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Sample records for hydrogeologic investigation summary

  1. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. ); Sargent, K.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  2. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  3. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  4. Summary of hydrogeologic conditions by county for the state of Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apple, Beth A.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2007-01-01

    Summaries of the major hydrogeologic features for each county in Michigan are presented. Each summary includes a listing of the major watersheds in the county and a description of the hydrogeology of the major aquifers in the county. Aquifer properties reported in the literature are given if available. Reports describing the hydrogeology of each county are cited. This work was prepared to provide a brief introduction to the ground‑water setting for each county.

  5. Hydrogeologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W L; Trudeau, D A; Drellack, S L

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices and, since 1963, all nuclear detonations there have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts with a small percentage conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks or alluvium. In the testing areas the water table is 450--700 m below the surface. Pre- and post- event geologic investigations are conducted for each test location and long-term studies assess the impact of underground testing on a more regional scale. Studies in progress have not identified any impact on the regional ground water system from testing, but some local effects have been recognized. In some areas where several large tests have been conducted below the water table, water levels hundreds of meters above the regional water table have been measured and radioactivity has been discovered associated with fractures in a few holes. Flow-through and straddle packer testing has revealed unexpectedly high hydraulic pressures at depth. Recently, a multiple completion monitoring well installed to study three zones has confirmed the existence of a significant upward hydraulic gradient. These observations of local pressurization and fracture flow are being further explored to determine the influence of underground nuclear testing on the regional hydrogeologic system.

  6. Hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Back, W.; Rosenshein, J.S.; Seaber, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book demonstrates hydrogeologic principles, concepts, and processes that control the occurrence, movement, storage, and chemical character of ground water. It aims to identify, clarify, and describe systematically the basic relation of hydrogeology to other disciplines of geology, such as geomorphology, stratigraphy, structure, and historical geology.

  7. Hydrogeological Investigations in the Pampa of Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannert, D.; Bender, H.; Kantor, W.; Kruck, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Satellite imagery in combination with ground investigations allows the identification and delineation of the near surface ground water (depth to ground water, salinity). The degree of precision achieved is greater than that obtainable by conventional ground survey methods alone.

  8. Skylab EREP Investigations Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, W. J. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The problems in the areas of agriculture, range and forestry; land use and cartography; geology and hydrology; oceans atmosphere, and data analysis techniques were investigated and summarized using Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP) data.

  9. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information.

  10. Supplemental Technical Data Summary M-Area Groundwater Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I.W., Bledsoe, H.W.

    1995-10-01

    This supplement to the Preliminary Technical Data Summary (TDS) (Gordon, 1982) presents the state of knowledge on the hydrogeology and contaminant plume characteristics in the vicinity of M Area as of October 1984. As discussed in the previous TDS, the contaminants consist of organic solvents used for metal degreasing, namely trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Since the issuance of the previous TDS, the groundwater consulting firm of Geraghty & Miller, Inc. has been retained to assist with program strategy, planning, and investigative techniques

  11. Summary of hydrogeologic and ground-water-quality data and hydrogeologic framework at selected well sites, Adams County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Dugas, Diana L.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid population growth in Adams County has increased the demand for ground water and led Adams County planning officials to undertake an effort to evaluate the capabilities of existing community water systems to meet future, projected growth and to begin wellhead-protection programs for public-supply wells. As part of this effort, this report summarizes ground-water data on a countywide scale and provides hydrogeologic information needed to delineate wellheadprotection areas in three hydrogeologic units (Gettysburg Lowland, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont Lowland). Reported yields, specific capacities, well depths, and reported overburden thickness can vary by hydrogeologic unit, geologic formation, water use (domestic and nondomestic), and topographic setting. The reported yields of domestic wells drilled in the Gettysburg Lowland (median reported yield of 10 gallons per minute) are significantly greater than the reported yields from the Blue Ridge, Piedmont Lowland, and Piedmont Upland (median reported yields of 7.0, 8.0, and 7.0 gallons per minute, respectively). Reported yields of domestic wells completed in the diabase and the New Oxford Formation of the Gettysburg Lowland, and in the metarhyolite and metabasalt of the Blue Ridge, are significantly lower than reported yields of wells completed in the Gettysburg Formation. For nondomestic wells, reported yields from the Conestoga Formation of the Piedmont Lowland are significantly greater than in the diabase. Reported yields of nondomestic wells drilled in the Gettysburg, New Oxford, and Conestoga Formations, and the metarhyolite are significantly greater than those for domestic wells drilled in the respective geologic formations. Specific capacities of nondomestic wells in the Conestoga and Gettysburg Formations are significantly greater than their domestic counterparts. Specific capacities of nondomestic wells in the Conestoga Formation are significantly greater than the specific capacities of nondomestic wells in

  12. The application of seismic techniques to hydrogeological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Kevin Donald Gibson

    The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate some new applications of seismic techniques for hydrogeological applications. A compressional-wave, surface-based, reflection seismic technique is used to map aquifer boundaries within a series of Pleistocene near-surface sediments. The interpretation uses both water wells and sequence stratigraphic concepts to identify the boundaries of new and existing aquifers. The use of the cone penetrometer is an integral part of this thesis. The seismic cone is demonstrated to be both cost-effective and reliable for the acquisition of high-quality vertical seismic profile (VSP) data. Other data from the cone, in particular the tip resistance data, are shown to be an integral link for the conversion of shear-wave velocities to values of hydraulic conductivity. Surface-based, shear-wave reflection seismic data are used to image an aquifer contained within Holocene deltaic sediments. A Bayesian inversion of the shear-wave seismic amplitudes (using cone-derived velocities) results in the generation of a two-dimensional profile of shear-wave velocity that is a direct indication of aquifer heterogeneity. Conversion of the velocity to hydraulic conductivity (using a cone-derived relationship) results in the distribution of a key hydrogeologic property within the aquifer. The results from the thesis show significant promise for improving groundwater flow models and providing new techniques for the management and protection of our groundwater resources.

  13. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analyzed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analyzed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area of endemic waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to conduct water collection from wel...

  14. INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEOLOGIC MAPPING TO DELINEATE PROTECTION ZONES AROUND SPRINGS: REPORT OF TWO CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods commonly used to delineate protection zones for water-supply wells are often not directly applicable for springs. This investigation focuses on the use of hydrogeologic mapping methods to identify physical and hydrologic features that control ground-water flow to springs...

  15. Hydrogeological investigation of ground water arsenic contamination in south Calcutta.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A; Mukherjee, A

    1999-01-26

    Typical clinical symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning have been detected in 1000 residents near a factory in P.N. Mitra Lane, Behala, South Calcutta, located in a thickly populated area manufacturing copper acetoarsenite (Paris-Green) an arsenical pesticide for the past 25 years. Soil around the effluent dumping point of the factory was exceptionally contaminated, with arsenic, copper and chromium concentrations of 20,100-35,500 mg kg-1, 33,900-51,100 mg kg-1 and 5300-5510 mg kg-1. Arsenic and copper concentrations in bore-hole soils collected up to a depth of 24.4 m at the effluent dumping point, decreased with depth. Arsenous acid, arsenic acid, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detected in bore-hole soils up to a depth of 1.37 m, after which only inorganic arsenical compounds were present. A positive correlation was established between arsenic and copper authenticated the Paris-Green waste disposal site as the source of contamination. Mechanism of ground water contamination from this disposal site had been probed by a systematic hydrogeological survey and the arsenic content of the tube-well waters in the surrounding areas. Hydraulic conductivity was maximum in the central part. The site for disposal of the effluent was a ditch located in the zone of discharge. Sparingly soluble Paris-Green cumulatively deposited in the waste disposal site is decomposed by micro-organisms to water-soluble forms and finally percolated to underground aquifers along with rain water through the discharge zone. The contaminant is currently moving towards WNW with ground water flow and the residents in the direction of encroaching contamination are insecure due to penetration of the contaminant.

  16. Summary of available hydrogeologic data for the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unthank, Michael D.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogeologic characteristics of the unconsolidated glacial outwash sand and gravel deposits that compose the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, indicate a prolific water-bearing formation with approximately 7 billion gallons of ground-water storage and an estimated sustainable yield of over 280 million gallons per day. This abundance of ground water and the need to properly develop and manage this resource has prompted many past investigations (since 1956), which have produced reports, maps, and data files covering a variety of topics relative to the movement, availability, and use of ground water in this area. These data have been compiled into a single report to assist in future development and use of the ground-water resources. Available ground-water data for the alluvial aquifer at Louisville, Kentucky, from Beargrass Creek to Harrods Creek, were compiled from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the Kentucky Groundwater Data Repository. Data contained in these databases include ground-water well-construction details and historical ground-water levels, drillers' logs, and water-quality information. Additional data and information were gathered from project files at the U.S. Geological Survey--Kentucky Water Science Center and files at the Louisville Water Company. Information contained in these files included data from area pumping tests describing aquifer characteristics and ground-water flow. Data describing current conditions of the ground-water system in the northeast portion of the alluvial aquifer also are included. Ground-water levels from a network of observation wells show recent trends in the flow system, and information from the Kentucky Division of Water-Groundwater Branch lists current permitted ground-water withdrawals in the area.

  17. The use of marine electromagnetic conductivity as a tool in hydrogeologic investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duran, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Field procedures for collecting marine electromagnetic (EM) conductivity data were developed by the US Geological Survey as part of a hydrogeologic investigation of the Delaware River shipping channel. Eighty miles of marine EM data were used to help interpret results from high-resolution, continuous seismic-reflection surveys. Comparison of EM data with lithologic logs from river borings showed a direct relationship. -from Author

  18. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility, Wilsonville, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, F.G.; Kearl, P.M.; Mumby, M.E.; Rogers, S.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes the geology and hydrogeology at the former Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development (ACLR&D) facility in Wilsonville, Alabama. The work was conducted by personnel from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Grand Junction office (ORNL/GJ) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Characterization information was requested by PETC to provide baseline environmental information for use in evaluating needs and in subsequent decision-making for further actions associated with the closeout of facility operations. The hydrogeologic conceptual model presented in this report provides significant insight regarding the potential for contaminant migration from the ACLR&D facility and may be useful during other characterization work in the region. The ACLR&D facility is no longer operational and has been dismantled. The site was characterized in three phases: the first two phases were an environmental assessment study and a sod sampling study (APCO 1991) and the third phase the hydraulic assessment. Currently, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation (RI) to address the presence of contaminants on the site is underway and will be documented in an RI report. This technical memorandum addresses the hydrogeologic model only.

  19. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report are two-fold: (1) to define the hydrogeologic conditions in the vicinity of the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) and, (2) to evaluate the potential for movement of a concentrated salt-solution waste if released at or near the DWPF. These purposes were accomplished by assembling and evaluating existing hydrogeologic data; collecting additional geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data; developing a local geologic framework; developing a conceptual model of the local ground-water flow system; and by performing laboratory experiments to determine the mobility of salt-solution waste in surface and near-surface sediments. Although the unconsolidated sediments are about 1000 ft thick in the study area, only the Tertiary age sediments, or upper 300 ft are discussed in this report. The top of the Ellenton Formation acts as the major confining unit between the overlying aquifers in Tertiary sediments and the underlying aquifers in Cretaceous sediments; therefore, the Ellenton Formation is the vertical limit of our hydrogeologic investigation. The majority of the hydrologic data for this study come from monitoring wells at the saltstone disposal site (SDS) in Z Area (fig. 3). No recent water-level data were collected in S Area owing to the removal of S Area monitoring wells prior to construction at the DWPF. 46 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Hydrogeological characterization on surface-based investigation phase in the Mizunami underground research laboratory project, in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Ohyama, Takuya

    2007-07-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research laboratory project that is planned for a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a stepwise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water conducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved. (authors)

  1. Hydrogeologic investigation at a waste disposal site in northern New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Orient, J.P. )

    1990-01-01

    A hydrogeologic investigation was performed near a waste disposal site in northern New Jersey to determine the adverse effects of past waste disposal activities on local groundwater. Major elements of the investigation included drilling, well installations, aquifer testing, and groundwater sampling. Two groundwater flow systems within glacial drift deposits and two within bedrock were identified and characterized during the study. A glaciolacustrine clay deposit, absent at the site, but present throughout most of the downgradient area, separates the two glacial drift flow systems and serves to restrict the spread of contamination within the deeper glacial drift flow system. Within the uppermost bedrock unit, fracturing controls groundwater occurrence and movement, with horizontal stress-relief joints serving as main conduits for lateral groundwater migration. Groundwater flow patterns differ in each of the four flow systems studied, as each system is influenced by different controls on flow direction. Contaminant distributions were unique to each flow system evaluated. The investigation revealed that the hydraulic interconnections among the four flow systems play an important role in the migration of contamination. Small, local surface water drainages and larger, regional surface water features exerted separate controls over groundwater and contaminant movement. Nearby, large-volume pumping wells also influence groundwater flow directions and contaminant migration. These findings illustrate that a thorough understanding of geologic/hydrogeologic conditions and local anthropogenic effects is essential to developing an adequate understanding of the adverse effects of waste disposal activities on groundwater.

  2. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira/, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-01-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  3. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale.

  4. Waterborne toxoplasmosis investigated and analysed under hydrogeological assessment: new data and perspectives for further research.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Flávia Pereira; Alves, Maria da Glória; Martins, Livia Mattos; Rangel, Alba Lucínia Peixoto; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Hill, Dolores; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia

    2015-11-01

    We present a set of data on human and chicken Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence that was investigated and analysed in light of groundwater vulnerability information in an area endemic for waterborne toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Hydrogeological assessment was undertaken to select sites for water collection from wells for T. gondii oocyst testing and for collecting blood from free-range chickens and humans for anti-T. gondii serologic testing. Serologic testing of human specimens was done using conventional commercial tests and a sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP), which is able to differentiate whether infection resulted from tissue cysts or oocysts. Water specimens were negative for the presence of viable T. gondii oocysts. However, seroprevalence in free-range chickens was significantly associated with vulnerability of groundwater to surface contamination (p < 0.0001; odds ratio: 4.73, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-10.2). Surprisingly, a high prevalence of antibodies against TgERP was detected in human specimens, suggesting the possibility of a continuous contamination of drinking water with T. gondii oocysts in this endemic setting. These findings and the new proposed approach to investigate and analyse endemic toxoplasmosis in light of groundwater vulnerability information associated with prevalence in humans estimated by oocyst antigens recognition have implications for the potential role of hydrogeological assessment in researching waterborne toxoplasmosis at a global scale. PMID:26560984

  5. Integrating Multiple Subsurface Exploration Technologies in Slope Hydrogeologic Investigation: A Case Study in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, H.-C.; Hsu, S.-M.; Jeng, D.-I.; Ku, C.-Y.

    2009-04-01

    Taiwan is an island located at a tectonically active collision zone between the Eurasian Plate and the Pacific Plate. Also, the island is in the subtropical climate region with frequent typhoon events that are always accompanied by intense rainfalls within a short period of time. These seismic and climatic elements frequently trigger, directly or indirectly, natural disasters such as landslides on the island with casualties and property damages. Prompted by the urge for minimizing the detrimental effects of such natural disasters, Taiwan government has initiated and funded a series of investigations and studies aimed at better understanding the causes of the natural disasters that may lead to the formulation of more effective disaster contingency plans and possibly some forecasts system. The hydrogeology of a landslide site can help unveil the detention condition of storm water entering the aquifer system of the slope as well as its groundwater condition which, in turn, plays a critical role in slope stability. In this study, a hydrogeologic investigation employing a series of subsurface exploration technologies was conducted at an active landslide site in the vicinity of Hwa Yuan Village in northern Taiwan. The site, which covers an area of approximately 0.14 km2 (35 acres) and generally ranges between 25 to 36 degree in slope, was initially investigated with ground resistivity image profiling (RIP) and electrical logging in order to determine the lithology and possibly the water-bearing capacity of the geologic units beneath the slope surface. Subsequently, both acoustic and optical borehole loggings were then applied to identify potentially significant fracture features at depth and their hydrogeologic implications. In addition, flowmeter loggings and hydraulic packer tests were conducted to further characterize the hydrogeologic system of the site and quantitatively determine the hydraulic properties of major hydrogeologic units. According to the ground

  6. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogeologic investigations were conducted to evaluate the groundwater resource potential for the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales area, southern Arizona. Results indicate that parts of the formation may provide new, deeper sources of groundwater for the area. Geologic mapping determined the hydrogeologic framework of the formation by defining lithologic, mineralogic, and stratigraphic characteristics; identifying potential aquifers and confining units; and mapping faults and fractures which likely influence groundwater flow. Geophysical modeling was used to determine the basin geometry and thickness of the Nogales Formation and younger alluvial aquifers and to identify target areas (deep subbasins) which may prove to be productive aquifers.Volcaniclastic sandstone samples from the formation were analyzed for porosity, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fabric. Effective porosity ranges from 16 to 42 percent, bulk density from 1.6 to 2.47 grams per cubic centimeter, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) from 4 to 57 centimeters per day (4.9×10-5 to 6.7×10-4 centimeters per second). Thin sections show that sandstone framework grains consist of quartz, feldspar, biotite, hornblende, pumice, volcanic glass, and opaque minerals. The matrix in most samples consists of pumice fragments, and some contain predominantly silt and clay. Samples with a mostly silt and clay matrix have lower porosity and SHC compared to samples with mostly pumice, which have higher and wider ranges of porosity and SHC. Pore space in the Nogales Formation sediments includes moldic, intercrystalline, and fracture porosity. Some intercrystalline pore space is partially filled with calcite cement. About one third of the samples contain fractures, which correspond to fractures noted in outcrops in all members of the formation.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that most of the samples contained the zeolite clinoptilolite

  7. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-07-28

    Hydrogeologic investigations were conducted to evaluate the groundwater resource potential for the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales area, southern Arizona. Results indicate that parts of the formation may provide new, deeper sources of groundwater for the area. Geologic mapping determined the hydrogeologic framework of the formation by defining lithologic, mineralogic, and stratigraphic characteristics; identifying potential aquifers and confining units; and mapping faults and fractures which likely influence groundwater flow. Geophysical modeling was used to determine the basin geometry and thickness of the Nogales Formation and younger alluvial aquifers and to identify target areas (deep subbasins) which may prove to be productive aquifers.Volcaniclastic sandstone samples from the formation were analyzed for porosity, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fabric. Effective porosity ranges from 16 to 42 percent, bulk density from 1.6 to 2.47 grams per cubic centimeter, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) from 4 to 57 centimeters per day (4.9×10-5 to 6.7×10-4 centimeters per second). Thin sections show that sandstone framework grains consist of quartz, feldspar, biotite, hornblende, pumice, volcanic glass, and opaque minerals. The matrix in most samples consists of pumice fragments, and some contain predominantly silt and clay. Samples with a mostly silt and clay matrix have lower porosity and SHC compared to samples with mostly pumice, which have higher and wider ranges of porosity and SHC. Pore space in the Nogales Formation sediments includes moldic, intercrystalline, and fracture porosity. Some intercrystalline pore space is partially filled with calcite cement. About one third of the samples contain fractures, which correspond to fractures noted in outcrops in all members of the formation.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that most of the samples contained the zeolite clinoptilolite

  8. A multidisciplinary geophysical, geotechnical and hydrogeological investigation of quick-clay landslides in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malehmir, A.; Krawczyk, C.; Polom, U.; Lundberg, E.; Adamczyk, A.; Malinowski, M.; Bastani, M.; Gurk, M.; Juhlin, C.; Persson, L.; Ismail, N.

    2012-04-01

    In Spring 2011, the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) through its Geoscientists Without Borders (GWB) program sponsored our project to study clay-related landslides in the Nordic countries. This project will study quick clay or rapid earth flow landslides in Sweden. Undisturbed quick clay resembles a water-saturated gel. When a mass of quick clay undergoes sufficient stress, it instantly turns into a flowing ooze, a process known as liquefaction. A small block of quick clay can liquefy from a stress change due to as little as a modest blow from a human hand, while a larger deposit is mainly vulnerable to greater stress changes, such as increased saturation by excess rainwater. Despite their abundance, our geophysical understanding of clay behavior in terms of both changes in the geometrical shape (clay formations) and changes in the physical properties are limited and require a better understanding. Quick clay landslides are not particularly constrained to steep slopes and have been known to slide even in low-to-moderate angle slopes. Geophysical investigations began in September 2011 over a known landslide scar near the Göta river in southwest Sweden, an area known to contain quick clays in parts of it. The investigations involved 2D and 3D P- and S-wave source and receiver surveys, geoelectrics, controlled-source and radio-magnetotellurics, ground gravity and magnetic surveys. These data in combination with existing geotechnical information and hydrogeological investigations should allow better insight into the mechanism(s) governing clay-related landslides in the Nordic countries and to provide high-resolution images of subsurface structures down to the bedrock. We will present preliminary results from the seismic investigations, including the 2D and 3D reflection and refraction surveys. The reflection seismic data show excellent quality and image the bedrock topography and internal layering above it down to about 100 m. Tomography results suggest the

  9. Detailed hydrogeological investigation and conceptual modelling of an Alpine Main Valley crossed by the Brenner Bases tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Ulrich; San Nicolo, Lorenz; Zurlo, Raffaele

    2014-05-01

    The Brenner Base Tunnel (BBT) will cross the Isarco Valley near the village of Fortezza (BZ) at a depth of approximately 20 m below the riverbed of the Isarco river. The design of this roughly 1 km long stretch through alluvial sediments and below groundwater level required detailed knowledge of the prevailing hydrogeological conditions. In particular, it was necessary to determine if dewatering procedures were feasible and what the impacts on natural water flows in the aquifer after completion of the infrastructure will be. The study area is a typical Alpine valley, filled with alluvial sediments to a maximum depth of approximately 120m. The valley is bounded by granitic rocks with regional, water saturated main fault zones. In addition to the Isarco River, the area is shaped by two lateral rivers. The deposits of these lateral rivers form main alluvial fans. The aim of the study was to study the geological structure and the hydrogeological behaviour of this alpine valley. Therefor a detailed geological and hydrogeological investigation program was carried out, including a geological detailed mapping, construction of 40 boreholes (max. depth 120m; 35 are equipped to groundwater monitoring wells) and 5 large wells (55m - 87m). In order to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of the aquifer in the valley, several pumping tests were carried out in different study stages: Stage 1: preliminary hydrogeological characterization of the area based on a pumping test carried out in the first well (100l/s pumping for 14 days). Stage 2: individual step tests and constant rate tests in additional four wells Stage 3: main pumping test including all the five wells with a maximum pumping rate of 450l/s for 14 days. The main topics oh the presentation are: - Overview of the BBT-project, the investigation area and investigation program - Description of the validated geological model of the main alpine valley - Results of the various hydraulic tests performed in the individual

  10. UNDERSTANDING HARD ROCK HYDROGEOLOGY THROUGH AN EXPERIMENTAL HYDROGEOLOGICAL PARK IN SOUTH INDIA: Site development and investigations on the major role of the fractured zone in crystalline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Guiheneuf, N.; Boisson, A.; Marechal, J.; Chandra, S.; Dewandel, B.; Perrin, J.

    2012-12-01

    In water stressed south India most of the groundwater used for irrigation is pumped from crystalline rocks aquifers. In those structures groundwater flow dominantly occur in a shallow higher-permeability zone that overlies a deeper lower-permeability zone hosting little flow. The fractured zone of the weathering profile plays an important role for groundwater. In order to understand clearly this impact on water availability and quality changes the Experimental Hydrogeological Park at Choutuppal, Andhra Pradesh, India is developed in the framework of the SORE H+ network. Several hydraulic tests (injection, flowmeter profiles, single-packer tests…) and geophysical measurements (ERT, Borehole logging…) are carried out on the site in order to characterize the depth-dependence of hydrodynamic parameters in the Indian Archean granite. Specific investigation on a borewell through packer tests demonstrate that the most conductive part of the aquifer corresponds to the upper part of the fractured layer, located just below the saprolite bottom, between 15 meters and 20 meters depth. There is no highly conductive fracture beyond 20 meters depth and no indication for any conductive fracture beyond 25 meters depth. Packer tests show that the upper part of the fractured layer (15-20 m depth) is characterized by a good vertical connectivity. On the contrary, the tests carried out below 20 m depth show no vertical connectivity at all. The geometry of the fracture network and associated hydrodynamic parameters are in agreement with the conceptual model of hard-rock aquifers that derive its properties from weathering processes. The general existence of such a highly conductive structure at the top of the fractured zone has a great impact on water prospection and exploitation in such crystalline aquifers.

  11. Incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeochemical investigations for rural development: the Bir Al-Nas approach for socio-hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Viviana

    2015-11-01

    A replicable multidisciplinary approach is presented for science-based groundwater management practices: Bir Al-Nas (Bottom-up IntegRated Approach for sustainabLe grouNdwater mAnagement in rural areaS). This approach provides a practical example of the concept of "socio-hydrogeology", a way of incorporating the social dimension into hydrogeological investigations, as reinforced by the translation of the Arabic bir al-nas: "the people's well". To achieve this, hydrogeologists act as "social hydrologists" during their monitoring activities, which often bring them into contact with local communities and end users (and polluters) of water. Not only can they retrieve reliable information about traditional know-how and local issues, but they can also change the public perception of science/scientists to create the basis for mutual collaboration and understanding in view of implementing improved integrated groundwater management. The final outcomes are expected to be an increased awareness of communities at the local level and a clear understanding of their water issues and needs from the very early stages of the investigation. Although the importance of using such methods in groundwater analysis and management is widely recognized, hydrogeological investigations are currently dominated by sectorial approaches that are easier to implement but less sustainable. The pressure of population growth, the shift towards more water-dependent economies, climate change and its impact on water availability will require scientists to use a more integrated approach, such as Bir Al-Nas, when dealing with increasing water pollution and water-scarcity issues.

  12. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  13. Summary of the hydrogeology of the valley and ridge, Blue Ridge, and Piedmont physiographic provinces in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Lindsay A.; Mesko, Thomas O.; Hollyday, Este F.

    2004-01-01

    The Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis study (1988-1993) analyzed rock types in the 142,000-square-mile study area, identified hydrogeologic terranes, determined transmissivity distributions, determined the contribution of ground water to streamflow, modeled ground-water flow, described water quality, and identified areas suitable for the potential development of municipal and industrial ground-water supplies. Ground-water use in the Valley and Ridge, the Blue Ridge, and the Piedmont Physiographic Provinces exceeds 1.7 billion gallons per day. Thirty-three rock types in the study area were analyzed, and the rock types with similar water-yielding characteristics were combined and mapped as 10 hydrogeologic terranes. Based on well records, the interquartile ranges of estimated transmissivities are between 180 to 17,000 feet squared per day (ft2/d) for five hydrologic terranes in the Valley and Ridge; between 9 to 350 ft2/d for two terranes in the Blue Ridge; and between 9 to 1,400 ft2/d for three terranes in the Piedmont Physiographic Province. Based on streamflow records, the interquartile ranges of estimated transmissivities for all three physiographic provinces are between 290 and 2,900 ft2/d. The mean ground-water contribution to streams from 157 drainage basins ranges from 32 to 94 percent of mean streamflow with a median of 67 percent. In three small areas in two of the physiographic provinces, more than 54 percent of ground-water flow was modeled as shallow and local. Although ground-water chemical composition in the three physiographic provinces is distinctly different, the water generally is not highly mineralized, with a median dissolved-solids concentration of 164 milligrams per liter, and is mostly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Based on aquifer properties and current pumpage, areas favorable for the development of municipal and industrial ground-water supplies are underlain by alluvium of glacial origin near the

  14. Hydrogeology and soil gas at J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water resources investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, W.B.

    1993-12-31

    Disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has contaminated soil, ground water, and surface water. Seven exploratory borings and 38 observation wells were drilled to define the hydrogeologic framework at J-Field and to determine the type, extent, and movement of ground-water contaminants. Water in the surficial aquifer flows laterally from topographically high areas to discharge areas in marshes and streams, and vertically to the underlying confined aquifer. Analyses of soil-gas samples indicated high relative-flux values of chlorinated solvents, phthalates, and hydrocarbons at the toxic-materials disposal area, white-phosphorus disposal area, and riot-control-agent disposal area.

  15. Direct investigations of supersymmetry: subgroup summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P Martin et al.

    2003-01-02

    A recurring element of the discussions in the Snowmass study is that there is a need and opportunity for improved theoretical tools in preparation for the discovery of Supersymmetry (SUSY). In order to be competitive with mass measurements at the LHC and a linear collider (LC), predictions of sparticle and Higgs masses from given model parameters need to be improved by an order of magnitude in some cases. There is also room for growth and improvement in (Monte Carlo) SUSY event generators. It seems injudicious to discuss priorities in the field of direct SUSY detection independently of having established directly the existence and mass of the Higgs since it is the particle that led to the founding of SUSY models. But under the hypothesis that a light Higgs exists with mass compatible with SUSY, then they should discuss such priorities. As outlined in section III in the context of the flavor-respecting minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), there is no fundamental symmetry to tie, e.g., squark masses to slepton masses, or the gluino mass to the chargino mass or the chargino mass to the neutralino mass. However, models such as mSUGRA do lead to such relationships and LHC studies show that the heaviest super-partners, the squarks and the gluino should be observable for masses up to about 2.5 TeV at the LHC in such models. Depending on the actual decay chains, some other superpartners may be identifiable in the cascade decays of the quarks and the gluino. On the other hand a LC with CM energy of 1 TeV could comprehensively explore and discover superpartners with masses less than 0.5 TeV largely independently of their nature (neutral, charged, strong, electroweak) and decay modes. In most supersymmetric models, the chargino and neutralino and often the sleptons are much lighter than the squarks and gluino. A VLHC could extend the mass reach for squarks and the gluino but would not necessarily add much value if these had already been seen at the LHC. In summary

  16. Hydrogeologic inferences from geophysical and geologic investigation of the Standard Mine site, Elk Basin, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsley, B. J.; Caine, J. S.; Ball, L. B.; Burton, B.; Curry-Elrod, E.; Manning, A. H.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geophysical and geologic data were collected at the Standard Mine in Elk Basin near Crested Butte, CO, to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic controls in the basin and how they influence surface and groundwater interactions with nearby mine workings. The Tertiary Ohio Creek and Wasatch formations are the bedrock geologic units; both are primarily sandstones, but with differences in weathering and fracturing. Dikes, near-vertical normal faults, and polymetallic quartz veins with varying degrees of lateral continuity cut the sedimentary units. The net impact of these features, along with basin topography, makes it difficult to predict the behavior of the surface and groundwater systems. This integrated study utilizes geologic observations to help constrain subsurface information obtained from the analysis of surface geophysical measurements. This is a critical step toward using the geophysical data in a meaningful hydrogeologic framework. The approach combines the benefit of direct, but sparse, field observations with spatially continuous, but indirect, measurements of physical properties through the use of geophysics. Surface geophysical data includes electrical resistivity profiles aimed at imaging variability in subsurface structural properties and fluid content; self-potentials, which are sensitive to mineralized zones at this site and, to a lesser extent, shallow flow patterns; and magnetic measurements, which provide information on lateral variability in near-surface geologic features, although the minerals at this site are not strongly magnetized. Downhole caliper and optical televiewer logs were acquired in one well and provide valuable information on fracture properties. Field geologic observations include hand sample mineralogy and detailed mapping and characterization of faults, joints, and veins. Analyses of representative rock samples include magnetic susceptibility, mercury injection capillary pressure, semi-quantitative x-ray diffraction

  17. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigation for below-sea-level quarrying at cement raw material site (Kocaeli-Darica, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Doyuran, Vedat; Karahanoğlu, Nurkan; Camur, Zeki; Topal, Tamer; Süzen, M Lütfi; Yeşilnacar, Ertan

    2003-08-01

    A research has been carried out to investigate the effects of below sea level mining on the cement raw material quality of a limestone quarry located adjacent to the shoreline near Darica-Kocaeli-Turkey. Field studies involved rock mass characterization through discontinuity surveys performed at the working benches of the quarry as well as on the core samples, monitoring of groundwater levels, performance of water pressure tests, and in-situ hydrochemical measurements. Hydrogeological data suggest that the carbonate sequence forms a poor unconfined aquifer having hydraulic conductivity values ranging between 10(-6) m/s and 10(-8) m/s. In the quarry, water seepages can only be observed at the shear zones. Electrical conductivity profiles taken from the boreholes located at various distances from the shore line indicated the present position of the salt water wedge. PMID:12929797

  18. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigation for below-sea-level quarrying at cement raw material site (Kocaeli-Darica, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Doyuran, Vedat; Karahanoğlu, Nurkan; Camur, Zeki; Topal, Tamer; Süzen, M Lütfi; Yeşilnacar, Ertan

    2003-08-01

    A research has been carried out to investigate the effects of below sea level mining on the cement raw material quality of a limestone quarry located adjacent to the shoreline near Darica-Kocaeli-Turkey. Field studies involved rock mass characterization through discontinuity surveys performed at the working benches of the quarry as well as on the core samples, monitoring of groundwater levels, performance of water pressure tests, and in-situ hydrochemical measurements. Hydrogeological data suggest that the carbonate sequence forms a poor unconfined aquifer having hydraulic conductivity values ranging between 10(-6) m/s and 10(-8) m/s. In the quarry, water seepages can only be observed at the shear zones. Electrical conductivity profiles taken from the boreholes located at various distances from the shore line indicated the present position of the salt water wedge.

  19. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the area around the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina consists of 2 to 3 separate water bearing units. In the northern half of the study area, the Barnwell and underlying McBean aquifers are considered one aquifer owing to the absence of the tan clay-confining unit between them. In the southern half of the study area they are separated by the tan clay into two aquifers. Underlying these aquifers, and separated from them by the green clay-confining unit, is the Congaree aquifer. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifers range from 0.00000001 to 0.0001 ft/sec. Directions of groundwater flow in the Barnwell and McBean aquifers are to the north, with a component of flow directed downward across the green clay and into the Congaree aquifer. The direction of flow in the Congaree aquifer is to the northwest. Water in these aquifers evolves from an acidic (pH < 6.5) mixed-cation type in the Barnwell aquifer to an alkaline (pH > 8) calcium bicarbonate water in the Congaree aquifer. Laboratory experiments indicate that reactions between sediments of the Barnwell aquifer and a salt-solution waste to be stored at the study area would significantly reduce the permeability of the sediment, thereby limiting the movement of the waste in groundwater at the site. (USGS)

  20. Report Summary, Final Hells Canyon Environmental Investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-01-01

    The Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 provided for the establishment of a Regional Power Planning Council (Regional Council) and mandated the development of a Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (F&W Program). The F&W Program was adopted by the Regional Council in November 1982. and is intended to mitigate fish and wildlife losses resulting from the development of hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. One element of the FLW Program is the Water Budget. It calls for additional flows in the Columbia and Snake Rivers between April 15 and June 15 to improve the survival of juvenile salmon and steelhead migrating downstream. The Snake River's contribution to the Water Budget is 20,000 cubic feet per second-months (A volume of water equal to a flow of 20.000 cubic feet per second, 24 hours per day, for a period of a month) over and above water that would normally flow for power production. The water for the Water Budget would come out of Idaho Power Company's (IPCo) Hells Canyon Complex and the Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Dvorshak Reservoir. IPCo's Hells Canyon Complex consists of three dams, Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon. Brownlee, at the upstream end, contains a large reservoir and controls flow to the lower dams. IPCo's participation in the Water Budget could affect the level of the Brownlee Reservoir and flows downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex on the Snake River. In light of this, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and IPCo contracted with the consulting firm of CH2!4 Hill to study the potential changes that could occur to the environment. The Environmental Investigation (EI) takes into account concerns that were expressed by the public at a series of public meetings held in the Snake River area during June 1983 and again during September 1984. Existing information and consultations with agencies which have management responsibilities in the project area formed the basis for the data used in the EI

  1. Anthropogenic wetlands due to over-irrigation of desert areas; A challenging hydrogeological investigation with extensive geophysical input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behroozmand, A. A.; Teatini, P.; Pedersen, J. B. B.; Auken, E.; Tosatto, O.; Christiansen, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    During the last century, many large irrigation projects have been initiated in arid lands worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in food production, a common problem when characterizing these zones is land degradation in form of waterlogging. As results, large volumes of water are lost due to surplus irrigation in regions where water availability is extremely challenging for both population survival and economic development. The Nubariya depression, Western Desert (Egypt), is a clear example of this mechanism. Following the reclamation of desert lands for agricultural production, an artificial brackish and contaminated lake developed in the area in the late 1990s and presently extends for about 2.5 km2. Available data provide evidence of a simultaneous general deterioration of the groundwater system. With the main objectives of understanding the hydrological evolution of the area, characterizing the hydrogeological setting and developing scenarios for artificial aquifer remediation and recharge, an extensive hydrogeophysical investigation was carried out in this challenging environment using Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS, also called surface NMR) and ground-based Transient EM (TEM). The integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys, properly calibrated with a number of boreholes, provides a clear hydrogeological picture of the upper 100 m sedimentary structure, in terms of both lithology and groundwater quality. The information is then used to set up a regional groundwater flow and a local density-dependent flow and transport numerical model to reproduce the past evolution of the aquifer system and develop a few scenarios for artificial aquifer recharge using the treated waters provided by a nearby waste-water treatment plant. The research outcomes point the hydrological challenges that emerge for an effective management of water resources in reclaimed desert areas and highlight the effectiveness of integrating advanced geophysical and modeling

  2. SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.

  3. Preliminary results of ERTS-investigations by W-German investigations. [multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and hydrogeology of Argentina Pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlfeld, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of West German investigations into multidisciplinary geoscientific experiments in central Germany and the Alps, and hydrogeological investigations in the Pampa of Argentina based on ERTS-1 data. The main goals of the investigation were achieved. The studies have given a good idea of the possibilities and limitations of ERTS imagery depending on the objectives in question and on the geographical conditions of the areas under investigation. Even in the well known region of central Europe, ERTS has proven its ability of improving present knowledge. In fields such as pollution monitoring and regional planning the satellite techniques should have distinct practical value. For any regional study of less known areas, the value of ERTS imagery can hardly be overestimated.

  4. Extracting Hydrogeology from Heliborne Dual Moment Transient Electromagnetic Investigations in Geologically Divergent Terrenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Chandra, S.; Auken, E.; Verma, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of aquifer system is an important requisite for its effective management in India. Geological formations are complex and variable, punctual and scarce information are not adequate to understand, asses and manage them. Continuous data acquisition, their interpretation and integration with available geological/geophysical information is the solution. Heliborne dual moment transient electromagnetic (HeliTEM) and magnetic (HeliMAG) measurements have been carried out in divergent geological terrenes in India comprising Gangetic alluvium, Tertiary sediments underlying the Thar desert, Deccan basalts and Gondwana sediments, weathered and fractured granite gneisses and schists and the coastal alluvium with Tertiary sediments. The survey was carried out using state of the art equipment SkyTEM. The paper presents a synopsis of the results of the HeliTEM surveys that have helped in obtaining continuous information on the geoelectrical nature of sub-surface. HeliTEM data were supported by a number of ground geophysical surveys. The results provide the 3D subsurface structures controlling the groundwater conditions, the regional continuity of probable aquifers, the variations in lithological character and the quality of water in terms of salinity. Specialized features pertaining to hydrogeological characteristics obtained from this study are as follows: A clear delineation of clay beds and their spatial distribution providing the multi-layered aquifer setup in the Gangetic plains. Delineation of low resistivity zones in the quartzite below the over exploited aquifers indicating the possibility of new aquifers. Presence of freshwater zones underneath the saline water aquifers in the thick and dry sands in deserts. Clear demarcation of different lava flows, mapping the structural controls and highly porous zones in the contact of basalts and Gondwanas. A complete and continuous mapping of weathered zone in crystalline hard rock areas providing information

  5. Extracting Hydrogeology from Heliborne Dual Moment Transient Electromagnetic Investigation in Geologically Divergent Terrenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Chandra, S.; Auken, E.; Verma, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of aquifer system is an important requisite for its effective management in India. Geological formations are complex and variable, punctual and scarce information are not adequate to understand, asses and manage them. Continuous data acquisition, their interpretation and integration with available geological/geophysical information is the solution. Heliborne dual moment transient electromagnetic (HeliTEM) and magnetic (HeliMAG) measurements have been carried out in divergent geological terrenes in India comprising Gangetic alluvium, Tertiary sediments underlying the Thar desert, Deccan basalts and Gondwana sediments, weathered and fractured granite gneisses and schists and the coastal alluvium with Tertiary sediments. The survey was carried out using state of the art equipment SkyTEM. The paper presents a synopsis of the results of the HeliTEM surveys that have helped in obtaining continuous information on the geoelectrical nature of sub-surface. HeliTEM data were supported by a number of ground geophysical surveys. The results provide the 3D subsurface structures controlling the groundwater conditions, the regional continuity of probable aquifers, the variations in lithological character and the quality of water in terms of salinity. Specialized features pertaining to hydrogeological characteristics obtained from this study are as follows:  A clear delineation of clay beds and their spatial distribution providing the multi-layered aquifer setup in the Gangetic plains.  Delineation of low resistivity zones in the quartzite below the over exploited aquifers indicating the possibility of new aquifers.  Presence of freshwater zones underneath the saline water aquifers in the thick and dry sands in deserts.  Clear demarcation of different lava flows, mapping the structural controls and highly porous zones in the contact of basalts and Gondwanas.  A complete and continuous mapping of weathered zone in crystalline hard rock areas

  6. On Goal-Oriented, Hydrogeological Site Investigation: A Holistic Approach (Henry Darcy Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    UQ (for Uncertainty Quantification) is a critical element of groundwater management and by extension, of hydrological site investigation. While it is clear that UQ is an important goal, there is ambiguity as to what the target of the UQ should be, and how to make UQ relevant in the context of public policy. Planning for UQ (meaning what measurements to take, where, how many, what frequency, etc.), one could consider environmental performance parameters (EPMs, such as concentrations or travel time) as the targets of site investigation. But there is a need to go beyond EPMs, and to consider the uncertainty related to impacts such as enhanced cancer-risk due to groundwater contamination or, more generally, to decisions facing regulators. In any case, UQ requires site investigation, and decision-makers, who end up paying for it, are not really interested in EPMs: they care about making operational decisions that are defensible legally and justified from the perspective of public good. The key to UQ, whether considering EPMS or operational decisions concerning the public good, is defining a suitable strategy for site investigation. There is a body of published works on relating site investigations with EPMs, but much less is known on how to support operational decisions with strategies for site characterization. In this lecture, I will address this issue and I will outline a comprehensive approach for addressing it using a statistical formalism that couples hypothesis testing with Bayesian statistics. I refer to this approach as goal-oriented site investigation. I will show how site investigation strategies, with specifics such as which measurements to take and where, could be related to goals lined with operational decisions. This includes (1) defining the relevant goals; (2) formulating hypotheses; (3) defining alternative strategies for site investigation and (4) evaluating them in terms of probabilities for making errors in accepting or rejecting the hypotheses.

  7. Hydrogeological approach to investigation in karst for possible modification of groundwater regime and increase of recoverable reserves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatina, Miomir

    1990-09-01

    An artificial contribution to groundwater reserves in the areas of interest for water supply is a principal methodological target in modern hydrogeology. Investigations directed to this goal are of increasing significance all over the world to meet the growing demand for good water, which groundwater generally can be. Progress has been made in the sphere of practical development in permeable rocks of intergranular porosity, which cannot be said of discontinuous karst media, although it seems to offer greater opportunities. The ingrained notion and fear, even among specialists, of the inherent risk and uncertainty were invariably present wherever a resource was discovered in karst of a geosynclinal area; consequently progress has been limited. The reasons, however, for such a cautious approach are diminishing, because much knowledge has been gained about these aquiferous rocks, especially through investigations in the regions of surface storage reservoirs. Better knowledge of karst features and the results achieved in construction and consolidation of surface reservoirs have indicated that large amounts of groundwater can be recovered. The conventional water investigation and recovery methods have made available only small safe yields equal to the lowest natural discharge on the order of 100 I/sec). A reasonable use of a karst water resource and its better management cannot be considered without artificial control of the groundwater regime, i.e., without adjusting the regime to human demands. Groundwater flow balance in karst is becoming one of the principal problems, and future activities should be directed to the search for a bolder solution. A multidisciplinary team of geologists, geomorphologists, hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers, etc., is required. In this paper a variety of solutions for water resource utilization in naked geosynclinal karst is suggested and far greater activity in this field is encouraged.

  8. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs.

  9. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the U.S. Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts supported through the U.S. Department of Energy program will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Test-generated contaminants have been introduced over large areas and at variable depths above and below the water table throughout NTS. Evaluating the risks associated with these byproducts of underground testing presupposes a knowledge of the source, transport, and potential receptors of these contaminants. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. Any assessment of the risk must rely in part on the current understanding of ground-water flow, and the assessment will be only as good as the understanding

  10. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Cochise County, southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, Donald R.; Coes, Alissa L.

    1999-01-01

    The hydrogeologic system in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona was investigated for the purpose of developing a better understanding of stream-aquifer interactions. The San Pedro River is an intermittent stream that supports a narrow corridor of riparian vegetation. Withdrawal of ground water will result in reduced discharge from the basin through reduced base flow and evapotranspiration; however, the rate and location of reduced discharge are uncertain. The investigation resulted in better definition of distributions of silt and clay in the regional aquifer; changes in seasonal precipitation, runoff, and base flow in the San Pedro River; sources of base flow; and regional water-level changes. Regional ground-water flow is separated into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems by silt and clay. Precipitation, runoff, and base flow declined at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station from 1936 through 1997 for the months of June through October. Base flow at the Charleston station during 1996 and 1997 was primarily supplied by ground water recharged near the San Pedro River during recent major runoff and by minor contributions from the regional aquifer. The decline in base flow, about 2 cubic feet per second, has several probable causes including declining runoff and recharge near the river during June through October and increased interception of ground-water flow to the river by wells and phreatophytes. Water levels in wells throughout the regional aquifer generally declined at rates of 0.2 to 0.5 feet per year between 1940 and the mid-1980's, which corresponded with a period of below-average winter precipitation. Water levels in wells in the Fort Huachuca and Sierra Vista areas declined at rates that were faster than regional rates of decline through 1998 and caused diversion of ground-water flow that would have discharged along perennial stream reaches.

  11. A quantitative investigation of the use of ground-penetrating radar in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, Stephen M. J.

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has become a useful tool for non-invasive imaging of the subsurface. However, the qualitative nature of current methods for the interpretation of GPR makes it difficult to use in groundwater modeling applications, especially for problems where accounting for uncertainty is important. In this thesis, the need for quantitative interpretations is addressed using observational, theoretical, and computational approaches that explore how complex subsurface heterogeneities are expressed in GPR data. This understanding of how radar samples the earth is exploited to suggest quantitative methods that can be used for interpreting radar data. In the first part of this thesis, radar facies analysis is examined as an approach to determine the large-scale architecture of the subsurface using GPR surface reflection data; it is often assumed that radar facies can act as a valuable proxy for defining hydrologic facies, given that both types of facies are related to lithology. In the approach explored here, artificial neural networks are used to probabilistically segment the subsurface into radar facies based on characteristic signatures of the radar data. Specifically, radar texture---the pattern of reflections within a window of radar data---is used to discriminate between different radar facies. In the second part of this thesis, the nature of the relationship between dielectric constant, determined by GPR surveys, and water content, important in hydrologic investigations, is investigated. Using a stochastic averaging approach that accounts for the way radar averages over heterogeneity it is demonstrated that field-scale dielectric constant-water content relationships are not necessarily equivalent to those measured in the laboratory. As a result, a numerical analog method for building field-scale rock physics relationships that accounts for heterogeneity, the physics of sampling, and geophysical survey design is proposed. In synthetic studies, it

  12. Joint seismic, hydrogeological, and geomechanical investigations of a fracture zone in the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Myer, L.R.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Martel, S.J. ); Bluemling, P.; Vomvoris, S. )

    1990-06-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. From 1987 to 1989 the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Swiss Cooperative for the Storage of Nuclear Waste (Nagra) participated in an agreement to carryout experiments for understanding the effect of fractures in the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. As part of this joint work field and laboratory experiments were conducted at a controlled site in the Nagra underground Grimsel test site in Switzerland. The primary goal of these experiments in this fractured granite was to determine the fundamental nature of the propagation of seismic waves in fractured media, and to relate the seismological parameters to the hydrological parameters. The work is ultimately aimed at the characterization and monitoring of subsurface sites for the storage of nuclear waste. The seismic experiments utilizes high frequency (1000 to 10,000 Hertz) signals in a cross-hole configuration at scales of several tens of meters. Two-, three-, and four-sided tomographic images of the fractures and geologic structure were produced from over 60,000 raypaths through a 10 by 21 meter region bounded by two nearly horizontal boreholes and two tunnels. Intersecting this region was a dominant fracture zone which was the target of the investigations. In addition to these controlled seismic imaging experiments, laboratory work using core from this region were studied for the relation between fracture content, saturation, and seismic velocity and attenuation. In-situ geomechanical and hydrologic tests were carried out to determine the mechanical stiffness and conductivity of the fractures. 20 refs., 90 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Hydrogeology and water quality near a solid- and hazardous-waste landfill, Northwood, Ohio. Water Resources Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    de Roche, J.T.; Breen, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the hydrogeology and the chemical quality of ground water and surface water near the landfill. The evaluation was made by (1) review of available hydrogeologic and chemical-quality data; (2) mapping of the glacial overburden and underlying dolomite aquifer from well logs and geologic borings; (3) measurement of hydraulic head in the glacial overburden and dolomite aquifer; (4) collection and analysis of water-quality data from the landfill, glacial overburden, and dolomite aquifer; and (5) collection and analysis of water- and sediment-quality data from local streams. The project area is located in Wood County in northwestern Ohio and encompasses an area of approximately 10 (square miles). The area includes parts of the City of Northwood (population 6,000) and the Village of Walbridge (population 3,000).

  14. Classification of hydrogeologic areas and hydrogeologic flow systems in the basin and range physiographic province, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Konieczki, Alice D.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province in parts of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah, and most of Nevada was classified at basin and larger scales to facilitate information transfer and to provide a synthesis of results from many previous hydrologic investigations. A conceptual model for the spatial hierarchy of the hydrogeology was developed for the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and consists, in order of increasing spatial scale, of hydrogeologic components, hydrogeologic areas, hydrogeologic flow systems, and hydrogeologic regions. This hierarchy formed a framework for hydrogeologic classification. Hydrogeologic areas consist of coincident ground-water and surface-water basins and were delineated on the basis of existing sets of basin boundaries that were used in past investigations by State and Federal government agencies. Within the study area, 344 hydrogeologic areas were identified and delineated. This set of basins not only provides a framework for the classification developed in this report, but also has value for regional and subregional purposes of inventory, study, analysis, and planning throughout the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. The fact that nearly all of the province is delineated by the hydrogeologic areas makes this set well suited to support regional-scale investigations. Hydrogeologic areas are conceptualized as a control volume consisting of three hydrogeologic components: the soils and streams, basin fill, and consolidated rocks. The soils and streams hydrogeologic component consists of all surface-water bodies and soils extending to the bottom of the plant root zone. The basin-fill hydrogeologic component consists of unconsolidated and semiconsolidated sediment deposited in the structural basin. The consolidated-rocks hydrogeologic component consists of the crystalline and sedimentary rocks that form the mountain blocks and basement rock of the structural basin. Hydrogeologic areas were

  15. Sandia National Laboratories site-wide hydrogeologic characterization project calendar year 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Crowson, D.; Gibson, J.D.; Haase, C.S.; Holt, R.; Hyndman, D.; Krumhansl, J.; Lauffer, F.; McCord, J.P.; McCord, J.T.; Neel, D.

    1993-10-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) project has been implemented as part of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Program to develop the regional hydrogeologic framework and baseline for the approximately 100 mi of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) and adjacent withdrawn public lands upon which SNL/NM has performed research and development activities. Additionally, the SWHC project will investigate and characterize generic hydrogeologic issues associated with the 172 ER sites owned by SNL/NM across its facilities on KAFB. As called for in the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit agreement between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the permitter and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL/NM as the permittees, an annual report is to be prepared by the SWHC project team. This document serves two primary purposes: (1) to identify and describe the conceptual framework for the hydrogeologic system underlying SNL/NM and (2) to describe characterization activities undertaken in the preceding year that add to our understanding (reduce our uncertainties) regarding the conceptual and quantitative hydrogeologic framework. This SWHC project annual report focuses primarily on purpose 1, providing a summary description of the current {open_quotes}state of knowledge{close_quotes} of the Sandia National Laboratories/Kirtland Air Force Base (SNL/KAFB) hydrogeologic setting.

  16. Hydrogeologic settings and groundwater-flow simulations for regional investigations of the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants to public-supply wells—Investigations begun in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to public-supply wells (TANC study) was begun in 2001 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The study was designed to shed light on factors that affect the vulnerability of groundwater and, more specifically, water from public-supply wells to contamination to provide a context for the NAWQA Program's earlier finding of mixtures of contaminants at low concentrations in groundwater near the water table in urban areas across the Nation. The TANC study has included investigations at both the regional (tens to thousands of square kilometers) and local (generally less than 25 square kilometers) scales. At the regional scale, the approach to investigation involves refining conceptual models of groundwater flow in hydrologically distinct settings and then constructing or updating a groundwater-flow model with particle tracking for each setting to help quantify regional water budgets, public-supply well contributing areas (areas contributing recharge to wells and zones of contribution for wells), and traveltimes from recharge areas to selected wells. A great deal of information about each contributing area is captured from the model output, including values for 170 variables that describe physical and (or) geochemical characteristics of the contributing areas. The information is subsequently stored in a relational database. Retrospective water-quality data from monitoring, domestic, and many of the public-supply wells, as well as data from newly collected samples at selected public-supply wells, also are stored in the database and are used with the model output to help discern the more important factors affecting vulnerability in many, if not most, settings. The study began with investigations in seven regional areas, and it benefits from being conducted as part of the NAWQA Program, in which consistent methods are used so that meaningful comparisons can be

  17. Investigating the Hydrogeologic Controls on Memory and Feedbacks to Climate Change in Mountain Groundwater Systems: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovich, K. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rising global temperatures are profoundly impacting alpine environments by shifting the precipitation type and the timing of peak snowmelt runoff. Uncertainty in the magnitude of these shifts translates to uncertainty in how climate change affects timing of snowmelt runoff, and hence availability of surface water during the remainder of the year. Integrated hydrologic models are useful tools for capturing these feedbacks by closing the loop between atmosphere, land surface, and subsurface dynamics. Recent integrated models have been used to predict streamflow response to climate change in mountain basins, however these models assume that shallow, local flow paths comprise the majority of recharge and baseflow to streams. Several studies have challenged this assumption with discordant groundwater ages and hysteresis loops, suggesting that deep, regional flow paths may play a more substantial role even at the local stream scale. This would have considerable implications for predicted responses to climate change in alpine basins, as deep, regional groundwater would initially buffer perturbations, but exhibit greater memory over the long-term. The goal of this study is to understand how various hydrogeological settings will control the relative feedbacks to climate change. This research uses three simplified, conceptual hillslope models: a "fast" draining, low storage, granodiorite similar to that of of the Sierra Nevada or Himalayan mountain range, a "slow" draining, high storage basalt of the Cascade or Andes Range, and a vertically homogeneous "base" case. The relative response of these hillslopes to three future climate scenarios: warm, warm and dry, and warm and wet are tested using ParFlow, an integrated surface water-groundwater model, coupled with CLM, a land surface model. These models will help quantify the relative feedbacks of deep groundwater in various hydrogeologic settings and will ultimately be scaled up to assess the 3-D, transient response of deep

  18. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California: Summary of Fieldwork and Data Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Geophysical field investigations have been carried out at the Hidden Dam in Raymond, California for the purpose of better understanding the hydrogeology and seepage-related conditions at the site. Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam are documented by Cedergren. Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a subdrain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain within the downstream portion of the dam. The purpose of the current geophysical work is to (1) identify present-day seepage areas that may not be evident due to the effectiveness of the drainage blanket in redirecting seepage water, and (2) provide information about subsurface geologic structures that may control subsurface flow and seepage. These tasks are accomplished through the use of two complementary electrical geophysical methods, self-potentials (SP) and direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity, which have been commonly utilized in dam-seepage studies. SP is a passive method that is primarily sensitive to active subsurface groundwater flow and seepage, whereas DC resistivity is an active-source method that is sensitive to changes in subsurface lithology and groundwater saturation. The focus of this field campaign was on the downstream area on the right abutment, or northwest side of the dam, as this is the main area of interest regarding seepage. Two exploratory self-potential lines were also collected on the downstream left abutment of the dam to identify

  19. Structure-based geoelectrical models derived from genetic algorithms: A case study for hydrogeological investigations along Elbe River coastal area, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwa, Mohamed; Akca, Irfan; Basokur, Ahmet T.; Günther, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are performed to assess the hydrogeological conditions along Elbe River coastal area, Germany. Because the interpretation of actual resistivity data still has a degree of non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning, linear and non-linear inversion methods have been applied in this paper for optimal interpretation of the measured data. The 1D model generation using hybrid genetic algorithms (GA) represents an accurate and quick solution to image the subsurface resistivity distributions; freshwater aquifer and two highly conductive zones of perched saltwater and seawater intrusion. The longitudinal conductance of the interpreted layers above the water table is calculated to explain why the vulnerable zone to the perched saltwater concentrates at the central and southern parts of the area investigated.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Lloyd Aquifer on Long Island, New York-A Brief Summary of USGS Investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The four counties of Long Island (fig. 1) are underlain by a wedge-shaped sequence of unconsolidated deposits of Late Cretaceous and Pleistocene age that lie unconformably on crystalline bedrock (fig. 2). A saprolitic (weathered bedrock) zone 20 to 100 ft thick overlies the bedrock in most areas. The sequence of unconsolidated deposits thickens to the south and southeast by about 65 to 100 feet per mile and contains Long Island's fresh ground water. Long Island's ground-water system consists of four main aquifers-the upper glacial, the Jameco, the Magothy, and the Lloyd. The Lloyd aquifer underlies nearly all of Long Island (fig. 3), but pumpage from the Lloyd has been limited to the northern and southern coastal areas of the island by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation since about 1955 (Garber, 1986). Coastal areas are exempt where the Lloyd is the only source of potable water. The former Jamaica Water Supply Corporation (now owned by New York City) is a noted exception withdrawing as much as 6 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) since the mid-1930s from the Lloyd in central Queens County. This paper: (1) provides a brief history of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies that provided significant data on the Lloyd, (2) summarizes the hydraulic characteristics of the Lloyd as reported in those studies, and (3) describes present-day monitoring of the Lloyd by the USGS.

  1. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A series of brief summaries of the results of individual investigations of LANDSAT 4 image data characteristics are presented. Topics are divided into MSS and TM investigations, and applications of the imaging techniques. Radiometric and geometric accuracy are emphasized.

  2. An Integrated Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Investigation to Characterize the Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer in an Area of Northeastern Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clark, Allan K.; Payne, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a hydrogeologic and geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrostratigraphy (hydrostratigraphic zones) and also the hydrogeologic features (karst features such as sinkholes and caves) of the Edwards aquifer in a 16-square-kilometer area of northeastern Bexar County, Texas, undergoing urban development. Existing hydrostratigraphic information, enhanced by local-scale geologic mapping in the area, and surface geophysics were used to associate ranges of electrical resistivities obtained from capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity surveys, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings, and two-dimensional direct-current (2D-DC) resistivity surveys with each of seven hydrostratigraphic zones (equivalent to members of the Kainer and Person Formations) of the Edwards aquifer. The principal finding of this investigation is the relation between electrical resistivity and the contacts between the hydrostratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer and the underlying Trinity aquifer in the area. In general, the TDEM data indicate a two-layer model in which an electrical conductor underlies an electrical resistor, which is consistent with the Trinity aquifer (conductor) underlying the Edwards aquifer (resistor). TDEM data also show the plane of Bat Cave fault, a well-known fault in the area, to be associated with a local, nearly vertical zone of low resistivity that provides evidence, although not definitive, for Bat Cave fault functioning as a flow barrier, at least locally. In general, the CC resistivity, FDEM survey, and 2D-DC resistivity survey data show a sharp electrical contrast from north to south, changing from high resistivity to low resistivity across Bat Cave fault as well as possible karst features in the study area. Interpreted karst features that show relatively low resistivity within a relatively high

  3. Fault zone hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (< 1 km) introduces permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy, which has an important impact on processes such as regional groundwater flow, hydrocarbon migration, and hydrothermal fluid circulation. Fault zones have the capacity to be hydraulic conduits connecting shallow and deep geological environments, but simultaneously the fault cores of many faults often form effective barriers to flow. The direct evaluation of the impact of faults to fluid flow patterns remains a challenge and requires a multidisciplinary research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and

  4. Summary of 1991--1992 misadministration event investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, L.T.; Leahy, T.J.; Novack, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    Investigation team composed of representatives of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and subcontracts investigated and analyzed seven misadministration events selected by the NRC concerning medical radioisotopes. Each team was led by an INEL member and depending on the nature of the event, included three or more team members with appropriate expertise in radiation oncology, medical physics, nuclear medicine technology, risk analysis, and human factors. The investigations focused on causes of the event, consequences, mitigating actions, and corrective actions. The major findings are described in this report.

  5. An Integrated 3D Hydrogeological, Geophysical, and Microbiological Investigation of Geochemical Gradients in a Pristine Aquifer Located in Laurentian Hills, ON, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokova, V.; Graves, L.; Stojanovic, S.; Enright, A. M.; Bank, C.; Ferris, F. G.

    2013-12-01

    A pristine glaciofluvial aquifer displaying naturally occurring geochemical gradients was investigated using hydrogeological, geophysical, and microbiological methods. A network of 25 piezometers was used to collect samples for groundwater chemical analysis, including parameters such as total iron (Fe), ferrous iron (Fe2+), sulphate (SO42-), sulfur (S2-), ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), silica (SiO2), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and oxidation reduction potential (ORP). Ion concentration values between piezometers were interpolated using kriging and inverse distance weighting. Yearly analysis of the network shows spatially and temporally persistent plumes of iron and sulfur. A 3D model of the aquifer was compiled to aid in the understanding of the nature and origin of the geochemical gradients. The resulting maps showed zones with high concentrations of dissolved total iron (predominantly soluble ferric iron and complexed iron compounds), followed immediately downgradient by a high concentration of ferrous iron. Similarly, zones of high sulfide concentration were followed by areas of high sulfate concentration. There was some overlap between the iron and sulfur plumes, and ion concentrations were higher in years with a lower water table elevation. Metagenomic analysis revealed a diverse microbial community in the sediment, capable of the biogeochemical cycling of iron, sulfur, and nitrogen. The aquifer basin, as bounded by a till aquitard, was delineated using ground penetrating radar tomography from 45 lines. The plumes corresponded to an area where there is large, channel-like depression in the till boundary. Flow vectors from hydrogeological modelling indicated increased velocity followed by a slowing and convergence of groundwater in this location. Resistivity values from 20 lines varied in general from high values (2000-6000 Ohm.m) above 1-2 m to lower values (less than 1000 Ohm.m) below 2 to a 5m depth. The resistivity surveys consistently showed

  6. Summary of Seepage Investigations in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, C.S.; Julich, R.J.; Welch, W.B.; Curran, C.R.; Mastin, M.C.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Yakama Nation for seepage investigations in the Yakima River basin are made available as downloadable Microsoft Excel files. These data were collected for more than a century at various times for several different studies and are now available in one location to facilitate future analysis by interested parties.

  7. Summary of Investigations of Mark 25 Aerial-Torpedo Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schum, Harold J.; Whitney, Warren J.; Buckner, Howard A., Jr.

    1950-01-01

    The power plant from a Mark 25 aerial torpedo was investigated both as a two-stage turbine and as a single-stage modified turbine to determine the effect on overall performance of nozzle size and shape, first-stage rotor-blade configuration, and axial nozzle-rotor running clearance. Performance was evaluated in terms of brake, rotor, and blade efficiencies. All the performance data were obtained for inlet total to outlet static pressure ratios of 8, 15 (design), and 20 with inlet conditions maintained constant at 95 pounds per square inch gage and 1000 F for rotor speeds from approximately 6000 to 18,000 rpm.

  8. Summary of scientific investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weart, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    The scientific issues concerning disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations have received 40 years of attention since the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) first addressed this issue in the mid-50s. For the last 21 years, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have directed site specific studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper will focus primarily on the WIPP scientific studies now in their concluding stages, the major scientific controversies regarding the site, and some of the surprises encountered during the course of these scientific investigations. The WIPP project`s present understanding of the scientific processes involved continues to support the site as a satisfactory, safe location for the disposal of defense-related transuranic waste and one which will be shown to be in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Compliance will be evaluated by incorporating data from these experiments into Performance Assessment (PA) models developed to describe the physical and chemical processes that could occur at the WIPP during the next 10,000 years under a variety of scenarios. The resulting compliance document is scheduled to be presented to the EPA in October 1996 and all relevant information from scientific studies will be included in this application and the supporting analyses. Studies supporting this compliance application conclude the major period of scientific investigation for the WIPP. Further studies will be of a ``confirmatory`` and monitoring nature.

  9. Summary of multi-core hardware and programming model investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Suzanne Marie; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes our investigations into multi-core processors and programming models for parallel scientific applications. The motivation for this study was to better understand the landscape of multi-core hardware, future trends, and the implications on system software for capability supercomputers. The results of this study are being used as input into the design of a new open-source light-weight kernel operating system being targeted at future capability supercomputers made up of multi-core processors. A goal of this effort is to create an agile system that is able to adapt to and efficiently support whatever multi-core hardware and programming models gain acceptance by the community.

  10. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  11. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2009-02-19

    In this presentation, lectures in the school are revisited and a brief summary is given. An emphasis is made to illustrate how the lectures are interconnected so as to constitute the unified basis of knowledge in realizing thermonuclear fusion in ITER.The first message here is the integration of the knowledge. All of conditions (which is imposed by individual characteristic dynamics) must be simultaneously fulfilled. Plasma conditions (density, pressure, current, shape, etc.) set parameter boundaries. Achievement of Q = 10 is expected to be realized near the ridge of boundary, so that exact knowledge of mutual relations between constraints is inevitable. The other message is that, the constraints of plasma, material and design must be subject to a special care. In this regard, the use of tritium in ITER introduces new issue in research. For instance, the containment of tritium in the device leads to a new demand for the system. This issue influences the choice of the wall material. The difference of the wall material (either light element or heavy metal), on the other hand, can have a large impact on confinement. These new features in integration will be explained.The other issue is the need of integration of knowledge to form a law of understanding. The mission of ITER must be realized as fast as possible, considering the fact the necessity for fusion energy will be more keen as time goes on. The operation of ITER has been predicted by extending the empirical scaling relations. More precise prediction and the resolution of possible problems in advance are required. For this urgency, our knowledge must be distilled as a scientific law in which elementary processes are validated.

  12. Seismic investigations of the HDR Safety Program. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Malcher, L.; Schrammel, D.; Steinhilber, H.; Kot, C.A.

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the seismic investigations, performed at the HDR facility in Kahl/Main, FRG was to validate calculational methods for the seismic evaluation of nuclear-reactor systems, using experimental data from an actual nuclear plant. Using eccentric mass shaker excitation the HDR soil/structure system was tested to incipient failure, exhibiting highly nonlinear response and demonstrating that structures not seismically designed can sustain loads equivalent to a design basin earthquake (DBE). Load transmission from the structure to piping/equipment indicated significant response amplifications and shifts to higher frequencies, while the response of tanks/vessels depended mainly on their support conditions. The evaluation of various piping support configurations demonstrated that proper system design (for a given spectrum) rather than number of supports or system stiffness is important to limiting pipe greens. Piping at loads exceeding the DBE eightfold still had significant margins and failure is improbable inspite of multiple support failures. The mean value for pipe damping, even under extreme loads, was found to be about 4%. Comparison of linear and nonlinear computational results with piping response measurements showed that predictions have a wide scatter and do not necessarily yield conservative responses underpredicting, in particular, peak support forces. For the soil/structure system the quality of the predictions did not depend so much on the complexity of the modeling, but rather on whether the model captured the salient features and nonlinearities of the system.

  13. Hydrogeologic investigation and establishment of a permanent multi-observational well network in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Eight-year interim report (1986-1994). Volume 1 cluster-site description

    SciTech Connect

    Gellici, J.A.; Reed, R.H.; Logan, W.R.; Aadland, R.K.; Simones, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Division (SCWRD), in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is conducting a hydrogeologic investigation of the ground-water system(s) peripheral to the Savannah River Site. The study area is located in the Southeastern Coastal Plain hydrogeologic province in Aiken, Allendale and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Ground-water movement, quality, and availability are being evaluated in order to better protect and manage this valuable regional resource. The investigation involves a well-cluster system comparable to the one constructed on the SRS. Cluster sites are situated outside the SRS on the basis of study objectives, proximity to the plant`s borders, land availability, and for the optimization of hydrogeologic control. One to three wells are completed into each major aquifer, and at each cluster site, at least one borehole is continuously cored and geophysically logged from land surface to at least 10 feet into unweathered bedrock. Data collected from the ongoing study include 146 paleontologic and palynologic age dates, 100 x-ray diffraction analyses of clay and bulk mineralogy, 442 sieve analyses, 6,040 feet of detailed core description, mineral composition and porosity determined from thin-section analyses, and continuous water-level data. This report is a compilation and interpretation of the {open_quotes}C-well{close_quotes} data that have been generated from the project and that will be used to model and characterize the aquifers and confining units in the region.

  14. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations to evaluate groundwater influences on GHG emissions at the national research site Skogaryd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Klemedtsson, Leif; Sturkell, Erik; Nyström, Elin; Barthel, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The overall objective of the presented study is to explore the impact of groundwater fluctuations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands and in particular from drained organic soils. The hypothesis is that drained organic soils react sensitively to changing water content, i.e. that frequent changes of groundwater level enhance the emissions of GHG from these soils and thus contribute significantly to global warming. The area under investigation is based at the Skogaryd Research Catchment (within Swedish Infrastructure for Ecosystem Sciences, SITES) in western Sweden (Meyer, et al., 2013), which was recently assigned the status of a national research site by the Swedish research council (www.vr.se). Skogaryd is a unique place in Sweden for doing research on organic soils as the area was simultaneously afforested in the 1960s and the drained fertile soils have a different land-use history. The ditching for drainage purposes throughout the entire area has had and still has a huge influence on groundwater level, which in turn is assumed to trigger GHG emissions from the organic soils at Skogaryd. To address the influence of groundwater dynamics on GHG emissions in this system, a characterisation of the subsurface using electrical resistivity and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements was carried out. These geophysical measurements were combined with drilling along them to allow for ground truthing. An average peat thickness of around 3 m was estimated for the field site. Below the peat follows a fine sand layer, which reaches a maximum thickness of around 1.0 m right at the valley borders and thins out significantly towards the middle of the valley. Below the fine sand layer follows a layer of marine clay, which extends down to the bedrock at depths between 12 and 15 m below ground surface. The results show that the peat layer in Skogaryd forms an isolated hydraulic system without interaction with deeper or regional groundwater systems. The continuously

  15. Seawater intrusion in the gravelly confined aquifer of the coastal Pisan Plain (Tuscany): hydrogeological and geochemical investigation to assess causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doveri, M.; Giannecchini, R.; Butteri, M.

    2012-12-01

    The gravelly horizon of the Pisa plain multilayered system is a confined aquifer tapped by a large number of wells. It hosts a very important water resource for drinking, industrial and irrigable uses, but may be affected by seawater intrusion coming from the coastal area; most wells is distributed inland, anyway a significant exploitation along the coastal area is also present to supply farms and tourist services. Previous hydrogeological and geochemical investigations carried out in coastal area stated maximum percentage of seawater in gravelly aquifer of about 7-9% and suggested the presence of two different mechanisms (Doveri et alii, 2010): i) a direct seawater intrusion from the zone where the gravelly aquifer is in contact with the sea floor; ii) a mixing process between freshwater and seawater, the latter deriving from the Arno river-shallow sandy aquifer system. Basing on these results, since January 2012 a new two-year project was financed by the MSRM Regional Park. Major aims are a better definition of such phenomena and their distribution on the territory, and an assessing of the seawater intrusion trend in relation to groundwater exploitation. Eleven piezometers were realised during first semester of 2012, thus improving the measurement network, which is now made up by 40 wells/piezometers distributed on about 60 km^2. Comparing new and previous borehole data a general confinement of the gravelly aquifer is confirmed, excepting in the northern part where the aquifer is in contact with the superficial sandy one. Preliminary field measurement was performed in June 2012, during which water level (WL) and electrical conductivity (EC) data were collected. WLs below the sea-level were observed on most of the studied area, with a minimum value of about -5 m a.s.l. in the inner part of the northern zone, where major exploitation is present. Moreover, a relative minimum of WL (about -2 m a.s.l.) is present near the shoreline in the southern zone. In the latter

  16. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Volume 1: Summary and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, E. E.; Bloomquist, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the KSC program for investigating the reliability aspects of the ground support activities is presented. An analysis of unsatisfactory condition reports (RC), and the generation of reliability assessment of components based on the URC are discussed along with the design considerations for attaining reliable real time hardware/software configurations.

  17. Hydrogeology of wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.; Llamas, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    A collection of 10 papers presented at the Hydrogeology of Wetlands Symposium, 28th International Geological Congress in Washington, DC, in July 1989. The purpose of the symposium was to assemble papers describing hydrogeologic studies of wetlands representative of different geographic regions, wetland types, and study approaches. The papers presented at the Symposium ranged geographically from wetlands in the Arctic to the Subtropics. Different wetland types included coastal, riverine, depressional glacial terrane, and dunal depressions. Different study approaches included regional syntheses, analyses of groundwater flow systems, wetland-river interaction, and geomorphology-vegetation interaction. -from Editors

  18. Hydrogeology of the Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ozouville, N.; Pryet, A.; Violette, S.; de Marsily, G.; Deffontaines, B.; Auken, E.

    2010-12-01

    Due to the heterogeneity of geological formations, volcanic islands present complex and contrasting hydrogeological settings. A young discipline in the Galapagos, hydrogeology requires an understanding of geology, geomorphology, climate and hydrology. Throughout history, navigators, scientists and inhabitants noted the lack of surface freshwater; and water availability limited settlement of the islands. Today, this limitation is overcome through groundwater exploitation and expensive desalination, fed by economic growth. This shift has freed the field of hydrogeology from the existing premise of water being the principal drive for human development. Within this context, our approach is to lead a pluri-disciplinary research to characterize Galapagos hydrogeology. It involves a long-term commitment with international, national and local partners. Field investigations conducted on the inhabited islands of Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela and Floreana reveal three types of aquifers. A low-lying basal aquifer outcrops on Santa Cruz and Isabela. Due to the high permeability of fractured shield series forming coastal aprons, intruding sea water mixes with discharging freshwater, and confers a high salt content to groundwater. In order to characterize the hydraulic properties of this aquifer, the propagation of the tidal signal into the basal aquifer has been investigated through piezometric monitoring in three open coastal fractures and the deep well on Santa Cruz. Springs are scarce in the Archipelago, but have been identified historically on Santa Cruz and Floreana, located on the flanks of volcanic cones, and fed by small perched aquifers. On San Cristobal, high-level aquifers feed springs on the southern mountainside that contribute to a network of permanent rivers that reach the sea, a unique feature in the whole archipelago. They are independent from El Junco, a unique summital freshwater, and semi-endoreic lake. Internal resistivity structure of Santa Cruz and

  19. Using a Three-Dimensional Hydrogeologic Framework to Investigate Potential Sources of Water Springs in the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. C.; Belcher, W. R.; Sweetkind, D. S.; Faunt, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Death Valley regional groundwater flow system encompasses a proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository of the United States of America, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), where nuclear weapons were tested, and National Park and BLM properties, and provides water for local communities. The model was constructed using a three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework and has been used as a resource planning mechanism by the many stakeholders involved, including four United States (U.S) federal agencies (U.S. Department of Energy, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and local counties, towns, and residents. One of the issues in recent model development is simulation of insufficient water to regional discharge areas which form springs in valleys near the center of the system. Given what seems to be likely rock characteristics and geometries at depth, insufficient water is simulated to reach the discharge areas. This "surprise" thus challenges preconceived notions about the system. Here we use the hydrogeologic model to hypothesize alternatives able to produce the observed flow and use the groundwater simulation to test the hypotheses with other available data. Results suggest that the transmissivity measurements need to be used carefully because wells in this system are never fully penetrating, that multiple alternatives are able to produce the springflow, and that one most likely alternative cannot be identified given available data. Consequences of the alternatives are discussed.

  20. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1979 to June 30, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    This annual report contains summaries of more than 1,200 reading research studies that appeared in print between July 1, 1979 and June 30, 1980. The summaries are arranged into six major categories. The first category lists other general bibliographies offering summaries of reading research, while the second category presents summaries of studies…

  1. Hydrogeologic investigation and establishment of a permanent multi-observational well network in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Phase VIII

    SciTech Connect

    Gellici, J.A.; Gawne, C.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Lower Savannah River Project was established in 1986 to improve our understanding of the hydrogeologic conditions in west-central South Carolina. Six progress reports have been written since 1987. This report covers the period from July 1, 1994, to June 30, 1995. During the current phase, work focused on locating and procuring suitable sites for future well clusters; drafting well-construction specifications and bid packages; drilling monitoring wells at site C-7; and completing two comprehensive reports. Land was acquired for three future well-cluster sites: C-11, C-13, and C-15. Site C-11 will be located at the Oakwood Fire Tower in Aiken County. This land was made available through the South Carolina Forestry Commission. Land for site C-13 was donated by the Wildlife Division of the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources and will be located at Little Hell Landing on the Savannah River flood plain southwest of Millet in Allendale County. Site C-15 will be located at Gillisonville in northern Jasper County. A 0.9-acre parcel of land was purchased from Westvaco, Inc., for this site. Well specifications and bid packages were drawn up for the construction of seven monitoring wells at site C-10, three at C-13, and two at C-15. Specific-capacity values of nine wells at site C-7 range from 0.3 to 20.6 gpm/ft (gallons per minute per foot of drawdown). Two deep Cretaceous wells were drilled at site C-7, one each in the Midville and Dublin aquifer systems. An upward hydraulic gradient exists between the aquifers. Two comprehensive reports were completed during this phase of the project: (1) a compilation and interpretation of data collected from the project since its inception in 1986, and (2) a detailed description of the hydrogeologic framework of west-central South Carolina and the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifers and confining units.

  2. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1978 to June 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    This annual publication contains summaries of more than 1,100 reading research reports that appeared in print between July 1, 1978 and June 30, 1979. The summaries are arranged into six major categories. The first category contains a listing of other general bibliographies offering summaries of reading research, while the second category presents…

  3. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  4. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  6. The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Appold, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits represent a convergence of fluid flow, thermal energy, and solute flux that is hydrogeologically unusual. From the hydrogeologic perspective, hydrothermal ore deposition represents a complex coupled-flow problem—sufficiently complex that physically rigorous description of the coupled thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes (THMC modeling) continues to challenge our computational ability. Though research into these coupled behaviors has found only a limited subset to be quantitatively tractable, it has yielded valuable insights into the workings of hydrothermal systems in a wide range of geologic environments including sedimentary, metamorphic, and magmatic. Examples of these insights include the quantification of likely driving mechanisms, rates and paths of fluid flow, ore-mineral precipitation mechanisms, longevity of hydrothermal systems, mechanisms by which hydrothermal fluids acquire their temperature and composition, and the controlling influence of permeability and other rock properties on hydrothermal fluid behavior. In this communication we review some of the fundamental theory needed to characterize the physical hydrogeology of hydrothermal systems and discuss how this theory has been applied in studies of Mississippi Valley-type, tabular uranium, porphyry, epithermal, and mid-ocean ridge ore-forming systems. A key limitation in the computational state-of-the-art is the inability to describe fluid flow and transport fully in the many ore systems that show evidence of repeated shear or tensional failure with associated dynamic variations in permeability. However, we discuss global-scale compilations that suggest some numerical constraints on both mean and dynamically enhanced crustal permeability. Principles of physical hydrogeology can be powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal ore formation and are becoming increasingly accessible with ongoing advances in modeling software.

  7. Coral reef hydrogeology

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Oberdorfer, J.A.

    1985-05-21

    Knowledge of internal flow velocities and pore water residence time is important in understanding pore water geochemistry, nutrient fluxes at the benthic boundary, reef diagenesis, and fresh water resources in reef islands. Hydrogeologic studies of Pacific and Indian Ocean reef and atoll islands indicate a dual aquifer systems; the major Pleistocene aquifer has hydraulic conductivities on the order of 1000 m/d, while the overlying Holocene aquifer of unconsolidated sediments is at least an order of magnitude less permeable. The high permeability in the Pleistocene formation is the result of large voids, both constructional and from subaerial solution during low stands of the sea. Wind, wave and tide induced head differences ranging from a few centimeters to several tens of centimeters provide the driving force for internal flow. Pore water residence times and geochemistry will vary greatly, depending on whether the water is in a major flow channel or in more restricted pores. Studies of both submerged reefs and atoll islands give bulk pore water residence times on the order of months to a few years. Chemical analyses of pore water indicate that both carbonate solution and precipitation are taking place, which will alter porosity and permeability with time. The dual aquifer model also suggests that the Ghyben-Herzberg lens approach to reef island fresh water resources is inaccurate and can lead to a gross overestimation of the potable resource. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  8. A summary of porous tube plant nutrient delivery system investigations from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Piastuch, W. C.; Hinkle, C. R.; Sager, J. C.; Wheeler, R. M.; Knott, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program is a research effort to evaluate biological processes at a one person scale to provide air, water, and food for humans in closed environments for space habitation. This program focuses currently on the use of conventional crop plants and the use of hydroponic systems to grow them. Because conventional hydroponic systems are dependent on gravity to conduct solution flow, they cannot be used in the microgravity of space. Thus, there is a need for a system that will deliver water and nutrients to plant roots under microgravity conditions. The Plant Space Biology Program is interested in investigating the effect that the space environment has on the growth and development of plants. Thus, there is also a need to have a standard nutrient delivery method for growing plants in space for research into plant responses to microgravity. The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) utilizes a hydrophilic, microporous material to control water and nutrient delivery to plant roots. It has been designed and analyzed to support plant growth independent of gravity and plans are progressing to test it in microgravity. It has been used successfully to grow food crops to maturity in an earth-bound laboratory. This document includes a bibliography and summary reports from the growth trials performed utilizing the PTPNDS.

  9. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment and study plan for a regional ground-water resource investigation of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, Charles C.; Dahlen, Paul R.

    2002-01-01

    , Groundwater Section, in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey, initiated a multiyear study of ground water in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces. The study began in 1999. Most of the study area is underlain by a complex, two-part, regolith-fractured crystalline rock aquifer system. Thickness of the regolith throughout the study area is highly variable and ranges from 0 to more than 150 feet. The regolith consists of an unconsolidated or semiconsolidated mixture of clay and fragmental material ranging in grain size from silt to boulders. Because porosities range from 35 to 55 percent, the regolith provides the bulk of the water storage within the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ground-water system. At the base of the regolith is the transition zone where saprolite grades into unweathered bedrock. The transition zone has been identified as a potential conduit for rapid ground-water flow. If this is the case, the transition zone also may serve as a conduit for rapid movement of contaminants to nearby wells or to streams with channels that cut into 1 U.S. Geological Survey, Raleigh, North Carolina. 2 North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, Groundwater Section. or through the transition zone. How rapidly a contaminant moves through the system largely may be a function of the characteristics of the transition zone. The transition zone is one of several topics identified during the literature review and data synthesis, for which there is a deficiency in data and understanding of the processes involved in the movement of ground water to surface water. Because the Blue Ridge and Piedmont study area is so large, and the hydrogeology diverse, it is not feasible to study all of the area in detail. A more feasible approach is to select areas that are most representative of the land use, geology, and hydrology to obtain an understanding of the hydrologic processes in the selected areas, and transfer the knowledge from th

  10. Hydrogeology and Hydrologic Landscape Regions of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Medina, Rose L.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2004-01-01

    units consist of: (1) carbonate rocks, Quaternary to Tertiary age; (2) basaltic, (3) rhyolitic, and (4) andesitic volcanic flows; (5) volcanic breccias, tuffs, and volcanic rocks older than Tertiary age; (6) intrusive and metamorphic rocks; (7) consolidated and semi-consolidated tuffaceous rocks and sediments; and (8) clastic rocks consisting of sandstone and siltstone. Unconsolidated sediments are subdivided into four hydrogeologic units on the basis of flow regime, topographic slope, and mapped stream channels. The four units are (1) alluvial slopes, (2) valley floors, (3) fluvial deposits, and (4) playas. Soil permeability was grouped into five descriptive categories ranging from very high to very low, which generally correspond to mapped geomorphic features such as playas and alluvial slopes. In general, soil permeability is low to moderate in northern, northeastern, and eastern Nevada and high to very high in western, southwestern, and southern Nevada. Within a particular basin, soil permeability decreases downslope from the bedrock contact. The type of parent rock, climate, and streamflow velocities are factors that likely cause these spatial patterns. Faults in unconsolidated sediments usually are barriers to ground-water flow. In consolidated rocks, permeability and ground-water flow is reduced in directions normal to the fault zone and increased in directions parallel to the fault zone. With time, mineral precipitation may seal fractures in consolidated rocks, reducing the permeability. However, continued movement along the fault may form new fractures, resulting in a fault alternating from a zone of preferred flow to a flow barrier during geologic time. The effect of faults on ground-water flow at a particular location is difficult to determine without a site- specific investigation. Hydrologic landscape regions were delineated by overlaying a grid of 100-foot (30-meter) cells over the State, estimating the value of five variables for each cell, an

  11. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1982 to June 30, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    More than 1,000 studies of reading research published between July 1, 1982, and June 30, 1983 are summarized in this report. The studies are arranged into six categories: (1) Summaries of Reading Research, (2) Teacher Preparation and Practice, (3) The Sociolgy of Reading, (4) Physiology and Psychology of Reading, (5) The Teaching of Reading, and…

  12. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1983 to June 30, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    Intended to help professionals remain knowledgeable about current research in reading and to serve as a relatively accessible bibliographic source of research on a specific topic, this annual report summarizes approximately 1,150 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1983, and June 30, 1984. The summaries are arranged into six…

  13. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1971, to June 30, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Samuel, Comp.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The 302 reports of reading research summarized here were published between July 1, 1971, and June 30, 1972. The research has been categorized under six headings. The first category includes other summaries of research, classified as general or under specific titles. The second category consists of research literature related to teacher preparation…

  14. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1985 to June 30, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    Intended to help professionals remain knowledgeable about current research in reading and to serve as a relatively accessible bibliographic source of research on a specific topic, this annual report summarizes approximately 800 reading research reports identified between July 1, 1985, and June 30, 1986. The summaries are arranged into six major…

  15. Summary of Investigations Relating to Reading, July 1, 1984, to June 30, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintraub, Sam; And Others

    Intended to help professionals remain knowledgeable about current research in reading and to serve as a relatively accessible bibliographic source of research on a specific topic, this annual report summarizes approximately 1,000 reports of reading research identified between July 1, 1984, and June 30, 1985. The summaries are arranged into six…

  16. A summary of investigations of severe turbulence incidents using airline flight records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, P. F.; Wingrove, R. C.; Bach, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Work done on the NASA-Ames data base of digital flight records from airliners involved in severe turbulence incidences is summarized. The summary includes descriptions of the archived cases, data processing procedures, estimated errors, analysis procedures, and significant results to date. Thirteen severe turbulence cases are listed.

  17. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  18. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The criteria, guidelines, and an organized approach for use in the space station and space shuttle program definition phase are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) background information and evolution of the studies, (2) definition of terms used, (3) concepts of the space shuttle, space station, experiment modules, shuttle-sortie operations and modular space station, and (4) summary of functional program element (FPE) requirements. Diagrams of the various configurations and the experimental equipment to be installed in the structures are included.

  19. The Contribution of Hydrogeophysics to Hydrogeological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, N. B.; Auken, E.; Sorensen, K.

    2005-12-01

    Electrical and electromagnetic (E&EM) methods are some of the most commonly used geophysical techniques for hydrogeophysical investigations. In this presentation, the use of E&EM methods for watershed-scale hydrogeological investigations are reviewed. Over the past two decades a tremendous development has taken place with regard to E&EM instrumentation, field procedures and interpretation algorithms; a process that to a large extent has been focussed on hydrogeological investigations. The primary parameter mapped by E&EM methods is the electrical resistivity (or the inverse: conductivity). High and low values of the resistivity of geological materials enable the discernment between sand and clay, unsaturated and saturated, fresh and salt water, unaffected and polluted, bedrock and sediment, respectively - all fundamental to hydrogeological modeling. Time-consuming, single-site, individual electrical sounding acquisition geometries have now been replaced by multi-electrode, profile oriented measurements that have the capability to image the variation in resistivity with both depth and along profiles to a depth of 70-100m and a productivity of 1-1.5 km/day/field person. Pulled-array methods, which acquire measurements using multiple electrode configurations while moving, can traverse 10-15 km per day with a depth penetration of approximately 20 m. Transient electromagnetic soundings are carried out as both single-site and pulled-array methods, and recently by helicopter. Very cost-efficient transient methods are now commercially available. E&EM data are complicated, nonlinear functions of the resistivity distribution and the full potential of the data can only be realized by inverting the data to obtain a physical model describing the subsurface resistivity distribution. Model calibration and inverse hydraulic modeling is most often carried out based on very sparse data sets and geological information from a few boreholes. Geophysical models covering an extended area

  20. Results of the application of seismic-reflection and electromagnetic techniques for near-surface hydrogeologic and environmental investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, M.T.; Fine, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Facilities Investigations at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, selected geophysical techniques were evaluated for their usefulness as assessment tools for determining subsurface geology, delineating the areal extent of potentially contaminated landfill sites, and locating buried objects and debris of potential environmental concern. Two shallow seismic-reflection techniques (compression and shear wave) and two electromagnetic techniques (ground-penetrating radar and terrain conductivity) were evaluated at several sites at the U.S. Army Base. The electromagnetic techniques also were tested for tolerance to cultural noise, such as nearby fences, vehicles, and power lines. For the terrain conductivity tests, two instruments were used--the EM31 and EM34, which have variable depths of exploration. The shallowest reflection event was 70 feet below land surface observed in common-depth point, stacked compression-wave data from 24- and 12-fold shallow-seismic-reflection surveys. Several reflection events consistent with clay-sand interfaces between 70 and 120 feet below land surface, along with basement-saprolite surfaces, were imaged in the 24-fold, common- depth-point stacked data. 12-fold, common-depth-point stacked data set contained considerably more noise than the 24-fold, common-depth-point data, due to reduced shot-to-receiver redundancy. Coherent stacked reflection events were not observed in the 24-fold, common-depth-point stacked shear-wave data because of the partial decoupling of the shear- wave generator from the ground. At one site, ground-penetrating radar effectively delineated a shallow, 2- to 5-foot thick sand unit bounded by thin (less than 1 foot) clay layers. The radar signal was completely attenuated where the overlying and underlying clay units thickened and the sand unit thinned. The pene- tration depth of the radar signal was less than 10 feet below land surface. A slight

  1. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Beak Creek Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This annual groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during the 1995 calendar year (CY) for several hazardous and nonhazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant. The sites addressed by this document are located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the Y-12 Plant complex within the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime. The Bear Creek Regime is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the GWPP is to characterize the hydrogeology and to monitor groundwater quality at the Y-12 Plant and surrounding area to provide for protection of groundwater resources consistent with federal, state, and local requirements. Each annual Part 2 GWQR addresses RCRA interim status reporting requirements regarding assessment of the horizontal and vertical extent of groundwater contamination. This report includes background information regarding the extent of groundwater and surface water contamination in the Bear Creek Regime based on the conceptual models described in the remedial investigation report (Section 2); a summary of the groundwater and surface water monitoring activities performed during CY 1995 (Section 3.0); analysis and interpretation of the CY 1995 monitoring data for groundwater (Section 4.0) and surface water (Section 5.0); a summary of conclusions and recommendations (Section 6.0); and a list of cited references (Section 7.0). Appendices contain diagrams, graphs, data tables, and summaries and the evaluation and decision criteria for data screening.

  2. Geological and hydrogeological investigations in west Malaysia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, J. B. (Principal Investigator); Khoon, S. Y.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Large structures along the east coast of the peninsula were discovered. Of particular significance were the circular structures which were believed to be associated with mineralization and whose existence was unknown. The distribution of the younger sediments along the east coast appeared to be more widespread than previously indicated. Along the Pahang coast on the southern end, small traces of raised beach lines were noted up to six miles inland. The existence of these beach lines was unknown due to their isolation in large coastal swamps.

  3. Chemical hydrogeology in natural and contaminated environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Baedecker, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical hydrogeology, including organic and inorganic aspects, has contributed to an increased understanding of groundwater flow systems, geologic processes, and stressed environments. Most of the basic principles of inorganic-chemical hydrogeology were first established by investigations of organic-free, regional-scale systems for which simplifying assumptions could be made. The problems of groundwater contamination are causing a shift of emphasis to microscale systems that are dominated by organic-chemical reactions and that are providing an impetus for the study of naturally occurring and manmade organic material. Along with the decrease in scale, physical and chemical heterogeneity become major controls. Current investigations and those selected from the literature demonstrate that heterogeneity increases in importance as the study site decreases from regional-scale to macroscale to microscale. Increased understanding of regional-scale flow systems is demonstrated by selection of investigations of carbonate and volcanic aquifers to show how applications of present-day concepts and techniques can identify controlling chemical reactions and determine their rates; identify groundwater flow paths and determine flow velocity; and determine aquifer characteristics. The role of chemical hydrogeology in understanding geologic processes of macroscale systems is exemplified by selection of investigations in coastal aquifers. Phenomena associated with the mixing zone generated by encroaching sea water include an increase in heterogeneity of permeability, diagenesis of minerals, and formation of geomorphic features, such as caves, lagoons, and bays. Ore deposits of manganese and uranium, along with a simulation model of ore-forming fluids, demonstrate the influence of heterogeneity and of organic compounds on geochemical reactions associated with genesis of mineral deposits. In microscale environments, importance of heterogeneity and consequences of organic reactions in

  4. Geophysical characterization of Hydrogeological processes at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Orozco, Adrian; Gallistl, Jakob; Schlögel, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Oismüller, Markus; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    The characterization of hydrogeological properties in the subsurface with high resolution across space and time scales is critical to improve our understanding of water flow and transport processes. However, to date, hydrogeological investigations are mainly performed through well-tests or the analysis of samples, thus, limiting the spatial resolution of the investigation. To properly capture heterogeneities in the subsurface controlling surface-groundwater interactions, modern hydrogeological studies require the development of innovative investigation techniques that permit to gain continuous information about subsurface state with high spatial and temporal resolution at different scales: from the pore-space all the way to the catchment. To achieve this, we propose the conduction of geophysical surveys, in particular field-scale Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) imaging measurements. SIP images provide information about the complex electrical conductivity (CEC), which is controlled by important hydrogeological parameters, such as porosity, water content and the chemical properties of the pore-water. Here, we present imaging results collected at the catchment scale (approximately 66 ha), which permitted to gain detailed information about the spatial variability of hydrogeological parameters at different scales. The heterogeneities observed in the geophysical images revealed consistency with independent information collected at the study area. In addition to this, and taking into account that different geophysical methods yield information about different properties and at diverse scales, interpretation of the SIP images was improved by incorporation of complementary measurements, such as: ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Multichannel Analysis of Surface-Waves (MASW) and Seismic Refraction-Reflection (SRR).

  5. The Cerrillos Uplift, the La Bajada Constriction, and Hydrogeologic Framework of the Santo Domingo Basin, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    The geologic, geophysical, and hydrogeologic properties of the La Bajada constriction and Santo Domingo Basin, northern New Mexico, result from tectonic and volcanic processes of the late Tertiary and Quaternary Rio Grande rift. An integrated geologic and geophysical assessment in the La Bajada constriction allows development of a geologic framework that can provide input for regional ground-water flow models. These models then can provide better estimates of future water supplies in a region that largely subsists on aquifers in Rio Grande rift basins. The combination of surface geologic investigations (stratigraphic and structural studies; chapters A, B, C, and E), airborne geophysics (aeromagnetic and time-domain electromagnetic surveys; chapters D and F), ground geophysical measurements (gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; chapters D and F), and data from the few wells in the area (chapter G) provides new constraints on the hydrogeologic framework of this area. Summary results of our investigations are synthesized in chapter G. Through-going aquifers consisting of ancestral Rio Grande axial-river sand and gravel and of coarse western-piedmont gravel form the predominant ground-water pathways through the partly buried structural trough defining the La Bajada constriction between Espa?ola and Santo Domingo Basins. Thick, clay-rich Cretaceous marine shales of low hydraulic conductivity form a pervasive regional confining unit within the Cerrillos uplift on the southeast flank of the constriction. Numerous, dominantly north-northwest-striking, intrabasin faults that project part way across the La Bajada constriction create a matrix of laterally and vertically variable hydrogeologic compartments that locally partition and deflect ground-water flow parallel to faults.

  6. Summary and review of Materials Special Investigation Group evaluations of hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Funk, Joan; Pippin, H. Gary; Dursch, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Major materials findings obtained during LDEF post-flight investigations over the past three and one-half years are reported. The summary of findings to date includes results for thermal control coatings, thin polymeric films, composites, metals, adhesives, contamination, and environments definitions. Reaction rates of selected materials exposed to atomic oxygen are presented. Results useful for model verification and comparison with ground based facility data are specifically highlighted. Potential areas for future work are described. In conclusion, a rationale for a second long term flight experiment is presented.

  7. Development of the NRC`s Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP). Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Paradies, M.; Unger, L.; Haas, P.; Terranova, M.

    1993-10-01

    The three volumes of this report detail a standard investigation process for use by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel when investigating human performance related events at nuclear power plants. The process, called the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP), was developed to meet the special needs of NRC personnel, especially NRC resident and regional inspectors. HPIP is a systematic investigation process combining current procedures and field practices, expert experience, NRC human performance research, and applicable investigation techniques. The process is easy to learn and helps NRC personnel perform better field investigations of the root causes of human performance problems. The human performance data gathered through such investigations provides a better understanding of the human performance issues that cause events at nuclear power plants. This document, Volume I is a concise description of the need for the human performance investigation process, the process` components, the methods used to develop the process, the methods proposed to test the process, and conclusions on the process` usefulness.

  8. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey investigations and hydrologic conditions in the Southwest Florida Water Management District for 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutilla, Robert Lloyd; Rollins, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes water-resources investigations in the Southwest Florida Water Management District performed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, for fiscal year 1978. The investigations are part of the Federal program of appraising the nation 's water resources. The cooperative program for fiscal year 1978 included 37 interpretive investigations. Abstracts of 30 reports released during 1978 and a bibliography of reports released since 1933 are included. The hydrologic setting of southwest Florida and discussions of surface-water, ground-water, and quality-of-water conditions are given. Hydrologic conditions in southwest Florida are described and illustrated by hydrographs of selected surface-water, ground-water and lake-stage data collection sites. In addition, summaries of water-use data and data on the regional observation monitor-well program are provided. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Using hydrogeology to site wetland compensation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael V.; Fucciolo, Christine S.; Miner, James J.

    1998-01-01

    The Illinois State Geological Survey has designed an initial site evaluation (ISE) procedure to rapidly separate candidate sites that have favorable hydrogeologic characteristics for wetland restoration or creation from sites where success is doubtful or difficult. ISE aims to focus compensation efforts on sites where former wetland hydrology can be restored or where the hydrogeology of wetlands in similar landscape positions can be reproduced.

  10. Investigation of Alleged Scientific Misconduct on Grants MH-32206 and MH-37449. Final Report and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    The report presents results of a Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) investigation into alleged scientific misconduct by Dr. Stephen Bruening in relation to two federally supported projects concerning tardive dyskinesia in retarded populations and stimulant drug use with mentally retarded children. The investigative panel of scientists…

  11. Summaries of FY 1994 geosciences research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward the long-term fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy byproducts of man. The Program is divided into five broad categories: Geophysics and earth dynamics; Geochemistry; Energy resource recognition, evaluation, and utilization; Hydrogeology and exogeochemistry; and Solar-terrestrial interactions. The summaries in this document, prepared by the investigators, describe the scope of the individual programs in these main areas and their subdivisions including earth dynamics, properties of earth materials, rock mechanics, underground imaging, rock-fluid interactions, continental scientific drilling, geochemical transport, solar/atmospheric physics, and modeling, with emphasis on the interdisciplinary areas.

  12. An investigation of transitional management problems for the NSTS at NASA, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, John

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the work of the University of Houston research team for the third quarter of effort in a yearly grant for the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). As such it serves as a resting place for the ideas and concepts developed this quarter with the collaboration of the Management Integration Offices of NASA. Another objective is the hope that the report will help to stimulate the healthy problem solving process already present at NASA. The main goal of the contractual work is to help NASA to find ways and means of moving into a truly operational era with the shuttle program. This work is a continuation of early work and the reader is encouraged to read the final reports of earlier years. Chapter One of the report is an introduction. Chapter Two deals with industrial adaptation and is in two parts: theory and application. In the theory section, impressions of the management system immediately after reflight are discussed. A key issue, in the author's opinion is the seeming lack of purpose of the program. The application section has six appendices: 1988 Demographic Survey, Field Notes of Interview with HL/P South Texas Nuclear Project, a comparison of the Agendas of the current manager with that of a previous manager, a note on compartmentalization to assist in manifesting, a study on launch prediction for STS-26, and a discussion of a statistical decision-making course for upper level managers. Chapter Three deals with theoretical results returned on flow shop scheduling which will be of use downstream. Chapter Four deals with a statistical model developed to predict the flight rate in future years and indicates the program will have trouble making its schedule. Chapter Five covers the constructural effort and shows the work to be on schedule.

  13. NRRI summary of New York Public Service Commission: Staff investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    In June 1995, the New York Public Service Commission (NYPSC) released a Staff investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. (O&R). The primary focus of the Staffs investigation was the Corporate Policy and External Affairs Department, a restricted disbursements account, the Internal Auditing Department, and O&R officer malfeasance. The Staffs` investigation uncovered widespread, alleged instances of lax internal controls, unethical and illegal actions, and lavish officer behavior. In addition, the Staff investigated O&R`s internal control and purchasing functions. The Staff proposed a series of recommendations to improve the Company`s internal control, purchasing, ethical, climate and addressed the issue of a New York ratepayer reimbursement. The Staffs findings and recommendations were presented in the form of a report, entitled Staff Investigation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc. This article summarizes the Report.

  14. Summary of investigations of the use of modified turbine inlet conditions in a binary power plant

    SciTech Connect

    G. L. Mines

    2000-09-24

    Investigators at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are developing technologies that will enhance the feasibility of generating electrical power from a hydrothermal resource. One of the concepts investigated is the use of modified inlet conditions in geothermal binary power plant turbines to increase the power generation. An inlet condition of interest allows the expanding vapor to enter the two-phase region, a mode of operation typically avoided because of concern that condensate would form and damage the turbine, degrading performance. INEEL investigators postulated that initially a supersaturated vapor would be supported, and that no turbine damage would occur. This paper summarizes the investigation of these expansions that began with testing of their condensation behavior, and culminated with the incorporation of these expansions into the operation of several commercial binary plant turbines.

  15. Summary of Investigations of the Use of Modified Turbine Inlet Conditions in a Binary Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, Gregory Lee

    2000-09-01

    Investigators at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are developing technologies that will enhance the feasibility of generating electrical power from a hydrothermal resource. One of the concepts investigated is the use of modified inlet conditions in geothermal binary power plant turbines to increase the power generation. An inlet condition of interest allows the expanding vapor to enter the two-phase region, a mode of operation typically avoided because of concern that condensate would form and damage the turbine, degrading performance. INEEL investigators postulated that initially a supersaturated vapor would be supported, and that no turbine damage would occur. This paper summarizes the investigation of these expansions that began with testing of their condensation behavior, and culminated with the incorporation of these expansions into the operation of several commercial binary plant turbines.

  16. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing.

  17. LANDSAT-4 Science Investigations Summary, Including December 1983 Workshop Results, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A general overview of the LANDSAT 4 system with emphasis on the Thematic Mapper (TM) is presented. A variety of topics on the design, calibration, capabilities, and image processing techniques of the TM sensor are discussed in detail. The comparison of TM data with other MSS data is also investigated.

  18. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds: Phase 1: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The structural response to aerodynamic buffet during moderate to high-g maneuvers at subsonic and transonic speeds was investigated. The investigation is reported in three volumes. This volume presents a summary of the investigation with a complete description of the technical approach, description of the aircraft, its instrumentation, the data reduction procedures, results and conclusion.

  19. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  20. Hydrogeology of Webb County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Webb County, in semiarid South Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border, is a region confronted by increasing stresses on natural resources. Laredo (fig. 1), the largest city in Webb County (population 193,000 in 2000), was one of the 10 fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country during 1990-2000 (Perry and Mackun, 2001). Commercial and industrial activities have expanded throughout the region to support the maquiladora industry (manufacturing plants in Mexico) along the border and other growth as a result of the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Rio Grande currently (2002) is the primary source of public water supply for Laredo and other cities along the border in Webb County (fig. 1). Other cities, such as Bruni and Mirando City in the southeastern part of the county, rely on ground-water supplies to meet municipal demands. Increased water demand associated with development and population growth in the region has increased the need for the City of Laredo and Webb County to evaluate alternative water sources to meet future demand. Possible options include (1) supplementing the surface-water supply with ground water, and (2) applying artificial storage and recovery (ASR) technology to recharge local aquifers. These options raise issues regarding the hydraulic capability of the aquifers to store economically substantial quantities of water, current or potential uses of the resource, and possible effects on the quality of water resulting from mixing ground water with alternative source waters. To address some of these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Laredo, began a study in 1996 to assess the ground-water resources of Webb County. A hydrogeologic study was conducted to review and analyze available information on the hydrogeologic units (aquifers and confining units) in Webb County, to locate available wells in the region with water-level and water-quality information from the aquifers, and

  1. Lidar measurements from space for tropospheric chemistry investigations: Summary of workshop overview presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA has played a lead role in defining the scientific objectives and technology requirements for spaceborne lidar investigations of the atmosphere. An assessment of the potential for conducting lidar measurements from space for investigations that pertain specifically to tropospheric chemistry is presented. A description of potential lidar measurement techniques is given, and the scientific requirements for tropospheric chemistry are reviewed. The current status of airborne lidar measurements of aerosols, O3, and H2O is discussed, and a brief description of the evolution of lidar technology to space is given. Also, the measurement of tropospheric gases with a spaceborne lidar system is evaluated for a wide range of gas species. From this general assessment, it appears feasible to measure aerosols, H2O, O3, NH3, CO, CH4, NO2, atmospheric pressure and temperature, and wind with a lidar from space provided that the appropriate laser and receiver technology is available. For the mid-1990's, it is expected that lidar technology will be available for the measurement of aerosols, H2O, and O3 from a space platform.

  2. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No. 2, and UE-25c No. 3, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 92-4016

    SciTech Connect

    Geldon, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the hydrogeology of saturated tuffaceous rocks penetrated by boreholes UE-25c No. 1, UE-25c No.2, and UE-25c No. 3. These boreholes are referred to collectively in this report as the C-holes. The C-holes were drilled to perform multiwell aquifer tests and tracer tests; they comprise the only complex of closely spaced boreholes completed in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results of lithologic and geophysical logging, fracture analyses, water-level monitoring, temperature and tracejector surveys, aquifer tests, and hydrochemical sampling completed at the C-hole complex as of 1986 are assessed with respect to the regional geologic and hydrologic setting. A conceptual hydrogeological model of the Yucca Mountain area is presented to provide a context for quantitatively evaluating hydrologic tests performed at the C-hole complex as of 1985, for planning and interpreting additional hydrologic tests at the C-hole complex, and for possibly re-evaluating hydrologic tests in boreholes other than the C-holes.

  3. An Attempt of Hydrogeological Classification of Fault Zones in Karst Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Helene; Decker, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    Around 60% of Vienna`s drinking water originates in the Hochschwab plateau (Eastern Alps, Austria). The hydrogeology (groundwater storage and flow) of the Hochschwab is essentially governed by karstified, large-scale faults. Previous work has shown that faults that formed during the Oligocene/L. Miocene lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps act as groundwater pathways draining the karst massif preferably in E-W-direction. However, further analysis of flow processes in karstified aquifers requires hydrogeological relevant data from natural fault zones. We investigated E- to ENE- striking strike-slip faults in limestones and dolomites of the Wetterstein Fm. in terms of potential permeability properties that result from structural composition and fault rock content. Using the standard fault core-damage zone model, we analyzed fault rock characteristics and volumes at the fault cores and connective fracture networks surrounding faults in the damage zones. Special attention has been drawn to fracture densities and the spatial extent of fracture networks. Small-scale fractures are generally assumed to carry most of the effective porosity and have a great influence on the permeability of a fault zone. Therefore, we established a classification scheme and measuring method that provides semi-quantitative estimates of the density and abundance of small-scale fractures by using scanning line techniques to quantify the total joint surface in a volume of rock (m² joint surfaces per m³ rock). This easily applicable method allows to generate fracture density data for the entire damage zones (over tens of meters) and thus to enhance the understanding of permeability properties of damage zones. The field based data is supported by effective porosity and permeability measurements of fractured wall rock and fault rock samples. Different fault rock categories turned out to have complex poro/perm properties due to differences in grain sizes, matrix content, cementation and fracturing

  4. Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development.

    PubMed

    Doehring, D O; Butler, J H

    1974-11-15

    The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucatáan Peninsula which are discussed here. LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatán Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic

  5. Surface water investigations in Afghanistan: a summary of activities from 1952 to 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westfall, Arthur O.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize briefly the history of the Surface Water Research project since its inception in 1952, the work accomplished, and the problems encountered. In general, each topic is discussed under two periods of time: 1952-1963, when projects were confined to the Helmand River Valley and was entitled Helmand Surface Water Investigations (306-12-021, 306-M-12-AD and 306-AC-12-AD5), and 1963-1969 when activities were expanded to cover most of Afghanistan and title was changed to Surface Water Research (306-11-190-002). Prepared by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Water and Soil Survey Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Royal Government of Afghanistan under the auspices of the United States Agency for International Development.

  6. NASA geodynamics program investigations summaries: A supplement to the NASA geodynamics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of a time series of global atmospheric motion and mass fields through April 1984 to compare with changes in length of day and polar motion was investigated. Earth rotation was studied and the following topics are discussed: (1) computation of atmospheric angular momentum through April 1984; (2) comparisons of psi sub values with variations in length of day obtained by several groups utilizing B.I.H., lunar laser ranging, VLBI, or Lageos measurements; (3) computation of atmospheric excitation of polar motion using daily fields of atmospheric winds and pressures for a short test period. Daily calculations may be extended over a longer period to examine the forcing of the annual and Chandler wobbles, in addition to higher frequency nutations.

  7. Hydrogeologic data from parts of the Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, T.J.; Robson, S.G.; Romero, J.C.; Zawistowski, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    This report presents hydrogeologic data collected and compiled during 1956-81 as part of a comprehensive hydrogeologic data collected and compiled during 1956-81 as part of a comprehensive hdryogeologic investigation of the Denver basin, Colorado, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, Office of the State Engineer. The data, in tabular and graphic form, consist of records for 870 wells which include water-level data for 158 wells and water-quality analyses for 561 wells; geophysical logs from three wells which include resistivity, self potential, and natural gamma logs; and gain-and-loss data of streamflow measured at 54 sites. (USGS)

  8. A post-earthquake psychopathological investigation in Armenia: methodology, summary of findings, and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Khachadourian, Vahe; Armenian, Haroutune; Demirchyan, Anahit; Melkonian, Arthur; Hovanesian, Ashot

    2016-07-01

    The post-earthquake psychopathological investigation (PEPSI) was designed to probe the short-and long-term effects of the earthquake in northern Armenia on 7 December 1988 on survivors' mental and physical health. Four phases of this study have been conducted to date, and, overall, more than 80 per cent of a sub-sample of 1,773 drawn from an initial cohort of 32,743 was successfully followed during 2012. This paper describes the methodology employed in the evaluation, summarises previous findings, details the current objectives, and examines the general characteristics of the sample based on the most recent follow-up phase outcomes. Despite a significant decrease in psychopathology rates between 1990 and 2012, prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among study participants in 2012 were greater than 15 and 26 per cent, respectively. The paper also notes the strengths and limitations of the study vis-à-vis future research and highlights the importance and potential practical implications of similar assessments and their outcomes.

  9. Scientific Objectives for UV/Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  10. Scientific Objectives for UV-Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2013-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  11. Scientific Objectives for UV-Visible Astrophysics Investigations: A Summary of Responses by the Community (2012)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.

  12. A post-earthquake psychopathological investigation in Armenia: methodology, summary of findings, and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Khachadourian, Vahe; Armenian, Haroutune; Demirchyan, Anahit; Melkonian, Arthur; Hovanesian, Ashot

    2016-07-01

    The post-earthquake psychopathological investigation (PEPSI) was designed to probe the short-and long-term effects of the earthquake in northern Armenia on 7 December 1988 on survivors' mental and physical health. Four phases of this study have been conducted to date, and, overall, more than 80 per cent of a sub-sample of 1,773 drawn from an initial cohort of 32,743 was successfully followed during 2012. This paper describes the methodology employed in the evaluation, summarises previous findings, details the current objectives, and examines the general characteristics of the sample based on the most recent follow-up phase outcomes. Despite a significant decrease in psychopathology rates between 1990 and 2012, prevalence rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among study participants in 2012 were greater than 15 and 26 per cent, respectively. The paper also notes the strengths and limitations of the study vis-à-vis future research and highlights the importance and potential practical implications of similar assessments and their outcomes. PMID:26578424

  13. Nye County nuclear waste repository project office independent scientific investigations program. Summary annual report, May 1996--April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This annual summary report, prepared by Multimedia Environmental Technology, Inc. (MET) on behalf of Nye County Nuclear Waste Project Office, summarizes the activities that were performed during the period from May 1, 1996 to April 30, 1997. These activities were conducted in support of the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP) of Nye County at the Yucca Mountain Site (YMS). The Nye County NWRPO is responsible for protecting the health and safety of the Nye County residents. NWRPO`s on-site representative is responsible for designing and implementing the Independent Scientific Investigation Program (ISIP). Major objectives of the ISIP include: (1) Investigating key issues related to conceptual design and performance of the repository that can have major impact on human health, safety, and the environment. (2) Identifying areas not being addressed adequately by DOE Nye County has identified several key scientific issues of concern that may affect repository design and performance which were not being adequately addressed by DOE. Nye County has been conducting its own independent study to evaluate the significance of these issues.

  14. A Hydrogeologic Map of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California, Developed Using GIS Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia C.; D'Agnese, Frank A.; Turner, A. Keith

    1997-01-01

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  15. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Faunt, C.C.; D`Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-12-31

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km{sup 2} along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing.

  16. Borehole Completion and Conceptual Hydrogeologic Model for the IFRC Well Field, 300 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horner, Jacob A.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Lanigan, David C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2009-04-20

    A tight cluster of 35 new wells was installed over a former waste site, the South Process Pond (316-1 waste site), in the Hanford Site 300 Area in summer 2008. This report documents the details of the drilling, sampling, and well construction for the new array and presents a summary of the site hydrogeology based on the results of drilling and preliminary geophysical logging.

  17. Proceedings of the joint Russian-American hydrogeology seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.; Mironenko, V.; Pozdniakov, S.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogeology research has been very active in both Russia and the US because of the concerns for migration of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soils and geologic formations, as well as for water problems related to mining and other industrial operations. Russian hydrogeologists have developed various analysis and field testing techniques, sometimes in parallel with US counterparts. These Proceedings come out of a Seminar held to bring together a small group (about 15) of active Russian researchers in geologic flow and transport associated with the disposal of radioactive and chemical wastes either on the soils or through deep injection wells, with a corresponding group (about 25) of American hydrogeologists. The meeting was intentionally kept small to enable informal, detailed and in-depth discussions on hydrogeological issues of common interest. Out of this interaction, the authors hope that, firstly, they will have learned from each other and secondly, that research collaborations will be established where there is the opportunity. This proceedings presents the summaries and viewgraphs from the presentations. What cannot be conveyed here is the warm and cooperative atmosphere of these interactions, both inside and outside the formal sessions, which may well lead to future collaborations.

  18. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this column, members of the NASP Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group provide summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among rescue workers. The second article explored the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention, which is…

  19. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  20. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  1. Photogrammetry in Experiments for Hydrogeological Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, L.; Scaioni, M.; Feng, T.; Qiao, G.; Lu, P.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2013-01-01

    The construction of scaled-down simulation platforms is largely used to support investigations for the assessment of hydrological risk. Achieved outcomes can be integrated and assimilated to numerical analyses for the study of unstable slope collapse, debris transport, and hydrological modeling in general. During design of such simulation platforms, a relevant role has to be given to the spatial sensor network (SSN) to deploy, which is in charge of collecting geo-referenced, quantitative information during experiments. Photogrammetry (including 3D imaging sensors) can play an important role in SSN owing to its capability of collecting 2D images and 3D point clouds data covering wide surfaces without any contact. Different kinds of metric measurements can be then extracted from datasets. The aim of this paper is to give an overview and some examples on the potential of photogrammetry in hydrogeological experiments. After a general introduction on a few preliminary issues (sensors, calibration, ground reference, usage of imaging or ranging sensors), potential applications are classified into 2D and 3D categories. Examples are focused on a scaled-down landslide simulation platform developed at Tongji University (Shanghai, P. R. China).

  2. Geographic, geologic, and hydrologic summaries of intermontane basins of the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendy, Eloise; Tresch, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report combines a literature review with new information to provide summaries of the geography, geology, and hydrology of each of 32 intermontane basins in western Montana. The summary of each intermontane basin includes concise descriptions of topography, areal extent, altitude, climate, 1990 population, land and water use, geology, surface water, aquifer hydraulic characteristics, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality. If present, geothermal features are described. Average annual and monthly temperature and precipitation are reported from one National Weather Service station in each basin. Streamflow data, including the drainage area, period of record, and average, minimum, and maximum historical streamflow, are reported for all active and discontinued USGS streamflow-gaging stations in each basin. Monitoring-well data, including the well depth, aquifer, period of record, and minimum and maximum historical water levels, are reported for all long-term USGS monitoring wells in each basin. Brief descriptions of geologic, geophysical, and potentiometric- surface maps available for each basin also are included. The summary for each basin also includes a bibliography of hydrogeologic literature. When used alone or in conjunction with regional RASA reports, this report provides a practical starting point for site-specific hydrogeologic investigations.

  3. Emerging Challenges and "Weird" Models in Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogeological research and practice have dealt in recent years with problems related to groundwater quantity and quality. Models have been used for water flow, solute transport and, at most, chemical reactions, which were required to address issues such as water resources assessment, artificial recharge, seawater intrusion, impact of public works, and the like. "Weird" (i.e., outside the mainstream practical hydrogeology, restricted to academy) models were virtually restricted to spatial variability of permeability and the problems it imposed on transport (i.e., scale dependence of dispersivity, mixing, etc.). Yet, a broad gap has grown between academy and practical hydrogeology. Energy demands have created a new suite of problems that need to be solved to address CO2 storage, shale gas impacts or enhanced geothermal systems. These require solving mechanical and thermal equations. We contend, and will use example from our own work for illustration, that (1) these problems are not so new (hydrogeologists started working on them some 40 years ago), (2) hydrogeological tools are as needed to solve energy problems as they were for water problems (permeability remains the key parameter for most of them), (3) collaboration with sister Earth Sciences remains essential (the problems are highly coupled and no one can master all disciplines involved). The real challenge is not so much whether hydrogeology can address these problems, it can, as whether hydrogeologists can reduce the gap between academy and practice, which will be strongly stretched by these emerging problems.

  4. Teaching hydrogeology: a review of current practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, T.; Allen, D. M.; Ferguson, G.

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey among 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are only ~ 15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and > 100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated, iterative and balanced approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  5. The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Scholl, M.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The hydrogeology of Kilauea volcano and adjacent areas has been studied since the turn of this century. However, most studies to date have focused on the relatively shallow, low-salinity parts of the ground-water system, and the deeper hydrothermal system remains poorly understood. The rift zones of adjacent Mauna Loa volcano bound the regional ground-water flow system that includes Kilauea, and the area bounded by the rift zones of Kilauea and the ocean may comprise a partly isolated subsystem. Rates of ground-water recharge vary greatly over the area, and discharge is difficult to measure, because streams are ephemeral and most ground-water discharges diffusely at or below sea level. Hydrothermal systems exist at depth in Kilauea's east and southwest rift zone, as evidenced by thermal springs at the coast and wells in the lower east-rift zone. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones. Available data suggest that dike-impounded, heated ground water occurs at relatively high elevations in the upper east- and southwest-rift zones of Kilauea, and that permeability at depth in the rift zones (probably [le]10[sup [minus]15] m[sup 2]) is much lower than that of unaltered basalt flows closer to the surface ([ge]10[sup [minus]10] m[sup 2]). Substantial variations in permeability and the presence of magmatic heat sources influence that structure of the fresh water-salt water interface, so the Ghyben-Herzberg model will often fail to predict its position. Numerical modeling studies have considered only subsets of the hydrothermal system, because no existing computer code solves the coupled fluid-flow, heat- and solute-transport problem over the temperature and salinity range encountered at Kilauea. 73 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity

  7. Hydrogeology in The Semi-Arid South-West of Madagascar - a Multi-Scale Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, A.; Dworak, L.; Rasoloariniaina, J.; Brinkmann, K.; Kobbe, S.; Buerkert, A.

    2014-12-01

    The project „Sustainable Land Management" (SuLaMa) aims at the participatory development and implementation of alternative land-use management practices to protect the ecosystem and its biodiversity and improve the livelihood of the local population in a sustainable manner. One critical aspect within this project is the availability of sustainable water resources. To approach reliable estimates about the availability and dynamics of the water resources, we started a study to understand in detail the hydrogeology of the South-West of Madagascar. As this area has an extend of about 40000 square kilometers, the study is based on a multi-scale approach. Rough large scale estimates are utilized to develop a general understanding of the hydrogeology in the South-West of Madagascar, which allows for large scale estimates of hydrogeology under changing boundary conditions like climate change. Detailed investigations at target villages of the SuLaMa project, combined with boundary conditions derived from the large scale hydrogeological model, allows for estimates of the local hydrogeology under changing boundary conditions like enhanced water abstraction. Although several governmental and nongovernmental institutions have been working on the water resources of the South-West of Madagascar in the past, only few sources on the hydrogeology of this area can be found in literature. To improve the data base we installed five automatic loggers in the area to measure groundwater levels as function of time and investigated in detail about one hundred wells in terms of geometry, groundwater level, electrical conductivity and pH. First preliminary results of the study show that the hydrogeology in the study area is dominated by four major hydrogeological units (fractured crystalline basement, karstic plateau, porous perched aquifers and a porous coastal area) and can be analyzed effectively by assuming a radial symmetric geometry. Ongoing efforts are the development of a model for

  8. HydroCube: an entity-relationship hydrogeological data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojda, Piotr; Brouyère, Serge; Derouane, Johan; Dassargues, Alain

    2010-12-01

    Managing, handling and accessing hydrogeological information depends heavily on the applied hydrogeological data models, which differ between institutions and countries. The effective dissemination of hydrogeological information requires the convergence of such models to make hydrogeological information accessible to multiple users such as universities, water suppliers, and administration and research organisations. Furthermore, because hydrogeological studies are complex, they require a wide variety of high-quality hydrogeological data with appropriate metadata in clearly designed and coherent structures. A need exists, therefore, to develop and implement hydrogeological data models that cover, as much as possible, the full hydrogeological domain. A new data model, called HydroCube, was developed for the Walloon Region in Belgium in 2005. The HydroCube model presents an innovative holistic project-based approach which covers a full set of hydrogeological concepts and features, allowing for effective hydrogeological project management. The model stores data relating to the project locality, hydrogeological equipment, and related observations and measurements. In particular, it focuses on specialized hydrogeological field experiments such as pumping and tracer tests. This logical data model uses entity-relationship diagrams and it has been implemented in the Microsoft Access environment. It has been enriched with a fully functional user interface.

  9. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerton, R.E.

    1997-08-07

    This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident`s causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62).

  10. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  11. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  12. Scale problems in assessment of hydrogeological parameters of groundwater flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawalany, Marek; Sinicyn, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    An overview is presented of scale problems in groundwater flow, with emphasis on upscaling of hydraulic conductivity, being a brief summary of the conventional upscaling approach with some attention paid to recently emerged approaches. The focus is on essential aspects which may be an advantage in comparison to the occasionally extremely extensive summaries presented in the literature. In the present paper the concept of scale is introduced as an indispensable part of system analysis applied to hydrogeology. The concept is illustrated with a simple hydrogeological system for which definitions of four major ingredients of scale are presented: (i) spatial extent and geometry of hydrogeological system, (ii) spatial continuity and granularity of both natural and man-made objects within the system, (iii) duration of the system and (iv) continuity/granularity of natural and man-related variables of groundwater flow system. Scales used in hydrogeology are categorised into five classes: micro-scale - scale of pores, meso-scale - scale of laboratory sample, macro-scale - scale of typical blocks in numerical models of groundwater flow, local-scale - scale of an aquifer/aquitard and regional-scale - scale of series of aquifers and aquitards. Variables, parameters and groundwater flow equations for the three lowest scales, i.e., pore-scale, sample-scale and (numerical) block-scale, are discussed in detail, with the aim to justify physically deterministic procedures of upscaling from finer to coarser scales (stochastic issues of upscaling are not discussed here). Since the procedure of transition from sample-scale to block-scale is physically well based, it is a good candidate for upscaling block-scale models to local-scale models and likewise for upscaling local-scale models to regional-scale models. Also the latest results in downscaling from block-scale to sample scale are briefly referred to.

  13. Hydrogeological modeling for improving groundwater monitoring network and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna

    2016-09-01

    The research aimed to investigate a new approach for spatiotemporal groundwater monitoring network optimization using hydrogeological modeling to improve monitoring strategies. Unmonitored concentrations were incorporated at different potential monitoring locations into the groundwater monitoring optimization method. The proposed method was applied in the contaminated megasite, Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Based on an existing 3-D geological model, 3-D groundwater flow was obtained from flow velocity simulation using initial and boundary conditions. The 3-D groundwater transport model was used to simulate transport of α-HCH with an initial ideal concentration of 100 mg/L injected at various hydrogeological layers in the model. Particle tracking for contaminant and groundwater flow velocity realizations were made. The spatial optimization result suggested that 30 out of 462 wells in the Quaternary aquifer (6.49 %) and 14 out of 357 wells in the Tertiary aquifer (3.92 %) were redundant. With a gradual increase in the width of the particle track path line, from 0 to 100 m, the number of redundant wells remarkably increased, in both aquifers. The results of temporal optimization showed different sampling frequencies for monitoring wells. The groundwater and contaminant flow direction resulting from particle tracks obtained from hydrogeological modeling was verified by the variogram modeling through α-HCH data from 2003 to 2009. Groundwater monitoring strategies can be substantially improved by removing the existing spatio-temporal redundancy as well as incorporating unmonitored network along with sampling at recommended interval of time. However, the use of this model-based method is only recommended in the areas along with site-specific experts' knowledge.

  14. The French network of hydrogeological sites H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, P.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Gautier, S.; Porel, G.; Bodin, J.; de Dreuzy, J.; Pezard, P.

    2008-12-01

    For groundwater issues (potential leakages in waste repository, aquifer management "), the development of modeling techniques is far ahead of the actual knowledge of aquifers. This raises two fundamental issues: 1) which and how much data are necessary to make predictions accurate enough for aquifer management issues; 2) which models remain relevant to describe the heterogeneity and complexity of geological systems. The French observatory H+ was created in 2002 with the twofold motivation of acquiring a large database for validating models of heterogeneous aquifers, and of surveying groundwater quality evolution in the context of environmental changes. H+ is a network of 4 sites (Ploemeur, Brittany, France; HES Poitiers, France; Cadarache, France; Campos, Mallorca, Spain) with different geological, climatic, and economic contexts. All of them are characterized by a highly heterogeneous structure (fractured crystalline basement for Ploemeur, karstified and fractured limestone for Poitiers, Cadarache and Mallorca), which is far to be taken into account by basic models. Ploemeur is exploited as a tap-water plant for a medium-size coastal city (15,000 inhabitants) for 20 years. Each site is developed for long term investigation and monitoring. They involves a dense network of boreholes, detailed geological and geophysical surveys, periodic campaigns and/or permanent measurements of groundwater flow, water chemistry, geophysical signals (including ground motions), climatic parameter, etc. Several large-scale flow experiments are scheduled per year to investigate the aquifer structure with combined geophysical, hydrogeological, and geochemical instruments. All this information is recorded in a database that has been developed to improve the sustainability and quality of data, and to be used as a collaborative tool for both site researchers and modelers. This project lasts now for 5 years. It is a short time to collect the amount of information necessary to apprehend the

  15. Mapping pollution and coastal hydrogeology with helicopterborne transient electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Niels B.; Halkjær, Max

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hydrology is becoming the focus of increasing interest for several reasons. Hydrogeological models need good boundary conditions at the coastline, and with the expected sea level rise due to climate changes, it becomes increasingly important to grasp the dynamics of coastal hydrology in order to predict the consequences of sea level rise for nature and society. We present a helicopterborne transient electromagnetic survey from a region at the North Sea coast in western Jutland, Denmark, carried out at a seriously polluted site with the dual purpose of assessing the extent of the pollution and mapping the coastal hydrogeology to provide data for remediation activities. Data are subjected to constrained inversion with one-dimensional multi-layer (smooth) models. The extent of the pollution plume estimated from a conductive anomaly in the survey results is mainly in accordance with results from other investigations, but also points to hitherto unknown directions of seepage. The interleaving of freshwater extending under the offshore shallow sea and saltwater infiltrating under the onshore freshwater aquifer can be clearly discerned and preferential flow channels are revealed.

  16. Hydrogeology, waste disposal, science and politics: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Link, P.K.

    1994-07-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented at the Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering 30th Symposium. These papers are presented in this proceedings under the following headings: site characterization--Pocatello area; site characterization--Boise Area; site assessment; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; geophysical methods; remediation; geotechnical engineering; and hydrogeology, northern and western Idaho. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

  18. Stochastic hydrogeology: what professionals really need?

    PubMed

    Renard, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative hydrogeology celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2006. Geostatistics is younger but has had a very large impact in hydrogeology. Today, geostatistics is used routinely to interpolate deterministically most of the parameters that are required to analyze a problem or make a quantitative analysis. In a small number of cases, geostatistics is combined with deterministic approaches to forecast uncertainty. At a more academic level, geostatistics is used extensively to study physical processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet, there is an important gap between the academic use and the routine applications of geostatistics. The reasons for this gap are diverse. These include aspects related to the hydrogeology consulting market, technical reasons such as the lack of widely available software, but also a number of misconceptions. A change in this situation requires acting at different levels. First, regulators must be convinced of the benefit of using geostatistics. Second, the economic potential of the approach must be emphasized to customers. Third, the relevance of the theories needs to be increased. Last, but not least, software, data sets, and computing infrastructure such as grid computing need to be widely available. PMID:17760580

  19. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.; Finn, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogeologic maps were constructed for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. The ground-water flow system in the country can best be described as two interconnected regional systems: the porous Continental Terminal coastal system and the interior, fractured sedimentary Taoudeni Basin system. In these systems, ground-water flow occurs in fill deposits and carbonate, clastic, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks. Based on an evaluation of the potentiometric surface, there are three areas of ground-water recharge in the Taoudeni Basin system. One region occurs in the northwest at the edge of the Shield, one occurs to the south overlying the Tillites, and one is centered at the city of Tidjikdja. In contrast to the flow system in the Taoudeni Basin, the potentiometric surfaces reveal two areas of discharge in the Continental Terminal system but no localized recharge areas; the recharge is more likely to be areal. In addition to these recharge and discharge areas, ground water flows across the country's borders. Specifically, ground water from the Atlantic Ocean flows into Mauritania, transporting dissolved sodium from the west as a salt water intrusion, whereas fresh ground water discharges from the east into Mali. To the north, there is a relatively low gradient with inflow of fresh water to Mauritania, whereas ground-water flow discharges to the Senegal River to the south. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to digitize, manage, store, and analyze geologic data used to develop the hydrogeologic map. The data acquired for map development included existing digital GIS files, published maps, tabulated data in reports and public-access files, and the SIPPE2 Access database. Once in digital formats, regional geologic and hydrologic features were converted to a common coordinate system and combined into one map. The 42 regional geologic map units were then reclassified into 13 hydrogeologic units, each having considerable lateral extent and distinct

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-12-31

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10{sup -6} to 9.8 x 10{sup -6} foot per day (2 x 10{sup -6} to 3 x 10{sup -6} meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10{sup -5} to 2.9 x 10{sup -2} foot per day (8 x 10{sup -6} to 9 x 10{sup -3} meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Hydrogeological Parameter Estimation Using Low-Field Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Lessons from the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, K.; Falzone, S.; Osterman, G. K.; Wallace, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    information about hydrogeological parameters can be obtained from NMR relaxation data, and we conclude by outlining pathways for improving the interpretation of NMR data for hydrogeophysical investigations.

  3. Importance of Hydrogeological Conditions on Open-loop Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D.; Bae, G.; Kim, S.; Lee, K.

    2013-12-01

    groundwater flow direction has often been changed. Any effects of the seasonal river temperature variation and contaminant sources were not found on the wells because of the well screen installed at only the relatively deep gravel layer. Finally, it was evaluated whether if these results are valid in a homogeneous aquifer with the full screen of wells and the aquifer having a sediment layer with high hydraulic conductivity at a shallow depth, which are also typical aquifers near river. All the results concluded that it is essential to investigate and understand the site-specific hydrogeological conditions for the successful application of open-loop geothermal system.

  4. ALS beamlines for independent investigators: A summary of the capabilities and characteristics of beamlines at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    There are two mods of conducting research at the ALS: To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT). To work as a member of a participating research team (PRT); to work as an independent investigator; PRTs are responsible for building beamlines, end stations, and, in some cases, insertion devices. Thus, PRT members have privileged access to the ALS. Independent investigators will use beamline facilities made available by PRTs. The purpose of this handbook is to describe these facilities.

  5. Two-hundred years of hydrogeology in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenshein, J. S.; Moore, J.E.; Lohman, S.W.; Chase, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Hydrogeology Division of the Geological Society of America (GSA) sponsored a symposium entitled ' Hydrogeology in the United States, 1776- 1976 ' at the annual meeting of the GSA on November 9, 1976. The symposium was organized to provide a forum for discussion of major eras in the history of American hydrogeology and to contribute to the bicentennial celebration of the founding of the United States. Presentations were broken down into 3 sections: The Early Era (with a tribute to Oscar E. Meinzer), 1776-1920; Meinzer Era, 1910-1940; and the Modern Era (including scientific advantages; the quantification of hydrogeology; geochemistry; surface and borehole geophysics; and hydrogeology, policy, and politics) 1940-1976. (Lantz-PTT)

  6. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  7. Hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virbulis, Janis; Bethers, Uldis; Saks, Tomas; Sennikovs, Juris; Timuhins, Andrejs

    2013-06-01

    The Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) is a complex multi-layered hydrogeological system in the south-eastern Baltic covering about 480,000 km2. The aim of this study is to develop a closed hydrogeological mathematical model for the BAB. Heterogeneous geological data from different sources were used to build the geometry of the model, i.e. geological maps and stratigraphic information from around 20,000 boreholes. The finite element method was used for the calculation of the steady-state three-dimensional (3D) flow of unconfined groundwater. The 24-layer model was divided into about 1,000,000 finite elements. A simple recharge model was applied to describe the rate of infiltration, and the discharge was set at the water-supply wells. Variable hydraulic conductivities were used for the upper (Quaternary) deposits, while constant hydraulic conductivity values were assumed for the deeper layers. The model was calibrated on the statistically weighted borehole water-level measurements, applying L-BFGS-B (automatic parameter optimization method) for the hydraulic conductivities of each layer. The principal flows inside the BAB and the integral flow parameters were analyzed. The modeling results suggest that deeper aquifers are characterized by strong southeast-northwest groundwater flow, which is altered by the local topography in the upper, active water-exchange aquifers.

  8. Geological Investigation Program for the Site of a New Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstenkorn, András; Trosits, Dalma; Chikán, Géza; János Katona, Tamás

    2015-04-01

    earlier studies, seismic sources in the near regional area are the dominating contributors to the site seimic hazard. Therefore a 3D geological model will be developed for the 50 km region around the site in order to consider different geological scenarios. Site-scale investigations are aimed on the characterization of local geotechnical and hydrogeological conditions. The geotechnical investigations provide data for the evaluation of site response, i.e. the free-field ground motion response spectra, assessment of the liquefaction hazard and foundation design. Important element of the hydrogeological survey is numerical groundwater modeling. The aim of hydrogeological modeling is the summary of hydrogeological data in a numeric system, the description, simulation of underground water flow and transport conditions.

  9. On the significance of contaminant plume-scale and dose-response models in defining hydrogeological characterization needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R.; Bai, H.

    2007-12-01

    Defining rational and effective hydrogeological data acquisition strategies is of crucial importance since financial resources available for such efforts are always limited. Usually such strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of the impacts of uncertainty. This paper presents an approach for determining site characterization needs based on human health risk factors. The main challenge is in striking a balance between improved definition of hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological parameters. Striking this balance can provide clear guidance on setting priorities for data acquisition and for better estimating adverse health effects in humans. This paper addresses this challenge through theoretical developments and numerical testing. We will report on a wide range of factors that affect the site characterization needs including contaminant plume's dimensions, travel distances and other length scales that characterize the transport problem, as well as health risk models. We introduce a new graphical tool that allows one to investigate the relative impact of hydrogeological and physiological parameters in risk. Results show that the impact of uncertainty reduction in the risk-related parameters decreases with increasing distances from the contaminant source. Also, results indicate that human health risk becomes less sensitive to hydrogeological measurements when dealing with ergodic plumes. This indicates that under ergodic conditions, uncertainty reduction in human health risk may benefit from better understanding of the physiological component as opposed to a detailed hydrogeological characterization

  10. Analytical and experimental investigation of a 1/8-scale dynamic model of the shuttle orbiter. Volume 1: Summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, P. W.; Harris, H. G.; Zalesak, J.; Bernstein, M.

    1974-01-01

    A 1/8-scale structural dynamics model of the space shuttle orbiter was analyzed using the NASA Structural Analysis System (NASTRAN). Comparison of the calculated eigenvalues with preliminary test data for the unrestrained condition indicate that the analytical model was consistently stiffer, being about 20% higher in the first mode. The eigenvectors show reasonably good agreement with test data. A series of analytical and experimental investigations undertaken to resolve the discrepancy are described. Modifications in the NASTRAN model based upon these investigations resulted in close agreement for both eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  11. The Virginia Coastal Plain Hydrogeologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph; Bruce, T. Scott

    2006-01-01

    A refined descriptive hydrogeologic framework of the Coastal Plain of eastern Virginia provides a new perspective on the regional ground-water system by incorporating recent understanding gained by discovery of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and determination of other geological relations. The seaward-thickening wedge of extensive, eastward-dipping strata of largely unconsolidated sediments is classified into a series of 19 hydrogeologic units, based on interpretations of geophysical logs and allied descriptions and analyses from a regional network of 403 boreholes. Potomac aquifer sediments of Early Cretaceous age form the primary ground-water supply resource. The Potomac aquifer is designated as a single aquifer because the fine-grained interbeds, which are spatially highly variable and inherently discontinuous, are not sufficiently dense across a continuous expanse to act as regional barriers to ground-water flow. Part of the Potomac aquifer in the outer part of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater consists of megablock beds, which are relatively undeformed internally but are bounded by widely separated faults. The Potomac aquifer is entirely truncated across the inner part of the crater. The Potomac confining zone approximates a transition from the Potomac aquifer to overlying hydrogeologic units. New or revised designations of sediments of Late Cretaceous age that are present only south of the James River include the upper Cenomanian confining unit, the Virginia Beach aquifer and confining zone, and the Peedee aquifer and confining zone. The Virginia Beach aquifer is a locally important ground-water supply resource. Sediments of late Paleocene to early Eocene age that compose the Aquia aquifer and overlying Nanjemoy-Marlboro confining unit are truncated along the margin of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Sediments of late Eocene age compose three newly designated confining units within the crater, which are from bottom to top, the impact-generated Exmore clast

  12. Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1982--June 30, 1988: January 1, 1982 through June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, K.C.; Crow, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    We present the hydrogeologic well logs for monitor wells and exploratory boreholes drilled at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 between the beginning of environmental investigations in June 1982 and the end of June 1988. These wells and boreholes were drilled as part of studies made to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), high explosive (HE) compounds, and tritium in soil, rock, and ground water at Site 300. The well logs for 293 installations comprise the bulk of this report. We have prepared summaries of Site 300 geology and project history that provide a context for the well logs. Many of the logs in this report have also been published in previous topical reports, but they are nevertheless included in order to make this report a complete record of the wells and boreholes drilled prior to July 1988. A commercially available computer program, LOGGER has been used since late 1985 to generate these logs. This report presents details of the software programs and the hardware used. We are presently completing a project to devise a computer-aided design (CAD) system to produce hydrogeologic cross sections and fence diagrams, utilizing the digitized form of these logs. We find that our system produces publication-quality well and exploratory borehole logs at a lower cost than that of logs drafted by traditional methods.

  13. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-08-11

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  14. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Coumbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    L.C. Hulstrom

    2010-11-10

    This report summarizes field sampling activities conducted in support of WCH’s Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River. This work was conducted form 2008 through 2010. The work included preliminary mapping and measurement of Hanford Site contaminants in sediment, pore water, and surface water located in areas where groundwater upwelling were found.

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SUMMARY REPORT ON THE FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE SAPP BATTERY SITE JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study presents the results of field investigations at the Sapp Battery site in Florida, an abandoned battery recycling operation. The site is estimated to contain 14,300 cubic yards of soils with lead levels in excess of 1,000 ppm. The soils in the immediate v...

  16. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume I: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported more than 600 inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989 under its Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). Two studies were undertaken of TEP: the first was a survey of the 600 Principal Investigators (PIs) who had operated inservice teacher enhancement projects and the second, a survey of…

  17. Hydrogeophysics and remote sensing for the design of hydrogeological conceptual models in hard rocks - Sardón catchment (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain P.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Roy, Jean; Santos, Fernando A. M.; Mahmoudzadeh Ardekani, Mohammad R.

    2014-11-01

    fault zones that control the hydrogeology of the catchment. The spatial discontinuities of the saprolite layer were well defined by RS techniques while subsurface geometry and aquifer parameters by hydrogeophysics. The GPR method was able to detect shallow water table at depth between 1 and 3 m b.g.s. The hydrostratigraphy and parameterization of the fissured layer remained uncertain because ERT and FDEM geophysical methods were quantitatively not conclusive while MRS detectability was restricted by low volumetric water content. The proposed multi-technique methodology integrating cost efficient RS, hydrogeophysics and hydrogeological field investigations allowed us to characterize geometrically and parametrically the Sardón hard rock aquifer system, facilitating the design of hydrogeological conceptual model of the area.

  18. Calcific aortic valve disease: A consensus summary from the Alliance of Investigators on Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, Katherine E.; Demer, Linda L.; Body, Simon C.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Towler, Dwight A.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Hofmann-Bowman, Marion A.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options beyond surgical valve replacement are currently limited. In 2011, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute assembled a working group on aortic stenosis. This group identified CAVD as an actively regulated disease process in need of further study. As a result, the Alliance of Investigators on CAVD was formed to coordinate and promote CAVD research, with the goals of identifying individuals at risk, developing new therapeutic approaches, and improving diagnostic methods. The group is composed of cardiologists, geneticists, imaging specialists, and basic science researchers. This report reviews the current status of CAVD research and treatment strategies with identification of areas in need of additional investigation for optimal management of this patient population. PMID:25189570

  19. Summary of Results Obtained in Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of the Ryan Flex-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Hassell, James L., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The performance and static stability and control characteristics of the Ryan Flex-Wing airplane were determined in an investigation conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel through an angle-of-attack range of the keel from about 14 to 44 deg. for power-on and -off conditions. Comparisons of the wind-tunnel data with flight-test data obtained with the same airplane by the Ryan Aeronautical Company were made in a number of cases.

  20. Hydrogeologic investigation and simulation of ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan Aquifer of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia and delineation of contributing areas for selected city of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal

    1996-01-01

    A 4-year investigation of the Upper Floridan aquifer and ground-water flow system in Leon County, Florida, and surrounding counties of north-central Florida and southwestern Georgia began in 1990. The purpose of the investigation was to describe the ground-water flow system and to delineate the contributing areas to selected City of Tallahassee, Florida, water-supply wells. The investigation was prompted by the detection of low levels of tetrachloroethylene in ground-water samples collected from several of the city's water-supply wells. Hydrologic data and previous studies indicate that; ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer can be considered steady-state; the Upper Floridan aquifer is a single water-bearing unit; recharge is from precipitation; and that discharge occurs as spring flow, leakage to rivers, leakage to the Gulf of Mexico, and pumpage. Measured transmissivities of the aquifer ranged from 1,300 ft2/d (feet squared per day) to 1,300,000 ft2/d. Steady-state ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer was simulated using a three-dimensional ground- water flow model. Transmissivities ranging from less than 5,000 ft2/d to greater than 11,000,000 ft2/d were required to calibrate to observed conditions. Recharge rates used in the model ranged from 18.0 inches per year in areas where the aquifer was unconfined to less than 2 inches per year in broad areas where the aquifer was confined. Contributing areas to five Tallahassee water-supply wells were simulated by particle- tracking techniques. Particles were seeded in model cells containing pumping wells then tracked backwards in time toward recharge areas. The contributing area for each well was simulated twice, once assuming a porosity of 25 percent and once assuming a porosity of 5 percent. A porosity of 25 percent is considered a reasonable average value for the Upper Floridan aquifer; the 5 percent porosity simulated the movement of ground-water through only solution-enhanced bedding plains

  1. Report on the remedial investigation of Bear Creek Valley at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendix A -- Waste sites, source terms, and waste inventory report; Appendix B -- Description of the field activities and report database; Appendix C -- Characterization of hydrogeologic setting report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Report characterizes the nature and extent of contamination, evaluates the fate and transport of contaminants, and assesses risk to human health and the environment resulting from waste disposal and other US Department of Energy (DOE) operations in Bear Creek Valley (BCV). BCV, which is located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes arising from operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The primary waste units discussed in this RI Report are the S-3 Site, Oil Landfarm (OLF), Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), Sanitary Landfill 1 (SL 1), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG). These waste units, plus the contaminated media resulting from environmental transport of the wastes from these units, are the subject of this RI. This BCV RI Report represents the first major step in the decision-making process for the BCV watershed. The RI results, in concert with the follow-on FS will form the basis for the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision for all BCV sites. This comprehensive decision document process will meet the objectives of the watershed approach for BCV. Appendix A includes descriptions of waste areas and estimates of the current compositions of the wastes. Appendix B contains an extensive database of environmental data for the Bear Creek Valley Characterization Area. Information is also presented about the number and location of samples collected, the analytes examined, and the extent of data validation. Appendix C describes the hydrogeologic conceptual model for Bear Creek Valley. This model is one of the principal components of the conceptual site models for contaminant transport in BCV.

  2. Phase 1 Data Summary Report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health Risk and Ecological Risk Screening Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address The transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The receiving river-reservoir system encompasses 140 river miles in length and 44,000 acres in surface area and is used for municipal water supply, sport fishing, navigation, boating, swimming, tourism, and residential development. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. A phased remedial investigation of the CR/WBR system is underway to (1) define the nature and extent of the off-site contamination, (2) evaluate associated environmental and human health risks, and (3) preliminarily identify and evaluate potential remediation alternatives. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI.

  3. A STOL airworthiness investigation using a simulation of an augmentor wing transport. Volume 1: Summary of results and airworthiness implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleford, R. L.; Heffley, R. K.; Hynes, C. S.; Scott, B. C.

    1974-01-01

    A simulator study of STOL airworthiness criteria was conducted using a model of an augmentor wing transport. The approach, flare and landing, go-around, and takeoff phases of flight were investigated. The results are summarized and possible implications with regard to airworthiness criteria are discussed. The results provide a data base for future STOL airworthiness requirements and a preliminary indication of potential problem areas. The results are also compared to the results from an earlier simulation of the Breguet 941S. Where possible, airworthiness criteria are proposed for consideration.

  4. Morphometric analysis with open source software to explore shallow hydrogeological features in Senegal and Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Di Leo, Margherita; Bonomi, Tullia; Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Fumagalli, Letizia; Hamidou Kane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Water represents a vital resource for everyone on this Planet, but, for some populations, the access to potable water is not given for granted. Recently, the interest in low cost technical solutions to improve access to ground water in developing countries, especially for people located in remote areas, has increased. Manual drilling (techniques to drill boreholes for water using human or animal power) is well known and practiced for centuries in many countries and represents a valid alternative to increase water access. Lately, this practice has raised the attention of national governments and international organizations. This technique is applicable only where hydrogeological conditions are suitable, namely in presence of thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and a shallow water table Aim of this study is exploring the potential of morphometric analysis to improve the methodology to identify areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions for manual drilling, supporting the implementation of water supply programs that can have great impact on living condition of the population. The characteristics of shallow geological layers are strongly dependent from geomorphological processes and are usually reflected in the morphological characteristics of landforms. Under these hypotheses, we have been investigating the geo-statistical correlation between several morphometric variables and a set of hydrogeological variables used in the estimation of suitability for manual drilling: thickness of unconsolidated sediments, texture, hydraulic conductivity of shallow aquifer, depth of water table. The morphology of two study areas with different landscape characteristics in Guinea and Senegal has been investigated coupling the Free and Open Source Software GRASS GIS and R. Several morphometric parameters have been extracted from ASTER GDEM digital elevation model, and have been compared with a set of hydrogeological characteristics obtained from semi-automatic analysis of

  5. A geochemical and hydrological investigation of groundwater recharge in the Roswell basin of New Mexico: summary of results and updated listing of tritium determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.W.; Hoy, R.N.

    1980-04-01

    Different approaches were used to study recharge and flow patterns in the Roswell, New Mexico, artesian basin. Isotope determination for tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18 were made as a function of time and space. Observation well levels, springflow, and precipitation were analyzed by stochastic/numerical approaches. Also, a hydrogeologic survey was made of representative springs in the recharge zone on the basin western flank. An updated listing of tritium activity in precipitation, springs, surface runoff, and subsurface water from over 120 sampling sites in the basin covers 117 pages of the report. Substantial deep leakage contributions from the basin western flank must be included to account for the basin groundwater budget.

  6. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three articles relevant to school crisis response: (1) "Factors Contributing to Posttraumatic Growth," summarized by Steve DeBlois; (2) "Psychological Debriefing in Cross-Cultural Contexts" (Stacey Rice); and (3) "Brain Abnormalities in PTSD" (Sunny Windingstad). The first summary reports the findings of a…

  7. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  8. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Group 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  9. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  10. A Summary of the Lateral Cutoff Analysis and Results from Nasa's Farfield Investigation of No-Boom Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  11. A summary of the lateral cutoff analysis and results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliatt, Larry J.; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  12. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey investigations and hydrologic conditions in the Southwest Florida Water Management District for 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, A.; Causseaux, K.W.; Moore, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Southwest Florida Subdistrict of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division for fiscal year 1977. The organization and mission of the subdistrict office are described. The cooperative program for fiscal year 1977 included 41 interpretive investigations. Abstracts of twenty reports released by the subdistrict during 1977 and an extensive bibliography of reports released from 1933 to 1977 are included. The hydrologic setting of southwest Florida is outlined followed by discussions of surface-water, ground-water, and quality-of-water conditions. Hydrologic conditions in southwest Florida in 1977 are shown by the presentation of hydrographs from selected surface-water, ground-water, and lake-stage data collection sites.

  13. Quality assurance/quality control summary report for Phase 1 of the Clinch River remedial investigation. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, S.K.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Brandt, C.C.

    1994-07-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. Phase 1 of the CRRI was a preliminary study in selected areas of the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir. Fish, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radiological parameters. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels; (2) determine the range of contaminant concentrations present in the river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants. Quality assurance (QA) objectives for Phase I were that (1) scientific data generated would withstand scientific scrutiny; (2) data would be gathered using appropriate procedures for field sampling, chain-of-custody, laboratory analyses, and data reporting; and (3) data would be of known precision and accuracy. These objectives were met through the development and implementation of (1) a QA oversight program of audits and surveillances; (2) standard operating procedures accompanied by a training program; (3) field sampling and analytical laboratory quality control requirements; (4) data and records management systems; and (5) validation of the data by an independent reviewer. Approximately 1700 inorganic samples, 1500 organic samples, and 2200 radiological samples were analyzed and validated. The QA completeness objective for the project was to obtain valid analytical results for at least 95% of the samples collected.

  14. Hydrogeological Conditions Changes of Tomsk, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, V. D.; Dutova, E. M.; Kuzevanov, K. I.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Nalivaiko, N. G.

    2015-11-01

    The hydro-geological conditions of Tomsk are determined by both natural factors and the impact of the urban infrastructure. Important impact on subsurface water flows involves the complex hydraulic relationship of several geological layers and the ancient and modern relief. Increasing groundwater abstraction has generally led to lowered piezometric heads in the deeper aquifer horizons, while in the uppermost horizons, rises in the water table and formation of new perched water tables are experienced due to leaking pipes and impedance of groundwater flow by deep foundations. In this paper special attention is paid to the Quaternary aquifer complex. Barrage effects of pile foundations and the intensive development of perched water distributed on flat surfaces of the watersheds and high terraces, complicated conditions for the construction and operation of facilities, leading in some cases to emergency situations.

  15. Insights into Mejerda basin hydrogeology, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guellala, Rihab; Tagorti, Mohamed Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi; Amri, Faouzi

    2012-09-01

    The present study concentrates on the interpretation of Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) and well logs to understand the geometry and the functioning of the Ghardimaou multilayered aquifer, a potential target for water supply in the Mejerda basin (Tunisia). The analysis of isobath and isopach maps established in this study, shows a tectonic influence on the reservoirs structure; the Villafranchian folding and the NE-SW, and E-W normal faulting in the recent Quaternary created an aquifer system compartmentalized by raised and tilted blocks. Geoelectrical cross sections reveal that this structure influences the thickness of permeable formations and the groundwater circulation. These results will be useful for rationalizing the future hydrogeological research that will be undertaken in the Mejerda basin.

  16. Hydrogeologic modeling for permeable reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Fox, T C

    1999-08-12

    The permeable reactive barrier technology for in situ treatment of chlorinated solvents and other groundwater contaminants is becoming increasingly popular. Field scale implementation of this and other in situ technologies requires careful design based on the site-specific hydrogeology and contaminant plume characteristics. Groundwater flow modeling is an important tool in understanding the hydraulic behavior of the site and optimizing the reactive barrier design. A combination of groundwater flow modeling and particle tracking techniques was used to illustrate the effect of hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer and reactive media on key permeable barrier design parameters, such as the capture zone width, residence time, flow velocity, and discharge. Similar techniques were used to illustrate the modeling approach for design of different configurations of reactive barriers in homogeneous and heterogeneous settings.

  17. Hydrogeological characterization of peculiar Apenninic springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervi, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Petronici, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2014-09-01

    In the northern Apennines of Italy, springs are quite widespread over the slopes. Due to the outcropping of low-permeability geologic units, they are generally characterized by low-yield capacities and high discharge variability during the hydrologic year. In addition, low-flow periods (discharge lower than 1 Ls-1) reflect rainfall and snowmelt distribution and generally occur in summer seasons. These features strongly condition the management for water-supply purposes, making it particularly complex. The "Mulino delle Vene" springs (420 m a.s.l., Reggio Emilia Province, Italy) are one of the largest in the Apennines for mean annual discharge and dynamic storage and are considered as the main water resource in the area. They flow out from several joints and fractures at the bottom of an arenite rock mass outcrop in the vicinity of the Tresinaro River. To date, these springs have not yet been exploited, as the knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer and their hydrological behaviour is not fully achieved. This study aims to describe the recharge processes and to define the hydrogeological boundaries of the aquifer. It is based on river and spring discharge monitoring and groundwater balance assessment carried out during the period 2012-2013. Results confirm the effectiveness of the approach, as it allowed the total aliquot of discharge of the springs to be assessed. Moreover, by comparing the observed discharge volume with the one calculated with the groundwater balance, the aquifer has been identified with the arenite slab (mean altitude of 580 m a.s.l.), extended about 5.5 km2 and located 1 km west of the monitored springs.

  18. Stochastic hydrogeologic units and hydrogeologic properties development for total-system performance assessments. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, A.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Robey, T.H.; Rautman, C.A.; Barnard, R.W.

    1995-09-01

    A stochastic representation of the lithologic units and associated hydrogeologic parameters of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository are developed for use in performance-assessment calculations, including the Total-System Performance Assessment for Yucca Mountain-SNL Second Iteration (TSPA-1993). A simplified lithologic model has been developed based on the physical characteristics of the welded and nonwelded units at Yucca Mountain. Ten hydrogeologic units are developed from site-specific data (lithologic and geophysical logs and core photographs) obtained from the unsaturated and saturated zones. The three-dimensional geostatistical model of the ten hydrogeologic units is based on indicator-coding techniques and improves on the two-dimensional model developed for TSPA91. The hydrogeologic properties (statistics and probability distribution functions) are developed from the results of laboratory tests and in-situ aquifer tests or are derived through fundamental relationships. Hydrogeologic properties for matrix properties, bulk conductivities, and fractures are developed from existing site specific data. Extensive data are available for matrix porosity, bulk density, and matrix saturated conductivity. For other hydrogeologic properties, the data are minimal or nonexistent. Parameters for the properties are developed as beta probability distribution functions. For the model units without enough data for analysis, parameters are developed as analogs to existing units. A relational, analytic approach coupled with bulk conductivity parameters is used to develop fracture parameters based on the smooth-wall-parallel-plate theory. An analytic method is introduced for scaling small-core matrix properties to the hydrogeologic unit scales.

  19. Marine hydrogeology: recent accomplishments and future opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. T.

    2005-03-01

    Marine hydrogeology is a broad-ranging scientific discipline involving the exploration of fluid-rock interactions below the seafloor. Studies have been conducted at seafloor spreading centers, mid-plate locations, and in plate- and continental-margin environments. Although many seafloor locations are remote, there are aspects of marine systems that make them uniquely suited for hydrologic analysis. Newly developed tools and techniques, and the establishment of several multidisciplinary programs for oceanographic exploration, have helped to push marine hydrogeology forward over the last several decades. Most marine hydrogeologic work has focused on measurement or estimation of hydrogeologic properties within the shallow subsurface, but additional work has emphasized measurements of local and global fluxes, fluid source and sink terms, and quantitative links between hydrogeologic, chemical, tectonic, biological, and geophysical processes. In addition to summarizing selected results from a small number of case studies, this paper includes a description of several new experiments and programs that will provide outstanding opportunities to address fundamental hydrogeologic questions within the seafloor during the next 20-30 years. L'hydrogéologie marine est une large discipline scientifique impliquant l' exploration des interactions entre les fluides et les roches sous les fonds marins. Des études ont été menées dans les différents environnements sous-marins (zone abyssale, plaque océanique, marges continentales). Bien que de nombreux fonds marins soient connus, il existe des aspects des systèmes marins qui les rendent inadaptés à l'analyse hydrologique. De nouveaux outils et techniques, et la mise en oeuvre de nombreux programmes multidisciplinaires d'exploration océanographique, ont aidé à pousser en avant l'hydrogéologie marine ces dix dernières années. La plus part des études hydrogéologiques se sont concentrées jusqu'à présent sur la mesure ou

  20. Hydrogeologic assessment of shallow flow systems in the Walnut Formation, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Feckley, D.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Walnut Formation crops out in the limestone dominated terrain of the Grand Prairie in Central Texas. The Walnut is the only clay-rich member within this dominantly limestone section. Because of its clay-rich nature, agricultural landuse of the Walnut Formation is greater than on surrounding formations. The clay content also makes the Walnut a natural consideration for waste disposal sites. However, many drainages and streams receive baseflow from the Walnut, and the Walnut overlies the Paluxy Aquifer, a minor aquifer in the State of Texas. Therefore, understanding the hydrogeology of the Walnut becomes increasingly important in order to protect baseflow water quality, and the underlying Paluxy Aquifer. Evaluation of hydrogeologic properties includes well hydrograph analysis, slug tests, pumping tests and laboratory tests. Results strongly indicate the presence of shallow flow systems, which are influenced by geomorphology and stratigraphy. An understanding of the geomorphic evolution of the region greatly aids the groundwater investigations.

  1. Hydrogeology along the southern boundary of the Hanford Site between the Yakima and Columbia Rivers, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Liikala, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) operations at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington, have generated large volumes of hazardous and radioactive wastes since 1944. Some of the hazardous wastes were discharged to the ground in the 1100 and 3000 Areas, near the city of Richland. The specific waste types and quantities are unknown; however, they probably include battery acid, antifreeze, hydraulic fluids, waste oils, solvents, degreasers, paints, and paint thinners. Between the Yakima and Columbia rivers in support of future hazardous waste site investigations and ground-water and land-use management. The specific objectives were to collect and review existing hydrogeologic data for the study area and establish a water-level monitoring network; describe the regional and study area hydrogeology; develop a hydrogeologic conceptual model of the unconfined ground-water flow system beneath the study area, based on available data; describe the flow characteristics of the unconfined aquifer based on the spatial and temporal distribution of hydraulic head within the aquifer; use the results of this study to delineate additional data needs in support of future Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS), Fate and Transport modeling, Baseline Risk Assessments (BRA), and ground-water and land-use management.

  2. The influence of bedrock hydrogeology on catchment-scale nitrate fate and transport in fractured aquifers.

    PubMed

    Orr, Alison; Nitsche, Janka; Archbold, Marie; Deakin, Jenny; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Flynn, Raymond

    2016-11-01

    Characterising catchment scale biogeochemical processes controlling nitrate fate in groundwater constitutes a fundamental consideration when applying programmes of measures to reduce risks posed by diffuse agricultural pollutants to water quality. Combining hydrochemical analyses with nitrate isotopic data and physical hydrogeological measurements permitted characterisation of biogeochemical processes influencing nitrogen fate and transport in the groundwater in two fractured bedrock aquifers with contrasting hydrogeology but comparable nutrient loads. Hydrochemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples collected from moderately fractured, diffusely karstified limestone indicated nitrification controlled dissolved nitrogen fate and delivery to aquatic receptors. By contrast nitrate concentrations in groundwater were considerably lower in a low transmissivity highly lithified sandstone and pyrite-bearing shale unit with patchy subsoil cover. Geophysical and hydrochemical investigations showed shallower intervals contained hydraulically active fractures where denitrification was reflected through lower nitrogen levels and an isotopic enrichment ratio of 1.7 between δ(15)N and δ(18)O. Study findings highlight the influence of bedrock hydrogeological conditions on aqueous nitrogen mobility. Investigation results demonstrate that bedrock conditions need to be considered when implementing catchment management plans to reduce the impact of agricultural practices on the quality of groundwater and baseflow in receiving rivers. Nitrate isotopic signatures in the groundwater of a freely draining catchment underlain by a karstified aquifer and a poorly draining aquifer with a low transmissivity aquifer. PMID:27432726

  3. Hydrogeologic and geothermal investigation of Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: geology; geophysical surveys; geothermal wells, springs, and heat flow; hydrology; drilling program, well testing, and mineralogical and petrographic studies of samples from geothermal wells. (MHR)

  4. Hydrogeologic setting and conceptual hydrologic model of the Spring Creek basin, Centre County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Koerkle, Edward H.; McAuley, Steven D.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2005-01-01

    The Spring Creek Basin, Centre County, Pa., is experiencing some of the most rapid growth and development within the Commonwealth. This trend has resulted in land-use changes and increased water use, which will affect the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, surface water, ground water, and aquatic resources within the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ClearWater Conservancy (CWC), Spring Creek Watershed Community (SCWC), and Spring Creek Watershed Commission (SCWCm), has developed a Watershed Plan (Plan) to assist decision makers in water-resources planning. One element of the Plan is to provide a summary of the basin characteristics and a conceptual model that incorporates the hydrogeologic characteristics of the basin. The report presents hydrogeologic data for the basin and presents a conceptual model that can be used as the basis for simulating surface-water and ground-water flow within the basin. Basin characteristics; sources of data referenced in this text; physical characteristics such as climate, physiography, topography, and land use; hydrogeologic characteristics; and water-quality characteristics are discussed. A conceptual model is a simplified description of the physical components and interaction of the surface- and ground-water systems. The purpose for constructing a conceptual model is to simplify the problem and to organize the available data so that the system can be analyzed accurately. Simplification is necessary, because a complete accounting of a system, such as Spring Creek, is not possible. The data and the conceptual model could be used in development of a fully coupled numerical model that dynamically links surface water, ground water, and land-use changes. The model could be used by decision makers to manage water resources within the basin and as a prototype that is transferable to other watersheds.

  5. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIE(PRESENTATION FOR MNA WORKSHOP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  6. Quality assurance/quality control summary report on phase 2 of the Clinch River remedial investigation at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, S.K.; Anderson, H.M.; Benson, S.B.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Brandt, C.C.; Chavannes, C.M.; Cook, R.B.; Evans, D.A.; Ford, C.J.; Harris, R.A.; Horwedel, B.M.; Jackson, B.L.

    1996-12-01

    Quality assurance (QA) objectives for Phase 2 were that (1) scientific data generated would withstand scientific and legal scrutiny; (2) data would be gathered using appropriate procedures for sample collection, sample handling and security, chain of custody, laboratory analyses, and data reporting; (3) data would be of known precision and accuracy; and (4) data would meet data quality objectives defined in the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan. A review of the QA systems and quality control (QC) data associated with the Phase 2 investigation is presented to evaluate whether the data were of sufficient quality to satisfy Phase 2 objectives. The data quality indicators of precision, accuracy, representativeness, comparability, completeness, and sensitivity were evaluated to determine any limitations associated with the data. Data were flagged with qualifiers that were associated with appropriate reason codes and documentation relating the qualifiers to the reviewer of the data. These qualifiers were then consolidated into an overall final qualifier to represent the quality of the data to the end user. In summary, reproducible, precise, and accurate measurements consistent with CRRI objectives and the limitations of the sampling and analytical procedures used were obtained for the data collected in support of the Phase 2 Remedial Investigation.

  7. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  8. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  9. Chemical Hydrogeology: Fifty Years of Advances, Breakthroughs, and Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusseau, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical hydrogeology focuses on the composition, properties, and biogeochemical processes inherent to water in subsurface environments. Multiple avenues of research coalesced in the 1960's to foment the development of chemical hydrogeology as a distinct field. In the intervening 50 years, chemical hydrogeology principles have been applied to innumerable issues and problems, and concomitantly, the field has continually experienced advances, breakthroughs, and innovations in theory, analysis, and application. An overarching theme to chemical hydrogeology in both theory and application is integration--- integration of disciplines (interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary), integration of approaches (theoretical, experimental, analytical), and integration of scales (spatial, temporal). Chemical hydrogeology has never been more relevant and more challenged as today, as we face critical issues related to for example water scarcity and availability of clean water, impacts of energy development, production and storage, and human interactions with ecosystem services. This presentation will illustrate recent advances in chemical hydrogeology, ranging from application of advanced imaging for characterization of pore-scale multiphase systems to integrated physical and biogeochemical assessments of field-scale contaminant transport.

  10. Structure and genesis of the Cubango Megafan in northern Namibia: implications for its hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenmaier, F.; Miller, R.; Fenner, J.; Christelis, G.; Dill, H. G.; Himmelsbach, T.; Kaufhold, S.; Lohe, C.; Quinger, M.; Schildknecht, F.; Symons, G.; Walzer, A.; van Wyk, B.

    2014-09-01

    An exploration strategy for groundwater was established and followed in the northern Namibian Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB). The data derived from transient electromagnetics, rotary-drilling, coring and sample investigation were used to refine stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy, and to develop a 3D map of aquifers within the Cubango Megafan. The results have delineated three major aquifers. The newly found, deep-seated Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) has the potential of providing significant additional water to the water supply of northern Namibia and Angola. While near-surface aquifers carry predominantly brackish water, freshwater in the deep-seated aquifer is further extended and features good hydraulic properties. To date, only a small part of the hydrogeological potential of arid CEB has been explored and an extension of exploration is needed, including southern Angola. The combination of structural, sedimentological and hydrogeological approaches greatly advanced both the geological and hydrogeological understanding. With regard to the deep-seated aquifer, strict measures need to be applied to ensure that the water in the KOH-2 reservoir is exploited sustainably. Water control areas need to be established to ensure long-term preservation of this newly explored aquifer.

  11. The application of satellite differential SAR interferometry-derived ground displacements in hydrogeology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, D.L.; Hoffmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    The application of satellite differential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry, principally coherent (InSAR) and to a lesser extent, persistent-scatterer (PSI) techniques to hydrogeologic studies has improved capabilities to map, monitor, analyze, and simulate groundwater flow, aquifer-system compaction and land subsidence. A number of investigations over the previous decade show how the spatially detailed images of ground displacements measured with InSAR have advanced hydrogeologic understanding, especially when a time series of images is used in conjunction with histories of changes in water levels and management practices. Important advances include: (1) identifying structural or lithostratigraphic boundaries (e.g. faults or transitional facies) of groundwater flow and deformation; (2) defining the material and hydraulic heterogeneity of deforming aquifer-systems; (3) estimating system properties (e.g. storage coefficients and hydraulic conductivities); and (4) constraining numerical models of groundwater flow, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. As a component of an integrated approach to hydrogeologic monitoring and characterization of unconsolidated alluvial groundwater basins differential SAR interferometry contributes unique information that can facilitate improved management of groundwater resources. Future satellite SAR missions specifically designed for differential interferometry will enhance these contributions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  12. Teaching and learning hydrogeology using a physically-based modelling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Andrew; Dessirier, Benoit; Pannetier, Romain

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogeology involves studying the occurrence, distribution, movement and quality of water in geological formations. Hydrogeology typically enters in the curriculum of physical geography as well as civil and environmental engineering courses, is a multidisciplinary subject which encompasses several scientific areas including mathematics, physics, geology, geochemistry and numerical analysis. For applications such as resource management, decision and policy making, and an understanding and interpretation of uncertainty and risk assessment is also necessary. Teaching hydrogeology is not only challenged by its multidisciplinary nature, but also since groundwater occurrence and movement is hidden from view in the subsurface, and is generally inaccessible to direct observation. Field experiments are often costly and time consuming, and laboratory experiments limited in scale. However, suitably designed computational systems can help address such issues by providing numerical modelling investigations of field conditions. This contribution presents results from a recent project dedicated to develop an open-source, interactive, visual numerical modelling tool for teaching/learning hydrogeology, based on current pedagogical understanding of learning in higher education. It provides physically-based groundwater flow solutions within an intuitive user-friendly interface, which does not require advanced technical skills to operate. The aim is to be able to improve student's learning by providing immediate and visual feedback on groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The development and implementation of the tool as part of a teaching framework to address subsurface flow concepts and phenomena is presented, discussed and evaluated. By linking theoretical problem-solving exercises with modelling tasks in a learn-by-doing approach, we further discuss how student's learning experiences can be enhanced.

  13. Geohydrodynamic properties of hydrogeological units in parts of Niger Delta, southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Nyakno J.; Emah, Joseph B.; Ekong, Ufot N.

    2015-05-01

    We used geophysical and laboratory techniques to study the geohydraulic properties of the geological units in the Niger Delta of southern Nigeria. Our main objective was to investigate the distribution of the geohydrodynamic parameters and to establish the interrelationships among them in the study area for effective characterisation of hydrogeological units. Measurements on the core samples aided in the estimation of effective porosities. The hydrogeological units' bulk resistivities measured from 1-D resistivity data constrained by nearby boreholes and the formation pore-water resistivities measured in the laboratory were used in computing the hydrogeological unit formation factor resistivity. Integration of field and laboratory measurements in conjunction with regression analysis of the data led to the determination of the hydrodynamic coefficients of the hydrogeological units. The graphs and the contour maps generated from the data show the variations and the interrelationships among the parameters. A theoretical model for the porosity-resistivity formation factor relation which conforms to Dakhnov's formulation, obtained for similar sediment with different grain sizes in another geological province has been developed based on the measured data. A good approximation with error of the mean square of 2.48 and standard deviation of 1.5 was obtained between the experimental aquifer formation factor F and the predicted aquifer formation factor Fm. Generally, the results of our study reveal good correlations with similar studies carried out in literatures at different places. The juxtaposition of contour maps which show variations of geohydraulic parameters in a continuum is worthwhile. The changes in geohydraulic parameters are influenced by size of grains, magnitude of pore sizes and shapes, pore-water and formation conductivities, facies changes and anisotropy of aquifer sediments. Our results have not really shown any interaction between freshwater and saltwater

  14. Hydrogeologic Framework in Three Drainage Basins in the New Jersey Pinelands, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Richard L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Watson, Kara M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Pinelands Commission, began a multi-phase hydrologic investigation in 2004 to characterize the hydrologic system supporting the aquatic and wetland communities of the New Jersey Pinelands area (Pinelands). The Pinelands is an ecologically diverse area in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain underlain by the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. The demand for ground water from this aquifer system is increasing as local development increases. To assess the effects of ground-water withdrawals on Pinelands stream and wetland water levels, three drainage basins were selected for detailed hydrologic assessments, including the Albertson Brook, McDonalds Branch and the Morses Mill Stream basins. Study areas were defined surrounding the three drainage basins to provide sub-regional hydrogeologic data for the ground-water flow modeling phase of this study. In the first phase of the hydrologic assessments, a database of hydrogeologic information and a hydrogeologic framework model for each of the three study areas were produced. These framework models, which illustrate typical hydrogeologic variations among different geographic subregions of the Pinelands, are the structural foundation for predictive ground-water flow models to be used in assessing the hydrologic effects of increased ground-water withdrawals. During 2004-05, a hydrogeologic database was compiled using existing and new geophysical and lithologic data including suites of geophysical logs collected at 7 locations during the drilling of 21 wells and one deep boring within the three study areas. In addition, 27 miles of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surface geophysical data were collected and analyzed to determine the depth and extent of shallow clays in the general vicinity of the streams. On the basis of these data, the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was divided into 7 layers to construct a hydrogeologic framework model for each study area. These

  15. An experimental investigation of shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interactions with and without boundary layer suction: A data summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, C. C.; Childs, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    Tabulated data from a series of experimental studies of the interaction of a shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer in axisymmetric flow configurations is presented. The studies were conducted at the walls of circular wind tunnels and on the cylindrical centerbody of an annular flow channel. Detailed pitot pressure profiles and wall static pressure profiles upstream of, within and downstream of the interaction region are given. Results are presented for flows at nominal freestream Mach Numbers of 2, 3 and 4. For studies at the tunnel sidewalls, the shock waves were produced by conical shock generators mounted on the centerline of the wind tunnel at zero angle of attack. The annular ring generator was used to produce the shock wave at the centerbody of the annular flow channel. The effects of boundary layer bleed were examined in the investigation. Both bleed rate and bleed location were studied. Most of the bleed studies were conducted with bleed holes drilled normal to the wall surface but the effects of slot suction were also examined. A summary of the principal results and conclusions is given.

  16. 2101-M Pond hydrogeologic characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Luttrell, S.P.; Bates, D.J.; Martin, W.J.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory {sup (a)} at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report is the interpretation of the hydrogeologic environment at the 2101-M Pond, located in the 200-East Area of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretation were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the installation of four ground-water monitoring wells, in addition to data gathered from several previously existing wells. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a groundwater monitoring program initiated in 1988. The four new monitoring wells were installed around the 2101-M Pond between May 23 and August 27, 1988. Geologic sampling, aquifer testing, and initial ground-water sampling were performed during the installation of these wells. Laboratory analyses of the sediment samples for particle size, calcium carbonate content, and selected natural and contaminant constituents were performed. A full year of quarterly ground-water sampling and the first statistical analysis of background and downgradient data have also been performed. 112 refs., 49 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Vacher, H. L.; Shinn,

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys, and focuses on the islands formed of Pleistocene limestone. These islands, which are crossed when driving from Miami to Key West, are typically regarded as "the Florida Keys." The outstanding and fragile character of ecosystems on and around the Florida Keys has prompted State and Federal efforts to protect and preserve the remaining public portions of the region. The Florida Keys were largely ignored during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, although the waters just offshore provided a major shipping thoroughfare to and from the New World. The Florida Keys are now recognized as one of the great recreational and environmental resources of the United States. The islands are outposts of a laid-back, tropical resort culture that has as its foundation warmth and clear water. A significant part of the attraction is fishing, diving, and boating around the area's coral reefs, which the islands protect. But the reefs were not always so highly valued. The Florida Keys that have protected the reefs for millennia, may now be the source of the agents that may accomplish what Agassiz thought was beyond man's power a century ago.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Potsdam Sandstone in northern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Franzi, David A.; Romanowicz, Edwin A.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The Potsdam Sandstone of Cambrian age forms a transboundary aquifer that extends across northern New York and into southern Quebec. The Potsdam Sandstone is a gently dipping sequence of arkose, subarkose, and orthoquartzite that unconformably overlies Precambrian metamorphic bedrock. The Potsdam irregularly grades upward over a thickness of 450 m from a heterogeneous feldspathic and argillaceous rock to a homogeneous, quartz-rich and matrix-poor rock. The hydrogeological framework of the Potsdam Sandstone was investigated through an analysis of records from 1,500 wells and geophysical logs from 40 wells, and through compilation of GIS coverages of bedrock and surficial geology, examination of bedrock cores, and construction of hydrogeological sections. The upper several metres of the sandstone typically is weathered and fractured and, where saturated, readily transmits groundwater. Bedding-related fractures in the sandstone commonly form sub-horizontal flow zones of relatively high transmissivity. The vertical distribution of sub-horizontal flow zones is variable; spacings of less than 10 m are common. Transmissivity of individual flow zones may be more than 100 m2/d but typically is less than 10 m2/d. High angle fractures, including joints and faults, locally provide vertical hydraulic connection between flow zones. Hydraulic head gradients in the aquifer commonly are downward; a laterally extensive series of sub-horizontal flow zones serve as drains for the groundwater flow system. Vertical hydraulic head differences between shallow and deep flow zones range from 1 m to more than 20 m. The maximum head differences are in recharge areas upgradient from the area where the Chateauguay and Chazy Rivers, and their tributaries, have cut into till and bedrock. Till overlies the sandstone in much of the study area; its thickness is generally greatest in the western part, where it may exceed 50 m. A discontinuous belt of bedrock pavements stripped of glacial drift extends

  19. Hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary rock, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Burton, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Trenton, New Jersey, a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site in the Newark Basin, is developed using an understanding of the geologic history of the strata, gamma-ray logs, and rock cores. NAWC is the newest field research site established as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, and DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program to investigate contaminant remediation in fractured rock. Sedimentary bedrock at the NAWC research site comprises the Skunk Hollow, Byram, and Ewing Creek Members of the Lockatong Formation and Raven Rock Member of the Stockton Formation. Muds of the Lockatong Formation that were deposited in Van Houten cycles during the Triassic have lithified to form the bedrock that is typical of much of the Newark Basin. Four lithotypes formed from the sediments include black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone, dark-gray laminated mudstone, light-gray massive mudstone, and red massive mudstone. Diagenesis, tectonic compression, off-loading, and weathering have altered the rocks to give some strata greater hydraulic conductivity than other strata. Each stratum in the Lockatong Formation is 0.3 to 8 m thick, strikes N65 degrees E, and dips 25 degrees to 70 degrees NW. The black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone tends to fracture easily, has a relatively high hydraulic conductivity and is associated with high natural gamma-ray count rates. The dark-gray laminated mudstone is less fractured and has a lower hydraulic conductivity than the black carbon-rich laminated mudstone. The light-gray and the red massive mudstones are highly indurated and tend to have the least fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity. The differences in gamma-ray count rates for different mudstones allow gamma-ray logs to be used to correlate and

  20. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Summary of Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity Program to January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Scouting and monitoring techniques peculiar to geopressured-geothermal wells and legal problems are presented. The following are tabulated: priority wells actively monitored, industry contacts, and the summary of industry responses to well-or-opportunity solicitation. (MHR)

  1. Flowing with the changing needs of hydrogeology instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, T.; Allen, D. M.; Ferguson, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogeology is now taught in a broad spectrum of departments and institutions to students with diverse backgrounds. Successful instruction in hydrogeology thus requires a variety of pedagogical approaches depending on desired learning outcomes and the diverse background of students. We review the pedagogical literature in hydrogeology to highlight recent advances and analyze a 2005 survey of 68 hydrogeology instructors. The literature and survey results suggest there are ~15 topics that are considered crucial by most hydrogeologists and >100 other topics that are considered crucial by some hydrogeologists. The crucial topics focus on properties of aquifers and fundamentals of groundwater flow, and should likely be part of all undergraduate hydrogeology courses. Other topics can supplement and support these crucial topics, depending on desired learning outcomes. Classroom settings continue to provide a venue for emphasizing fundamental knowledge. However, recent pedagogical advances are biased towards field and laboratory instruction with a goal of bolstering experiential learning. Field methods build on the fundamentals taught in the classroom and emphasize the collection of data, data uncertainty, and the development of vocational skills. Laboratory and computer-based exercises similarly build on theory, and offer an opportunity for data analysis and integration. The literature suggests curricula at all levels should ideally balance field, laboratory, and classroom pedagogy into an iterative and integrative whole. An integrated approach leads to greater student motivation and advancement of theoretical and vocational knowledge.

  2. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Bratica, Robyn; Dempsey, Jack R.; Karle, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized provides a review of research documenting that even when children are not physically proximal to a national disaster (9/11), they may still have negative reactions. The second article summarized is an examination of the PTSD diagnostic criterion…

  3. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of two recent crisis management publications: (1) "Social Validity of the CISM Model for School Crisis Intervention," summarized by Jack R. Dempsey; and (2) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," summarized by Ashlee Barton.…

  4. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were leaders…

  5. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "School Violence: Associations With Control, Security/Enforcement, Educational/Therapeutic Approaches, and Demographic Factors," reviewed by Ashlee Barton; (2) "The Relationship Between Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD in Survivors of Traffic Accidents," summarized…

  6. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of four recent crisis management publications: (1) "Crisis Intervention for Children/Caregivers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence," summarized by Donna DeVaughn Kreskey; (2) "Predictors of Trauma Reactions Following the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks," summarized by Kelly O'Connor; (3) "Cognitive Coping Styles and PTSD…

  7. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  8. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three recent crisis management publications: (1) "The Impact of School Violence on School Personnel," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux; (2) "Children Exposed to War/Terrorism," summarized by Jennifer DeFago; and (3) "Suicide Survivors Seeking Mental Health Services," summarized by Kimberly de Deaux. The first…

  9. Python-Based Applications for Hydrogeological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambhammettu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Add-on packages supporting fast array computation (numpy), plotting (matplotlib), scientific /mathematical Functions (scipy), have resulted in a powerful ecosystem for scientists interested in exploratory data analysis, high-performance computing and data visualization. Three examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the Python environment in hydrogeological applications. Python programs were used to model an aquifer test and estimate aquifer parameters at a Superfund site. The aquifer test conducted at a Groundwater Circulation Well was modeled with the Python/FORTRAN-based TTIM Analytic Element Code. The aquifer parameters were estimated with PEST such that a good match was produced between the simulated and observed drawdowns. Python scripts were written to interface with PEST and visualize the results. A convolution-based approach was used to estimate source concentration histories based on observed concentrations at receptor locations. Unit Response Functions (URFs) that relate the receptor concentrations to a unit release at the source were derived with the ATRANS code. The impact of any releases at the source could then be estimated by convolving the source release history with the URFs. Python scripts were written to compute and visualize receptor concentrations for user-specified source histories. The framework provided a simple and elegant way to test various hypotheses about the site. A Python/FORTRAN-based program TYPECURVEGRID-Py was developed to compute and visualize groundwater elevations and drawdown through time in response to a regional uniform hydraulic gradient and the influence of pumping wells using either the Theis solution for a fully-confined aquifer or the Hantush-Jacob solution for a leaky confined aquifer. The program supports an arbitrary number of wells that can operate according to arbitrary schedules. The

  10. DRASTIC: A STANDARDIZED SYSTEM FOR EVALUATING GROUND WATER POLLUTION USING HYDROGEOLOGIC SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology is described that will allow the pollution potential of any hydrogeologic setting to be systematically evaluated anywhere in the United States. The system has two major portions: the designation of mappable units, termed hydrogeologic settings, and the superposit...

  11. Project Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    A top level summary of activities conducted throughout the course of the EDOMP in response to initial concerns at the outset of the program is provided. Significant findings from the investigations are summarized, together with resulting countermeasures that were implemented and flight rules that were developed in response to these findings. Subsequent paragraphs provide more information; details will be found in the referenced sections.

  12. Hydrogeology of Cibola County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, J.A.; Rankin, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Cibola County, New Mexico, was evaluated to determine the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground-water resources. Rocks of Precambrian through Quaternary age are present in Cibola County. Most rocks are sedimentary in origin except for Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the Zuni Uplift and Tertiary and Quaternary basalts in northern and central parts of the county. The most productive aquifers in the county include (youngest to oldest) Quaternary deposits, sandstones in the Mesaverde Group, the Dakota-Zuni-Bluff aquifer, the Westwater Canyon aquifer, the Todilto- Entrada aquifer, sandstone beds in the Chinle Formation, and the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. Unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel form a mantle ranging from a few inches to 150 to 200 feet over much of the bedrock in Cibola County. Well yields range from 5 to 1,110 gallons per minute. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water range from 200 to more than 5,200 milligrams per liter. Calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate are the predominant ions in ground water in alluvial material. The Mesaverde Group mainly occurs in three areas of the county. Well yields range from less than 1 to 12 gallons per minute. The predominant ions in water from wells in the Mesaverde Group are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The transition from calcium-predominant to sodium-predominant water in the southwestern part of the county likely is a result of ion exchange. Wells completed in the Dakota-Zuni-Bluff aquifer yield from 1 to 30 gallons per minute. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 220 to 2,000 milligrams per liter in water from 34 wells in the western part of the county. Predominant ions in the ground water include calcium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate. Calcium predominates in areas where the aquifer is exposed at the surface or is overlain with alluvium. Sandstones in the Chinle Formation yield from 10 to 300 gallons per minute to wells in the Grants

  13. Hydrogeology of the Mogollon Highlands, central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; Steinkampf, William C.; Flynn, Marilyn E.

    2005-01-01

    The Mogollon Highlands, 4,855 square miles of rugged, mountainous terrain at the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau in central Arizona, is characterized by a bedrock-dominated hydrologic system that results in an incompletely integrated regional ground-water system, flashy streamflow, and various local water-bearing zones that are sensitive to drought. Increased demand on the water resources of the area as a result of recreational activities and population growth have made necessary an increased understanding of the hydrogeology of the region. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study of the geology and hydrology of the region in cooperation with the Arizona Department of Water Resources under the auspices of the Arizona Rural Watershed Initiative, a program launched in 1998 to assist rural areas in dealing with water-resources issues. The study involved the analysis of geologic maps, surface-water and ground-water flow, and water and rock chemical data and spatial relationships to characterize the hydrogeologic framework. The study area includes the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau and the Mogollon Rim, which is the eroded edge of the plateau. A 3,000- to 4,000-foot sequence of early to late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks forms the generally south-facing scarp of the Mogollon Rim. The area adjacent to the edge of the Mogollon Rim is an erosional landscape of rolling, step-like terrain exposing Proterozoic metamorphic and granitic rocks. Farther south, the Sierra Ancha and Mazatzal Mountain ranges, which are composed of various Proterozoic rocks, flank an alluvial basin filled with late Cenozoic sediments and volcanic flows. Eight streams with perennial to intermittent to ephemeral flow drain upland regions of the Mogollon Rim and flow into the Salt River on the southern boundary or the Verde River on the western boundary. Ground-water flow paths generally are controlled by large-scale fracture systems or by karst features in carbonate rocks. Stream

  14. Hydrogeology of the Azores volcanic archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J.; Coutinho, R.; Antunes, P.; Freire, P.

    2009-04-01

    the volcanic edifices slopes. The basal aquifer system is in the coastal area, presenting generally a very low hydraulic gradient. Hydrogeological surveys that have been made in the Azores archipelago points out to more than 1000 springs and wells spread all over the archipelago (950 springs and 83 drilled wells). Spring distribution is heterogeneous, with densities varying between 0.01 springs/km2 at Pico island and 0.72 springs/km2 estimated at Santa Maria. Specific capacity ranges from 1.4x10-2 to 266.7 L/sm, with a median value of 32.3 L/sm. Transmissivity also present a large range, with values ranging between 1.65x10-5 and 4.03x10-1 m2/s, and a median of 3.66x10-2 m2/s. The heterogeneous distribution shown by these values expresses the influence of the hydrogeological characteristics of volcanic terrain, resulting from syngenetic characteristics and secondary processes, like weathering. The highest values are observed in wells drilled in recent basaltic lava flows, which generally are thin and fractured, with frequent clincker levels interbedded, and the lowest data was estimated in the older volcanic formations of Santa Maria island. Groundwater on perched-water bodies, excluding the numerous mineral waters that are spread in several islands of the archipelago, present usually a low mineralization, shown by the electrical conductivity values (36-725 S/cm; median=158.0 S/cm). The average temperature is equal to 15°C. Waters have an average temperature of 15°C and are mainly slightly acid to slightly alkaline, with a pH range from 4.7 to 8.6, but showing a median value of 7.2. The main water types are Na-Cl to Na-HCO3 waters, with numerous samples lying in the intermediate compositional fields that characterize Na-Cl-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl waters. The groundwater composition in the basal aquifer system is usually from the Na-Cl type and presents a higher mineralization, resulting in a median value for electrical conductivity equal to 1044 S/cm, expressing the

  15. Hydrogeologic Characterization of the U-3bl Collapse Zone

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Services

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing. Borehole U-3bl-D2 is a 45-degree-angle hole drilled from the edge of the crater under the waste cell to intercept the U-3bl collapse zone, the disturbed alluvium between the crater (surface collapse sink) and the nuclear test cavity. A casing-advance system with an air percussion hammer was used to drill the borehole, and air was used as the drilling fluid. Properties of the U-3bl crater collapse zone were determined from cores collected within the interval, 42.1 to 96.6 meters (138 to 317 feet) below the ground surface. Selected core samples were analyzed for particle density, particle size, bulk density, water retention, hydraulic conductivity, water content, water potential, chloride, carbonate, stable isotopes, and tritium. Physical and hydraulic properties were typical of alluvial valley sediments at the NTS. No visual evidence of preferential pathways for water transport was observed in the core samples. Soil parameters showed no trends with depth. Volumetric water content values ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 cubic meters per cubic meter, and tended to increase with depth. Water-retention relations were typical for soils of similar texture. Water potentials ranged from -1.9 MegaPascals at a depth of 42

  16. A methodological integrated approach to optimize a hydrogeological engineering work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Bavusi, M.; Cerverizzo, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geoelectrical survey applied to hydraulic engineering is a well known in literature. However, despite of its large number of successful cases of application, the use of geophysics is still often not considered; this due to different reasons as: the poor knowledge of the potential performances; the difficulties in the practical implementation; the cost limitations. In this work, an integrated study of non-invasive (geoelectrical) and direct surveys is described, aimed at identifying a subsoil foundation where it possible to set up a watertight concrete structure able to protect the purifier of Senise, a little town in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The purifier, used by several villages, is located in a particularly dangerous hydrogeological position, as it is very close to the Sinni river, which has been obstructed from many years by the Monte Cotugno dam. During the rainiest periods, the river could flood the purifier, causing the drainage of waste waters in the Monte Cotugno artificial lake. The purifier is located in Pliocene- Calabrian clay and clay - marly formations covered by about 10m layer of alluvional gravelly-sandy materials carried by the Sinni river. The electrical resistivity tomography acquired with the Wenner Schlumberger array was revealed meaningful for the purpose to identify the potential depth of impermeable clays with high accuracy. In particular, the geoelectrical acquisition, orientated along the long side of purifier, was carried out using a multielectrodes system with 48 electrodes 2 m spaced leading to an achievable investigation depth of about 15 m The subsequent direct surveys have confirmed this depth so that it was possible to set up the foundation concrete structure with precision to protect the purifier. It is worth noting that the use of this methodological approach has allowed a remarkable economic saving as it has made it possible to correct the wrong information, regarding the depth of impermeably clays, previously

  17. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Katelyn A.; Mayer, Alex S.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications.

  18. Groundwater availability as constrained by hydrogeology and environmental flows.

    PubMed

    Watson, Katelyn A; Mayer, Alex S; Reeves, Howard W

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater pumping from aquifers in hydraulic connection with nearby streams has the potential to cause adverse impacts by decreasing flows to levels below those necessary to maintain aquatic ecosystems. The recent passage of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact has brought attention to this issue in the Great Lakes region. In particular, the legislation requires the Great Lakes states to enact measures for limiting water withdrawals that can cause adverse ecosystem impacts. This study explores how both hydrogeologic and environmental flow limitations may constrain groundwater availability in the Great Lakes Basin. A methodology for calculating maximum allowable pumping rates is presented. Groundwater availability across the basin may be constrained by a combination of hydrogeologic yield and environmental flow limitations varying over both local and regional scales. The results are sensitive to factors such as pumping time, regional and local hydrogeology, streambed conductance, and streamflow depletion limits. Understanding how these restrictions constrain groundwater usage and which hydrogeologic characteristics and spatial variables have the most influence on potential streamflow depletions has important water resources policy and management implications.

  19. Profile summary.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    All drugs appearing in the Adis Profile Summary table have been selected based on information contained in R&D Insight trade mark, a proprietary product of Adis International. The information in the profiles is gathered from the world's medical and scientific literature, at international conferences and symposia, and directly from the developing companies themselves. The emphasis of Drugs in R&D is on the clinical potential of new drugs, and selection of agents for inclusion is based on products in late-phase clinical development that have recently had a significant change in status.

  20. Hydrogeologic Modeling at the Sylvania Corning FUSRAP Site - 13419

    SciTech Connect

    Ewy, Ann; Heim, Kenneth J.; McGonigal, Sean T.; Talimcioglu, Nazmi M.

    2013-07-01

    A comparative groundwater hydrogeologic modeling analysis is presented herein to simulate potential contaminant migration pathways in a sole source aquifer in Nassau County, Long Island, New York. The source of contamination is related to historical operations at the Sylvania Corning Plant ('Site'), a 9.49- acre facility located at 70, 100 and 140 Cantiague Rock Road, Town of Oyster Bay in the westernmost portion of Hicksville, Long Island. The Site had historically been utilized as a nuclear materials manufacturing facility (e.g., cores, slug, and fuel elements) for reactors used in both research and electric power generation in early 1950's until late 1960's. The Site is contaminated with various volatile organic and inorganic compounds, as well as radionuclides. The major contaminants of concern at the Site are tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), nickel, uranium, and thorium. These compounds are present in soil and groundwater underlying the Site and have migrated off-site. The Site is currently being investigated as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The main objective of the current study is to simulate the complex hydrogeologic features in the region, such as numerous current and historic production well fields; large, localized recharge basins; and, multiple aquifers, and to assess potential contaminant migration pathways originating from the Site. For this purpose, the focus of attention was given to the underlying Magothy formation, which has been impacted by the contaminants of concern. This aquifer provides more than 90% of potable water supply in the region. Nassau and Suffolk Counties jointly developed a three-dimensional regional groundwater flow model to help understand the factors affecting groundwater flow regime in the region, to determine adequate water supply for public consumption, to investigate salt water intrusion in localized areas, to evaluate the impacts of regional pumping activity, and to

  1. An integrated theoretical and practical approach for teaching hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; Cavallin, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogeology as an earth science intersects the broader disciplines of geology, engineering, and environmental studies but it does not overlap fully with any of them. It is focused on its own range of problems and over time has developed a rich variety of methods and approaches. The resolution of many hydrogeological problems requires knowledge of elements of geology, hydraulics, physics and chemistry; moreover in recent years the knowledge of modelling techniques has become a necessary ability. Successful transfer of all this knowledge to the students depends on the breadth of material taught in courses, the natural skills of the students and any practical experience the students can obtain. In the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences of the University of Milano-Bicocca, the teaching of hydrogeology is developed in three inter-related courses: 1) general hydrogeology, 2) applied hydrogeology, 3) groundwater pollution and remediation. The sequence focuses on both groundwater flux and contaminant transport, supplemented by workshops involving case studies and computer labs, which provide the students with practical translation of the theoretical aspects of the science into the world of work. A second key aspect of the program utilizes the students' skill at learning through online approaches, and this is done through three approaches: A) by developing the courses on a University e-learning platform that allows the students to download lectures, articles, and teacher comments, and to participate in online forums; B) by carring out exercises through computer labs where the student analyze and process hydrogeological data by means of different numerical codes, that in turn enable them to manage databases and to perform aquifer test analysis, geostatistical analysis, and flux and transport modelling both in the unsaturated and saturated zone. These exercises are of course preceded by theoretical lectures on codes and software, highlighting their features and

  2. Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayon, Juan A.

    1992-08-01

    The Astrotech 21 Optical Systems Technology Workshop was held in Pasadena, California on March 6-8, 1991. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the state of Optical Systems Technology at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA), and in industry and academia, in view of the potential Astrophysics mission set currently being considered for the late 1990's through the first quarter of the 21st century. The principal result of the workshop is this publication, which contains an assessment of the current state of the technology, and specific technology advances in six critical areas of optics, all necessary for the mission set. The workshop was divided into six panels, each of about a dozen experts in specific fields, representing NASA, industry, and academia. In addition, each panel contained expertise that spanned the spectrum from x-ray to submillimeter wavelengths. This executive summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel. The six technology panels and their chairs were: (1) Wavefront Sensing, Control, and Pointing, Thomas Pitts, Itek Optical Systems, A Division of Litton; (2) Fabrication, Roger Angel, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona; (3) Materials and Structures, Theodore Saito, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (4) Optical Testing, James Wyant, WYKO Corporation; (5) Optical Systems Integrated Modeling, Robert R. Shannon, Optical Sciences Center, University of Arizona; and (6) Advanced Optical Instruments Technology, Michael Shao, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. This Executive Summary contains the principal recommendations of each panel.

  3. Hydrogeologic characterization of the Modesto Area, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Weissmann, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogeologic characterization was done to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic setting near Modesto by maximizing the use of existing data and building on previous work in the region. A substantial amount of new lithologic and hydrologic data are available that allow a more complete and updated characterization of the aquifer system. In this report, geologic units are described, a database of well characteristics and lithology is developed and used to update the regional stratigraphy, a water budget is estimated for water year 2000, a three-dimensional spatial correlation map of aquifer texture is created, and recommendations for future data collection are summarized. The general physiography of the study area is reflected in the soils. The oldest soils, which have low permeability, exist in terrace deposits, in the interfan areas between the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, at the distal end of the fans, and along the San Joaquin River floodplain. The youngest soils have high permeability and generally have been forming on the recently deposited alluvium along the major stream channels. Geologic materials exposed or penetrated by wells in the Modesto area range from pre-Cretaceous rocks to recent alluvium; however, water-bearing materials are mostly Late Tertiary and Quaternary in age. A database containing information from more than 3,500 drillers'logs was constructed to organize information on well characteristics and subsurface lithology in the study area. The database was used in conjunction with a limited number of geophysical logs and county soil maps to define the stratigraphic framework of the study area. Sequences of red paleosols were identified in the database and used as stratigraphic boundaries. Associated with these paleosols are very coarse grained incised valley-fill deposits. Some geophysical well logs and other sparse well information suggest the presence of one of these incised valley-fill deposits along and adjacent to the

  4. Hydrogeologic controls on water quality at a university dairy farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, L. D.; Hunter, R. W.; Lee, J.

    2010-12-01

    Dairy farms typically produce large quantities of manure and other waste products which are often stored or treated in lagoons and then applied to local fields as fertilizer. Contamination of nearby streams by dairy farm wastes through surface runnoff, drainage tile discharge, direct release of wastes or inundation of waste storage facilities during seasonal flooding have long been recognized as major environmental concerns. However, much less attention has been paid to fate and transport of dairy wastes in the subsurface and their potential impact on water quality in aquifers or in groundwater discharge to streams. One of the challenges in evaluating the environmental impact of dairy operations is that there are relatively few field research sites where all of the potential pathways for waterborne transport of dairy wastes are monitored and quantititatively evaluated. There are even fewer sites where extensive baseline water quality monitoring programs were established prior to operation of the dairy. This is essential to distinguish between environmental impacts from dairy operations and other nearby sources, such as beef production and human sewage from septic fields. This talk describes the development of a an integrated hydrogeologic/hydrologic site assessment and groundwater/surface water quality monitoring program at the University of Tennessee - Little River Dairy Farm, located near Townsend, TN. The dairy is currently under construction and the first cows are expected to arrive in late 2010. Hydrologic/hydrogeologic investigations of streams and groundwater at the site have been underway for more than 3 years, and these are expected to provide background data for assessing impacts of dairy wastes and for testing the effectiveness of different management practises. The lower half of the ~180 ha site consists of low-relief fields used for row crops, which are underlain by 4 - 8 m of alluvial deposits (mainly interbedded silt and fine-grained sands) on top of

  5. Hydrogeologic facies characterization of an alluvial fan near Fresno, California, using geophysical techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Weissmann, G.S.; Miller, R.D.; Placzek, Gary

    1997-01-01

    DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane) contamination in the sole source aquifer near Fresno, California, has significantly affected drinking-water supplies. Borehole and surface geophysical data were integrated with borehole textural data to characterize the Kings River alluvial fan sediments and to provide a framework for computer modeling of pesticide transport in ground water. Primary hydrogeologic facies units, such as gravel, coarse sand or gravel, fine sand, and silt and clay, were identified in cores collected from three borings located on a 4.6-kilometer transect of multilevel monitoring wells. Borehole geophysical logs collected from seven wells and surface geophysical surveys were used to extrapolate hydrogeologic facies to depths of about 82meters and to correlate the facies units with neighboring drilling sites. Thickness ranged from 0.3to 13 meters for sand and gravel units, and from 0.3 to 17 meters for silt and clay. The lateral extent of distinct silt and clay layers was mapped using shallow seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar techniques. About 3.6 kilometers of seismic reflection data were collected; at least three distinct fine-grained layers were mapped. The depth of investigation of the seismic survey ranged from 34 to 107 meters below land surface, and vertical resolution was about 3.5 meters. The ground-penetrating radar survey covered 3.6kilometers and imaged a 1.5-meters thick, continuous fine-grained layer located at a depth of about 8 meters. Integrated results from the borehole sediment descriptions and geophysical surveys provided a detailed characterization over a larger areal extent than traditional hydrogeologic methods alone.

  6. Hydrogeologic Controls on Bioactive Zone Development in Biostimulated Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillig, Peter Curtis

    This study investigates the hydrogeological factors that control the feedback between bioactive zone formation and groundwater flow, as well as developing and assessing tools useful for making these investigations. The interaction between groundwater flow and bioactive zone development was investigated in both a subsurface biostimulation study and a laboratory experiments. Prior to the investigation, necessary advances were made in point velocity probe (PVP) technology to ensure successful observation in the field. Advances in these areas allowed for high resolution site characterization of an aquifer to undergo biostimulation for the removal of nitrate contamination. Heterotrophic denitrification was stimulated through daily pulses of acetate into the aquifer. With the onset of acetate delivery, decreases in groundwater velocity magnitude and flow redirection were correlated with permeable zones of relatively finer grain-size and poorer-sorting. In contrast, adjacent well-sorted and relatively coarse zones with initially high groundwater velocities indicated relatively little or no change in groundwater velocity after biostimulation. Superimposed onto these results, greater changes in groundwater velocity were noted where individual acetate pulses mixed through dispersive processes. In contrast, locations up-gradient of acetate pulse mixing indicated a higher variability in measured groundwater velocity. In total, changes in groundwater velocity in the biostimulated zone were in excess of those anticipated by analysis of the hydraulic gradient. Sediment-attached viable cell populations were interpreted to be partially responsible for the measured changes in velocity. Variables of grain-size and initial groundwater velocity were tested in controlled laboratory column experiments to evaluate the most favorable conditions for a bioactive zone to develop, subsequently leading to preferential bioclogging. Results from these experiments supported field observations that

  7. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  8. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (Ψ) and surface volumetric moisture content (θ) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (Ψ > 400 cm, θ < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (Ψ < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post

  9. Characterization of Spatial Variability of Hydrogeologic Properties for Unsaturated Flow in the Fractured Rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Quanlin; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Liu, Hui-Hai; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2002-05-21

    The spatial variability of layer-scale hydrogeologic properties of the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is investigated using inverse modeling. The thick UZ is grouped into five hydrostratigraphic units and further into 35 hydrogeologic layers. For each layer, lateral variability is represented by the variations in calibrated values of layer-scale properties at different individual deep boreholes. In the calibration model, matrix and fracture properties are calibrated for the one-dimensional vertical column at each individual borehole using the ITOUGH2 code. The objective function is the summation of the weighted misfits between the ambient unsaturated flow (represented by measured state variables: water saturation, water potential, and pneumatic pressure) and the simulated one in the one-dimensional flow system. The objective function also includes the weighted misfits between the calibrated properties and their prior information. Layer-scale state variables and prior rock properties are obtained from their core-scale measurements. Because of limited data, the lateral variability of three most sensitive properties (matrix permeability, matrix of the van Genuchten characterization, and fracture permeability) is calibrated, while all other properties are fixed at their calibrated layer-averaged values. Considerable lateral variability of hydrogeologic properties is obtained. For example, the lateral variability of is two to three orders of magnitude and that of and is one order of magnitude. The effect of lateral variability on site-scale flow and transport will be investigated in a future study.

  10. Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of ground-water volumes in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinaman, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana is an important source of energy resources for the United States. Coalbed methane gas is contained in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River Basin. This gas is released when water pressure in coalbeds is lowered, usually by pumping ground water. Issues related to disposal and uses of by-product water from coalbed methane production have developed, in part, due to uncertainties in hydrologic properties. One hydrologic property of primary interest is the amount of water contained in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to describe the hydrogeologic framework and to estimate ground-water volumes in different facies of Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. A geographic information system was used to compile and utilize hydrogeologic maps, to describe the hydrogeologic framework, and to estimate the volume of ground water in Tertiary and upper Cretaceous hydrogeologic units in the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming. Maps of the altitudes of potentiometric surfaces, altitudes of the tops and bottoms of hydrogeologic units, thicknesses of hydrogeologic units, percent sand of hydrogeologic units, and outcrop boundaries for the following hydrogeologic units were used: Tongue River-Wasatch aquifer, Lebo confining unit, Tullock aquifer, Upper Hell Creek confining unit, and the Fox Hills-Lower Hell Creek aquifer. Literature porosity values of 30 percent for sand and 35 percent for non-sand facies were used to calculate the volume of total ground water in each hydrogeologic unit. Literature specific yield values of 26 percent for sand and 10 percent for non-sand facies, and literature specific storage values of 0.0001 ft-1 (1/foot) for sand facies and 0.00001 ft-1 for non-sand facies, were used to calculate a

  11. The hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Halfman, S.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Manon M., A.

    1989-01-01

    As the exploitation of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal field continues, there is increasing evidence that the hydrogeologic model developed by Halfman et al. (1984, 1986) presents the basic features controlling the movement of geothermal fluids in the system. At the present time the total installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 620 MWe requiring the production of more than 10,500 tonnes/hr of a brine-steam mixture. This significant rate of fluid production has resulted in changes in reservoir thermodynamic conditions and in the chemistry of the produced fluids. After reviewing the hydrogeologic-geochemical model of Cerro Prieto, some of the changes observed in the field due to its exploitation are discussed and interpreted on the basis of the model. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Goal-oriented Site Characterization in Hydrogeological Applications: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we address the importance of goal-oriented site characterization. Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in hydrogeological applications, information needs of modeling, prediction and decision support should be satisfied with efficient and rational field campaigns. In this work, we provide an overview of an optimal sampling design framework based on Bayesian decision theory, statistical parameter inference and Bayesian model averaging. It optimizes the field sampling campaign around decisions on environmental performance metrics (e.g., risk, arrival times, etc.) while accounting for parametric and model uncertainty in the geostatistical characterization, in forcing terms, and measurement error. The appealing aspects of the framework lie on its goal-oriented character and that it is directly linked to the confidence in a specified decision. We illustrate how these concepts could be applied in a human health risk problem where uncertainty from both hydrogeological and health parameters are accounted.

  13. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp. PMID:27456146

  14. Hydrogeologic Framework of Onslow County, North Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.

    2008-01-01

    The unconsolidated sediments that underlie the Onslow County area are composed of interlayered permeable and impermeable beds, which overlie the crystalline basement rocks. The aquifers, composed mostly of sand and limestone, are separated by confining units composed mostly of clay and silt. The aquifers from top to bottom are the surficial, Castle Hayne, Beaufort, Peedee, Black Creek, and Upper and Lower Cape Fear aquifers. For this study, the Castle Hayne aquifer is informally divided into the upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers. The eight aquifers and seven confining units of the Tertiary and Cretaceous strata beneath Onslow County are presented in seven hydrogeologic sections. The hydrogeologic framework was refined from existing interpretations by using geophysical logs, driller's logs, and other available data from 123 wells and boreholes.

  15. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance. PMID:27017075

  16. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance.

  17. Hydrogeologic model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S. ); Retana, M.; Cuellar, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A hydrogeological model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field has been developed. It considers the lithology and structural features of the area and discerns their impact on the movement of cold and hot fluids in the system. Three aquifers were identified, their zones of mixing and flow patterns were obtained on the basis of temperature and geochemical data from wells and surface manifestations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Characterization of hydrogeologic units using matrix properties, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Determination of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste requires the use of numerical flow and transport models. Input for these models includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all rock materials within the unsaturated zone, as well as some of the upper rocks in the saturated zone. There are 30 hydrogeologic units in the unsaturated zone, and each unit is defined by limited ranges where a discrete volume of rock contains similar hydrogeologic properties. These hydrogeologic units can be easily located in space by using three-dimensional lithostratigraphic models based on relation- ships of the properties with the lithostratigraphy. Physical properties of bulk density, porosity, and particle density; flow properties of saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture-retention characteristics; and the state variables (variables describing the current state of field conditions) of saturation and water potential were determined for each unit. Units were defined using (1) a data base developed from 4,892 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow and 8 deep boreholes, (2) described lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (3) recognition of transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (4) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (5) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. This study describes the correlation of hydrologic properties to porosity, a property that is well related to the lithostratigraphy and depositional and cooling history of the volcanic deposits and can, therefore, be modeled to be distributed laterally. Parameters of the hydrogeologic units developed in this study and the

  19. Hydrogeologic evaluation and numerical simulation of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; Hill, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    Yucca Mountain is being studied as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the ground-water system. The study area covers approximately 100,000 square kilometers between lat 35{degrees}N., long 115{degrees}W and lat 38{degrees}N., long 118{degrees}W and encompasses the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Hydrology in the region is a result of both the and climatic conditions and the complex described as dominated by interbasinal flow and may be conceptualized as having two main components: a series of relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper regional flow paths. A significant component of the regional ground-water flow is through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence. Throughout the regional flow system, ground-water flow is probably controlled by extensive and prevalent structural features that result from regional faulting and fracturing. Hydrogeologic investigations over a large and hydrogeologically complex area impose severe demands on data management. This study utilized geographic information systems and geoscientific information systems to develop, store, manipulate, and analyze regional hydrogeologic data sets describing various components of the ground-water flow system.

  20. Application of ground-penetrating radar methods in determining hydrogeologic conditions in a karst area, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is useful as a surface geophysical method for exploring geology and subsurface features in karst settings. Interpretation of GPR data was used to infer lithology and hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida. This study demonstrates how GPR methods can be used to investigate the hydrogeology of an area. GPR transmits radio- frequency electromagnetic waves into the ground and receives reflected energy waves from subsurface interfaces. Subsurface profiles showing sediment thickness, depth to water table and clay beds, karst development, buried objects, and lake-bottom structure were produced from GPR traverses obtained during December 1987 and March 1990 in Pinellas, Hillsborough, and Hardee Counties in west-central Florida. Performance of the GPR method is site specific, and data collected are principally affected by the sediment and pore fluids, conductances and dielectric constants. Effective exploration depths of the GPR surveys through predominately unsaturated and saturated sand and clay sediments at five study sites ranged from a few feet to greater than 50 feet below land surface. Exploration depths were limited when high conductivity clay was encountered, whereas greater exploration depths were possible in material composed of sand. Application of GPR is useful in profiling subsurface conditions, but proper interpretation depends upon the user's knowledge of the equipment and the local hydrogeological setting, as well as the ability to interpret the graphic profile.

  1. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  2. Calendar year 1995 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Part 2: 1995 groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1995 from monitoring wells and springs located at or near several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the boundaries of the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, which is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The objectives of the GWPP are to provide the monitoring data necessary for compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, DOE Orders, and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. corporate policy. The following evaluation of the data is organized into background regulatory information and site descriptions, an overview of the hydrogeologic framework, a summary of the CY 1995 groundwater monitoring programs and associated sampling and analysis activities, analysis and interpretation of the data for inorganic, organic, and radiological analytes, a summary of conclusions and recommendations, and a list of cited references. Appendix A contains supporting maps, cross sections, diagrams, and graphs; data tables and summaries are in Appendix B. Detailed descriptions of the data screening and evaluation criteria are included in Appendix C.

  3. Towards a Numerical Approach to Identify Hydrogeological Landscape Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Bishop, T. F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater salinity remains a major issue due to its impact on agriculture and infrastructure. In Australia, it is recognized that groundwater salinity varies significantly across space and time. In NSW, the state government has developed a landscape classification for management based on hydrogeology, landuse and landscape aspects, mainly derived from GIS overlays and operator experience. In this study, we use historical water quality data, geology and drilling logs to develop a more rigorous numerical approach to landscape classification. A combination of statistical methods (Generalised additive model (GAM) and Semi-variogram analysis) was used to identify the significant spatio-temporal factors that induce the variability of groundwater salinity across the Muttama catchment (1059km2) in the southern part of NSW, Australia. The statistical model explained 57% of the variance in the electrical conductivity levels in the groundwater across the landscape. Geology and lag rainfall were the key factors that explained overall catchment groundwater salinity, thus defining the hydrogeological landscape units. Semi-variogram analysis revealed the remaining residuals did not indicate further spatial organisation. Current work focusses on also predicting groundwater response times. Therefore, the results of this study highlighted framework to numerically develop hydrogeological units based on the geological landscape characteristics.

  4. A Task-oriented Approach for Hydrogeological Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Y.; Nowak, W.; de Barros, F.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization is a challenging task from several reasons: (1) the large spatial variability and scarcity of prior information render the outcome of any planned sampling campaign uncertain; (2) there are no simple tools for comparing between the many alternative measurement techniques and data acquisition strategies, and (3) physical and budgetary constraints associated with data acquisition. This paper presents several ideas on how to plan sampling campaigns in a rational manner while addressing these challenges. The first idea is to recognize that different sites and different problems require different characterization strategies. Hence the idea is to plan data acquisition according to its capability for meeting site-specific goals. For example, the characterization needs at a “research problem” site (e.g., a site intended to investigate the transport of uranium in the subsurface such as in Hanford) are different from those of a “problem” site (e.g., contaminated site associated with a health risk to human such as Camp Lejeune, or determining the safe yield of an aquifer). This distinction requires planners to define the characterization goal(s) in a quantitative manner. The second idea is to define metrics that could link specific data types and data acquisition strategies with the site-specific goals in a way that would allow planners to compare between strongly different, alternatives strategies at the design stage (even prior to data acquisition) and to modify the strategies as more data become available. To meet this goal, we developed the concept of the (comparative) information yield curve. Finally, we propose to look at site characterization from the perspective of statistical hypothesis testing, whereby data acquisition strategies could be evaluated in terms of their ability to support or refute various hypotheses made with regard to the characterization goals, and the strategies could be modified once the test is

  5. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through

  6. Project summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    California Polytechnic State University's design project for the 1990-91 school year was the design of a close air support aircraft. There were eight design groups that participated and were given requests for proposals. These proposals contained mission specifications, particular performance and payload requirements, as well as the main design drivers. The mission specifications called for a single pilot weighing 225 lb with equipment. The design mission profile consisted of the following: (1) warm-up, taxi, take off, and accelerate to cruise speed; (2) dash at sea level at 500 knots to a point 250 nmi from take off; (3) combat phase, requiring two combat passes at 450 knots that each consist of a 360 deg turn and an energy increase of 4000 ft. - at each pass, half of air-to-surface ordnance is released; (4) dash at sea level at 500 knots 250 nmi back to base; and (5) land with 20 min of reserve fuel. The request for proposal also specified the following performance requirements with 50 percent internal fuel and standard stores: (1) the aircraft must be able to accelerate from Mach 0.3 to 0.5 at sea level in less than 20 sec; (2) required turn rates are 4.5 sustained g at 450 knots at sea level; (3) the aircraft must have a reattack time of 25 sec or less (reattack time was defined as the time between the first and second weapon drops); (4) the aircraft is allowed a maximum take off and landing ground roll of 2000 ft. The payload requirements were 20 Mk 82 general-purpose free-fall bombs and racks; 1 GAU-8A 30-mm cannon with 1350 rounds; and 2 AIM-9L Sidewinder missiles and racks. The main design drivers expressed in the request for proposal were that the aircraft should be survivable and maintainable. It must be able to operate in remote areas with little or no maintenance. Simplicity was considered the most important factor in achieving the former goal. In addition, the aircraft must be low cost both in acquisition and operation. The summaries of the aircraft

  7. Groundwater development effects on different scale hydrogeological systems using head, hydrochemical and isotopic data and implications for water resources management: The Selva basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, A.; Menció, A.; Puig, R.; Soler, A.; Mas-Pla, J.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryHydrogeological resources in regional, large-scale groundwater systems are conditioned by their specific geological setting, which defines their capacity to supply human demand and their potential to recover from human-induced stress factors such as water withdrawal. In this paper, the hydrogeology of a range-and-basin hydrogeological system is described, based on potentiometric, hydrochemical and isotopic data, in order to fulfill a twofold objective: to characterize the alteration brought about in the hydrogeological system by intensive groundwater withdrawal, where tectonic elements such as fault zones play a significant role in the flow behaviour, and to define groundwater hydrodynamics under current human pressures as a necessary step to achieve appropriate groundwater management. Hydraulic head data indicate the relationships between geological formations in the range areas and the sedimentary infill of the basin. In this set-up, fault zones and a fracture network have a direct effect on the recharge, and allow upward vertical flow from the basement to the sedimentary aquifers. Hydrochemical and isotopic data support this observation. The use of fluoride and nitrate as tracers for the contribution of deep and shallow flow systems provides a detailed portrait of the effects of pumping on the flow path distribution. Isotopic data depict seasonal trends in the water captured by wells. In this connection, we can differentiate between two distinct flow systems: a regional, large-scale, longer residence time system, originating in the surrounding ranges, and a local flow system constituted by infiltration in the lower areas of the basin. The two systems, with specific water qualities, contribute differently to the resources that are withdrawn, and their specific contributions, in the frame of the basin water budget, determine the potential for present sustainable water exploitation.

  8. Statistical classification of hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland and parts of the District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Brandon J.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; Sekellick, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogeologic regions in the fractured rock area of Maryland were classified using geographic information system tools with principal components and cluster analyses. A study area consisting of the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) watersheds with rivers that flow through the fractured rock area of Maryland and bounded by the Fall Line was further subdivided into 21,431 catchments from the National Hydrography Dataset Plus. The catchments were then used as a common hydrologic unit to compile relevant climatic, topographic, and geologic variables. A principal components analysis was performed on 10 input variables, and 4 principal components that accounted for 83 percent of the variability in the original data were identified. A subsequent cluster analysis grouped the catchments based on four principal component scores into six hydrogeologic regions. Two crystalline rock hydrogeologic regions, including large parts of the Washington, D.C. and Baltimore metropolitan regions that represent over 50 percent of the fractured rock area of Maryland, are distinguished by differences in recharge, Precipitation minus Potential Evapotranspiration, sand content in soils, and groundwater contributions to streams. This classification system will provide a georeferenced digital hydrogeologic framework for future investigations of groundwater availability in the fractured rock area of Maryland.

  9. Hydrogeological characterization of a coastal aquifer in southern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehme, M.; Dokuz, U. E.; Scheytt, T.; Çelik, M.

    2012-04-01

    and impermeable layers as well as wetlands in the field allow the localisation of recharge and discharge zones. All sampled wells show similar water chemistry. However, areas of higher concentrations of nitrate (up to 45 mg/L) and sulphate (42 mg/L) can be distinguished, which is a hint of intensive agricultural influence including the use of fertiliser. Generally, the hydrochemistry of the groundwater is characterized by anthropogenic but also geological influence. Remarkable high magnesium concentrations (up to 81 mg/L) at several locations in the area show the influence of water-rock interaction. Ferromagnesian ions are dissolved from serpentinites while increased calcium concentrations result from limestone-dissolution. Relatively low electrical conductivity values and chloride concentrations even in wells near the coast indicate that saltwater intrusion has not yet taken place. Anyway groundwater level measurements compared to former measurements suggest a future intrusion in case the water use remains constant at a high level. This investigation enhances the understanding of the hydrogeological characteristics in this special area and of forthcoming problems in coastal areas in general. However, more emphasis and research is needed including long-term observation of ground- and surface water quality as well as a detailed investigation of hydraulic characteristics of the local aquifer to guarantee a sustainable groundwater use.

  10. Hydrogeological Mapping and Hydrological Process Modelling for understanding the interaction of surface runoff and infiltration in a karstic catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Hermann; Reszler, Christian; Komma, Jürgen; Poltnig, Walter; Strobl, Elmar; Blöschl, Günter

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a study at the interface hydrogeology - hydrology, concerning mapping of surface runoff generation areas in a karstic catchment. The governing processes range from surface runoff with subsequent infiltration to direct infiltration and further deep percolation into different karst conduits. The aim is to identify areas with a potential of surface erosion and thus, identify the hazard of solute/contaminant input into the karst system during aestival thundershowers, which can affect water quality at springs draining the karst massif. According to hydrogeological methods the emphasis of the study are field investigations based on hydrogeological mapping and field measurements in order to gain extensive knowledge about processes and their spatial distribution in the catchment to establish a site specific Dominant Process Concept (DPC). Based on the hydrogeological map, which describes the lithological units relating to their hydrogeological classification, mapping focuses on the following attributes of the overlaying loose material/debris and soils: (i) infiltration capability, (ii) soil depth (as a measure for storage capacity), and (iii) potential surface flow length. Detailed mapping is performed in the reference area, where a variety of data are acquired, such as soil grain size distribution, soil moisture through TDR measurements at characteristic points, etc. The reference area borders both end-members of the dominant surface runoff processes as described above. Geomorphologic analyses based on a 1m resolution Laserscan assist in allocating sinks and flow accumulation paths in the catchment. By a regionalisation model, developed and calibrated based on the results in the reference areas, the process disposition is transposed onto the whole study area. In a further step, a hydrological model will be set up, where model structure and parameters are identified based on above described working steps and following the DPC. The model will be

  11. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1997 Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data For The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-09-01

    1 1.0 INTRODUCTION This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater quality monitoring data reported in: Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwatw Monitoring Report for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologtc Rep-meat the US. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1998), which is hereafter referenced as the Annual Monitoring Report. Section 2.0 presents background information for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) that is relevant to data evaluation, including brief descriptions of the geology, the groundwater flow system, the contaminant source areas, and the extent of groundwater contamination in the regime. Section 3.0 provides an overview of the groundwater sampling and analysis activities petiormed during calendar year (CY) 1997, including monitoring well locations, sampling frequency and methods, and laboratory analyses. Evaluation and interpretation of the monitoring da% described in Section 4.0, is generally focused on an overview of data quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), long-term concentration trends for selected inorganic, organic, and radiological contaminants, and consistency with applicable site-specific conceptual contaminant transport models described in: Report on the Remedial Investigation of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (U.S. Department of Energy 1998), which is referenced hereafter as the Remedial Investigation @I) Report. Findings of the data evaluations are summarized :in Section 5.0 and a list of technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed irdormation (Section 6.0) concludes the report. All of the illustrations (maps and trend graphs) and data summary tables referenced in the text are presented in Appendm A and Appendix B, respectively. Appendix C provides a summary of the analytical results that meet applicable data quality objectives (DQOS) of

  12. East Chestnut Ridge hydrogeologic characterization: A geophysical study of two karst features

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Permitting and site selection activities for the proposed East Chestnut Ridge landfill, located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, have required additional hydrogeologic studies of two karst features. Geophysical testing methods were utilized for investigating these karst features. The objectives of the geophysical testing was to determine the feasibility of geophysical techniques for locating subsurface karst features and to determine if subsurface anomalies exist at the proposed landfill site. Two karst features, one lacking surface expression (sinkhole) but with a known solution cavity at depth (from previous hydrologic studies), and the other with surface expression were tested with surface geophysical methods. Four geophysical profiles, two crossing and centered over each karst feature were collected using both gravimetric and electrical resistivity techniques.

  13. Characterization of hydrogeologic units using matrix properties, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.

    1998-09-01

    Determination of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste requires the use of numerical flow and transport models. Input for these models includes parameters that describe hydrologic properties and the initial and boundary conditions for all rock materials within the unsaturated zone, as well as some of the upper rocks in the saturated zone. There are 30 hydrogeologic units in the unsaturated zone, and each unit is defined by limited ranges where a discrete volume of rock contains similar hydrogeologic properties. These hydrogeologic units can be easily located in space by using three-dimensional lithostratigraphic models based on relationships of the properties with the lithostratigraphy. Physical properties of bulk density, porosity, and particle density; flow properties of saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture-retention characteristics; and the state variables (variables describing the current state of field conditions) of saturation and water potential were determined for each unit. Units were defined using (1) a data base developed from 4,892 rock samples collected from the coring of 23 shallow and 8 deep boreholes, (2) described lithostratigraphic boundaries and corresponding relations to porosity, (3) recognition of transition zones with pronounced changes in properties over short vertical distances, (4) characterization of the influence of mineral alteration on hydrologic properties such as permeability and moisture-retention characteristics, and (5) a statistical analysis to evaluate where boundaries should be adjusted to minimize the variance within layers. This study describes the correlation of hydrologic properties to porosity, a property that is well related to the lithostratigraphy and depositional and cooling history of the volcanic deposits and can, therefore, be modeled to be distributed laterally.

  14. Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of a karstic mountain region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsek, Celalettin; Elci, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Erdogan, Burhan

    2008-03-01

    Karstic limestone formations in the Mediterranean basin are potential water resources that can meet a significant portion of groundwater demand. Therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly study the hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of karstic mountain regions. This paper presents a detailed hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of the Nif Mountain karstic aquifer system in western Turkey, an important recharge source for the densely populated surrounding area. Based on the geological and hydrogeological studies, four major aquifers were identified in the study area including the allochthonous limestone in Bornova flysch, conglomerate-sandstone and clayey-limestone in Neogene series, and the Quaternary alluvium. Physicochemical characteristics of groundwater were measured in situ, and samples were collected at 59 locations comprised of springs and wells. Samples were analyzed for major ions, isotopic composition, arsenic, boron and heavy metals among other trace elements. It was found that the hydrogeological structure is complex with many springs having a wide range of discharge rates. High-discharge springs originate from allochthonous limestone units, whereas low-discharge springs are formed at the contacts with claystone and limestone units. Using stable isotope analysis data, a δ18O-deuterium relationship was obtained that lies between the Mediterranean meteoric and mean global lines. Tritium analyses showed that low-discharge springs originating from contact zones had longer circulation times compared to the high-discharge karstic springs. Furthermore, hydrogeochemical data revealed that groundwater quality significantly deteriorated as water moved from the mountain to the plains. Heavy metal, arsenic and boron concentrations were generally within drinking-water quality standards with a few exceptions occurring in residential and industrial areas located at the foothills of the mountain. Elevated arsenic concentrations were related to local

  15. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the Pixley National WildlifeRefuge

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-10-01

    A hydrogeological assessment of Pixley National Wildlife Refuge was conducted using published reports from the USGS and private engineering consultants that pertained to land in close proximity to the Refuge and from monitoring conducted by refuge staff in collaboration with Reclamation. The compiled data clearly show that there are a large number of agricultural wells throughout the Basin and that water levels are responsive to rates of pumping - in some cases declining more than 100 ft in a matter of a few years. Aquifer properties support a groundwater conjunctive use solution to the provision of additional water supply to the Refuge. The report provides justification for this approach.

  16. Martian hydrogeology sustained by thermally insulating gas and salt hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Furfaro, Roberto; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Montgomery, David R.; Gillespie, Alan R.; Marion, Giles M.; Wood, Stephen E.

    2007-11-01

    Numerical simulations and geologic studies suggest that high thermal anomalies beneath, within, and above thermally insulating layers of buried hydrated salts and gas hydrates could have triggered and sustained hydrologic processes on Mars, producing or modifying chaotic terrains, debris flows, gullies, and ice-creep features. These simulations and geologic examples suggest that thick hydrate deposits may sustain such geothermal anomalies, shallow ground-water tables, and hydrogeologic activity for eons. The proposed mechanism may operate and be self-reinforcing even in today's cold Martian climate without elevated heat flux.

  17. Developing a Modular Hydrogeology Ontology Extending the SWEET Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, A.; Babaie, H. A.

    2005-12-01

    Reengineering upper-level ontologies to make them useful for specific domains can be achieved using modular software development techniques. The challenge of manipulating complex and general, upper-level ontologies can be overcome by using ontology development tools for the purpose of analysis and design of new concepts and extension of existing concepts. As a use case representing this approach we present the reengineering of NASA's Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies to include part of the hydrogeology concepts. We have maintained the modular design of the SWEET ontologies for maximum extensibility and reusability. The modular reengineering of the SWEET ontologies to include hydrogeology domain involved the following steps: (1): Identify the terms and concepts relevant to the hydrogeology domain through scenarios, competency questions, and interviews with domain experts. (2): Establish the inter-relationships between concepts (e.g., vadose zone = unsaturated zone). (3): Identify the dependent concepts, such as physical properties or units, and determine their relationships to external concepts. (4): Download the OWL files from SWEET, and save them on local systems for editing. (5): Use ontology editing tools like SWOOP and Protege to analyze the structure of the existing OWL files. (6): Add new domain concepts as new classes in the OWL files, or as subclasses of already existing classes in the SWEET ontologies. The step involved changing the relationships (properties) and/or adding new relationships where they were required in the domain. Sometimes the entire structure of the existing concepts needed to be changed to represent the domain concept more meaningfully. (7): Test the consistency of concepts using appropriate tools (e.g., Protege, which uses the Racer reasoner to check consistency of concepts). (8) Add individuals to the new concepts to test the modified ontologies. We present an example of a simple RDQL query to test

  18. Hydrogeology of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.J.; Adolphson, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    Data on which this report is based, including logs of wells and test holes, chemical analyses of water and records of wells and springs, have been summarized by the authors in a basic-data report published jointly by the South Dakota Geological Survey and South Dakota Water Resources Commission (Water Resources Report 4, Basic hydrogeologic data - Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota).  A selected bibliography of reports pertaining to the geology of the area has been included in the basic-data report.  This atlas will be more useful if studied in conjunction with a copy of the basic-data report.

  19. Hydrogeology and tritium transport in Chicken Creek Canyon,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Javandel, Iraj

    2007-10-31

    This study of the hydrogeology of Chicken Creek Canyon wasconducted by the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) at LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This canyon extends downhill fromBuilding 31 at LBNL to Centennial Road below. The leading edge of agroundwater tritium plume at LBNL is located at the top of the canyon.Tritium activities measured in this portion of the plume during thisstudy were approximately 3,000 picocuries/liter (pCi/L), which issignificantly less than the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinkingwaterof 20,000 pCi/L established by the Environmental ProtectionAgency.There are three main pathways for tritium migration beyond theLaboratory s boundary: air, surface water and groundwater flow. Thepurpose of this report is to evaluate the groundwater pathway.Hydrogeologic investigation commenced with review of historicalgeotechnical reports including 35 bore logs and 27 test pit/trench logsas well as existing ERP information from 9 bore logs. This was followedby field mapping of bedrock outcrops along Chicken Creek as well asbedrock exposures in road cuts on the north and east walls of the canyon.Water levels and tritium activities from 6 wells were also considered.Electrical-resistivity profiles and cone penetration test (CPT) data werecollected to investigate the extent of an interpreted alluvial sandencountered in one of the wells drilled in this area. Subsequent loggingof 7 additional borings indicated that this sand was actually anunusually well-sorted and typically deeply weathered sandstone of theOrinda Formation. Wells were installed in 6 of the new borings to allowwater level measurement and analysis of groundwater tritium activity. Aslug test and pumping tests were also performed in the wellfield.

  20. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  1. Hydrogeological condition patterns of Kuznetsk Basin coalbed methane fields for estimating hydrodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Gridasov; Konstantin, Kuzevanov; Anna, Bogdanova

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes the natural regional conditions and key formation factors of groundwater dynamics. Characteristic hydrogeological structure elements for Kuznetsk Basin coal were identified providing parameter-oriented hydrodynamic calculations and hydrogeological models in predicting coalbed methane mining impact on the regional groundwater.

  2. The hydrological and the hydrogeological framework of the Lottenbachtal, Bochum, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamed, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hydrological and the hydrogeological framework of the Lottenbachtal, Germany. Long-term climatic data were statistically analyzed, water and soil samples were collected and analyzed, stream flow discharge was measured and separated, the hydrological balance of this catchment was calculated and a hydrological and hydrogeological conceptual model was constructed. The study area is characterized mainly by the precipitation value ranged between 0.1 and 5 mm/day. The actual evapotranspiration constitutes 31.90 % of the total precipitation, the direct surface runoff constitutes 61.04 %, the soil storage constitutes 3 % and the groundwater recharge of the Lottenbachtal constitutes only 4 % of the total precipitation. The Lottenbachtal has largely affected the diversity of the land use, which includes forests, arable areas, abandoned coal mines and settlement areas. The soil of the forested area is represented by relatively high acidic conditions and relatively high sulfate concentrations, while the soil of the arable areas is represented by near-neutral conditions associated with relatively high concentrations of nutrients and other chemical elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate). The settlement areas are characterized by huge blocks of concrete and backfills, which are rich in calcium and magnesium carbonates. The effects of this diversity in the land use on groundwater and surface water quality resulting by leaching the chemical elements from the soil covers and the other materials. These effects are represented by the following complex water types of Ca-Na-Mg-Cl-SO4-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4, Ca-Na-Mg-Cl-SO4, Ca-Na-Mg-Cl-SO4 and Ca-HCO3, which represent the diversity of the flow paths of the water as well as to mixing processes. The diversity of the land use also affected the physical hydrological-hydrogeological characteristics of the study area by increasing the direct surface runoff and

  3. Hydrogeology of the Markagunt Plateau, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet and is capped primarily by Quaternary-age basalt that overlies Eocene-age freshwater limestone of the Claron Formation. Over large parts of the Markagunt Plateau, dissolution of the Claron limestone and subsequent collapse of the overlying basalt have produced a terrain characterized by sinkholes as much as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Numerous large springs discharge from the basalt and underlying limestone on the plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest springs in Utah, with a discharge that can exceed 300 cubic feet per second. Discharge from Mammoth Spring is from the Claron Formation; however, recharge to the spring largely takes place by both focused and diffuse infiltration through the basalt that caps the limestone. Results of dye tracing to Mammoth Spring indicate that recharge originates largely southwest of the spring outside of the Mammoth Creek watershed, as well as from losing reaches along Mammoth Creek. Maximum groundwater travel time to the spring from dye-tracer tests during the snowmelt runoff period was about 1 week. Specific conductance and water temperature data from the spring show an inverse relation to discharge during snowmelt runoff and rainfall events, also indicating short groundwater residence times. Results of major-ion analyses for samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau indicate calcium-bicarbonate type water containing low (less than 200 mg/L) dissolved-solids concentrations. Investigations in the Navajo Lake area along the southern margin of the plateau have shown that water losing to sinkholes bifurcates and discharges to both Cascade and Duck Creek Springs, which subsequently flow into the Virgin and Sevier River basins, respectively. Groundwater travel times to these springs, on the basis of dye tracing, were about 8.5 and 53 hours, respectively. Similarly, groundwater travel time from Duck Creek

  4. Water-Resources Data and Hydrogeologic Setting at the Raleigh Hydrogeologic Research Station, Wake County, North Carolina, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski; Bolich, Richard E.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2009-01-01

    Water-resources data were collected to describe the hydrologic conditions at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station, located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of North Carolina. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Quality, from May 2005 through September 2007 are presented in this report. Three well clusters and four piezometers were installed at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station along an assumed flow path from recharge to discharge areas. Each well cluster includes four wells to monitor the regolith, transition zone, and shallow and deep bedrock. Borehole, surface, and waterborne geophysics were conducted to examine the lithology and physical properties of the bedrock and to determine the aerial extent of near vertical diabase dikes. Slug tests were conducted in the wells at each cluster to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the formation tapped by each well. Periodic water-level altitudes were measured in all wells and in four piezometers. Continuous hourly water levels were measured in wells for variable periods of time during the study, and a surface-water gage collected 15-minute stage data from April to June 2006. In October 2005 and April 2006, water-quality samples were collected from a tributary and in all wells at the Raleigh hydrogeologic research station. Continuous water-quality data were collected hourly in three wells from December 2005 through January 2007 and every 15 minutes in the tributary from May to June 2006. In August 2006, streambed temperatures and drive-point ground-water samples were collected across lines of section spanning the Neuse River.

  5. A Summary of the Space Shuttle Columbia Tragedy and the Use of LS Dyna in the Accident Investigation and Return to Flight Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during reentry resulting in loss of 7 crewmembers and craft. For the next several months an extensive investigation of the accident ensued involving a nationwide team of experts from NASA, industry, and academia, spanning dozens of technical disciplines. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), a group of experts assembled to conduct an investigation independent of NASA concluded in August, 2003 that the cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the left wing leading edge Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) thermal protection system initiated by the impact of thermal insulating foam that had separated from the orbiters external fuel tank 81 seconds into the missions launch. During reentry, this breach allowed superheated air to penetrate behind the leading edge and erode the aluminum structure of left wing which ultimately led to the breakup of the orbiter. In order to gain a better understanding the foam impact on the orbiters RCC wing leading edge, a multi-center team of NASA and Boeing impact experts was formed to characterize the foam and RCC materials for impact analysis using LS Dyna. Dyna predictions were validated with sub-component and full scale tests. LS Dyna proved to be a valuable asset in supporting both the Columbia Accident Investigation and NASA s return to flight efforts. This paper summarizes Columbia Accident and the nearly seven month long investigation that followed. The use of LS-DYNA in this effort is highlighted. Contributions to the investigation and return to flight efforts of the multicenter team consisting of members from NASA Glenn, NASA Langley, and Boeing Philadelphia are introduced and covered in detail in papers to follow in these proceedings.

  6. Conference summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.

    ``Brown dwarfs come of age" was a stimulating conference attended by a large number of very active researchers, including many young students and post-docs who were largely responsible for the lively atmosphere that we enjoyed during the full meeting. Major theoretical and observational challenges currently faced in the study of brown dwarfs were reviewed. Key spectroscopic work is being conducted to determine atmospheric temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities, essential to understand the evolution of substellar objects. Research on ultracool atmospheres is extended down to temperatures typical of the atmosphere of the Earth. Characterisation of brown dwarfs at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio is ongoing and investigation of time domain phenomena reveal interesting new processes in cool atmospheres. In addition to talks on these topics, a large number of presentations addressed the formation and evolution of brown dwarfs, the lower end of the Initial Mass Function, the properties of substellar binaries, the angular momentum and disk evolution in very low-mass systems, results of large scale surveys aimed to find the lowest luminosity and coolest brown dwarfs, searches in star clusters delineating the evolution with age of the properties of brown dwarfs, binary searches and subsequent follow-up work enabling dynamical mass determinations. The excellent level of the review talks, oral and poster presentations and the work of the enthusiastic researchers that attended the meeting ensure a brilliant future for substellar research 18 years after the discovery of the first brown dwarfs.

  7. Hydrogeological modelling as a tool for understanding rockslides evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; De Caro, Mattia; Frattini, Paolo; Volpi, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    Several case studies of large rockslides have been presented in the literature showing dependence of displacement rate on seasonal and annual changes of external factors (e.g. rainfall, snowmelt, temperature oscillations) or on human actions (e.g. impounding of landslide toe by artificial lakes, toe excavation). The study of rockslide triggering can focus on either the initial failure or the successive reactivations driven by either meteo-climatic events or other perturbations (e.g. seismic, anthropic). A correlation between groundwater level oscillations and slope movements has been observed at many different sites and in very different materials and slope settings. This seasonal dynamic behavior generally shows a delay between perturbation (e.g., groundwater recharge and increase in water table level) and system reaction (e.g., increase in displacement rate). For this reason, groundwater modeling offers the means for assessing the oscillation of groundwater level which is a major input in rockslide and deep-seated gravitational slope deformation modelling, and that could explain both the initial failure event as well the successive reactivation or the continuous slow motion. Using a finite element software (FEFLOW, WASY GmbH) we developed 2D saturated/unsaturated and steady-state/transient groundwater flow models for two case studies for which a suitable dataset is available: the Vajont rockslide (from 1960 to October 9th 1963) and the Mt. de La Saxe rockslide (2009-2012, Aosta valley; Italian Western Alps). The transient models were implemented starting from hydraulic head distributions simulated in the previous steady-state models to investigate the groundwater fluctuation within the two chosen times interval (Vajont: 1960-1963 ; La Saxe: 2009-2012). Time series of infiltration resulting from precipitation, temperature, snowmelt data (La Saxe rockslide) and reservoir level (Vajont rockslide) were applied to the models. The assumptions made during the

  8. Hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system, Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, J.E.; Stewart, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the surficial aquifer system in Dade County, begun in 1983, is part of a regional study of the aquifer system in southeastern Florida. Test drilling for lithologic samples, flow measurements during drilling, aquifer testing, and analyses of earlier data permitted delineation of the hydraulic conductivity distribution (on hydrogeologic sections), the aquifers in the system, the generalized transmissivity distribution, and interpretation of the ground-water flow system. The surficial aquifer system, in which an unconfined ground-water flow system exists, is composed of the sediments from land surface downward to the top of a regionally extensive zone of sediments of low permeability called the intermediate confining unit. The aquifer system units, which vary in composition from clay-size sediments to cavernous limestone, are hydro stratigraphically divided into the Biscayne aquifer at the top; an intervening semiconfining unit that consists principally of clayey sand; a predominantly gray limestone aquifer in the Tamiami Formation in western and west-central Dade County; and sand or clayey sand near the base of the surficial aquifer system. The base of the surficial aquifer system ranges from a depth of about 175 to 210 feet below land surface in westernmost Dade County to greater than 270 feet in northeastern Dade County. Test drilling and aquifer-test data indicate a complex hydraulic conductivity distribution. Hydraulic conductivities of the very highly permeable zone of the Biscayne aquifer commonly exceed 10,000 feet per day; in the gray limestone aquifer, they range from 210 to 780 feet per day. Transmissivities of the surficial aquifer system vary locally but have a recognizable areal trend. Estimated values generally are about 300,000 feet squared per day or greater in nearly all of central and eastern Dade County. Transmissivity is lower to the west, decreasing to less than 75,000 feet squared per day in western Dade County. High

  9. Hydrogeologic, soil, and water-quality data for j-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1989-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Disposal of chemical-warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination. This report presents data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Novembr 1989 through September 1994 as part of a remedial investigation of J-Field in response to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Hydrogeologic data, soil-gas and soil-quality data, and water-qualtiy data are included.

  10. Hydrogeological conditions of heavy high-viscous oil distribution in northeast Ural-Povolzhye (Udmurtia, Perm, and Kirov Region)

    SciTech Connect

    Kouznetsova, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The major question while investigating the origin of subsurface oilfield waters is the development of regional and local hydrogeological oil exploration indices. For determination of the influence of subsurface water on oil pools it is necessary to study paleohydrogeological interrelations and regularities, and the interaction of sub-surface waters and oils. While considering these problems, paleohydrogeological cycles, which include crustal elevation and sea level regression are identified. Nine or ten paleohydrogeological cycles are marked in the Udmurtia, Permian, and Kirov territories, depending on regional paleotectonical history. Mesozoic-Cainozoic tectonic movements are the important cause of generation of heavy high-viscous oil pools.

  11. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  12. Combined geophysical and petrophysical characterization to support a hydrogeological model of a coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burschil, Thomas; Wiederhold, Helga; Scheer, Wolfgang; Kirsch, Reinhard; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2014-05-01

    Global warming affects the water cycle by changing precipitation/evaporation and raising sea level. Especially groundwater systems in sensitive environments, such as coastal areas or barrier islands, have to be evaluated with respect to the potential reduction of water quality, e.g. salinization by saltwater intrusion (Hinsby et al., 2012). To assess these hazards using groundwater modeling we need a strong base of hydraulic and hydrogeological information. The use of integrated geophysical methods, in combination with a petrophysical characterization, provides a reliable architecture for groundwater modeling. Within the EU-project CLIWAT, we investigated the hydrogeological situation of the North Sea island of Föhr in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). The island was mainly formed during glaciations in Pleistocene Series, especially Saalian and Weichselian Stages. These deposits remain as a Geest core in the southern central part, and house a freshwater lens that is used for the local water supply. To investigate the architecture of the fresh water lens, we carried out several surveys with airborne electromagnetic (AEM), seismic reflection, and borehole methods. To enhance the AEM resistivity model we inverted the data with a-priori constraints from seismic reflections (Burschil et al., 2012a). This constrained inversion leads to, among other things, a separation of two aquifers by resistivity data. Additionally, from borehole logs, vertical seismic profiles (VSP), and nearby AEM inversion point models we are able to petrophysically characterize different lithological categories regarding resistivity and seismic velocity. Subsurface glacial structures, e.g. buried valleys and a push moraine complex, are mapped down to 150 m below sea level. Below this rather horizontal features indicate Tertiary layers. Geophysically determined petrophysical values were correlated with lithological categories to enhance the interpretation of geophysical data. In this way, we expose

  13. Forensic analysis of MTBE contamination using basic hydrogeologic concepts.

    PubMed

    Boving, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons and additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is often linked to the leaking product distribution system of gas stations. In very few cases is it know if and when a leak occurred and how much product was released to the environment. In the absence of direct evidence, a careful analysis of the available data, such as contaminant breakthrough at receptor wells or discrepancies in the product inventory data, may provide evidence about the nature of the release, its timing and magnitude. Using a MTBE contamination site in the formerly glaciated New England region as an example, two possible release scenarios (slow, long-term release vs. spill) were examined. Of the two scenarios, the slow release could be ruled out as the sole source even though there was no direct evidence for a spill. The analysis of hydraulic test results together with chemical data further permitted to estimate when such an undocumented spill might have occurred. Analyses of the data also allowed these results to be compared to that of a prior transport and fate modeling study. Good agreement and consistency for contaminant travel times was confirmed. This forensic analysis demonstrates that applying basic hydrogeologic principles can aide in the reconstruction of contamination events while providing more readily understandable and defendable evidence relative to complex models. Conceptually, the approach described herein is transferable to other sites with similar hydrogeologies.

  14. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Coble, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of ten aquifers separated by nine confining units. From top to bottom the aquifers are: the surficial aquifer, Yorktown aquifer, Pungo River aquifer, Castle Hayne aquifer, Beaufort aquifer, Peedee aquifer, Black Creek aquifer, upper Cape Fear aquifer, lower Cape Fear aquifer, and the Lower Cretaceous aquifer. The uppermost aquifer (the surficial aquifer in most places) is a water-table aquifer and the bottom of the system is underlain by crystalline bedrock. The sedimentary deposits forming the aquifers are of Holocene to Cretaceous age and are composed mostly of sand with lesser amounts of gravel and limestone. Confining units between aquifers are composed primarily of clay and silt. The thickness of the aquifers ranges from zero along the Fall Line to more than 10,000 feet at Cape Hatteras. Prominent structural features are the increasing easterly homoclinal dip of the sediments and the Cape Fear arch, the axis of which trends in a southeast direction. The stratigraphic continuity is determined from correlations of 161 geophysical logs along with data from drillers' and geologists' logs. Aquifers were defined by means of these logs plus water-level and water-quality data and evidence of the continuity of pumping effects. Eighteen hydrogeologic sections depict the correlation of these aquifers throughout the Coastal Plain.

  15. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Coble, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the North Carolina Coastal Plain aquifer system consists of 10 aquifers separated by 9 confining units. From top to bottom, the aquifers are the surficial aquifer, Yorktown aquifer, Pungo River aquifer, Castle Hayne aquifer, Beaufort aquifer, Peedee aquifer, Black Creek aquifer, upper Cape Fear aquifer, lower Cape Fear aquifer, and Lower Cretaceous aquifer. The uppermost aquifer (the surficial aquifer in most places) is a water-table aquifer, and the bottom of the system is underlain by crystalline bedrock. The sedimentary deposits forming the aquifers are of Holocene to Cretaceous age and are composed mostly of sand, with lesser amounts of gravel and limestone. The confining units between the aquifers are composed primarily of clay and silt. The thickness of the aquifers ranges from zero along the Fall Line to more than 10,000 feet at Cape Hatteras. Prominent structural features are the increasing easterly homoclinal dip of the sediments and the Cape Fear arch, the axis of which trends in a southeast direction. Stratigraphic continuity was determined from correlations of 161 geophysical logs along with data from drillers? and geologists? logs. Aquifers were defined by means of these logs as well as water-level and water-quality data and evidence of the continuity of pumping effects. Eighteen hydrogeologic sections depict the correlation of these aquifers throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, D.R.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Parker, John T.; Macy, J.P.; Thomas, Blakemore

    2010-01-01

    Water managers in rural Arizona are under increasing pressure to provide sustainable supplies of water despite rapid population growth and demands for environmental protection. This report describes the results of a study of the hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed. The components of this report include: (1) a description of the geologic setting and depositional history of basin fill sediments that form the primary aquifer system, (2) updated bedrock altitudes underlying basin fill sediments calculated using a subsurface density model of gravity data, (3) delineation of hydrogeologic units in the basin fill using lithologic descriptions in driller's logs and models of airborne electrical resistivity data, (4) a digital three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that represents spatial extents and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs), and (5) description of the hydrologic properties of the HGUs. The lithologic interpretations based on geophysical data and unit thickness and extent of the HGUs included in the HFM define potential configurations of hydraulic zones and parameters that can be incorporated in groundwater-flow models. The hydrogeologic framework comprises permeable and impermeable stratigraphic units: (1) bedrock, (2) sedimentary rocks predating basin-and-range deformation, (3) lower basin fill, (4) upper basin fill, and (5) stream alluvium. The bedrock unit includes Proterozoic to Cretaceous crystalline rocks, sedimentary rocks, and limestone that are relatively impermeable and poor aquifers, except for saturated portions of limestone. The pre-basin-and-range sediments underlie the lower basin fill but are relatively impermeable owing to cementation. However, they may be an important water-bearing unit where fractured. Alluvium of the lower basin fill, the main water-bearing unit, was deposited in the structural trough between the uplifted ridges of bedrock and (or) pre-basin-and-range sediments. Alluvium of

  17. Karst system vadose zone hydrodynamics highlighted by an integrative geophysical and hydrogeological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Rochez, G.; Kaufmann, O.

    2015-12-01

    The vadose zone of karst systems plays an important role on the water dynamics. In particular, temporary perched aquifers can appear in the subsurface due to changes of climate conditions, diminished evapotranspiration and differences of porosity relative to deeper layers. It is therefore crucial, but challenging, to separate the hydrological signature of the vadose zone from the one of the saturated zone for understanding hydrological processes that occur in the vadose zone. Although many difficulties are usually encountered when studying karst environments due to their heterogeneities, cave systems offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate vadose zone from the inside with various techniques. We present results covering two years of hydrogeological and geophysical monitoring at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL), located in the Variscan fold-and-thrust belt (Belgium), a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. Hydrogeological data such as flows and levels monitoring or tracer tests performed in both vadose and saturated zones bring valuable information on the hydrological context of the studied area. Combining those results with geophysical measurements allows validating and imaging them with more integrative techniques. A microgravimetric monitoring involves a superconducting gravimeter continuously measuring at the surface of the RCL. Early in 2015, a second relative gravimeter was installed in the underlying cave system located 35 meters below the surface. This set up allows highlighting vadose gravity changes. These relative measurements are calibrated using an absolute gravimeter. 12 additional stations (7 at the surface, 5 in the cave) are monitored on a monthly basis by a spring gravimeter. To complete these gravimetric measurements, the site has been equipped with a permanent Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring system comprising an uncommon array of surface, borehole and cave electrodes. Although such

  18. Hydrogeology and analysis of aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broska, J.C.; Barnette, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County, Florida, conducted an investigation to describe the hydrogeology and analyze the aquifer characteristics in west-central Pinellas County. A production test well and four monitor wells were constructed in Pinellas County at Walsingham Park during 1996-97. Water-quality sampling, static and dynamic borehole geophysical surveys, and hydraulic tests were conducted at the wells to delineate the hydrogeology at Walsingham Park. A 9-day aquifer test was conducted to determine the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer system and observe the changes in water quality due to pumping. A numerical model was constructed to simulate the aquifer test and calculate values for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for permeable zones and confining units at Walsingham Park. Final calibrated values for hydraulic conductivity for the different permeable zones and confining units at the test site were 18 feet per day for Upper Zone A, 750 feet per day for Lower Zone A, 1 foot per day for Zone B, 1x10-4 feet per day for the intermediate confining unit, and 10 feet per day for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Final calibrated values for storage coefficient were 3.1x10-4 for Upper Zone A, 8.6x10-5 for Lower Zone A, 2.6x10-5 for Zone B, 3.1x10-4 for the intermediate confining unit, and 4.3x10-5 for the semiconfining unit separating Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A. Estimates of transmissivity for Upper Zone A and Lower Zone A were about 2,500 and 37,500 feet squared per day, respectively.

  19. Effects of hydrogeological properties on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ci; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations on quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of coastal environment factors, including tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradients on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers. A hydrologic transport and mixed geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated-unsaturated media model was used to simulate the spatial and temporal behaviors of the density flow and benzene transport for various hydrogeological conditions. Simulation results indicated that the tidal fluctuations lead to upper saline plumes (USPs) near the groundwater and seawater interfaces. Such local circulation zones trapped the seaward benzene plumes and carried them down in aquifers to the depth depending on the tide amplitudes and beach slopes across the coastal lines. Comparisons based on different tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient were systematically conducted and quantified. The results indicated that areas with USPs increased with the tidal amplitude and decreased with the increasing beach slope. However, the variation of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient has relatively small influence on the patterns of flow fields in the study. The increase of the USP depths was linearly correlated with the increase of the tidal amplitudes. The benzene reactive transport simulations revealed that the plume migrations are mainly controlled by the local flow dynamics and constrained in the USP circulation zones. The self-cleaning process of a coastal aquifer is time-consuming, typically requiring double the time of the contamination process that the benzene plume reach the bottom of a USP circulation zone. The presented systematic analysis can provide useful information for rapidly evaluating seaward contaminants along a coastal line with available hydrogeological properties. PMID:27106208

  20. Effects of hydrogeological properties on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ci; Ni, Chuen-Fa; Tsai, Chia-Hsing; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations on quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of coastal environment factors, including tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradients on sea-derived benzene transport in unconfined coastal aquifers. A hydrologic transport and mixed geochemical kinetic/equilibrium reactions in saturated-unsaturated media model was used to simulate the spatial and temporal behaviors of the density flow and benzene transport for various hydrogeological conditions. Simulation results indicated that the tidal fluctuations lead to upper saline plumes (USPs) near the groundwater and seawater interfaces. Such local circulation zones trapped the seaward benzene plumes and carried them down in aquifers to the depth depending on the tide amplitudes and beach slopes across the coastal lines. Comparisons based on different tidal fluctuations, beach slopes, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient were systematically conducted and quantified. The results indicated that areas with USPs increased with the tidal amplitude and decreased with the increasing beach slope. However, the variation of hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient has relatively small influence on the patterns of flow fields in the study. The increase of the USP depths was linearly correlated with the increase of the tidal amplitudes. The benzene reactive transport simulations revealed that the plume migrations are mainly controlled by the local flow dynamics and constrained in the USP circulation zones. The self-cleaning process of a coastal aquifer is time-consuming, typically requiring double the time of the contamination process that the benzene plume reach the bottom of a USP circulation zone. The presented systematic analysis can provide useful information for rapidly evaluating seaward contaminants along a coastal line with available hydrogeological properties.

  1. Hydrogeological bedrock inferred from electrical resistivity model in Taichung Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C. W.; Chang, P. Y.; Chang, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    The four-year project of the study of groundwater hydrogeology and recharge model was indicated by Central Geological Survey, MOEA, Taiwan (R.O.C.) to evaluate recharge groundwater areas in Taiwan where included Taipei, Taichung Basins, Lanyang and Chianan Plains. The groundwater recharge models of Lanyang Plain and Taipei Basin have successfully been estimated in two years ago (2013-2014). The third year of the project integrates with geophysical, geochemistry, and hydrogeology models to estimate the groundwater recharge model in Taichung Basin region. Taichung Basin is mainly covered by Pre-Pleistocene of thick gravel, sandy and muddy sediment rocks within a joint alluvial fan, whereas the depth of the hydrological bedrock remains uncertain. Two electrical resistivity geophysical tools were carried out utilizing direct current resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) explorations, which could ideally provide the depth resolutions from shallow to depth for evaluating the groundwater resources. The study has carried out 21 AMT stations in the southern Taichung Basin in order to delineate hydrological bedrock in the region. All the AMT stations were deployed about 24 hours and processed with remote reference technique to reduce culture noises. The quality of most stations shows acceptable in the area which two stations were excluded due to near-field source effect in the southwestern basin. The best depth resolution is identified in 500 meters for the model. The preliminary result shows that the depths of the bedrock gradually changes from southern ~20 m toward to ~400 m in central, and eastern ~20 m to 180 m in the western basin inferred from the AMT model. The investigation shows that AMT method could be a useful geophysical tool to enhance the groundwater recharge model estimation without dense loggings in the region.

  2. Multi-scale hydrogeological and hydrogeophysical approach to monitor vadose zone hydrodynamics of a karst system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, Arnaud; Poulain, Amaël; Van Camp, Michel; Francis, Olivier; Triantafyllou, Antoine; Rochez, Gaëtan; Hallet, Vincent; Kaufmann, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The vadose zone of karst systems plays an important role on the water dynamics. In particular, temporary perched aquifers can appear in the subsurface due to changes of weather conditions, reduced evapotranspiration and the vertical gradients of porosity and permeability. Although many difficulties are usually encountered when studying karst environments due to their heterogeneities, cave systems offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate vadose zone from the inside. We present a multi-scale study covering two years of hydrogeological and geophysical monitoring of the Lomme Karst System (LKS) located in the Variscan fold-and-thrust belt (Belgium), a region (~ 3000 ha) that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. Hydrogeological data cover the whole LKS and involve e.g. flows and levels monitoring or tracer tests performed in both vadose and saturated zones. Such data bring valuable information on the hydrological context of the studied area at the catchment scale. Combining those results with geophysical measurements allows validating and imaging them at a smaller scale, with more integrative techniques. Hydrogeophysical measurements are focused on only one cave system of the LKS, at the Rochefort site (~ 40 ha), taking benefit of the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL) infrastructures. In this study, a microgravimetric monitoring and an Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring are involved. The microgravimetric monitoring consists in a superconducting gravimeter continuously measuring gravity changes at the surface of the RCL and an additional relative gravimeter installed in the underlying cave located 35 meters below the surface. While gravimeters are sensible to changes that occur in both the vadose zone and the saturated zone of the whole cave system, combining their recorded signals allows enhancing vadose zone's gravity changes. Finally, the surface ERT monitoring provide valuable information at the (sub)-meter scale on the

  3. Applications of ichnology to hydrogeology, with examples from the Cape Fear Formation (Cretaceous), South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A.J. . Geosciences Program); Simones, G.C. )

    1992-01-01

    Ichnology, the study of modern and ancient traces left by organisms, has provided supplemental information to geologic subdisciplines such as sedimentology and stratigraphy. The major objective of the authors paper is to emphasize the valuable information that can be conveyed by trace fossils in the investigation of hydrogeologic units. Bioturbation has a net effect of mixing different types and layers of sediments, such as introducing clays into sands and vice versa. This mixing can decrease porosity and permeability of sandy units, thus changing potential aquifers into confining units. For example, a sandy fluvial deposit will contain distinctive nonmarine trace fossils, thus defining channel sands that may serve as permeable conduits for ground-water flow. In contrast, a sandy shelf deposit will contain marine trace fossils in a sand body geometry that will be markedly different from aquifers produced in nonmarine environments. Bioturbation also causes geochemical and diagenetic changes in sediments, causing irrigation of previously anoxic sediments and precipitation of ion oxides. The Cretaceous Cape Fear Formation of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, in the subsurface of South Carolina, is presented as an example of a hydrogeologic unit that has been reinterpreted using ichnologic data. Extensive bioturbation caused mixing of clays and sands in Cape Fear sediments, which resulted in the Cape Fear becoming a regional confining system. Trace fossil assemblages indicate a brackish water environment, perhaps estuarine, for the Cape Fear, as opposed to previous interpretations of fluvial and deltaic environments. Bioturbated zones also have significantly more oxidized iron than unbioturbated zones, highlighting potential effects on ground-water quality.

  4. The Viking project. [summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    The Viking project launched two unmanned spacecraft to Mars in 1975 for scientific exploration with special emphasis on the search for life. Each spacecraft consisted of an orbiter and a lander. The landing sites were finally selected after the spacecraft were in orbit. Thirteen investigations were performed: three mapping experiments from the orbiter, one atmospheric investigation during the lander entry phase, eight experiments on the surface of the planet, and one using the spacecraft radio and radar systems. The experiments on the surface dealt principally with biology, chemistry, geology, and meteorology. Seventy-eight scientists have participated in the 13 teams performing these experiments. This paper is a summary of the project and an introduction to the articles that follow.

  5. Remedial investigation report on the Melton Valley Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Evaluation, interpretation, and data summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Melton Valley watershed presents a multifaceted management and decision-making challenge because of the very heterogeneous conditions that exist with respect to contaminant type, disposal unit age, mode of disposal, release mechanism, and potential risk-producing pathways. The investigation presented here has assembled relevant site data in the geographic context with the intent of enabling program managers and decision-makers to understand site conditions and evaluate the necessity, relative priority, and scope of potential remedial actions.

  6. Summary of biological and contaminant investigations related to stream water quality and environmental setting in the Upper Colorado River basin, 1938-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, an inventory of the biological and contaminant investigations for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was conducted. To enhance the sampling design for the biological component of the program, previous studies about the ecology of aquatic organisms and contaminants were compiled from computerized literature searches of biological data bases and by contacting other Federal, State, and local agencies. Biological and contaminant investigations that have been conducted throughout the basin since 1938 were categorized according to four general categories of biological investigations and two categories of contaminant investigations: algal communities, macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, habitat characterization, contaminants in organism tissue, and contaminants in bed sediment. The studies were identified by their locations in two physiographic provinces, the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau, and by the predominant land use in the area of the investigation. Studies on algal communities and contaminants in organism tissue and in bed sediment are limited throughout the basin. Studies on macroinvertebrate and fish communities and habitat characterization are the most abundant in the study unit. Natural and human factors can affect biological communities and their composition. Natural factors that affect background water-quality conditions are physiography, climate, geology, and soils. Algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish that are present in the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces vary with altitude and physical environment. Green algae and diatoms are predominant in the higher altitude streams, and blue-green, golden-brown, and green algae are predominant in the lower altitude streams. Caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies are the dominant macroinvertebrates in the higher altitudes, whereas aquatic worms, leeches

  7. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the aquifers underlying Belvidere, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; Nazimek, J.E.; Halford, K.J.; Yeskis, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey investigated the ground-water-flow system and distribution of contaminants in the vicinity of Belvidere, Illinois, during 1992?2000. The study included the compilation, collection, and analyses of hydrogeologic and water-quality data and simulation of the ground-water-flow system. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic, stratigraphic, geophysical, hydraulic-property, water-level, ground-water withdrawal, and streamflow data. Water-quality data include analyses of water samples primarily for volatile organic compounds (VOC?s) and selectively for tritium and inorganic constituents. Data were collected from about 250 wells and 21 surfacewater sites. These data were used (1) to describe the hydrogeologic framework of the ground-waterflow system, preferential pathways and directions of ground-water movement and contaminant distribution, ground-water/surface-water relations, and the water budget and (2) to develop and calibrate the ground-water-flow model. The glacial drift (sand and gravel with some clay) and Galena-Platteville (fractured dolomite) aquifers and the sandstone aquifers of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system compose the ground-water-flow system underlying Belvidere and vicinity. The Glenwood confining unit separates the Galena-Platteville aquifer from the underlying sandstone aquifers. The Galena- Platteville aquifer and confining unit may be absent in parts of the Troy Bedrock Valley, about 1.5 miles west of Belvidere. Throughout the study area, the Kishwaukee River and its tributaries seem to be gaining flow from shallow ground-water discharge. Potentiometric levels in the glacial drift and Galena-Platteville aquifers range from about 900 feet above sea level in the upland areas to 740 feet along the Kishwaukee River. Estimated horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial drift aquifer ranges from about 0.13 to 280 feet per day. The Galena-Platteville aquifer is a dual-porosity unit with the greatest percentage of flow

  8. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  9. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  10. 19 CFR 210.18 - Summary determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Summary determinations. 210.18 Section 210.18 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.18 Summary determinations. (a) Motions for...

  11. 19 CFR 210.18 - Summary determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Summary determinations. 210.18 Section 210.18 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.18 Summary determinations. (a) Motions for...

  12. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2 -- Appendix A: Characterization methods and data summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of investigations performed at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5. It includes information on risk assessments that have evaluated long-term impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in this document forms the basis for decisions regarding the need for subsequent remediation work at WAG 5. This appendix presents background regulatory and technical information regarding the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at WAG 5 to address requirements established by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The US Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to conduct remedial investigations (RIs) under the FFA at various sites at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), including SWMUs and other areas of concern on WAG 5. The appendix gives an overview of the regulatory background to provide the context in which the WAG 5 RI was planned and implemented and documents how historical sources of data, many of which are SWMU-specific, were evaluated and used.

  13. Experimental Plasma Research project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities supported by the Experimental Plasma Research Branch of APP. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators and include objectives and milestones for each project. The projects are arranged in six research categories: Plasma Properties; Plasma Heating; Plasma Diagnostics; Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics; Advanced Superconducting Materials; and the Fusion Plasma Research Facility (FPRF). Each category is introduced with a statement of objectives and recent progress and followed by descriptions of individual projects. An overall budget summary is provided at the beginning of the report.

  14. Phase 1 data summary report for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: Health risk and ecological risk screening assessment. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Longman, R.C.; McGinn, C.W.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.; Williams, L.F.

    1992-12-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants released from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The contaminants released since the early 1940s include a variety of radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of Phase 1 of the CRRI. Phase 1 was designed to (1) obtain high-quality data to confirm existing historical data for contaminant levels in fish, sediment, and water from the CR/WBR; (2) determine the in the range of contaminant concentrations present river-reservoir system; (3) identify specific contaminants of concern; and (4) establish the reference (background) concentrations for those contaminants.

  15. Summary of investigations on the morphometry of the cisco, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), in the lakes of the northeastern highlands, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    The morphometric studies on the cisco or lake herring, Leucichthys artedi (Le Sueur), which are briefly summarized in this paper are part of a program of investigation of the fishes of the lakes in the northeastern highland district, Wisconsin. For the morphometric studies, 1,548 specimens were employed, all of them collected in the summers of 1931 and 1932 from four 'type' lakes, selected on the basis of their size, depth, and physicochemical and biological characteristics. Of this number 753 individuals were used to determine the general nature of the morphological variations in the Trout Lake, Muskellunge Lake, Silver Lake, and Clear Lakes cisco populations, while 795, collected from Muskellunge Lake in 1932 were employed in a detailed examination of certain morphological differences between the 1928 and 1929 year classes of that population. An attempt is made in this paper to present all the important conculsions, together with a small amount of illustrative material.

  16. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds. Phase 2: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Traylor, S., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the flight buffeting response of the F-111A was performed in two phases. In Phase 1 stochastic analysis techniques were applied to wing and fuselage responses for maneuvers flown at subsonic speeds and wing leading edge sweep of 26 degrees. Power spectra and rms values were obtained. This report gives results of Phase 2 where the analyses were extended to include maneuvers flown at wing leading edge sweep values of 50 and 75.5 degrees at subsonic and supersonic speeds and the responses examined were expanded to include vertical shear, bending moment, and hingeline torque of the left and right horizontal tails. Power spectra, response time histories, variations of rms response with angle of attack and effects of wing sweep and Mach number are presented and discussed. Some Phase 1 results are given for comparison purposes.

  17. Hydrogeological Methods for Assessing Feasibility of Artificial Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Koo, M.; Lee, K.; Moon, D.; Barry, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents the hydrogeological methods to assess the feasibility of artificial recharge in Jeju Island, Korea for securing both sustainable groundwater resources and severe floods. Jeju-friendly Aquifer Recharge Technology (J-ART) in this study is developing by capturing ephemeral stream water with no interference in the environments such as natural recharge or eco-system, storing the flood water in the reservoirs, recharging it through designed borehole after appropriate water treatment, and then making it to be used at down-gradient production wells. Many hydrogeological methods, including physico-chemical surface water and groundwater monitoring, geophysical survey, stable isotope analysis, and groundwater modeling have been employed to predict and assess the artificially recharged surface waters flow and circulation between recharge area and discharge area. In the study of physico-chemical water monitoring survey, the analyses of surface water level and velocity, of water qualities including turbidity, and of suspended soil settling velocity were performed. For understanding subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics the injection test was executed and the results are 118-336 m2/day of transmissivity and 4,367-11,032 m3/day of the maximum intake water capacity. Characterizing groundwater flow from recharge area to discharge area should be achieved to assess the efficiency of J-ART. The resistivity logging was carried out to predict water flow in unsaturated zone during artificial recharge based on the inverse modeling and resistivity change patterns. Stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18 of surface waters and groundwaters have been determined to interpret mixing and flow in groundwaters impacted by artificial recharge. A numerical model simulating groundwater flow and heat transport to assess feasibility of artificial recharge has been developed using the hydraulic properties of aquifers, groundwater levels, borehole temperatures, and meteorological

  18. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) Aquifer, Oklahoma, 1987 to 2009, and simulation of available water in storage, 2010-2059

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Ryter, Derek; Neel, Christopher R.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Magers, Jessica S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma. The study area for this investigation was the extent of the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Water from the Central Oklahoma aquifer is used for public, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supply. With the exception of Oklahoma City, all of the major communities in central Oklahoma rely either solely or partly on groundwater from this aquifer. The Oklahoma City metropolitan area, incorporating parts of Canadian, Cleveland, Grady, Lincoln, Logan, McClain, and Oklahoma Counties, has a population of approximately 1.2 million people. As areas are developed for groundwater supply, increased groundwater withdrawals may result in decreases in long-term aquifer storage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, investigated the hydrogeology and simulated groundwater flow in the aquifer using a numerical groundwater-flow model. The purpose of this report is to describe an investigation of the Central Oklahoma aquifer that included analyses of the hydrogeology, hydrogeologic framework of the aquifer, and construction of a numerical groundwater-flow model. The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate groundwater levels and for water-budget analysis. A calibrated transient model was used to evaluate changes in groundwater storage associated with increased future water demands.

  19. Hydrogeological framework and water balance studies in parts of Krishni Yamuna interstream area, Western Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Izrar; Umar, Rashid

    2008-02-01

    The Krishni Yamuna interstream area is a micro-watershed in the Central Ganga Plain and a highly fertile track of Western Uttar Pradesh. The Sugarcane and wheat are the major crops of the area. Aquifers of Quaternary age form the major source of Irrigation and municipal water supplies. A detailed hydrogeological investigation was carried out in the study area with an objective to assess aquifer framework, groundwater quality and its resource potential. The hydrogeological cross section reveals occurrence of alternate layers of clay and sand. Aquifer broadly behaves as a single bodied aquifer down to the depth of 100 m bgl (metre below ground level) as the clay layers laterally pinch out. The depth to water in the area varies between 5 and 16.5 m bgl. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW with few local variations. An attempt has been made to evaluate groundwater resources of the area. The water budget method focuses on the various components contributing to groundwater flow and groundwater storage changes. Changes in ground water storage can be attributed to rainfall recharge, irrigation return flow and ground water inflow to the basin minus baseflow (ground water discharge to streams or springs), evapotranspiration from ground water, pumping and ground water outflow from the basin. The recharge is obtained in the study area using Water table fluctuation and Tritium methods. The results of water balance study show that the total recharge in to the interstream region is of the order of 185.25 million m3 and discharge from the study area is of the order of 203.24 million m3, leaving a deficit balance of -17.99 million m3. Therefore, the present status of groundwater development in the present study area has acquired the declining trend. Thus, the hydrogeological analysis and water balance studies shows that the groundwater development has attained a critical state in the region.

  20. Summary of Tertiary investigations in western Saudi Arabia, current work by the U.S. Geological Survey and recommended future studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, Donald G.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Coleman, Robert Griffin

    1983-01-01

    In 1936, geologic work related to the Tertiary System in western Saudi Arabia began with a study of the Umm Gerad barite deposit by K. S. Twitchell. In 1944, a study focusing specifically on Tertiary rocks was conducted by Steineke and others near Jiddah. Small-scale mapping of Tertiary sequences began in 1950 in southwestern Saudi Arabia and later in northern 3audi Arabia as part of the Kingdom's early mapping program. These studies were part of a larger program being directed by the Government of Saudi Arabia in connection with mineral resource investigations. In the mid- to late-1960's, the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres discovered mineralized Tertiary rocks al Jabal Dhaylan and began a study, which continues to the present, of both the Tertiary rocks and the mineralization. Following a number of early local studies, in 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey began detailed study of the Tertiary layered rocks along the Red Sea coastal plain south of Jiddah. More recently, Riofinex and Seltrust have been exploring for selected commodities in Tertiary sequences of northwestern Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea coastal plain. Results of these studies, including work by the Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources and the Saudi government agency preceding it, are summarized in this report. Characteristics of the Tertiary rocks south of lat 23? N. and the Tertiary mineral deposits of western Saudi Arabia are also summarized. Recommendations are made for future geologic studies and mineral assessment of the Tertiary rocks of western Saudi Arabia.

  1. Epidemiologic investigation of health effects in Air Force personnel following exposure to herbicides: Extract reproductive outcomes. Executive summary, introduction, and conclusions. Interim report, 1985-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.H.; Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.; Rahe, A.J.

    1992-08-31

    The Air Force is conducting a 20-year prospective study of veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same period who were not occupationally exposed to herbicides was selected. The study, called the Air Force Health Study (AFHS), is in its tenth year and is designed to determine whether exposure to the herbicides or their contaminant, 2,3,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), has adversely affected the health, survival or reproductive outcomes of Ranch Hands. This report summarizes the findings of an investigation of reproductive outcomes of the 791 Ranch Hands and 942 Comparisons for whom a dioxin level had been determined by August, 1991. These men have fathered 5,489 pregnancies including 4,514 live births. These men are a subset of all Ranch Hands (n=1,098) and Comparisons (n=1,549) who have fathered 8,263 pregnancies and 6,792 live births. All data in this report have been verified by review of birth certificates, newborn clinic records, health records and death certificates. The birth defect status of each child was verified through the age of 18.

  2. Animal Investigation Program (AIP), A.I.P. summary report on and around the Nevada Test Site from 1982--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the Animal Investigation Program conducted from 1982--1995 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory (R and IE), formerly Radiation Sciences Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site. The surveillance program was designed to measure levels and trends of radionuclides in animals on and around the Nevada Test Site to ascertain whether world-wide fallout, current radiation levels, and associated doses, to the general public were in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally had the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well-being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results indicated that no significant amounts of biological radionuclides had been detected in the near offsite areas or on the NTS, except in animals drinking water that drains from tunnels in Area 12.

  3. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Summary annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The study will investigate two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent into petroleum reservoirs. The first will consist of defining the mechanisms of interaction of an alkaline agent, a surfactant, and a polymer on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second is the improvement of the economics of the combined technology. The third year of the study finished the oil recovery coreflood studies and evaluated different techniques to improve alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution economics. The final series of corefloods compared the oil recovery efficiency of the alkali gradient in Berea sandstone and J Sand sandstone. Oil recovery efficiency was essentially the same in both types of core, 13 to 15% PV of oil. Cost of chemical per incremental barrel of oil with 30% pore volume of alkaline-surfactant- polymer solution injected were $3.20 for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}- Petrostep B-100-Flopaam 3330S solution in both types of core.

  4. Hydrogeologic Framework of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zapecza, Otto S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the results of a water-resources, oriented subsurface mapping program within the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The occurrence and configuration of 15 regional hydrogeologic units have been defined, primarily on the basis of an interpretation of borehole geophysical data. The nine aquifers and six confining beds are composed of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel and range in age from Cretaceous to Quaternary. Electric and gamma-ray logs from more than 1,000 Coastal Plain wells were examined. Of these, interpretive data for 302 sites were selected, on the basis of logged depth, quality of data, and data distribution, to prepare structure contour and thickness maps for each aquifer and a thickness map for each confining bed. These maps, together with 14 hydrogeologic sections, show the geometry, lateral extent, and vertical and horizontal relationships among the 15 hydrogeologic units. The hydrogeologic maps and sections show that distinct lower, middle, and upper aquifers are present within the Potomac, Raritan-Magothy aquifer system near the Delaware River from Burlington County to Salem County. Although the lower aquifer is recognized only in this area, the middle aquifer extends into the northeastern Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where it is stratigraphically equivalent to the Farrington aquifer. The upper aquifer extends throughout most of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and is stratigraphically equivalent to the Old Bridge aquifer in the northeastern Coastal Plain. The overlying Merchantville-Woodbury confining bed is the most regionally extensive confining bed within the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Its thickness ranges from less than 100 feet near the outcrop to more than 450 feet along the coast. The Englishtown aquifer system acts as a single aquifer throughout most of its subsurface extent, but it contains two water-bearing sands in pars of Monmouth and Ocean Counties. The overlying Marshalltown-Wenonah confining bed is a thin, leaky

  5. Calibration of the hydrogeological model of the Baltic Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virbulis, J.; Klints, I.; Timuhins, A.; Sennikovs, J.; Bethers, U.

    2012-04-01

    Let us consider the calibration issue for the Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) which is a complex hydrogeological system in the southeastern Baltic with surface area close to 0.5 million square kilometers. The model of the geological structure contains 42 layers including aquifers and aquitards. The age of sediments varies from Cambrian up to the Quaternary deposits. The finite element method model was developed for the calculation of the steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow with free surface. No-flow boundary conditions were applied on the rock bottom and the side boundaries of BAB, while simple hydrological model is applied on the surface. The level of the lakes, rivers and the sea is fixed as constant hydraulic head. Constant mean value of 70 mm/year was assumed as an infiltration flux elsewhere and adjusted during the automatic calibration process. Averaged long-term water extraction was applied at the water supply wells. The calibration of the hydrogeological model is one of the most important steps during the model development. The knowledge about the parameters of the modeled system is often insufficient, especially for the large regional models, and a lack of geometric and hydraulic conductivity data is typical. The quasi-Newton optimization method L-BFGS-B is used for the calibration of the BAB model. Model is calibrated on the available water level measurements in monitoring wells and level measurements in boreholes during their installation. As the available data is not uniformly distributed over the covered area, weight coefficient is assigned to each borehole in order not to overestimate the clusters of boreholes. The year 2000 is chosen as the reference year for the present time scenario and the data from surrounding years are also taken into account but with smaller weighting coefficients. The objective function to be minimized by the calibration process is the weighted sum of squared differences between observed and modeled piezometric heads

  6. Hydrogeologic Unit Flow Characterization Using Transition Probability Geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N L; Walker, J R; Carle, S F

    2003-11-21

    This paper describes a technique for applying the transition probability geostatistics method for stochastic simulation to a MODFLOW model. Transition probability geostatistics has several advantages over traditional indicator kriging methods including a simpler and more intuitive framework for interpreting geologic relationships and the ability to simulate juxtapositional tendencies such as fining upwards sequences. The indicator arrays generated by the transition probability simulation are converted to layer elevation and thickness arrays for use with the new Hydrogeologic Unit Flow (HUF) package in MODFLOW 2000. This makes it possible to preserve complex heterogeneity while using reasonably sized grids. An application of the technique involving probabilistic capture zone delineation for the Aberjona Aquifer in Woburn, Ma. is included.

  7. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, James C.; German, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water supply in central Florida and is critical for aquatic habitats and human consumption. To provide a better understanding for the conservation, development, and management of the water resources of Orange County, Florida, a study of the hydrogeologic framework, water budget, and ground-water quality characteristics was conducted from 1998 through 2002. The study also included extensive analyses of the surface-water resources, published as a separate report. An increase in population from about 264,000 in 1960 to 896,000 in 2000 and subsequent urban growth throughout this region has been accompanied by a substantial increase in water use. Total ground-water use in Orange County increased from about 82 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 287 million gallons per day in 2000. The hydrogeology of Orange County consists of three major hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. Data were compiled from 634 sites to construct hydrogeologic maps and sections of Orange County. Water-level elevations measured in 23 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system ranged from about 10.6 feet in eastern Orange County to 123.8 feet above NGVD 29 in northwestern Orange County from March 2000 through September 2001. Water levels also were measured in 14 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels fluctuate over time from seasonal and annual variations in rainfall; however, water levels in a number of wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer have declined over time. Withdrawal of ground water from the aquifers by pumping probably is causing the declines because the average annual precipitation rate has not changed substantially in central Florida since the 1930s, although yearly rates can vary. A generalized water budget was computed for Orange County from 1991 to 2000. Average rates for the 10-year period for the following budget components were computed based

  8. Hydrogeologic characterization of an arid zone Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ginanni, J.M.; O`Neill, L.J.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Dozier, B.L.; Sully, M.J.; Johnejack, K.R.; Emer, D.F.; Tyler, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth subsurface site characterization and monitoring program for the soil water migration pathway has been planned, implemented, and completed to satisfy data requirements for a waiver from groundwater monitoring, for an exemption from liner leachate collections systems, and for different regulatory driven performance assessments. A traditional scientific approach has been taken to focus characterization and monitoring efforts. This involved developing a conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system and defining and testing hypotheses about this model. Specific hypotheses tested included: that the system was hydrologically heterogenous and anisotropic, and that recharge was very low or negligible. Mineralogical, physical, and hydrologic data collected to test hypotheses has shown the hydrologic system to be remarkably homogenous and isotropic rather than heterogenous and anisotropic. Both hydrodynamic and environmental tracer approaches for estimating recharge have led to the conclusion that recharge from the Area 5 RWMS is not occurring in the upper region of the vadose zone, and that recharge at depth is extremely small or negligible. This demonstration of ``no migration of hazardous constituents to the water table satisfies a key requirement for both the groundwater monitoring waiver and the exemption from liner leachate collection systems. Data obtained from testing hypotheses concerning the soil water migration pathway have been used to refine the conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system of the site. These data suggest that the soil gas and atmospheric air pathways may be more important for transporting contaminants to the accessible environment than the soil water pathway. New hypotheses have been developed about these pathways, and characterization and monitoring activities designed to collect data to test these hypotheses.

  9. Hydrogeologic framework of the shallow aquifers in the Ikom-Mamfe Embayment, Nigeria using an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, Aniekan; Okereke, C. S.

    2014-04-01

    A detailed hydrogeological investigation was carried out in the Ikom-Mamfe Embayment of Nigeria using lineaments, geological, geoelectrical, and hydraulic parameters. The objective was to assess aquifer framework and resource potential of the area. The study was carried out because the aquifers are of particular importance as they are more or less the only source of water supply available for the rural population. In addition, expanding communities will trigger increase in water demand that will translate to more dependence on groundwater. The study identified four major hydrostratigraphic units: Mamfe (oldest), Ezillo, Amaseri and intrusives (youngest). A comprehensive investigation of the basin revealed its lateral and vertical dimensions and hydrogeological characteristics. Moreover, study of lineaments, aquifer parameters, water level fluctuations confirmed the heterogeneity of the aquifers and their potentials to rural water supply. Water rock interactions, mainly silicate weathering, explain the groundwater compositions which are Ca-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-Cl and Ca-Na-HCO3. The water quality is good for domestic and agricultural uses. However, in terms of vulnerability of the aquifers to pollution, 80% of the Ikom-Mamfe Embayment has been classified as medium to high vulnerability.

  10. Hydrochemistry and hydrogeologic conditions within the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Webber, W.D.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Flow System Characterization Task. Pacific Northwest Laboratory examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system for the US Department of Energy (DOE). As part of this activity, groundwater samples were collected over the past 2 years from selected wells completed in the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt. The hydrochemical and isotopic information obtained from these groundwater samples provides hydrologic information concerning the aquifer-flow system. Ideally, when combined with other hydrologic property information, hydrochemical and isotopic data can be used to evaluate the origin and source of groundwater, areal groundwater-flow patterns, residence and groundwater travel time, rock/groundwater reactions, and aquifer intercommunication for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report presents the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydrochemical properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report provides the hydrogeologic characteristics (Section 2.0) and hydrochemical properties (Section 3.0) for groundwater within this system. A detailed description of the range of the identified hydrochemical parameter subgroups for groundwater in the upper basalt confined aquifer system is also presented in Section 3.0. Evidence that is indicative of aquifer contamination/aquifer intercommunication and an assessment of the potential for offsite migration of contaminants in groundwater within the upper basalt aquifer is provided in Section 4.0. The references cited throughout the report are given in Section 5.0. Tables that summarize groundwater sample analysis results for individual test interval/well sites are included in the Appendix.

  11. Groundwater quality assessment for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant. 1991 groundwater quality data and calculated rate of contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    This report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several waste management facilities and petroleum fuel underground storage tank (UST) sites associated with the Y-12 Plant. These sites are within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (UEFPCHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring and remediation. This report was prepared for informational purposes. Included are the analytical data for groundwater samples collected from selected monitoring wells during 1991 and the results for quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) samples associated with each groundwater sample. This report also contains summaries of selected data, including ion-charge balances for each groundwater sample, a summary of analytical results for nitrate (a principle contaminant in the UEFPCHR), results of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses validated using the associated QA/QC sample data, a summary of trace metal concentrations which exceeded drinking-water standards, and a summary of radiochemical analyses and associated counting errors.

  12. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  13. Geographic information system data sets of hydrogeologic conditions in Pequea and Mill Creek watersheds, Pennsylvania; Part II, Hydrogeologic interpretations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Chichester, Douglas C.; Char, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes Geographic Information System data sets of ground-water levels, unsaturated-zone thickness, and regolith thickness in the Pequea and Mill Creek watersheds, a 210-square-mile area in Lancaster and Chester Counties, Pa. The data sets, which represent hydrogeologic interpretations, were developed by the use of ARC/INFO software during 1990-93 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposes to use these interpretive data sets, and those from other sources, to aid in the assessment of ground-water vulnerability to pesticides in the Pequea and Mill Creek watersheds.

  14. The hydrogeologic framework for the southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tertiary and Cretaceous age sand aquifers of the southeastern United States Coastal Plain constitute a distinct multistate hydrogeologic regime informally defined as the southeastern sand aquifer. Seven regional hydrogeologic units are defined; four regional aquifer units and three regional confining beds. Sand aquifers of this system consist of quartzose, feldspathic, and coarse to fine sand and sandstone and minor limestone; confining beds are composed of clay, shale, chalk, and marl. Three hydrogeologic units of Cretaceous to Holocene age overlie the sand system: the surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and Floridan aquifer system. These three units are not part of the southeastern sand aquifer, but are an integral element of the total hydrogeologic system, and some act as a source of recharge to, or discharge from the underlying clastic sediments. Low-permeability strata of Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age form the base off the total system. (USGS)

  15. Hydrogeologic Data Fusion. Industry Programs/Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscut Program. OST Reference #2944

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem: The fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface requires knowledge of the hydrogeologic system. Site characterization typically involves the collection of various data sets needed to create a conceptual model that represents what’s known about contaminant migration in the subsurface at a particular site. How Hydrogeologic Data Fusion Works Hydrogeologic Data Fusion is a mathematical tool that can be used to combine various types of geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic data from different types of sensors to estimate geologic and hydrogeologic properties. It can be especially useful at hazardous waste sites where the hydrology, geology, or contaminant distribution is significantly complex such that groundwater modeling is required to enable a reasonable and accurate prediction of subsurface conditions.

  16. Using GA-Ridge regression to select hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Joon; Kim, Young Min; Yoo, Keunje; Park, Joonhong; Oh, Kyong Joo

    2012-11-01

    For groundwater conservation and management, it is important to accurately assess groundwater pollution vulnerability. This study proposed an integrated model using ridge regression and a genetic algorithm (GA) to effectively select the major hydro-geological parameters influencing groundwater pollution vulnerability in an aquifer. The GA-Ridge regression method determined that depth to water, net recharge, topography, and the impact of vadose zone media were the hydro-geological parameters that influenced trichloroethene pollution vulnerability in a Korean aquifer. When using these selected hydro-geological parameters, the accuracy was improved for various statistical nonlinear and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as multinomial logistic regression, decision trees, artificial neural networks, and case-based reasoning. These results provide a proof of concept that the GA-Ridge regression is effective at determining influential hydro-geological parameters for the pollution vulnerability of an aquifer, and in turn, improves the AI performance in assessing groundwater pollution vulnerability.

  17. [Technical methods and hydrogeological aspects of in situ sanitation measures in soil and groundwater areas].

    PubMed

    Schiefer, B; Schwefer, H J

    1989-01-01

    The contribution deals in general with the following aspects of remediation processes: --Hydrogeological parameters --Microbiological and engineering parameters --Engineering conceptions of biological in situ remediations --Analytical aspects and monitoring.

  18. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    extension and consolidation are identified. These data correlate with results of seismic and mining works. Hydrogeological 3D Model. The hydrogeological 3D Model de- velopment starts from the upper hydrodynamic zone, for which the data are available on hydraulic parameters. After calibration of the upper model elements, the deep part of the model is developed using data about the permeability structure of the crystalline rock massif, obtained from the 3D STSM. The results of analysis and the discrepancy of hydrodynamic regime modeling are used to refine the 3D Model for the rocks per- meability structure. This iterative process of consecutive correlation and refinement of model may be repeated many times. As a result of this technique implementation, the areas of active and very slow water exchange are found, and the system is revealed of vertically alternating zones of enhanced filtration and weak permeability. Based on these data, the sites are pre-selected, which are prospective for subsequently more detailed works on grounding the possibility of nuclear wastes isolation in geological formations. The use of the methodology described above is expedient at the stage of more detailed works, if the corresponding complex is provided of geophysical, hydro- geological, field testing and modeling investigations. Summary Successful testing of 3D STSM technology was carried out starting from 1997 till 1999 by the Ministry of Emergency Situations and Nuclear Safety of Ukraine during the realization of the project "Choosing the favorable geological structures for safe isolation of dangerous nuclear wastes of Chernobyl NPP". The performed works enabled us to draw prelim- inary 3D Space-Time Surface Model, structural-kinematic and geodynamic map of 2 the region understudy. As a result, two regions were selected, which are characterized by existence of geodynamic processes of cooling, thermal shrinkage and structural substance compression of geospace medium. Such regions seem to be the

  19. Hydrogeological properties of bank storage area in Changwon city, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, H.-S.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Kim, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Bank filtrated water has been used in developed countries such as United States, France, Germany, Austria, Nederland and so on. In Korea, most of the drinking water is provided from the surface water. However, drinking water acquisition is becoming difficult due to the degradation of surface water quality. In special, the quality of drinking water source is much lower in downstream area than in upstream area. Thus, the use of bank filtrated water is getting attracted by central and local governments in Korea. The bank filtrated water was surveyed in the areas of Yeongsan river, Nakdong river, Geum river and Han river. Up to present, however, the downstream areas of Nakdong river are most suitable places to apply the bank filtration system. This study investigates hydrogeological characteristics of bank-storage area located in Daesan- Myeon, Changwon city, adjacent the downstream of Nakdong river. Changwon city is the capital city of Gyeongsangnam-Do province. Changwon city uses water derived from Nakdong river as municipal water. However, the quantity and quality of the river water are gradually decreased. Thus, Changwon city developed two sites of bank filtration system in Daesan-myeon and Buk-myeon. Pumping rate is 2,000m3/day at present and will be increased to 60,000m3/day in Daesan-myeon site at the end of the first stage of the project. For the study, we conducted pumping tests four times on seven pumping wells (PW1, PW2, PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6, and PW7) and twelve drill holes (BH-2, OW2-OW12) in the area of 370 m x 100 m. Pumping wells PW1 and PW2 were drilled in 1999 by Samjung Engineering Co. and pumping wells PW3, PW4, PW5, PW6 and PW7 were drilled in 2000 by Donga Construction Co. and Daeduk Gongyeong Co. The pumping wells are located at 45-110 meters from Nakdong riverside. The geology of the study area is composed of volcanic rocks (Palryeongsan tuff and Jusasan andesitic rock) and alluvium. Palryeongsan tuff consists of mostly green tuff with partly

  20. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  1. GIS-based hydrogeological databases and groundwater modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, Radu Constantin; Carabin, Guy; Hallet, Vincent; Peters, Valerie; Dassargues, Alain

    2001-12-01

    Reliability and validity of groundwater analysis strongly depend on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data. Putting all data into a coherent and logical structure supported by a computing environment helps ensure validity and availability and provides a powerful tool for hydrogeological studies. A hydrogeological geographic information system (GIS) database that offers facilities for groundwater-vulnerability analysis and hydrogeological modelling has been designed in Belgium for the Walloon region. Data from five river basins, chosen for their contrasting hydrogeological characteristics, have been included in the database, and a set of applications that have been developed now allow further advances. Interest is growing in the potential for integrating GIS technology and groundwater simulation models. A "loose-coupling" tool was created between the spatial-database scheme and the groundwater numerical model interface GMS (Groundwater Modelling System). Following time and spatial queries, the hydrogeological data stored in the database can be easily used within different groundwater numerical models. Résumé. La validité et la reproductibilité de l'analyse d'un aquifère dépend étroitement de la disponibilité de grandes quantités de données de très bonne qualité. Le fait de mettre toutes les données dans une structure cohérente et logique soutenue par les logiciels nécessaires aide à assurer la validité et la disponibilité et fournit un outil puissant pour les études hydrogéologiques. Une base de données pour un système d'information géographique (SIG) hydrogéologique qui offre toutes les facilités pour l'analyse de la vulnérabilité des eaux souterraines et la modélisation hydrogéologique a été établi en Belgique pour la région Wallonne. Les données de cinq bassins de rivières, choisis pour leurs caractéristiques hydrogéologiques différentes, ont été introduites dans la base de données, et un ensemble d

  2. Imaging 4-D hydrogeologic processes with geophysics: an example using crosswell electrical measurements to characterize a tracer plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, K.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2005-05-01

    Geophysical methods provide an inexpensive way to collect spatially exhaustive data about hydrogeologic, mechanical or geochemical parameters. In the presence of heterogeneity over multiple scales of these parameters at most field sites, geophysical data can contribute greatly to our understanding about the subsurface by providing important data we would otherwise lack without extensive, and often expensive, direct sampling. Recent work has highlighted the use of time-lapse geophysical data to help characterize hydrogeologic processes. We investigate the potential for making quantitative assessments of sodium-chloride tracer transport using 4-D crosswell electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a sand and gravel aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod. Given information about the relation between electrical conductivity and tracer concentration, we can estimate spatial moments from the 3-D ERT inversions, which give us information about tracer mass, center of mass, and dispersivity through time. The accuracy of these integrated measurements of tracer plume behavior is dependent on spatially variable resolution. The ERT inversions display greater apparent dispersion than tracer plumes estimated by 3D advective-dispersive simulation. This behavior is attributed to reduced measurement sensitivity to electrical conductivity values with distance from the electrodes and differential smoothing from tomographic inversion. The latter is a problem common to overparameterized inverse problems, which often occur when real-world budget limitations preclude extensive well-drilling or additional data collection. These results prompt future work on intelligent methods for reparameterizing the inverse problem and coupling additional disparate data sets.

  3. Using vertical electrical soundings for characterizing hydrogeological and tectonic settings in Deir El-Adas area, Yarmouk Basin, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Fares, Walid

    2016-06-01

    The present study is aimed at characterizing the subsurface geological and tectonic structure in Deir El-Adas area, by using Vertical Electrical Sounding survey (VES) and hydrogeological investigations, in order to determine the causes of the failure for the majority of the wells drilled in the area. The survey data was treated in three different approaches including direct VES inversion, pseudo-2D method and horizontal profiling, in order to maximize the reliability of the data interpretation. The results revealed the presence of a local faulted anticline structure at the top of the Paleogene formation, underneath the basaltic outcrops where Deir El-Adas village is situated. The appearance of this subsurface anticline structure has complicated the local hydrogeological situation, and most likely led to limitation of the groundwater recharge in the area. Moreover, the performed piezometric and discharge maps indicated the presence of a notable groundwater watershed, in addition to feeble water productivity of the wells drilled adjacent to Deir El-Adas, mostly related to the subsurface geological and tectonic settings in the area.

  4. Hydrogeologic characterization of wells HTH-1, UE18r, UE6e, and HTH-3, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B.F.; McKay, W.A.; Chapman, J.B.; Tyler, S.W.

    1991-06-01

    Monitoring for the migration of contaminants in groundwater or for the proper design of nuclear test emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) requires proper placement and completion of monitoring wells. This is only possible if the hydrogeologic system is understood in a regional and local context, necessitating data from existing wells and boreholes. Though the NTS Groundwater Characterization Project will be drilling wells, their great expense limits the number of new wells. However, there are many existing boreholes and wells on the NTS which have not been completely evaluated hydrologically. Some of these are incorporated in the Long Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), others are related to the testing programs. In all cases, additional site investigation in necessary to properly interpret the hydrogeologic data from these wells. Monitoring wells on the NTS are poorly characterized with regard to aquifers penetrated, vertical hydraulic gradients, and vertical variations in water quality. One of the goals of the well validation program was to gain a thorough understanding of the parameters needed to interpret the source and fate potential hazardous and radioactive substances that may be detected in these wells in the future. One of the most critical parameters for monitoring is the knowledge of what aquifer or geologic unit is being sampled when a water sample is collected. Pumped water samples are weighted most heavily to the water quality of the most productive (highest transmissivity) aquifer penetrated by the well.

  5. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.

  6. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  7. Hydrogeologic controls on baseflow temperature distributions: Implications for stream temperature response to climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutt, D. F.; Smith, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Ground water temperature distributions in the near surface are not uniform and are the complex result of a variety of near- and sub-surface processes. Heat from the atmosphere is input into the ground via conduction at the ground surface and advection of infiltrating water. These processes produce predictable distributions of temperature that have been used to investigate current and past climatic conditions, determine ground water velocities, and assess basin-scale heat transport in sedimentary systems. The purpose of this investigation is to test a hypothesis that timing and nature of ground water recharge (advection of heat into the subsurface) is a significant control on the temporal and spatial distribution of heat in the shallow subsurface. The advective movement of heat imposes a dominant control on the 3-dimensional subsurface temperature distribution and strongly affects stream baseflow temperatures. We present observational data supporting a strong hydrogeologic control on subsurface water temperatures. These temperature distributions are modified by advection and are significantly different than theoretical distributions in a conduction-dominated environment. The temperature distributions with depth and space are controlled by the aquifers internal hydrogeologic structure and connections to recharge areas. Synthetic modeling is used to address the following questions: (1) how quickly do ground water temperatures respond to a changing climate, and how quickly do they reach a new equilibrium following perturbation; (2) what is the role of recharge water temperature and timing on subsurface temperature distributions; and (3) how do these factors influence baseflow temperatures in stream systems of varying size. Two-dimensional numerical models are developed using Comsol Multiphysics to perform a sensitivity analysis of basin-scale temperature response and coupling to surface water. In nested ground water flow systems, discharge areas farther down the

  8. Hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spechler, Rick M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water supply in Highlands County, Florida. As the demand for water in the county increases, additional information about local groundwater resources is needed to manage and develop the water supply effectively. To address the need for additional data, a study was conducted to evaluate the hydrogeology and groundwater quality of Highlands County. Total groundwater use in Highlands County has increased steadily since 1965. Total groundwater withdrawals increased from about 37 million gallons per day in 1965 to about 107 million gallons per day in 2005. Much of this increase in water use is related to agricultural activities, especially citrus cultivation, which increased more than 300 percent from 1965 to 2005. Highlands County is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units. The uppermost water-bearing unit is the surficial aquifer, which is underlain by the intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit. The lowermost hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, which consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer, as many as three middle confining units, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of fine-to-medium grained quartz sand with varying amounts of clay and silt. The aquifer system is unconfined and underlies the entire county. The thickness of the surficial aquifer is highly variable, ranging from less than 50 to more than 300 feet. Groundwater in the surficial aquifer is recharged primarily by precipitation, but also by septic tanks, irrigation from wells, seepage from lakes and streams, and the lateral groundwater inflow from adjacent areas. The intermediate aquifer system/intermediate confining unit acts as a confining layer (except where breached by sinkholes) that restricts the vertical movement of water between the surficial aquifer and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The sediments have varying degrees of permeability and consist of permeable limestone, dolostone, or

  9. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  10. Description and hydrogeologic evaluation of nine hazardous-waste sites in Kansas, 1984-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, R.J.; Spruill, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    Wastes generated at nine hazardous-waste sites in Kansas were disposed in open pits, 55-gal drums, or large storage tanks. These disposal methods have the potential to contaminate groundwater beneath the sites, the soil on the sites, and nearby surface water bodies. Various activities on the nine sites included production of diborane, transformer oil waste, production of soda ash, use of solvents for the manufacture of farm implements, reclamation of solvents and paints, oil-refinery wastes, meat packaging, and the manufacture and cleaning of tanker-truck tanks. Monitoring wells were installed upgradient and downgradient from the potential contamination source on each site. Strict decontamination procedures were followed to prevent cross contamination between well installations. Air-quality surveys were made on each site before other investigative procedures started. Hydrogeologic investigative techniques, such as terrain geophysical surveys, gamma-ray logs, and laboratory permeameter tests, were used. Groundwater level measurements provide data to determine the direction of flow. Groundwater contamination detected under the sites posed the greatest threat to the environment because of possible migration of contaminants by groundwater flow. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace metals were detected in the groundwater at several of the sites. Many of the same compounds detected in the groundwater also were detected in soil and bed-material samples collected onsite or adjacent to the sites. Several contaminants were detected in background samples of groundwater and soil. (USGS)

  11. Influence of ancient thrust faults on the hydrogeology of the Blue Ridge Province.

    PubMed

    Seaton, William J; Burbey, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The Blue Ridge Province contains ubiquitous northeast-southwest-trending thrust faults or smaller thrust "slivers" that greatly impact the nature and character of ground water flow in this region. Detailed investigations at a field site in Floyd County, Virginia, indicate that high-permeability zones occur in the brittle crystalline rocks above these thrust faults. Surface and borehole geophysics, aquifer tests, and chlorofluorocarbon and geochemical data reveal that the shallow saprolite aquifer is separated from the deeper fault-zone aquifer by a low-fracture permeability bedrock confining unit, the hydraulic conductivity of which has been estimated to be six orders of magnitude less than the conductivity of the fault zones at the test site. Within the Blue Ridge Province, these fault zones can occur at depths of 300 m or more, can contain a significant amount of storage, and yield significant quantities of water to wells. Furthermore, it is expected that these faults may compartmentalize the deep aquifer system. Recharge to and discharge from the deep aquifer occurs by slow leakage through the confining unit or through localized breach zones that occur where quartz accumulated in high concentrations during metamorphism and later became extensively fractured during episodes of deformation. The results of this investigation stress the importance of thrust faults in this region and suggest that hydrogeologic models for the Blue Ridge Province include these ancient structural features. Faults in crystalline-rock environments may not only influence the hydrology, they may dominate the flow characteristics of a region. PMID:15882322

  12. Interpretation, modeling and forecasting runoff of regional hydrogeologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shun, Tongying

    1999-10-01

    Long-range modeling of a precipitation-runoff process has become indispensable to predict/forecast runoff and study the impact of modern anthropogenic factors and land change use on watersheds. The purpose of this thesis research is to interpret, model and forecast complex drainage basins using advanced signal processing technique and a physically-based low-dimensional dynamic model. The first emphasis is placed on a hydrogeologic interpretation of a complex drainage basin. The space- time patterns of annual, interannual, and decadal components of precipitation, temperature, and runoff (P- T-R) using long-record time series across the steep topographic gradient of the Wasatch Front in northern Utah, are examined. The singular spectrum analysis is used to detect dominant oscillations and spatial patterns in the data and to discuss the relation to the unique mountain and basin hydrologic setting. For precipitation and temperature, only the annual/seasonal spectral peaks were found to be significantly different from the underlying noise floor. Spectral peaks in runoff show increasing low-frequency components at intermediate and low elevation. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the mountain and basin system proposes how losing streams and deep upwelling groundwater in the alluvial aquifer could explain the strong low-frequency component in streams. The research shows that weak interannual and decadal oscillations in the climate signal are strengthened where groundwater discharge dominates streamflow. The second emphasis is focused on developing a long-range physically-based precipitation-runoff model. A low- dimensional integral-balance model is developed for a hydrologic system where multiple time scales of basin storage play the dominant role on a precipitation-runoff process. The genetic algorithm (GA) technique is implemented for parameter identification with the observed data. The model is developed for the Upper West Branch of the Susquehanna River in

  13. Feedbacks Between Numerical and Analytical Models in Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Toundykov, D.; Cohn, S.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogeology is a relatively young discipline which combines elements of Earth science and engineering. Mature fundamental disciplines (e.g., physics, chemistry, fluid mechanics) have centuries-long history of mathematical modeling even prior to discovery of Darcy's law. Thus, in hydrogeology, relatively few classic analytical models (such those by Theis, Polubarinova-Kochina, Philip, Toth, Henry, Dagan, Neuman) were developed by the early 1970's. The advent of computers and practical demands refocused mathematical models towards numerical techniques. With more diverse but less mathematically-oriented training, most hydrogeologists shifted from analytical methods to use of standardized computational software. Spatial variability in internal properties and external boundary conditions and geometry, and the added complexity of chemical and biological processes will remain major challenges for analytical modeling. Possibly, analytical techniques will play a subordinate role to numerical approaches in many applications. On the other hand, the rise of analytical element modeling of groundwater flow is a strong alternative to numerical models when data demand and computational efficiency is considered. The hallmark of analytical models - transparency and accuracy - will remain indispensable for scientific exploration of complex phenomena and for benchmarking numerical models. Therefore, there will always be feedbacks and complementarities between numerical and analytical techniques, as well as a certain ideological schism among various views to modeling. We illustrate the idea of feedbacks by reviewing evolution of Joszef Toth's analytical model of gravity driven flow systems. Toth's (1963) approach was to reduce the flow domain to a rectangle which allowed for closed-form solution of the governing equations. Succeeding numerical finite-element models by Freeze and Witherspoon (1966-1968) explored the effects of geometry and heterogeneity on regional groundwater flow

  14. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Introduction and National Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, James A.

    1999-01-01

    The Ground Water Atlas of the United States provides a summary of the most important information available for each principal aquifer, or rock unit that will yield usable quantities of water to wells, throughout the 50 States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The Atlas is an outgrowth of the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program that investigated 24 of the most important aquifers and aquifer systems of the Nation and one in the Caribbean Islands (fig. 1). The objectives of the RASA program were to define the geologic and hydrologic frameworks of each aquifer system, to assess the geochemistry of the water in the system, to characterize the ground-water flow system, and to describe the effects of development on the flow system. Although the RASA studies did not cover the entire Nation, they compiled much of the data needed to make the National assessments of ground-water resources presented in the Ground Water Atlas of the United States. The Atlas, however, describes the location, extent, and geologic and hydrologic characteristics of all the important aquifers in the United States, including those not studied by the RASA program. The Atlas is written so that it can be understood by readers who are not hydrologists. Simple language is used to explain technical terms. The principles that control the presence, movement, and chemical quality of ground water in different climatic, topographic, and geologic settings are clearly illustrated. The Atlas is, therefore, useful as a teaching tool for introductory courses in hydrology or hydrogeology at the college level and as an overview of ground-water conditions for consultants who need information about an individual aquifer. It also serves as an introduction to regional and National ground-water resources for lawmakers, personnel of local, State, or Federal agencies, or anyone who needs to understand ground-water occurrence, movement, and quality. The

  15. NFSMI Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    The NFSMI Research Summary is a continuing series of summaries reporting recently completed research and research-based resources funded by the National Food Service Management Institute. The following research studies are summarized in this article: (1) Succession Planning for Management Level Staff in School Nutrition Programs; (2)…

  16. NASA Information Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, May 1987, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of 11 "NASA Information Summaries" grouped together: (1) "Our Planets at a Glance" (PMS-010); (2) "Space Shuttle Mission Summary: 1985-1986" (PMS-005); (3) "Astronaut Selection and Training" (PMS-019); (4) "Space Station" (PMS-008); (5) "Materials Processing in Space" (PMS-026); (6) "Countdown!: NASA Launch Vehicles and…

  17. Hydrogeologic Settings and Ground-Water Flow Simulations for Regional Studies of the Transport of Anthropogenic and Natural Contaminants to Public-Supply Wells - Studies Begun in 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2007-01-01

    study areas and comparisons among regional aquifer systems. The report is organized in sections. In addition to the introductory section (Section 1) are seven sections that present the hydrogeologic characterization and ground-water flow model documentation for each TANC regional study area (Sections 2 through 8). Abstracts in Sections 2 through 8 provide summaries and major findings for each regional study area.

  18. Hydrogeology of the Clifton Park area, Saratoga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the 75-square mile Clifton Park suburban area near Albany, N.Y., is presented in six maps at 1:24,000 scale. The maps show: (1) location of wells and test holes; (2) bedrock topography; (3) surficial geology and geologic sections; (4) saturated thickness of the confined aquifer; (5) generalized soil permeability; and (6) land use. The aquifers in the Clifton Park area serve approximately 22,000 people through 32 public distribution systems. Average daily pumpage from these systems is approximately 1.85 million gallons per day. The most productive aquifer is the Colonie Channel aquifer, a confined, buried bedrock channel aquifer of glacial material from which wells may yield more than 500 gallons per minute. A water-table aquifer of fine sand is present over most of the area and is separated from the confined aquifer by a thick sequence of lacustrine silt and clay. Recharge to the confined aquifer occurs primarily where kame-delta deposits that are exposed at land surface are hydraulically connected to the buried aquifer. Saturated thickness of the confined aquifer varies from less than 5 feet to approximately 70 feet. In recharge areas, where the aquifer is locally under water-table conditions, saturated thickness may exceed 100 feet. Pumping interference between wells tapping the confined aquifer has been observed over distances of 3/4 mile. (USGS)

  19. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  20. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the San Miguel River basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.; Rush, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The San Miguel River Basin encompasses 4,130 square kilometers of which about two-thirds is in the southeastern part of the Paradox Basin. The Paradox Basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Evaporite beds of mostly salt are both overlain and underlain by confining beds. Aquifers are present above and below the confining-bed sequence. The principal element of ground-water outflow from the upper aquifer is flow to the San Miguel River and its tributaries; this averages about 90 million cubic meters per year. A water budget for the lower aquifer has only two equal, unestimated elements, subsurface outflow and recharge from precipitation. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. No brines have been sampled and no brine discharges have been identified in the basin. Salt water has been reported for petroleum-exploration wells, but no active salt solution has been identified. (USGS)

  1. Hydrogeology of the Lake Tahoe Basin, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.; Tumbusch, Mary L.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water in the Lake Tahoe basin is the primary source of domestic and municipal water supply and an important source of inflow to Lake Tahoe. Over the past 30-40 years, Federal, State, and local agencies, and research institutions have collected hydrologic data to quantify the ground-water resources in the Lake Tahoe basin. These data are dispersed among the various agencies and institutions that collected the data and generally are not available in a format suitable for basin-wide assessments. To successfully and efficiently manage the ground-water resources throughout the Lake Tahoe basin, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) compiled and evaluated the pertinent geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data, and built a geodatabase incorporating the consolidated and standardized data for the Lake Tahoe basin that is relevant for examining the extent and characteristics of the hydrogeologic units that comprise the aquifers. The geodatabase can be accessed at http://water.usgs.gov/lookup/getspatial?SIM3063.

  2. Hydrogeological and geotechnical aspects of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Jack H.

    1985-03-01

    The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway is in the East Gulf Coastal Plain physiographic province The River and Canal sections were constructed on the floodplain of the Tombigbee River Locks and dams in this section are founded on sediments of Upper Cretaceous age, composed predominantly of sands, clays, and silts of the Eutaw and Gordo formations The 39-mile long Divide Cut was excavated through higher topography which is underlain by these same formations, along with the McShan formation of similar character Bay Springs Lock and Dam, at the south end of the Divide Cut, is founded on shale of the Hartselle formation, which is Mississippian in age Comprehensive studies and tests were made to evaluate and monitor potential impacts of the waterway on the hydrogeologic environment Observations to date show that adverse impacts are very minimal overall, and these are partially offset by beneficial effects Geologic and groundwater conditions were primary factors in the location and design of major features of the waterway During construction, extensive control of groundwater and dewatering effort was required The excavation, utilization, and disposal of over 200 million cubic yards of material, construction of 10 locks and dams, and over 80 miles of canal were accomplished essentially as planned and designed within budget and ahead of schedule

  3. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Nativ, R.; Hunley, A.E.

    1993-07-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small.

  4. Hydrogeologic effects of natural disruptive events on nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.N.

    1980-06-01

    Some possible hydrogeologic effects of disruptive events that may affect repositories for nuclear wastte are described. A very large number of combinations of natural events can be imagined, but only those events which are judged to be most probable are covered. Waste-induced effects are not considered. The disruptive events discussed above are placed into four geologic settings. Although the geology is not specific to given repository sites that have been considered by other agencies, the geology has been generalized from actual field data and is, therefore, considered to be physically reasonable. The geologic settings considered are: (1) interior salt domes of the Gulf Coast, (2) bedded salt of southeastern New Mexico, (3) argillaceous rocks of southern Nevanda, and (4) granitic stocks of the Basin and Range Province. Log-normal distributions of permeabilities of rock units are given for each region. Chapters are devoted to: poresity and permeability of natural materials, regional flow patterns, disruptive events (faulting, dissolution of rock forming minerals, fracturing from various causes, rapid changes of hydraulic regimen); possible hydrologic effects of disruptive events; and hydraulic fracturing.

  5. Geophysics in Hydrogeological Inverse Problem: Hero or Villain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcolea, A.; Renard, P.; Mariethoz, G.

    2007-12-01

    Geostatistical inverse problem is a powerful tool to aid decision-makers in aquifer management. During the last few years, existing inverse problem codes have been updated in order to accommodate "non- traditional" types of observations (i.e. heads or concentrations). The potential of exhaustive geophysical data has been shown to be well-suited for aquifer characterization. However, limited attention has been devoted to the use of this information in real field hydrogeological inverse problems. In this work, we present an application of inverse problem to the management of coastal aquifers including different types of data (heads, resistivities and prior information on transmissivity and storage coefficient). Spatial variability is characterized using the regularized pilot points method. The procedure is as follows. First, we obtain a characterization of the transmissivity and storage coefficient fields from calibration data. Second, this characterization is used to design a pumping network by means of a genetic algorithm. Several constraints apply, such as operational costs or environmental side effects. Three cases are presented, depending on the calibration data sets: (1) only resistivities (no calibration is performed), (2) heads and prior information of model parameters, and (3) all of them altogether (resistivities are used as external drift). Results show that, by themselves, resistivity or head data sets (and prior information) do not suffice to obtain a reliable characterization of the system. However, the consideration of all data at the same time leads to the best characterization of the system among the ones tested.

  6. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  7. A New Assessment Framework for Transience in Hydrogeological Systems.

    PubMed

    Currell, Matthew; Gleeson, Tom; Dahlhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The importance of transience in the management of hydrogeologic systems is often uncertain. We propose a clear framework for determining the likely importance of transient behavior in groundwater systems in a management context. The framework incorporates information about aquifer hydraulics, hydrological drivers, and time scale of management. It is widely recognized that aquifers respond on different timescales to hydrological change and that hydrological drivers themselves, such as climate, are not stationary in time. We propose that in order to assess whether transient behavior is likely to be of practical importance, three factors need to be examined simultaneously: (1) aquifer response time, which can be expressed in terms of the response to a step hydrological change (τstep ) or periodic change (τcycle ); (2) temporal variation of the dominant hydrological drivers, such as dominant climatic systems in a region; (3) the management timescale and spatial scale of interest. Graphical tools have been developed to examine these factors in conjunction, and assess how important transient behavior is likely to be in response to particular hydrological drivers, and thus which drivers are most likely to induce transience in a specified management timeframe. The method is demonstrated using two case studies; a local system that responds rapidly and is managed on yearly to decadal timeframes and a regional system that exhibits highly delayed responses and was until recently being assessed as a high level nuclear waste repository site. Any practical groundwater resource problem can easily be examined using the proposed framework.

  8. Hydrogeology of the Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliveros, J.P.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and borehole geophysical logs made at 77 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the study area consists of a sequence of unconsolidated sediments typical of the Coastal Plain of Maryland. Three aquifers and two confining units were delineated within the study area. From the surface down, they are: (1) the surficial aquifer; (2) the upper confining unit; (3) the Canal Creek aquifer; (4) the lower confining unit; and (5) the lower confined aquifer. The aquifer materials range from fine sand to coarse sand and gravel. Clay lenses were commonly found interfingered with the sand, isolating parts of the aquifers. All the units are continuous throughout the study area except for the upper confining unit, which crops out within the study area but is absent in updip outcrops. The unit also is absent within a Pleistocene paleochannel, where it has been eroded. The surficial and Canal Creek aquifers are hydraulically connected where the upper confining unit is absent, and a substantial amount of groundwater may flow between the two aquifers. Currently, no pumping stresses are known to affect the aquifers within the study area. Under current conditions, downward vertical hydraulic gradients prevail at topographic highs, and upward gradients typically prevail near surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of groundwater flow in the confined aquifers is to the east and southeast. Significant water level fluctuations correspond with seasonal variations in rainfall, and minor daily fluctuations reflect tidal cycles. (USGS)

  9. Hydrogeologic Controls on the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere - Chemolithotrophic Energy for Subsurface Life on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Moran, J.; Tille, S.; Voglesonger, K.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Onstott, T.; Pratt, L.; Slater, G.

    2009-05-01

    As exploration for gold, diamonds and base metals expand mine workings to depths of almost 3 km below the Earth's surface, the mines of the Canadian Shield provide a window into the deep biosphere as diverse, but to date less well-explored than the South African Gold Mines. To date investigations of the deep biosphere have, in most cases, focused on the marine subsurface, including deep sea sediments, hydrothermal vents, off-axis spreading centers and cold seeps. Yet the deep terrestrial subsurface hosted in the fracture waters of Archean Shield rocks provides an important analog and counterpoint to studies of the deep marine biosphere. Depending on the particular geologic and hydrogeologic setting, sites vary from those dominated by paleometeoric waters and microbial hydrocarbon production, to those in which H2 and hydrocarbon gases have been suggested to be a function of long-term accumulation of the products of water-rock interaction in the deepest, most saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of tens of millions of years. The hydrogeologically isolated fracture-controlled ground water system periodically generates steep redox gradients and chemical disequilibrium due to fracture opening, and episodic release of mM levels of H2 that support a redox driven microbial community of H2-utilizing sulfate reducers and methanogens. Exploration of these systems may provide information about the limits of the deep terrestrial biosphere, controls on the distribution of deep subsurface life, and the diversity of geochemical reactions that produce substrates on which microbiological communities at great depths survive. The geologically stable Precambrian cratons of Earth are arguably the closest analogs available to single-plate planets such as Mars. Studies of these Earth analogs imply that the habitability of the Martian crust might similarly not be restricted to sites of localized hydrothermal activity. While the presence of the Martian cryosphere and

  10. Hydrogeologic data for the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runkle, D.L.; Bergman, D.L.; Fabian, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a compilation of hydrogeologic data collected for an areal ground-water investigation of the Blaine aquifer and associated units in southwestern Oklahoma and northwestern Texas. The study area includes parts of Greer, Harmon, and Jackson counties in Oklahoma and parts of Childress, Collingsworth, Hall, Hardeman, and Wilbarger counties in Texas. The Blaine aquifer consists of cavernous gypsum and dolomite beds. Water from the Blaine aquifer supports a local agriculture based mainly on irrigated cotton and wheat. The purpose of the study was to determine the availability, quantity, and quality of ground water from the Blaine aquifer and associated units. This report provides a reference for some of the data that was used as input into a computer ground-water flow model that simulates ground-water flow in the Blaine aquifer. The data in this report consists of: (1) Monthly or periodic water-level measurements in 134 wells; (2) daily mean water-level measurements for 11 wells equipped with water-level recorders; (3) daily total precipitation measurements from five precipitation gages; (4) low-flow stream-discharge measurements for 89 stream sites; (5) miscellaneous stream-discharge measurements at seven stream sites; (6) chemical analyses of surface water from 78 stream sites during low-flow periods; (7) chemical analyses of ground water from 41 wells; and (8) chemical analyses of runoff water collected at five sites.

  11. The hydrogeology of the Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer, Australia: a critical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dafny, Elad; Silburn, D. Mark

    2014-05-01

    The Condamine plain is an important agricultural zone in Australia with prominent irrigated cotton and grain crops. About one third of the irrigation water is pumped from the shallow alluvial aquifer, causing gross aquifer depletion over time. Over the last few decades, various hydrological, hydrochemical, and geological aspects of this aquifer and the overlying floodplain (including soil properties) have been investigated and used to construct the conceptual understanding and numerical models for management of this resource. Yet, the water balance of the aquifer is still far from resolved, and the geological contact between the alluvial sediments and underlying bedrock is yet to be categorically defined, to mention two major uncertainties. This report collates up-to-date knowledge of different disciplines, critically evaluates the accepted hydrogeological conventions, highlights key knowledge gaps, and suggests strategies for future research. Among recommendations are (1) development of numerical flow and solute transport models for the natural (i.e. pre-developed) period, (2) analysis of groundwater for isotopic composition and presence of pesticides, CFCs and PPCPs, and (3) use of stochastic approaches to characterize the hydraulic properties of the alluvial sediments. These and other proposed measures are relevant also to other alluvial aquifers which suffer from similar fundamental uncertainties.

  12. Detailed hydrogeological analysis of a deep-seated rockslide at the Gepatsch reservoir (Klasgarten, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauhal, Thomas; Loew, Simon; Holzmann, Michael; Zangerl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogeology of the deep-seated, slowly creeping Klasgarten rockslide in Austria is investigated in this study based on detailed surface and subsurface field data, laboratory analyses, and analytical and numerical simulations. Field data are derived from several deep exploration and monitoring boreholes, an exploration drift located within the rockslide, and geological and geomorphological mapping. Particular attention is given to the pore pressure measurements and their temporal and spatial variability. These pore pressure variations are controlled by a thin layer of clayey fault gouge (representing the basal shear zone of the rockslide), a high-permeability rockslide mass, and moderately fractured paragneissic bedrock. Variably saturated equivalent-continuum hydraulic conductivities and storage properties are derived from packer tests, laboratory tests and optical televiewer images. These data sets are used for two-dimensional numerical groundwater models to study the flow-field and pore-pressure variations caused by the reservoir water-level fluctuations, the transient groundwater infiltration from snowmelt and precipitation along the slope, and the exploration drift. The strongest pressure transients in the rockslide are caused by reservoir level fluctuations and not the natural groundwater recharge, even at substantial distances from the reservoir. The response times are very short and only a minor distance-dependent attenuation is observed. The results of this study are essential to analyse the hydromechanical control of the deformation behaviour of rockslides adjacent to hydropower reservoirs. Further, it helps to understand how the formation of a rockslide can change the original bedrock aquifer.

  13. Critical zone study in Korea: integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kwon, K.; Jo, K. N.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) is the topmost layer of the Earth ranging from the vegetation canopy down to the soil, groundwater, and bedrock that sustains our ecosystem including human life. This CZ is being greatly influenced by the climate change and anthropogenic forces. We introduce the Critical Zone Frontier Research Laboratory (CFRL), a critical zone research lab recently funded by the Korean government for 2015-2020. The objective of CFRL is to unravel the relationships between climate and CZ changes to propose a prediction model for future responses of CZ to climate change. For this ultimate goal, we establish multiple CZ observatories in Kangwon areas and investigate soil, groundwater, and cave environments by integration of hydrogeology, mineralogy, sedimentology and molecular biogeochemistry. This study will enhance our understanding about CZ and local resolution of a climate change model. This research is financially supported by the Basic Research Laboratory Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  14. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  15. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting. PMID:27077530

  16. Regional hydrogeology of the Silurian and Ordovician sedimentary rock underlying Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakowski, Kentner S.; Lapcevic, Patricia A.

    1988-12-01

    Due to concern over the potential for widespread groundwater contamination in the sedimentary rock underlying the Niagara Falls area, this study was done to investigate the hydrogeology of the Silurian and Ordovician stratigraphy underlying the Upper Niagara River and the Eastern Niagara Peninsula. Seven boreholes (up to 150 m deep) were drilled, instrumented with multiple packer casing, tested for permeability, sampled for inorganic and organic solutes and monitored for hydraulic head to provide data for a conceptual model of regional groundwater flow. Results show that there are at least three distinct groundwater flow regimes in the bedrock. The uppermost regime consists of fracture zones in the Guelph and Lockport Formations, within which hydraulic conductivity, hydraulic head measurements and geochemical analyses indicate active groundwater circulation primarily discharging towards the Niagara Gorge and Escarpment. Underlying the Lockport Formation are an overpressured (high hydraulic head) regime in the Clinton-Upper Cataract-Lower Queenston Formation and an underpressured (low hydraulic head) regime in the Lower Cataract-Upper Queenston Formation. In both regimes, geochemical analyses and permeability measurements indicate very old and saline groundwater which probably has undergone minimal migration since pre-Pleistocene time. The implication based on the study so far, is that potential groundwater contamination below the bottom of the Lockport Formation is probably not significant in the Niagara Falls area except adjacent to the Niagara Gorge where vertical permeability in the lower flow regimes may be enhanced.

  17. Topographic stress perturbations in southern Davis Mountains, west Texas 2. Hydrogeologic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Savage, W.Z.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a regional groundwater investigation, geophysical logs were obtained in two municipal water wells located near the west Texas city of Alpine. These boreholes are 252 and 285 m deep and penetrate extrusive rocks of Tertiary age. The deeper well was drilled in the central valley and the other along the northern flank of an east-west trending valley-ridge setting. Analysis and interpretation of the logs reveal that the two wells are subjected to significantly different stress environments because of topographic effects and exhibit significantly different hydrogeologic properties. Water production is associated with two specific types of features common to both wells: (1) the upper and lower contacts of a dense trachyte unit located in the shallow part of the wells and (2) deeper zones of highly fractured rocks within the interior of a basalt formation. The transmissivity of the trachyte boundaries is twice as large in the central valley well as it is in the ridge flank well, whereas the transmissivity of the deeper basalts is an order of magnitude greater in the flank well than it is in the central well. This discrepancy is examined from the perspective of rock failure, fracture opening, and flow enhancement by computing values for a Drucker-Prager stability factor that is based on the magnitudes of the normal and deviatoric stress invariants as a function of depth. Thus the field measurements and subsequent stress analysis offer evidence of a coupled tectonic-hydrologic interaction at this site.

  18. Coupled semivariogram uncertainty of hydrogeological and geophysical data on capture zone uncertainty analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Tsai, F.T.-C.; White, C.D.; Willson, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates capture zone uncertainty that relates to the coupled semivariogram uncertainty of hydrogeological and geophysical data. Semivariogram uncertainty is represented by the uncertainty in structural parameters (range, sill, and nugget). We used the beta distribution function to derive the prior distributions of structural parameters. The probability distributions of structural parameters were further updated through the Bayesian approach with the Gaussian likelihood functions. Cokriging of noncollocated pumping test data and electrical resistivity data was conducted to better estimate hydraulic conductivity through autosemivariograms and pseudo-cross-semivariogram. Sensitivities of capture zone variability with respect to the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, porosity and aquifer thickness were analyzed using ANOVA. The proposed methodology was applied to the analysis of capture zone uncertainty at the Chicot aquifer in Southwestern Louisiana, where a regional groundwater flow model was developed. MODFLOW-MODPATH was adopted to delineate the capture zone. The ANOVA results showed that both capture zone area and compactness were sensitive to hydraulic conductivity variation. We concluded that the capture zone uncertainty due to the semivariogram uncertainty is much higher than that due to the kriging uncertainty for given semivariograms. In other words, the sole use of conditional variances of kriging may greatly underestimate the flow response uncertainty. Semivariogram uncertainty should also be taken into account in the uncertainty analysis. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  19. Hydrogeological relationships of sandy deposits: modeling of two-dimensional unsaturated water and pesticide transport.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Bo V; van der Keur, Peter; Vosgerau, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of the movement of water and solutes in the vadose zone requires information on the distribution of spatial trends and heterogeneities in porous media. The present study describes different lithofacies origination mainly from glaciofluvial deposits. Among different lithofacies, hydrological relationships were investigated. By means of a two-dimensional hydrological model it was evaluated how the flow of water and leaching of metribuzin (4-amino-6-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-3-methylthio-1,2,4-triazin-5-one) was affected. Two selected large outcrop sections consisting of glacial outwash deposits were used in the modeling study. Eleven different lithofacies were distinguished and described in terms of texture distribution, sorting, bedding style, and external boundaries based on excavated soil profiles from 27 locations representing seven predominantly sandy landforms in Denmark. Undisturbed soil columns were sampled from each of the lithofacies and brought to the laboratory to be analyzed. With respect to their soil hydraulic properties, the different lithofacies formed four different hydrofacies having relatively homogeneous, hydrogeological properties. Two large outcrop sections from one of the locations (a gravel pit) located near the terminal moraine of the former Weichsel glacier were used for the HYDRUS-2D modeling. Modeling results revealed that the spatial distribution of sedimentary bodies affected water flow and the leaching of metribuzin. PMID:18689752

  20. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  1. Hydrogeological factors affecting the multiple plumes of chlorinated contaminants in an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Kaown, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Apparent plume attenuations of multiple chlorinated contaminants such as TCE, carbon tetrachloride, and its daughter products at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea were examined through various hydraulic tests and six rounds of groundwater quality analyses. Aquifer media properties and hydrogeologic factors affecting the distribution and attenuation of multiple contaminants were investigated and key attributes were evaluated. The study area has vertically heterogeneous properties from top alluvial layer to crystalline rocks while the weathered fractured layer above intact Jurassic biotite granite acts as the main layer for groundwater flow and aqueous phase multiple contaminants migration. Aerial heterogeneity in surface conditions plays an important role for groundwater recharge because the industrial complex is mostly paved by asphalt and concrete. Due to limited recharge area and concentrated precipitation in summer season, seasonal effects of contaminant plume distribution diminish as the distance increase from the area of recharge. This study analyzed how differently the solute and contaminant concentrations response to the seasonal recharge. For the analyses, the study site was divided into three zones and four transects were established. Groundwater and solute mass balances were estimated by computing groundwater and solute mass flux through transects. The effects of groundwater pumping, groundwater flow and contaminant degradation were examined to simulate the solutes and contaminant concentrations. General tendency of the water quality and contaminant concentration were reproducible with the effects of major components such as groundwater recharge, pumping and estimated degradation rate.

  2. Hydrogeological characterization based on the results of long term monitoring in the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, R.; Ohyama, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Saegusa, H.; Takeuchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is now under construction by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area of central Japan. Conceptual design of the MIU consists of two 1,000 m shafts (the Main Shaft and the Ventilation Shaft) and horizontal research galleries. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a base for the research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. The project is being implemented in three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III), with a total duration of 20 years. In Phase I, surface investigations were carried out in a stepwise manner in order to obtain information of the geological environment at the site scale (about 2km square). Geological modeling and simulations of various kinds had been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results. Two NNW-trending faults, which are important for hydrogeological characterization, are included in the model. One of the faults (fault A) strikes through the site in the immediate vicinity of the Main Shaft and another fault (fault B) strikes through the southern part of the MIU construction site. In Phase II, field investigations have been carried out in and around the MIU construction site. For hydrogeological characterization, long term monitoring of hydraulic pressure, surface tilt and self-potential have been carried out on surface and in the research galleries to obtain information on changes of groundwater flow due to shaft excavation. The results of the long term monitoring focused on fault A are as follows: - The hydraulic pressure responses are observed in surface boreholes in and around the MIU construction site and the galleries. The

  3. Summaries of FY 1985 engineering research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Following an overview of the Engineering Research program, brief summaries are given for each of the 100 individual projects. Each summary gives the name of the institution carrying out the work, names of the investigators, project title, brief description, funding level for fiscal year 1985, year in which the project began, expected duration, and a budget activity number. The technical areas addressed by the program are, broadly, mechanical sciences, systems sciences, and engineering analysis. (LEW)

  4. Photovoltaic energy systems: Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is designed to expand as rapidly as possible the commercial use of photovoltaic systems through a program of research, process development in support of the manufacturing industry, tests and applications, and general support of market development. The objective of the Photovoltaic Energy Systems Program is to reduce system costs to a competitive level in both distributed and centralized grid-connected applications. The program is also examining the technical, institutional, legal, environmental and social issues involved in fostering widespread adoption of photovoltaic energy systems. Activities of the program are divided into the following subprograms: advanced research and development; technology development; systems engineering and standards; test and applications; commercialization; and planning, assessment, and integration. Summary sheets for each of the contractors in this program are presented. The summaries include project title, contractor, contract number, funding, principal investigator, and a brief description of the contract.

  5. Biofuels: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The US DOE, through the Biofuels Systems Division (BSD) is addressing the issues surrounding US vulnerability to petroleum supply. The BSD goal is to develop technologies that are competitive with fossil fuels, in both cost and environmental performance, by the end of the decade. This document contains summaries of ongoing research sponsored by the DOE BSD. A summary sheet is presented for each project funded or in existence during FY 1993. Each summary sheet contains and account of project funding, objectives, accomplishments and current status, and significant publications.

  6. Hydrogeology of glacial-terrain lakes, with management and planning applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Born, S.M.; Smith, S.A.; Stephenson, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of the relationship between groundwater and lakes is characterized by sparse information and, in general, has received limited attention by hydrologists. Nevertheless, the hydrogeologic regime of lakes must be adequately assessed in order to intelligently manage lakes and their related shorelands. This paper is a compilation of hydrogeologic data for numerous lakes in North America and presents a preliminary classification framework for lakes based on hydrogeologic considerations. The classification leads to systematic categorization of lake types for planning and management purposes. The main hydrogeologic factors for assessing lake environments are: (1) regime dominance, the relative magnitude of groundwater in the total water budget of a lake; (2) system efficiency, a description of the rate aspects of surface and groundwater movement through a lake system; and (3) position within a groundwater flow system. We indicate the significance and difficulty of measuring these descriptive characteristics and provide examples of each category. Additionally, a variety of lake-related activities that illustrate the value of hydrogeologic information for planning and management purposes are presented. ?? 1979.

  7. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  8. Hydrogeologic Modeling for Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Geologic Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolian, M.; De Figueiredo, M.; Lisa, B.

    2011-12-01

    In December 2010, EPA finalized Subpart RR of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Program, which requires facilities that conduct geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) to report GHG data to EPA annually. The GHG Reporting Program requires reporting of GHGs and other relevant information from certain source categories in the United States, and information obtained through Subpart RR will inform Agency decisions under the Clean Air Act related to the use of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration for mitigating GHGs. This paper examines hydrogeologic modeling necessities and opportunities in the context of Subpart RR. Under Subpart RR, facilities that conduct GS by injecting CO2 for long-term containment in subsurface geologic formations are required to develop and implement an EPA-approved site-specific monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) plan; and report basic information on CO2 received for injection, annual monitoring activities and the amount of CO2 geologically sequestered using a mass balance approach. The major components of the MRV plan include: identification of potential surface leakage pathways for CO2 and the likelihood, magnitude, and timing, of surface leakage of CO2 through these pathways; delineation of the monitoring areas; strategy for detecting and quantifying any surface leakage of CO2; and the strategy for establishing the expected baselines for monitoring CO2 surface leakage. Hydrogeologic modeling is an integral aspect of the design of an MRV plan. In order to prepare an adequate monitoring program that addresses site specific risks over the full life of the project the MRV plan must reflect the full spatial extent of the free phase CO2 over time. Facilities delineate the maximum area that the CO2 plume is predicted to cover and how monitoring can be phased in over this area. The Maximum Monitoring Area (MMA) includes the extent of the free phase CO2 plume over the lifetime of the project plus a buffer zone of one

  9. Research of Hydro-Geological Precursors of Earthquakes in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2007-12-01

    The observations of hydro-geological regime of underground waters in observed boreholes began in Armenia in 1986. Now these work is concentrated in National Seismic Service. For a long time observations are carried out studying several parameters (debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition) in several deposits of carbon mineral waters of Armenia. The interpretation of materials shows that that a number of strong and medium-strength earthquakes are accompanied by anomal changes in the level of underground waters. Regarding mineral waters, in connection with earthquakes some parameters are immediately changed: debit, temperature, chemical and gas composition. The study of hydrogeodynamic characteristics of precursors specify that the quantity of registered hydrogeodynamic precursors decreases with the increase of epicentrical distance. The majority of precursors is registered at the distance of 200 km from epicenter. There is a tendency of gradual increase of time and amplitude of a precursor of an earthquake depending on the rise of magnitude and epicentral distance. The behaviour of hydrogeodynamic precursors depends on the angle between the faults, to which this or that borehole reaches; with increase of this angle the deformation in the zone of the fault during the preparation of earthquakes is stronger, than in terms of small angles. 1. S1 2. Earthquake processes, Precursors and Forecasts 3. Garni Geophysical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, 375019, Yerevan, Republic of Armenia, email: hakhleon@sci.am 4. O 5. 10808801 6. Artavazd Payment Type: select 'Purchase Order' PO Number: AGU WAIVER Billing Address: Enter Your Institution City: Enter Your City Country Code: Enter Your Country Name: Enter Your Name Phone: Enter Your Telephone Number

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the hydrogeologic system in Owens Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danskin, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary, two-layer, steady-state, groundwater flow model was used to evaluate present data and hydrologic concepts of Owens Valley, California. Simulations of the groundwater system indicate that areas where water levels are most affected by changes in recharge and discharge are near toes of alluvial fans and along the edge of permeable volcanic deposits. Sensitivity analysis for each model parameter shows that steady state simulations are most sensitive to uncertainties in evapotranspiration rates. Tungsten Hills, Poverty Hills, and Alabama Hills were found to act as virtually impermeable barriers to groundwater flow. Accurate simulation of the groundwater system between Bishop and Lone Pine appears to be possible without simulating the groundwater system in Round Valley, near Owens Lake, or in aquifer materials more than 1,000 ft below land surface. Although vast amounts of geologic and hydrologic data have been collected for Owens Valley, many parts of the hydrogeologic system have not been defined with sufficient detail to answer present water management questions. Location and extent of geologic materials that impede the vertical movement of water are poorly documented. The likely range of aquifer characteristics, except vertical hydraulic conductivity, is well known, but spatial distribution of these characteristics is not well documented. A set of consistent water budgets is needed, including one for surface water, groundwater, and the entire valley. The largest component of previous water budgets (evapotranspiration) is largely unverified. More definitive estimates of local gains and losses for Owens River are needed. Although groundwater pumpage from each well is measured, the quantity of withdrawal from different zones of permeable material has not been defined. (USGS)

  11. Hydrogeologic framework of the Boise Aquifer system, southwestern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, E.; Wood, S.H. ); Osiensky, J.L. )

    1993-04-01

    The City of Boise relies upon the underlying groundwater resource (38,000 acre-feet/year) for 90% of its public water-supply. Basin-fill sediments which comprise this system of aquifers are divisible into five distinct hydrogeologic settings which differ on the basis of sediment type, geophysical log character, and hydraulic properties. A large buried alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex (the Boise Fan) occupies the eastern head of the basin. Down-valley gradations in sediment type show a general increase in unit thickness and sediment color more typically gray; reflecting transition to the lake environment of deposition. Basinward (northwestward), the ancient fan materials grade into lake/fan transitional sediments which grade to predominantly lake sediment which grade to gray mudstones and fine sand layers of the deep lake environment. The depth to which drinking-water aquifers extend is limited by an underlying sequence of relatively impermeable volcanic rocks. Specific capacities of efficient wells, 400--1,200 feet deep and open to 80--100 feet of sand are highest in the lake/fan transition and the lacustrine aquifers of central Boise, lowest for the Boise Fan and intermediate for the deep artesian sand aquifers of west Boise. As a result of screen and filter-pack design based upon attention to sampling drill cuttings, sieve analysis of sands, and geophysical log location of aquifers, efficiency and productivity of new wells has been greatly increased. Groundwater recharge to the deeper aquifers is via permeable surface gravels. Increased groundwater withdrawals have possibly accelerated recharge by increasing vertical hydraulic gradients. Overbored wells with continuous surface-to-depth gravel packs, wells open to multiple aquifers, and improperly abandoned wells with deteriorating casing are also conduits for polluted shallow groundwater to enter the deeper aquifers.

  12. Field study of hydrogeologic characterization methods in a heterogeneous aquifer.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew; Berg, Steven J; Illman, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (S(s)) are required parameters when designing transient groundwater flow models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of commonly used hydrogeologic characterization approaches to accurately delineate the distribution of hydraulic properties in a highly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit. The metric used to compare the various approaches was the prediction of drawdown responses from three separate pumping tests. The study was conducted at a field site, where a 15 m × 15 m area was instrumented with four 18-m deep Continuous Multichannel Tubing (CMT) wells. Each CMT well contained seven 17 cm × 1.9 cm monitoring ports equally spaced every 2 m down each CMT system. An 18-m deep pumping well with eight separate 1-m long screens spaced every 2 m was also placed in the center of the square pattern. In each of these boreholes, cores were collected and characterized using the Unified Soil Classification System, grain size analysis, and permeameter tests. To date, 471 K estimates have been obtained through permeameter analyses and 270 K estimates from empirical relationships. Geostatistical analysis of the small-scale K data yielded strongly heterogeneous K fields in three-dimensions. Additional K estimates were obtained through slug tests in 28 ports of the four CMT wells. Several pumping tests were conducted using the multiscreen and CMT wells to obtain larger scale estimates of both K and S(s). The various K and S(s) estimates were then quantitatively evaluated by simulating transient drawdown data from three pumping tests using a 3D forward numerical model constructed using HydroGeoSphere (Therrien et al. 2005). Results showed that, while drawdown predictions generally improved as more complexity was introduced into the model, the ability to make accurate drawdown predictions at all CMT ports was inconsistent.

  13. A new hydrogeologic model to predict anthropogenic uplift of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Tosi, L.

    2011-12-01

    Recent numerical studies based on a simplified lithostratigraphy of the Venice subsurface suggest that the city may be raised by pumping seawater into deep aquifers through 12 wells located on a 10 km diameter circle. Using an updated 3-D reconstruction of the Quaternary deposits, developed very recently from about 1050 km of multichannel seismic profiles and eight exploration wells, along with a more accurate representation of the injection boreholes, novel finite-element predictions are performed. The new model simulates the lithostratigraphy of the lagoon subsurface and allows for a reliable assessment of the water volumes injected into the geologic formations based on the actual bottom hole overpressure that can vary both in space and time. Pumping occurs into two Pleistocene sequences that are originated from the Alps and Apennine sedimentation and terminate just south and north of Venice, respectively, and the shelf portion of a Pliocene sequence that is rather continuous below the central lagoon with arenite layers to depths as much as 1000 m below mean sea level. With a proper tuning of the injection pressure the new hydrogeologic model allows for a prediction of a quite uniform 25-30 cm uplift over 10 years after the inception of injection. The gradient of the vertical displacement ξz does not exceed 5 × 10-5 and 1 × 10-5 in the whole lagoon and Venice, respectively, i.e., well below the most conservative bound recommended for the safety of the structures. If ad hoc calibrated injection overpressures are implemented in each single well, ξz may be reduced to as much as 0.1 × 10-5 throughout the city.

  14. Hydrogeology of Palm Valley, central Australia; a Pleistocene flora refuge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischusen, John D. H.; Fifield, L. Keith; Cresswell, Richard G.

    2004-06-01

    The Palm Valley Oasis (Finke Gorge National Park) in arid central Australia is characterised by large stands of red cabbage palm trees ( Livistona mariae). How these unique plants, over 1000 km away from nearest relatives in the tropical parts of northern Australia persist, has long fascinated visitors. The hydrogeology of this area helps explain this phenomenon. Stable isotope (δ 2H, δ 8O) analyses shows groundwater to have a uniform composition that plots on or near a local meteoric water line. Carbon-14 results are observed to vary throughout this aquifer from effectively dead (<4%) to 87% modern carbon. Ratios of chlorine-36 to chloride range from 130 to 290×10 -1536Cl/Cl. In this region atmospheric 36Cl/Cl ratio is around 300×10 -15. Thus an age range of around 300 ka is indicated if, as is apparent radioactive decay is the only significant cause of 36Cl/Cl variation within the aquifer. The classic homogenous aquifer with varying surface topography flow model is the simplest conceptual model that need be invoked to explain these data. Complexities, associated with local topography flow cells superimposed on the regional gradient, may mean groundwater with markedly different flow path lengths has been sampled. This potential flow path complexity, which is also evidenced by slight variation in groundwater cation ratios, can account for the distribution of isotope age data throughout the aquifer. Given the likely very slow travel times indicated by this aquifer's hydraulic properties, age differences of the magnitude indicated from chlorine-36 data are feasible. The likely slow travel times (>100 ka) along some flow paths indicate groundwater discharge would endure through arid phases associated with Quaternary climate oscillations. Such a flow system can explain the persistence of this population of Palms and also highlight the possibility that Palm Valley has acted as a flora refuge since at least the mid Pleistocene.

  15. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Jones, M.A.; Ely, D.M.; Keys, M.E.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Cox, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Yakima River basin aquifer system underlies about 6,200 square miles in south-central Washington. The aquifer system consists of basin-fill deposits occurring in six structural-sedimentary basins, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and generally older bedrock. The basin-fill deposits were divided into 19 hydrogeologic units, the CRBG was divided into three units separated by two interbed units, and the bedrock was divided into four units (the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, and the Quaternary bedrock units). The thickness of the basin-fill units and the depth to the top of each unit and interbed of the CRBG were mapped. Only the surficial extent of the bedrock units was mapped due to insufficient data. Average mapped thickness of the different units ranged from 10 to 600 feet. Lateral hydraulic conductivity (Kh) of the units varies widely indicating the heterogeneity of the aquifer system. Average or effective Kh values of the water-producing zones of the basin-fill units are on the order of 1 to 800 ft/d and are about 1 to 10 ft/d for the CRBG units as a whole. Effective or average Kh values for the different rock types of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary units appear to be about 0.0001 to 3 ft/d. The more permeable Quaternary bedrock unit may have Kh values that range from 1 to 7,000 ft/d. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of the units is largely unknown. Kv values have been estimated to range from about 0.009 to 2 ft/d for the basin-fill units and Kv values for the clay-to-shale parts of the units may be as small as 10-10 to 10-7 ft/d. Reported Kv values for the CRBG units ranged from 4x10-7 to 4 ft/d. Variations in the concentrations of geochemical solutes and the concentrations and ratios of the isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in groundwater provided information on the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater movement. Stable isotope ratios of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) indicated dispersed sources of groundwater recharge to

  16. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico: Constraints on stratigraphy and hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Eugene; Paytan, Adina; Pedersen, Bianca; Velazquez-Oliman, Guadalupe

    2009-03-01

    SummaryWe report 87Sr/ 86Sr and ion concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and strontium in the groundwater of the northern and central Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Correlation between these data indicates that ejecta from the 65.95 m.y. old Chicxulub impact crater have an important effect on hydrogeology, geomorphology, and soil development of the region. Ejecta are present at relatively shallow subsurface depths in north-central Yucatan and at the surface along the Rio Hondo escarpment in southeast Quintana Roo, where they are referred to as the Albion Formation. Anhydrite/gypsum (and by inference celestite) are common in impact ejecta clasts and in beds and cements of overlying Paleocene and Lower Eocene rocks cored around the margin of the crater. The sulfate-rich minerals that are found in rocks immediately overlying the impact ejecta blanket, may either be partially mobilized from the ejecta layer itself or may have been deposited after the K/T impact event in an extensive pre-Oligocene shallow sea. These deposits form a distinctive sedimentary package that can be easily traced by the Eocene-Cretaceous 87Sr/ 86Sr signal. A distinct Sr isotopic signature and high SO 4/Cl ratios are observed in groundwater of northwestern and north-central Yucatan that interacts with these rocks. Moreover, the distribution of the gypsum-rich stratigraphic unit provides a solution-enhanced subsurface drainage pathway for a broad region characterized by dissolution features (poljes) extending from Chetumal, Quintana Roo to Campeche, Campeche. The presence of gypsum quarries in the area is also consistent with a sulfate-rich stratigraphic "package" that includes ejecta. The distinctive chemistry of groundwater that has been in contact with evaporite/ejecta can be used to trace flow directions and confirms a groundwater divide in the northern Peninsula. Information about groundwater flow directions and about deep subsurface zones of high permeability is useful for groundwater and

  17. Site environmental report summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment.

  18. David L. Parkhurst as the recipient of the 2012 O.E. Meinzer Award of the Hydrogeology Division of the Geological Society of America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2012-01-01

    Describes the impact of USGS scientist David Parkhurst's influential contributions to the fields of aqueous geochemistry and hydrogeology. Parkhurst is the recipient of the 2012 O.E. Meinzer award of the Geological Society of America's Hydrogeology Division.

  19. Nomenclature of regional hydrogeologic units of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.A.; Renken, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Clastic sediments of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system can be divided into four regional aquifers separated by three regional confining units. The four regional aquifers have been named for major rivers that cut across their outcrop areas and expose the aquifer materials. From youngest to oldest, the aquifers are called the Chickasawhay River, Pearl River, Chattahoochee River, and Black Warrior River aquifers, and the regional confining units separating them are given the same name as the aquifer they overlie. Most of the regional hydrogeologic units are subdivided within each of the four States that comprise the study area. Correlation of regional units is good with hydrogeologic units delineated by a similar regional study to the west and southwest. Because of complexity created by a major geologic structure to the northeast of the study area and dramatic facies change from clastic to carbonate strata to the southeast, correlation of regional hydrogeologic units is poor in these directions. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of northern Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1994-01-01

    Water from wells in the crystalline rocks has the lowest median pH (5.8), the lowest median specific conductance (139 microsiemens per centimeter), the lowest median alkalinity [16 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as CaCOg], and the highest dissolved oxygen concentration (9.0 mg/L) of the hydrogeologic units. Water from wells in carbonate rocks has the highest median pH (7.8) and the highest median alkalinity (195 mg/L as CaCO3) of the hydrogeologic units. Water from wells in the Lockatong Formation has the highest median specific conductance (428 microsiemens per centimeter) and the lowest dissolved oxygen concentration (0.8 mg/L) of the hydrogeologic units. Water from wells in crys

  1. Hydrogeology of the Little Spokane River Basin, Spokane, Stevens, and Pend Oreille Counties, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the hydrogeologic framework of the Little Spokane River Basin was conducted to identify and describe the principal hydrogeologic units in the study area, their hydraulic characteristics, and general directions of groundwater movement. The Little Spokane River Basin includes an area of 679 square miles in northeastern Washington State covering parts of Spokane, Stevens, and Pend Oreille Counties. The groundwater system consists of unconsolidated sedimentary deposits and isolated, remnant basalt layers overlying crystalline bedrock. In 1976, a water resources program for the Little Spokane River was adopted into rule by the State of Washington, setting instream flows for the river and closing its tributaries to further uses. Spokane County representatives are concerned about the effects that additional groundwater development within the basin might have on the Little Spokane River and on existing groundwater resources. Information provided by this study will be used in future investigations to evaluate the effects of potential increases in groundwater withdrawals on groundwater and surface-water resources in the basin. The hydrogeologic framework consists of eight hydrogeologic units: the Upper aquifer, Upper confining unit, Lower aquifers, Lower confining unit, Wanapum basalt unit, Latah unit, Grande Ronde basalt unit, and Bedrock. The Upper aquifer is composed mostly of sand and gravel and varies in thickness from 4 to 360 ft, with an average thickness of 70 ft. The aquifer is generally finer grained in areas farther from main outwash channels. The estimated horizontal hydraulic conductivity ranges from 4.4 to 410,000 feet per day (ft/d), with a median hydraulic conductivity of 900 ft/d. The Upper confining unit is a low-permeability unit consisting mostly of silt and clay, and varies in thickness from 5 to 400 ft, with an average thickness of 100 ft. The estimated horizontal hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.5 to 5,600 ft/d, with a median hydraulic

  2. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Seventh Session. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A summary of discussions on agenda items is presented in this report. Besides the financial, administrative, and constitutional aspects, the topics concentrate on long-term and expanded oceanic exploration programs, conduct and follow-up of cooperative investigations, legal problems in the scientific investigations of the oceans, and education and…

  3. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  4. Arsenic in groundwater: a summary of sources and the biogeochemical and hydrogeologic factors affecting arsenic occurrence and mobility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid element (atomic number 33) with one naturally occurring isotope of atomic mass 75, and four oxidation states (-3, 0, +3, and +5) (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). In the aqueous environment, the +3 and +5 oxidation states are most prevalent, as the oxyanions arsenite (H3AsO3 or H2AsO3- at pH ~9-11) and arsenate (H2AsO4- and HAsO42- at pH ~4-10) (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002). In soils, arsine gases (containing As3-) may be generated by fungi and other organisms (Woolson, 1977). The different forms of As have different toxicities, with arsine gas being the most toxic form. Of the inorganic oxyanions, arsenite is considered more toxic than arsenate, and the organic (methylated) arsenic forms are considered least toxic (for a detailed discussion of toxicity issues, the reader is referred to Mandal and Suzuki (2002)). Arsenic is a global health concern due to its toxicity and the fact that it occurs at unhealthful levels in water supplies, particularly groundwater, in more than 70 countries (Ravenscroft et al., 2009) on six continents.

  5. Summary of field operations Powerline Wells PL-1, PL-2, PL-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes field operations and hydrogeologic data obtained during installation of the Powerline monitoring/test wells near the western boundary of Kirtland Air Force Base. These wells were installed in 1994 as part of the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project saturated zone investigation. The Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project is part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project. Three wells were drilled and completed at this location, and named PL-1, PL-2, and PL-3. They are located northwest of Tech Area 3, and are named after a high-voltage powerline located just south of the wells. The objectives of the Powerline wells were to determine the depth to water, complete 2 water table wells and a deeper Santa Fe Group well, to determine the geologic provenance of Santa Fe Group sediments at this location, and to obtain background core samples for radiological analysis. During these field operations, important subsurface hydrogeologic data were obtained. These data include drill cuttings and lithologic descriptions, core samples with background analytical data, geophysical logs, water quality parameters, and water levels. Aquifer tests at the Powerline location will generate data that may yield information on anisotropy in the Santa Fe Group and constrain numerical modeling results that indicate that there is a major northward component of groundwater flow from McCormick Ranch and Tech Area 3 test sites toward City of Albuquerque and KAFB well fields.

  6. AGU Chapman Conference Hydrogeologic Processes: Building and Testing Atomistic- to Basin-Scale Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, B.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents details of the Chapman Conference given on June 6--9, 1994 in Lincoln, New Hampshire. This conference covered the scale of processes involved in coupled hydrogeologic mass transport and a concept of modeling and testing from the atomistic- to the basin- scale. Other topics include; the testing of fundamental atomic level parameterizations in the laboratory and field studies of fluid flow and mass transport and the next generation of hydrogeologic models. Individual papers from this conference are processed separately for the database.

  7. Final Technical Report - Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, John M

    2012-11-05

    The three major components of this research were: 1. Application of minimally invasive, cost effective hydrogeophysical techniques (surface and borehole), to generate fine scale (~1m or less) 3D estimates of subsurface heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is defined as spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity and/or hydrolithologic zones. 2. Integration of the fine scale characterization of hydrogeologic parameters with the hydrogeologic facies to upscale the finer scale assessment of heterogeneity to field scale. 3. Determination of the relationship between dual-domain parameters and practical characterization data.

  8. Field trip guidebook to the hydrogeology of the Rock-Fox River basin of Southeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holt, C. L. R.; Cotter, R.D.; Green, J.H.; Olcott, P.G.

    1970-01-01

    On this trip we will examine some hydrogeologic characteristics of glacial features and emphasize ground-water management within the Rock-Fox River basin. Field stops will include the hydrogeology of a classical glacial terrane--the Kettle moraine--and the management of ground-water resources for industrial, municipal, agricultural, and fish-culture purposes. Descriptions of the geology, soils, water availability and characteristics, water quality, water use, and water problems within the basin are given in the accompanying U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Atlas (HA-360). This atlas is a product of the cooperative program of University Extension--the University of Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey.

  9. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Emporia- Lyon County Landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, N.C.; Bigsby, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the Emporia-Lyon County Landfill, eastern Kansas, were investigated from April 1988 through April 1989. Potentiometric-surface maps indicated groundwater movement from the northeast and northwest towards the landfill and then south through the landfill to the Cottonwood River. The maps indicate that during periods of low groundwater levels, groundwater flows northward in the north-west part of the landfill, which may have been induced by water withdrawal from wells north of the landfill or by water ponded in waste lagoons south and west of the landfill. Chemical analysis of water samples from monitoring wells upgradient and downgradient of the landfill indicate calcium bicarbonate to be the dominant water type. No inorganic or organic chemical concentrations exceeded Kansas or Federal primary drinking-water standards. Kansas secondary drinking-water standards were equaled or exceeded, however, in water from some or all wells for total hardness, dissolved solids, iron, and manganese. Water from one upgradient well contained larger concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, and smaller concentrations of bicarbonate, alkalinity, ammonia, arsenic, iron, and manganese as compared to all other monitoring wells. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater quality downgradient of well MW-2 has increased concentrations of some inorganic and organic compounds. Due to the industrial nature of the area and the changing directions of groundwater flow, it is not clear what the source of these compounds might be. Long-term monitoring, additional wells, and access to nearby waste lagoons and waste-lagoon monitoring wells would help define the sources of increased inorganic and organic compounds. (USGS)

  10. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the East Bear Creek Unit, San LuisNational Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-07-15

    San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.

  11. Transport and fate of nitrate and pesticides: Hydrogeology and riparian zone processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.; Hughes, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    There is continuing concern over potential impacts of widespread application of nutrients and pesticides on ground- and surface-water quality. Transport and fate of nitrate and pesticides were investigated in a shallow aquifer and adjacent stream, Cow Castle Creek, in Orangeburg County, South Carolina. Pesticide and pesticide degradate concentrations were detected in ground water with greatest frequency and largest concentrations directly beneath and downgradient from the corn (Zea mays L.) field where they were applied. In almost all samples in which they were detected, concentrations of pesticide degradates greatly exceeded those of parent compounds, and were still present in ground waters that were recharged during the previous 18 yr. The absence of both parent and degradate compounds in samples collected from deeper in the aquifer suggests that this persistence is limited or that the ground water had recharged before use of the pesticide. Concentrations of NO3- in ground water decreased with increasing depth and age, but denitrification was not a dominant controlling factor. Hydrologic and chemical data indicated that ground water discharges to the creek and chemical exchange takes place within the upper 0.7 m of the streambed. Ground water had its greatest influence on surface-water chemistry during low-flow periods, causing a decrease in concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, pesticides, and pesticide degradates. Conversely, shallow subsurface drainage dominates stream chemistry during high-flow periods, increasing stream concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, pesticides, and pesticide degradates. These results point out the importance of understanding the hydrogeologic setting when investigating transport and fate of contaminants in ground water and surface water. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  12. Characterization of Physical and Hydro-Geological Properties of Kanamaru Research Site in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Zhang, M.; Takeno, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Establishing the comprehensive knowledge of applicability of the methods for investigating hydraulic properties of low permeability geologic strata is an urgent issue for supporting regulation of geological disposal of nuclear waste in the near future. As a beginning of this work, a systematic examination of various kinds of techniques for hydro-geological surveys has been started in Kanamaru Research Site in Japan. This paper briefly introduces the research plan and preliminary results obtained from the first year of investigation. The survey techniques include borehole excavation, borehole imaging, gamma-ray, caliper, acoustic, electrical resistivity and density loggings, permeability tests and flow direction measurement using a single borehole, permeability tests and flow direction measurement using multi boreholes, etc. Preliminary findings can be summarized as follows: (1) The stratigraphy at the survey area consists of topsoil, debris sediments, sandstone, mudstone, conglomeratic sandstone, mudstone, arkose sandstone, and granite. High uranium concentrations are detected at lower portion of the conglomeratic sandstone by gamma-ray logging. (2) The survey area is located at a slope inclined from the north to the south, and the dominant groundwater flow is considered to be in the direction form the north to the south. And the downward flow was also recognized by the flow direction measurements and water quality logging. (3) Hydraulic conductivities derived from permeability tests using a single borehole were in the range of 5E-10 to 1E-7 m/s. The hydraulic conductivities of the same lithology derived from different boreholes varied, and the discrepancies were up to an order. This result indicates that the formations in the survey area have hydraulic heterogeneity in both the vertical and horizontal directions. (4) On the whole, stratum with fast velocity of elastic wave showed large resistivity and low permeability. The degree of correlation between the

  13. Feasibility of high resolution seismic reflection to improve accuracy of hydrogeologic models in a culturally noisy part of Ventura County, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.; Black, W.; Miele, M.; Morgan, T.; Ivanov, J.; Xia, J.; Peterie, S.

    2011-01-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection investigation mapped reflectors and identified characteristics potentially influencing the interpretation of the hydrogeology underlying a portion of the Oxnard Plain in Ventura County, California. Design and implementation of this study was heavily influenced by high levels of cultural noise from vehicles, power lines, roads, manufacturing facilities, and underground utilities/vaults. Acquisition and processing flows were tailored to this noisy environment and relatively shallow target interval. Layering within both upper and lower aquifer systems was delineated at a vertical resolution potential of around 2.5 m at 350 m depth. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Aquifer Hydrogeologic Layer Zonation at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Savelieva-Trofimova, Elena A.; Kanevski, Mikhail; timonin, v.; Pozdnukhov, A.; Murray, Christopher J.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Xie, YuLong; Thorne, Paul D.; Cole, Charles R.

    2003-09-10

    Sedimentary aquifer layers are characterized by spatial variability of hydraulic properties. Nevertheless, zones with similar values of hydraulic parameters (parameter zones) can be distinguished. This parameter zonation approach is an alternative to the analysis of spatial variation of the continuous hydraulic parameters. The parameter zonation approach is primarily motivated by the lack of measurements that would be needed for direct spatial modeling of the hydraulic properties. The current work is devoted to the problem of zonation of the Hanford formation, the uppermost sedimentary aquifer unit (U1) included in hydrogeologic models at the Hanford site. U1 is characterized by 5 zones with different hydraulic properties. Each sampled location is ascribed to a parameter zone by an expert. This initial classification is accompanied by a measure of quality (also indicated by an expert) that addresses the level of classification confidence. In the current study, the coneptual zonation map developed by an expert geologist was used as an a priori model. The parameter zonation problem was formulated as a multiclass classification task. Different geostatistical and machine learning algorithms were adapted and applied to solve this problem, including: indicator kriging, conditional simulations, neural networks of different architectures, and support vector machines. All methods were trained using additional soft information based on expert estimates. Regularization methods were used to overcome possible overfitting. The zonation problem was complicated because there were few samples for some zones (classes) and by the spatial non-stationarity of the data. Special approaches were developed to overcome these complications. The comparison of different methods was performed using qualitative and quantitative statistical methods and image analysis. We examined the correspondence of the results with the geologically based interpretation, including the reproduction of the

  15. Combined Estimation of Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model and Parameter Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the research described in this report is the development and application of a methodology for comprehensively assessing the hydrogeologic uncertainties involved in dose assessment, including uncertainties associated with conceptual models, parameters, and scenarios. This report describes and applies a statistical method to quantitatively estimate the combined uncertainty in model predictions arising from conceptual model and parameter uncertainties. The method relies on model averaging to combine the predictions of a set of alternative models. Implementation is driven by the available data. When there is minimal site-specific data the method can be carried out with prior parameter estimates based on generic data and subjective prior model probabilities. For sites with observations of system behavior (and optionally data characterizing model parameters), the method uses model calibration to update the prior parameter estimates and model probabilities based on the correspondence between model predictions and site observations. The set of model alternatives can contain both simplified and complex models, with the requirement that all models be based on the same set of data. The method was applied to the geostatistical modeling of air permeability at a fractured rock site. Seven alternative variogram models of log air permeability were considered to represent data from single-hole pneumatic injection tests in six boreholes at the site. Unbiased maximum likelihood estimates of variogram and drift parameters were obtained for each model. Standard information criteria provided an ambiguous ranking of the models, which would not justify selecting one of them and discarding all others as is commonly done in practice. Instead, some of the models were eliminated based on their negligibly small updated probabilities and the rest were used to project the measured log permeabilities by kriging onto a rock volume containing the six boreholes. These four

  16. Hydrogeology of a Transboundary Sandstone Aquifer, Quebec - New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastev, M.; Lamontagne, C.; Morin, R.; Williams, J.; Lavigne, M.; Croteau, A.; Tremblay, T.; Godin, R.; Dagenais, M.; Rouleau, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Potsdam sandstone aquifer of Cambrian age straddles southern Quebec and northern New York in a region known for its abundant and good quality groundwater, a resource that recently has been coveted by several bottling companies. The potential conflicts and concerns of the mainly rural and groundwater dependent population about the possible overuse of this resource has led the Quebec Ministry of Environment, Geological Survey of Canada and the U. S. Geological Survey to jointly carry out a transboundary hydrogeological study of the Potsdam sandstone aquifer. The Potsdam sandstone aquifer consists of a lower unit of arkose and conglomerate and an upper unit of well-cemented quartz arenite. The thickness of the regional aquifer ranges from nil at the base of Adirondacks to more than 500 m near the St. Lawrence River. Glacial till, littoral sand and gravel, and marine silt and clay discontinuously overlie the aquifer. The aquifer's water budget is characterized by low rates of surface runoff and high rates of infiltration and sub-surface runoff. Major recharge areas are present at higher altitudes near and to the south of the border. Strong downward hydraulic gradients in these areas result in cascading water and water-level depths of more than 30 m in deep wells. Bedding in the Potsdam sandstone is gently dipping with fractures along sub-horizontal bedding planes forming major flow conduits. Bedrock folds and faults, mainly developed by east-west compression during the Appalachian orogenies, locally complicates aquifer geometry and groundwater flow. Hydraulic tests (pump, slug, flowmeter and straddle packer) indicate similar horizontal transmissivities in the lower and upper aquifer units. However, differences in lithology and structure of the aquifer units impose some apparent differences in hydraulic properties and groundwater flow patterns. In the lower unit, regional flow appears to be sustained by a limited number of laterally extensive bedding-plane fractures

  17. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  18. Hydrogeologic framework of LaSalle County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Bailey, Clinton R.

    2016-10-28

    Water-supply needs in LaSalle County in northern Illinois are met by surface water and groundwater. Water-supply needs are expected to increase to serve future residential and mining uses. Available information on water use, geology, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, and water quality provides a hydrogeologic framework for LaSalle County that can be used to help plan the future use of the water resources.The Illinois, Fox, and Vermilion Rivers are the primary surface-water bodies in LaSalle County. These and other surface-water bodies are used for wastewater disposal in the county. The Vermilion River is used as a drinking-water supply in the southern part of the county. Water from the Illinois and Fox Rivers also is used for the generation of electric power.Glacial drift aquifers capable of yielding sufficient water for public supply are expected to be present in the Illinois River Valley in the western part of the county, the Troy Bedrock Valley in the northwestern part of the county, and in the Ticona Bedrock Valley in the south-central part of the county. Glacial drift aquifers capable of yielding sufficient water for residential supply are present in most of the county, although well yield often needs to be improved by using large-diameter wells. Arsenic concentrations above health-based standards have been detected in some wells in this aquifer. These aquifers are a viable source for additional water supply in some areas, but would require further characterization prior to full development.Shallow bedrock deposits comprising the sandstone units of the Ancell Group, the Prairie du Chien Group, dolomite of the Galena and Platteville Groups, and Silurian-aged dolomite are utilized for water supply where these units are at or near the bedrock surface or where overlain by Pennsylvanian-aged deposits. The availability of water from the shallow bedrock deposits depends primarily on the geologic unit analyzed. All these deposits can yield sufficient water for

  19. Biofuels program summary. Volume 2: Research summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The Federal government has supported research on biomass technology and energy from municipal waste since 1975. Separate research programs were conducted until 1985 when the two were merged into biofuels and municipal waste technology to take advantage of their many similarities in conversion requirements and research needs. The purpose of the biofuels program is to provide focus, direction, coordination, and funding for the development of technologies that produce tailored energy crops and convert these crops and wastes to fuels. The FY 1989 program includes research on the production (growth) of biomass and its conversion to fuels. Research on biomass production involves the development and use of genetically improved trees and grasses specifically for their energy conversion characteristics (terrestrial energy crops). The Biofuels Program Summary is prepared each year and consists of a two-volume reference set describing the technological advances, current projects, and future research and development (R and D) directions of the program. This volume (Volume 2-Research Summaries) is a compilation of detailed descriptions of the R and D projects performed by the national laboratories and their subcontractors from industry, universities, and nonprofit research institutions.

  20. Characterisation of the hydrogeology of the Augustus River catchment, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.

    Understanding the hydrogeology of weathered rock catchments is integral for the management of various problems related to increased salinity within the many towns of Western Australia. This paper presents the results of site characterisation investigations aimed at improving the overall understanding of the hydrogeology of the southern portion of the Augustus River catchment, an example of a weathered rock catchment. Site data have highlighted the presence of both porous media aquifers within the weathered profile and fractured rock aquifers within the basement rocks. Geophysical airborne surveys and other drilling data have identified a large number of dolerite dykes which crosscut the site. Fractured quartz veins have been found along the margins of these dolerite dykes. Detailed groundwater-level measurements and barometric efficiency estimates indicate that these dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins are affecting groundwater flow directions, promoting a strong hydraulic connection between all aquifers, and also influencing recharge mechanisms. The hydrogeological significance of the dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins has been assessed using a combination of high-frequency groundwater-level measurements (30-min sampling interval), rainfall measurements (5-min sampling interval) and barometric pressure fluctuations (30-min sampling interval). A conceptual model was developed for describing various hydrogeological features of the study area. The model indicates that fractured quartz veins along the margins of dolerite dykes are an important component of the hydrogeology of the weathered rock catchments. Comprendre l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées est essentiel pour la gestion de différents problèmes liés à l'augmentation de la salinité dans de nombreuses villes d'Australie occidentale. Cet article présente les résultats d'études de caractérisation de sites conduites pour améliorer la compréhension de l'hydrogéologie de la

  1. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  2. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew P.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason D.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    Several previous studies have been done to compile or collect physical and chemical data, describe the hydrogeologic processes, and develop conceptual and numerical groundwater-flow models of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in the Trans-Pecos region. Documented methods were used to compile and collect groundwater, surface-water, geochemical, geophysical, and geologic information that subsequently were used to develop this conceptual model.

  3. Application of mechanical and groundwater-flow models to predict the hydrogeologic effects of longwall subsidence -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Van Roosendaal, D.J.; Kendorski, F.S.; Padgett, J.T.

    1995-11-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine hydrogeological effects of subsidence over a longwall coal mine in the Illinois Basin. At this mine, approximately 200 ft of bedrock overburden is overlain by up to 150 ft of glacial till and localized water-bearing glacial sediment within a buried bedrock valley that overlies the longwall panel. A finite-element mechanical model of the subsided longwall panel shows sufficient strain to enhance permeability throughout the bedrock portion of the overburden. However, examination of the actual surface subsidence profile indicates that the overburden deformation is localized in narrow zones at the panel edges. The aquifer units at the base of the glacial sediments are confined by glacial clays (above) and weathered shales (below). Elevated water levels were observed in the glacial aquifers during subsidence, which indicates that the clays and shales maintained confinement as the overburden subsided and deformed. A three-dimensional ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of subsidence on the hydrogeologic system and to estimate inflows into the mine. Longwall retreat was simulated by several mod3el runs, each representing a new longwall face position. Simulated heads and mine inflows were calibrated with recorded water levels and observed inflow conditions by modifying the hydraulic conductivity of particular model layers. Model calibration indicates that the permeability of certain lithologies, such as plastic underclays and weathered shales, is not significantly enhanced by subsidence. A worst-case scenario was simulated by inserting a deeply incised, sand-filled valley into the model, which had only minimal impact on the simulated mine inflows.

  4. The role of hydrogeological conditions and thermophysical properties on the evaluation of geothermal exchange potential in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicco, Jessica; Verdoya, Massimo; Verda, Vittorio; Invernizzi, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the EU strategy for sustainable development, the exploitation of the shallow subsurface geothermal resources is of great relevance. In this regard, a multidisciplinary investigation aimed at optimising the performance of borehole heat exchangers is in progress in the Marche region (Central Italy). In particular, an improvement of the present-day knowledge about thermo-physical parameters of the sedimentary deposits forming the Umbria-Marche succession, as well as the hydrogeological setting and geological structures, is fundamental in order to obtain a better picture of the regional geothermal exchange potential. Therefore, we carried out accurate laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity, volume heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, porosity, and density of both core and outcrop samples of the main geological formations of Marche, Moreover, the mineralogical content was defined through XRD diffraction. Because climatic variations can influence the moisture content of the shallower portions of the subsoil, the groundwater physical properties (temperature and electrical conductivity above all), have been continuously monitored for several years. Based on the collected data, a detailed thermo-fluid dynamic modelling was carried out under different, hydrogeological and geo-structural conditions to calculate the effect of groundwater velocity on the heat exchange between the boreholes and the ground. A relation, based on well-known non-dimensional parameters, was obtained in order to correct the purely conductive heat transfer on the basis of groundwater velocity. The preliminary results show that groundwater plays an important role, giving rise to higher heat exchange coefficients. This improves the present-day knowledge of the geothermal exchange potential in the region and overtakes previous analyses that only considered heat conduction.

  5. Hydrogeology and groundwater availability in Clarke County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, David L.; Moberg, Roger M.

    2010-01-01

    The prolonged drought between 1999 and 2002 drew attention in Clarke County, Virginia, to the quantity and sustainability of its groundwater resources. The groundwater flow systems of the county are complex and are controlled by the extremely folded and faulted geology that underlies the county. A study was conducted between October 2002 and October 2008 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Clarke County, Virginia, to describe the hydrogeology and groundwater availability in the county and to establish a long-term water monitoring network. The study area encompasses approximately 177 square miles and includes the carbonate and siliciclastic rocks of the Great Valley section of the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province and the metamorphic rocks of the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province (Blue Ridge). High-yielding wells generally tend to cluster along faults, within lineament zones, and in areas of tight folding throughout the county. Water-bearing zones are generally within 250 feet (ft) of land surface; however, median depths are slightly deeper for the hydrogeologic units of the Blue Ridge than for those of the Great Valley section of the county. Total water-level fluctuations between October 2002 and October 2008 ranged from 2.86 to 87.84 ft across the study area, with an average of 24.15 ft. Generally, water-level fluctuations were greatest near hydrologic divides, in isolated elevated areas, and in the Opequon Creek Basin. Seasonally, water-level highs occur in the early spring at the end of the major groundwater recharge period and lows occur in late autumn when evapotranspiration rates begin to decrease. An overall downward trend in water levels between 2003 and 2008, which closely follows a downward trend in annual precipitation over the same period, was observed in a majority of wells in the Great Valley and in some of the wells in the Blue Ridge. Water-level fluctuations in the Blue Ridge tend to follow current meteorological conditions, and

  6. Preliminary hydrogeologic appraisal of selected hydrothermal systems in northern and central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Glancy, P.A.; Harrill, J.R.; Rush, F.E.; Van Denburgh, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    Several hydrothermal systems in northern and central Nevada were explored in a hydrogeologic reconnaissance. The systems studied comprise those at Stillwater and Soda Lakes-Upsal Hogback in the Carson Desert, Gerlach, Fly Ranch-Granite Range, and Double Hot Springs in the Black Rock Desert, Brady's Hot Springs, Leach Hot Springs in Grass Valley, Buffalo Valley Hot Springs, and Sulphur Hot Springs in Ruby Valley. The investigation focused on (1) delineating of areas of high heat flow associated with rising thermal ground water, (2) determining the nature of the discharge parts of the hydrothermal systems, (3) estimating heat discharge from the systems, (4) estimating water discharge from the systems, (5) obtaining rough estimates of, conductive heat flow outside areas of hydrothermal discharge, and (6) evaluating several investigative techniques that would yield the required information quickly and at relatively low cost. The most useful techniques were shallow test drilling to obtain geologic, hydraulic, and thermal data and hydrogeologic mapping of the discharge areas. The systems studied are in the north-central part of the Basin and Range province. Exposed volcanic rocks of latest Tertiary and Quaternary age are chiefly basaltic. Basaltic terranes are generally regarded as less favorable for geothermal resources than terranes that contain large volumes of young volcanic mocks of felsic to intermediate composition. Most of the known hydrothermal systems are associated with Basin and Range faults which are caused by crustal extension across the province. An area of high heat flow centered at Battle Mountain and possibly other areas of high heat flow may be related to crustal heat sources. However, some of the hydrothermal systems studied appear to be related to deep circulation of meteoric water in areas of 'normal' regional heat flow rather than to shallow-crustal heat sources. Discharge temperatures of thermal springs in the region range from slightly above mean

  7. Hydrogeological and isotope mapping of the karstic Savica River (NW Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Vreča, Polona

    2015-04-01

    Mapping is important part of the hydrogeological terrain investigations, especially when spatial and temporal relations are not known precisely. There are many different methods available; among them not least important is careful visual inspection of the stream and its stream bed at regular intervals with the aim to detect phenomena which reflect surface water groundwater interactions. In parallel with the inspection various measurements can be performed. Together with usual water electro conductivity and water temperature we tested complimentary information which can be obtained with the concomitant regular sampling for δ18O determination in the river water course. Combination of all these information proved to be very useful in obtaining spatial trends in river characteristics and to determine relations between its water balance components. Testing of the methodology of hydrogeological mapping with the means of isotopes on the karstic Savica River during low flow period where water balance relations between its tributaries were not known before demonstrate the usefulness of the applied approach. Savica River is positioned in the north-west part of Slovenia in the centre of Triglav national Park which covers large part of East Julian Alps. River represents the main recharge of the Bohinj Lake, largest Slovenian natural lake. Savica River is short with the length of only 4.0 km and consists of two tributaries in the upper part; Mala Savica coming from the west and Velika Savica coming from the north-west. The first is recharged from several water caves of various lengths in which water level depends on hydrological conditions, consequently terminal end of the water in its riverbed part changes during the year. The second tributary is recharged from the 510 m long karstic cave with the entrance at 836 m a.s.l. where water disappears over 75 m high famous and picturesque waterfall. Geology of the catchment is predominantly formed by Dachstein limestone of Upper

  8. Conceptual hydrogeologic framework of the shallow aquifer system at Virginia Beach, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Barry S.; Harlow,, George E.

    2002-01-01

    . Concentrations of manganese and chloride were higher than the Secondary Drinking Water Regulations in samples from some wells.In the humid climate of Virginia Beach, the periodic recharge of freshwater through the sand units of the shallow aquifer system occurs often enough to create a dynamic equilibrium whereby freshwater flows continually down and away from the center of the ridges to mix with and sweep brackish water and saltwater back toward the tidal rivers, bays, salt marshes, and the Atlantic Ocean.The aquifers and confining units of the shallow aquifer system at Virginia Beach are heterogeneous, discontinuous, and without exact marker beds, which makes correlations in the study area difficult. Investigations using well cuttings, spot cores, or split-spoon samples with geophysical logs are not as definitive as continuous cores for determining or correlating hydrogeologic units. Future investigations of the shallow aquifer system would benefit by collecting continuous cores.

  9. Preliminary hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehner, Harold H.

    1979-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site , Fleming County, Ky., cover an area of about 0.03 square mile, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. Although surface-water characteristics are known, little information is available regarding the ground-water hydrology of the Maxey Flats area. If transport of radionuclides from the burial site were to occur, water would probably be the principal mechanism of transport by natural means. Most base flow in streams around the burial site is from valley alluvium, and from the mantle of regolith, colluvium, and soil partially covering adjacent hills. Very little base flow is due to ground-water flow from bedrock. Most water in springs is from the mantle, rather than from bedrock. Rock units underlying the Maxey Flats area are, in descending order, the Nancy and Farmers Members of the Borden Formation, Sunbury, Bedford, and Ohio Shales, and upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation. These units are mostly shales, except for the Farmers Member, which is mostly sandstone. Total thickness of the rocks is about 320 feet. All radioactive wastes are buried in the Nancy Member. Most ground-water movement in bedrock probably occurs in fractures. The ground-water system at Maxey Flats is probably unconfined, and recharge occurs by (a) infiltration of rainfall into the mantle, and (b) vertical, unsaturated flow from the saturated regolith on hilltops to saturated zones in the Farmers Member and Ohio Shale. Data are insufficient to determine if saturated zones exist in other rock units. The upper part of the Crab Orchard Formation is probably a hydrologic boundary, with little ground-water flow through the formation. (USGS)

  10. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Malvern TCE Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    The Malvern TCE Superfund Site, a former solvent recycling facility that now stores and sells solvents, consists of a plant and disposal area, which are approximately 1,900 ft (feet) apart. The site is underlain by an unconfined carbonate bedrock aquifer in which permeability has been enhanced in places by solution. Water levels respond quickly to precipitation and show a similar seasonal variation, response to precipitation, and range of fluctuation. The altitude of water levels in wells at the disposal area is nearly identical because of the small hydraulic gradient. A comparison of water-table maps for 1983, 1993, and 1994 shows that the general shape of the water table and hydraulic gradients in the area have remained the same through time and for different climatic conditions. The plant area is underlain by dolomite of the Elbrook Formation. The dolomite at the plant area does not yield as much water as the dolomite at the disposal area because it is less fractured, and wells penetrate few water-bearing fractures. Yields of nine wells at the plant area range from 1 to 200 gal/min (gallons per minute); the median yield is 6 gal/min. Specific capacities range from 0.08 to 2 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Aquifer tests were conducted in two wells; median transmissivities estimated from the aquifer-test data ranged from 528 to 839 feet squared per day. Maximum concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in ground water at the plant area in 1996 were 53,900 ug/L (micrograms per liter) for trichloroethylene (TCE), 7,110 ug/L for tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and 17,700 ug/L for 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA). A ground-water divide is located between the plant area and the disposal area. Ground-water withdrawal for dewatering the Catanach quarry has caused a cone of depression in the water-table surface that reaches to the plant area. From the plant area, ground water flows 1.2 miles to the northeast and discharges to the Catanach quarry. The regional hydraulic gradient between the plant and the Catanach quarry is 0.019. Concentrations of VOC's in water from wells drilled northeast and donwgradient of the plant property boundary are one to two orders of magnitude less than concentrations in water from wells less than 100 ft away at the plant. A capture-zone analysis was performed for two wells at the plant area. The analysis showed that pumping well CC-19 at 20 gal/min would be sufficient to capture all ground-water flow from the plant area. Although water from other wells at the plant site contains higher concentrations of VOC's than water from well CC-19, pumping well CC-19 would induce the flow of water with higher concentrations of VOC's; however, pumping well CC-19 might causes VOC's to move lower into the aquifer. The disposal area is underlain by the Ledger Dolomite. The dolomite at the disposal area is much more fractured than the dolomite at the plant area. Although many of the fractures are filled or partially filled with clay, the dolomite at the disposal area yields more water than the dolomite at the plant area. Yields of eight wells at the disposal area range from 15 to more than 200 gal/min; the median yield is greater than 100 gal/min. Specific capacities range from 2 to 280 (gal/min)/ft. Aquifer tests were conducted in two wells; estimated transimissivities were 34,900 and 56,300 feet squared per day. Concentrations of VOC's in ground water are lower at the disposal area than at the plant area. Water samples collected from wells at the disposal area in 1996 had maximum concentrations of TCE of 768 ug/L, PCE of 111 ug/L, and TCA of 108 ug/L. These concentrations are lower than concentrations in water samples collected before cleanup of drums in the disposal area was completed in 1984. Ground water from the disposal area flows south-southeast toward Valley Creek. The hydraulic gradient between the disposal area and Valley Creek is 0.001. A well-defined p

  11. Investigation of hydrogeologic processes in a dipping layer structure - 2. Transport and biodegradation of organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfnes, E.; Breedveld, G. D.; Kinzelbach, W.; Aagaard, P.

    2004-04-01

    Numerical simulation tools have been used to study the dominating processes during transport of aromatic hydrocarbons in the unsaturated soil zone. Simulations were based on field observations at an experimental site located on a glacial delta plain with pronounced layered sedimentary structures. A numerical model for transport in the unsaturated zone, SWMS-3D, has been extended to incorporate coupled multispecies transport, microbial degradation following Monod kinetics and gas diffusive transport of oxygen and hydrocarbons. The flow field parameters were derived from previous work using nonreactive tracers. Breakthrough curves (BTC) from the hydrocarbon field experiment were used to determine sorption parameters and Monod kinetic parameters using a fitting procedure. The numerical simulations revealed that the assumption of homogeneous layers resulted in deviations from the field observations. The deviations were more pronounced with incorporation of reactive transport, compared with earlier work on nonreactive transport. To be able to model reasonable BTC, sorption had to be reduced compared to laboratory experiments. The initial biomass and the maximum utilisation rate could be adjusted to capture both the initial lag phase and the overall degradation rate. Nevertheless, local oxygen limitation is predicted by the model, which was not observed in the field experiment. Incorporation of evaporation and diffusive gas transport of the hydrocarbons did not significantly change the local oxygen demand. The main cause of the observed discrepancies between model and field are attributed to channelling as a result of small-scale heterogeneities such as biopores.

  12. Investigation of hydrogeologic processes in a dipping layer structure: 1. The flow barrier effect.

    PubMed

    Alfnes, E; Kinzelbach, W; Aagaard, P

    2004-04-01

    Numerical simulations of a field experiment were performed in order to study the processes contributing to lateral diversion of water flow in the unsaturated zone. The experimental site is a glacial delta with dipping layers of alternating finer and coarser sand. Model soil physical parameters for each of the stratigraphic layers were estimated from soil grain size distributions. Anisotropy of the hydraulic conductivity within the layers was critical in order to reproduce the flow pattern observed in the experiment. Capillary and hydraulic barriers were of minor importance for the observed lateral diversion. PMID:15028389

  13. Model Intercomparison Study to Investigate a Dense Contaminant Plume in a Complex Hydrogeologic System

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark D. ); Cole, Charles R. ); Foley, Michael G. ); Zinina, Galina A.; Zinin, Alexander I.; Vasil'Kova, Nelly A.; Samsonova, Lilia M.

    2001-12-01

    A joint Russian and U.S. model intercomparison study was undertaken for developing more realistic contaminant transport models of the Mayak Site, Southern Urals. The test problems were developed by the Russian Team based on their experience modeling contaminant migration near Lake Karachai. The intercomparison problems were designed to address lake and contaminant plume interactions, as well as river interactions and plume density effects. Different numerical codes were used. Overall there is good agreement between the results of both models. Features shown by both models include (1) the sinking of the plume below the lake, (2) the raising of the water table in the fresh water adjacent to the lake in response to the increased pressure from the dense plume, and (3) the formation of a second sinking plume in an area where evapotranspiration exceeded infiltration, thus increasing the solute concentrations above the source (i.e., lake) values.

  14. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehner, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site cover an area of about 20 acres, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. All waste is buried in the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation, and most is in the weathered shale (regolith) part of this member. Recharge to the rocks is probably by infiltration of rainfall through regolith at the top of the hill. At least two water tables are present: near the base of the regolith, at a depth of about 25 feet and; in the Ohio Shale, at a depth of about 300 feet. About 95 percent of ground-water discharge to streams is from colluvium on hillsides and valley alluvium. The remaining 5 percent is discharge from bedrock, of which about 0.5 percent is from rocks underlying the burial area. Waste radionuclides in the subsurface, other than tritium, were observed only in the regolith of the Nancy Member. Only tritium was observed with certainty in deeper rocks and in the adjacent valley alluvium. Other waste radionuclides were in streamwater and stream sediment, and may have been transported with overland runoff from the surface of the burial site. (USGS)

  15. Investigation of Coastal Hydrogeology Utilizing Geophysical and Geochemical Tools along the Broward County Coast, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Christopher D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Greenwood, W. Jason; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    Geophysical (CHIRP, boomer, and continuous direct-current resistivity) and geochemical tracer studies (continuous and time-series 222Radon) were conducted along the Broward County coast from Port Everglades to Hillsboro Inlet, Florida. Simultaneous seismic, direct-current resistivity, and radon surveys in the coastal waters provided information to characterize the geologic framework and identify potential groundwater-discharge sites. Time-series radon at the Nova Southeastern University National Coral Reef Institute (NSU/NCRI) seawall indicated a very strong tidally modulated discharge of ground water with 222Rn activities ranging from 4 to 10 disintegrations per minute per liter depending on tidal stage. CHIRP seismic data provided very detailed bottom profiles (i.e., bathymetry); however, acoustic penetration was poor and resulted in no observed subsurface geologic structure. Boomer data, on the other hand, showed features that are indicative of karst, antecedent topography (buried reefs), and sand-filled troughs. Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) data showed slight variability in the subsurface along the coast. Subtle changes in subsurface resistivity between nearshore (higher values) and offshore (lower values) profiles may indicate either a freshening of subsurface water nearshore or a change in sediment porosity or lithology. Further lithologic and hydrologic controls from sediment or rock cores or well data are needed to constrain the variability in CRP data.

  16. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  17. Hydrogeology of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the vicinity of the Marine Corps Logistics Base near Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    1999-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Navy requested that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an investigation to describe the hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of the Marine Corps Logistics Base, southeast and adjacent to Albany, Georgia. The study area encompasses about 90 square miles in the Dougherty Plain District of the Coastal Plain physiographic province, in Dougherty and Worth Counties-the Marine Corps Logistics Base encompasses about 3,600 acres in the central part of the study area. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the shallowest, most widely used source of drinking water for domestic use in the Albany area. The hydrogeologic framework of this aquifer was delineated by description of the geologic and hydrogeologic units that compose the aquifer; evaluation of the lithologic and hydrologic heterogeneity of the aquifer; comparison of the geologic and hydrogeologic setting beneath the base with those of the surrounding area; and determination of ground-water-flow directions, and vertical hydraulic conductivities and gradients in the aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is composed of the Suwannee Limestone and Ocala Limestone and is divided into an upper and lower water-bearing zone. The aquifer is confined below by the Lisbon Formation and is semi-confined above by a low-permeability clay layer in the undifferentiated overburden. The thickness of the aquifer ranges from about 165 feet in the northeastern part of the study area, to about 325 feet in the southeastern part of the study area. Based on slug tests conducted by a U.S. Navy contractor, the upper water-bearing zone has low horizontal hydraulic conductivity (0.0224 to 2.07 feet per day) and a low vertical hydraulic conductivity (0.0000227 to 0.510 feet per day); the lower water-bearing zone has a horizontal hydraulic conductivity that ranges from 0.0134 to 2.95 feet per day. Water-level hydrographs of continuously monitored wells on the Marine Corps Logistics Base show excellent correlation between

  18. Ground water flow in a fractured carbonate aquifer inferred from combined hydrogeological and geochemical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zanini, L.; Novakowski, K.S.; Lapcevic, P.; Bickerton, G.S.; Voralek, J.; Talbot, C.

    2000-06-01

    A conceptual model for ground water flow is presented for a fractured Silurian dolomite in the Niagara Escarpment area of southern Ontario. Such a model is necessary to facilitate remedial efforts of a PCB-contaminated site located in Smithville, Ontario. Both physical and chemical hydrogeological observations obtained from field investigations were used to deduce the structure of the ground water flow system in the fracture network. The field study was conducted using observations obtained from six bore-holes drilled in the vicinity of the town of Smithville. The boreholes were diamond cored through the entire thickness of the dolomite formation (approximately 45 m), hydraulically tested using a 2 m packer spacing and then completed using multipacker casing strings. Measurements of hydraulic head were obtained on a weekly basis over a period of two years, and ground water from each borehole interval was collected for geochemical analyses for inorganic and isotopic composition. Transmissivity measurements indicate that the dolomite is divided into two ground water flow systems separated by an extensive unit of low transmissivity that is pervasive throughout the region. The upper flow system is characterized by water enriched in Mg{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Below the low transmissivity zone, ground water increases in salinity and is enriched in Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. Based on the geochemistry, the rate of ground water migration in the lower flow system is surmised to be much less than that in the upper system. Measurements of hydraulic head in conjunction with the results of the analyses of the environmental isotopes ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H) suggest that ground water flow is mainly horizontal and likely governed by enlarged bedding plane fractures. These isotope geochemistry and topographical features further suggest that ground water recharge is occurring approximately 2 km to the north of Smithville.

  19. Hydrogeologic conditions and water management modeling for a Sierra Nevada fen wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Cooper, D.; Wolf, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Small fens occur throughout the Sierra Nevada, providing carbon storage and critical habitat for plant and animal species. The accumulated peat within fens, which has distinct physical and hydraulic properties, plays an important role in the hydrologic function of these wetland systems. In this study, we investigated the hydrogeology of a 0.5-ha fen in Yosemite National Park using hydraulic head data, stable isotope analysis, and numerical modeling. Peat thickness within the fen ranges from less than 10 cm to 1.4 m. Saturated conditions are produced by convergent groundwater flow originating from two distinct source areas. Water levels throughout the fen and surrounding meadow vary seasonally and interannually in response to natural variability in precipitation. The water table position is also influenced by pumping from a deep water supply well, which extracts groundwater from a weathered bedrock zone that is hydraulically connected to the surficial sediments. A spatially distributed 3D numerical groundwater model was developed to assess the relative importance of precipitation and groundwater pumping in controlling the water table position. The model results indicate that groundwater pumping has a significant impact on shallow water levels during a year with below-average precipitation. In a representative dry year, existing groundwater pumping accounts for approximately two-thirds of the water table decline (> 1 m) that is observed during June through September. During a wet year characterized by high winter/spring precipitation, there is sufficient water in storage to maintain saturated conditions throughout the summer. Predictive modeling was performed to evaluate alternative groundwater-use scenarios. These results will be used to develop water management strategies that support wetland stability.

  20. Faulting and groundwater in a desert environment: constraining hydrogeology using time-domain electromagnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedrosian, Paul A.; Burgess, Matthew K.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    Within the south-western Mojave Desert, the Joshua Basin Water District is considering applying imported water into infiltration ponds in the Joshua Tree groundwater sub-basin in an attempt to artificially recharge the underlying aquifer. Scarce subsurface hydrogeological data are available near the proposed recharge site; therefore, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data were collected and analysed to characterize the subsurface. TDEM soundings were acquired to estimate the depth to water on either side of the Pinto Mountain Fault, a major east-west trending strike-slip fault that transects the proposed recharge site. While TDEM is a standard technique for groundwater investigations, special care must be taken when acquiring and interpreting TDEM data in a twodimensional (2D) faulted environment. A subset of the TDEM data consistent with a layered-earth interpretation was identified through a combination of three-dimensional (3D) forward modelling and diffusion time-distance estimates. Inverse modelling indicates an offset in water table elevation of nearly 40 m across the fault. These findings imply that the fault acts as a low-permeability barrier to groundwater flow in the vicinity of the proposed recharge site. Existing production wells on the south side of the fault, together with a thick unsaturated zone and permeable near-surface deposits, suggest the southern half of the study area is suitable for artificial recharge. These results illustrate the effectiveness of targeted TDEM in support of hydrological studies in a heavily faulted desert environment where data are scarce and the cost of obtaining these data by conventional drilling techniques is prohibitive.

  1. Fault Zone Hydrogeology of Crystalline and Sedimentary Aquifers in Arid Regions: The Case Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M.; Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Structural control on the groundwater flow in arid regions is still poorly understood. Understanding the distribution of structural discontinuities (i.e. faults, joints and shear zones), their cross cutting relationships, and their relation with the regional hydraulic gradient are critical for deciphering the complexity of water resources distribution in the highly fractured crystalline and sedimentary aquifers in Sinai. In order to achieve that, we conducted an integrated approach using remote sensing, geophysical and hydrogeological datasets: (1) identification of the spatial and temporal rainfall events using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data; (2) delineation of major faults and shear zones using Landsat 8 and ASTER image ratioing, geological datasets and field investigation; (3) generation of a normalized difference ratio image using Envisat radar images before and after the rain events to identify preferential water-channeling discontinuities in the crystalline terrain; (4) validation of the water-channeling discontinuities using Very Low Frequency (VLF) method; (5) generation of regional groundwater flow and isotopic (18O and 2H ) distribution maps for the sedimentary aquifer and an approximation flow map for the crystalline aquifer; (6) developing a conceptual model for the groundwater flow in the fractured crystalline and sedimentary aquifers; (7) testing the model accuracy using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method in seven locations. Our findings include: (1) in the crystalline aquifer, discontinuities that are sub-parallel to groundwater flow direction act as preferred pathways for groundwater flow, whereas those that intersect groundwater flow directions at high angles act as barriers causing considerable groundwater accumulations at the upstream side; (2) in the sedimentary aquifer, high angle E-W discontinuities (i.e. Themed shear zone and Sinai Hinge Belt) cause a considerable groundwater elevation, redirection of the groundwater

  2. Hydrogeologic appraisal of five selected aquifers in Erie County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.; Staubitz, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrogeologic conditions and water quality at four stratified-drift aquifers and a bedrock (Onondaga Limestone) aquifer were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Erie County Department of Environment and Planning. The Clarence-Lancaster-Newstead area includes two aquifers--one is a complex of morainal, beach, and outwash sand and gravel; the second is the underlying production aquifer in Onondage Limestone. Most wells tap the limestone aquifer. Water quality is suitable for most uses in both aquifers except for road-salt contamination at shallow wells near the New York State Thruway. A landfill on the aquifer has affected the water quality in some areas along its perimeter. The Sardinia and Springville areas each include an aquifer consisting of surficial outwash sand and gravel ranging in thickness from less than 10 feet to 95 feet. Several deeper water-bearing zones occur within till and lacustrine deposits 400 to 600 feet thick in the valleys. Ground water moves from the north and from the aquifer 's edges to the center of the valley and discharges into the main streams in the middle of the valley and to springs along the southern edge of the aquifers. Water quality is generally suitable for most uses. A landfill adjacent to the Sardinia aquifer has not significantly affected the aquifer. The Alden area includes an aquifer that consists of two sand and gravel zones separated by 10 to 20 feet of clay or till. The more productive lower zone has mineralized water derived from underlying shale. (USGS)

  3. Collaborative research: Hydrogeological-geophysical methods for subsurface site characterization. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Y.; Morrison, F.; Rector, J.

    1997-10-31

    'In the first year of the project progress has been made in several areas which are central to the project. Development of Joint Hydrogcological-Geophysical Co-Interpretation Procedure A strong effort was invested in developing the concepts and the algorithm of the joint hydrogeological-geophysical co-interpretation approach. The reason for the concerted effort in that direction is the large amount of time the authors expect this task will take before completion, and also by the need to direct the data collection efforts. They are currently testing several ideas for co-interpretation, but they are at a quite advanced stage. They are testing these ideas using synthetic studies as well as some preliminary data that has been collected at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab site. Part of the efforts is in developing methods for estimation of the semi-variograms of the logconductivity based on direct measurements as well as on seimsic velocity measurements as obtained from cross-well tomography. Preliminary tests show that these two sources of data complement each other quite well: the direct measurements supply the medium to small wave number portion of the logconductivity spectra, while a high resolution seismic survey supplies a good coverage of the large wave number part of the spectra. They advanced significantly with formulating their approach for using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) imaging techniques in shallow subsurface surveys. Synthetic surveys show that GPR maybe very suitable for mapping spatial variations in saturations. They have access to field data and are analyzing it. Some additional issues that were investigated are also listed.'

  4. Episodic origin of a large outwash complex during multiple glaciations -- Geologic and hydrogeologic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.E.; Fleming, A.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The White River valley in Marion County is underlain by a massive outwash complex that constitutes the most productive aquifer in the greater Indianapolis area, and an understanding of its geologic evolution is essential to the proper development and protection of the resource. Subsurface studies indicate that this part of the valley functioned as a major meltwater conduit for glacial episodes that took place at times ranging from pre-Illinoian to late Wisconsin. Consequently, surficial outwash associated with the latest Wisconsin ice sheet appears to be of limited volumetric importance in many parts of the valley. Instead, the bulk of the complex consists of several distinct depositional sequences that exhibit a variety of cross-cutting and inset relations, and which are at places separated by prominent paleosurfaces. Each sequence typically consists of outwash fans and(or) meltwater channels that are broadly symmetric about the modern valley, or that parallel buried bedrock valleys that underlie some segments of the modern valley. The striking similarities between sequences of such vastly different ages suggest that they result from a basic depositional pattern that repeated over the course of successive glaciations. It seems likely that bedrock topography, particularly the Knobstone Escarpment that lies just west of the modern valley, was the ultimate control on the dynamics of relatively thin ice sheets and thus repeatedly influenced the distributions of meltwater and sedimentary facies in the valley. Recognition of similar depositional patterns through time provides the necessary facies models for many hydrogeologic applications, such as development and protection of public wellfields, investigations of environmental sites, and interpretation of water-quality samples.

  5. A hydrogeological study of the Nhandugue River, Mozambique - A major groundwater recharge zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidsson, K.; Stenberg, L.; Chirindja, F.; Dahlin, T.; Owen, R.; Steinbruch, F.

    The Nhandugue River flows over the western margin of the Urema Rift, the southernmost extension of the East African Rift System, and marks the north-western border of Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique. It constitutes one of the major indispensable water resources for the ecosystem that the park protects. Our study focused on the hydrogeological conditions at the western rift margin by resistivity measurements, soil sampling and discharge measurements. The resistivity results suggest that the area is heavily faulted and constitutes a major groundwater recharge zone. East of the rift margin the resistivity indicate that solid gneiss is fractured and weathered, and is overlain by sandstone and alluvial sediments. The top 10-15 m of the alluvial sequence is interpreted as sand. The sand layer extends back to the rift margin thus also covering the gneiss. The sandstone outcrops a few kilometers from the rift margin and dips towards east/south-east. Further into the rift valley, the sand is underlain by lenses of silt and clay on top of sand mixed with finer matter. In the lower end of the investigated area the lenses of silt and clay appears as a more or less continuous layer between the two sand units. The topmost alluvial sand constitutes an unconfined aquifer under which the solid gneiss forms a hydraulic boundary and the fractured gneiss an unconfined aquifer. The sandstone is an unconfined aquifer in the west, becoming semi-confined down dip. The lenses of silt and clay forms an aquitard and the underlying sand mixed with finer matter a semi-confined aquifer. The surface runoff decreases downstream and it is therefore concluded that surface water infiltrates as recharge to the aquifers and moves as groundwater in an east/south-eastward direction.

  6. ASSESSING THE HYDROGEOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM IN MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN STREAMS USING BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing classification systems that describe natural variation across regions is an important first step for developing indicators. We evaluated a hydrogeologic framework for first order streams in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain as part of the LIPS-MACS (Landscape Indicators f...

  7. American hydrogeology at the millennium: An annotated chronology of 100 most influential papers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Back, W.; Herman, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogeology developed as scientists undertook activities to describe how a groundwater system functions to explain why it is that way, in order to solve practical problems of water supply. This paper demonstrates the evolutionary nature and growth of hydrogeology in the United States on the basis of a selection of one hundred papers that had a significant impact on subsequent activities. We have identified three revolutionary concepts that resulted directly from this evolutionary understanding and have selected papers that demonstrate important consequences. These three concepts are 1) that the mathematical expression for heat flow can be paraphrased for groundwater and used in transient flow conditions to determine aquifer characteristics; 2) that the distribution of fluid potential can be formulated in mathematical equations suitable for solution by various analytical techniques; and 3) that chemical thermodynamics can be applied to hydrogeologic systems in order to understand the processes controlling the chemical character of groundwater. One purpose of this paper is to encourage scientists to gain an additional dimension of satisfaction from their work by being aware of the contributions of those who went before them and to see how their own work fits into the current understanding of hydrogeology.

  8. Inventory and Review of Existing PRISM Hydrogeologic Data for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS entered into an agreement with the Mauritania Ministry of Mines and Industry to inventory and review the quality of information collected as part of the Project for Strengthening of the Institutions in the Mining Sector (PRISM). Whereas the PRISM program collected geophysical, geochemical, geological, satellite, and hydrogeologic information, this report focuses on an inventory and review of available hydrogeologic data provided to the USGS in multiple folders, files, and formats. Most of the information pertained to the hydrogeologic setting and the water budget of evaporation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation in the Choum-Zouerate area in northwestern Mauritania, and the country of Mauritania itself. Other information about the quantity and quality of groundwater was found in the relational Access database. In its present form, the limited hydrogeologic information was not amenable to conducting water balance, geostatistical, and localized numerical modeling studies in support of mineral exploration and development. Suggestions are provided to remedy many of the data's shortcomings, such as performing quality assurance on all SIPPE2 data tables and sending questionnaires to appropriate agencies, mining and other companies to populate the database with additional meteorology, hydrology, and groundwater data.

  9. Linking Physical and Numerical Modelling in Hydrogeology Using Sand Tank Experiments and Comsol Multiphysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singha, Kamini; Loheide, Steven P., II

    2011-01-01

    Visualising subsurface processes in hydrogeology and building intuition for how these processes are controlled by changes in forcing is hard for many undergraduate students. While numerical modelling is one way to help undergraduate students explore outcomes of multiple scenarios, many codes are not user-friendly with respect to defining domains,…

  10. Geologic framework and hydrogeologic characteristics of the Edwards Aquifer outcrop, Hays County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, John A.; Small, Ted A.

    1995-01-01

    All of the hydrogeologic subdivisions within the Edwards aquifer outcrop in Hays County have some porosity and permeability. The most porous and permeable appear to be hydrogeologic subdivision VI, the Kirschberg evaporite member of the Kainer Formation; hydrogeologic subdivision III, the leached and collapsed members, undivided; and hydrogeologic subdivision II, the cyclic and marine members, undivided, of the Person Formation. The two types of porosity in the Edwards aquifer outcrop are fabric selective, which is related to depositional or diagenetic elements and typically exists in specific stratigraphic horizons; and not fabric selective, which can exist in any lithostratigraphic horizon. Permeability, the capacity of porous rock to transmit water, depends on the physical properties of the rock such as size, shape, and distribution of pores, and fissuring and dissolution. Two faults, San Marcos Springs and Mustang Branch, completely, or almost completely, offset the Edwards aquifer by juxtaposing Edwards aquifer limestone against nearly impermeable upper confining units along parts of their traces across Hays County. These faults are thought to be barriers, or partial barriers, to groundwater flow where the beds are juxtaposed. In Hays County, the Edwards aquifer probably is most vulnerable to surface contamination in the rapidly urbanizing areas on the Edwards aquifer outcrop. Contamination can result from spills or leakage of hazardous materials; or runoff on the intensely faulted and fractured, karstic limestone outcrops characteristic of the recharge zone.

  11. Selected hydrogeologic data for the Big Muddy Creek valley near Plentywood, northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Selected hydrogeologic data have been compiled for the Big Muddy Creek valley near Plentywood. The data pertain to most of the known municipal, commercial, and domestic wells drilled in the valley. The data include records of 59 wells and 19 test holes, 21 chemical analyses of water samples, and 40 logs describing lithology penetrated during drilling operations. (USGS)

  12. Hydrogeologic and water-quality characteristics of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, Southeast Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, J.F.; Wolf, R.J.; Adolphson, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    This report is one of a series on the hydrogeology and water quality of the 14 principal aquifers in Minnesota prepared by the U. S. Geological Survey. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency requested these studies because of the need for information to develop its Underground Injection Control Program.

  13. Summaries of FY 1995 engineering research

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The individual engineering project summaries follow the program overview. The summaries are ordered alphabetically by name of institution and so the table of contents lists all the institutions at which projects were sponsored in fiscal year 1995. Each project entry begins with an institutional-departmental heading. The names of investigators are listed immediately below the title. The funding level for fiscal year 1995 appears to the right of title; it is followed by the budget activity number. These numbers categorize the projects for budgetary purposes and the categories are described in the budget number index. A separate index of Principal Investigators includes phone number, fax number and e-mail address, where available. The fiscal year in which either the project began or was renewed and the anticipated duration in years are indicated respectively by the first two and last digits of the sequence directly below the budget activity number. The summary description of the project completes the entry.

  14. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    A surficial hydrogeologic framework was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, from New Jersey through North Carolina. The framework includes seven distinct hydrogeologic subregions within which the primary natural physical factors affecting the flow and chemistry of shallow ground water and small streams are relatively consistent. Within most subregions, the transport of chemicals from the land surface to ground water and streams can be described by a fairly uniform set of natural processes; some subregions include mixed hydrogeologic settings that are indistinguishable at the regional scale. The hydrogeologic framework and accompanying physiographic and geologic delineations are presented in digital and printed format. The seven hydrogeologic subregions that constitute the framework were delineated primarily on the basis of physiography and the predominant texture (typical grain size) of surficial and (where surficial sediments are particularly thin) subcropping sediments. Physiography for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain was constructed by standardizing and extrapolating previously published interpretations for the Coastal Plain of South Carolina and New Jersey, based on similar work in the other States. Surficial and subcropping geology were similarly compiled from previous publications by resolving inconsistencies in nomenclature, interpretation, and scale, and interpolating across unmapped areas. A bulk sediment texture was determined for each mapped geologic unit on the basis of published descriptions. Fundamental differences among the seven hydrogeologic subregions are described on the basis of hypotheses about surficial and shallow subsurface hydrology and water chemistry in each, as well as variable land use, soils, and topography. On the regional scale, the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1), the Middle Coastal Plain Fine Sediments (Subregion 3), the Middle Coastal Plain Sands with Overlying Gravels (Subregion 4), and the Inner Coastal Plain Upland

  15. Quantitative Hydrogeological Framework Interpretations from Modeling Helicopter Electromagnetic Survey Data, Nebraska Panhandle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. D.; Ball, L. B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Cannia, J. C.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Minsley, B. J.; Peterson, S. M.; Smith, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The need for allocation and management of water resources within the state of Nebraska has created a demand for innovative approaches to data collection for development of hydrogeologic frameworks to be used for 2D and 3D groundwater models. In 2008, the USGS in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the University of Nebraska Conservation and Survey Division began using frequency domain helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys to map selected sections of the Nebraska Panhandle. The surveys took place in selected sections of the North Platte River valley, Lodgepole Creek, and portions of the adjacent tablelands. The objective of the surveys is to map the aquifers of the area to improve understanding of the groundwater-surface water relationships and develop better hydrogeologic frameworks used in making more accurate 3D groundwater models of the area. For the HEM method to have an impact in a groundwater model at the basin scale, hydrostratigraphic units need to have detectable physical property (electrical resistivity) contrasts. When these contrasts exist within the study area and they are detectable from an airborne platform, large areas can be surveyed to rapidly generate 2D and 3D maps and models of 3D hydrogeologic features. To make the geophysical data useful to multidimensional groundwater models, numerical inversion is necessary to produce a depth-dependent physical property data set reflecting hydrogeologic features. These maps and depth images of electrical resistivity in themselves are not useful for the hydrogeologist. They need to be turned into maps and depth images of the hydrostratigraphic units and hydrogeologic features. Through a process of numerical imaging, inversion, sensitivity analysis, geological ground truthing (boreholes), geological interpretation, hydrogeologic features are characterized. Resistivity depth sections produced from this process are used to pick

  16. Space station executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An executive summary of the modular space station study is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) design characteristics, (2) experiment program, (3) operations, (4) program description, and (5) research implications. The modular space station is considered a candidate payload for the low cost shuttle transportation system.

  17. Crisis Management Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…

  18. Healthcare. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary highlights several findings about healthcare. These are: (1) Healthcare is 18 percent of the U.S. economy, twice as high as in other countries; (2) There are two labor markets in healthcare: high-skill, high-wage professional and technical jobs and low-skill, low-wage support jobs; (3) Demand for postsecondary education in…

  19. Remarkable Retellings, Super Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Teacher, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Retelling and summarizing are great ways to get children involved in what they're reading--and thinking about what they understand in texts. Summarizing is a more complex task than retelling. Creating a formal summary usually involves reducing a text by about a third, writing a topic statement, eliminating redundant and unimportant details, and…

  20. Crisis Management: Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Dorman, Sally; Anderson, Luke; McNair, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article presents summaries of three studies relevant to school crisis response. The first report, "A Framework for International Crisis Intervention" (Sally Dorman), is a review of how existing crisis intervention models (including the NASP PREPaRE model) have been adapted for international use. The second article, "Responding…

  1. Reconnaissance of the Hydrogeology of Ta'u, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of existing data and information collected on a reconnaissance field visit supports a conceptual model of ground-water occurrence in Ta'u, American Samoa, in which a thin freshwater lens exists in a predominantly high-permeability aquifer that receives high rates of recharge. Because the freshwater lens is thin throughout most of the island, the productivity of wells, especially those near the coast where the lens is the thinnest, is likely to be limited by saltwater intrusion. The landfill in northwestern Ta'u is closer to the north coast of the island than to any of the existing or proposed well sites. Although this may indicate that ground water beneath the landfill would flow away from the existing and proposed well sites, this interpretation may change depending on the hydraulic properties of a fault and rift zone in the area. Of four plausible scenarios tested with a numerical ground-water flow model, only one scenario indicated that ground water from beneath the landfill would flow toward the existing and proposed well sites; the analysis does not, however, assess which of the four scenarios is most plausible. The analysis also does not consider the change in flow paths that will result from ground-water withdrawals, dispersion of contaminants during transport by ground water, other plausible hydrogeologic scenarios, transport of contaminants by surface-water flow, or that sources of contamination other than the landfill may exist. Accuracy of the hydrologic interpretations in this study is limited by the relatively sparse data available for Ta'u. Understanding water resources on Ta'u can be advanced by monitoring rainfall, stream-flow, evaporation, ground-water withdrawals, and water quality, and with accurate surveys of measuring point elevations for all wells and careful testing of well-performance. Assessing the potential for contaminants in the landfill to reach existing and proposed well sites can be improved with additional information on the

  2. Digital Surfaces and Thicknesses of Selected Hydrogeologic Units within the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Rheannon M.; Clark, Brian R.; Bolyard, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Digital surfaces of selected Tertiary and younger age hydrogeologic units within the Mississippi embayment aquifer system were created using more than 2,600 geophysical logs for an area that covers approximately 70,000 square miles and encompasses parts of eight states. The digital surfaces were developed to define and display the hydrogeologic framework for the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS). The digital surfaces also provide a foundation of the selected hydrogeologic units for development of a steady-state and transient regional ground-water flow model of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system from the top of the Midway confining unit upwards to land surface. The ground-water flow model is under development as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program. Using a Geographic Information System, nine digital surfaces of the tops of selected hydrogeologic units were created using the Australian National University Digital Elevation Model method as an interpolation scheme. Thickness maps also were constructed using the Geographic Information System by calculating the difference between the altitude of the interpreted base of an overlying unit and the altitude of the interpreted top of an underlying unit. In general, the highest hydrogeologic unit altitudes are located along the eastern edge of the study area in the outcrop, and the lowest altitudes, in general, are located along the southern edge of the study area along the axis of the embayment. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer and the lower Claiborne aquifer are the thinnest aquifers of importance in the study area; the thickest aquifer of importance is the middle Claiborne aquifer.

  3. Hydrogeologic framework and simulation of shallow ground-water flow in the vicinity of a hazardous-waste landfill near Pinewood, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The geologic units in the vicinity of a hazardous- waste landfill near Pinewood, S.C., were divided into hydrogeologic units on the basis of lithologic and hydrologic characteristics. A quasi-3- dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model was constructed to represent the hydrogeologic flamework. The simulation results indicate that if non-reactive constituents were released to the Lang Syne water-bearing zone underlying the central and western pans of the disposal area, the constituents would move in a southwesterly direction at a rate of about one-half to 7 feet per year. Contaminants could move from the Lang Syne water-bearing zone upward to the surficial aquifer, to streams, or to Lake Marion. Although these flow rates indicate that it would require at least 50 years for contaminants to travel between the disposal area and a nearby (400 ft) potential discharge area, the heterogeneity of the site hydrogeology imparts an uncertainty to the conclusion. Faster travel times cannot be ruled out if contamination enters an area having a higher hydraulic conductivity than those determined in this investigation. Faster arrival times at Lake Marion also could result if there are pathways shorter than about 400 feet between contaminated water and an area where it can discharge to the surficial aquifer or to streams. If contaminant releases were to occur on the eastern side of the ground-water mounds, near landfill section II and the southeastern part of land fill section I, initial flow directions would be toward the water-level depression in the eastern part of the facility. Ground water within water- level depression would flow downward, probably to the underlying lower Sawdust Landing water-beating zone. Movement of non-reactive constituents in the tower Sawdust Landing water-bearing zone would be southwestward toward Lake Marion at a rate of about 8 to 20 feet per year. Transport to the lake by this route could require more than 200 years.

  4. Occurrence of methane in groundwater of south-central New York State, 2012-systematic evaluation of a glaciated region by hydrogeologic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    equaled or exceeded that concentration. Isotopic signatures differed between these groups as well. Methane in valley wells was predominantly thermogenic in origin, likely as a result of close vertical proximity to underlying methane-bearing saline groundwater and brine and possibly as a result of enhanced bedrock fracture permeability beneath valleys that provides an avenue for upward gas migration. Isotopic signatures of methane from four upland well samples indicated a microbial origin (carbon-dioxide reduction) with one sample possibly altered by microbial methane oxidation. Water samples from wells in a valley setting that indicate a mix of thermogenic and microbial methane reflect the close proximity of regional groundwater flow and underlying saline water and brine in valley areas. The microbial methane is likely produced by bacteria that utilize carbon dioxide or formational organic matter in highly reducing environments within the subregional groundwater flow system. This characterization of groundwater methane shows the importance of subsurface information (hydrogeology, well construction) in understanding methane occurrence and provides an initial conceptual framework that can be utilized in investigation of stray gas in south-central New York.

  5. Determinants of Children's Health. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Michael; And Others

    This document consists of summaries of six closely-related studies which investigated empirically the determinants of children's health with particular reference to home and local environmental variables. The first study examined the relationship between a number of family characteristics and the health of white children (6 through 11 years of…

  6. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  7. Hydrogeology and Ground-Water Flow in the Opequon Creek Watershed area, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Due to increasing population and economic development in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia, water availability has become a primary concern for water-resource managers in the region. To address these issues, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Services and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, developed a numerical steady-state simulation of ground-water flow for the 1,013-square-kilometer Opequon Creek watershed area. The model was based on data aggregated for several recently completed and ongoing USGS hydrogeologic investigations conducted in Jefferson, Berkeley, and Morgan Counties in West Virginia and Clarke, Frederick, and Warren Counties in Virginia. A previous detailed hydrogeologic assessment of the watershed area of Hopewell Run (tributary to the Opequon Creek), which includes the USGS Leetown Science Center in Jefferson County, West Virginia, provided key understanding of ground-water flow processes in the aquifer. The ground-water flow model developed for the Opequon Creek watershed area is a steady-state, three-layer representation of ground-water flow in the region. The primary objective of the simulation was to develop water budgets for average and drought hydrologic conditions. The simulation results can provide water managers with preliminary estimates on which water-resource decisions may be based. Results of the ground-water flow simulation of the Opequon Creek watershed area indicate that hydrogeologic concepts developed for the Hopewell Run watershed area can be extrapolated to the larger watershed model. Sensitivity analyses conducted as part of the current modeling effort and geographic information system analyses of spring location and yield reveal that thrust and cross-strike faults and low-permeability bedding, which provide structural and lithologic controls, respectively, on ground-water flow, must be incorporated into the

  8. GLOVEBOX GLOVE CHARACTERIZATION SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-05-14

    A task was undertaken to determine primarily the permeation behavior of various glove compounds from four manufacturers. As part of the basic characterization task, the opportunity to obtain additional mechanical and thermal properties presented itself. Consequently, a total of fifteen gloves were characterized for permeation, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Puncture Resistance, Tensile Properties and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Detailed reports were written for each characterization technique used. This report contains the summary of the results.

  9. Blois V: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Albrow, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    The author gives a summary talk of the best experimental data given at the Vth Blois Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering. He addresses the following eight areas in his talk: total and elastic cross sections; single diffractive excitation; electron-proton scattering; di-jets and rapidity gaps; areas of future study; spins and asymmetries; high-transverse momentum and masses at the Tevatron; and disoriented chiral condensates and cosmic radiation.

  10. ULSGEN (Uplink Summary Generator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-F.; Schrock, M.; Reeve, T.; Nguyen, K.; Smith, B.

    2014-01-01

    Uplink is an important part of spacecraft operations. Ensuring the accuracy of uplink content is essential to mission success. Before commands are radiated to the spacecraft, the command and sequence must be reviewed and verified by various teams. In most cases, this process requires collecting the command data, reviewing the data during a command conference meeting, and providing physical signatures by designated members of various teams to signify approval of the data. If commands or sequences are disapproved for some reason, the whole process must be restarted. Recording data and decision history is important for traceability reasons. Given that many steps and people are involved in this process, an easily accessible software tool for managing the process is vital to reducing human error which could result in uplinking incorrect data to the spacecraft. An uplink summary generator called ULSGEN was developed to assist this uplink content approval process. ULSGEN generates a web-based summary of uplink file content and provides an online review process. Spacecraft operations personnel view this summary as a final check before actual radiation of the uplink data. .

  11. Hydrogeology of the gray limestone aquifer in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from 35 new test coreholes and aquifer-test, water-level, and water-quality data were combined with existing hydrogeologic data to define the extent, thickness, hydraulic properties, and degree of confinement of the gray limestone aquifer in southern Florida. This aquifer, previously known to be present only in southeastern Florida (Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties) below, and to the west of, the Biscayne aquifer, extends over most of central-south Florida, including eastern and central Collier County and southern Hendry County; it is the same as the lower Tamiami aquifer to the north, and it becomes the water-table aquifer and the upper limestone part of the lower Tamiami aquifer to the west. The aquifer generally is composed of gray, shelly, lightly to moderately cemented limestone with abundant shell fragments or carbonate sand, abundant skeletal moldic porosity, and minor quartz sand. The gray limestone aquifer comprises the Ochopee Limestone of the Tamiami Formation, and, in some areas, the uppermost permeable part of an unnamed formation principally composed of quartz sand. Underlying the unnamed formation is the Peace River Formation of the upper Hawthorn Group, the top of which is the base of the surficial aquifer system. Overlying the aquifer and providing confinement in much of the area is the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The thickness of the aquifer is comparatively uniform, generally ranging from 30 to 100 feet. The unnamed formation part of the aquifer is up to 20 feet thick. The Ochopee Limestone accumulated in a carbonate ramp depositional system and contains a heterozoan carbonate-particle association. The principal rock types of the aquifer are pelecypod lime rudstones and floatstones and permeable quartz sands and sandstones. The pore types are mainly intergrain and separate vug (skeletal-moldic) pore spaces. The rock fabric and associated primary and secondary pore spaces combine to form a dual diffuse

  12. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality of northern Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1994-01-01

    Water from wells in the crystalline rocks has the lowest median pH (5.8), the lowest median specific conductance (139 microsiemens per centimeter), the lowest median alkalinity [16 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as CaCOg], and the highest dissolved oxygen concentration (9.0 mg/L) of the hydrogeologic units. Water from wells in carbonate rocks has the highest median pH (7.8) and the highest median alkalinity (195 mg/L as CaCO3) of the hydrogeologic units. Water from wells in the Lockatong Formation has the highest median specific conductance (428 microsiemens per centimeter) and the lowest dissolved oxygen concentration (0.8 mg/L) of the hydrogeologic units. Water from wells in crystalline rocks contains the lowest concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) of the hydrogeologic units. Water from the Lockatong Formation contains the highest concentration of TDS of the hydrogeologic units. Water from only 1 of 83 wells sampled exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) for TDS; the well is in the Lockatong Formation. Five of 86 samples (6 percent) and 6 of 75 samples (8 percent) exceed the USEPA SMCL for iron and manganese, respectively. Nitrate is the most prevalent nitrogen species in ground water. The median nitrate concentration for all hydrogeologic units is 2.3 mg/L. Of 71 water samples from wells, no concentrations of nitrate exceed the USEPA maximum contaminant level. The median dissolved radon-222 activity was highest for water samples from wells in crystalline rock [3,600 pCi/L (picocuries per liter)] and lowest for water samples from wells in the Lockatong Formation (340 pCi/L) and diabase (350 pCi/L). Water samples for analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOC's) were collected from 34 wells in areas where the potential existed for the presence of VOC's in ground water. VOC's were detected in 23 percent of the 34 wells sampled. The most commonly detected compound was trichloroethylene (13

  13. Short Rotation Woody Crops Program: Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    This document is a compilation of summaries describing research efforts in the US Department of Energy's Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP). The SRWCP is sponsored by DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and is field-managed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SRWCP is an integrated basic research program with 18 field research projects throughout the United States. The overall objective of the program is to improve the productivity and increase the cost efficiency of growing and harvesting woody trees and shrubs. In a competitive technical review, 25 projects were chosen to form a new research program. Although some of the original projects have ended and new ones have begun, many of the long-term research projects still form the core of the SRWCP. This document contains individual summaries of each of the 18 research projects in the SRWCP from October 1985 to October 1986. Each summary provides the following information: name and address of the contracting institution, principal investigator, project title, current subcontract or grant number, period of performance, and annual funding through fiscal year 1986. In addition, each summary contains a brief description of the project rationale, objective, approach, status, and future efforts. A list of publications that have resulted from DOE-sponsored research follows many of the summaries.

  14. Sedimentary Record in Martian Impact Crater Paleolakes as Indicators of Past Climate, Hydrogeologic Processes, and Environment Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.

    1999-03-01

    We study how the presence of deltas, terraces, shorelines, mounds and evaporite deposits reveals the past climate, hydrogeology, and environmental evolution with extension to favorable niches for life on Mars.

  15. Summaries of FY 1996 engineering research

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Engineering Research Program for fiscal year 1996; it provides a summary for each of the program projects in addition to a brief program overview. The report is intended to provide staff of Congressional committees, other executive departments, and other DOE offices with substantive program information so as to facilitate governmental overview and coordination of Federal research programs. Of equal importance, its availability facilitates communication of program information to interested research engineers and scientists. Each BES Division administers basic, mission oriented research programs in the area indicated by its title. The BES Engineering Research Program is one such program; it is administered by the Engineering and Geosciences Division of BES. In preparing this report the principal investigators were asked to submit summaries for their projects that were specifically applicable to fiscal year 1996. The summaries received have been edited if necessary, but the press for timely publication made it impractical to have the investigators review and approve the revised summaries prior to publication. For more information about a given project, it is suggested that the investigators be contacted directly.

  16. A numerical solution for the diffusion equation in hydrogeologic systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishii, A.L.; Healy, R.W.; Striegl, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The documentation of a computer code for the numerical solution of the linear diffusion equation in one or two dimensions in Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates is presented. Applications of the program include molecular diffusion, heat conduction, and fluid flow in confined systems. The flow media may be anisotropic and heterogeneous. The model is formulated by replacing the continuous linear diffusion equation by discrete finite-difference approximations at each node in a block-centered grid. The resulting matrix equation is solved by the method of preconditioned conjugate gradients. The conjugate gradient method does not require the estimation of iteration parameters and is guaranteed convergent in the absence of rounding error. The matrixes are preconditioned to decrease the steps to convergence. The model allows the specification of any number of boundary conditions for any number of stress periods, and the output of a summary table for selected nodes showing flux and the concentration of the flux quantity for each time step. The model is written in a modular format for ease of modification. The model was verified by comparison of numerical and analytical solutions for cases of molecular diffusion, two-dimensional heat transfer, and axisymmetric radial saturated fluid flow. Application of the model to a hypothetical two-dimensional field situation of gas diffusion in the unsaturated zone is demonstrated. The input and output files are included as a check on program installation. The definition of variables, input requirements, flow chart, and program listing are included in the attachments. (USGS)

  17. Hydrogeological impact of fault zones on a fractured carbonate aquifer, Semmering (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Cyril; Winkler, Gerfried; Reichl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Fault zones are the result of tectonic processes and are geometrical features frequently encountered in carbonate aquifer systems. They can hamper the fluid migration (hydrogeological barriers), propagate the movement of fluid (draining conduits) or be a combination of both processes. Numerical modelling of fractured carbonate aquifer systems is strongly bound on the knowledge of a profound conceptual model including geological and tectonic settings such as fault zones. In further consequence, numerical models can be used to evaluate the conceptual model and its introduced approximations. The study was conducted in a fractured carbonate aquifer built up by permomesozoic dolo/limestones of the Semmering-Wechsel complex in the Eastern Alps (Austria). The aquifer has an assumed thickness of about 200 m and dips to the north. It is covered by a thin quartzite layer and a very low permeable layer of quartz-phyllite having a thickness of up to several hundred meters. The carbonate layer crops out only in the southern part of the investigation area, where it receives autogenic recharge. The geological complexity affects some uncertainties related to the extent of the model area, which was determined to be about 15 km². Three vertical fault zones cross the area approximately in a N-S direction. The test site includes an infrastructural pilot tunnel gallery of 4.3 km length with two pumping stations, respectively active since August 1997 and June 1998. The total pumping rate is about 90 l/s and the drawdown data were analysed analytically, providing a hydraulic conductivity of about 5E-05 m/s for the carbonate layer. About 120 m drawdown between the initial situation and situation with pumping is reported by piezometers. This led to the drying up of one spring located at the southern border of the carbonates. A continuum approach using MODFLOW-2005 was applied to reproduce numerically the observed aquifer behaviour and investigate the impact of the three fault zones. First

  18. Flowmeter and Ground Penetrating Radar: comparison between hydrogeological and geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, A.; Basirico', S.; Arato, A.; Crosta, G. B.; Frattini, P.; Godio, A.

    2012-04-01

    A comparison between saturated hydraulic conductivity calculated with Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter (EBF) and water content obtained by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Zero Offset Profile (ZOP) is presented. EBF technique permits to obtain permeability profiles along one borehole in the saturated zone by using the Moltz (1993) method. The analysis of ZOP data provides information about the water content (Topp, 1980) in the section between two adjacent boreholes. Water content profiles in the saturated zone can be related to the porosity of the medium which, together with the permeability from EBF measurements, is fundamental for any hydrogeological characterization. These two methods have been applied to three different test-sites located in the Northern Italy. A first site regards a complex aquifer, characterized by a chaotic sequence of gypsum-marls. The other two sites are characterized by an alternation of sandy and silty-sandy layers. For each site, we adopted the EBF along screened boreholes with 0.25 m spacing, under ambient and stressed conditions. The cross-hole georadar survey was performed within the saturated zone by using 100 Hz borehole antennas with 0.25 m spacing. The results from the analysis of EBF and ZOP profiles show a general positive correlation between permeability and water content and porosity. This is reasonable for granular soils where the permeability is controlled by the pore space available for water flow, i.e., the effective porosity. For this soils, where EBF permeability and ZOP water-content profiles are in good agreement, the volume between the boreholes can be supposed to be homogeneous. On the other hand, a poor correlation suggests the presence of heterogeneity between the boreholes, which can be observed because the two techniques involve different volumes of soil: the EBF permeability refers to a portion of volume just around the borehole while the ZOP investigates the entire volume between the two boreholes. The poor

  19. Hydrogeologic Framework of Bedrock Units and Initial Salinity Distribution for a Simulation of Groundwater Flow for the Lake Michigan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lampe, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is assessing groundwater availability in the Lake Michigan Basin. As part of the assessment, a variable-density groundwater-flow model is being developed to simulate the effects of groundwater use on water availability throughout the basin. The hydrogeologic framework for the Lake Michigan Basin model was developed by grouping the bedrock geology of the study area into hydrogeologic units on the basis of the functioning of each unit as an aquifer or confining layer within the basin. Available data were evaluated based on the areal extent of coverage within the study area, and procedures were established to characterize areas with sparse data coverage. Top and bottom altitudes for each hydrogeologic unit were interpolated in a geographic information system for input to the model and compared with existing maps of subsurface formations. Fourteen bedrock hydrogeologic units, making up 17 bedrock model layers, were defined, and they range in age from the Jurassic Period red beds of central Michigan to the Cambrian Period Mount Simon Sandstone. Information on groundwater salinity in the Lake Michigan Basin was compiled to create an input dataset for the variable-density groundwater-flow simulation. Data presented in this report are referred to as 'salinity data' and are reported in terms of total dissolved solids. Salinity data were not available for each hydrogeologic unit. Available datasets were assigned to a hydrogeologic unit, entered into a spatial database, and data quality was visually evaluated. A geographic information system was used to interpolate salinity distributions for each hydrogeologic unit with available data. Hydrogeologic units with no available data either were set equal to neighboring units or were vertically interpolated by use of values from units above and below.

  20. Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones: Results from thirteen studies across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puckett, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been growing interest in the capacity of riparian buffer zones to remove nitrate from ground waters moving through them. Riparian zone sediments often contain organic carbon, which favors formation of reducing conditions that can lead to removal of nitrate through denitrification. Over the past decade the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has investigated the transport and fate of nitrate in ground and surface waters in study areas across the United States. In these studies riparian zone efficiency in removing nitrate varied widely as a result of variations in hydrogeologic factors. These factors include (1) denitrification in the up-gradient aquifer due to the presence of organic carbon or other electron donors, (2) long residence times (>50 years) along ground-water flow paths allowing even slow reactions to completely remove nitrate, (3) dilution of nitrate enriched waters with older water having little nitrate, (4) bypassing of riparian zones due to extensive use of drains and ditches, and (5) movement of ground water along deep flow paths below reducing zones. By developing a better understanding of the hydrogeologic settings in which riparian buffer zones are likely to be inefficient we can develop improved nutrient management plans. ?? US Government 2004.

  1. The fault pattern in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological implications for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the southern Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological implications provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.

  2. Hydrogeologic, water-quality and biogeochemical data collected at a septage-treatment facility, Orleans, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, October 1988 through December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; Howes, Brian Louis

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogeologic, water-quality, and biogeochemical data were collected at the site of a septage- treatment facility in Orleans, Massachusetts, from October 1988 through December 1992, where a nitrogen-rich effluent is discharged to the underlying glacial aquifer. The data were collected as part of a study done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Watershed Management, to investigate the effect of effluent discharge on ground-water quality and the transport of effluent nitrogen through the aquifer. Hydrogeologic data include lithologic logs and ground-water levels. Water-quality data include chemical analyses of the treated septage effluent, of ground water at the water table beneath the infiltration beds, and of ground water throughout the aquifer. Dissolved concentrations of dinitrogen gas, nitrous oxide, and dissolved inorganic carbon also were measured. Biogeochemical data include concentrations of total ammonium and solid-phase carbon and nitrogen in aquifer sediments and sediments from the effluent-infiltration beds.

  3. Preliminary stratigraphic and hydrogeologic cross sections and seismic profile of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    To help water-resource managers evaluate the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) as an alternative water supply, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study, in cooperation with the Broward County Environmental Protection and Growth Management Department, to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the FAS in the eastern part of Broward County. This report presents three preliminary cross sections illustrating stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County as well as an interpreted seismic profile along one of the cross sections. Marker horizons were identified using borehole geophysical data and were initially used to perform well-to-well correlation. Core sample data were integrated with the borehole geophysical data to support stratigraphic and hydrogeologic interpretations of marker horizons. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units were correlated across the county using borehole geophysical data from multiple wells. Seismic-reflection data were collected along the Hillsboro Canal. Borehole geophysical data were used to identify and correlate hydrogeologic units in the seismic-reflection profile. Faults and collapse structures that intersect hydrogeologic units were also identified in the seismic profile. The information provided in the cross sections and the seismic profile is preliminary and subject to revision.

  4. Characterizing the hydrogeologic framework of the Death Valley region, Southern Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faunt, Claudia; D'Agnese, Frank; Downey, Joe S.; Turner, A. Keith

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) hydrogeologic modeling of the complex geology of the Death Valley region requires the application of a number of Geoscientific Information System (GSIS) techniques. This study, funded by United States Department of Energy as a part of the Yucca Mountain Project, focuses on an area of approximately 100,000 square kilometers (three degrees of latitude by three degrees of longitude) and extends up to ten kilometers in depth. The geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. GSIS techniques allow the synthesis of geologic, hydrologic and climatic information gathered from many sources, including satellite imagery and published maps and cross-sections. Construction of a 3-D hydrogeological model is possible with the combined use of software products available from several vendors, including traditional GIS products and sophisticated contouring, interpolation, visualization, and numerical modeling packages.

  5. Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, northwestern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Bolyard, Susan E.; Hart, Rheannon M.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2014-01-01

    Digital surfaces and thicknesses of nine hydrogeologic units of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system from land surface to the top of the Gunter Sandstone in northwestern Arkansas were created using geophysical logs, drillers’ logs, geologist-interpreted formation tops, and previously published maps. The 6,040 square mile study area in the Ozark Plateaus Province includes Benton, Washington, Carroll, Madison, Boone, Newton, Marion, and Searcy Counties. The top of each hydrogeologic unit delineated on geophysical logs was based partly on previously published reports and maps and also from drillers’ logs. These logs were then used as a basis to contour digital surfaces showing the top and thickness of the Fayetteville Shale, the Boone Formation, the Chattanooga Shale, the Everton Formation, the Powell Dolomite, the Cotter Dolomite, the Roubidoux Formation, the Gasconade Dolomite, and the Gunter Sandstone.

  6. Update of the hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto field based on recent well data

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Manon, A.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Baja California, Mexico has been updated and modified on the basis of geologic and reservoir engineering data from 21 newly completed wells. Previously, only two reservoirs had been discovered: the shallow ..cap alpha.. reservoir and the deeper ..beta.. reservoir. Recently, three deep wells drilled east of the main wellfield penetrated a third geothermal reservoir (called the ..gamma.. reservoir) below the sandstones corresponding to the ..beta.. reservoir in the main part of the field. The new well data delimit the ..beta.. reservoir, confirm the important role of Fault H in controlling the flow of geothermal fluids, and enable us to refine the hydrogeologic model of the field.

  7. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Galena-Platteville aquifer at the Parson's Casket Hardware Superfund site, Belvidere, Illinois, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, investigated the hydrogeology of the Galena-Platteville aquifer and its relation to contaminant migration at the Parson's Casket Hardware Superfund site in Belvidere, Ill. This report presents the results of the second phase of the investigation, which lasted from March through October 1991. The uppermost bedrock units beneath the study site are the Galena and Platteville Groups1; these bedrock units immediately underlie a glacial drift aquifer. The Galena and Platteville Groups, which consist predominantly of dolomite, compose the Galena-Platteville aquifer, and extend from about 40 to 320 feet below land surface. The unconfined Galena-Platteville aquifer is partitioned into five hydrogeologic units. The uppermost unit, the weathered surface of the bedrock, has a horizontal hydraulic conductivity that ranges from about 1 to 200 feet per day. The four underlying units have hydraulic conductivities that range from about 0.01 to 1 foot per day. Vertical hydraulic gradients in the aquifer are typically downward. Horizontal groundwater flow generally is southward to southeastward from the site toward the Kishwaukee River. Three notable bedding-plane solution fissures and three fractures that crosscut the bedding planes are identified within the dolomite bedrock. The inclined fractures are assumed to function as conduits that connect high conductivity horizontal fissures, thus allowing more rapid vertical movement of ground water and contaminants than would be expected in the generally low conductivity dolomite matrix. A multiple-well, constant-discharge aquifer test confirms the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the dolomite aquifer. The hydraulic characteristics of the uppermost part of the bedrock aquifer are somewhat different than the characteristics of the deeper part(s) of the aquifer. This is because the principal conduits for water movement are in the deeper part(s) of the

  8. Allocating risk capital for a brownfields redevelopment project under hydrogeological and financial uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soonyoung; Unger, Andre J A; Parker, Beth; Kim, Taehee

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we defined risk capital as the contingency fee or insurance premium that a brownfields redeveloper needs to set aside from the sale of each house in case they need to repurchase it at a later date because the indoor air has been detrimentally affected by subsurface contamination. The likelihood that indoor air concentrations will exceed a regulatory level subject to subsurface heterogeneity and source zone location uncertainty is simulated by a physics-based hydrogeological model using Monte Carlo realizations, yielding the probability of failure. The cost of failure is the future value of the house indexed to the stochastic US National Housing index. The risk capital is essentially the probability of failure times the cost of failure with a surcharge to compensate the developer against hydrogeological and financial uncertainty, with the surcharge acting as safety loading reflecting the developers' level of risk aversion. We review five methodologies taken from the actuarial and financial literature to price the risk capital for a highly stylized brownfield redevelopment project, with each method specifically adapted to accommodate our notion of the probability of failure. The objective of this paper is to develop an actuarially consistent approach for combining the hydrogeological and financial uncertainty into a contingency fee that the brownfields developer should reserve (i.e. the risk capital) in order to hedge their risk exposure during the project. Results indicate that the price of the risk capital is much more sensitive to hydrogeological rather than financial uncertainty. We use the Capital Asset Pricing Model to estimate the risk-adjusted discount rate to depreciate all costs to present value for the brownfield redevelopment project. A key outcome of this work is that the presentation of our risk capital valuation methodology is sufficiently generalized for application to a wide variety of engineering projects.

  9. Aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching: Testing a soils and hydrogeologic index method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehnert, E.; Keefer, D.A.; Dey, W.S.; Wehrmann, H.A.; Wilson, S.D.; Ray, C.

    2005-01-01

    For years, researchers have sought index and other methods to predict aquifer sensitivity and vulnerability to nonpoint pesticide contamination. In 1995, an index method and map were developed to define aquifer sensitivity to pesticide leaching based on a combination of soil and hydrogeologic factors. The soil factor incorporated three soil properties: hydraulic conductivity, amount of organic matter within individual soil layers, and drainage class. These properties were obtained from a digital soil association map. The hydrogeologic factor was depth to uppermost aquifer material. To test this index method, a shallow ground water monitoring well network was designed, installed, and sampled in Illinois. The monitoring wells had a median depth of 7.6 m and were located adjacent to corn and soybean fields where the only known sources of pesticides were those used in normal agricultural production. From September 1998 through February 2001, 159 monitoring wells were sampled for 14 pesticides but no pesticide metabolites. Samples were collected and analyzed to assess the distribution of pesticide occurrence across three units of aquifer sensitivity. Pesticides were detected in 18% of all samples and nearly uniformly from samples from the three units of aquifer sensitivity. The new index method did not predict pesticide occurrence because occurrence was not dependent on the combined soil and hydrogeologic factors. However, pesticide occurrence was dependent on the tested hydrogeologic factor and was three times higher in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was <6 m than in areas where the depth to the uppermost aquifer was 6 to <15 m. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  10. Evaluation of hydrogeologic aspects of proposed salinity control in Paradox Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.; Bedinger, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    The salt load in the Dolores River increases by about 200,000 tons per year where it crosses Paradox Valley, Colorado, because of the discharge of a sodium chloride brine from an underlying aquifer. A ground-water management program to nearly eliminate this major source of salt, which eventually enters the Colorado River, can be designed on the basis of an accurate description of the hydrogeologic framework of Paradox Valley.

  11. Duration of the Ma'adim Vallis/Gusev Crater Hydrogeologic System, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Landheim, R.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Greeley, R.

    1998-05-01

    Ma'adim Vallis and Gusev crater (Aeolis subquadrangle of Mars) formed a complex hydrogeologic system through time. Crater statistics over five geologic units, coupled with morphologic and geologic observations, show that this system was active over a period ranging from 0.7 to about 2 billion years. These results make the floor of Gusev crater one of the most prominent martian depositional features. The last aqueous sedimentary deposition could have occurred during Early Amazonian.

  12. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  13. Hydrogeologic framework and ground-water resources at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, A.P.; Howe, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary hydrogeologic framework of the Seymour Johnson Air Force Base was constructed from published data, available well data, and reports from Air Base files, City of Goldsboro and Wayne County records, and North Carolina Geological Survey files. Borehole geophysical logs were run in selected wells; and the surficial, Black Creek, and upper Cape Fear aquifers were mapped. Results indicate that the surficial aquifer appears to have the greatest lateral variability of clay units and aquifer material of the three aquifers. A surficial aquifer water-level surface map, constructed from selected monitoring wells screened exclusively in the surficial aquifer, indicates the general direction of ground-water movement in this mostly unconfined aquifer is toward the Neuse River and Stoney Creek. However, water-level gradient data from a few sites in the surficial aquifer did not reflect this trend, and there are insufficient hydrologic and hydrogeologic data to determine the cause of these few anamalous measurements. The Black Creek aquifer underlies the surficial aquifer and is believed to underlie most of Wayne County, including the Air Base where the aquifer and overlying confining unit are estimated from well log data to be as much as 100 feet thick. The Black Creek confining unit ranges in thickness from less than 8 feet to more than 20 feet. There are currently no accessible wells screened exclusively in the Black Creek aquifer from which to measure water levels. The upper Cape Fear aquifer and confining unit are generally found at depths greater than 80 feet below land surface at the Air Base, and are estimated to be as much as 70 feet thick. Hydrologic and hydrogeologic data are insufficient to determine localized surficial aquifer hydrogeology, ground-water movement at several sites, or hydraulic head differences between the three aquifers.

  14. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Pueblo County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  15. Hydrogeologic data update for the stratified-drift aquifer in the Sprout and Fishkill Creek valleys, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Calef, F.J., III

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the stratified-drift aquifer in the Sprout Creek and Fishkill Creek valleys in southern Dutchess County, New York, previously investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1982, was updated through the use of new well data made available through the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation's Water Well Program. Additional well data related to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) remedial investigations of two groundwater contamination sites near the villages of Hopewell Junction and Shenandoah, New York, were also used in this study. The boundary of the stratified-drift aquifer described in a previous USGS report was extended slightly eastward and southward to include adjacent tributary valleys and the USEPA groundwater contamination site at Shenandoah, New York. The updated report consists of maps showing well locations, surficial geology, altitude of the water table, and saturated thickness of the aquifer. Geographic information system coverages of these four maps were created as part of the update process.