1,4-distyrylbenzene and four thio-analogues, where the side phenyl rings are replaced by 2'-thienyl or 3'-thienyl groups and the central benzene ring is replaced by a 2,5-disubstituted thiophene ring, have been investigated by a combined theoretical and experimental approach. The rotational isomerism of these flexible molecules has been analyzed by ab initio quantum chemistry methodologies. The S0 → Sn one-photon absorption spectra and the S1 → Sn transient spectra have been calculated using the CS INDO S-CI and SDT-CI procedures. The calculations on conformational isomers indicate that the stable molecular structures are those where the quasi-single bonds of the vinylene groups have almost planar s-trans configuration. In the 1,4-compounds, there may be an equilibrium between two molecular forms of C2h and C2v symmetry in the model of planar conformations. As concerns the UV-vis absorption spectra, the importance of the cis band, as probe to investigate the molecular structure of the 2,5-compounds, has been pointed out, and the presence of an equilibrium between two rotamers in the compound bearing side 3'-thienyl groups has been confirmed. The S1 → Sn absorption spectra are interpretable only with configuration interaction calculations including the multiple excited configurations. In this respect, the role played by the H2 → L2 double excitation has been emphasized.

  6. The thermally reversing window in ternary GexPxS1-2x glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vempati, U.; Boolchand, P.

    2004-11-01

    GexPxS1-2x glasses in the compositional range 0.05 \\le x \\le 0.19 have been synthesized and examined in temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and Raman scattering experiments. Trends in the non-reversing enthalpy ΔHnr(x) near Tg show the term to almost vanish in the 0.090(5)0.135. In analogy to previous results on chalcogenide glasses, we identify compositions at x<0.09 to be elastically floppy, those in the 0.0900.135 to be stressed rigid. MDSC results also show that the ΔHnr term ages in the stressed-rigid and floppy phases but not in the intermediate phase. The intermediate phase is viewed to be a self-organized phase of a disordered network. It consists of at least four isostatically rigid local structures: corner-sharing GeS4, edge-sharing GeS2, pyramidal P(S1/2)3 and quasi-tetrahedral S = P(S1/2)3 units for which evidence comes from Raman scattering. The latter method also shows the existence of P4S7 and P4S10 molecules in the glasses segregated from the backbone. These aspects of structure contribute to an intermediate phase that is significantly narrower in width than in the corresponding selenide glasses.

  7. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  8. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission. PMID:19571896

  9. Source and development of large manganese enrichments above eastern Mediterranean sapropel S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Anja; Thomson, John; de Lange, Gert J.; Hensen, Christian

    2006-09-01

    The residual dark unit of the most recent eastern Mediterranean sapropel (S1) is usually overlain by sediments with enhanced concentrations of MnOx in two separated layers. The variability and magnitude of the Mn enrichment at different locations and water depths indicate that Mn must have been added preferentially to sediments at intermediate (1-2 km) water depths. We propose a two-stage mechanism for the Mn enrichment that involves decreasing oxygenation with increasing water depth. This mechanism involves the loss of reduced Mn2+ from the deepest sediments (>2 km water depth) into overlying anoxic waters and a variable gain of MnOx in sediments in contact with oxygenated waters at shallower depth. In the S1 unit that receives the extra MnOx input, an upper higher Mn-enriched zone (>3 wt %) is maintained continuously at the top of the accumulating S1 unit because the pore waters are anoxic at shallow sediment depth while bottom waters are oxic to some degree. In a reactive-transport model, the Mn enrichment in the upper zone could not be supported by normal sediment diagenesis. Thus the MnOx in the upper Mn horizon must have formed mainly in the water column. The MnOx in the upper Mn-enriched zone adsorbed Mo and Li from seawater in a similar manner as other Mn-enriched oxic sediments, nodules, and crusts, with a Mn:Mo ratio of ˜600:1, a Mn:Li ratio of ˜750:1, and a δ98/95MoMOMO of -2.5 ‰.

  10. Numerical modeling of the oceanic S1 tide for Earth rotation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einspigel, David

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal S1 oceanic oscillations induced by atmospheric pressure loading elicit small but measurable perturbations of universal time, polar motion, and the prograde annual component of nutation. In a priori models of Earth rotation variations, these signals are as-yet unconsidered'partly due to the fact that the underlying globally-gridded S1 harmonics can only be inferred from purely hydrodynamic ocean models which lack the reliable elevation constraints from satellite altimetry. Such free-running forward integrations of the shallow water equations usually overestimate tidal energies and therefore also OAM (oceanic angular momentum), unless the model formulation allows for significant dissipation in the deep ocean. For practical purposes, abyssal energy flux and hence the accuracy of tidal elevations can be controlled by a tunable but inordinately high viscosity value or by evoking additional quadratic wave drag when surface heights change rapidly. A third and physically plausible modeling route is to parametrize the sub-grid scale conversion of barotropic currents into small internal tides by aid of a linear drag term. In the present paper, we study the impact of these different dissipation schemes on the fidelity of surface elevations in a simple barotropic time-stepping model forced by selected gravitational equilibrium tides as well as diurnal air pressure variations. After determining the optimal drag formulation through validation runs with the well-known principal gravitational K1 tide, the OAM values for each of the hydrodynamic S1 solutions are documented and discussed in the specific context of their contribution to the prograde annual signal in Earth's nutation.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Ignisphaera aggregans type strain (AQ1.S1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Goker, Markus; Held, Brittany; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Spring, Stefan; Yasawong, Montri; Lucas, Susan; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Tapia, Roxanne; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Palaniappan, Krishna; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Brettin, Thomas S; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Rohde, Manfred; Sikorski, Johannes; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Ignisphaera aggregans Niederberger et al. 2006 is the type and sole species of genus Ignisphaera. This archaeal species is characterized by a cocci-shaped, strictly anaerobic, moderately acidophilic, heterotrophic hyperthermophile and fermentative phenotype. The type strain AQ1.S1T was isolated from a near neutral, boiling spring in Kuirau Park, Rotorua, New Zealand. This is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Ignisphaera and the fifth genome (fourth type strain) sequence in the family Desulfurococcaceae. The 1,875,953 bp long genome with its 2,061 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  12. Verification of the Taylor (minimum energy) state in the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, G.W.; Janos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Yamada, M.

    1985-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the equilibrium in the S-1 Spheromak by use of magnetic probes inside the plasma show that the final magnetic equilibrium is one which has relaxed close to the Taylor (minimum-energy) state, even though the plasma is far from that state during formation. The comparison is made by calculating the two-dimensional ..mu.. profile of the plasma from the probe data, where ..mu.. is defined as ..mu../sub 0/j/sub parallel//B. Measurements using a triple Langmuir probe provide evidence to support the conclusion that the pressure gradients in the relaxed state are confined to the edge region of the plasma.

  13. Observation of an Exotic S = +1 Baryon in Exclusive Photoproduction from the Deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan Stepanyan; Kenneth Hicks; Daniel Carman; Evgueni Pasyuk; Reinhard Schumacher; Elton Smith; David Tedeschi; Luminita Todor

    2003-12-19

    In an exclusive measurement of the reaction {gamma}d {yields} K{sup +} K{sup -} p n, a narrow peak that can be attributed to an exotic baryon with strangeness S = +1 is seen in the K{sup +}n invariant mass spectrum. The peak is at 1542 {+-} 5 MeV/c{sup 2} with a measured width of 21 MeV/c{sup 2} FWHM, equivalent to the experimental invariant mass resolution. The statistical significance of the peak is 5.3 {+-} 0.5 {sigma} for a Gaussian peak shape on top of a smooth background.

  14. Exciton mobility edge in CdS 1-xSe x solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permogorov, S.; Reznitsky, A.; Verbin, S.; Lysenko, V.

    1983-07-01

    Low temperature emission spectra of localized excitons in CdS 1-xSe x solid solutions under the monochromatic excitation with tunable laser have been studied. It has been found that the luminescence of localized excitons has a high degree of linear polarization with respect to the polarization direction of exciting light. This polarization reflects the "hidden" anisotropy of macroscopically isotropic localized exciton system and strongly depends on the frequency of exciting light. Study of this dependence has permitted for the first time a determination of position of the "mobility edge" for exciton migration in disordered semiconductor solid solution.

  15. S = 1 in free O(N) vector model/HS duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Jevicki, Antal; Jin, Kewang; Rodrigues, João P.; Ye, Qibin

    2013-05-01

    Following the work of Maldacena and Zhiboedov, we study the implementation of the Coleman-Mandula theorem in the free O(N)/higher spin correspondence. In the bi-local framework we first define an S-matrix for scattering of collective dipoles. Its evaluation in the case of free UV fixed point theory leads to the result S = 1 stated in the title. We also present an appropriate field transformation that is seen to transform away all the nonlinear 1/N interactions of this theory. A change of boundary conditions and/or external potentials results in a nontrivial theory.

  16. Strangeness S =-1 hyperon-nucleon scattering in covariant chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai-Wen; Ren, Xiu-Lei; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the successes of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory in one-baryon systems and in heavy-light systems, we study relevance of relativistic effects in hyperon-nucleon interactions with strangeness S =-1 . In this exploratory work, we follow the covariant framework developed by Epelbaum and Gegelia to calculate the Y N scattering amplitude at leading order. By fitting the five low-energy constants to the experimental data, we find that the cutoff dependence is mitigated, compared with the heavy-baryon approach. Nevertheless, the description of the experimental data remains quantitatively similar at leading order.

  17. Mechanisms for spin supersolidity in S=(1/2) spin-dimer antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Picon, J.-D.; Albuquerque, A. F.; Schmidt, K. P.; Laflorencie, N.; Troyer, M.; Mila, F.

    2008-11-01

    Using perturbative expansions and the contractor renormalization (CORE) algorithm, we obtain effective hard-core bosonic Hamiltonians describing the low-energy physics of S=1/2 spin-dimer antiferromagnets known to display supersolid phases under an applied magnetic field. The resulting effective models are investigated by means of mean-field analysis and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A 'leapfrog mechanism,' through means of which extra singlets delocalize in a checkerboard-solid environment via correlated hoppings, is unveiled that accounts for the supersolid behavior.

  18. Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean Sapropel S1 deposits during Formation and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Filippidi, Amalia; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period and vegetated Sahara. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1sediments determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary diagenetic Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably during the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation

  19. A structurally perfect S = (1/2) kagomé antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Shores, Matthew P; Nytko, Emily A; Bartlett, Bart M; Nocera, Daniel G

    2005-10-01

    The syntheses and magnetic susceptibilities of a pure series of rare copper minerals from the atacamite family with general formula ZnxCu4-x(OH)6Cl2 (0 S = 1/2 lattice.

  20. Formation, Redox-Controled Preservation, and Interruption of Organic-rich Sapropel S1 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Hennekam, Rick; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Filippidi, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Distinct, organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean or Adriatic due to a period of

  1. Amplification of S-1 Spheromak current by an inductive current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.; Janos, A.; Yamada, M.

    1985-11-01

    We attempt to predict the consequences of adding an inductive current transformer (OH Transformer) to the present S-1 Spheromak experiment. Axisymmetric modeling with only classical dissipation shows an increase of toroidal current and a shrinking and hollowing of the current channel, conserving toroidal flux. These unstable profiles will undergo helical reconnection, conserving helicity K = ..integral.. A-vector x B-vector d tau while increasing the toroidal flux and decreasing the poloidal flux so that the plasma relaxes toward the Taylor state. This flux rearrangement is modeled by a new current viscosity term in the mean-field Ohm's law which conserves helicity and dissipates energy.

  2. SU(2s+1) symmetry and nonlinear dynamics of high spin magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalevsky, M.Y. Glushchenko, A.V.

    2014-10-15

    The article is devoted to the description of dynamics of magnets with arbitrary spin on the basis of the Hamiltonian formalism. The relationship of quantum states and magnetic degrees of freedom has been considered. Subalgebras of Poisson bracket of magnetic values for spin s=1/2; 1; 3/2 have been established. We have obtained non-linear dynamic equations for the normal and degenerate non-equilibrium states of high-spin magnets with the SO(3), SU(4), SU(2)×SU(2), SU(3), SO(4), SO(5) symmetries of exchange interaction. The connection between models of magnetic exchange energy and the Casimir invariants has been discussed.

  3. Minimally invasive L5-S1 oblique lumbar interbody fusion with anterior plate.

    PubMed

    Pham, Martin H; Jakoi, Andre M; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2016-07-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion is an important technique for the treatment of degenerative disc disease and degenerative scoliosis. The oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) establishes a minimally invasive retroperitoneal exposure anterior to the psoas and lumbar plexus. In this video case presentation, the authors demonstrate the techniques of the OLIF at L5-S1 performed on a 69-year-old female with degenerative scoliosis as one component of an overall strategy for her deformity correction. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/VMUYWKLAl0g . PMID:27364428

  4. ClpS1 Is a Conserved Substrate Selector for the Chloroplast Clp Protease System in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Kenji; Asakura, Yukari; Friso, Giulia; Kim, Jitae; Oh, Soo-hyun; Rutschow, Heidi; Ponnala, Lalit; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the plastid caseinolytic peptidase (Clp) P protease system is essential for plant development, substrates and substrate selection mechanisms are unknown. Bacterial ClpS is involved in N-degron substrate selection and delivery to the ClpAP protease. Through phylogenetic analysis, we show that all angiosperms contain ClpS1 and some species also contain ClpS1-like protein(s). In silico analysis suggests that ClpS1 is the functional homolog of bacterial ClpS. We show that Arabidopsis thaliana ClpS1 interacts with plastid ClpC1,2 chaperones. The Arabidopsis ClpS1 null mutant (clps1) lacks a visible phenotype, and no genetic interactions with ClpC/D chaperone or ClpPR core mutants were observed. However, clps1, but not clpc1-1, has increased sensitivity to the translational elongation inhibitor chloramphenicol suggesting a link between translational capacity and ClpS1. Moreover, ClpS1 was upregulated in clpc1-1, and quantitative proteomics of clps1, clpc1, and clps1 clpc1 showed specific molecular phenotypes attributed to loss of ClpC1 or ClpS1. In particular, clps1 showed alteration of the tetrapyrrole pathway. Affinity purification identified eight candidate ClpS1 substrates, including plastid DNA repair proteins and Glu tRNA reductase, which is a control point for tetrapyrrole synthesis. ClpS1 interaction with five substrates strictly depended on two conserved ClpS1 residues involved in N-degron recognition. ClpS1 function, substrates, and substrate recognition mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23898032

  5. Patterns of Sequence Divergence and Evolution of the S1 Orthologous Regions between Asian and African Cultivated Rice Species

    PubMed Central

    Gavory, Frédérick; Samain, Sylvie; Tohme, Joe; Ghesquière, Alain; Lorieux, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    A strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separates the recently diverged Asian and African cultivated rice species, Oryza sativa and O. glaberrima. Recently a model of genetic incompatibilities between three adjacent loci: S1A, S1 and S1B (called together the S1 regions) interacting epistatically, was postulated to cause the allelic elimination of female gametes in interspecific hybrids. Two candidate factors for the S1 locus (including a putative F-box gene) were proposed, but candidates for S1A and S1B remained undetermined. Here, to better understand the basis of the evolution of regions involved in reproductive isolation, we studied the genic and structural changes accumulated in the S1 regions between orthologous sequences. First, we established an 813 kb genomic sequence in O. glaberrima, covering completely the S1A, S1 and the majority of the S1B regions, and compared it with the orthologous regions of O. sativa. An overall strong structural conservation was observed, with the exception of three isolated regions of disturbed collinearity: (1) a local invasion of transposable elements around a putative F-box gene within S1, (2) the multiple duplication and subsequent divergence of the same F-box gene within S1A, (3) an interspecific chromosomal inversion in S1B, which restricts recombination in our O. sativa×O. glaberrima crosses. Beside these few structural variations, a uniform conservative pattern of coding sequence divergence was found all along the S1 regions. Hence, the S1 regions have undergone no drastic variation in their recent divergence and evolution between O. sativa and O. glaberrima, suggesting that a small accumulation of genic changes, following a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model, might be involved in the establishment of the sterility barrier. In this context, genetic incompatibilities involving the duplicated F-box genes as putative candidates, and a possible strengthening step involving the chromosomal inversion might participate to

  6. The mutated S1-haplotype in sour cherry has an altered S-haplotype-specific F-box protein gene.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Nathanael R; Ikeda, Kazuo; Tao, Ryutaro; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2006-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is an outcrossing mechanism in flowering plants that is genetically controlled by 2 separate genes located at the highly polymorphic S-locus, termed S-haplotype. This study characterizes a pollen part mutant of the S(1)-haplotype present in sour cherry (Rosaceae, Prunus cerasus L.) that contributes to the loss of GSI. Inheritance of S-haplotypes from reciprocal interspecific crosses between the self-compatible sour cherry cultivar Ujfehértói Fürtös carrying the mutated S(1)-haplotype (S(1)'S(4)S(d)S(null)) and the self-incompatible sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars carrying the wild-type S(1)-haplotype revealed that the mutated S(1)-haplotype confers unilateral incompatibility with a functional pistil component and a nonfunctional pollen component. The altered sour cherry S(1)-haplotype pollen part mutant, termed S(1)', contains a 615-bp Ds-like element within the S(1)-haplotype-specific F-box protein gene (SFB(1)'). This insertion generates a premature in-frame stop codon that would result in a putative truncated SFB(1) containing only 75 of the 375 amino acids present in the wild-type SFB(1). S(1)' along with 2 other previously characterized Prunus S-haplotype mutants, S(f) and S(6m), illustrate that mobile element insertion is an evolutionary force contributing to the breakdown of GSI. PMID:16985081

  7. The chiral S = -1 meson-baryon interaction with new constraints on the NLO contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A.; Feijoo, A.; Magas, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the S = - 1 meson-baryon interaction, employing a chiral SU(3) Lagrangian up to next-to-leading order (NLO) and implementing unitarization in coupled channels. The parameters of the model have been fitted to a large set of experimental scattering data in different two-body channels, to threshold branching ratios, and to the precise SIDDHARTA value of the energy shift and width of kaonic hidrogen. In contrast to other groups, we have taken into consideration the K- p →K+Ξ- ,K0Ξ0 reaction data, since we found in a previous work to be especially sensitive to the NLO parameters of the chiral Lagrangian. In the present work we also include the Born terms, which usually have very little effect, and find them to be non-negligible in the K- p → KΞ channels, correspondingly causing significant modifications to the NLO parameters. We furthermore show that the importance of the Born terms becomes more visible in the isospin projected amplitudes of the K- p → KΞ reactions. The measurement of processes that filter single isospin components, like the KL0 p →K+Ξ0 reaction that could be measured at the proposed secondary KL0 beam at Jlab, would put valuable constraints on the chiral models describing the meson-baryon interaction in the S = - 1 sector.

  8. Studies on vacuum evaporated PbS 1- xSe x thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Khan, Shamshad A.; Husain, M.

    2004-02-01

    The narrow gap IV-VI semiconductors have been the subject of extensive research owing to their technological importance. The fabrication of devices with alloys of these compounds with detecting and lasing capabilities has been an important recent technological development. The high quality polycrystalline thin films of PbS 1- xSe x with variable composition (0⩽ x⩽1) have been deposited onto ultra clean glass substrates by vacuum evaporation technique. Asdeposited films were annealed in vacuum at 350 K. Structural, electrical and optical properties of PbS 1- xSe x thin films have been examined. The X-ray diffraction patterns were used to determine the sample quality, crystal structure and lattice parameter of the films. The dc conductivity and activation energy of the films were measured in the temperature range 300-380 K. The absorption coefficient and band gap of the films were determined by absorbance measurements in wavelength range 2500-5000 nm using FTIR spectrophotometer.

  9. S1 domain-containing STF modulates plastid transcription and chloroplast biogenesis in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young; Jung, Hyun Ju; Kang, Hunseung; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Soon Hee; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2012-01-01

    • In this study, we examined the biochemical and physiological functions of Nicotiana benthamiana S1 domain-containing Transcription-Stimulating Factor (STF) using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), cosuppression, and overexpression strategies. • STF : green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein colocalized with sulfite reductase (SiR), a chloroplast nucleoid-associated protein also present in the stroma. Full-length STF and its S1 domain preferentially bound to RNA, probably in a sequence-nonspecific manner. • STF silencing by VIGS or cosuppression resulted in severe leaf yellowing caused by disrupted chloroplast development. STF deficiency significantly perturbed plastid-encoded multimeric RNA polymerase (PEP)-dependent transcript accumulation. Chloroplast transcription run-on assays revealed that the transcription rate of PEP-dependent plastid genes was reduced in the STF-silenced leaves. Conversely, the exogenously added recombinant STF protein increased the transcription rate, suggesting a direct role of STF in plastid transcription. Etiolated seedlings of STF cosuppression lines showed defects in the light-triggered transition from etioplasts to chloroplasts, accompanied by reduced light-induced expression of plastid-encoded genes. • These results suggest that STF plays a critical role as an auxiliary factor of the PEP transcription complex in the regulation of plastid transcription and chloroplast biogenesis in higher plants. PMID:22050604

  10. Epidermal surface antigen (MS17S1) is highly conserved between mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.J.; Chema, D.; Cho, M.

    1995-05-20

    A mouse monoclonal antibody ECS-1 raised to human keratinocytes detects a 35-kDa epidermal surface antigen (ESA) and causes keratinocyte dissociation in vitro. ECS-1 stains skin of 16-day mouse embryo and 8- to 9-week human fetus. Mouse Esa cDNA encodes a 379-amino-acid protein that is 99.2% identical to the human, differing at only 3 amino acids. The gene (M17S1) was mapped to mouse chromosome 11, highlighting the conserved linkage synteny existing between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11. Although the nude locus has been mapped to the same region of chromosome 11, no abnormalities in protein, mRNA, or cDNA or genomic sequences were detected in nude mice. However, both nude and control mice were found to have a second Esa mRNA transcript that conserves amino acid sequence and molecular weight. The mouse and human 5{prime} and 3{prime} untranslated sequences are conserved. Similar RNA folding patterns of the 5{prime} untranslated region are predicted despite a 91-bp insertion in the mouse. These data suggest that both the function and the regulation of ESA protein are of importance and that Esa (M17S1) is not the nude locus gene. 42 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. [Low-dose mirtazapine improved nausea and appetite loss during S-1 therapy].

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Hiroaki; Ito, Takanori; Uematsu, Natsuko; Imai, Eri; Nishimura, Daisaku

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a man in his 80's with pancreatic cancer(cStage IV). He suffered from nausea duringS -1 therapy, and therefore, prochlorperazine maleate at a daily dose of 15 mgwas administered. However, refractory nausea was diagnosed because it did not improve, and mirtazapine at a daily dose of 7. 5 mgbefore bedtime was started. Nausea was improved in the next morning, and the patient ate almost all of his breakfast. After that, no nausea appeared, and his food intake was robust. Mirtazapine is a new antidepressant called noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant(NaSSA)and blocks 5-HT3 receptors to improve nausea. Mirtazapine is usually started at a daily dose of 15 mg, but this dose induces somnolence. Therefore, mirtazapine was administered at a low daily dose of 7. 5 mgin the present case. No somnolence or disturbance of daily life was seen, and administration was safely continued. We conclude that low-dose mirtazapine is one effective option for refractory nausea duringS -1 therapy. PMID:22241371

  12. Magnetic flux conversion and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state in S-1 spheromak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.

    1985-09-01

    S-1 Spheromak currents and magnetic fluxes have been measured with Rogowski coils and flux loops external to the plasma. Toroidal plasma currents up to 350 kA and spheromak configuration lifetimes over 1.0 msec have been achieved at moderate power levels. The plasma formation in the S-1 Spheromak device is based on an inductive transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic flux from a toroidal ''flux core'' to the plasma. Formation is programmed to guide the configuration into a force-free, minimum-energy Taylor state. Properly detailed programming of the formation process is found not to be essential since plasmas adjust themselves during formation to a final equilibrium near the Taylor state. After formation, if the plasma evolves away from the stable state, then distinct relaxation oscillation events occur which restore the configuration to that stable state. The relaxation process involves reconnection of magnetic field lines, and conversion of poloidal to toroidal magnetic flux (and vice versa) has been observed and documented. The scaling of toroidal plasma current and toroidal magnetic flux in the plasma with externally applied currents is consistent with the establishment of a Taylor state after formation. In addition, the magnetic helicity is proportional to that injected from the flux core, independent of how that helicity is generated.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Christine; Copeland, A; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, J. Chris; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, K; Richardson, P M; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P.; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rho- dospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteo- bacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that pro- duces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1T can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in partic- ular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome se- quence of strain S1T is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chro- mosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  14. Isomerization, Perturbations, Calculations and the S_{1} State of C_{2}H_{2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraban, J. H.; Changala, P. B.; Berk, J. R. P.; Field, R. W.; Stanton, J. F.; Merer, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary analysis of the energy region of the cis-trans isomerization transition state on the S_{1} surface of C_{2}H_{2} has revealed novel patterns and surprising perturbations, including unusually large (and high-order) anharmonicities, as well as K-staggerings of several vibrational levels. These effects complicate the analysis considerably, and require new models and calculations to account for and predict features of the observed spectra. The ˜{A}-˜{X} spectrum of acetylene has been studied both experimentally and theoretically for almost a century, and this cycle of unexpected phenomena eliciting innovative responses is found throughout its history. Especially in the last ten years, progress in understanding the S_{1} state rovibrational level structure and cis-trans isomerization has been accelerated by combining the information available from both ab initio computation and spectroscopic observations. The resulting dialogue has then frequently suggested fruitful avenues for further experiments and calculations. Current challenges and recent results in understanding the cis-trans isomerization transition state region will be discussed in this context.

  15. Structural Preservation Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Interlaminar Discectomy for L5-S1 Herniated Nucleus Pulposus

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jee-Soo; Jang, Il-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Structures such as ligamentum flavum, annulus, and lamina play an important role in the segmental function. We proposed the surgical technique for achieving the sufficient preservation of segmental structures, in spite of sufficient removal of pathologic disc in the L5-S1 using the ligamentum flavum splitting and sealing technique. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 80 cases that underwent percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for L5-S1 herniated nucleus pulposus, using the ligamentum flavum splitting and sealing technique between January 2011 and June 2013. Outcomes were assessed using VAS (leg, back), MacNab's criteria, and the immediate postoperative MRI for all patients. Structural preservation was classified as complete, sufficient, and incomplete. Results. The surgical results are as follows: 65 cases were complete, 15 cases were sufficient, and 0 cases were incomplete. The VAS was decreased at the last follow-up (leg: from 7.91 ± 0.73 to 1.15 ± 0.62; back: from 5.15 ± 0.71 to 1.19 ± 0.75). A favorable outcome (excellent or good outcome by MacNab's criteria) was achieved in 77 patients (96.25%). During the follow-up period, 2 cases (2.5%) of recurrence have occurred. Conclusion. According to the result, we could obtain the favorable clinical and radiological outcomes while simultaneously removing pathologic discs using the ligamentum flavum splitting and annular fissure sealing technique. PMID:27803927

  16. Targeted Proteomics-Driven Computational Modeling of Macrophage S1P Chemosensing.

    PubMed

    Manes, Nathan P; Angermann, Bastian R; Koppenol-Raab, Marijke; An, Eunkyung; Sjoelund, Virginie H; Sun, Jing; Ishii, Masaru; Germain, Ronald N; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-10-01

    Osteoclasts are monocyte-derived multinuclear cells that directly attach to and resorb bone. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)(1) regulates bone resorption by functioning as both a chemoattractant and chemorepellent of osteoclast precursors through two G-protein coupled receptors that antagonize each other in an S1P-concentration-dependent manner. To quantitatively explore the behavior of this chemosensing pathway, we applied targeted proteomics, transcriptomics, and rule-based pathway modeling using the Simmune toolset. RAW264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line) were used as model osteoclast precursors, RNA-seq was used to identify expressed target proteins, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry using internal peptide standards was used to perform absolute abundance measurements of pathway proteins. The resulting transcript and protein abundance values were strongly correlated. Measured protein abundance values, used as simulation input parameters, led to in silico pathway behavior matching in vitro measurements. Moreover, once model parameters were established, even simulated responses toward stimuli that were not used for parameterization were consistent with experimental findings. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and value of combining targeted mass spectrometry with pathway modeling for advancing biological insight.

  17. Yielding of tantalum at strain rates up to 109 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Gates, Sean D.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Radousky, Harry B.; Teslich, Nick E.

    2016-08-01

    We have used a 45 μJ laser pulse to accelerate the free surface of fine-grained tantalum films up to peak velocities of ˜1.2 km s-1. The films had thicknesses of ˜1-2 μm and in-plane grain widths of ˜75-150 nm. Using ultrafast interferometry, we have measured the time history of the velocity of the surface at different spatial positions across the accelerated region. The initial part of the histories (assumed to correspond to the "elastic precursor" observed previously) exhibited measured strain rates of ˜0.6 to ˜3.2 × 109 s-1 and stresses of ˜4 to ˜22 GPa. Importantly, we find that elastic amplitudes exhibit little variation with strain rate for a constant peak surface velocity, even though, via covariation of the strain rate with peak surface velocity, they vary with strain rate. Furthermore, by comparison with data obtained at lower strain rates, we find that amplitudes are much better predicted by peak velocities rather than by either strain rate or sample thickness.

  18. Low-energy spin dynamics of the s = 1/2 kagome system herbertsmithite.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, G J; de Vries, M A; Stewart, J R; Harrison, A; Rønnow, H M

    2013-03-13

    The low-energy (ε = ħω < 1 meV), low-temperature (T = 0.05 K) spin dynamics of the s = 1/2 kagome candidate herbertsmithite are probed in the presence of magnetic fields up to 2.5 T. The zero-field spectra reveal a very weak continuum of scattering at T = 10 K and a broad inelastic peak centred at ε(max) = 0.2 meV at lower temperatures, T < 1 K. The broad peak is found to be strongly damped, with a liquid-like structure factor implying correlations at length scales up to r = 6 Å. The field dependence of the peak appears to follow the Zeeman splitting of s = 1/2 excitations, consistent with the weakly split 'doublets' observed in low-temperature specific heat. A possible explanation of these observations is a short-range correlated state involving defect spins between the kagome planes and moments in the kagome layers.

  19. Benthic foraminiferal stable isotope record of organic carbon fluxes during deposition of Mediterranean sapropel S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodor, Marc; Schmiedl, Gerhard; Mackensen, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We integrated Late Glacial to Holocene stable isotope records for different epi- and endobenthic foraminifera from the Mediterranean Sea in order to document the sequence of environmental changes across formation of the most recent sapropel S1. The stable carbon isotope record of epibenthic taxa corroborates results from model experiments indicating a Late Glacial onset of deep-water stagnation with short-term reventilation events during cold intervals of the Heinrich event 1, the Younger Dryas, and the 8.2 event. The stable carbon isotope difference between epi- and shallow endobenthic foraminifera exhibits marked temporal fluctuations linked to microhabitat shifts and changes in organic matter fluxes. We generated a transfer function for organic carbon fluxes based on a correlation between the stable carbon isotope signature of modern benthic foraminifera and observed organic carbon flux rates from different Mediterranean basins. Application of this transfer function to the down-core data reveals generally elevated organic matter fluxes during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas, while values drop significantly during the Bølling-Allerød interstadial and with onset of the Holocene. Our results support a scenario where average organic matter fluxes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea were not significantly enhanced during formation of sapropel S1. Instead, our data corroborate earlier results from benthic foraminiferal faunal successions and model experiments suggesting that sufficient amounts of organic matter are buried under oligotrophic conditions in an intermittently hypoxic water column.

  20. Genome sequence of Oceanobacillus picturae strain S1, an halophilic bacterium first isolated in human gut.

    PubMed

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Khelaifia, Saber; Azhar, Esam Ibraheem; Croce, Olivier; Bibi, Fehmida; Jiman-Fatani, Asif Ahmad; Yasir, Muhammad; Helaby, Huda Ben; Robert, Catherine; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Oceanobacillus picturae is a strain of a moderately halophilic bacterium, first isolated from a mural painting. We demonstrate, for the first time, the culture of human Oceanobacillus picturae, strain S1(T), whose genome is described here, from a stool sample collected from a 25-year-old Saoudian healthy individual. We used a slightly modified standard culture medium adding 100 g/L of NaCl. We provide a short description of this strain including its MALDI-TOF spectrum, the main identification tool currently used in clinical microbiology. The 3,675,175 bp long genome exhibits a G + C content of 39.15 % and contains 3666 protein-coding and 157 RNA genes. The draft genome sequence of Oceanobacillus picturae has a similar size to the Oceanobacillus kimchii (respectively 3.67 Mb versus 3.83 Mb). The G + C content was higher compared with Oceanobacillus kimchii (respectively 39.15 % and 35.2 %). Oceanobacillus picturae shared almost identical number of genes (3823 genes versus 3879 genes), with a similar ratio of genes per Mb (1041 genes/Mb versus 1012 genes/Mb). The genome sequencing of Oceanobacillus picturae strain S1 isolated for the first time in a human, will be added to the 778 genome projects from the gastrointestinal tract listed by the international consortium Human Microbiome Project.

  1. Lattice dynamics of II-VI mixed semiconductor ZnS 1- xSe x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, A. K.

    2008-09-01

    Lattice dynamical properties of II-VI compounds having zinc-blende structure have been calculated by three-body shell model. This model incorporates the effect of the short-range repulsive interactions up to and including the second nearest neighbours, in addition to the long-range Coulombic interactions in the frame work of the rigid-shell model with both the ions are polarizable. The model involves in total eleven disposable parameters. Using the above proposed model the phonon dispersion relations for mixed II-VI semiconductor ZnS 1- xSe x are plotted. We find an overall good agreement with the experimental results. The application of the present model has been made to calculate the phonon dispersion relations of ZnS, ZnSe and mixed semiconductor ZnS 1- xSe x. The comparison of the theoretical results with the available experimental has been made along high symmetry directions. A reasonably good agreement is observed between theory and experiments.

  2. Targeted Proteomics-Driven Computational Modeling of Macrophage S1P Chemosensing*

    PubMed Central

    Manes, Nathan P.; Angermann, Bastian R.; Koppenol-Raab, Marijke; An, Eunkyung; Sjoelund, Virginie H.; Sun, Jing; Ishii, Masaru; Germain, Ronald N.; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are monocyte-derived multinuclear cells that directly attach to and resorb bone. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)1 regulates bone resorption by functioning as both a chemoattractant and chemorepellent of osteoclast precursors through two G-protein coupled receptors that antagonize each other in an S1P-concentration-dependent manner. To quantitatively explore the behavior of this chemosensing pathway, we applied targeted proteomics, transcriptomics, and rule-based pathway modeling using the Simmune toolset. RAW264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line) were used as model osteoclast precursors, RNA-seq was used to identify expressed target proteins, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry using internal peptide standards was used to perform absolute abundance measurements of pathway proteins. The resulting transcript and protein abundance values were strongly correlated. Measured protein abundance values, used as simulation input parameters, led to in silico pathway behavior matching in vitro measurements. Moreover, once model parameters were established, even simulated responses toward stimuli that were not used for parameterization were consistent with experimental findings. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and value of combining targeted mass spectrometry with pathway modeling for advancing biological insight. PMID:26199343

  3. Targeted Proteomics-Driven Computational Modeling of Macrophage S1P Chemosensing.

    PubMed

    Manes, Nathan P; Angermann, Bastian R; Koppenol-Raab, Marijke; An, Eunkyung; Sjoelund, Virginie H; Sun, Jing; Ishii, Masaru; Germain, Ronald N; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin; Nita-Lazar, Aleksandra

    2015-10-01

    Osteoclasts are monocyte-derived multinuclear cells that directly attach to and resorb bone. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)(1) regulates bone resorption by functioning as both a chemoattractant and chemorepellent of osteoclast precursors through two G-protein coupled receptors that antagonize each other in an S1P-concentration-dependent manner. To quantitatively explore the behavior of this chemosensing pathway, we applied targeted proteomics, transcriptomics, and rule-based pathway modeling using the Simmune toolset. RAW264.7 cells (a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line) were used as model osteoclast precursors, RNA-seq was used to identify expressed target proteins, and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry using internal peptide standards was used to perform absolute abundance measurements of pathway proteins. The resulting transcript and protein abundance values were strongly correlated. Measured protein abundance values, used as simulation input parameters, led to in silico pathway behavior matching in vitro measurements. Moreover, once model parameters were established, even simulated responses toward stimuli that were not used for parameterization were consistent with experimental findings. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and value of combining targeted mass spectrometry with pathway modeling for advancing biological insight. PMID:26199343

  4. Efficacy and safety of oxaliplatin, bevacizumab and oral S-1 for advanced recurrent colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shuji; Shimazaki, Jiro; Morishita, Keiichi; Koike, Nobusada; Harada, Nobuhiko; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of co-administration of oral S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) in combination with bevacizumab (bev) in patients with advanced recurrent colorectal cancer. A retrospective study of 36 patients with advanced recurrent colorectal cancer was performed, of whom 27 received first-line and 9 received second-line SOX+bev chemotherapy between 2010 and 2013 at the Hachioji Digestive Disease Hospital (Hachioji, Japan). The SOX+bev regimen consisted of administration of intravenous oxaliplatin (85 mg/m2) on days 1 and 14, bevacizumab (5 mg/kg) on day 1, and co-administration of oral S-1 twice daily on days 1–14. The drug regimen was repeated every 4 weeks. SOX+bev treatment was associated with a response rate of 45.2%, a disease control rate of 71%, and a median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 9.9 and 21.9 months, respectively. Patients who received first-line chemotherapy benefited from treatment in terms of prolonged PFS (13.8 months) and OS (28.2 months). Grade 3/4 adverse events were infrequent and included anaemia, thrombocytopenia, anorexia, diarrhea, sensory neuropathy, increased aspartate aminotransferase level and skin rash. In conclusion, SOX+bev therapy was found to be feasible and safe for patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

  5. Interplanar torsion in the S1<--S0 electronic spectrum of jet cooled 1-phenylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Evan G; Thompson, Christopher D; Morrison, Richard J S

    2004-12-22

    The S(1)<--S(0) transition of 1-phenylimidazole (1PI) has been studied in a supersonic jet expansion by resonant two-photon ionization. The origin band at 36 075 cm(-1) is accompanied by a low frequency progression associated with torsion about the bond connecting phenyl and imidazole groups. Torsional potentials have been determined for both states. In S(0), phi(min)=37.2+/-0.5 degrees and the planar barrier is 339+/-20 cm(-1), while in S(1), phi(min)=17.6+/-0.5 degrees and the planar barrier is 57+/-2 cm(-1). The transition moment alignment is observed to be consistent with an excited state of L(b) character, in spite of the "off-axis" conjugation provided by the imidazole ring. These results are compared with ab initio calculations on both states, performed using Hartree-Fock, Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation, density functional theory with the Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr functional, time-dependent density functional theory, configuration interaction singles, and complete active space self-consistent field methods. Solution-phase UV spectra of neutral and protonated 1PI are also reported.

  6. Far-UV observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Far-UV imagery and objective grating spectroscopy of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) were acquired from NASA sounding rocket 36.296 UG, launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST (20.48 Nov 2013 UT), 8.32 days pre-perihelion, from the White Sands Missile Range, NM. The comet was 0.1° below ground horizon, 0.44 AU from the Sun, 0.86 AU from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3°. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. At the time of launch ISON was undergoing a factor of 5 increase in water production rate, going from 3.5e29 to 19.6e29 molecules s-1between 19.6 and 21.6 Nov (Combi et al. 2014), marking what is thought to be a final fragmentation event (Sekanina & Kracht 2014). Our instrument, a wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), observed Lyα emissions in an objective grating mode through an open microshutter array, developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, over a (1/2°)2 field-of-view. After accounting for slit losses and deadtime corrections we find a preliminary lower limit to the Lyα surface brightness of ~ 400 kilorayleighs, yielding a hydrogen production rate of QH ~ 5e29 atoms s-1, in reasonable agreement with the Combi result. We also acquired a broadband image of the comet in the 1280 to 1900 Å bandpass. This image shows a drop in count rate proportional to altitude caused by increased absorption of cometary emissions by terrestrial O2 located in the lower thermosphere. O2 absorption acts as a selective time dependent filter that attenuates cometary emissions from different atomic and molecular species at different rates during descent. Preliminary analysis suggests that the dominant species in a (1e5 km)2 nuclear region is neutral carbon. The radial profile in comparison to a Haser model suggests that the C parent molecule had a lifetime (at 1 AU) ~ 105 s; much shorter than the expected lifetime of CO. We

  7. The Sphingolipid Receptor S1PR2 Is a Receptor for Nogo-A Repressing Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Arzt, Michael E.; Weinmann, Oliver; Obermair, Franz J.; Pernet, Vincent; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Delekate, Andrea; Iobbi, Cristina; Zemmar, Ajmal; Ristic, Zorica; Gullo, Miriam; Spies, Peter; Dodd, Dana; Gygax, Daniel; Korte, Martin; Schwab, Martin E.

    2014-01-01

    Nogo-A is a membrane protein of the central nervous system (CNS) restricting neurite growth and synaptic plasticity via two extracellular domains: Nogo-66 and Nogo-A-Δ20. Receptors transducing Nogo-A-Δ20 signaling remained elusive so far. Here we identify the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) as a Nogo-A-Δ20-specific receptor. Nogo-A-Δ20 binds S1PR2 on sites distinct from the pocket of the sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and signals via the G protein G13, the Rho GEF LARG, and RhoA. Deleting or blocking S1PR2 counteracts Nogo-A-Δ20- and myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth and cell spreading. Blockade of S1PR2 strongly enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of wild-type but not Nogo-A−/− mice, indicating a repressor function of the Nogo-A/S1PR2 axis in synaptic plasticity. A similar increase in LTP was also observed in the motor cortex after S1PR2 blockade. We propose a novel signaling model in which a GPCR functions as a receptor for two structurally unrelated ligands, a membrane protein and a sphingolipid. Elucidating Nogo-A/S1PR2 signaling platforms will provide new insights into regulation of synaptic plasticity. PMID:24453941

  8. 2,5-Disubstituted pyrrolidine carboxylates as potent, orally active sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Colandrea, Vincent J; Legiec, Irene E; Huo, Pei; Yan, Lin; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Chebret, Gary; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Shei, Gan-Ju; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-06-01

    A series of 2,5-cis-disubstituted pyrrolidines were synthesized and evaluated as S1P receptor agonists. Compounds 15-21 were identified with good selectivity over S1P3 which lowered circulating lymphocytes after oral administration in mice.

  9. Sphingosine phosphate lyase regulates myogenic differentiation via S1P receptor-mediated effects on myogenic microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S; Baldwin, Dianna M; Oskouian, Babak; Place, Robert F; Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Kumar, Ashok; Saba, Julie D

    2014-01-01

    S1P lyase (SPL) catalyzes the irreversible degradation of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid whose signaling activities regulate muscle differentiation, homeostasis, and satellite cell (SC) activation. By regulating S1P levels, SPL also controls SC recruitment and muscle regeneration, representing a potential therapeutic target for muscular dystrophy. We found that SPL is induced during myoblast differentiation. To investigate SPL's role in myogenesis at the cellular level, we generated and characterized a murine myoblast SPL-knockdown (SPL-KD) cell line lacking SPL. SPL-KD cells accumulated intracellular and extracellular S1P and failed to form myotubes under conditions that normally stimulate myogenic differentiation. Under differentiation conditions, SPL-KD cells also demonstrated delayed induction of 3 myogenic microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-1, miR-206, and miR-486. SPL-KD cells successfully differentiated when treated with an S1P1 agonist, S1P2 antagonist, and combination treatments, which also increased myogenic miRNA levels. SPL-KD cells transfected with mimics for miR-1 or miR-206 also overcame the differentiation block. Thus, we show for the first time that the S1P/SPL/S1P-receptor axis regulates the expression of a number of miRNAs, thereby contributing to myogenic differentiation.

  10. Scale-free antiferromagnetic fluctuations in the s = 1/2 kagome antiferromagnet herbertsmithite.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M A; Stewart, J R; Deen, P P; Piatek, J O; Nilsen, G J; Rønnow, H M; Harrison, A

    2009-12-01

    Neutron spectroscopy and diffuse neutron scattering on herbertsmithite [ZnCu(3)(OH)(6)Cl(2)], a near-ideal realization of the s=1/2 kagome antiferromagnet, reveal the hallmark property of a quantum spin liquid: instantaneous short-ranged antiferromagnetic correlations in the absence of a time-averaged ordered moment. These dynamic antiferromagnetic correlations are weakly dependent of neutron-energy transfer and temperature, and persist up to 25 meV and 120 K. At low energy transfers a shift of the magnetic scattering to low Q is observed with increasing temperature, providing evidence of gapless spinons. It is argued that these observations provide important evidence in favor of resonating-valence-bond theories of (doped) Mott insulators.

  11. Early changes in shoot transcriptome of rice in response to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa JGTA-S1

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chinmay; Seal, Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of Rhodotorula genus have been reported to show endophytic colonization in different plants. Some of the Rhodotorula species are found to exhibit plant growth promoting activities and also have been reported to protect plants against invading pathogens. A yeast strain closely related to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was isolated from the endosphere of Typha angustifolia collected from a Uranium mine. A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the early changes in rice shoot transcripts in response to this yeast (R. mucilaginosa JGTA-S1). Transcriptional changes were monitored in 6 h and 24 h treated rice plant shoots as compared to 0 h control. The microarray data has been submitted to the NCBI GEO repository under the accession number of GSE64321. PMID:26697384

  12. Microbial hydrogen production with Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kotay, Shireen Meher; Das, Debabrata

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus coagulans strain IIT-BT S1 isolated from anaerobically digested activated sewage sludge was investigated for its ability to produce H(2) from glucose-based medium under the influence of different environmental parameters. At mid-exponential phase of cell growth, H(2) production initiated and reached maximum production rate in the stationary phase. The maximal H(2) yield (2.28 mol H(2)/molglucose) was recorded at an initial glucose concentration of 2% (w/v), pH 6.5, temperature 37 degrees C, inoculum volume of 10% (v/v) and inoculum age of 14 h. Cell growth rate and rate of hydrogen production decreased when glucose concentration was elevated above 2% w/v, indicating substrate inhibition. The ability of the organism to utilize various carbon sources for H(2) fermentation was also determined.

  13. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter. PMID:17811436

  14. Lower Extremity Radicular Pain Caused by Entrapped Sigmoid Colon Between L5 and S1 Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sanghyung; Park, Noh Kyoung; Cho, Kyoung Jin; Baek, Jung Hyun; Lim, Jeong-Wook; Choi, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal entrapment between two vertebral bodies is very rare. In all previous cases, it occurred by major trauma. However, the bowel entrapment between two vertebral bodies without trauma has never been reported, not to mention as the cause of lower extremity radicular pain. We describe the case of an 82-year-old female patient with right lower extremity radicular pain without recent trauma history. The patient was diagnosed sigmoid colon entrapment between the L5 and S1 vertebrae by lumbar spinal computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and showed improvement in radicular pain after manual reduction of interpositioned colon during surgery. Intestinal entrapment between two vertebrae without trauma is caused by degenerative and vacuum changes of the intervertebral disc combined with the anterior longitudinal ligament injury. PMID:26619145

  15. High Field Magnetization Studies of Low Dimensional Heisenberg S = 1/2 Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landee, C. P.; Albrecht, A. S.; Turnbull, M. M.

    1997-03-01

    The magnetization curves of a number of new 2D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets have been determined in fields up to 30 tesla at low temperatures at the National High Magnetic Fields Laboratory. Magnets studied include (2-amino-5-methylpyridinium)_2CuBr4 (2-amino-5-chloropyridinium)_2CuBr_4, and [Cu(pz)_2(NO_3)](PF_6), where pz = pyrazine. All of the magnetization curves show upward curvature, a previously unknown effect for this model system. The magnetization curves are qualitatively similar to the theoretical prediction for the linear chain Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The saturation fields are consistent with those predicted from a molecular-field model, using exchange strengths obtained from susceptibility studies. Slight anisotropy has been observed in the single crystal studies of (2-amino-5-methylpyridinium)_2CuBr_4.

  16. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and DFT studies of a new chiral ionic liquid from (S)-1-phenylethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shuya; Wang, Tao; Hu, Xiaoli

    2014-12-01

    A new chiral ionic liquid was synthesized from (S)-1-phenylethylamine and it was studied by IR, Raman, polarimetry, NMR and X-ray crystal diffraction. Its vibrational spectral bands are precisely ascribed to the studied structure with the aid of DFT theoretical calculations. The optimized geometries and calculated vibrational frequencies are evaluated via comparison with experimental values. The vibrational spectral data obtained from IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations by the DFT-B3LYP method at 6-311G(d,p) level. The computed vibrational frequencies were scaled by scale factors to yield a good agreement with observed experimental vibrational frequencies. The vibrational modes assignments were performed by using the animation option of GaussView5.0 graphical interface for Gaussian program.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and DFT studies of a new chiral ionic liquid from (S)-1-phenylethylamine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuya; Wang, Tao; Hu, Xiaoli

    2014-12-10

    A new chiral ionic liquid was synthesized from (S)-1-phenylethylamine and it was studied by IR, Raman, polarimetry, NMR and X-ray crystal diffraction. Its vibrational spectral bands are precisely ascribed to the studied structure with the aid of DFT theoretical calculations. The optimized geometries and calculated vibrational frequencies are evaluated via comparison with experimental values. The vibrational spectral data obtained from IR and Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations by the DFT-B3LYP method at 6-311G(d,p) level. The computed vibrational frequencies were scaled by scale factors to yield a good agreement with observed experimental vibrational frequencies.The vibrational modes assignments were performed by using the animation option of GaussView5.0 graphical interface for Gaussian program. PMID:25000565

  19. Gauged D=7 supergravity on the S1/Z2 orbifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramis, Spyros D.; Kehagias, Alex

    2005-03-01

    We construct the most general couplings of a bulk seven-dimensional Yang-Mills-Einstein N =2 supergravity with a boundary six-dimensional chiral N =(0, 1) theory of vectors and charged hypermultiplets. The boundary consists of two brane worlds sitting at the fixed points of an S1/ Z2 compactification of the seven-dimensional bulk supergravity. The resulting 6D massless spectrum surviving the orbifold projection is anomalous. By introducing boundary fields at the orbifold fixed points, we show that all anomalies are canceled by a Green-Schwarz mechanism. In addition, all couplings of the boundary fields to the bulk are completely specified by supersymmetry. We emphasize that there is no bulk Chern-Simons term to cancel the anomalies. The latter is traded for a Green-Schwarz term which emerges in the boundary theory after a duality transformation implemented to construct the bulk supergravity.

  20. Doubly degenerate entanglement spectrum and entanglement plateau in the S=1 bond-alternating chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Yan; Dou, Jun-Ya; Liu, Guang-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Quantum entanglement, entanglement spectrum, magnetization, and ground-state energy of the S=1 bond-alternating antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain under magnetic field are investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. Bipartite entanglement and entanglement spectrum are found to be capable of describing all the quantum phase transitions (QPTs). A rich ground-state phase diagram, which comprises of five different phases, i.e., a singlet-dimer phase, a Haldane phase, a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) phase, a 1/2 plateau phase, and a saturated ferromagnetic phase, is determined. It is interesting that, with the appearance of magnetization plateaus, entanglement plateaus are observed simultaneously. In the Haldane phase, doubly degenerate entanglement spectra on both even and odd bonds are observed. However, in the 1/2 plateau phase, only the entanglement spectra on the even bonds are found to be doubly degenerated.

  1. Color coherence in p pbar collisions at squareroot s = 1.8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.

    1996-09-01

    We report on two preliminary studies of color coherence effects on {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions based on data collected by the D{null} detector during the 1992-1993 and 1994-1995 runs at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at a center of mass energy {radical}s = 1. 8 TeV. Demonstration of initial-to-final state color interference effects is done in a higher energy region by measuring spatial correlations between the softer third jet and the second leading- {ital E}{sub {ital T}} jet in multi-jet events and in a lower energy regime by examining particle distribution patterns in W+Jet events. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations with different color coherence implementations and the predictions of an NLO parton level calculation.

  2. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter.

  3. Symplectic {S}^{1} × N^3 , subgroup separability, and vanishing Thurston norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Stefan; Vidussi, Stefano

    2008-04-01

    Let N be a closed, oriented 3 -manifold. A folklore conjecture states that S^{1} × N admits a symplectic structure if and only if N admits a fibration over the circle. We will prove this conjecture in the case when N is irreducible and its fundamental group satisfies appropriate subgroup separability conditions. This statement includes 3 -manifolds with vanishing Thurston norm, graph manifolds and 3 -manifolds with surface subgroup separability (a condition satisfied conjecturally by all hyperbolic 3 -manifolds). Our result covers, in particular, the case of 0-framed surgeries along knots of genus one. The statement follows from the proof that twisted Alexander polynomials decide fiberability for all the 3 -manifolds listed above. As a corollary, it follows that twisted Alexander polynomials decide if a knot of genus one is fibered.

  4. Affine 7-brane backgrounds and five-dimensional EN theories on S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiko; Yang, Sung-Kil

    Elliptic curves for the 7-brane configurations realizing the affine Lie algebras overlineEn (1⩽ n⩽8) and overlineẼn ( n=0,1) are systematically derived from the cubic equation for a rational elliptic surface. It is then shown that the overlineEn 7-branes describe the discriminant locus of the elliptic curves for five-dimensional (5D) N=1 En theories compactified on a circle. This is in accordance with a recent construction of 5D N=1 En theories on the IIB 5-brane web with 7-branes, and indicates the validity of the D3 probe picture for 5D En theories on R4×S 1. Using the overlineEn curves we also study the compactification of 5D En theories to four dimensions.

  5. The gravity dual of supersymmetric gauge theories on a squashed S 1 × S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario

    2014-08-01

    We present a new one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions deforming AdS5. This is constructed as an asymptotically locally anti de Sitter (AlAdS) solution of five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity, with topology ℝ × ℝ4 and a non-trivial graviphoton field, and can be uplifted to ten or eleven dimensional supergravities. An analytic continuation of this solution yields the gravity dual to a class of four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories on a curved manifold with topology S 1 × S 3, comprising an SU(2) × U(1)-symmetric squashed three-sphere, with a non-trivial background gauge field coupling to the R-symmetry current. We compute the holographically renormalised on-shell action and interpret it in terms of the Casimir energy of the dual field theory. We also determine the holographic conserved charges of the solution and discuss relations between them.

  6. Optical and Phonon Characterization of Ternary CdSe x S1- x Alloy Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi, L. A.; Cong, N. D.; Dang, N. T.; Nghia, N. X.; Quang, V. X.

    2016-05-01

    Ternary CdSe x S1- x alloy quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a wet chemical method. Their morphology, particle size, structural, optical, and vibrational properties were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The optical and vibrational properties of the QDs can be controlled by adjusting the Se/S molar ratio. The absorption and emission peaks shift to a longer wavelength range when increasing the Se content. The presence of two CdSe-like and CdS-like longitudinal optical phonon modes was observed. The dependencies of the optical and phonon modes on the Se content are discussed in detail.

  7. IMAGING COMET ISON C/2012 S1 IN THE INNER CORONA AT PERIHELION

    SciTech Connect

    Druckmüller, Miloslav; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Aniol, Peter; Ding, Adalbert; Morgan, Huw

    2014-04-01

    Much anticipation and speculation were building around comet ISON, or C/2012 S1, discovered on 2012 September 21 by the International Scientific Optical Network telescope in Russia, and bound for the Sun on 2013 November 28, with a closest heliocentric approach distance of 2.7 R {sub ☉}. Here we present the first white light image of the comet's trail through the inner corona. The image was taken with a wide field Lyot-type coronagraph from the Mees Observatory on Haleakala at 19:12 UT, past its perihelion passage at 18:45 UT. The perfect match between the comet's trail captured in the inner corona and the trail that had persisted across the field of view of 2-6 R {sub ☉} of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment/C2 coronagraph at 19:12 UT demonstrates that the comet survived its perihelion passage.

  8. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  9. Results from the worldwide coma morphology campaign for comet ISON (C/2012 S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Knight, Matthew M.; Farnham, Tony L.; Briol, John; Brosch, Noah; Caruso, John; Gao, Xing; Gomez, Edward; Lister, Tim; Hergenrother, Carl; Hoban, Susan; Prouty, Roy; Holloway, Mike; Howes, Nick; Guido, Ernesto; Hui, Man-To; Jones, Joseph H.; Penland, Tyler B.; Thomas, Samuel R.; Wyrosdick, Jim; Kiselev, Nikolai; Ivanova, Aleksandra V.; Kaye, Thomas G.; Eluo, Jean-Baptist Kikwaya; Lau, Betty P. S.; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Martin, José Luis; Moskvitin, Alexander S.; Nicolini, Martino; Ottum, Brian D.; Pruzenski, Chris; Vogel, David C.; Kellett, Leo; Rapson, Valerie; Schmid, Joel; Doyle, Brandon; Dimino, Frank; Carlino, Stephanie; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sutaria, Firoza; Schleicher, David G.; Snodgrass, Colin; Tezcan, Cihan T.; Yorukoglu, Onur; Trowbridge, David; Whitmer, Dennis; Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a global coma morphology campaign for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), which was organized to involve both professional and amateur observers. In response to the campaign, many hundreds of images, from nearly two dozen groups were collected. Images were taken primarily in the continuum, which help to characterize the behavior of dust in the coma of comet ISON. The campaign received images from January 12 through November 22, 2013 (an interval over which the heliocentric distance decreased from 5.1 AU to 0.35 AU), allowing monitoring of the long-term evolution of coma morphology during comet ISON's pre-perihelion leg. Data were contributed by observers spread around the world, resulting in particularly good temporal coverage during November when comet ISON was brightest but its visibility was limited from any one location due to the small solar elongation. We analyze the northwestern sunward continuum coma feature observed in comet ISON during the first half of 2013, finding that it was likely present from at least February through May and did not show variations on diurnal time scales. From these images we constrain the grain velocities to ~10 m s-1, and we find that the grains spent 2-4 weeks in the sunward side prior to merging with the dust tail. We present a rationale for the lack of continuum coma features from September until mid-November 2013, determining that if the feature from the first half of 2013 was present, it was likely too small to be clearly detected. We also analyze the continuum coma morphology observed subsequent to the November 12 outburst, and constrain the first appearance of new features in the continuum to later than November 13.99 UT.

  10. Full Dimensional Rovibrational Variational Calculations of the S_1 State of C_2H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changala, Bryan; Baraban, Joshua H.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-06-01

    Rovibrational variational calculations on global potential energy surfaces are often essential for investigating large amplitude vibrational motion and isomerization between multiple stable conformers, as well as for understanding the spectroscopic signatures of such dynamics. The efficient and accurate representation of high dimensional potential energy surfaces and the diagonalization of large rovibrational Hamiltonians make these calculations a technically non-trivial task. The first excited singlet electronic state of acetylene (C_2H_2) is an ideal model isomerizing system. The S_1 state supports both a trans conformer and a higher energy cis conformer (Tecis-Tetrans ≈ 2700 wn), separated by a planar near-half-linear transition state (TeTS-Tetrans ≈ 5000 wn). The low-energy structure of the trans well is complicated by strong Coriolis and Darling-Dennison interactions between the near-resonant torsion and asymmetric bending modes. The resulting polyad patterns are eventually broken as the internal vibrational energy approaches that of the barrier to isomerization. In this region, qualitatively new spectroscopic patterns emerge, such as rotational K-staggering and vibrational effective frequency dips. We examine these effects with an efficient ab initio variational treatment. Our global potential energy surface is constructed as a hybrid of a high-level reduced dimension surface, which excludes the two rCH bond lengths, and a lower-level full dimensional surface incorporating the effects of rtext{CH} displacement. Diagonalization of the large, sparse Hamiltonian, which contains an exact internal coordinate rovibrational kinetic energy operator, is achieved with an efficient restarted Lanczos algorithm that generates variational energies and wavefunctions. We discuss how our results elucidate the S_1 state's rich variety of spectroscopic features and the insights they provide into the isomerization process.

  11. XPS and electroluminescence studies on SrS 1- xSe x and ZnS 1- xSe x thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihanus, Jarkko; Lambers, Eric; Holloway, Paul H.; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2004-01-01

    SrS 1- xSe x and ZnS 1- xSe x thin films were deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using elemental selenium as the Se source, thus avoiding use of H 2Se or organometallic selenium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the films were solid solutions and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data showed that the surface of both ZnS 1- xSe x and SrS 1- xSe x were covered with an oxide and carbon-containing contaminants from exposure to air. The oxidation of SrS 1- xSe x extended into the film and peak shifts from sulfate were found on the surface. Luminance measurements showed that emission intensity of the ZnS 1- xSe x:Mn alternating current thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices at fixed voltage was almost the same as that of the ZnS:Mn device, while emission intensity of the SrS 1- xSe x:Ce devices decreased markedly as compared to the SrS:Ce device. Emission colors of the devices were altered only slightly due to selenium addition.

  12. Increased mRNA Levels of Sphingosine Kinases and S1P Lyase and Reduced Levels of S1P Were Observed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Association with Poorer Differentiation and Earlier Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kurano, Makoto; Enooku, Kenichiro; Sato, Masaya; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Although sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) has been reported to play an important role in cancer pathophysiology, little is known about S1P and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To clarify the relationship between S1P and HCC, 77 patients with HCC who underwent surgical treatment were consecutively enrolled in this study. In addition, S1P and its metabolites were quantitated by LC-MS/MS. The mRNA levels of sphingosine kinases (SKs), which phosphorylate sphingosine to generate S1P, were increased in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-HCC tissues. Higher mRNA levels of SKs in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation and microvascular invasion, whereas a higher level of SK2 mRNA was a risk factor for intra- and extra-hepatic recurrence. S1P levels, however, were unexpectedly reduced in HCC compared with non-HCC tissues, and increased mRNA levels of S1P lyase (SPL), which degrades S1P, were observed in HCC compared with non-HCC tissues. Higher SPL mRNA levels in HCC were associated with poorer differentiation. Finally, in HCC cell lines, inhibition of the expression of SKs or SPL by siRNA led to reduced proliferation, invasion and migration, whereas overexpression of SKs or SPL enhanced proliferation. In conclusion, increased SK and SPL mRNA expression along with reduced S1P levels were more commonly observed in HCC tissues compared with adjacent non-HCC tissues and were associated with poor differentiation and early recurrence. SPL as well as SKs may be therapeutic targets for HCC treatment. PMID:26886371

  13. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Messias, Carolina V.; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P.; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000–10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  14. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Messias, Carolina V; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P; Moreira, Otacilio C; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  15. S1P-Yap1 signaling regulates endoderm formation required for cardiac precursor cell migration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hajime; Terai, Kenta; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Ayano; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2014-10-13

    To form the primary heart tube in zebrafish, bilateral cardiac precursor cells (CPCs) migrate toward the midline beneath the endoderm. Mutants lacking endoderm and fish with defective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling exhibit cardia bifida. Endoderm defects lead to the lack of foothold for the CPCs, whereas the cause of cardia bifida in S1P signaling mutants remains unclear. Here we show that S1P signaling regulates CPC migration through Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1)-dependent endoderm survival. Cardia bifida seen in spns2 (S1P transporter) morphants and s1pr2 (S1P receptor-2) morphants could be rescued by endodermal expression of nuclear localized form of yap1. yap1 morphants had decreased expression of the Yap1/Tead target connective tissue growth factor a (Ctgfa) and consequently increased endodermal cell apoptosis. Consistently, ctgfa morphants showed defects of the endodermal sheet and cardia bifida. Collectively, we show that S1pr2/Yap1-regulated ctgfa expression is essential for the proper endoderm formation required for CPC migration.

  16. The Pertussis Toxin S1 Subunit Is a Thermally Unstable Protein Susceptible to Degradation by the 20S Proteasome†

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Abhay H.; Moe, David; Jamnadas, Maneesha; Tatulian, Suren A.; Teter, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) is an AB-type protein toxin that consists of a catalytic A subunit (PT S1) and an oligomeric, cell-binding B subunit. It belongs to a subset of AB toxins that move from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before A chain passage into the cytosol. Toxin translocation is thought to involve A chain unfolding in the ER and the quality control mechanism of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The absence of lysine residues in PT S1 may allow the translocated toxin to avoid ubiquitin-dependent degradation by the 26S proteasome, which is the usual fate of exported ERAD substrates. As the conformation of PT S1 appears to play an important role in toxin translocation, we used biophysical and biochemical methods to examine the structural properties of PT S1. Our in vitro studies found that the isolated PT S1 subunit is a thermally unstable protein that can be degraded in a ubiquitin-independent fashion by the core 20S proteasome. The thermal denaturation of PT S1 was inhibited by its interaction with NAD, a donor molecule used by PT S1 for the ADP-ribosylation of target G proteins. These observations support a model of intoxication in which toxin translocation, degradation, and activity are all influenced by the heat-labile nature of the isolated toxin A chain. PMID:17105192

  17. GPCR cell signaling pathways mediating embryonic chick retinal growth cone collapse induced by LPA and S1P

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Jarod; Whiteneck, Canaan; Birgbauer, Eric

    2014-01-01

    In the development of the nervous system, one of the critical aspects is the proper navigation of axons to their targets, the problem of axonal guidance. We are using the chick visual system as a model to investigate the role of the lysophospholipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) as potential axon guidance cues. We show that both LPA and S1P cause specific, dose-dependent growth cone collapse of retinal neurons in vitro in the chick model system, with slight differences to mouse, but very similar to Xenopus. Because LPA and S1P receptors are GPCRs, we analyzed the intracellular signaling pathways using pharmacological inhibitors in chick retinal neurons. Blocking rho kinase (ROCK) prevented growth cone collapse by LPA and S1P, while blocking PLC or chelating calcium had no effect on growth cone collapse. Inhibiting Gi/o with pertussis toxin resulted in a partial reduction of growth cone collapse, both with LPA and S1P. Inhibition of p38 blocked growth cone collapse mediated by LPA but not S1P. Thus, in addition to the involvement of the G12/13-ROCK pathway, LPA and S1P induced collapse of chick retinal growth cones has a partial requirement for Gi/o. PMID:25138637

  18. Development of a New Detection Scheme to Probe Predissociated Levels of the S_1 State of Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jun; Erickson, Trevor J.; Merer, Anthony; Field, Robert W.

    2016-06-01

    A new spectroscopic scheme has been developed to probe the predissociated levels of the S_1 state of acetylene. Our new scheme is based on detection of visible fluorescence that is a result of multi-photon excitation of acetylene (resonantly through single rovibronic S_1 levels). The new detection scheme is not subject to decreases in fluorescence quantum yield of S_1 levels that lie above the predissociation limit, and laser scatter-light can be easily eliminated by a long-pass filter with a cutoff in the visible range. For the S_1 predissociated levels, the new detection scheme offers much improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to the conventional laser-induced fluorescence technique, based on detection of UV fluorescence from the S_1 levels. The new method is also easier to implement than various H-atom detection schemes, which involve one additional laser of different wavelength than the excitation wavelength. Based on the power dependence and lifetime of the fluorescence signals, electronically excited C_2H and/or C_2 fragments are the likely emitters of the detected visible fluorescence. The new method is currently being used to extend the vibrational and rotational assignments of both gerade and ungerade levels of the S_1 state of acetylene in the region of the cis-trans isomerization barrier, >1000 cm-1 above the onset of S_1 predissociation.

  19. Cloning and expression of the Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora gene encoding the low-molecular-weight bacteriocin carocin S1.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Duen-yau; Chien, Yung-chei; Wu, Huang-Pin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clone the carocin S1 gene and express it in a non-carocin-producing strain of Erwinia carotovora. A mutant, TH22-10, which produced a high-molecular-weight bacteriocin but not a low-molecular-weight bacteriocin, was obtained by Tn5 insertional mutagenesis using H-rif-8-2 (a spontaneous rifampin-resistant mutant of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 89-H-4). Using thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, the DNA sequence from the Tn5 insertion site and the DNA sequence of the contiguous 2,280-bp region were determined. Two complete open reading frames (ORF), designated ORF2 and ORF3, were identified within the sequence fragment. ORF2 and ORF3 were identified with the carocin S1 genes, caroS1K (ORF2) and caroS1I (ORF3), which, respectively, encode a killing protein (CaroS1K) and an immunity protein (CaroS1I). These genes were homologous to the pyocin S3 gene and the pyocin AP41 gene. Carocin S1 was expressed in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora Ea1068 and replicated in TH22-10 but could not be expressed in Escherichia coli (JM101) because a consensus sequence resembling an SOS box was absent. A putative sequence similar to the consensus sequence for the E. coli cyclic AMP receptor protein binding site (-312 bp) was found upstream of the start codon. Production of this bacteriocin was also induced by glucose and lactose. The homology search results indicated that the carocin S1 gene (between bp 1078 and bp 1704) was homologous to the pyocin S3 and pyocin AP41 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These genes encode proteins with nuclease activity (domain 4). This study found that carocin S1 also has nuclease activity.

  20. Individual variation of human S1P₁ coding sequence leads to heterogeneity in receptor function and drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Obinata, Hideru; Gutkind, Sarah; Stitham, Jeremiah; Okuno, Toshiaki; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Hwa, John; Hla, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P₁), an abundantly-expressed G protein-coupled receptor which regulates key vascular and immune responses, is a therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases. Fingolimod/Gilenya (FTY720), an oral medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, targets S1P₁ receptors on immune and neural cells to suppress neuroinflammation. However, suppression of endothelial S1P₁ receptors is associated with cardiac and vascular adverse effects. Here we report the genetic variations of the S1P₁ coding region from exon sequencing of >12,000 individuals and their functional consequences. We conducted functional analyses of 14 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the S1PR1 gene. One SNP mutant (Arg¹²⁰ to Pro) failed to transmit sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-induced intracellular signals such as calcium increase and activation of p44/42 MAPK and Akt. Two other mutants (Ile⁴⁵ to Thr and Gly³⁰⁵ to Cys) showed normal intracellular signals but impaired S1P-induced endocytosis, which made the receptor resistant to FTY720-induced degradation. Another SNP mutant (Arg¹³ to Gly) demonstrated protection from coronary artery disease in a high cardiovascular risk population. Individuals with this mutation showed a significantly lower percentage of multi-vessel coronary obstruction in a risk factor-matched case-control study. This study suggests that individual genetic variations of S1P₁ can influence receptor function and, therefore, infer differential disease risks and interaction with S1P₁-targeted therapeutics. PMID:25293589

  1. ALMA observations of gas and dust in the coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, M.; Remijan, A.; Milam, S.; Mumma, M.; Charnley, S.; Paganini, L.; Boissier, J.; Villanueva, G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Kuan, Y.; Lis, D.; Crovisier, J.; Coulson, I.; Minniti, D.

    2014-07-01

    Ground-based studies of cometary comae provide indirect information on the compositions of the nuclear ices, and thus provide insight into the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar nebula. To realize the full potential of gas-phase coma observations as probes of solar-system evolution requires a complete understanding of the gas-release mechanisms. However, previous observations have been unable to ascertain the precise origins of fundamental coma species including H_2CO, HCN, and HNC, and details regarding the possible formation of these species in the coma are not well understood. Here, we present spatially and spectrally-resolved ALMA sub-mm images of the distributions of HCN, HNC, CH_3OH, H_2CO, and dust in the coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON), observed during the outburst event on November 15-17 (at r_H = 0.54-0.61 au and Δ = 0.9 au). Our observations reveal an unprecedented level of detail in the distributions of these fundamental coma constituents, and permit accurate measurement of their origins in the coma. Observations were made using ALMA Band 7 in Cycle 1 (Early Science) mode in the frequency range 339-364 GHz, with 25-29 12-m antennae. Weather conditions were excellent, with good atmospheric phase stability and low precipitable water vapor (0.5-0.8 mm at zenith). The spatial resolution was 0.4-0.8'' (with maximum recoverable angular scales approx. 5-10''), and the spectral resolution was 0.4 km s^{-1}. The ALMA image cubes show kinematically and spatially-resolved structures in HCN, HNC, CH_3OH, and H_2CO emission. Whereas the CH_3OH and HCN distributions are consistent with release from (or within 100 km of) the nucleus, the H_2CO data indicate coma release from a parent species with scale-length on the order of a few hundred km. The HNC distribution suggests release in clumpy, collimated outflows possibly as a result of the breakdown of a macromolecular/dust precursor. Clear 0.9-mm continuum emission was detected, showing a sharp central

  2. Differential phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of qnrS1-harboring plasmids carried by hospital and community commensal enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Vien, Le Thi Minh; Abuoun, Manal; Morrison, Victoria; Thomson, Nicholas; Campbell, James I; Woodward, Martin J; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance; Baker, Stephen

    2011-04-01

    The qnrS1 gene induces reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in enterobacteria. We investigated the structure, antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype, and antimicrobial resistance gene characteristics of qnrS1 plasmids from hospitalized patients and community controls in southern Vietnam. We found that the antimicrobial susceptibilities, resistance gene characteristics, and plasmid structures of qnrS1 plasmids from the hospital differed from those from the community. Our data imply that the characteristics of the two plasmid groups are indicative of distinct selective pressures in the differing environments. PMID:21282449

  3. Severe adverse effects of 5-fluorouracil in S-1 were lessened by haemodialysis due to elimination of the drug.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazunori; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Omori, Hiroki; Kimura, Tomonori; Tomida, Kodo; Furumatsu, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Enyu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2009-04-01

    S-1 and cisplatin are used as one of the first-line chemotherapies for gastric cancer in Japan. The plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is increased in patients with renal dysfunction because gimeracil in S-1 inhibits the degradation of 5-FU and about 50% of gimeracil is excreted in the urine. We describe a 35-year-old man with acute kidney injury while taking S-1 and cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer and who presented severe adverse effects of 5-FU. This case report describes the evolution of the plasma concentrations of 5-FU with haemodialysis along with a decrease in the adverse drug effects.

  4. Fermionic Representation of a Spin S chain Using subalgebra of SU(2S+1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-03-01

    Quantum mechanical spins behave neither as pure bosonic nor as pure fermionic operators. Over the years many different kinds of important mappings have been introduced that transform spins systems in to either multi-bosonic or multi-fermionic systems. These mappings have often successfully transformed some of the most difficult many body problems into simpler ones. Moreover, because symmetries that are hidden in one representation can be manifested in other representations, such mappings are also helpful in uncovering hidden symmetries in physical problems. Examples of such transformations include the Holstein-Primakoff, the Schwinger bosons, the Matsubara-Matsuda, and the Jordan-Wigner transformations. Despite their success for low dimensional systems and at smaller values of spins, these transformations become ineffective in reducing the degree of difficulty of correlated systems when the system dimension increase or when the underlying system has a higher spin values. In the context of a spin chain, we introduce a new spin fermion transformation for arbitrary spin S using the subalgebra of the bigger su(2S+1) algebra and discuss its potential applications in physical problems. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Library of Medicine.

  5. Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Nora, Tamara; Botti, Joëlle; Boitez, Valérie; Daniels, Craig; Abraham, Gilu; Stogios, Peter J.; Skarina, Tatiana; Christophe, Charlotte; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Cazalet, Christel; Hilbi, Hubert; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W. T.; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J.; Ong, Sze Ying; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Codogno, Patrice; Levade, Thierry; Naderer, Thomas; Savchenko, Alexei; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen’s Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Many of these effectors share structural and sequence similarity with eukaryotic proteins. Indeed, phylogenetic analyses have indicated their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic host. Here we report that L. pneumophila translocates the effector protein sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase (LpSpl) to target the host sphingosine biosynthesis and to curtail autophagy. Our structural characterization of LpSpl and its comparison with human SPL reveals high structural conservation, thus supporting prior phylogenetic analysis. We show that LpSpl possesses S1P lyase activity that was abrogated by mutation of the catalytic site residues. L. pneumophila triggers the reduction of several sphingolipids critical for macrophage function in an LpSpl-dependent and -independent manner. LpSpl activity alone was sufficient to prevent an increase in sphingosine levels in infected host cells and to inhibit autophagy during macrophage infection. LpSpl was required for efficient infection of A/J mice, highlighting an important virulence role for this effector. Thus, we have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism used by intracellular pathogens to inhibit autophagy, namely the disruption of host sphingolipid biosynthesis. PMID:26831115

  6. Legionella pneumophila S1P-lyase targets host sphingolipid metabolism and restrains autophagy.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Monica; Escoll, Pedro; Nora, Tamara; Botti, Joëlle; Boitez, Valérie; Bedia, Carmen; Daniels, Craig; Abraham, Gilu; Stogios, Peter J; Skarina, Tatiana; Christophe, Charlotte; Dervins-Ravault, Delphine; Cazalet, Christel; Hilbi, Hubert; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J; Ong, Sze Ying; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Codogno, Patrice; Levade, Thierry; Naderer, Thomas; Savchenko, Alexei; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2016-02-16

    Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen's Dot/Icm type IV secretion system. Many of these effectors share structural and sequence similarity with eukaryotic proteins. Indeed, phylogenetic analyses have indicated their acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryotic host. Here we report that L. pneumophila translocates the effector protein sphingosine-1 phosphate lyase (LpSpl) to target the host sphingosine biosynthesis and to curtail autophagy. Our structural characterization of LpSpl and its comparison with human SPL reveals high structural conservation, thus supporting prior phylogenetic analysis. We show that LpSpl possesses S1P lyase activity that was abrogated by mutation of the catalytic site residues. L. pneumophila triggers the reduction of several sphingolipids critical for macrophage function in an LpSpl-dependent and -independent manner. LpSpl activity alone was sufficient to prevent an increase in sphingosine levels in infected host cells and to inhibit autophagy during macrophage infection. LpSpl was required for efficient infection of A/J mice, highlighting an important virulence role for this effector. Thus, we have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism used by intracellular pathogens to inhibit autophagy, namely the disruption of host sphingolipid biosynthesis.

  7. Observation of an Exotic Baryon with S=+1 in Photoproduction from the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Valery Kubarovsky; Lei Guo; Dennis Weygand; Paul Stoler; Marco Battaglieri; Raffaella De Vita; Gary Adams; Ji Li; Mina Nozar; Carlos Salgado; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Eric Anciant; Marco Anghinolfi; Burin Asavapibhop; Gerard Audit; Thierry Auger; Harutyun AVAKIAN; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Jacques Ball; Steve Barrow

    2004-01-01

    The reaction {gamma}p {yields} {pi}{sup +} K{sup -} K{sup +}n was studied at Jefferson Lab using a tagged photon beam with an energy range of 3-5.47 GeV. A narrow baryon state with strangeness S = +1 and mass M = 1555 {+-} 10 MeV/c{sup 2} was observed in the nK{sup +} invariant mass spectrum. The peak's width is consistent with the CLAS resolution (FWHM = 26 MeV/c{sup 2}), and its statistical significance is 7.8 {+-} 1.0 {sigma}. A baryon with positive strangeness has exotic structure and cannot be described in the framework of the naive constituent quark model. The mass of the observed state is consistent with the mass predicted by a chiral soliton model for the {Theta}{sup +} baryon. In addition, the pK{sup +} invariant mass distribution was analyzed in the reaction {gamma} p {yields} K{sup -} K{sup +}p with high statistics in search of doubly-charged exotic baryon states. No resonance structures were found in this spectrum.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC Imaging Polarimetry of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, D. C.; Videen, G.; Zubko, E.; Muinonen, K.; Shkuratov, Y.; Kaydash, V.; Knight, M. M.; Sitko, M.; Lisse, C. M.; Mutchler, M.; Hammer, D.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first polarization images of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on UTC 2013 May 8 (r = 3.81 AU, Delta = 4.34 AU), when the phase angle was α = 12.25 degrees. Although this phase angle is approximately centered in the negative polarization branch for cometary dust, there is no evidence of a negative polarization circumnucleus halo region that has been observed in previous polarimetric images of short-period comets. Instead, the central region (~ 0.32 arcseconds = 6 pixels ≈ 1000 km) of the image shows a polarization amplitude p% = 2.0 - 2.5%, and a polarization direction that is approximately perpendicular to the scattering plane. Such positive polarization has been observed previously as a characteristic feature of cometary jets. The region beyond 1000 km, with sufficient signal-to-noise to make a polarization measurement (≤ 5000 km), shows a negative polarization amplitude p% ~ -1.8% that varies only slightly. Our results provide the first polarimetric observations of such a distant NIC at a small phase angle with sub-arcsecond spatial resolution

  9. Global magnetic fluctuations in S-1 Spheromak plasmas and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.; Hart, G.W.; Nam, C.H.; Yamada, M.

    1985-05-01

    Globally coherent modes have been observed during formation in the S-1 Spheromak plasma by analysis of magnetic field fluctuations measured from outside the plasma. The modes are of low n number (2 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 5), where n is defined by the functional dependence e/sup in phi/ of the fluctuation on toroidal angle phi. These modes are shown to be related to flux conversion and plasma relaxation toward a minimum-energy state during the spheromak formation. The modes are active while the q profile is rapidly changing, with q on-axis, q/sub 0/, rising to 0.7. A significant finding is the temporal progression through the n = 5, 4, 3, 2; m = 1 mode sequence as q rises through rational fractions m/n. During formation, peak amplitudes of the n = 2, 3, 4 modes relative to the unperturbed field have been observed as high as 20%, while more typical amplitudes are below 5%.

  10. Hard X-ray XAFS beamline, BL5S1, at AichiSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabuchi, M.; Asakura, H.; Morimoto, H.; Watanabe, N.; Takeda, Y.

    2016-05-01

    A XAFS beamline, BL5S1, had been operated at Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center, Japan since March 2013. The beamline was designed for the measurements in the energy range from 5 to 20 keV. The photon flux of 6 x 1010 at around 9 keV and beam spot size of 0.5 x 0.3 mm at sample position are as good as designed. For the standard transmission XAFS measurement, both of the step- and quick- scan modes are available. Energy resolution at around 9keV is good enough to discuss the energy shift of the order of 0.1 eV or higher even when the measurements are conducted in the quick-scan mode. With several kinds of detectors for fluorescence and/or CEY detection mode measurements, and various kinds of sample holders which are supported by the XAFS measurement software, users easily obtain spectra for their samples. Such a standard, well operated and easy to access XAFS beamline must be very important to broaden the base of the XAFS society further.

  11. Morphometric analysis of feedforward pathways from the primary somatosensory area (S1) of rats.

    PubMed

    Sá, A L de; Bahia, C P; Correa, V C; Dias, I A; Batista, C; Gomes-Leal, W; Pinho, A L S; Houzel, J C; Picanço-Diniz, C W; Pereira, A

    2016-01-01

    We used biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to anterogradely label individual axons projecting from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to four different cortical areas in rats. A major goal was to determine whether axon terminals in these target areas shared morphometric similarities based on the shape of individual terminal arbors and the density of two bouton types: en passant (Bp) and terminaux (Bt). Evidence from tridimensional reconstructions of isolated axon terminal fragments (n=111) did support a degree of morphological heterogeneity establishing two broad groups of axon terminals. Morphological parameters associated with the complexity of terminal arbors and the proportion of beaded Bp vs stalked Bt were found to differ significantly in these two groups following a discriminant function statistical analysis across axon fragments. Interestingly, both groups occurred in all four target areas, possibly consistent with a commonality of presynaptic processing of tactile information. These findings lay the ground for additional work aiming to investigate synaptic function at the single bouton level and see how this might be associated with emerging properties in postsynaptic targets. PMID:27191604

  12. Observation of orbiting resonances in He((3)S(1)) + NH3 Penning ionization.

    PubMed

    Jankunas, Justin; Jachymski, Krzysztof; Hapka, Michał; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2015-04-28

    Resonances are among the clearest quantum mechanical signatures of scattering processes. Previously, shape resonances and Feshbach resonances have been observed in inelastic and reactive collisions involving atoms or diatomic molecules. Structure in the integral cross section has been observed in a handful of elastic collisions involving polyatomic molecules. The present paper presents the observation of shape resonances in the reactive scattering of a polyatomic molecule, NH3. A merged-beam study of the gas phase He((3)S1) + NH3 Penning ionization reaction dynamics is described in the collision energy range 3.3 μeV < Ecoll < 10 meV. In this energy range, the reaction rate is governed by long-range attraction. Peaks in the integral cross section are observed at collision energies of 1.8 meV and 7.3 meV and are assigned to ℓ = 15,16 and ℓ = 20,21 partial wave resonances, respectively. The experimental results are well reproduced by theoretical calculations with the short-range reaction probability Psr = 0.035. No clear signature of the orbiting resonances is visible in the branching ratio between NH3 (+) and NH2 (+) formation.

  13. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions. PMID:27480532

  14. Magnetism in S = 1 / 2 Double Perovskites with Strong Spin-Orbit Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by recent studies on heavy-element double-perovskite (DP) compounds, we theoretically studied spin models on a FCC lattice with anisotropic interactions. In these systems, competition/cooperation of spin, orbital, and the lattice degrees of freedoms in the presence of the strong-spin orbit coupling is of particular interest. In a previous theoretical study, the magnetic phase diagrams of DP compounds with 5d1 electron configuration was studied using a model with four-fold degenerated single-ion state. On the other hand, a recent experiment on a DP material, Ba2Na2OsO6, reported that the compound is likely to be an effective S = 1 / 2 magnet. Inspired by the experimental observation, we considered spin models with symmetry-allowed anisotropic nearest-neighbor interactions. By a combination of various analytical and numerical techniques, we present the magnetic phase diagram of the model and the effect of thermal and quantum fluctuations. In particular, we show that fluctuations induce < 110 > anisotropy of magnetic moments. We also discuss a possible ``nematic'' phase driven by spin-phonon couplings.

  15. High Field Magnetization Studies of Low Dimensional Heisenberg S = 1/2 Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M. M.

    1998-03-01

    The magnetization curves of a number of low dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets have been determined in fields up to 30 tesla at low temperatures at the National High Magnetic Fields Laboratory. Materials studied include a family of 1D materials, based upon Cu(pyrazine)(NO_3)_2, 2D magnets consisting of pyrazine-bridged copper layers, and several spin ladders with singlet ground states. All of the magnetization data show upward curvature and are well described by T = 0 calculations based upon finite cluster models(Bonner and Fisher, Phys. Rev. A135, 640 (1964); Yang and Mutter, NANL cond-mat/9610092.). Chemical substitution on the pyrazine rings permits the variation of exchange constants by more than 25 percent for the family of well isolated chains. The spin ladder systems consist of ferromagnetic dimers weakly connected by antiferromagnetic intradimer interactions. Field induced transitions are seen at fields of less than one tesla for each of the three compounds.

  16. Form factors of descendant operators: reduction to perturbed M (2 , 2 s + 1) models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the algebraic approach to form factors in two-dimensional integrable models of quantum field theory we consider the reduction of the sine-Gordon model to the Φ13-perturbation of minimal conformal models of the M (2 , 2 s + 1) series. We find in an algebraic form the condition of compatibility of local operators with the reduction. We propose a construction that make it possible to obtain reduction compatible local operators in terms of screening currents. As an application we obtain exact multiparticle form factors for the compatible with the reduction conserved currents T ±2 k , Θ±(2 k-2), which correspond to the spin ±(2 k - 1) integrals of motion, for any positive integer k. Furthermore, we obtain all form factors of the operators T 2 k T -2 l , which generalize the famous operator. The construction is analytic in the s parameter and, therefore, makes sense in the sine-Gordon theory.

  17. Plasma distribution of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) observed using the radio scintillation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iju, Tomoya; Abe, Shinsuke; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi

    2015-05-01

    We report the electron density in a plasma tail of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) derived from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations during November 1-28, 2013. Comet ISON showed a well-developed plasma tail (longer than 2.98 ×107 km) before its perihelion passage on November 28. We identified a radio source whose line-of-sight approached the ISON's plasma tail in the above period and obtained its IPS data using the Solar Wind Imaging Facility at 327 MHz. We used the Heliospheric Imager onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relation Observatory to distinguish between the cometary tail and solar eruption origins of their enhanced scintillation. From our examinations, we confirmed three IPS enhancements of a radio source 1148-00 on November 13, 16, and 17, which could be attributed to the disturbance in the cometary tail. Power spectra of 1148-00 had the steeper slope than normal ones during its occultation by the plasma tail. We estimated the electron density in the ISON's plasma tail and found 84 cm-3 around the tail axis at a distance of 3.74 ×107 km from the cometary nucleus and an unexpected variation of the electron density in the vicinity of the tail boundary.

  18. PS-1/S1 picosecond streak camera application for multichannel laser system diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Garanin, S G; Bel'kov, S A; Rogozhnikov, G S; Rukavishnikov, N N; Romanov, V V; Voronich, I N; Vorob'ev, N S; Gornostaev, P B; Lozovoi, V I; Shchelev, M Ya

    2014-08-31

    A PS-1/S1 picosecond image-tube streak camera (ITSC) with slit scan (streak camera), developed and manufactured at the General Physics Institute RAS, has been used to measure the spatiotemporal characteristics of ultrashort laser pulses generated by a petawatt-power laser installation 'FEMTO' at the Institute of Laser Physics Research in Sarov. It is found that such a camera is suitable for measuring the spatial and temporal parameters of single laser pulses with an accuracy of about one picosecond. It is shown that the intensity time profile of a train of picosecond pulses may be precisely defined for the pulses separated in time by a few picoseconds. The camera allows the contrast of radiation to be determined with a high (no less than 10{sup 3}) accuracy; spatial distribution of the laser pulses can be measured with an accuracy of tens of microns, and the temporal separation of single laser pulses can be identified with an accuracy of 1 – 1.5 ps. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  19. Unusual Magnetic Response of an S = 1 Antiferromagetic Linear-Chain Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J. S.; Meisel, M. W.; Ozarowski, A.; Spurgeon, P. M.; Graham, A. G.; Manson, J. L.

    2015-03-01

    An S = 1 antiferromagnetic polymeric chain, [Ni(HF2)(3-Clpy)4]BF4 (py = pyridine), has been identified to have nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interaction J /kB = 4 . 86 K and single-ion anisotropy D /kB = 4 . 3 K, while avoiding long-range order down to 25 mK. With D / J = 0 . 88 , this system is close to the D / J ~ 1 gapless quantum critical point between the topologically distinct Haldane and Large- D phases. The magnetization was studied over a range of temperatures, 50 mK <= T <= 1 K, and magnetic fields, B <= 10 T. The results allow an upper bound of the critical field, Bc, which closes the Haldane gap, to be estimated. Specifically, Bc <= (35 +/- 10) mT, which is close to the predicted 46 mT, when using the reported2 values of J, D, and g. In low fields, the magnetic signal increases with decreasing T for 400 mK < T < 800 mK but is independent of T for 50 mK <= T <= 400 mK. This observation is consistent with a significant increase in the specific heat arising from the accumulation of entropy in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Supported by NSF via DMR-1202033 (MWM), DMR-1306158 (JLM), and DMR-1157490 (NHMFL).

  20. Capture of Cometary Dust Grains in Impacts at 6.1 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N.; Kearsley, A.; Wozniakiewicz, P.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 collected grains of cometary dust freshly ejected from the comet during a fly-by at a speed of 6.1 km s-1. These were captured on aluminum foils and in blocks of silica aerogel. The dust underwent a severe shock during capture. The nature of the shock process depends on the properties of the dust and the collecting media. On the aluminium, the shock process and impact damage is typical of that between high-density (or hard materials) at high velocity, resulting in craters lined with impactor residues. The peak shock pressures are estimated at 60-80 GPa. Two main crater types are seen, simple bowl shaped and multiple pit craters: these reflect the degree of consolidation of the original dust grain. Capture in the low density aerogel was via a more gradual slowing of the dust grains accompanied by a variety of effects on the grains (complete break up of weak grains vs. ablation of well consolidated grains). The relation between the structure of the dust grains and the resulting impact features in both collector materials is discussed.

  1. Diel vertical migration of zooplankton at the S1 biogeochemical mooring revealed from acoustic backscattering strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Ryuichiro; Kitamura, Minoru; Fujiki, Tetsuichi

    2016-02-01

    We examined the diel vertical migration of zooplankton by using the backscatter strength obtained from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers at mooring site S1 in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. There was seasonal variability in the vertical distribution and migration of the high-backscatter layers in that they became deeper than the euphotic zone (<100 m) in winter and were confined above this depth in other seasons. Seasonal changes in daylight hours also affected the timing of the diel migration. We found that lunar cycles affected vertical distributions of zooplankton near the surface by changing the light intensity. Physical events, such as mixed-layer deepening and restratification and the passage of a mesoscale eddy, also affected zooplankton behavior possibly by changing food environment in the euphotic zone. Since the comparison with net samples indicated that the backscatter likely represents the bulk biomass, the accuracy of biomass estimates based on net samples could be influenced by the high temporal variability of zooplankton distributions.

  2. Extending the Family of V(4+) S=(1/2) Kagome Antiferromagnets.

    PubMed

    Clark, Lucy; Aidoudi, Farida H; Black, Cameron; Arachchige, Kasun S A; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Morris, Russell E; Lightfoot, Philip

    2015-12-14

    The ionothermal synthesis, structure, and magnetic susceptibility of a novel inorganic-organic hybrid material, imidazolium vanadium(III,IV) oxyfluoride [C3 H5 N2 ][V9 O6 F24 (H2 O)2 ] (ImVOF) are presented. The structure consists of inorganic vanadium oxyfluoride slabs with kagome layers of V(4+) S=${{ 1/2 }}$ ions separated by a mixed valence layer. These inorganic slabs are intercalated with imidazolium cations. Quinuclidinium (Q) and pyrazinium (Pyz) cations can also be incorporated into the hybrid structure type to give QVOF and PyzVOF analogues, respectively. The highly frustrated topology of the inorganic slabs, along with the quantum nature of the magnetism associated with V(4+) , means that these materials are excellent candidates to host exotic magnetic ground states, such as the highly sought quantum spin liquid. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of all samples suggest an absence of conventional long-range magnetic order down to 2 K despite considerable antiferromagnetic exchange.

  3. Far-ultraviolet Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2016-09-01

    We have used the unique far-UV imaging capability offered by a sounding-rocket-borne instrument to acquire observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) when its angular separation with respect to the Sun was 26.°3 on 2013 November 20.49. At the time of observation, the comet’s heliocentric distance and velocity relative to the Sun were r h = 0.43 au and {\\dot{r}}h = ‑62.7 km s‑1. Images dominated by C i λ1657 and H i λ1216 were acquired over a 106 × 106 km2 region. The water production rate implied by the Lyα observations is constrained to be {Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}}≈ 8 × 1029 s‑1 while the neutral carbon production rate was {Q}C ≈ 4 ×1028 s‑1. The radial profile of C i was consistent with it being a dissociation product of a parent molecule with a lifetime τ ˜ 5 × 104 s, favoring a parent other than CO. We constrain the Q CO production rate to {5}-7.5+1.5 × 1028 s‑1 with 1σ errors derived from photon statistics. The upper limit on the Q CO/{Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}} is ≲6%.

  4. The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil

    2016-05-01

    An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.

  5. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NUCLEUS OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Philippe L.; Toth, Imre; Weaver, Harold A.

    2014-10-10

    We report on the analysis of several sequences of broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 of the Hubble Space Telescope on 2013 April 10, May 8, October 9, and November 1 in an attempt to detect and characterize its nucleus. Whereas the overwhelming coma precluded the detection of the nucleus in the first two sequences, the contrast was sufficient in early October to unambiguously retrieve the signal from the nucleus. Two images taken within a few minutes led to similar V magnitudes for the nucleus of 21.97 and 22.0 with a 1σ uncertainty of 0.065. Assuming a standard value for the geometric albedo (0.04) and a linear phase function with a coefficient of 0.04 mag deg{sup –1}, these V values imply that the nucleus radius is 0.68 ± 0.02 km. Although this result does depend on these two assumptions, we argue that the radius most likely lies in the range 0.6-0.9 km. This result is consistent with the constraints derived from the water production rates reported by Combi et al. The last sequence of images in 2013 November revealed temporal variation of the innermost coma. If attributed to a single rotating jet, this coma brightness variation suggests the rotational period of the nucleus may be close to ∼10.4 hr.

  6. The apoptotic effect of 1's-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate from Alpinia conchigera on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Awang, Khalijah; Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; Aun, Lionel In Lian; Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Ibrahim, Halijah; Nagoor, Noor Hasima

    2010-11-09

    1'-(S)-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. was investigated for its potential as an anticancer drug. In this communication, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of ACA on five human tumour cell lines. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that ACA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity on all tumour cell lines tested and had no adverse cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Total mortality of the entire tumour cell population was achieved within 30 hrs when treated with ACA at 40.0 µM concentration. Flow cytometric analysis for annexin-V and PI dual staining demonstrated that cell death occurred via apoptosis, followed by secondary necrosis. The apoptotic effects of ACA were confirmed via the DNA fragmentation assay, in which consistent laddering of genomic DNA was observed for all tumour cell lines after a 24 hrs post-treatment period at the IC(50) concentration of ACA. A cell cycle analysis using PI staining also demonstrated that ACA induced cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase, corresponding to oral tumour cell lines. In conclusion, ACA exhibits enormous potential for future development as a chemotherapeutic drug against various malignancies.

  7. Morphometric analysis of feedforward pathways from the primary somatosensory area (S1) of rats

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, A.L.; Bahia, C.P.; Correa, V.C.; Dias, I.A.; Batista, C.; Gomes-Leal, W.; Pinho, A.L.S.; Houzel, J.C.; Picanço-Diniz, C.W.; Pereira, A.

    2016-01-01

    We used biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to anterogradely label individual axons projecting from primary somatosensory cortex (S1) to four different cortical areas in rats. A major goal was to determine whether axon terminals in these target areas shared morphometric similarities based on the shape of individual terminal arbors and the density of two bouton types: en passant (Bp) and terminaux (Bt). Evidence from tridimensional reconstructions of isolated axon terminal fragments (n=111) did support a degree of morphological heterogeneity establishing two broad groups of axon terminals. Morphological parameters associated with the complexity of terminal arbors and the proportion of beaded Bp vs stalked Bt were found to differ significantly in these two groups following a discriminant function statistical analysis across axon fragments. Interestingly, both groups occurred in all four target areas, possibly consistent with a commonality of presynaptic processing of tactile information. These findings lay the ground for additional work aiming to investigate synaptic function at the single bouton level and see how this might be associated with emerging properties in postsynaptic targets. PMID:27191604

  8. Magnetic order and magnon coherent state in double exchange s=1/2 lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Aguilar, F.

    2010-02-15

    Starting from trial wave functions and by minimizing the total energy, we obtain the ground state (GS) of a magnetic system in which there is competition between two exchange interactions: one of them between localized and unlocalized spins and another one among the spins of a Heisenberg s=1/2 lattice. This analysis allows us to analyze directly a particular case of a magnetic ground state: a magnon gas whose collective wave function presents similarities with the coherent state of the electromagnetic field which is the basis for the laser. The Kondo coupling becomes concomitant with the external magnetic field which can control the number of magnons. The corresponding Zeeman effect provoked by the magnetic external field plus the Kondo interaction energy compete with the spin-spin Heisenberg exchange of the localized magnetic lattices. The fruit of the competition of these three interactions is the existence of a collective state which can be represented with an oscillation with one only frequency which has a minimum uncertainty and therefore it is a most similar quantum state to a classical wave. This collective state for determined crystal conditions, values of Kondo coupling strength, external B values and Heisenberg J{sub ij}-parameters tends to be a minimal energy state, and then, this coherent state, can transit to a magnon Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The passing from the minimal coherent state towards the BEC condensation is thermodynamically analyzed and we have deduced the critical temperature of this phase transition.

  9. ND4FeBr3, a new one-dimensional S=1 antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A.; Stager, C. V.; Visser, D.

    1991-04-01

    Compounds of chemical formula AFeX3 (A=Rb,Cs,Tl, and X=Cl, Br) provide an isomorphous series of one-dimensional induced-moment magnets with an effective spin S=1. They display a variety of ordered magnetic structures at low temperatures, depending on the sign and relative magnitudes of the intra- and interchain exchange and any magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. We report the first preparation of the salt NH4FeBr3. Powder neutron diffraction measurements on a perdeuterated sample showed that at room temperature the unit cell is hexagonal with cell parameters a=7.398(3) Å and c=6.331(2) Å. On cooling, structural phase transitions to cells of successively lower symmetry were observed. These are probably caused by cooperative reorientations of the ND+4 tetrahedra. At 4.8(2) K and 2.8(2) K additional Bragg peaks were observed. These additional reflections were attributed to magnetic long-range order with antiferromagnetic exchange both in the basal plane and along the c axis and could be indexed on an orthorhombic unit cell of dimension 2a ×√ 3a × c. Magnetic susceptibility measurements taken with a SQUID magnetometer on a polycrystalline sample at 2-100 K with an applied magnetic field of 0.1 T showed very similar behavior to that for RbFeBr3, with a broad cusp at approximately 8 K and θ≂-43 K.

  10. Arabidopsis callose synthases CalS1/8 regulate plasmodesmal permeability during stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weier; Lee, Jung-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Plants need to cope with biotic and abiotic stress through well-coordinated cell-to-cell communication to survive as sedentary organisms. Environmental challenges such as wounding, low temperature, oxidative states and pathogen infection are known to affect the symplasmic molecular exchange between plant cells determined by plasmodesmal permeability. However, the signalling pathways and mechanisms by which different environmental stressors affect plasmodesmal permeability are not well understood. Here we show that regulating callose accumulation at plasmodesmal channels is a common strategy to alter plasmodesmal permeability under both pathogen infection and mechanical wounding stress. We have identified Arabidopsis callose synthase 1 (CalS1) and CalS8 as key genes involved in this process, and have integrated these new players into both known and novel signalling pathways that control responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Our studies provide experimental data that indicate the presence of specialized pathways tuned to respond to particular stressors, and new insights into how plants regulate plasmodesmata in response to environmental assaults. PMID:27243643

  11. Effects of S1 Cleavage on the Structure, Surface Export, and Signaling Activity of Human Notch1 and Notch2

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Wendy R.; Vardar-Ulu, Didem; L'Heureux, Sarah; Ashworth, Todd; Malecki, Michael J.; Sanchez-Irizarry, Cheryll; McArthur, Debbie G.; Histen, Gavin; Mitchell, Jennifer L.; Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2009-09-25

    Notch receptors are normally cleaved during maturation by a furin-like protease at an extracellular site termed S1, creating a heterodimer of non-covalently associated subunits. The S1 site lies within a key negative regulatory region (NRR) of the receptor, which contains three highly conserved Lin12/Notch repeats and a heterodimerization domain (HD) that interact to prevent premature signaling in the absence of ligands. Because the role of S1 cleavage in Notch signaling remains unresolved, we investigated the effect of S1 cleavage on the structure, surface trafficking and ligand-mediated activation of human Notch1 and Notch2, as well as on ligand-independent activation of Notch1 by mutations found in human leukemia. The X-ray structure of the Notch1 NRR after furin cleavage shows little change when compared with that of an engineered Notch1 NRR lacking the S1-cleavage loop. Likewise, NMR studies of the Notch2 HD domain show that the loop containing the S1 site can be removed or cleaved without causing a substantial change in its structure. However, Notch1 and Notch2 receptors engineered to resist S1 cleavage exhibit unexpected differences in surface delivery and signaling competence: S1-resistant Notch1 receptors exhibit decreased, but detectable, surface expression and ligand-mediated receptor activation, whereas S1-resistant Notch2 receptors are fully competent for cell surface delivery and for activation by ligands. Variable dependence on S1 cleavage also extends to T-ALL-associated NRR mutations, as common class 1 mutations display variable decrements in ligand-independent activation when introduced into furin-resistant receptors, whereas a class 2 mutation exhibits increased signaling activity. S1 cleavage has distinct effects on the surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, but is not generally required for physiologic or pathophysiologic activation of Notch proteins. These findings are consistent with models for receptor activation in which ligand-binding or

  12. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  13. The elusive S2 state, the S1/S2 splitting, and the excimer states of the benzene dimer.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Franziska A; Trachsel, Maria A; van der Avoird, Ad; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-06-21

    We observe the weak S0 → S2 transitions of the T-shaped benzene dimers (Bz)2 and (Bz-d6)2 about 250 cm(-1) and 220 cm(-1) above their respective S0 → S1 electronic origins using two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Spin-component scaled (SCS) second-order approximate coupled-cluster (CC2) calculations predict that for the tipped T-shaped geometry, the S0 → S2 electronic oscillator strength fel(S2) is ∼10 times smaller than fel(S1) and the S2 state lies ∼240 cm(-1) above S1, in excellent agreement with experiment. The S0 → S1 (ππ(∗)) transition is mainly localized on the "stem" benzene, with a minor stem → cap charge-transfer contribution; the S0 → S2 transition is mainly localized on the "cap" benzene. The orbitals, electronic oscillator strengths fel(S1) and fel(S2), and transition frequencies depend strongly on the tipping angle ω between the two Bz moieties. The SCS-CC2 calculated S1 and S2 excitation energies at different T-shaped, stacked-parallel and parallel-displaced stationary points of the (Bz)2 ground-state surface allow to construct approximate S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces and reveal their relation to the "excimer" states at the stacked-parallel geometry. The fel(S1) and fel(S2) transition dipole moments at the C2v-symmetric T-shape, parallel-displaced and stacked-parallel geometries are either zero or ∼10 times smaller than at the tipped T-shaped geometry. This unusual property of the S0 → S1 and S0 → S2 transition-dipole moment surfaces of (Bz)2 restricts its observation by electronic spectroscopy to the tipped and tilted T-shaped geometries; the other ground-state geometries are impossible or extremely difficult to observe. The S0 → S1/S2 spectra of (Bz)2 are compared to those of imidazole ⋅ (Bz)2, which has a rigid triangular structure with a tilted (Bz)2 subunit. The S0 → S1/ S2 transitions of imidazole-(benzene)2 lie at similar energies as those of (Bz)2, confirming our assignment of the

  14. Survival benefit from S-1 as compared to Fluorouracil in Asian patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xunlei; Kuang, Meng; Gu, Dongying; He, Mingliang; Chen, Jinfei; Tang, Cuiju

    2014-08-01

    Whether S-1 could replace 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) or not in the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal (GI) cancer (including advanced gastric cancer [AGS] and metastatic colorectal cancer [mCRC]) in Asian patients has been controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the activity, efficacy and toxicity of S-1-based versus 5-Fu-based chemotherapy in those Asian patients. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by electronic search of Pubmed. Relevant abstracts were manually searched to identify relevant trials. A total of 2182 patients from eight RCTs were included, and our results demonstrated that S-1-based chemotherapy significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.00) and overall response rate (ORR) (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09-2.70), but no significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit was found between arms (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.72-1.06). Subgroup analyses revealed that S-1-based chemotherapy significantly improved OS and ORR in subgroups of patients with non-platinum containing regimens (P = 0.041; P = 0.034) and patients with no prior chemotherapy history (P = 0.025; P = 0.016). Statistically significant improvements of PFS and ORR in the S-1-based chemotherapy were observed in the subgroup of patients with AGC (P < 0.001; P = 0.005). S-1-based chemotherapy was characterized by significantly higher incidences of diarrhea, fatigue and thrombocytopenia, and a lower incidence of nausea. This analysis provided strong evidence for survival benefits of S-1, and S-1-based chemotherapy could be considered to replace 5-Fu-based therapy for the treatment of advanced GI cancer in Asian patients.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression of an encoding galactinol synthase gene (AnGolS1) in seedling of Ammopiptanthus nanus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, YuDong; Zhang, Li; Chen, LiJing; Ma, Hui; Ruan, YanYe; Xu, Tao; Xu, ChuanQiang; He, Yi; Qi, MingFang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the galactinol synthase (AnGolS1) fragment sequence from a cold-induced Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) library derived from Ammopiptanthus nanus (A. nanus) seedlings, AnGolS1 mRNA (including the 5′ UTR and 3′ UTR) (GenBank accession number: GU942748) was isolated and characterized by rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE–PCR). A substrate reaction test revealed that AnGolS1 possessed galactinol synthase activity in vitro and could potentially be an early-responsive gene. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that AnGolS1 was responded to cold, salts and drought stresses, however, significantly up-regulated in all origans by low temperatures, especially in plant stems. In addition, the hybridization signals in the fascicular cambium were strongest in all cells under low temperature. Thus, we propose that AnGolS1 plays critical roles in A. nanus low-temperature stress resistance and that fascicular cambium cells could be involved in AnGolS1 mRNA transcription, galactinol transportation and coordination under low-temperature stress. PMID:27786294

  16. A systematic methodology for large scale compound screening: A case study on the discovery of novel S1PL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deniz, Utku; Ozkirimli, Elif; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2016-01-01

    Decrease in sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) concentration induces migration of pathogenic T cells to the blood stream, disrupts the CNS and it is implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A promising treatment alternative for MS and AD is inhibition of the activity of the microsomal enzyme sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (S1PL), which degrades intracellular S1P. This report describes an integrated systematic approach comprising virtual screening, molecular docking, substructure search and molecular dynamics simulation to discover novel S1PL inhibitors. Virtual screening of the ZINC database via ligand-based and structure-based pharmacophore models yielded 10000 hits. After molecular docking, common substructures of the top ranking hits were identified. The ligand binding poses were optimized by induced fit docking. MD simulations were performed on the complex structures to determine the stability of the S1PL-ligand complex and to calculate the binding free energy. Selectivity of the selected molecules was examined by docking them to hERG and cytochrome P450 receptors. As a final outcome, 15 compounds from different chemotypes were proposed as potential S1PL inhibitors. These molecules may guide future medicinal chemistry efforts in the discovery of new compounds against the destructive action of pathogenic T cells.

  17. Characterization of OhS1, an arginine/lysine amidase from the venom of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Lee, W H; Xiong, Y L; Wang, W Y; Zu, S W

    1994-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of purification and characterization of an arginine/lysine amidase from the venom of Ophiophagus hannah (OhS1). It was purified by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B. It is a protein of about 43,000, consisting of a single polypeptide chain. It is a minor component in the venom. The purified enzyme was capable of hydrolysing several tripeptidyl-p-nitroanilide substrates having either arginine or lysine as the C-terminal residue. We studied the kinetic parameters of OhS1 on six these chromogenic substrates. OhS1 did not clot fibrinogen. Electrophoresis of fibrinogen degraded with OhS1 revealed the disappearance of the alpha- and beta-chains and the appearance of lower mol. wt fragments. OhS1 had no hemorrhagic activity. It did not hydrolyse casein, nor did it act on blood coagulation factor X, prothrombin and plasminogen. The activity of OhS1 was completely inhibited by NPGB, PMSF, DFP, benzamidine and soybean trypsin inhibitor, suggesting it is a serine protease. Metal chelator (EDTA) had no effect on it.

  18. Disruption of AP1S1, Causing a Novel Neurocutaneous Syndrome, Perturbs Development of the Skin and Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, Christian A.; Lapointe, Line; Boudreau, Michèle; Meloche, Caroline; Drouin, Régen; Hudson, Thomas J.; Drapeau, Pierre; Cossette, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Adaptor protein (AP) complexes regulate clathrin-coated vesicle assembly, protein cargo sorting, and vesicular trafficking between organelles in eukaryotic cells. Because disruption of the various subunits of the AP complexes is embryonic lethal in the majority of cases, characterization of their function in vivo is still lacking. Here, we describe the first mutation in the human AP1S1 gene, encoding the small subunit σ1A of the AP-1 complex. This founder splice mutation, which leads to a premature stop codon, was found in four families with a unique syndrome characterized by mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratodermia (MEDNIK). To validate the pathogenic effect of the mutation, we knocked down Ap1s1 expression in zebrafish using selective antisens morpholino oligonucleotides (AMO). The knockdown phenotype consisted of perturbation in skin formation, reduced pigmentation, and severe motility deficits due to impaired neural network development. Both neural and skin defects were rescued by co-injection of AMO with wild-type (WT) human AP1S1 mRNA, but not by co-injecting the truncated form of AP1S1, consistent with a loss-of-function effect of this mutation. Together, these results confirm AP1S1 as the gene responsible for MEDNIK syndrome and demonstrate a critical role of AP1S1 in development of the skin and spinal cord. PMID:19057675

  19. Antigenic modules in the N-terminal S1 region of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus spike protein

    PubMed Central

    Reguera, Juan; Ordoño, Desiderio; Santiago, César; Enjuanes, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The N-terminal S1 region of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) spike (S) glycoprotein contains four antigenic sites (C, B, D and A, from the N- to the C-terminal end) and is engaged in host-cell receptor recognition. The most N-terminal portion of the S1 region, which comprises antigenic sites C and B, is needed for the enteric tropism of TGEV, whereas the major antigenic site A at the C-terminal moiety is required for both respiratory and enteric cell tropism, and is engaged in recognition of the aminopeptidase N (APN) receptor. This study determined the kinetics for binding of a soluble S1 protein to the APN protein. Moreover, the S1 region of the TGEV S protein was dissected, with the aim of identifying discrete modules displaying unique antigenic sites and receptor-binding functions. Following protease treatments and mammalian cell expression methods, four modules or domains (D1–D4) were defined at the S1 region. Papain treatment identified an N-terminal domain (D1) resistant to proteolysis, whereas receptor binding defined a soluble and functional APN receptor-binding domain (D3). This domain was recognized by neutralizing antibodies belonging to the antigenic site A and therefore could be used as an immunogen for the prevention of viral infection. The organization of the four modules in the S1 region of the TGEV S glycoprotein is discussed. PMID:21228126

  20. Factors Influencing Clinicians' Choice of Adjuvant S-1 versus Capecitabine plus Oxaliplatin after Curative Gastrectomy in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Yeon; Hwang, In Gyu; Park, Song-Ee; Kim, Moon Jin; Park, Se Hoon; Kang, Jung Hun; Kim, Young Saing; Oh, Sung Yong; Won, Young-Woong; Lee, Soon Il; Ji, Jun Ho; Chi, Kyong-Choun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Two recent randomized, phase III trials in Asia (ACTS-GC and CLASSIC) documented the survival benefit of postoperative chemotherapy after D2 lymph node dissection in patients with gastric cancer. We sought to determine what factors influenced clinicians' choices of either S-1 or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX) as adjuvant therapy after curative D2 gastrectomy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic factors and adjuvant treatments for 435 patients from nine centers in Korea who were treated with either S-1 or CAPOX adjuvant chemotherapy after undergoing curative D2 gastrectomy between January 2013 and July 2014. Results: Of the 435 patients, 204 (46.9%) were treated with S-1 and 231 (53.1%) were treated with CAPOX. The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range, 30-88). CAPOX was prescribed more often for patients who were 65 years of age or younger than for patients who were age 65 or older (77.1% vs. 22.9%, P<0.0001). Of the patients in stage II, 121 (60.8%) were treated with S-1 and 78 (39.2%) were given CAPOX; however, of those in stage III, 83 (35.2%) received S-1 and 153 (64.8%) were treated with CAPOX (P<0.0001). Conclusions: Clinicians only preferred CAPOX for younger patients with stage III gastric cancer after curative D2 gastrectomy. However, for elderly patients, clinicians more chose S-1 regardless of the stage.

  1. A single nucleotide polymorphism and sequence analysis of CSN1S1 gene promoter region in Chinese Bos grunniens (yak).

    PubMed

    Bai, W L; Yin, R H; Dou, Q L; Yang, J C; Zhao, S J; Ma, Z J; Yin, R L; Luo, G B; Zhao, Z H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the CSN1S1 gene promoter region in 4 Chinese yak breeds, and compare the yak CSN1S1 gene promoter region sequences with other ruminants. A Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism protocol was developed for rapid genotyping of the yak CSN1S1 gene. One hundred fifty-eight animals from 4 Chinese yak breeds were genotyped at the CSN1S1 locus using the protocol developed. A single nucleotide polymorphism of the CSN1S1 gene promoter region has been identified in all yak breeds investigated. The polymorphism consists of a single nucleotide substitution G-->A at position 386 of the CSN1S1 gene promoter region, resulting in two alleles named, respectively, G(386) and A(386), based on the nucleotide at position 386. The allele G(386) was found to be more common in the animals investigated. The corresponding nucleotide sequences in GenBank of yak (having the same nucleotides as allele G(386) in this study), bovine, water buffalo, sheep, and goat had similarity of 99.68%, 99.35%, 97.42%, 95.14%, and 94.19%, respectively, with the yak allele A(386.).

  2. OUTGASSING BEHAVIOR OF C/2012 S1 (ISON) FROM 2011 SEPTEMBER TO 2013 JUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Riesen, Timm; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Reipurth, Bo; Hsieh, Henry H.; Ansdell, Megan; Hainaut, Olivier; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Rector, Travis; Michaud, Peter; Milani, Giannantonio; Bryssinck, Erik; Ligustri, Rolando; Trabatti, Roberto; Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; and others

    2013-10-20

    We report photometric observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained during the time period immediately after discovery (r = 6.28 AU) until it moved into solar conjunction in mid-2013 June using the UH2.2 m, and Gemini North 8 m telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Lowell 1.8 m in Flagstaff, the Calar Alto 1.2 m telescope in Spain, the VYSOS-5 telescopes on Mauna Loa Hawaii and data from the CARA network. Additional pre-discovery data from the Pan STARRS1 survey extends the light curve back to 2011 September 30 (r = 9.4 AU). The images showed a similar tail morphology due to small micron sized particles throughout 2013. Observations at submillimeter wavelengths using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on 15 nights between 2013 March 9 (r = 4.52 AU) and June 16 (r = 3.35 AU) were used to search for CO and HCN rotation lines. No gas was detected, with upper limits for CO ranging between 3.5-4.5 × 10{sup 27} molecules s{sup –1}. Combined with published water production rate estimates we have generated ice sublimation models consistent with the photometric light curve. The inbound light curve is likely controlled by sublimation of CO{sub 2}. At these distances water is not a strong contributor to the outgassing. We also infer that there was a long slow outburst of activity beginning in late 2011 peaking in mid-2013 January (r ∼ 5 AU) at which point the activity decreased again through 2013 June. We suggest that this outburst was driven by CO injecting large water ice grains into the coma. Observations as the comet came out of solar conjunction seem to confirm our models.

  3. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) coma composition at ~4 au from HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Hines, Dean C.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Muinonen, Karri; Knight, Matthew M.; Sitko, Michael L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Mutchler, Max; Wooden, Diane H.; Li, Jian-Yang; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the first color and polarization images of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) taken during two measurement campaigns of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on UTC 2013 April 10 and May 8, when the phase angles of Comet ISON were α≈13.7° and 12.2°, respectively. We model the particles in the coma using highly irregular agglomerated debris particles. Even though the observations were made over a small range of phase angle, the data still place significant constraints on the material properties of the cometary coma. The different photo-polarimetric responses are indicative of spatial chemical heterogeneity of coma in Comet ISON. For instance, at small projected distances to the nucleus (<500 km), our modeling suggests the cometary particles are composed predominantly of small, highly absorbing particles, such as amorphous carbon and/or organics material heavily irradiated with UV radiation; whereas, at longer projected distances (>1000 km), the refractive index of the particles is consistent with organic matter slightly processed with UV radiation, tholins, Mg-Fe silicates, and/or Mg-rich silicates contaminated with ~10% (by volume) amorphous carbon. The modeling suggests low relative abundances of particles with low material absorption in the visible, i.e., Im(m)≤0.02. Such particles were detected unambiguously in other comets in the vicinity of nucleus through very strong negative polarization near backscattering (P≈-6%) and very low positive polarization (P≈3-5%) at side scattering. These materials were previously attributed to Mg-rich silicates forming a refractory surface layer on the surface of cometary nuclei (Zubko et al., 2012). The absence of such particles in Comet ISON could imply an absence of such a layer on its nucleus.

  4. Novel alkaline earth copper germanates with ferro and antiferromagnetic S=1/2 chains

    SciTech Connect

    Brandao, Paula; Reis, Mario S; Gai, Zheng; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    Two new alkaline earth copper(II) germanates were hydrothermally synthesized: CaCuGeO4 center dot H2O (1) and BaCu2Ge3O9 center dot H2O (2), and their structures determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound (1) crystallizes in space group P2(1)/c with a=5.1320(2) angstrom, b=16.1637(5) angstrom, c=5.4818(2) angstrom, beta=102.609(2)degrees, V=443.76(3) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This copper germanate contains layers of composition [CuGeO4](infinity)(2-) comprising CuO4 square planes and GeO4 tetrahedra with calcium and water molecules in the inter-layer space. Compound (2) crystallizes in the Cmcm space group with a=5.5593(3) angstrom, b=10.8606(9) angstrom, c=13.5409(8) angstrom, V=817.56(9) angstrom(3) and Z=4. This structure contains GeO6 and CuO6 octahedra as well as GeO4 tetrahedra, forming a three-dimensional network of interconnecting six-membered ring channels. The magnetic susceptibility for both samples can be interpreted as S=1/2 chains, in agreement with the copper topology observed in the crystal structure. The susceptibility of (1) exhibits a Bonner-Fisher type behavior, resulting from antiferromagnetic intra-chain interactions without three-dimensional ordering down to 5 K-the lowest measured temperature. This observation, together with the absence of super-exchange paths between the copper chains, make this system particularly promising for the study of low dimensional magnetism. The magnetic properties of (2) show a very weak ferromagnetic near-neighbor interaction along the chain. In this compound a peak the chi T plot seems to indicate the onset of interchain antiferromagentic correlations. However, no ordering temperature is detected in the susceptibility data.

  5. Non-Bloch decay of transient nutations in S=1/2 systems: An experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscaino, R.; Gelardi, F. M.; Korb, J. P.

    1993-09-01

    The decay of transient nutations has been experimentally investigated in S=1/2 spin systems at microwave frequency: E' centers in silica and [AlO4]0 centers in quartz have been studied. We have found that the damping is well described by a single exponential decay function, as expected from a T1-T2 model (Bloch model). However, the agreement is only qualitative. In fact the measured decay rate Γ is faster than expected and depends on the driving-field amplitude: it tends to the Bloch value ΓB=1/2T2 in the low-power limit and becomes faster and faster on increasing the input power. In all the cases examined the power dependence of the decay rate is fit well by a simple linear dependence of Γ on the induced Rabi frequency χ. The observed power dependence of Γ cannot be ascribed to the inhomogeneity of χ over the sample volume nor to the radiation damping, since both effects are negligible in our experiments. Other mechanisms, which can, in principle, yield a χ dependence of Γ, e.g., the direct interaction of the driving field with structural two-level systems or the spreading of the spin-field coupling constant, are not compatible with the experimental conditions. So, our results suggest that the homogeneous dephasing time of each isochromat contains an intrinsic term and a χ-dependent one. The latter may originate in a field-induced enhancement of the hyperfine or dipolar interaction; however, neither of these mechanisms completely fits the experimental features. The relationship with the decay properties of other coherent regimes is also discussed.

  6. Cloud-cloud collision in the Galactic center 50 km s-1 molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Masato; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Uehara, Kenta

    2015-12-01

    We performed a search of star-forming sites influenced by external factors, such as SNRs, H II regions, and cloud-cloud collisions (CCCs), to understand the star-forming activity in the Galactic center region using the NRO Galactic Center Survey in SiO v = 0, J = 2-1, H13CO+J = 1-0, and CS J = 1-0 emission lines obtained with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We found a half-shell-like feature (HSF) with a high integrated line intensity ratio of ∫TB(SiO v = 0, J = 2-1)dv/∫TB(H13CO+J = 1-0)dv ˜ 6-8 in the 50 km s-1 molecular cloud; the HSF is a most conspicuous molecular cloud in the region and harbors an active star-forming site where several compact H II regions can be seen. The high ratio in the HSF indicates that the cloud contains huge shocked molecular gas. The HSF can be also seen as a half-shell feature in the position-velocity diagram. A hypothesis explaining the chemical and kinetic properties of the HSF is that the feature originates from a CCC. We analyzed the CS J = 1-0 emission line data obtained with the Nobeyama Millimeter Array to reveal the relation between the HSF and the molecular cloud cores in the cloud. We made a cumulative core mass function (CMF) of the molecular cloud cores within the HSF. The CMF in the CCC region is not truncated at least up to ˜2500 M⊙, although the CMF of the non-CCC region reaches the upper limit of ˜1500 M⊙. Most massive molecular cores with Mgas > 750 M⊙ are located only around the ridge of the HSF and adjoin the compact H II region. These may be a sign of massive star formation induced by CCCs in the Galactic center region.

  7. European S1 guideline for the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C; Desai, N; Emtestam, L; Hunger, R E; Ioannides, D; Juhász, I; Lapins, J; Matusiak, L; Prens, E P; Revuz, J; Schneider-Burrus, S; Szepietowski, J C; van der Zee, H H; Jemec, G B E

    2015-04-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory, recurrent, debilitating skin disease of the hair follicle that usually presents after puberty with painful, deep-seated, inflamed lesions in the apocrine gland-bearing areas of the body, most commonly the axillae, inguinal and anogenital regions. A mean disease incidence of 6.0 per 100,000 person-years and an average prevalence of 1% has been reported in Europe. HS has the highest impact on patients' quality of life among all assessed dermatological diseases. HS is associated with a variety of concomitant and secondary diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, e.g. Crohn's disease, spondyloarthropathy, follicular occlusion syndrome and other hyperergic diseases. The central pathogenic event in HS is believed to be the occlusion of the upper part of the hair follicle leading to a perifollicular lympho-histiocytic inflammation. A highly significant association between the prevalence of HS and current smoking (Odds ratio 12.55) and overweight (Odds ratio 1.1 for each body mass index unit) has been documented. The European S1 HS guideline suggests that the disease should be treated based on its individual subjective impact and objective severity. Locally recurring lesions can be treated by classical surgery or LASER techniques, whereas medical treatment either as monotherapy or in combination with radical surgery is more appropriate for widely spread lesions. Medical therapy may include antibiotics (clindamycin plus rifampicine, tetracyclines), acitretin and biologics (adalimumab, infliximab). A Hurley severity grade-relevant treatment of HS is recommended by the expert group following a treatment algorithm. Adjuvant measurements, such as pain management, treatment of superinfections, weight loss and tobacco abstinence have to be considered.

  8. Nondestructive post-irradiation examination of Loop-1, S1 and B1 rods

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, R.L.

    1997-05-01

    As a part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory`s Tritium Target Development Program, eleven tritium target rods were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory during 1991. Both nondestructive and destructive post-irradiation examination on all eleven rods was planned under the Tritium Target Development Program. Funding for the program was reduced in 1991 resulting in the early removal of the program experiments before reaching their irradiation goals. Post-irradiation examination was only performed on one of the irradiated rods at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory before the program was terminated in 1992. On December 6, 1995, the Secretary of Energy announced the pursuit of the Commercial Light-Water Reactor option for producing tritium establishing the Tritium Target Qualification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This program decided to pursue nondestructive and destructive post-irradiation examination of the ten remaining rods from the previous program. The ten rods comprise three experiments. The Loop-1 experiment irradiated eight target rods in a loop configuration for 217 irradiation days. The other two rods were irradiated in two separate irradiation experiments, designated as S1 and B1 for 143 effective full-power days, but at different power levels. After the ten rods were transferred from the ATR Canal to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility, the following examinations were performed: (1) visual examination and photography; (2) neutron radiography; (3) axial gamma scanning; (4) contact profilometry measurement; (5) bow and length measurements; (6) rod puncture and plenum gas analysis/measurement of plenum gas quantity; (7) void volume determination; and (8) internal pressure determination. This report presents the data collected during these examinations.

  9. UNUSUAL WATER PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON): OUTBURSTS AND CONTINUOUS FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.

    2014-06-10

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 10{sup 30} s{sup –1} from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  10. The collision cross sections for excitation energy transfer in Rb*(5 P 3/2) + K(4 S 1/2) → Rb(5 S 1/2) + K*(4 P J ) processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvatic, V.; Vadla, C.; Movre, M.

    1993-06-01

    The collisional excitation transfer for the processes Rb*(5 P 3/2)+K(4 S 1/2) → Rb(5 S 1/2)+K*(4 P J ), J=1/2, 3/2, was investigated using two-photon laser excitation technique with a thermionic heat-pipe diode as a detector. The population densities of the K 4 P J levels induced by collisions with excited Rb atoms as well as those produced by direct laser excitation of the potassium atoms were probed through the measurement of the thermionic signals generated due to the ionization of the potassium atoms emerging from the K(4 P J ) → K(7 S 1/2) excitation channel. The measurements of the thermionic signals in addition to the spectroscopic determination of the potassium number density yield the following values for the excitation transfer cross sections: σ1(Rb 5 P 3/2 → K 4 P 1/2)=8 Å2 and σ2(Rb 5 P 3/2 → K 4 P 3/2)=11 Å2. The accuracy of the presented results is ∓15%. The obtained results are compared to those for the opposite processes K*(4 P J )+Rb(5 S 1/2) → K(4 S 1/2)+Rb*(5 P 3/2).

  11. An 80-kilodalton protein that binds to the pre-S1 domain of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Ryu, C J; Cho, D Y; Gripon, P; Kim, H S; Guguen-Guillouzo, C; Hong, H J

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that hepatitis B virus (HBV) binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane of human hepatocytes via the pre-S1 domain of the large envelope protein as an initial step in HBV infection. However, the nature of the receptor remains controversial. In an attempt to identify a cell surface receptor for HBV, purified recombinant fusion protein of the pre-S1 domain of HBV with glutathione S-transferase (GST), expressed in Escherichia coli, was used as a ligand. The surface of human hepatocytes or HepG2 cells was biotinylated, and the cell lysate (precleared lysate) which did not bind to GST and glutathione-Sepharose beads was used as a source of receptor molecules. The precleared lysate of the biotinylated cells was incubated with the GST-pre-S1 fusion protein, and the bound proteins were visualized by Western blotting and enhanced chemiluminescence. An approximately 80-kDa protein (p80) was shown to bind specifically to the pre-S1 domain of the fusion protein. The receptor binding assay using serially or internally deleted segments of pre-S1 showed that amino acid residues 12 to 20 and 82 to 90 are essential for the binding of pre-S1 to p80. p80 also bound specifically to the pre-S1 of native HBV particles. Analysis of the tissue and species specificity of p80 expression in several available human primary cultures and cell lines of different tissue origin showed that p80 expression is not restricted to human hepatocytes. Taken together the results suggest that p80 may be a component of the viral entry machinery.

  12. Inhibition of preS1-hepatocyte interaction by an array of recombinant human antibodies from naturally recovered individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sankhyan, Anurag; Sharma, Chandresh; Dutta, Durgashree; Sharma, Tarang; Chosdol, Kunzang; Wakita, Takaji; Watashi, Koichi; Awasthi, Amit; Acharya, Subrat K.; Khanna, Navin; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Sinha, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are being found to be increasingly useful in viral infections. In hepatitis B infection, antibodies are proven to be useful for passive prophylaxis. The preS1 region (21–47a.a.) of HBV contains the viral hepatocyte-binding domain crucial for its attachment and infection of hepatocytes. Antibodies against this region are neutralizing and are best suited for immune-based neutralization of HBV, especially in view of their not recognizing decoy particles. Anti-preS1 (21–47a.a.) antibodies are present in serum of spontaneously recovered individuals. We generated a phage-displayed scFv library using circulating lymphocytes from these individuals and selected four preS1-peptide specific scFvs with markedly distinct sequences from this library. All the antibodies recognized the blood-derived and recombinant preS1 containing antigens. Each scFv showed a discrete binding signature, interacting with different amino acids within the preS1-peptide region. Ability to prevent binding of the preS1 protein (N-terminus 60a.a.) to HepG2 cells stably expressing hNTCP (HepG2-hNTCP-C4 cells), the HBV receptor on human hepatocytes was taken as a surrogate marker for neutralizing capacity. These antibodies inhibited preS1-hepatocyte interaction individually and even better in combination. Such a combination of potentially neutralizing recombinant antibodies with defined specificities could be used for preventing/managing HBV infections, including those by possible escape mutants. PMID:26888694

  13. S1PR4 Signaling Attenuates ILT 7 Internalization To Limit IFN-α Production by Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Dillmann, Christina; Ringel, Christian; Ringleb, Julia; Mora, Javier; Olesch, Catherine; Fink, Annika F; Roberts, Edward; Brüne, Bernhard; Weigert, Andreas

    2016-02-15

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce large amounts of type I IFN in response to TLR7/9 ligands. This conveys antiviral effects, activates other immune cells (NK cells, conventional DCs, B, and T cells), and causes the induction and expansion of a strong inflammatory response. pDCs are key players in various type I IFN-driven autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus or psoriasis, but pDCs are also involved in (anti-)tumor immunity. The sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signals through five G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) to regulate, among other activities, immune cell migration and activation. The present study shows that S1P stimulation of human, primary pDCs substantially decreases IFN-α production after TLR7/9 activation with different types of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or tick-borne encephalitis vaccine, which occurred in an S1PR4-dependent manner. Mechanistically, S1PR4 activation preserves the surface expression of the human pDC-specific inhibitory receptor Ig-like transcript 7. We provide novel information that Ig-like transcript 7 is rapidly internalized upon receptor-mediated endocytosis of TLR7/9 ligands to allow high IFN-α production. This is antagonized by S1PR4 signaling, thus decreasing TLR-induced IFN-α secretion. At a functional level, attenuated IFN-α production failed to alter Ag-driven T cell proliferation in pDC-dependent T cell activation assays, but shifted cytokine production of T cells from a Th1 (IFN-γ) to a regulatory (IL-10) profile. In conclusion, S1PR4 agonists block human pDC activation and may therefore be a promising tool to restrict pathogenic IFN-α production. PMID:26783340

  14. Salmonella Typhi OmpS1 and OmpS2 porins are potent protective immunogens with adjuvant properties

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Tenorio-Calvo, Alejandra; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Perez-Shibayama, Christian; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; López-Santiago, Rubén; Baeza, Isabel; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Bonifaz, Laura; Isibasi, Armando; Calva, Edmundo; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the causal agent of typhoid fever, a disease that primarily affects developing countries. Various antigens from this bacterium have been reported to be targets of the immune response. Recently, the S. Typhi genome has been shown to encode two porins – OmpS1 and OmpS2 – which are expressed at low levels under in vitro culture conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that immunizing mice with either OmpS1 or OmpS2 induced production of specific, long-term antibody titres and conferred protection against S. Typhi challenge; in particular, OmpS1 was more immunogenic and conferred greater protective effects than OmpS2. We also found that OmpS1 is a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist, whereas OmpS2 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist. Both porins induced the production of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6, and OmpS2 was also able to induce interleukin-10 production. Furthermore, OmpS1 induced the over-expression of MHC II molecules in dendritic cells and OmpS2 induced the over-expression of CD40 molecules in macrophages and dendritic cells. Co-immunization of OmpS1 or OmpS2 with ovalbumin (OVA) increased anti-OVA antibody titres, the duration and isotype diversity of the OVA-specific antibody response, and the proliferation of T lymphocytes. These porins also had adjuvant effects on the antibody response when co-immunized with either the Vi capsular antigen from S. Typhi or inactivated 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus [A(H1N1)pdm09]. Taken together, the data indicate that OmpS1 and OmpS2, despite being expressed at low levels under in vitro culture conditions, are potent protective immunogens with intrinsic adjuvant properties. PMID:23432484

  15. Salmonella Typhi OmpS1 and OmpS2 porins are potent protective immunogens with adjuvant properties.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Tenorio-Calvo, Alejandra; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Perez-Shibayama, Christian; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; López-Santiago, Rubén; Baeza, Isabel; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Bonifaz, Laura; Isibasi, Armando; Calva, Edmundo; López-Macías, Constantino

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar T