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Sample records for hydronephrosis mimicking progressive

  1. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  2. [Hydronephrosis in pregnancy. Ultrasonographic study].

    PubMed

    Croce, P; Signorelli, P; Chiapparini, I; Dedè, A

    1994-04-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common pathology during pregnancy and according to some authors affects between 80 and 90% of women in the third trimester. The right side is most frequently affected. Moreover, there appears to be no relation between parity and hydronephrosis or between previous infections of the urinary tract and hydronephrosis; however its presence, especially if severe, is associated with urinary infections with a frequency which is significantly greater than in patients with a urinary tract within normal limits. There are two pathogenetic hypotheses: one identifies the inhibitory effect of progesterone and prostaglandins on muscular tone and the peristalsis of smooth ureteral muscle, with consequent dilatation and anfractuosity of the excretory tract above the pelvic brim; the other is the mechanical hypothesis based on the possible compression of the ureter caused by the pregnant womb at the level of the pelvic brim at the intersection with the ilial and ovarian vessels. One hypothesis does not exclude the other, but on the contrary they complement each other and give added plausibility to a multifactorial pathogenesis. The study of hydronephrosis in pregnancy has made considerable progress since the introduction of echotomography in image diagnosis, a low-cost method which is easy to use and does not harm the product of conception. Echographs with 3.5 MHz probes were used to carry out a prospective study by examining the kidneys and excretory tract in 370 asymptomatic pregnant women during the first, second and third trimesters of gestation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Ovarian Lymphoma and Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, Luca; Angeloni, Moira; Gogna, Paolo; Intersimone, Donatella; Fedeli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ovarian lymphoma is a rare entity, and hydronephrosis from lymphoma is even rarer. Most reports describe a laparoscopic approach to the disease, but we report a case of hydroureteronephrosis associated with ovarian lymphoma managed completely by mini-invasive techniques. Case Report: A 51-year-old woman was referred to us for back pain and renal colic and computed tomography scan findings of right hydroureteronephrosis and a mass in the right mesorectum and uterosacral ligament. After magnetic resonance imaging was performed, the patient underwent laparoscopic adnexectomy and ureterolysis after ureteroscopy and stenting. Histology results showed diffuse B-cell lymphoma of the ovary occluding the ureter without infiltration. The patient has undergone 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Discussion: This is the first report to describe ovarian lymphoma and hydroureteronephrosis managed completely by laparoscopic surgery and endoscopy. Frequency in clinical practice, differential diagnosis, and endoscopic approach are discussed. The advantages of a multidisciplinary endoscopic team are underlined. PMID:24398216

  4. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma with hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Seiji; Fujii, Wataru; Takahashi, Tatsurou; Shiroshita, Koichi; Sakurai, Tetsuo; Ueda, Takahiro; Kawata, Tetsuya

    2002-06-01

    A 49-year-old man was admitted for the evaluation of a bilateral mass shadow in his chest X-ray film. No definitive diagnosis was established either by brushing cytology or biopsy through bronchoscopy. No malignancies were suggested by general work-up. Both masses were surgically removed, and were diagnosed as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG). Fifteen months later, low grade fever continued and the renal function decreased. Laboratory examinations revealed bilateral hydronephrosis with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. The findings of abdominal CT and urography were compatible with retroperitoneal fibrosis. Steroid treatment completely reversed the initial abnormality in laboratory data and the symptoms disappeared. PMID:12135180

  5. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  6. A new CSF1R mutation presenting with an extensive white matter lesion mimicking primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Toshio; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Fujita, Koji; Kawamura, Kazuyuki; Mitsui, Takao; Orlacchio, Antonio; Kamada, Masaki; Abe, Takashi; Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2013-11-15

    HDLS (Hereditary Diffuse Leukodystrophy with Spheroids) is a hereditary leukodystrophy whose main clinical manifestations include parkinsonism, spasticity, and ataxia. Genetic defects in the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene have been reported in many HDLS cases. The present report describes a new missense mutation Arg777Gln involving exon 18 of the CSF1R gene in a sporadic patient presenting with tumor-like lesions mimicking primary progressive multiple sclerosis. The patient was initially diagnosed with a progressive variant of multiple sclerosis and received inadequate treatments. Although most HDLS cases have a positive family history, this disease should also be suspected in sporadic patients showing unusual white matter lesions at MRI.

  7. Clinical relevance and implications of antenatal hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, J; Haworth, J; McGraw, M; Frank, J; Tizard, E

    1997-01-01

    Detailed antenatal sonography was performed on 18 766 pregnant women between 1990 and 1994. Antenatal hydronephrosis, defined as an antero-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (APPD) greater than 5 mm, was detected in 100 cases (0.59%). Sixty four infants had postnatal hydronephrosis at one and/or six weeks after delivery; 21 of these had urological anomalies.
  Twelve infants had vesico-ureteric reflux. In all refluxing units the APPD of the renal pelvis was less than 10 mm. Three patients had obstruction at the pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ); all required surgery. 
  Vesico-ureteric reflux is emerging as the most common urological finding in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis and is likely to be missed if kidneys with APPD of less than 10 mm are not further investigated. In contrast, pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction may be overdiagnosed, based only on drainage patterns of dynamic renogram studies.

 Keywords: antenatal hydronephrosis; urinary tract; antero-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis. PMID:9059183

  8. Ultrasonography of hydronephrosis in the newborn: a practical review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of fetal ultrasonography is accompanied by more frequent detection of antenatal hydronephrosis. Therefore, sonographic evaluation of neonates with a history of antenatal hydronephrosis is becoming more widespread. As an initial postnatal non-invasive imaging modality, ultrasonography is used to screen for persistence of hydronephrosis, determine the level and severity of obstruction, and contribute to appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This review aims to provide a practical overview of the sonographic evaluation of neonatal hydronephrosis and to describe the sonographic findings of conditions associated with hydronephrosis in the newborn. PMID:27156562

  9. Transitional neonatal hydronephrosis: fact or fantasy

    SciTech Connect

    Homsy, Y.L.; Williot, P.; Danais, S.

    1986-07-01

    Hydronephrosis secondary to an anomalous ureteropelvic junction was detected antenatally in more than 60 neonatal renal units Those 21 units that exhibited partial obstruction or dilatation without obstruction were selected for this study. They were assessed and followed by serial diuretic isotope renography (99mtechnetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid augmented with furosemide) and ultrasonography. Excretory urography was used selectively. Of the 17 renal units that could be assessed 88 per cent demonstrated labile ureteropelvic junctions. Indeed, in 3 to 6 months, when the definitive status seemed to be attained, 41 per cent (7 units) had deteriorated, 12 per cent (2 units) remained stable and 47 per cent (8 units) underwent spontaneous improvement. We recommend a 3 to 6-month observation period for patients with hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction anomalies when definite obstruction cannot be confirmed by isotope renography.

  10. [Erythrocytosis related with hydronephrosis in a horseshoe kidney].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ferrer Lozano, A; Navarro Antón, J A; Mola Arizo, M J; Polo i Peris, A C

    2005-04-01

    We report a case of a man with erythrocytosis secondary to hydronephrosis in a right horseshoe kidney. The patient had an advanced hydronephrosis because of ureteropelvic junction obstruction occupying the right hemiabdomen. Following nephrectomy of the right kidney erythrocyte count returned to normal values. Secondary polyglobulia may be due to increased erythropoietine values and has been related in some patients with renal diseases such as hydronephrosis, but very rarely in association with hydronephrotic horseshoe kidney.

  11. Management of acute hydronephrosis in pregnancy by ureteral stenting.

    PubMed

    Zwergel, T; Lindenmeir, T; Wullich, B

    1996-01-01

    Acute hydronephrosis during pregnancy that fails to respond to conservative treatment can be managed by ureteral stenting or in special cases by application of a percutaneous nephrostomy tube. We report the outcome in 116 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis. In 30 cases ureteric stents were passed under local anesthesia. In 2 cases (pyeloureteral stenosis, impacted ureteric stone) percutaneous nephrostomy was necessary. Overall each course of pregnancy and disease was individually decided. In case of persisting symptoms due to acute hydronephrosis, ureteral stenting was preferred, since it is a simple, safe and effective method of internal upper urinary tract drainage.

  12. Clinical factors associated with postoperative hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Woo; Ahn, Ji Hoon; Yim, Sang Un; Cho, Yang Hyun; Shin, Bo Sung; Chung, Ho Seok; Yu, Ho Song; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Jung, Seung Il; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the predictors of ipsilateral hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods From January 2010 to December 2014, a total of 204 patients with ureteral calculi who underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy were reviewed. Patients with lack of clinical data, presence of ureteral rupture, and who underwent simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) were excluded. Postoperative hydronephrosis was determined via computed tomographic scan or renal ultrasonography, at 6 months after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine clinical factors associated with ipsilateral hydronephrosis. Results A total of 137 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 58.8±14.2 years and the mean stone size was 10.0±4.6 mm. The stone-free rate was 85.4%. Overall, 44 of the 137 patients (32.1%) had postoperative hydronephrosis. Significant differences between the hydronephrosis and nonhydronephrosis groups were noted in terms of stone location, preoperative hydronephrosis, impacted stone, operation time, and ureteral stent duration (all, p<0.05). On multivariable analysis, increasing preoperative diameter of the hydronephrotic kidney (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.31; p=0.001) and impacted stone (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.15–7.61; p=0.031) independently predicted the occurrence of postoperative hydronpehrosis. Conclusions Large preoperative diameter of the hydronephrotic kidney and presence of impacted stones were associated with hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic stone removal. Therefore, patients with these predictive factors undergo more intensive imaging follow-up in order to prevent renal deterioration due to postoperative hydronephrosis. PMID:27617316

  13. Clinical factors associated with postoperative hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Woo; Ahn, Ji Hoon; Yim, Sang Un; Cho, Yang Hyun; Shin, Bo Sung; Chung, Ho Seok; Yu, Ho Song; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Jung, Seung Il; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the predictors of ipsilateral hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteral calculi. Materials and Methods From January 2010 to December 2014, a total of 204 patients with ureteral calculi who underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy were reviewed. Patients with lack of clinical data, presence of ureteral rupture, and who underwent simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) were excluded. Postoperative hydronephrosis was determined via computed tomographic scan or renal ultrasonography, at 6 months after ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine clinical factors associated with ipsilateral hydronephrosis. Results A total of 137 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the patients was 58.8±14.2 years and the mean stone size was 10.0±4.6 mm. The stone-free rate was 85.4%. Overall, 44 of the 137 patients (32.1%) had postoperative hydronephrosis. Significant differences between the hydronephrosis and nonhydronephrosis groups were noted in terms of stone location, preoperative hydronephrosis, impacted stone, operation time, and ureteral stent duration (all, p<0.05). On multivariable analysis, increasing preoperative diameter of the hydronephrotic kidney (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12–1.31; p=0.001) and impacted stone (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.15–7.61; p=0.031) independently predicted the occurrence of postoperative hydronpehrosis. Conclusions Large preoperative diameter of the hydronephrotic kidney and presence of impacted stones were associated with hydronephrosis after ureteroscopic stone removal. Therefore, patients with these predictive factors undergo more intensive imaging follow-up in order to prevent renal deterioration due to postoperative hydronephrosis.

  14. Nonobstructive hydronephrosis due to social polydipsia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Excessive fluid intake can lead to water intoxication, electrolyte abnormalities, exacerbation of heart failure and anatomical changes in the urinary tract that may present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for patients and physicians. Although the development of nonobstructive hydronephrosis is recognized in patients with central and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, pregnancy or psychiatric polydipsia, it is rarely a diagnostic consideration in healthy individuals with excessive fluid ingestion. We now present what we believe to be the first report of nonobstructive hydronephrosis associated with social polydipsia. Case presentation A 53-year-old African-American woman with moderate back pain was found to have bilateral moderate hydronephrosis and hydroureter by abdominal computed tomography. She underwent ureteral stent placement followed by exploratory laparoscopy with lysis of adhesions and a right oophorectomy, without resolution of the nonobstructive hydronephrosis. A careful assessment revealed a social habit of consuming approximately 5.5L of fluid daily in an effort to remain hydrated in accordance with public health service announcements. It was recommended that the patient reduce her fluid intake. A repeat ultrasound after six weeks revealed complete resolution of the bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Conclusion Recognition of the nonobstructive nature of hydronephrosis caused by polydipsia in healthy individuals is important to prevent unnecessary interventions. PMID:23130747

  15. Correlates of diuretic renography in experimental hydronephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kekomaeki, M.R.; Rikalainen, H.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Bertenyi, C.

    1989-02-01

    We studied the correlations between diuretic renographs and kidney function in experimental hydronephrosis in rabbits. Features of furosemide-stimulated /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid renographs were compared to the growth rate, thirst test and endogenous creatinine clearance rate in a chronic solitary-kidney animal model. Intravenous pyelograms, done four weeks after laparotomy, left nephrectomy, bladder resection and constriction of the right pyeloureteric junction, showed signs of obstruction in all the 12 animals of the experimental group. An absent tracer washout after intravenous furosemide, found in five animals, was associated with retarded growth, isosthenuria and an abnormal creatinine clearance. In all of the other seven animals, a distinct tracer washout after intravenous furosemide was accompanied with a normal growth rate and creatinine clearance. However, no one of these seven animals had a normal ability to retain water and concentrate urine in the thirst test. We conclude that, in this experimental model, a furosemide-induced tracer washout from the kidney pelvis cannot be taken as a proof of the absence of any upper urinary tract obstruction.

  16. Magnetic resonance evaluation of hydronephrosis in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Thickman, D.; Kundel, H.; Biery, D.

    1984-07-01

    The ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to detect and distinguish various stages of obstruction in the canine kidney was investigated. MR images were obtained at acute, subacute, and chronic stages of experimentally produced hydronephrosis. The renal cortex was distinguished from the renal medulla in the normal dog and in the acute and subacute stages of hydronephrosis. T1 relaxation times of the renal cortex and medulla were measured in vitro in 14 normal and nine experimental animals. These values were used to compute the amount of tissue contrast between the cortex and medulla and were compared with the degree of corticomedullary differentiation seen in the image. A relationship was noted between increasing T1 values and increasing water content. Corticomedullary contrast decreased with obstruction. The variation in corticomedullary image contracts may be useful for assessing the duration of hydronephrosis.

  17. [Hydronephrosis in pregnancy: importance of urologic actions and their volume].

    PubMed

    Micelyte, Stase; Glinskis, Gintaras; Cekauskas, Zenonas; Dasevicius, Voldemaras

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, the data from 216 women with a complicated hydronephrosis of pregnancy who were treated at the Urology Department of the Vilnius City University Hospital between 1992 and 2001 have been subjected by us to a retrospective analysis and to an evaluation of the need for an interventional treatment and of the volume of the latter in the light of the special literature of the last decade of the XX(th) century. Both urologic observation and urologic management are required in the pregnancy hydronephrosis complicated by strong flank pains due to an acute dilatation of the upper urinary tract or by urolithiasis or pyelonephritis. An ultrasonographic investigation is the diagnostic mean of choice. The conservative management (hydration, spasmoanalgetics and antibiotics) gave positive results in 57% of cases, the retrograde stenting of the ureters was carried out in 41% of cases and the percutaneous or open nephrostomy (performed in 3 and 1 patients, correspondingly) in 2% of cases. During the management of the patients with a complicated hydronephrosis of pregnancy, the interdiscipline training of urologists and obstetricians-gynecologists as well as their close collaboration are of decisive importance.

  18. A rare case of an appendiceal mass masquerading as a pelvic tumour and causing bilateral hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rashid, SN; Ab Hamid, S; Mohamad Saini, S; Muridan, R

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosing acute appendicitis in children can be difficult due to atypical presenting symptoms. While there are reported cases of acute appendicitis or appendiceal masses causing unilateral hydronephrosis, bilateral hydronephrosis as a complication of appendiceal mass is very rare. We report a case of a child who presented with cardinal symptomatology associated with the urogenital tract. Ultrasound (US) investigation showed a pelvic mass causing bilateral hydronephrosis. An initial diagnosis of a pelvic teratoma was made based on the US and computed tomography (CT) scan findings. The final diagnosis of an appendiceal mass causing bilateral hydronephrosis was established intraoperatively. PMID:22970067

  19. Presentation of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Type 3 Mimicking Wilson Disease: Molecular Genetic Diagnosis and Response to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dhanpat; Schilsky, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC3) is an autosomal recessive disorder of cholestasis of hepatocellular origin, typically seen in infancy or childhood caused by a defect in the ABCB4 located on chromosome 7. Here we report on an older patient, aged 15, who presented with biochemical testing that led to an initial consideration of a diagnosis of Wilson disease (WD) resulting in a delayed diagnosis of PFIC3. Diagnosis of PFIC3 was later confirmed by molecular studies that identified novel mutations in the ABCB4 gene. Cholestasis due to PFIC3 can cause elevated hepatic copper and increased urine copper excretion that overlap with current diagnostic criteria for WD. Molecular diagnostics are very useful for establishing the diagnosis of PFIC3. Ursodeoxycholic acid ameliorates cholestasis in PFIC3, and may help mediate a reduction in hepatic copper content in response to treatment. PMID:26473142

  20. Kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, a new mutation affecting the odd-skipped related 1 gene in the mouse, causes variable defects in kidney development and hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Davisson, Muriel T.; Cook, Susan A.; Akeson, Ellen C.; Liu, Don; Heffner, Caleb; Gudis, Polyxeni; Fairfield, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many genes, including odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1), are involved in regulation of mammalian kidney development. We describe here a new recessive mutation (kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, kavh) in the mouse that leads to downregulation of Osr1 transcript, causing several kidney defects: agenesis, hypoplasia, and hydronephrosis with variable age of onset. The mutation is closely associated with a reciprocal translocation, T(12;17)4Rk, whose Chromosome 12 breakpoint is upstream from Osr1. The kavh/kavh mutant provides a model to study kidney development and test therapies for hydronephrosis. PMID:25834070

  1. Kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, a new mutation affecting the odd-skipped related 1 gene in the mouse, causes variable defects in kidney development and hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Davisson, Muriel T; Cook, Susan A; Akeson, Ellen C; Liu, Don; Heffner, Caleb; Gudis, Polyxeni; Fairfield, Heather; Murray, Stephen A

    2015-06-15

    Many genes, including odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1), are involved in regulation of mammalian kidney development. We describe here a new recessive mutation (kidney adysplasia and variable hydronephrosis, kavh) in the mouse that leads to downregulation of Osr1 transcript, causing several kidney defects: agenesis, hypoplasia, and hydronephrosis with variable age of onset. The mutation is closely associated with a reciprocal translocation, T(12;17)4Rk, whose Chromosome 12 breakpoint is upstream from Osr1. The kavh/kavh mutant provides a model to study kidney development and test therapies for hydronephrosis.

  2. [Peculiarities of the connective tissue metabolism in patients with hydronephrosis].

    PubMed

    Savenkov, V I; Pavlov, S B

    2014-10-01

    The connective tissue metabolism was investigated in patients, suffering hydronephrosis, caused by obstruction of various etiology of pelvio-ureteric segment (PUS) and ureter, which has a recurrent course. On the 21th day postoperatively the blood indices enhancement was revealed, what characterizes the disorder of collagen synthesis and degradation, including, free (FOP), proteinbinded (PRBOP) and peptidebinded (PEBOP) oxyproline. The changes noted are more pronounced in patients with the inborn obstruction of PUS and recurrent course of the disease. A new marker--the PRBOP to FOP levels ratio--was proposed for prognostication of stricture recurrence.

  3. Use of percutaneous nephrostomy in hydronephrosis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Peer, A; Strauss, S; Witz, E; Manor, H; Eidelman, A

    1992-10-01

    Traditional methods of urinary diversion in pregnancy include retrograde passage of ureteral catheter or stents and operative nephrostomy. These techniques are, however, associated with the use of anesthesia, are technically difficult to perform, and may induce labor. We report the use of percutaneous nephrostomy in four pregnant patients, two with obstruction due to ureteral calculi and two with infected hydronephrosis. The procedure provided rapid relief from pain and pyosepsis, and allowed uneventful continuation of the pregnancy to full-term, with preservation of renal function.

  4. Unfriendly Filter: An Unusual Cause of Hydronephrosis and Hematuria.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Phin; Sherer, Benjamin A; Khare, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman was referred to the urology clinic for abdominal pain and hematuria. Urine analysis showed microscopic hematuria. Computed tomography urogram revealed a misplaced inferior vena cava (IVC) filter in the right gonadal vein causing right hydronephrosis. Retrograde pyelography revealed a 3-cm ureteral narrowing at the level of the IVC filter. A double-J ureteral stent was placed in the right ureter prior to exploratory laparotomy, which revealed partial erosion of the IVC filter into the right ureter and a thrombosed right ovary. The patient underwent a right oophorectomy and removal of the misplaced IVC filter. Her postoperative course was uncomplicated. PMID:26428699

  5. Bilateral renal dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter in a septic neonatal foal

    PubMed Central

    Gilday, Rebecca A.; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Tryon, Kimberly A.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    A Canadian warmblood foal treated for septic polyarthritis was diagnosed with bilateral congenital renal dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter at 2 weeks of age based on abdominal ultrasound and postmortem examination. Intermittent abdominal pain throughout the course of treatment was attributed to hydronephrosis and hydroureter. PMID:25750445

  6. Bilateral renal dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter in a septic neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Gilday, Rebecca A; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Tryon, Kimberly A; Lohmann, Katharina L

    2015-03-01

    A Canadian warmblood foal treated for septic polyarthritis was diagnosed with bilateral congenital renal dysplasia, hydronephrosis, and hydroureter at 2 weeks of age based on abdominal ultrasound and postmortem examination. Intermittent abdominal pain throughout the course of treatment was attributed to hydronephrosis and hydroureter.

  7. Hydronephrosis and utero-vaginal prolapse in postmenopausal women: management and treatment

    PubMed Central

    LEANZA, V.; CIOTTA, L.; VECCHIO, R.; ZANGHÌ, G.; MAIORANA, A.; LEANZA, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic organ prolapse is a multifactorial disease. Aim was to evaluate the effect of the whole surgical correction of pelvic floor on hydronephrosis due to severe prolapse. Patients and Methods A retrospective case study on 250 patients presenting with severe uterovaginal prolapse was carried out. Results Hydronephrosis was found in 32/234 (13.7 %). All patients underwent hysterectomy, vaginal apex axial suspension, posterior and anterior repair, vaginally. Prepubic TICT (Tension free Incontinence Cystocoele Treatment) was done in 38 cases (3 with hydronephrosis). Of the 32/234 (13.7 %) patients with hydronephrosis, 18/32 (56.25%) had complete resolution of hydronephrosis after treatment, 14/32 (43.75%) had a reduction of calico-pyelic dilatation, among them 8 patients had a second degree and 6 a first degree of hydronephrosis. Conclusions Vaginal-hysterectomy, axial apex suspension, anterior and posterior repair resulted in either complete resolution or improvement of hydronephrosis. Prepubic TICT did not interfere on mechanical obstruction and maintained postoperative continence in the event of occult Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). PMID:26888700

  8. BK virus-associated nephropathy with hydronephrosis in a patient with AIDS: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Woong; Sung, Ji Youn; Park, Se Jeong; Jeong, Kyung Hwan

    2016-03-01

    BK virus is ubiquitous worldwide, with infection usually occurring in early childhood. BK virus replicates prolifically under immunosuppressive conditions, causing inflammation along the genitourinary tract and progressing clinically to hemorrhagic cystitis, ureteral stenosis, and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Most BK virusassociated nephropathy occurs in renal allograft patients after kidney transplantation, although some case reports have described BK virus-associated nephropathy in the native kidney, particularly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here we present the case of a 49-year-old male with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and renal dysfunction with hydronephrosis. The renal biopsy showed tubulointerstitial nephritis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and intranuclear inclusions in the tubular epithelium, which are typical findings for BK virus-associated nephropathy. In addition, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the SV40 large T antigen exhibited a nuclear localization in tubular cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of BK virus-associated nephropathy combined with hydronephrosis that was diagnosed by biopsy in a patient with AIDS.

  9. Bilateral parapelvic cysts that mimic hydronephrosis in two imaging modalities: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Sobhani, Narges; Nezami, Nariman; Ghiasi, Faramarz

    2008-01-01

    Parapelvic cysts are uncommon conditions that are usually found during autopsy. Their ultrasonographic appearance is similar to hydronephrosis. We report the case of a 46-year-old female with a 4-year history of vague flank pain and a previous history of bilateral moderate hydronephrosis. The patient was investigated by ultrasonography and non-enhanced CT scan, and finally diagnosed as bilateral parapelvic cysts by a contrast-enhanced CT scan. For any patient with hydronephrosis detected by sonography, the possibility of parapelvic cysts should be kept in mind, especially if no underlying cause is detected and other routine imaging is inconsistent with hydronephrosis. In such circumstances a CT scan with contrast enhancement should not be refused, and relying on sonographic signs, previously mentioned in literatures, can be misleading. PMID:18801196

  10. Post-transplant lymphocele: an unusual cause of acute urinary retention mimicking urethral injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eu Chang; Kang, Taek Won; Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Jung Chul; Ma, Seong-Kwon; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2006-04-01

    Retroperitoneal pelvic lymphoceles are one of the most common complications following renal transplantation, and usually present with a palpable mass, ipsilateral leg edema, hydronephrosis caused by ureteral obstruction, decreased renal function and cutaneous lymphatic fistula. However, lymphocele rarely causes acute urinary retention. In this study, we describe a case of a patient who developed acute urinary retention after renal transplantation mimicking urethral injury. When a transplanted patient demonstrates the inability to void, one should consider bladder outlet obstruction resulting from lymphocele as a possible cause.

  11. Predominant role of cytosolic phospholipase A2α in dioxin-induced neonatal hydronephrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Wataru; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Fujisawa, Nozomi; Aida-Yasuoka, Keiko; Shimizu, Takao; Matsumura, Fumio; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2014-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a common disease characterized by dilation of the renal pelvis and calices, resulting in loss of kidney function in the most severe cases. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces nonobstructive hydronephrosis in mouse neonates through upregulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis pathway consisting of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) by a yet unknown mechanism. We here studied possible involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in this mechanism. To this end, we used a cPLA2α-null mouse model and found that cPLA2α has a significant role in the upregulation of the PGE2 synthesis pathway through a noncanonical pathway of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This study is the first to demonstrate the predominant role of cPLA2α in hydronephrosis. Elucidation of the pathway leading to the onset of hydronephrosis using the TCDD-exposed mouse model will deepen our understanding of the molecular basis of nonobstructive hydronephrosis in humans. PMID:24509627

  12. Fetal urinoma and prenatal hydronephrosis: how is renal function affected?

    PubMed Central

    Oktar, Tayfun; Salabaş, Emre; Kalelioğlu, İbrahim; Atar, Arda; Ander, Haluk; Ziylan, Orhan; Has, Recep; Yüksel, Atıl

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In our study, the functional prognosis of kidneys with prenatal urinomas were investigated. Material and methods: Between 2006 and 2010, fetal urinomas were detected in 19 fetuses using prenatal ultrasonography (US), and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 19 cases, the follow-up data were available for 10 fetuses. The gestational age at diagnosis, prognosis of urinomas, clinical course and renal functions were recorded. Postnatal renal functions were assessed with renal scintigraphy. Results: Unilateral urinomas and increased parenchyma echogenicity in the ipsilateral kidney were detected in all of the fetuses. Of the 10 fetuses with follow-up data, the option of termination was offered in 6 cases of anhydramnios, including 3 cases with signs of infravesical obstruction (a possible posterior urethral valve (PUV) and poor prognostic factors and 3 cases with unilateral hydronephrosis and increased echogenicity in the contralateral kidney. Only one family agreed the termination. The other 5 fetuses died during the early postnatal period. The average postnatal follow-up period in the 4 surviving fetuses was 22.5 months (8–38 months). One patient with a PUV underwent ablation surgery during the early postnatal period. In the postnatal period, none of the 4 kidneys that were ipsilateral to the urinoma were functional on scintigraphic evaluation. The urinomas disappeared in 3 cases. Nephrectomy was performed in one case due to recurrent urinary tract infections. Conclusion: In our study, no function was detected in the ipsilateral kidney of surviving patients with urinomas. Upper urinary tract dilatation accompanied by a urinoma is a poor prognostic factor for renal function. PMID:26328088

  13. Hydronephrosis in the mouse: the effects of the short-ear gene, sex and ureteral vascular system.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M E

    1976-09-01

    The short-ear gene in the mouse, se, affects a number of soft tissues; skeletal effects result in reduced body cavities. A high incidence of hydronephrosis in short-ear genotypes has been ascribed to pressure on the lower ureter resulting from crowding of organs in the body cavity. This study concerns the ureteral vascular system as observed in 861 autopsies of mice of varying age, of the three short-ear genotypes, drawn from ten stocks. Incidence and expression of hydronephrosis is greater in short-ear males than in females, and the ratio between the two varies from one stock to another. This study seeks an explanation. Short-ear genotypes have an abnormally high incidence of unusual ureteral veins, hydronephrosis being strongly associated with the more posterior ones. Ureteraonadal and iliac veins. The spermatic vein's more posterior position, compared with the ovarian, is strongly correlated with the sex difference in posterior ureteral venation and thus with the sex difference in incidence of hydronephrosis. Stocks are compared according to the amount of selection for fitness of short-ear genotypes; there is a reduced incidence of hydronephrosis with selection, accompanied by fewer posterior ureteral veins. Age also affects hydronephrosis; its expression increases slightly with age, and the male sese progeny of young mothers appear to be particularly prone to hydronephrosis. Three skeletal mutants segregate; of these fidget, fi, causes a type of hydronephrosis differing somewhat from that caused by se.

  14. Giant Congenital Hydronephrosis Obstructing the Gastro Intestinal System and the Contralateral Kidney in a New Born.

    PubMed

    Masarwa, Ismail; Bahouth, Zaher; Halachmi, Sarel

    2016-09-01

    A 5 day old baby, with known left hydronephrosis which discovered by prenatal US presented with gastrointestinal tract obstruction. Laboratory work up demonstrated abnormal renal function and metabolic acidosis combined with hyperkalemia. Radiology tests showed bilateral hydronephrosis with huge left renal pelvis crossing the midline and causing deviation of the gut laterally. This acute presentation beside inability to receive oral feeding made us prefer immediate left renal drainage with pyelostomy in order to restore renal function, relieve the pressure effect of the huge renal pelvis and stabilize the baby. Dismembered pyeloplasty was done at age of 3 months. PMID:27313982

  15. Obstructive urolithiasis, unilateral hydronephrosis, and probable nephrolithiasis in a 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Bryan J

    2008-03-01

    A 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding was presented for colic and dysuria. Obstructive urolithiasis and chronic renal disease were diagnosed via transurethral endoscopy and percutaneous ultrasonography. Nephroliths, hydronephrosis, and peri-ureteral fibrosis were present. Surgical intervention was declined and the gelding was managed medically with antibiotics and dietary modification.

  16. Renal dysfunction due to hydronephrosis by SAPHO syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kakoki, Katsura; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Enokizono, Mikako; Uetani, Masataka; Sakai, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome shows varied pathological symptoms. This is the first report of hydronephrosis due to the mechanical compression of bilateral ureters as a result of SAPHO syndrome. From our experience, MRI is the most useful imaging examination to check the upper urinary tract in SAPHO syndrome. PMID:26331013

  17. A peculiar complication of suprapubic catheterization: Recurrent ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Bamidele; Makovitch, Steven; Foo, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Context Suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) catheterization is a common and important technique for the management of vesicular drainage, especially in patients with neurogenic bladder. Some serious complications include bowel perforation and obstruction. Findings A 55-year-old man with C6 American Spinal Injury Association B tetraplegia and a urethral stricture requiring a chronic SPC was admitted for recurrent urosepsis. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed severe right hydronephrosis and hydroureter due to obstruction of the right distal ureter by the SPC tip. The SPC (30 French/10-mm silicone catheter with a 10-ml balloon) was removed and replaced with a similar suprapubic catheter (30 French/10-mm silicone catheter with an 8-ml balloon). Symptoms recurred 2 months later and he was readmitted for urosepsis. CT of the abdomen again revealed severe right hydronephrosis and hydroureter due to obstruction of the right distal ureter by the SPC tip. The SPC was removed, and the patient was given a 14 French/4.67-mm urethral silicone catheter with a 5-ml balloon. Follow-up CT of the abdomen 2 months later showed complete resolution of the hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Of note, urodynamic studies 2 years earlier revealed an extremely small bladder with a capacity less than 20 ml. Conclusion This case illustrates that obstruction of the ureter by the tip of an SPC can be a cause of recurrent hydronephrosis and urosepsis. PMID:23809534

  18. Limbic and nigral Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease pathology mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy in a 75-year-old man with preserved cardiac uptake of MIBG.

    PubMed

    Kasahata, Naoki; Uchihara, Toshiki; Orimo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Ayako; Makita, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year-old man developed l-dopa non-responsive parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, neck dorsiflexion, and dementia. Atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum on MRI and normal myocardial uptake of MIBG led to the clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsy revealed depigmentation of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus. Alzheimer's disease pathology was advanced with PSP-like neurofibrillary tangles distribution, and Lewy bodies were abundant in limbic lobe, while scarce in lower brainstem nuclei. Tuft-shaped astrocytes were not apparent. Although decreased myocardial uptake of MIBG is a rule in patients harboring Lewy bodies, its normal uptake may be related to their absence in lower brainstem nuclei. PMID:22886008

  19. Severe Hydronephrosis and Dysuria-Hematuria Syndrome after 20 Years of Bladder Exstrophy Correction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Bove, Alfredo Maria; Sergi, Federico; Zullo, Marzio Angelo; Buscarini, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a case of severe hydronephrosis and incontinence 20 years after bladder exstrophy repair, managed successfully by secondary ureteroneocystostomy and by transurethral submucosal injection of Macroplastique. PMID:23198264

  20. Giant hydronephrosis and secondary pyelonephritis induced by Salmonella dublin in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Taghipur Bazargani, T; Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Ashrafi, I; Abbassi, A M

    2015-01-01

    Hydronephrosis occurs as a congenital or an acquired condition following obstruction of the urinary tract. In this study, a four month old male Holstein calf with emaciation, growth retardation and a poor dry scruffy hair coat was examined because of remarkable distention of right abdomen. At necropsy, right kidney was hydronephrotic as a very big fluid-filled round pelvis with the presence of multilocular cysts bulged from the cortical surface. With sectioning, more than 10 L of bloody fluid poured out from this sac. Microscopic examination showed severe atrophy of cortical tissue and fibrosis of the medulla. Also, the dilated pelvis was composed of fibrinous exudate and necrosis of epithelium associated with multifocal aggregations of neutrophils and bacterial microcolonies. In a culture and serotyping of isolated bacteria, Salmonella dublin was determined. In conclusion, S. dublin induced pyelonephritis secondary to congenital giant hydronephrosis is the first report in cattle in the world.

  1. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Uzun, Oğuz; Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important.

  2. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Uzun, Oğuz; Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important. PMID:27594885

  3. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Tanrıverdi, Elif; Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Uzun, Oğuz; Gül, Şule; Çörtük, Mustafa; Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important. PMID:27594885

  4. Hydronephrosis Resulting from Bilateral Ureteral Stenosis: A Late Complication of Polyoma BK Virus Cystitis?

    PubMed Central

    Basara, N.; Rasche, F.-M.; Schwalenberg, T.; Wickenhauser, C.; Maier, M.; Ivovic, J.; Niederwieser, D.; Lindner, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission presenting a late-onset bilateral hydronephrosis probably due to polyoma BK virus-induced proliferation of bladder endothelium on both ostii. The diagnosis was made virologically by BK virus Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection in the absence of any other bladder disease. Awareness of this late complication is necessary not only in patients after renal transplantation but also in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched unrelated donor. PMID:20936157

  5. Renal Artery Embolization - A First Line Treatment Option For End-Stage Hydronephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Kakali; Prabhudesai, Vikramaditya; James, R. Lester; Jones, Robert W. A.; French, Michael E.; Cowling, Mark; West, David J.

    2004-09-15

    Conventionally poorly functioning hydronephrotic kidneys have been removed if they are symptomatic. In our unit, patients are offered renal artery embolization as an alternative treatment option. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients (11 male, 4 female) with a mean age of 32.9 yr (20-51 yrs) have undergone renal artery embolization for symptomatic hydronephrosis with poor function. Mean follow-up was 64.13 weeks (range 14-200). All patients had loin pain and hydronephrosis. Twelve patients had primary pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO). Two patients had poorly functioning hydronephrotic kidneys secondary to chronic calculous obstruction. One patient had chronic pain in an obstructed but reasonably functioning kidney following a previous pyeloplasty for PUJO which demanded intervention. Mean split function on renography was 11% (range 0-46%). Selective renal artery embolization was carried out under antibiotic cover using a 7 Fr balloon occlusion catheter and absolute alcohol, steel coils, and polyvinyl alcohol particles.Results: Nine patients developed post-embolization syndrome of self-limiting pain and pyrexia with no evidence of sepsis. One patient required readmission with this condition. One patient developed a hematoma at the puncture site. Mean hospital stay was 2.3 days. Fourteen patients are happy with the result and are completely pain free. One patient has minor discomfort but is delighted with the result. Nine patients have had follow-up ultrasound confirming resolution of the hydronephrosis. Conclusion: Renal artery embolization is an effective, safe, well-tolerated minimally invasive treatment option in end-stage hydronephrosis and we routinely offer it as an alternative to nephrectomy.

  6. Giant hydronephrosis: report of 4 cases with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chiang, P H; Chen, M T; Chou, Y H; Chiang, C P; Huang, C H; Chien, C H

    1990-09-01

    Giant hydronephrosis is uncommon. In 1939, Stirling defined it as the presence of more than 1,000 ml of fluid in the collecting system [1]. We herein report 4 cases of giant hydronephrosis containing 1,900 ml, 3,400 ml, 2,100 ml and 3,200 ml, respectively. Only 6 cases with a malignant tumor have been reported in the literature. Our second case with multiple foci of transitional cell carcinoma with squamous metaplasia is presented. This is the first report of this kind of pathological morphology with giant hydronephrosis. An erroneous diagnosis is often made in cases of giant hydronephrosis. For example, 3 of our 4 patients were first diagnosed as ovarian cyst, retroperitoneal hamartoma and hepatic cyst, respectively. We have found 523 cases reported in the literature. It is seen more often in males than in females (2.4:1) and more often on the left side than on the right side (1.8:1). The amount of fluid in the hydronephrotic sac is often between 1 and 2 liters. It is usually secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction, stones or congenital abnormality. Nephrectomy is often performed due to severe impairment of renal function. Acute renal failure and cardiopulmonary distress developed in our second case after the operation. The reason may be the sudden decompression of the huge hydronephrotic sac, which resulted in a change in the hemodynamic balance. Therefore, a two-stage procedure with slow decompression by percutaneous nephrostomy before the nephrectomy is preferred in the compromised patient.

  7. Therapeutic approaches and long-term follow-up for prenatal hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Aydogdu, Bahattin; Tireli, Gulay; Demirali, Oyhan; Guvenc, Unal; Besik, Cemile; Sander, Serdar; Kiyak, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study summarises the outcomes of 149 patients who underwent surgery for antenatally diagnosed unilateral hydronephrosis. Methods: The medical records of such patients over a 23-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Age at the time of operation, preoperative and postoperative mean pelvic diameter on ultrasound, split renal function, washout patterns on scintigraphy, and early and late complications were recorded. Results: The mean preoperative follow-up period was five months (range: 1–66 months). One patient was operated on after 12 months and two patients after five years of follow-up. Mean preoperative pelvic diameter and renal function were 30.8 mm and 38.6%, respectively; all patients had an obstructive wash-out pattern. In the postoperative period, the corresponding measurements were 11.7 mm and 39.2%, with 111 non-obstructive, 24 partially obstructive, and 14 obstructive wash-out patterns. Three patients with severe caliectasis and low renal function underwent surgery despite mild hydronephrosis. The mean postoperative follow-up period was six (range 4–11) years. Complications developed in 14 (9.3%) patients. Conclusion: Patients with antenatal hydronephrosis may need surgery even after a follow-up period of six years. Because of the potential late development of complications, postoperative follow-up should be continued for 10 years. PMID:27375711

  8. Critical role of cyclooxygenase-2 activation in pathogenesis of hydronephrosis caused by lactational exposure of mice to dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Noriko Matsumura, Fumio; Vogel, Christopher F.A.; Nishimura, Hisao; Yonemoto, Junzo; Yoshioka, Wataru; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2008-09-15

    Congenital hydronephrosis is a serious disease occurring among infants and children. Besides the intrinsic genetic factors, in utero exposure to a xenobiotic, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), has been suggested to induce hydronephrosis in rodents owing to anatomical obstruction in the ureter. Here, we report that hydronephrosis induced in mouse pups exposed lactationally to TCDD is not associated with anatomical obstruction, but with abnormal alterations in the subepithelial mesenchyma of the ureter. In the kidneys of these pups, the expressions of a battery of inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and interleukin (IL) -1{beta} were up-regulated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7. The amounts of cyclooxygenase (COX) -2 mRNA and protein as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) were conspicuously up-regulated in an arylhydrocarbon-receptor-dependent manner in the TCDD-induced hydronephrotic kidney, with a subsequent down-regulation of the gene expressions of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} transporters, NKCC2 and ROMK. Daily administration of a COX-2 selective inhibitor to newborns until PND 7 completely abrogated the TCDD-induced PGE{sub 2} synthesis and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and electrolyte transporters, and eventually prevented the onset of hydronephrosis. These findings suggest an essential role of COX-2 in mediating the TCDD action of inducing hydronephrosis through the functional impairment rather than the anatomical blockade of the ureter.

  9. Ultrasound based computer-aided-diagnosis of kidneys for pediatric hydronephrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Peters, Craig A.; Martin, Aaron D.; Myers, Emmarie; Safdar, Nabile; Linguraru, Marius G.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound is the mainstay of imaging for pediatric hydronephrosis, though its potential as diagnostic tool is limited by its subjective assessment, and lack of correlation with renal function. Therefore, all cases showing signs of hydronephrosis undergo further invasive studies, like diuretic renogram, in order to assess the actual renal function. Under the hypothesis that renal morphology is correlated with renal function, a new ultrasound based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for pediatric hydronephrosis is presented. From 2D ultrasound, a novel set of morphological features of the renal collecting systems and the parenchyma, is automatically extracted using image analysis techniques. From the original set of features, including size, geometric and curvature descriptors, a subset of ten features are selected as predictive variables, combining a feature selection technique and area under the curve filtering. Using the washout half time (T1/2) as indicative of renal obstruction, two groups are defined. Those cases whose T1/2 is above 30 minutes are considered to be severe, while the rest would be in the safety zone, where diuretic renography could be avoided. Two different classification techniques are evaluated (logistic regression, and support vector machines). Adjusting the probability decision thresholds to operate at the point of maximum sensitivity, i.e., preventing any severe case be misclassified, specificities of 53%, and 75% are achieved, for the logistic regression and the support vector machine classifier, respectively. The proposed CAD system allows to establish a link between non-invasive non-ionizing imaging techniques and renal function, limiting the need for invasive and ionizing diuretic renography.

  10. Prevesical Calcification and Hydronephrosis in a Girl Treated for Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Sarah; van der Horst, Eric H. J. R.; Verbeke, Jonathan I. M. L.; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2016-01-01

    The endoscopic STING procedure using Deflux is a common and minimal invasive treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. Herein we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with loin pain and de novo hydronephrosis and megaureter on the left. Ultrasound and plain abdominal X-ray demonstrated a calcification at the ureterovesical junction. She had been treated with Deflux injections 5 years before. The clinical quiz addresses the differential diagnosis, workup, and pathogenesis of calcifications at the ureterovesical junction following endoscopic reflux therapy. PMID:27408905

  11. Renal Papillary Necrosis Caused by Protein C Deficiency Leading to Recurrent Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Olorunnisomo, Vincent; Fowle, Evan James; Modica, Ippolito; Meisels, Ira; Gupta, Mantu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A patient with history of a solitary functioning kidney and protein C deficiency (PCD) presented with recurrent severe hydronephrosis causing acute kidney injury upon chronic kidney disease. Work-up with endoscopic evaluation revealed renal papillary necrosis (RPN) and sloughed renal papillae to be the true cause of the recurrent obstruction. Pathologic evaluation of the sloughed tissue confirmed the diagnosis of RPN. This is the first case reported in the literature illustrating the unique presentation of RPN in the setting of PCD. PMID:27579411

  12. Unilateral ureteric stone associated with gross hydronephrosis and kidney shrinkage: a cadaveric report

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Ern-Wei; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2014-01-01

    Ureteric stones are a common cause of obstruction of the urinary tract, usually presenting with characteristic signs and symptoms, such as acute ureteric colic and hematuria. Occasionally, stones may present with non-specific symptoms such as low back pain and remain unidentified, leading to stone growth, chronic ureteric obstruction and complications such as hydronephrosis and renal damage. Here, we report a large ureteric stone in a cadaver with complete obstruction at the left ureterovesical junction, resulting in severe dilatation of the left ureter and renal pelvis. PMID:25548725

  13. Prevesical Calcification and Hydronephrosis in a Girl Treated for Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Sarah; van der Horst, Eric H J R; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2016-01-01

    The endoscopic STING procedure using Deflux is a common and minimal invasive treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. Herein we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with loin pain and de novo hydronephrosis and megaureter on the left. Ultrasound and plain abdominal X-ray demonstrated a calcification at the ureterovesical junction. She had been treated with Deflux injections 5 years before. The clinical quiz addresses the differential diagnosis, workup, and pathogenesis of calcifications at the ureterovesical junction following endoscopic reflux therapy. PMID:27408905

  14. Antenatal mild hydronephrosis with subsequent polyp of the upper ureter in a child presenting with recurrent Dietl's crisis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Johal, Navroop; Evans, Kathryn; Mushtaq, Imran

    2014-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy who had antenatally diagnosed and postnatally confirmed asymptomatic right congenital hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction with the anteroposterior diameter ranging from 7 to 15 mm on serial ultrasound scans till the age of 6 years. He then presented with recurrent attacks of Dietl's crisis almost every month in the seventh year of his life and eluded diagnosis for over a year at various national hospitals, and ended up with an international referral to us. Investigations of the acute attacks clinched the diagnosis of ureteral polyp causing intermittent crisis and he underwent segmental resection and reconstruction in the form of dismembered Anderson-Hyne pyeloplasty with good recovery. Our case revealed that prenatally detected hydronephrosis may worsen after spontaneous postnatal improvement and a polyp acting as a flip valve may produce intermittent hydronephrosis and symptoms later in life. The child should undergo urgent investigations during acute symptoms. PMID:24832709

  15. Mimicking human texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon L.; Schouten, Theo E.

    2005-03-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was applied with three feature vectors, based on color/gray values, four texture features, and their combination. Second, 18 participants clustered the images using a newly developed card sorting program. The mutual agreement between the participants was 57% and 56% and between the algorithm and the participants it was 47% and 45%, for respectively color and gray-scale texture images. Third, in a benchmark, 30 participants judged the algorithms' clusters with gray-scale textures as more homogeneous then those with colored textures. However, a high interpersonal variability was present for both the color and the gray-scale clusters. So, despite the promising results, it is questionable whether average human texture classification can be mimicked (if it exists at all).

  16. Xanthomatous pleuritis mimicking mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Franklin R; Gourdin, Todd; Finley, James L; Downie, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent non-malignant exudative effusions remain a diagnostic and potentially management dilemma. Fluid characteristics frequently narrow the differential but fail to offer a definitive diagnosis. Medical thoracoscopy is well tolerated and allows direct visualization and biopsy of pleural processes under conscious sedation. Rarely, macroscopic appearance and even histology may be misleading. We present a case of xanthomatous pleuritis that mimicked early mesothelioma. Our patient was a 69-year-old female with a large left pleural effusion. Her medical history was significant for a recent small pericardial effusion without cardiac dysfunction. Thoracentesis revealed a non-malignant exudative effusion. Thoracoscopy demonstrated two foci of raised soft plaques with petechial hemorrhage and adhesions. Preliminary evaluation suggested chronic inflammation admixed with proliferating spindle cells and necrosis. The immunohistochemical phenotype of the spindle cells favored a spindle and epithelioid cell neoplasm, mesothelioma. Because of discord between pathologists, we repeated the thoracoscopy through the existing chest tube/thoracoscopy site. We acquired more tissue for special stains and outside review. Following extensive immunohistochemistry, the diagnosis of xanthomatous pleuritis was made. Our patient quickly recovered with steroid therapy and is without recurrence 18 months later. This case demonstrates the utility and nuances of medical thoracoscopy in a perplexing case of xanthomatous pleuritis. PMID:18223309

  17. [A CASE OF ASCENDING COLON CANCER RECURRENCE WITH INTRALUMINAL URETERAL DISSEMINATION MIMICKING PRIMARY URETERAL CANCER, DETECTED DURING INVESTIGATION FOR FEVER].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Kubota, Masashi; Kanno, Toru; Okada, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihito; Yamada, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    A 69-year-old woman visited our hospital with a chief complaint of fever. Five years ago, she was diagnosed as ascending colon cancer and received right hemi-colectomy. One year later, local recurrence with right hydronephrosis was detected, and she received chemotherapy -4 cycles of modified fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) plus bevacizumab, and 12 cycles of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab- for two years. Local recurrence and right hydronephrosis disappeared on positron emission tomography performed 4 years postoperatively. This time, abdominal computed tomography for investigation of fever showed a relapse of right hydronephrosis and pyonephrosis. Cystoscopy revealed non-papillary tumor from the right ureteral orifice. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple tumors in the right ureter, and the distal lesion projecting into the bladder. After the general condition became well by right nephrostomy for infection control, transurethral resection of bladder tumor was performed. Histological examination of the specimen revealed a metastatic tubular adenocarcinoma (colon origin). Although right nephrectomy was performed for pyonephrosis control, she died of local progression of ascending colon cancer 10 months after first visit. Intraluminal ureteral progression of carcinoma originating from organs other than urinary tract is very rare. To our knowledge, this is the 9th report in the English or Japanese literature. In this case we could not rule out primary ureteral cancer preoperatively, and histological examination revealed intraluminal ureteral dissemination of ascending colon cancer.

  18. Is There Hope for Renal Growth on Imaging Studies Following Ureteral Reimplant for Boys With Fetal Hydronephrosis and Urinary Reflux?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Reflux nephropathy is thought to be the etiology for renal maldevelopment. We present two boys with fetal hydronephrosis and sterile vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). There was lack of renal growth of the refluxing renal units on surveillance renal ultrasound. Parents elected to undergo open ureteral reimplants. Post-surgical ultrasounds demonstrated improved renal growth. PMID:26793522

  19. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting; Larsson, Erik; Wåhlin, Nils; Jensen, Boye L; G Persson, A Erik; Carlström, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies have suggested that increased sympathetic nerve activity and oxidative stress play important roles in hypertension and the modulation of salt sensitivity. The present study primarily aimed to examine the role of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. In addition, we aimed to investigate if NADPH oxidase (NOX) function could be affected by renal denervation. Partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) was created in 3-wk-old rats to induce hydronephrosis. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high-, and low-salt diets. The renal excretion pattern, NOX activity, and expression as well as components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were characterized after treatment with the normal salt diet. On the normal salt diet, rats in the PUUO group had elevated blood pressure compared with control rats (115 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and displayed increased urine production and lower urine osmolality. The blood pressure change in response to salt loading (salt sensitivity) was more pronounced in the PUUO group compared with the control group (15 ± 2 vs. 5 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Renal denervation in PUUO rats attenuated both hypertension (97 ± 3 mmHg) and salt sensitivity (5 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05) and normalized the renal excretion pattern, whereas the degree of renal fibrosis and inflammation was not changed. NOX activity and expression as well as renin and ANG II type 1A receptor expression were increased in the renal cortex from PUUO rats and normalized by denervation. Plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were elevated in PUUO rats and normalized after renal denervation. Finally, denervation in PUUO rats was also associated with reduced NOX expression, superoxide production, and fibrosis in the heart. In conclusion, renal denervation attenuates

  20. Management Trends in Prenatally-Detected Hydronephrosis: A National Survey of Pediatrician Practice Patterns and Antibiotic Use

    PubMed Central

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Copp, Hillary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormality found on prenatal ultrasound. The utility of prophylactic antibiotics in the postnatal management of this condition is controversial. No study has assessed practice patterns of general pediatricians in the management of prenatally-detected hydronephrosis. Methods An 18 question survey was sent to a random cross-sectional national sample of pediatricians from the American Medical Association Masterfile. Participants answered questions regarding practice location and type, practice experience, frequency of cases seen, familiarity with the literature, use of antibiotics, work-up of hydronephrosis, and specialist referral. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with prescribing antibiotics. Results 244 of 461 (53%) subjects responded. 56% routinely prescribe antibiotics for prenatally-detected hydronephrosis. 57% perform postnatal work-up themselves. Of these, 98% routinely order ultrasounds while ~40% routinely order voiding cystourethrograms. 94% have specialists readily available, but only 41% always refer to a specialist. On multivariate logistic regression, those who believe prophylactic antibiotics to be beneficial are significantly more likely to prescribe antibiotics compared with those who have not read the literature (OR 6.1, 95%CI 2–15). Those without specialist consultation readily available have an increased odds of starting prophylactic antibiotics compared with those who have consultation available (OR 7.2, 95%CI 1.3–39). Conclusion Most pediatricians initiate postnatal management of prenatally-detected hydronephrosis, therefore pediatricians truly are gatekeepers to children with this condition. Knowledge of practice patterns is crucial for the dissemination of evidence-based information to the appropriate providers and enables us to learn more about the utility of antibiotic prophylaxis in future studies. PMID:21696811

  1. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented With Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Urinary Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kewen; Xie, Yi; Li, Hanzhong

    2016-05-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a condition resulting from the kidney's impaired response to circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to polydipsia and polyuria. Urinary tract dilatation caused by NDI is a rare situation. Here, we report a case of congenital NDI presented with bilateral hydronephrosis.A 15-year-old boy complaining a history of intermittent fever was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. He voided 10 to 15 L of urine daily. Radiographic examination revealed severe dilatation of bilateral renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. Urinalysis shows hyposthenuria.He was diagnosed NDI since born. Transient insertion of a urethral catheter helped to relieve fever. Medical therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride was prescribed and effective.Dilatation of urinary tract caused by diabetes insipidus is rare, but may be present in severe condition. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to perform early treatment to avoid impairment of renal function. PMID:27258490

  2. Abdominal pain and hematuria: duodenal perforation from ingested foreign body causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Nina; Sisson, Kathleen; Albaran, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common reason for visits to the emergency room. If the FB is symptomatic or damaging to the patient, either endoscopic or surgical intervention should ensue. We present a case of abdominal pain and hematuria beginning ∼24 h after an incidental FB ingestion. Initial CT imaging defined a linear opacity perforating through the posterior duodenal wall abutting the ureter causing inflammation and hydronephrosis. After two unsuccessful endoscopic attempts at retrieval, we were able to identify the object with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy and surgically remove the FB. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. Posterior duodenal perforation by an FB may not manifest with obvious localized or systemic symptoms unless the perforation involves surrounding structures such as the aorta, vena cava or ureter. In such cases, surgical intervention is required for FB removal. PMID:26903557

  3. Abdominal pain and hematuria: duodenal perforation from ingested foreign body causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolbe, Nina; Sisson, Kathleen; Albaran, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common reason for visits to the emergency room. If the FB is symptomatic or damaging to the patient, either endoscopic or surgical intervention should ensue. We present a case of abdominal pain and hematuria beginning ∼24 h after an incidental FB ingestion. Initial CT imaging defined a linear opacity perforating through the posterior duodenal wall abutting the ureter causing inflammation and hydronephrosis. After two unsuccessful endoscopic attempts at retrieval, we were able to identify the object with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy and surgically remove the FB. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. Posterior duodenal perforation by an FB may not manifest with obvious localized or systemic symptoms unless the perforation involves surrounding structures such as the aorta, vena cava or ureter. In such cases, surgical intervention is required for FB removal. PMID:26903557

  4. Retroperitoneal multiple lymphangioma with differential cyst contents causing hydronephrosis and biliary dilatation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, S; Maruyama, T; Suetomi, T; Morishita, Y; Otsuka, M; Todoroki, T; Fukao, K

    2001-01-01

    We report a 40-year-old woman with retroperitoneal multiple cystic lymphangioma. Multiple cystic lesions were found on both sides of the aorta in the retroperitoneal and right pelvic spaces. These thin-walled cysts gradually increased in size leading to left hydronephrosis and dilatation of the common bile duct with cholecystitis, requiring resection. Analysis of cystic contents revealed differences between the cysts. The right cyst contained high concentrations of amylase, 3429 U/L, while the left cyst contained high concentrations of triglyceride, 470 mg/dL. No reports of patients with idiopathic retroperitoneal cystic lymphangioma have described differences in cystic contents. Differences in cystic contents according to tumor location strongly suggest that the cause of retroperitoneal lymphangioma is a developmental malformation in which lymphangiectasia follows the failure of developing lymphatic tissue to establish normal communication with the remainder of the lymphatic system.

  5. Semi-automatic assessment of pediatric hydronephrosis severity in 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Otero, Hansel; Yao, Peter; Biggs, Elijah; Mansoor, Awais; Ardon, Roberto; Jago, James; Peters, Craig A.; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-03-01

    Hydronephrosis is the most common abnormal finding in pediatric urology. Thanks to its non-ionizing nature, ultrasound (US) imaging is the preferred diagnostic modality for the evaluation of the kidney and the urinary track. However, due to the lack of correlation of US with renal function, further invasive and/or ionizing studies might be required (e.g., diuretic renograms). This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for the accurate and objective assessment of pediatric hydronephrosis based on morphological analysis of kidney from 3DUS scans. The integration of specific segmentation tools in the system, allows to delineate the relevant renal structures from 3DUS scans of the patients with minimal user interaction, and the automatic computation of 90 anatomical features. Using the washout half time (T1/2) as indicative of renal obstruction, an optimal subset of predictive features is selected to differentiate, with maximum sensitivity, those severe cases where further attention is required (e.g., in the form of diuretic renograms), from the noncritical ones. The performance of this new 3DUS-based CAD system is studied for two clinically relevant T1/2 thresholds, 20 and 30 min. Using a dataset of 20 hydronephrotic cases, pilot experiments show how the system outperforms previous 2D implementations by successfully identifying all the critical cases (100% of sensitivity), and detecting up to 100% (T1/2 = 20 min) and 67% (T1/2 = 30 min) of non-critical ones for T1/2 thresholds of 20 and 30 min, respectively.

  6. Dirofilariasis Mimicking an Acute Scrotum.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Mirko; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Prestipino, Marco; Giovenali, Paolo; Appignani, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    Human infections caused by Dirofilaria repens have been reported in many areas of the world. We describe a case of a 3-year-old child with an intrascrotal mass caused by D repens mimicking an acute scrotum. This represents the first case of scrotal dirofilariasis described in pediatric age with such an unusual presentation.

  7. Robot-assisted "Santosh-Post Graduate Institute tubularized flap pyelovesicostomy" in a solitary functioning kidney with giant hydronephrosis: A minimally invasive salvage procedure

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shivanshu; Kumar, Navneet

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a solitary functioning kidney with giant hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction in a young girl who underwent successful robot-assisted tubularized flap pyelovesicostomy. The aim of this report was to highlight the feasibility and efficacy of this technique in salvaging such renal moieties and to present a brief review of the surgical options available for the management of giant hydronephrosis. PMID:26981597

  8. Nephrectomy in an Asian small-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinereus) with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis secondary to ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Higbie, Christine T; Carpenter, James W; Armbrust, Laura J; Klocke, Emily; Almes, Kelli

    2014-09-01

    A 10-yr-old, captive, intact male Asian small-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinereus) with a history of bilateral nephrolithiasis was presented for acute-onset lethargy and inappetance of 5 days duration. On physical examination, the otter was about 8% dehydrated and a palpable fluid wave was present in the abdomen. An abdominal ultrasound revealed hydronephrosis of the left kidney and a hyperechoic structure present within the lumen of the left ureter, causing an obstruction. A urinalysis revealed struvite crystalluria, bacteriuria, and an elevated pH. Following 4 days of antibiotic therapy, a left ureteronephrectomy was performed. Upon opening the kidney to retrieve calculi, a large amount of purulent material was noted within the renal pelvis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first documented case of a nephrectomy in an Asian small-clawed otter. Nephrectomy should be considered as a viable option for treatment of ureteral obstruction, hydronephrosis, or severe pyelonephritis. PMID:25314845

  9. Mitochondrial and cytoskeletal alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of hydronephrosis in ICR/Mlac-hydro mice.

    PubMed

    Isarangkul, Duangnate; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Kengkoom, Kanchana; Reamtong, Onrapak; Ampawong, Sumate

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of congenital hydronephrosis in laboratory animals has been studied for many years, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism of this disease. In this study, we investigated a MS-based comparative proteomics approach to characterize the differently expressed proteins between kidney tissue samples of ICR/Mlac-hydro and wild-type mice. Interestingly, proteomic results exhibited several mitochondrial protein alterations especially the up-regulation of 60 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60), stress-70 protein (GRP75) dysfunction, and down-regulation of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC-1). The results demonstrated that mitochondrial alteration may lead to inadequate energy-supply to maintain normal water reabsorption from the renal tubule, causing hydronephrosis. Moreover, the alteration of cytoskeleton proteins in the renal tubule, in particular the up-regulation of tubulin beta-4B chain (Tb4B) and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein (Ndr-1) may also be related due to their fundamental roles in maintaining cell morphology and tissue stability. In addition, cytoskeletal alterations may consequence to the reduction of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cytoplasmic enzyme, which modulates the capacity of structural proteins. Our findings highlight a number of target proteins that may play a crucial role in congenital hydronephrosis and emphasize that the disorder of mitochondria and cytoskeleton proteins may be involved.

  10. Mitochondrial and cytoskeletal alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of hydronephrosis in ICR/Mlac-hydro mice

    PubMed Central

    Isarangkul, Duangnate; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Kengkoom, Kanchana; Reamtong, Onrapak; Ampawong, Sumate

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of congenital hydronephrosis in laboratory animals has been studied for many years, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism of this disease. In this study, we investigated a MS-based comparative proteomics approach to characterize the differently expressed proteins between kidney tissue samples of ICR/Mlac-hydro and wild-type mice. Interestingly, proteomic results exhibited several mitochondrial protein alterations especially the up-regulation of 60 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60), stress-70 protein (GRP75) dysfunction, and down-regulation of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC-1). The results demonstrated that mitochondrial alteration may lead to inadequate energy-supply to maintain normal water reabsorption from the renal tubule, causing hydronephrosis. Moreover, the alteration of cytoskeleton proteins in the renal tubule, in particular the up-regulation of tubulin beta-4B chain (Tb4B) and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein (Ndr-1) may also be related due to their fundamental roles in maintaining cell morphology and tissue stability. In addition, cytoskeletal alterations may consequence to the reduction of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cytoplasmic enzyme, which modulates the capacity of structural proteins. Our findings highlight a number of target proteins that may play a crucial role in congenital hydronephrosis and emphasize that the disorder of mitochondria and cytoskeleton proteins may be involved. PMID:26309577

  11. Mitochondrial and cytoskeletal alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of hydronephrosis in ICR/Mlac-hydro mice.

    PubMed

    Isarangkul, Duangnate; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Kengkoom, Kanchana; Reamtong, Onrapak; Ampawong, Sumate

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of congenital hydronephrosis in laboratory animals has been studied for many years, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism of this disease. In this study, we investigated a MS-based comparative proteomics approach to characterize the differently expressed proteins between kidney tissue samples of ICR/Mlac-hydro and wild-type mice. Interestingly, proteomic results exhibited several mitochondrial protein alterations especially the up-regulation of 60 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60), stress-70 protein (GRP75) dysfunction, and down-regulation of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC-1). The results demonstrated that mitochondrial alteration may lead to inadequate energy-supply to maintain normal water reabsorption from the renal tubule, causing hydronephrosis. Moreover, the alteration of cytoskeleton proteins in the renal tubule, in particular the up-regulation of tubulin beta-4B chain (Tb4B) and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein (Ndr-1) may also be related due to their fundamental roles in maintaining cell morphology and tissue stability. In addition, cytoskeletal alterations may consequence to the reduction of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cytoplasmic enzyme, which modulates the capacity of structural proteins. Our findings highlight a number of target proteins that may play a crucial role in congenital hydronephrosis and emphasize that the disorder of mitochondria and cytoskeleton proteins may be involved. PMID:26309577

  12. Berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse.

    PubMed

    Gruson, Lisa Moed; Chang, Mary Wu

    2002-11-01

    Berloque dermatitis is a type of photocontact dermatitis. It occurs after perfumed products containing bergamot (or a psoralen) are applied to the skin followed by exposure to sunlight. Striking linear patterns of hyperpigmentation are characteristic, corresponding to local application of the scented product. In the acute phase, erythema and even blistering can be seen. We report a case of berloque dermatitis in a 9-year-old girl that was initially reported as child abuse. To our knowledge, this is the first report of berloque dermatitis mimicking child abuse. Questioning to elicit a history of perfume application coupled with sunlight exposure should help to prevent this misdiagnosis in children.

  13. Granuloma inguinale mimicking as squamous cell carcinoma of penis.

    PubMed

    Pilani, Abhishek; Vora, Rita; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma inguinale (GI) is an acquired chronic, slowly progressive, mildly contagious disease of venereal origin, characterized by granulomatous ulceration of the genitalia and neighboring sites, with little or no tendency to spontaneous healing caused by Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium) granulomatis. A 55-year-old male presented with fissured, foul smelling, fungating growth over prepuce with phimosis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without lymphadenopathy. It started with painless papulonodular showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, infiltration in dermis, acanthosis and vacuolated macrophages suggestive of GI and not showing any histopathological features of SCC. Patient was successfully treated by giving cotrimoxazole twice a day for 21 days. Here, we presented a case of GI mimicking SCC of penis, which was diagnosed on basis of histopathology and treated with excision followed by medical therapy with cotrimoxazole. PMID:24958990

  14. Pancreatic pseudocyst arising from ectopic pancreas and isolated intestinal duplication in mesocolon caused hydronephrosis in a girl with horseshoe kidney.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Tohda, Akira; Shimada, Kenji; Kubota, Akio

    2005-07-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a relatively common congenital anomaly and is usually asymptomatic. Pancreatitis in the ectopic site and pseudocyst formation is extremely rare. To date, only 2 cases have been reported. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl with recurrent pancreatitis and unilateral hydronephrosis of the horseshoe kidney, which was produced by pancreatic pseudocyst arising from ectopic pancreas and isolated intestinal duplication in mesocolon. This is the first case of pancreatic pseudocyst that expanded to the retroperitoneal space and caused urinary tract obstruction.

  15. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to

  16. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  17. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair.

    PubMed

    Geim, A K; Dubonos, S V; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Zhukov, A A; Shapoval, S Yu

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force approximately 10(-7) N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of approximately 10 N x cm(-2): sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

  18. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair.

    PubMed

    Geim, A K; Dubonos, S V; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Zhukov, A A; Shapoval, S Yu

    2003-07-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force approximately 10(-7) N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of approximately 10 N x cm(-2): sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved. PMID:12776092

  19. Achalasia mimicking prepubertal anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Richterich, Andreas; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz

    2003-04-01

    A 9-year-old girl presents for continuing weight loss of 10 kg over the course of 1 year. Medical history showed three episodes of pneumonia requiring hospital admission in the 6 months before presentation and 4 months of weekly psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa. A thorough history of eating behavior and a review of systems revealed not only typical aspects of prepubertal anorexia nervosa but also vomiting at night while asleep, difficulty drinking liquids, epigastric pain, and a frequent experience of "a lump in the throat"; these symptoms were not suggestive of a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa but rather of esophageal achalasia. The patient was transferred to the Department of Pediatrics, and a diagnosis of esophageal achalasia was made by chest x-ray and barium swallow. After dilatation and botulinum toxin application, the patient regained weight easily and was discharged in stable condition. In this case, esophageal achalasia mimicked prepubertal anorexia nervosa.

  20. Femoroacetabular impingement mimicking avascular osteonecrosis on bone scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Juan Pablo; Domínguez, María Luz; Nogareda, Zulema; Gómez, María Asunción; Muñoz, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a structural abnormality of proximal femur and/or acetabulum. It has been recently described, and there are limited reports in nuclear medicine literature because bone scintigraphy is not listed in its diagnostic protocol, but it should be included on differential diagnosis when evaluating patients, with hip-related symptoms because it may be misinterpreted as degenerative changes or avascular necrosis, and its early treatment avoid progression to osteoarthritis. We describe the case of a male who suffered from hip pain. Bone planar scintigraphic appearance mimicked avascular necrosis, but single photon emission computed tomography (CT) imaging and CT examination confirmed the diagnosis of FAI. PMID:27095871

  1. Pyomyositis mimicking right iliac fossa mass: review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Iwuagwu, O. C.; Deans, G. T.

    2000-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of skeletal muscle. Its incidence in temperate countries though low is rising. Most cases from the temperate region involve immuno-compromised patients. The onset is usually insidious with progression to large purulent collections. Because of its low incidence in temperate countries, it is often initially misdiagnosed. A high index of suspicion with appropriate imaging techniques, aggressive surgical intervention and adjunctive antibiotic therapy are the keys to prompt resolution. A case of pyomyositis mimicking right iliac fossa (RIF) mass is described with a review of the literature. Images Figure 1 PMID:11041041

  2. Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety. PMID:25114385

  3. Charcot Arthropathy of the Lumbosacral Spine Mimicking a Vertebral Tumor after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Son, Soo-Bum; Kim, Eun-Sang; Eoh, Whan

    2013-01-01

    Charcot spinal arthropathy is a rare, progressive type of vertebral joint degeneration that occurs in the setting of any preexisting condition characterized by decreased afferent innervation to the extent that normal protective joint sensation in the vertebral column is impaired. The authors report on a case of Charcot arthropathy of the lower lumbar spine mimicking a spinal tumor following cervical cord injury. PMID:24527202

  4. Humanlike Robots - Synthetically Mimicking Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Nature inspired many inventions and the field of technology that is based on the mimicking or inspiration of nature is widely known as Biomimetics and it is increasingly leading to many new capabilities. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes including the copying of fins for swimming, and the inspiration of the insects and birds flight. More and more commercial implementations of biomimetics are appearing and behaving lifelike and applications are emerging that are important to our daily life. Making humanlike robots is the ultimate challenge to biomimetics and, for many years, it was considered science fiction, but such robots are becoming an engineering reality. Advances in producing such robot are allowing them to perform impressive functions and tasks. The development of such robots involves addressing many challenges and is raising concerns that are related to fear of their application implications and potential ethical issues. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and challenges will be reviewed.

  5. Fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayiz, Hulya; Mutluay, Neslihan; Koyuncu, Adem; Demirag, Funda; Dagli, Gulfidan; Berktas, Bahadir; Berkoglu, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare but benign disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of airways, great vessels, and other mediastinal structures. In this paper we presented a patient with fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma. The patient was a 32-year-old diabetic male admitting with cough and hemoptysis. There was a right hilar mass and multiple mediastinal conglomerated lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at the right hilar mass lesion and mediastinal lymph nodes. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed mucosal distortion of right upper lobe. Pathologic examination of the mucosal biopsy revealed inflammation. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle and cervical mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies were undiagnostic. Diagnostic thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis fibrosing mediastinitis. Administration of six months of systemic corticosteroid and antituberculous therapy was not beneficial. In conclusion, despite being a rare clinical entity, fibrosing mediastinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass lesions of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is exceptionally difficult in the presence of atypical radiological findings. The treatment is particularly challenging without any proven effective therapy. PMID:23372962

  6. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Knockout and Heterozygote Mice Are Protected from Hydronephrosis and Kidney Fibrosis after Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tveitarås, Maria K.; Skogstrand, Trude; Leh, Sabine; Helle, Frank; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Reed, Rolf K.; Hultström, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (Mmp2) is a collagenase known to be important in the development of renal fibrosis. In unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) the obstructed kidney (OK) develops fibrosis, while the contralateral (CL) does not. In this study we investigated the effect of UUO on gene expression, fibrosis and pelvic remodeling in the kidneys of Mmp2 deficient mice (Mmp2-/-), heterozygous animals (Mmp2+/-) and wild-type mice (Mmp2+/+). Sham operated animals served as controls (Cntrl). UUO was prepared under isoflurane anaesthesia, and the animals were sacrificed after one week. UUO caused hydronephrosis, dilation of renal tubules, loss of parenchymal thickness, and fibrosis. Damage was most severe in Mmp2+/+ mice, while both Mmp2-/- and Mmp2+/- groups showed considerably milder hydronephrosis, no tubular necrosis, and less tubular dilation. Picrosirius red quantification of fibrous collagen showed 1.63±0.25% positivity in OK and 0.29±0.11% in CL (p<0.05) of Mmp2+/+, Mmp2-/- OK and Mmp2-/- CL exhibited only 0.49±0.09% and 0.23±0.04% (p<0.05) positivity, respectively. Mmp2+/- OK and Mmp2+/- CL showed 0.43±0.09% and 0.22±0.06% (p<0.05) positivity, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 26 genes (out of 48 examined) were differentially expressed by ANOVA (p<0.05). 25 genes were upregulated in Mmp2+/+ OK compared to Mmp2+/+ CL: Adamts1, -2, Col1a1, -2, -3a1, -4a1, -5a1, -5a2, Dcn, Fbln1, -5, Fmod, Fn1, Itga2, Loxl1, Mgp, Mmp2, -3, Nid1, Pdgfb, Spp1, Tgfb1, Timp2, Trf, Vim. In Mmp2-/- and Mmp2+/- 18 and 12 genes were expressed differentially between OK and CL, respectively. Only Mmp2 was differentially regulated when comparing Mmp2-/- OK and Mmp2+/- OK. Under stress, it appears that Mmp2+/- OK responds with less Mmp2 upregulation than Mmp2+/+ OK, suggesting that there is a threshold level of Mmp2 necessary for damage and fibrosis to occur. In conclusion, reduced Mmp2 expression during UUO protects mice against hydronephrosis and renal fibrosis

  7. Severe Hydronephrosis and Perinephric Urinoma with Rupture of Renal Fornix Secondary to Postoperative Urinary Retention following Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Dakwar, Anthony; Wysock, James; Satterfield, James

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a known complication following a variety of procedures, with a reported incidence of 2.1-3.8% in general surgery and up to 52% in anorectal surgery. We report a case of POUR in a female resulting in severe unilateral hydronephrosis with a perinephric urinoma due to a ruptured fornix. The extent of hydroureter caused an axial rotation upon itself producing further outflow obstruction. This phenomenon of an anatomical ureter deformity secondary to urinary retention resulting in a ruptured fornix is an unusual occurrence. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrogram where a stiff guidewire was successfully passed into the bladder by interventional radiology (IR) and allowed for placement of an indwelling ureteral stent. The case presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed. PMID:27555977

  8. Severe Hydronephrosis and Perinephric Urinoma with Rupture of Renal Fornix Secondary to Postoperative Urinary Retention following Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wysock, James; Satterfield, James

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a known complication following a variety of procedures, with a reported incidence of 2.1–3.8% in general surgery and up to 52% in anorectal surgery. We report a case of POUR in a female resulting in severe unilateral hydronephrosis with a perinephric urinoma due to a ruptured fornix. The extent of hydroureter caused an axial rotation upon itself producing further outflow obstruction. This phenomenon of an anatomical ureter deformity secondary to urinary retention resulting in a ruptured fornix is an unusual occurrence. The patient underwent a percutaneous nephrogram where a stiff guidewire was successfully passed into the bladder by interventional radiology (IR) and allowed for placement of an indwelling ureteral stent. The case presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and therapeutic intervention are discussed. PMID:27555977

  9. Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Injuries Are Induced by Various Irrigation Pressures in Rabbit Models of Mild and Severe Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhixiu; Yu, Weimin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Fan; Rao, Ting; Yao, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaobin; Larré, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to study whether tolerance to irrigation pressure could be modified by evaluating the oxidative damage of obstructed kidneys based on rabbit models experiencing different degrees of hydronephrosis. Methods A total of 66 rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental groups and a control group. In the experimental groups, the rabbits underwent a surgical procedure inducing mild (group M, n=24) or severe (group S, n=24) hydronephrosis. In each experimental group, the rabbits were then randomly divided into 4 subgroups (M0-M3 and S0-S3) consisting of 6 rabbits each. Group 0 received no perfusion. Groups 1 through 3 were perfused with 20, 60 and 100 mmHg fluid, respectively. For the control group, after a sham operation was performed, the rabbits were divided into 4 subgroups and were perfused with fluid at 0, 20, 60 or 100 mmHg of pressure. Kidney injuries was evaluated by neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). Oxidative damage was assessed by analyzing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and peroxide (H2O2) levels, mitochondrial injuries was assessed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tubular cell apoptosis. Results In the experimental groups, all results were similar for groups 0 and 1. In group 2, abnormalities were observed in the S group only, and the kidneys of rabbits in group 3 suffered oxidative damage and mitochondrial injuries with increased NGAL, decreased Mn-SOD, GR and CAT,increased MDA and H2O2, lower levels of MMP, mitochondrial vacuolization and an increased apoptotic index. Conclusion In rabbits, severely obstructed kidneys were more susceptible to oxidative damage and mitochondrial injury than mildly obstructed kidneys when subjected to higher degrees of kidney perfusion pressure. PMID:26090815

  10. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  11. Rare Mimickers of Exostosis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Perubhotla, Lakshmi Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Exophytic growths from bones are a common entity. Osteochondroma is the most common benign exophytic lesion and we tend to diagnose every benign looking exophytic lesion as osteochondroma. Here we reported two entities of cases, one was Nora’s lesion and another one was supracondylar process of humerus, both of which were mimickers of osteochondroma and their salient and differentiating features from osteochondromas.

  12. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Basoglu, A; Findik, S; Celik, B; Yildiz, L

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma has rarely been reported and is a benign entity of unknown origin. The chest radiograph reveals multiple and frequently bilateral pulmonary nodules. We describe a patient with pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma who presented with a central mass in the left lung mimicking lung carcinoma. PMID:16755455

  13. [Two cystic retroperitoneal lesions mimicking adrenal cysts].

    PubMed

    Grabellus, F; Dereskewitz, C; Schmitz, K J; Kaiser, G M; Kühl, H; Kersting, C; Frilling, A; Metz, K A; Baba, H A

    2005-05-01

    Adrenal cysts are uncommon lesions and most of them are found incidentally during abdominal imaging. We report on two benign extraadrenal lesions mimicking adrenal tumors in abdominal imaging. The histopathological investigation of the lesions revealed a foregut duplication cyst of the lesser gastric curvature and an epithelial inclusion cyst (epidermoid cyst) in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen respectively.

  14. Generalized eruptive histiocytosis mimicking leprosy.

    PubMed

    Sharath Kumar, B C; Nandini, A S; Niveditha, S R; Gopal, M G

    2011-01-01

    Generalized eruptive histiocytosis (GEH) is a rare cutaneous histiocytosis that mainly affects adults and presents with multiple symmetric papules on face, trunk, and proximal extremities. GEH is included in type IIa (histiocytes involving cells of dermal dendrocyte lineage) of histiocytic disorders. Clinical and pathological correlations are required for differentiating GEH from other histiocytic disorders and from lepromatous leprosy which clinically mimic GEH and is prevalent in India. We report a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with generalized asymptomatic papules and nodules and was treated for leprosy but was finally diagnosed to have GEH after clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical correlation. Furthermore, the newer lesions also showed features of progressive nodular histiocytosis.

  15. Ewing sarcoma mimicking a peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, B D; Fox, B D; Viswanathan, A; Mitchell, A H; Powell, S Z; Cech, D A

    2010-10-01

    We describe the first patient with an extradural, extramedullary Ewing's sarcoma tumor mimicking a nerve sheath tumor with no overt evidence of metastasis. A 28-year-old woman with no past medical history presented with a progressive 3-year history of low back pain and right-sided lower extremity radiculopathy after having failed conservative therapies. MRI of the lumbar spine revealed a right-sided enhancing, dumbbell-shaped lesion at the right neural foramen appearing to originate from the L4 nerve root, suspicious for a peripheral nerve sheath tumor or schwannoma. The patient and findings are discussed in the context of the literature, including an update on the relatively recent diagnostic redesignation of the Ewing's sarcoma family tumors.

  16. Cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking right ventricular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Jun; Tatsumi, Tetsuya; Shimoo, Kazutoshi; Katsume, Asako; Mani, Hiroki; Kobara, Miyuki; Shirayama, Takeshi; Azuma, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Masao

    2003-02-01

    A 59-year-old woman with skin sarcoidosis was admitted to hospital for assessment of complete atrioventricular block. Cross-sectional echocardiography showed that the apical free wall of the right ventricle was thin and dyskinetic with dilation of the right ventricle. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging revealed a normal distribution. Both gallium-67 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy revealed no abnormal uptake in the myocardium. Right ventriculography showed chamber dilation and dyskinesis of the apical free wall, whereas left ventriculography showed normokinesis, mimicking right ventricular dysplasia. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed on examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen from the right ventricle. A permanent pacemaker was implanted to manage the complete atrioventricular block. After steroid treatment, electrocardiography showed first-degree atrioventricular block and echocardiography revealed an improvement in the right ventricular chamber dilation. Reports of cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking right ventricular dysplasia are extremely rare and as this case shows, right ventricular involvement may be one of its manifestations.

  17. Mad honey intoxication mimicking acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur

    2014-09-01

    Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.

  18. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K; Kuru, Burce C; Zemheri, Ebru I; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-07-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  19. Diffuse anaplastic leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis mimicking neurosarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Leep Hunderfund, Andrea N; Zabad, Rana K; Aksamit, Allen J; Morris, Jonathan M; Meyer, Fredric B; Thorell, William E; Parisi, Joseph E; Giannini, Caterina

    2013-06-01

    Diffuse leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis is a rare, frequently fatal CNS malignancy that most often affects children.(1) Although potentially treatable with chemotherapy and radiation, the radiologic findings are nonspecific and pathologic confirmation of the diagnosis is difficult. We describe an adult patient whose initial presentation mimicked neurosarcoidosis. Despite extensive imaging abnormalities, 3 biopsies were required before the diagnosis of diffuse leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis was confirmed. PMID:23914328

  20. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  1. [Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking pulmonary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Uçvet, Ahmet; Tözüm, Halil; Gürsoy, Soner; Gülle, Ali Alper; Yaldiz, Sadik; Aydoğdu Dinç, Zekiye

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is a rare fibrosing nodular disease of the lung characterized by solitary or multiple pulmonary nodules. They can occur after inflammatory or post-inflammatory changes. A 60 years old asymptomatic patient admitted to our clinic because of a solid mass of 6 cm in his routine chest radiography. A lobectomy was performed and the histological diagnosis was reported as pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma. This case, mimicking pulmonary carcinoma, is rarely found in the literature. PMID:16615022

  2. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically.

  3. Rare Mimickers of Exostosis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Perubhotla, Lakshmi Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Exophytic growths from bones are a common entity. Osteochondroma is the most common benign exophytic lesion and we tend to diagnose every benign looking exophytic lesion as osteochondroma. Here we reported two entities of cases, one was Nora’s lesion and another one was supracondylar process of humerus, both of which were mimickers of osteochondroma and their salient and differentiating features from osteochondromas. PMID:27630926

  4. Intestinal Intravascular Large B-cell Lymphoma Mimicking Ulcerative Colitis with Secondary Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kaneyuki, Daisuke; Komeno, Yukiko; Yoshimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Naoki; Iihara, Kuniko; Ryu, Tomiko

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis (UC) was admitted to our hospital for renal dysfunction and progressive anemia. Colonoscopy revealed intestinal lesions and pathological findings showed intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL). According to the polymerase chain reaction analysis of sequential rectal specimens, we concluded that she suffered from intestinal BCL, not UC. After chemotherapy, her renal function progressed to nephrotic syndrome. The pathological findings of renal biopsy specimens indicated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Chemotherapy was continued and led to the remission of BCL and MPGN. We herein describe the first case of intestinal IVLBCL mimicking UC with secondary MPGN. PMID:27580553

  5. Idiopathic Transverse Myelitis Mimicking an Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Andrew A.; Olszewski, Nathan P.; Lipinski, Lindsay J.; Qiu, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnoses for spinal cord lesions include spinal tumors and inflammatory processes. The distinction between these pathologies can be difficult if solely based on imaging. We report for the first time to our knowledge a case of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) mimicking a discrete cervical spinal lesion in a 66-year-old man who presented with gait instability and neck pain. The patient's symptoms failed to resolve after an initial course of steroid therapy. Surgical biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ITM. Subsequent treatment with dexamethasone resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms as well as the intramedullary enhancement. ITM is most common in the cervical and thoracic spine, spanning 3-4 spinal segments. It usually occupies more than 50% of the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord and tends to be central, uniform, and symmetric. It exhibits patchy and peripheral contrast enhancement. These criteria are useful guidelines that help distinguish ITM from neoplastic spinal lesions. A decision to perform biopsy must take into consideration the patient's clinical symptoms, the rate of progression of neurological deficits, and the imaging characteristics of the lesion. Surgical biopsy for questionable lesions should be reserved for patients with progressive neurological deficits refractory to empirical medical therapy. PMID:27672469

  6. Idiopathic Transverse Myelitis Mimicking an Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumor.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Olszewski, Nathan P; Lipinski, Lindsay J; Qiu, Jingxin; Fabiano, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnoses for spinal cord lesions include spinal tumors and inflammatory processes. The distinction between these pathologies can be difficult if solely based on imaging. We report for the first time to our knowledge a case of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) mimicking a discrete cervical spinal lesion in a 66-year-old man who presented with gait instability and neck pain. The patient's symptoms failed to resolve after an initial course of steroid therapy. Surgical biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ITM. Subsequent treatment with dexamethasone resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms as well as the intramedullary enhancement. ITM is most common in the cervical and thoracic spine, spanning 3-4 spinal segments. It usually occupies more than 50% of the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord and tends to be central, uniform, and symmetric. It exhibits patchy and peripheral contrast enhancement. These criteria are useful guidelines that help distinguish ITM from neoplastic spinal lesions. A decision to perform biopsy must take into consideration the patient's clinical symptoms, the rate of progression of neurological deficits, and the imaging characteristics of the lesion. Surgical biopsy for questionable lesions should be reserved for patients with progressive neurological deficits refractory to empirical medical therapy. PMID:27672469

  7. Idiopathic Transverse Myelitis Mimicking an Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Andrew A.; Olszewski, Nathan P.; Lipinski, Lindsay J.; Qiu, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnoses for spinal cord lesions include spinal tumors and inflammatory processes. The distinction between these pathologies can be difficult if solely based on imaging. We report for the first time to our knowledge a case of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) mimicking a discrete cervical spinal lesion in a 66-year-old man who presented with gait instability and neck pain. The patient's symptoms failed to resolve after an initial course of steroid therapy. Surgical biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of ITM. Subsequent treatment with dexamethasone resulted in complete resolution of the symptoms as well as the intramedullary enhancement. ITM is most common in the cervical and thoracic spine, spanning 3-4 spinal segments. It usually occupies more than 50% of the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord and tends to be central, uniform, and symmetric. It exhibits patchy and peripheral contrast enhancement. These criteria are useful guidelines that help distinguish ITM from neoplastic spinal lesions. A decision to perform biopsy must take into consideration the patient's clinical symptoms, the rate of progression of neurological deficits, and the imaging characteristics of the lesion. Surgical biopsy for questionable lesions should be reserved for patients with progressive neurological deficits refractory to empirical medical therapy.

  8. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease mimicking lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus. Diagnostic procedures for microbiologic diagnosis of NTM disease and clinical outcome were reviewed. Incidence of NTM pulmonary disease presenting as solitary nodule/mass (n = 8) or mass-like consolidation (n = 6) was 3.6% (14 of 388). Most lesions were detected incidentally during routine health check-up or evaluation of other disease (11 of 14, 79%). Lesions typically showed poor contrast-enhancement (9 of 12) and internal calcification (6 of 14). No lesions had CT features suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease. All 4 lesions for which PET/CT imaging was performed showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose uptake simulating malignant lesions (mean, 4.9; range, 3.6–7.8). PCNB revealed mycobacterial histology in 6 of 11 specimens and positive culture results were obtained for 7 of 7 specimens. NTM pulmonary disease may present as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. CT features and PCNB are important to diagnose NTM disease mimicking lung cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27367996

  9. Periocular dirofilariasis mimicking lacrimal sac mucocoele.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Marian; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Hussain, Rameez N; Anantharaman, Giridhar

    2013-10-01

    Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by filarial nematodes belonging to the genus dirofilariae. Dirofilaria is commonly seen in dogs, cats and other carnivorous animals world wide. Mosquitoes of the genus Culex, Anopheles and Aedes are the vectors and the humans are either incidental hosts or dead-end hosts. It affects lungs, liver and other visceral organs. Ocular involvement is rarely been reported. We present a case of 51-year-old female from Kerala, the southern State of India presented with a mass mimicking lacrimal sac mucocoele whose biopsy is proved to be dirofilariasis.

  10. Chondroblastoma of the acromion mimicking fibrous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Carsten; Hardes, Jendrik; Streitbürger, Arne; Vieth, Volker; Bürger, Horst; Winkelmann, Winfried; Gosheger, Georg

    2004-12-01

    The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with an expansive osteolytic lesion in the right acromion, mimicking cystic fibrous dysplasia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion with intermediate-signal intensity on T1-weighted images and a high-signal intensity on fat suppressed T2-weighted images. The biopsy led to the diagnosis of chondroblastoma. This tumour is rare in flat bones, and may mimic other benign or malignant lesions. It is therefore essential to perform a biopsy in order to obtain a definite diagnosis. The acromion was excised, and replaced with an iliac crest graft. PMID:15669467

  11. Primary cardiac lymphoma mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Kim, Won Seog; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare malignancy which has been described as thickened myocardium due to the infiltration of atypical lymphocytes and accompanying intracardiac masses. Here, we report a case of a primary cardiac lymphoma without demonstrable intracardiac masses, mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy. A 40-year-old male presented with exertional dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having restrictive cardiomyopathy with severely decreased LV systolic function. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma was confirmed. After appropriate chemotherapy, he recovered his systolic function fully. PMID:23248217

  12. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  13. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  14. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis. PMID:26602450

  15. Diagnosis of 65 cases of ampullary renal pelvis after postnatal follow-up of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEI; LIU, CHAO; LI, FUJIANG; LI, XIANG; SUN, CHAO; SUN, HAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the morbidity of ampullary renal pelvis (ARP) and document its natural history in post-natal life. A total of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, 65 patients were diagnosed with ARP by computed tomography urography (CTU) and/or magnetic resonance urography (MRU). All cases were followed up with ultrasonogrophy at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after birth, and one case was followed up for 5 years. Changes in the separation of the renal pelvis collection system were recorded. Children with ARP accounted for 5.57% of the total cases (65/1,167) followed-up. No lack of connection between the renal calyces and the renal pelvis was detected. The long-term follow-up revealed that the separation of the renal pelvis collection system did not tend to increase over time. In addition to imaging examinations, long-term follow-up observation is recommended for the accurate diagnosis of pediatric ARP, particularly for differentiation from hydronephrosis. PMID:25452792

  16. Diagnosis of 65 cases of ampullary renal pelvis after postnatal follow-up of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chao; Li, Fujiang; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chao; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the morbidity of ampullary renal pelvis (ARP) and document its natural history in post-natal life. A total of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, 65 patients were diagnosed with ARP by computed tomography urography (CTU) and/or magnetic resonance urography (MRU). All cases were followed up with ultrasonogrophy at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after birth, and one case was followed up for 5 years. Changes in the separation of the renal pelvis collection system were recorded. Children with ARP accounted for 5.57% of the total cases (65/1,167) followed-up. No lack of connection between the renal calyces and the renal pelvis was detected. The long-term follow-up revealed that the separation of the renal pelvis collection system did not tend to increase over time. In addition to imaging examinations, long-term follow-up observation is recommended for the accurate diagnosis of pediatric ARP, particularly for differentiation from hydronephrosis.

  17. Breast cancer cell behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices derived from tumor cells at various malignant stages

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Models mimicking ECM in tumor with different malignancy were prepared. •Cancer cell proliferation was suppressed on benign tumor ECM. •Benign tumor cell proliferation was suppressed on cancerous ECM. •Chemoresistance of cancer cell was enhanced on cancerous ECM. -- Abstract: Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been focused to understand tumor progression in addition to the genetic mutation of cancer cells. Here, we prepared “staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices” which mimic in vivo ECM in tumor tissue at each malignant stage to understand the roles of ECM in tumor progression. Breast tumor cells, MDA-MB-231 (invasive), MCF-7 (non-invasive), and MCF-10A (benign) cells, were cultured to form their own ECM beneath the cells and formed ECM was prepared as staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices by decellularization treatment. Cells showed weak attachment on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. The proliferations of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 was promoted on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells whereas MCF-10A cell proliferation was not promoted. MCF-10A cell proliferation was promoted on the matrices derived from MCF-10A cells. Chemoresistance of MDA-MB-231 cells against 5-fluorouracil increased on only matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results showed that the cells showed different behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices according to the malignancy of cell sources for ECM preparation. Therefore, staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices might be a useful in vitro ECM models to investigate the roles of ECM in tumor progression.

  18. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis mimicking prolactinoma with recurrent vision loss.

    PubMed

    Lok, Julie Y C; Yip, Nelson K F; Chong, Kelvin K L; Li, C L; Young, Alvin L

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare inflammatory condition with diffuse thickening of the dura mater, which may cause a compressive effect or vascular compromise. We report on a 28-year-old Chinese woman with a history of granulomatous mastitis 7 years previously and oligomenorrhoea, headache, blurred vision, and raised prolactin level 2 years previously, that was diagnosed as prolactinoma and treated conservatively with bromocriptine. However, she had recurrent bilateral vision loss when the bromocriptine was stopped. Her symptoms were resolved by high-dose steroid injection but remained steroid-dependent. Serial magnetic resonance imaging scan showed progressive diffuse thickening of the pachymeningitis with disappearance of pituitary apoplexy. Lumbar puncture showed lymphocytosis with no organisms. Open biopsy of the meninges was performed and histology showed features of inflammatory infiltrates and vasculitis. This is an unusual presentation of a rare condition in this age-group, with co-existing granulomatous mastitis and chronic otitis media, and is a diagnostic challenge mimicking pituitary macroadenoma and meningioma in initial magnetic resonance imaging scans.

  19. Cervical epidural arteriovenous fistula with radiculopathy mimicking cervical spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Kawabori, Masahito; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Asano, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

    2009-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with a rare case of cervical epidural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) manifesting as radiculopathy of the right upper extremity that mimicked cervical spondylosis. She had a 2-month history of gradually progressive right-hand motor weakness and sensory disturbance. The initial diagnosis was cervical disk herniation. However, computed tomography with contrast medium showed abnormal enhancement at the right C5-6 and C6-7 intervertebral foramina. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium disclosed an enhanced abnormal epidural mass at the dorsal surface of the dural tube between the C5 and C6 vertebrae. T(2)-weighted MR imaging showed a slight flow void on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the spinal cord between C3 and T4. Digital subtraction angiography disclosed cervical epidural and dural AVFs fed by the C5 and C6 radicular arteries. The diagnosis was concomitant epidural and dural AVFs. The dilated internal vertebral venous plexus attributable to epidural AVF was considered to be responsible for the radiculopathy. Transarterial embolization using n-butylcyanoacrylate achieved complete occlusion of the lesions. Her symptoms improved immediately and MR imaging and angiography performed 10 days postembolization showed reduction of both the epidural and dural AVFs.

  20. Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy.

  1. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  2. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst

    PubMed Central

    Rajalakshmi, R; Sreeja, C; Vijayalakshmi, D; Leelarani, V

    2013-01-01

    Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst (OOC) denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a 14-year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features. Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. PMID:24099763

  3. Case report. Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda.

    PubMed

    Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica; Aste, Natalia; Biggio, P

    2002-04-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a common dermatomycosis, occurring throughout the world, characterized by irregular, slightly scaly patches, varying in color from red/light brown to white. Pityriasis rotunda, on the other hand, is an uncommon disease, reported in specific ethnic groups, and characterized by perfectly round or oval patches of varying color, with a scaly surface. The histologic pattern is that of ichthyosis vulgaris. We report here the case of a male patient, aged 31, from Sardinia (Italy), affected by Pityriasis versicolor mimicking Pityriasis rotunda. Mycological examination allowed us to formulate the correct diagnosis, and ensuing treatment with antifungal drugs was entirely successful. The authors, while pointing out the rarity of this case, stress the possibility that Pityriasis versicolor mimics Pityriasis rotunda and vice-versa, especially in those countries in which the two diseases are endemic. More widespread recourse to microscopic examination can help avoid the risk of mistaken diagnosis and consequent incorrect treatment.

  4. A subtle mimicker in emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Angelis, Maria Vittoria De; Giacomo, Roberta Di; Muzio, Antonio Di; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Movement disorder emergencies include any movement disorder which develops over hours to days, in which failure to appropriately diagnose and manage can result in patient morbidity or mortality. Movement disorder emergencies include acute dystonia: sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements. Acute dystonia is a serious challenge for emergency room doctors and neurologists, because of the high probability of misdiagnosis, due to the presence of several mimickers including partial seizures, meningitis, localized tetanus, serum electrolyte level abnormalities, strychnine poisoning, angioedema, malingering, catatonia, and conversion. Methods: We describe 2 examples, accompanied by videos, of acute drug-induced oro-mandibular dystonia, both subsequent to occasional haloperidol intake. Results: Management and treatment of this movement disorder are often difficult: neuroleptics withdrawal, treatment with benzodiazepines, and anticholinergics are recommended. Conclusion: Alternative treatment options are also discussed. PMID:27741141

  5. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking pancreatic cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shin-E; Tsai, Yi-Fang; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Li, Fen-Yau; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun; Lui, Wing-Yiu

    2006-11-01

    Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst is detected extremely rarely and often masquerades as other diseases. Here, we report 2 cases of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking pancreatic mucinous tumor. Histologically, both cysts were composed of ciliated respiratory-like epithelium with abundant mucin content, smooth muscle bundles and mature cartilage, compatible with the diagnosis of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst. In addition to these 2 cases, another 42 retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts reported in the English literature were collected for review and analysis. Twelve (28%) were located over the peripancreatic area. Just over half (51%) of them were asymptomatic. No accurate preoperative diagnosis could be made for any of the lesions. About a third (33.3%) of the peripancreatic retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts masqueraded as pancreatic cystic lesions.

  6. The effect of circumcision on the frequency of urinary tract infection, growth and nutrition status in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Kose, Engin; Yavascan, Onder; Turan, Ozlem; Kangin, Murat; Bal, Alkan; Alparslan, Caner; Sirin Kose, Seda; Kuyum, Pinar; Aksu, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of circumcision on the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI), growth development, and the nutrition status in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis (AH). The data were collected prospectively between 1998 and 2010. Infants with a fetal pelvis diameter of >5 mm identified with antenatal ultrasound were followed-up. Body height and weight were expressed as HZ scores (observed height - median height/standard deviation) and WZ scores (observed weight - median weight/Standard deviation). The nutritional status was evaluated and the body weight was transformed to a weight-for-height index (WHI = weight/median weight for the height age × 100). The HZ and WZ scores or WHI were calculated for each patient at the first and last visits. The chi-square and Student's t tests were used for statistical analysis. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. The study included 178 (134 males, 44 females) patients. Of these, 29 were diagnosed by vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), 87 by obstructive uropathy, and 54 by normal. Of 134 males, 111 infants were circumcised. The mean monitoring time was 45±24.9 months and the mean age of circumcision was 14 ± 16.06 months. The pre-circumcision UTI frequency (2.97 ± 1.14/y) was significantly higher than post-circumcision period (0.25 ± 0.67/y) (p < 0.05). Also, pre-circumcision UTI frequency (2.97 ± 1.14/y) was significantly higher than the UTI frequency observed in female cases (0.85 ± 0.91/y) and in the overall study group (0.73 ± 0.79/y) (p < 0.05). In all patients, the HZ of the circumcised subjects (0.18 ± 1.01) was statistically higher than uncircumcised subjects (-0.26 ± 0.92) (p < 0.05). Although statistically insignificant, the HZ of the circumcised males (0.13 ± 1.24) with VUR was higher than the uncircumcised patients (0.03 ± 0.55) (p > 0.05). In obstructive uropathy groups, the HZ of the

  7. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tumor Mimicking a Thrombus in the Main Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Amuchastegui, Luis M.; Marani, Leandro P.; Caeiro, Andres

    1997-11-01

    Primary sarcomas of the pulmonary artery and right ventricle are rare, and their presentation is unusual in clinical practice; therefore, their diagnosis is often missed or delayed. The progression of the obstruction from the outflow tract of the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery resembles massive pulmonary embolism. We present a case of one of these tumors which mimicked transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), a massive pulmonary embolism. We conclude that TEE represents a noninvasive method of diagnosis and evaluation when the suspicion is massive pulmonary thromboembolism or a heart tumor.

  8. Onset of hydronephrosis and lower urinary tract symptoms in a previously healthy young man: Phyllodes tumour of the prostate as a potential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Matteo; Capitanio, Umberto; Rizzo, Nathalie; Freschi, Massimo; Montorsi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio

    2014-07-01

    We report the case of a 50-year-old healthy man with early onset of micturition symptoms associated with an elevated total prostate-specific antigen. On physical examination, we found an enlarged prostate; a first-line ultrasound of the urinary tract revealed local disease which covered the entire small pelvis. A computed tomography scan confirmed the presence of a 12.5 × 11.0 × 9.5-cm multicystic prostatic mass, compressing the bladder and pelvic ureters, associated with right hydronephrosis. Renal function was preserved and prostatic biopsies was negative for malignant disease. The mass was completely removed through transvesical approach and histological analysis diagnosed a low-grade phyllodes tumour of the prostate. The patient was free of local recurrence and metastasis 36 months after surgery. PMID:25210565

  9. SUMO-mimicking peptides inhibiting protein SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Villhauer, Eric B; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Schindelin, Hermann; Yin, Jun

    2014-12-15

    The ubiquitin-like protein SUMO is transferred through a core E1-E2 cascade composed of the SUMO-activating enzyme (SAE) and Ubc9 to modify cellular proteins and transmit important biological signals. SAE primarily recognizes the C-terminal tail of SUMO and catalyzes ATP condensation with the SUMO C-terminal carboxylate to activate its transfer through the cascade. Here, we used phage display to show that a broad profile of SUMO C-terminal sequences could be activated by SAE. Based on this, we developed heptamer peptides that could 1) form thioester conjugates with SAE, 2) be transferred from SAE to Ubc9, and 3) be further transferred to the SUMOylation target protein RanGAP1. As these peptides recapitulate the action of SUMO in protein modification, we refer to them as "SUMO-mimicking peptides". We found that, once the peptides were conjugated to SAE and Ubc9, they blocked full-length SUMO from entering the cascade. These peptides can thus function as mechanism-based inhibitors of the protein SUMOylation reaction.

  10. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  11. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    DOEpatents

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  12. [Perinephric liposarcoma mimicking cystic renal tumor].

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Akio; Oyama, Masafumi

    2002-03-01

    Liposarcoma is one of the most common primary retroperitoneal neoplasms, and the perinephric region is a frequent location for them. Liposarcomas show a variety of radiographic features in terms of histological types and tumor sizes, so the specific diagnosis of liposarcoma is often difficult. We present a unique case of perinephric dedifferentiated liposarcoma mimicking cystic renal tumor. A 71-year-old man presented himself at our hospital with a palpable mass in his upper right abdomen. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) revealed a well-defined cystic mass at the lower pole of the right kidney that contained heterogeneous solid components and small foci of fat. There were no signs of lymphadenopathy or tumor thrombus in the renal vein. Metastatic evaluation by chest x-ray and bone scan was negative. The probable diagnosis was cystic renal cell carcinoma or atypical angiomyolipoma. Because we could not exclude the possibility of cystic malignancy, a right radical nephrectomy was performed. Grossly, the tumor was predominantly encapsulated by a unilocular fibrous capsule and was filled with bloody fluid and debris. The anterior portion of the tumor was composed of various-sized soft and rubbery masses covered with necrotic tissue. The histological diagnosis was dedifferentiated liposarcoma arising in the perinephric retroperitoneum with extensive necrosis, and the cyst wall was composed of a necrotic tumor with a well differentiated liposarcoma and a fibrous capsule. Although the tumor widely covered the right kidney, there was no microscopic invasion of the kidney. No signs of tumor recurrence were noted six months after the operation.

  13. Mimicking cataract-induced visual dysfunction by means of protein denaturation in egg albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandracchia, B.; Finizio, A.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing and reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. All this can be very difficult to explain, so we built and tested an optical device to help doctors giving comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. This device allows visualizing how cataract impairs vision mimicking the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts. This can be a valuable optical tool for medical education as well as to provide a method to illustrate the patients how cataract progression process will affect their vision.

  14. Gemcitabine-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome mimicking scleroderma renal crisis presenting with Raynaud's phenomenon, positive antinuclear antibodies and hypertensive emergency.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Keisuke; Nobata, Hironobu; Kawai, Hirohisa; Wakamatsu, Ryo; Miura, Naoto; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman who received gemcitabine for advanced gallbladder cancer developed an impaired renal function, thrombocytopenia, Raynaud's phenomenon, digital ischemic changes, a high antinuclear antibody titer and hypertensive emergency that mimicked a scleroderma renal crisis. A kidney biopsy specimen demonstrated onion-skin lesions in the arterioles and small arteries along with ischemic changes in the glomeruli, compatible with a diagnosis of hypertensive emergency (malignant hypertension). The intravenous administration of a calcium channel blocker, the oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker and the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were effective for treating the thrombocytopenia and progressive kidney dysfunction. Gemcitabine induces hemolytic uremic syndrome with accelerated hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon, mimicking scleroderma renal crisis.

  15. Ocular surface foreign bodies: novel findings mimicking ocular malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Maudgil, A; Wagner, B E; Rundle, P; Rennie, I G; Mudhar, H S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Malignant melanoma of the eye is an uncommon condition that is important to recognise. We describe three cases in which ocular foreign bodies have masqueraded as ocular malignant melanoma. Methods Interventional case reports. Results Case 1 describes diathermy-induced carbon particle implantation, during plaque therapy for the treatment of uveal melanoma, mimicking recurrence with extra-scleral invasion. Case 2 shows a foreign body called ‘mullite' mimicking conjunctival melanoma. Case 3 demonstrates a conjunctival foreign body called ‘illite' that mimicked a limbal melanocytic lesion, clinically thought to be either melanocytoma or melanoma. Conclusion This report highlights the importance of careful history taking, examination, and appropriate biopsy in cases of suspected malignant melanoma, to prevent unnecessary and potentially radical treatment. PMID:25104745

  16. [Copper deficiency anemia morphologically mimicking myelodysplastic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Taku; Mori, Takehiko; Shimizu, Takayuki; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Mitsuhasi, Takayuki; Murata, Mitsuru; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2014-03-01

    A 64-year-old man underwent kidney transplantation for progressive chronic renal failure which had developed 8 years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. Because of post-operative complications, he had been placed on intravenous hyperalimentation. Three months after the transplantation, anemia rapidly progressed (hemoglobin, 7.9 g/dl). The proportion of reticulocytes was 0.2%, but white blood cell and platelet counts remained within normal ranges. Serum iron, vitamin B12, and folate levels were normal. Bone marrow examination showed the presence of ringed sideroblasts and cytoplasmic vacuoles in a fraction of erythroid cells. Megakaryocytes were adequate in number with normal morphology. Although the findings were consistent with refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts according to the WHO classification, cytoplasmic vacuolations were also observed in myeloid cells, suggesting copper deficiency. Indeed, serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were found to be low (33 μg/dl and 11 mg/dl, respectively), and oral copper supplementation at a daily dose of 1 mg was initiated. There was a prompt increase in reticulocytes, and the hemoglobin level was normalized within one month, in response to this regimen. In progressive anemia cases with ringed sideroblasts in the bone marrow, copper deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  17. Annular lupus vulgaris mimicking tinea cruris.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun; Oh, Chil Hwan

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress.

  18. Acute Toxic Neuropathy Mimicking Guillain Barre Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Muhammed Jasim Abdul; Fernandez, Shirley Joan; Menon, Murali Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Case: A 30 year old male presented with numbness of palms and soles followed by weakness of upper limbs and lower limbs of 5 days duration, which was ascending and progressive. Three months back he was treated for oral and genital ulcers with oral steroids. His ulcers improved and shifted to indigenous medication. His clinical examination showed polyneuropathy. CSF study did not show albuminocytological dissociation. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating polyneuropathy. His blood samples and the ayurvedic drug samples were sent for toxicological analysis. Inference: Acute toxic neuropathy - Arsenic PMID:25811007

  19. Rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Ümit; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Eren, Eryiğit; Demiralay, Ebru; Işıklar, İclal; Demirağ, Alp; Moray, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Although diverticular disease of the colon is common, the occurrence of rectal diverticula is extremely rare with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are seen even less frequently, and surgical intervention is needed for only complicated cases. Here we report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction.

  20. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking cutaneous lymphoma in a hyperthyroid cat.

    PubMed

    Snead, Elisabeth; Kerr, Moira; Macdonald, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented for chronic, localized, swelling and crusting of the left upper lip, weight loss, sporadic vomiting, and focal alopecia between the scapulae was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and regional eosinophilic lymphadenitis. Treatment with methimazole exacerbated an underlying hypersensitivity disorder leading to marked generalized lymphadenopathy that histologically mimicked lymphoma.

  1. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia mimicking cutaneous lymphoma in a hyperthyroid cat

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Elisabeth; Kerr, Moira; MacDonald, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented for chronic, localized, swelling and crusting of the left upper lip, weight loss, sporadic vomiting, and focal alopecia between the scapulae was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and regional eosinophilic lymphadenitis. Treatment with methimazole exacerbated an underlying hypersensitivity disorder leading to marked generalized lymphadenopathy that histologically mimicked lymphoma. PMID:24155419

  2. Headache attributed to unruptured saccular aneurysm, mimicking hemicrania continua.

    PubMed

    Vikelis, Michail; Xifaras, Michail; Magoufis, Georgios; Gekas, Georgios; Mitsikostas, Dimos Dimitrios

    2005-06-01

    Unruptured cerebral arterial aneurysms most often remain asymptomatic, but they may cause headache or other symptoms or signs. We describe herewith a case of headache attributed to an unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm, clearly mimicking the phenotype of hemicrania continua. Potential pathophysiological explanations and recommendations for recognition of similar cases are discussed.

  3. Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Netanel; Ben-Itzhak, Ofer; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    In a patient with systemic multiorgan disease with overlapping features, the differential diagnosis included infectious diseases, malignancies, and systemic autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. We present an unusual case of a young male with B cell lymphoma who presented with symptoms mimicking systemic vasculitis and review the existing literature. PMID:27293945

  4. Bronchial Aneurysms Mimicking Aortic Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul

    1999-05-15

    Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.

  5. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking hydatid liver: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parray, Fazl Q; Sherwani, Afak Yusuf; Dangroo, Sajad Ahmad; Bisati, Rafia Aziz; Malik, Nighat Shaffi

    2012-01-01

    Bronchogenic cysts frequently occur in the mediastinum. They may be rarely encountered in the abdomen and retroperitoneum. Bronchogenic cysts can in fact mimic hydatid cysts. We report a case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst below the right hemidiaphragm mimicking a hydatid cyst of the liver in a 30-year-old female.

  6. Neurosarcoidosis mimicking a malignant optic glioma.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Jeffrey M; Greiner, Francis G; Crowder, Jason B; Crowder, Jessica W; Quindlen, Eugene

    2008-09-01

    A 55-year-old African-American man developed progressive unilateral optic neuropathy and periocular pain. MRI showed thickening and enhancement of the mid-orbital segment of the ipsilateral optic nerve. Optic neuritis was diagnosed, and he was treated with corticosteroids without improvement. After being lost to follow-up, he returned with worsening vision in the affected eye, aggravated pain, and proptosis. MRI now showed thickening and enhancement of the entire orbital and intracranial segments of the optic nerve. Because the patient had no light perception vision in that eye and a malignant glioma was suspected, he underwent optic nerve biopsy that revealed non-caseating granulomas throughout the optic nerve tissue. CT body imaging failed to disclose other evidence of sarcoidosis. Neurosarcoidosis limited to the optic nerve is rare but should always be suspected in such circumstances. An exhaustive effort to find extracranial evidence for this diagnosis should be undertaken before resorting to optic nerve biopsy.

  7. Incidental Detection of Hairy Cell Leukaemia with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Related Lip Ulcer Mimicking Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pallavi; Bhartiya, Richa; Singh, Ran Vijoy Narayan

    2016-08-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a chronic lympho-proliferative disease. It is indolent but progressive in nature. It arises from B-cell lineage. We report an incidentally detected case of Hairy Cell Leukaemia (HCL) in a 55-year-old male patient with Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - related lip ulcer mimicking squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically the patient presented with lip ulceration without pain. He was found to have moderate hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia on general examination. Bone marrow aspiration and flow cytometric immunophenotyping revealed HCL. The oral lesion resolved after antiviral therapy. The intriguing possibility of a combined pathogenesis for the two disorders is considered, as HCL is known to be associated with immunosuppression, second malignancies and the production of cytokines promoting epithelial growth. PMID:27656454

  8. Angiotensin receptor-1A knockout leads to hydronephrosis not associated with a loss of pyeloureteric peristalsis in the mouse renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michael J; Hashitani, Hikaru; Lang, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    The action of angiotensin II (AngII) on the Ca(2+) signals driving pyeloureteric peristalsis was investigated using both conventional and angiotensin receptor (ATr) ATr1A and ATr2 knockout ((-/-)) mice. Contractility in the renal pelvis of adult ATr1A(-/-) and ATr2(-/-) mice was compared to their respective wildtype (ATr1A(+/+) and ATr2(+/+)) controls of the same genetic background (FVB/N and C57Bl/6 respectively) using video microscopy. The effects of AngII on the Ca(2+) signals in typical and atypical smooth muscle cells (TSMCs and ASMCs, respectively) within the pelvic wall of conventional mice were recorded using Fluo-4 Ca(2+) imaging. Compared to ATr1A(+/+) , ATr2(+/+) and ATr2(-/-) mice, kidneys of the ATr1A(-/-) mouse were mildly-to-severely hydronephrotic, associated with an enlarged calyx, an atrophic papilla and a hypoplastic renal pelvis. Contraction frequencies in the renal pelvis of moderately hydronephrotic ATr1A(-/-) and unaffected ATr2(-/-) mice were not significantly different from their ATr1A(+/+), ATr2(+/+) controls. No contractions were observed in severely-hydronephrotic ATr1A(-/-) kidneys. AngII increased the spontaneous contraction frequency of the renal pelvis in ATr1A(+/+), ATr2(+/+) and ATr2(-/-) mice, but had little effect on the contractions in the mildly-hydronephrotic ATr1A(-/-) renal pelvis. The ATr1 blocker, candesartan prevented the positive chronotropic effects of AngII. AngII increased the frequency and synchronicity of Ca(2+) transients in both TSMCs and ASMCs. It was concluded that the hydronephrosis observed in ATr1A(-/-) mouse kidneys does not arise from a failure in the development of the essential pacemaker and contractile machinery driving pyeloureteric peristalsis. PMID:26876143

  9. Potential barrier mimicking frequent location measurements in quantum Zeno dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, Miguel A.; Gonzalo, Isabel; Luis, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    We show that quantum Zeno dynamics can be mimicked by the isolated evolution of an unobserved system in an effective potential. Monitoring frequently whether a particle remains in a region of space leads to the same wave-packet dynamics as placing the region on top of a potential barrier and letting the particle evolve on its own, without external couplings. We focus on very frequent but not continuous observation so that the particle abandons the initial region with some finite probability. The height of the barrier relative to the surroundings for a high frequency ν of the observations being mimicked is found numerically to be h ν /2 , where h is Planck's constant.

  10. Rational Design of Pathogen-Mimicking Amphiphilic Materials as Nanoadjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulery, Bret D.; Petersen, Latrisha K.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Kong, Chang Sun; Broderick, Scott R.; Kumar, Devender; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Rajan, Krishna; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Bellaire, Bryan H.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2011-12-01

    An opportunity exists today for cross-cutting research utilizing advances in materials science, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and computational analysis to effectively design the next generation of adjuvants and vaccines. This study integrates these advances into a bottom-up approach for the molecular design of nanoadjuvants capable of mimicking the immune response induced by a natural infection but without the toxic side effects. Biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydrides possess the unique ability to mimic pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns with respect to persisting within and activating immune cells, respectively. The molecular properties responsible for the pathogen-mimicking abilities of these materials have been identified. The value of using polyanhydride nanovaccines was demonstrated by the induction of long-lived protection against a lethal challenge of Yersinia pestis following a single administration ten months earlier. This approach has the tantalizing potential to catalyze the development of next generation vaccines against diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  11. Xanthogranulomatous Endometritis: An Unusual Pathological Entity Mimicking Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, M; Gill, MK; Singh, DP

    2013-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous endometritis is an unusual pathological entity mimicking endometrial carcinoma. This shows sheets of foamy histiocytes alongwith other inflammatory cells. We, hereby, report a case of 45 year multigravida female with irregular menstrual history, clinically diagnosed as carcinoma and histopathologically turned out as xanthogranulomatous endometritis. So, this condition should always be dealt with caution, and pathologists and clinicians should be aware of it. PMID:24349850

  12. Pineal toxoplasmosis mimicking pineal tumor in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Poon, T P; Behbahani, M; Matoso, I; Kim, B

    1994-07-01

    A pineal mass in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a nodular mass in the pineal region with foci of calcification and obstruction of the aqueduct mimicking a pineal tumor. At autopsy, the brain revealed a well-circumscribed lesion with central necrosis in the pineal region suggestive of toxoplasma and involving the periaqueductal area. Susceptibility of a patient with AIDS to opportunistic infections should be considered. PMID:8064908

  13. Regional bone change in intramuscular haemangioma mimicking primary bone tumour.

    PubMed

    Shikhare, Sumer; Chacko, Julio K; Chuah, Khoon L

    2015-04-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign soft-tissue tumours, commonly located in the extremities. We present a right-leg intramuscular haemangioma with florid periosteal reaction in adjacent tibia, mimicking a primary bone tumour. Plain radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging features are illustrated with the surgical and histopathological findings. Radiologists need to be familiar with reactive bone changes secondary to deep-seated intramuscular haemangiomas to avoid potential misdiagnosis.

  14. Osteofibrous dysplasia of clavicle clinically mimicking chronic osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Prakash, Mahesh; Saibaba, Balaji; Das, Ashim

    2016-01-01

    Osteofibrous dysplasia or ossifying fibroma is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous lesion of childhood, commonly described in the maxilla and the mandible. Among long bones, it usually presents in the tibia as a painless swelling or anterior bowing. Ossifying fibroma of clavicle has never been reported in English literature, to the best of our knowledge. Here, we would like to present an unusual case of osteofibrous dysplasia of clavicle clinically mimicking chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:27413281

  15. Intracranial subdural empyema mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Ninh; Patel, Mohit; Nguyen, Ha Son; Mountoure, Andrew; Shabani, Saman; Gelsomino, Michael; Janich, Karl; Kurpad, Shekar

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial subdural empyema (ISDE) is a life-threatening condition. The risk for ISDE increases in patients that have undergone prior intracranial procedures. The non-specificity in its clinical presentation often makes ISDE difficult to diagnose. Here, we present a rare case of ISDE mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma, emphasizing the significance of obtaining early magnetic resonance images of the brain for early diagnosis and treatment to achieve the optimal outcome. PMID:27651110

  16. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  17. Primary papillary hyperplasia of the gallbladder mimicking gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Mai; Oba, Atsushi; Tsubomoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuwabara, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Kazumi; Goseki, Narihide

    2014-01-01

    Primary papillary hyperplasia of the gallbladder (PPHG) is a rare entity. PPHG is a benign diffuse mucosal projection without any background chronic inflammation-related disease of the gallbladder or bile ducts. Reported cases of PPHG are limited in that its characteristics are not well defined. We herein report a case of PPHG mimicking gallbladder cancer in radiologic investigations and present a review of the literature. Also coincident erythroderma is discussed.

  18. Intracranial subdural empyema mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Doan, Ninh; Patel, Mohit; Nguyen, Ha Son; Mountoure, Andrew; Shabani, Saman; Gelsomino, Michael; Janich, Karl; Kurpad, Shekar

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial subdural empyema (ISDE) is a life-threatening condition. The risk for ISDE increases in patients that have undergone prior intracranial procedures. The non-specificity in its clinical presentation often makes ISDE difficult to diagnose. Here, we present a rare case of ISDE mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma, emphasizing the significance of obtaining early magnetic resonance images of the brain for early diagnosis and treatment to achieve the optimal outcome. PMID:27651110

  19. Intracranial subdural empyema mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Ninh; Patel, Mohit; Nguyen, Ha Son; Mountoure, Andrew; Shabani, Saman; Gelsomino, Michael; Janich, Karl; Kurpad, Shekar

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial subdural empyema (ISDE) is a life-threatening condition. The risk for ISDE increases in patients that have undergone prior intracranial procedures. The non-specificity in its clinical presentation often makes ISDE difficult to diagnose. Here, we present a rare case of ISDE mimicking a recurrent chronic subdural hematoma, emphasizing the significance of obtaining early magnetic resonance images of the brain for early diagnosis and treatment to achieve the optimal outcome.

  20. Mimicking Tissue Boundaries by Sharp Multiparameter Matrix Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Sapudom, Jiranuwat; Rubner, Stefan; Martin, Steve; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-08-01

    Engineering interfaces of distinct extracellular compartments mimicking native tissues are key for in-depth in vitro studies on developmental and disease processes in biology and medicine. Sharp interfaces of extracellular matrices are constructed based on fibrillar collagen I networks with a multiparameter control of topology, mechanics, and composition, and their distinct impact on triggering the directionality of cancer cell migration is demonstrated. PMID:27125887

  1. Male Fertility Is Reduced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mimicking Sleep Apnea in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marta; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Dalmases, Mireia; Calle, Alexandra; Pericuesta, Eva; Montserrat, Josep M.; Navajas, Daniel; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Farré, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress. However, it is unknown whether intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA modifies male fertility. We tested the hypothesis that male fertility is reduced by chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA in a mouse model. Design: Case-control comparison in a murine model. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen F1 (C57BL/6xCBA) male mice. Interventions: Mice were subjected to a pattern of periodic hypoxia (20 sec at 5% O2 followed by 40 sec of room air) 6 h/day for 60 days or normoxia. After this period, mice performed a mating trial to determine effective fertility by assessing the number of pregnant females and fetuses. Measurements and Results: After euthanasia, oxidative stress in testes was assessed by measuring the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) and superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm motility was determined by Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS). Intermittent hypoxia significantly increased testicular oxidative stress, showing a reduction in the expression of Gpx1 and Sod1 by 38.9% and 34.4%, respectively, as compared with normoxia (P < 0.05). Progressive sperm motility was significantly reduced from 27.0 ± 6.4% in normoxia to 12.8 ± 1.8% in the intermittent hypoxia group (P = 0.04). The proportion of pregnant females and number of fetuses per mating was significantly lower in the intermittent hypoxia group (0.33 ± 0.10 and 2.45 ± 0.73, respectively) than in normoxic controls (0.72 ± 0.16 and 5.80 ± 1.24, respectively). Conclusions: These results suggest that the intermittent hypoxia associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) could induce fertility reduction in male patients with this sleep breathing disorder. Citation: Torres M, Laguna-Barraza R, Dalmases M, Calle A, Pericuesta E, Montserrat JM, Navajas D, Gutierrez-Adan A, Farré R. Male fertility is

  2. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic design is presented. The potential future developments in the translational microfluidics field are also discussed. PMID:27091777

  3. Characterization of transverse isotropy in compressed tissue-mimicking phantoms.

    PubMed

    Urban, Matthew W; Lopera, Manuela; Aristizabal, Sara; Amador, Carolina; Nenadic, Ivan; Kinnick, Randall R; Weston, Alexander D; Qiang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoming; Greenleaf, James F

    2015-06-01

    Tissues such as skeletal muscle and kidneys have well-defined structure that affects the measurements of mechanical properties. As an approach to characterize the material properties of these tissues, different groups have assumed that they are transversely isotropic (TI) and measure the shear wave velocity as it varies with angle with respect to the structural architecture of the organ. To refine measurements in these organs, it is desirable to have tissue-mimicking phantoms that exhibit similar anisotropic characteristics. Some approaches involve embedding fibers into a material matrix. However, if a homogeneous solid is under compression due to a static stress, an acoustoelastic effect can manifest that makes the measured wave velocities change with the compression stress. We propose to exploit this characteristic to demonstrate that stressed tissue mimicking phantoms can be characterized as a TI material. We tested six phantoms made with different concentrations of gelatin and agar. Stress was applied by the weight of a water container centered on top of a plate on top of the phantom. A linear array transducer and a V-1 Verasonics system were used to induce and measure shear waves in the phantoms. The shear wave motion was measured using a compound plane wave imaging technique. Autocorrelation was applied to the received in-phase/quadrature data. The shear wave velocity, c, was estimated using a Radon transform method. The transducer was mounted on a rotating stage so measurements were made every 10° over a range of 0° to 360°, where the stress is applied along 0° to 180° direction. The shear moduli were estimated. A TI model was fit to the data and the fractional anisotropy was evaluated. This approach can be used to explore many configurations of transverse isotropy with the same phantom, simply by applying stress to the tissue-mimicking phantom. PMID:26067038

  4. Characterization of transverse isotropy in compressed tissue-mimicking phantoms.

    PubMed

    Urban, Matthew W; Lopera, Manuela; Aristizabal, Sara; Amador, Carolina; Nenadic, Ivan; Kinnick, Randall R; Weston, Alexander D; Qiang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoming; Greenleaf, James F

    2015-06-01

    Tissues such as skeletal muscle and kidneys have well-defined structure that affects the measurements of mechanical properties. As an approach to characterize the material properties of these tissues, different groups have assumed that they are transversely isotropic (TI) and measure the shear wave velocity as it varies with angle with respect to the structural architecture of the organ. To refine measurements in these organs, it is desirable to have tissue-mimicking phantoms that exhibit similar anisotropic characteristics. Some approaches involve embedding fibers into a material matrix. However, if a homogeneous solid is under compression due to a static stress, an acoustoelastic effect can manifest that makes the measured wave velocities change with the compression stress. We propose to exploit this characteristic to demonstrate that stressed tissue mimicking phantoms can be characterized as a TI material. We tested six phantoms made with different concentrations of gelatin and agar. Stress was applied by the weight of a water container centered on top of a plate on top of the phantom. A linear array transducer and a V-1 Verasonics system were used to induce and measure shear waves in the phantoms. The shear wave motion was measured using a compound plane wave imaging technique. Autocorrelation was applied to the received in-phase/quadrature data. The shear wave velocity, c, was estimated using a Radon transform method. The transducer was mounted on a rotating stage so measurements were made every 10° over a range of 0° to 360°, where the stress is applied along 0° to 180° direction. The shear moduli were estimated. A TI model was fit to the data and the fractional anisotropy was evaluated. This approach can be used to explore many configurations of transverse isotropy with the same phantom, simply by applying stress to the tissue-mimicking phantom.

  5. Paracoccidioidomycosis Mimicking Sarcoidosis: A Review of 8 Cases.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Mariana Guimarães; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Hochhegger, Bruno; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder that is characterized by noncaseous epithelioid cell granulomas, which may affect almost any organ. Thoracic involvement is common and accounts for most of the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The diagnosis is based on exhaustive exclusion of differential diagnoses, particularly granulomatous infections. We report data on eight patients with paracoccidioidomycosis mimicking sarcoidosis. Five patients presented with a chronic pulmonary type infection and three had a disseminated form after immunosuppressive treatment. The mycological diagnosis in noncaseating granulomas is emphasized and reviewed.

  6. Xanthogranulomatous Appendicitis Mimicking Residual Burkitt's Lymphoma After Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Soomin; Choi, Sung-Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Baik, Seung Hyuk; Sohn, Seung-Kook

    2016-01-01

    The case of a 23-year-old female treated with aggressive high-dose therapy for Burkitt's lymphoma is reported. A positron emission tomography and computed tomography scan after completion of chemotherapy revealed a residual hypermetabolic lesion in the right pelvic cavity. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan showed circumferential wall thickening at the tip of the appendix. A laparoscopic exploration and appendectomy were performed, and a pathologic examination of the resected appendix revealed xanthogranulomatous appendicitis. This is a rare case of a xanthogranulomatous appendicitis mimicking remnant Burkitt's lymphoma after completion of chemotherapy. PMID:27218100

  7. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi Mimicking a Synovial Cyst.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Aurélien; Levy, Bruno; Bouchand, Frédérique; Davido, Benjamin; Duran, Clara; Cristi, Marin; Felter, Adrien; Salomon, Jérôme; Ait Ammar, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic subcutaneous fungal infections are increasing nowadays due to the growing number of medical conditions causing immunosuppression, especially organ transplant. The incidence rate of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is very low. Most studies found are case reports. They showed a wide variation of clinical presentations. Pyrenochaeta romeroi, a fungus from the Dematiaceae group is a saprophyte found in soil and plants and a possible causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by P. romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst in a diabetic patient. PMID:27630637

  8. A popliteal giant synovial osteochondroma mimicking a parosteal osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Both giant synovial osteochondroma and parosteal osteosarcoma are rare musculo-skeletal tumors, often localized in the vicinity of the knee. Misdiagnosis of a malignant bone tumor can entail fatal consequences. Etiology of giant synovial osteochondroma is widely unsolved but is believed to originate from synovial chondromatosis, a mostly benign metaplasia of the synovial membrane. Parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade surface osteosarcoma with a propensity of local recurrence and the potential of distant metastasis and therefore requiring a different therapeutical approach. We report the case of a popliteal giant osteochondroma mimicking a parosteal osteosarcoma. Relevant facts of this rare entity regarding pathogenesis, treatment, and differential diagnoses will be discussed. PMID:24066980

  9. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone mimicking meningioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shu, Hansheng; Tian, Xuping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Qiujian; Guo, Liemei

    2015-03-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor that usually arises from lower-extremity long-bone metaphyses, with approximately 5.4% of all CMFs presenting in the craniofacial bones. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone is exceedingly rare, with only a few cases reported. Herein, we report another case of CMF arising from the frontal bone mimicking meningioma. We suggest that histopathologic examination is of vital importance for the diagnosis of CMF; complete surgical resection is the best treatment option for frontal CMF.

  10. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi Mimicking a Synovial Cyst.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Aurélien; Levy, Bruno; Bouchand, Frédérique; Davido, Benjamin; Duran, Clara; Cristi, Marin; Felter, Adrien; Salomon, Jérôme; Ait Ammar, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic subcutaneous fungal infections are increasing nowadays due to the growing number of medical conditions causing immunosuppression, especially organ transplant. The incidence rate of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is very low. Most studies found are case reports. They showed a wide variation of clinical presentations. Pyrenochaeta romeroi, a fungus from the Dematiaceae group is a saprophyte found in soil and plants and a possible causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by P. romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst in a diabetic patient.

  11. Symptomatic ecchordosis physaliphora mimicking as an intracranial arachnoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Filis, Andreas; Kalakoti, Piyush; Nanda, Anil

    2016-06-01

    Ecchordosis physaliphora (EP) is a rare, benign tumor derived from the notochordal remnants. Usually slow growing with an indolent course, most cases are incidental findings on autopsy. Limited data exists on symptomatic patients with EP. Diagnosis mainly relies on correlating histopathologic findings confirming the notochordal elements with MRI. We herein present a middle aged woman with symptomatic EP in the pre-pontine cistern that mimicked an arachnoid cyst on preoperative scans. Additionally, we emphasize the pathological and radiological characteristics of EP that could aid in prompt diagnosis of the lesion with emphasis on considering EP as a differential for mass lesions localized in the pre-pontine cistern.

  12. Mimicking the effect of gravity using an elastic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yecun; Zhu, Changqing; Wang, Yijun; Shi, Qingfan

    2014-05-01

    Comparing astrospace with an elastic membrane is an interesting analogy but it lacks a theoretical basis and experimental support. We develop a theoretical model that brings to light the relationship between the conceptual model of a gravity well and an elastic deformation equation of a membrane supporting a heavy ball, and further derive the ‘gravitational constant’ for such a small ‘elastic space’. The experimental data obtained are consistent with the prediction of our model, in mimicking the revolution of a small planet. Teaching practice shows that using an elastic membrane is a simple, intuitive and reliable method to enhance the quality of learning about the effect of gravity.

  13. Primary Renal Lymphoma Mimicking a Subcapsular Hematoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dedekam, Erik; Graham, Jess; Strenge, Karen; Mosier, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare entity with a history of controversy regarding its existence. Lymphomatous involvement of the kidney is more commonly seen secondarily to spread from an adjacent lymphomatous mass, rather than arising primarily from the kidney. PRL can mimic other renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma, renal abscess, and metastasis; therefore, an early diagnosis is crucial to guide treatment and properly assess prognosis. We present a rare case of a 77 year-old male who presented with hematuria and PRL mimicking a subcapsular hematoma. PMID:24421949

  14. Primary renal lymphoma mimicking a subcapsular hematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dedekam, Erik; Graham, Jess; Strenge, Karen; Mosier, Andrew D

    2013-08-01

    Primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare entity with a history of controversy regarding its existence. Lymphomatous involvement of the kidney is more commonly seen secondarily to spread from an adjacent lymphomatous mass, rather than arising primarily from the kidney. PRL can mimic other renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma, renal abscess, and metastasis; therefore, an early diagnosis is crucial to guide treatment and properly assess prognosis. We present a rare case of a 77 year-old male who presented with hematuria and PRL mimicking a subcapsular hematoma. PMID:24421949

  15. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone mimicking meningioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shu, Hansheng; Tian, Xuping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Qiujian; Guo, Liemei

    2015-03-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor that usually arises from lower-extremity long-bone metaphyses, with approximately 5.4% of all CMFs presenting in the craniofacial bones. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the frontal bone is exceedingly rare, with only a few cases reported. Herein, we report another case of CMF arising from the frontal bone mimicking meningioma. We suggest that histopathologic examination is of vital importance for the diagnosis of CMF; complete surgical resection is the best treatment option for frontal CMF. PMID:25748938

  16. Endometriosis After Surgical Menopause Mimicking Pelvic Malignancy: Surgeons’ Predicament

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Rani A.; Teo, Melissa; Bhat, Akhil Krishnanand

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of persistent endometriosis in women after menopause without any hormonal replacement therapy is very rare. This is a case of a woman with previous history of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for endometriosis who presented with hemoperitoneum, vaginal bleeding, pelvic mass, and pulmonary thromboembolism mimicking as rectovaginal septum carcinoma. This is the first case report with a unique mode of presentation wherein the patient presented with hemoperitoneum requiring emergency embolization of the vessel to stabilize the patient. She underwent en bloc resection of the tumor with high anterior resection of the rectum. Histopathology confirmed endometriosis. PMID:24936277

  17. A case of generalized ostraceous psoriasis mimicking dermatitis neglecta*

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Dias, Carolina Moraes; Lage, Thaiane Lima; Carneiro, Clívia Maria Oliveira; Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano

    2015-01-01

    Lithium has been implicated in the exacerbation of pre-existing psoriasis, in the induction of psoriasis on previously uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients, and in the triggering of psoriasis for the first time in patients without a personal or family history. Lithium-induced psoriasis (and its resistance to treatment) is one of the major reasons for noncompliance in patients treated with lithium. We describe a male patient who developed generalized ostraceous psoriasis whose clinical appearance mimicked dermatitis neglecta, 10 months after starting therapy with lithium. PMID:26312715

  18. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi Mimicking a Synovial Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Aurélien; Levy, Bruno; Bouchand, Frédérique; Davido, Benjamin; Duran, Clara; Cristi, Marin; Felter, Adrien; Salomon, Jérôme; Ait Ammar, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic subcutaneous fungal infections are increasing nowadays due to the growing number of medical conditions causing immunosuppression, especially organ transplant. The incidence rate of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is very low. Most studies found are case reports. They showed a wide variation of clinical presentations. Pyrenochaeta romeroi, a fungus from the Dematiaceae group is a saprophyte found in soil and plants and a possible causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by P. romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst in a diabetic patient.

  19. Lepra reaction with lucio phenomenon mimicking cutaneous vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Parida, Jyoti Ranjan; Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Pani, Krushna Chandra; Kumari, Niraj; Krishnani, Narendra; Agarwal, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a disease typically found in the tropics. Patients with leprosy can have varying presentation with constitutional symptoms, joint pains, skin nodules, and rarely a vasculitis-like picture with skin ulcers and neuropathy. We present a young lady who presented with the rare manifestation of skin infarcts mimicking cutaneous vasculitis, diagnosed on histopathology to have Lucio phenomenon on a background of lepromatous leprosy. With increasing migration and widespread use of biologic response modifiers, clinicians all over the world need to be aware of various presentations of leprosy as well as needing to keep an open mind while considering the differential diagnoses of vasculitis. PMID:25580317

  20. Lepra Reaction with Lucio Phenomenon Mimicking Cutaneous Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Parida, Jyoti Ranjan; Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Pani, Krushna Chandra; Kumari, Niraj; Krishnani, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a disease typically found in the tropics. Patients with leprosy can have varying presentation with constitutional symptoms, joint pains, skin nodules, and rarely a vasculitis-like picture with skin ulcers and neuropathy. We present a young lady who presented with the rare manifestation of skin infarcts mimicking cutaneous vasculitis, diagnosed on histopathology to have Lucio phenomenon on a background of lepromatous leprosy. With increasing migration and widespread use of biologic response modifiers, clinicians all over the world need to be aware of various presentations of leprosy as well as needing to keep an open mind while considering the differential diagnoses of vasculitis. PMID:25580317

  1. Understanding Lipid Recognition by Protein-Mimicking Cyclic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Azade S; Zheng, Hong; Gao, Jianmin

    2014-10-21

    This paper describes our investigation of the structural determinants of a designed cyclic peptide (cLac, cyclic peptide mimicking lactadherin)(1) for phosphatidylserine (PS) recognition. A highly efficient strategy that takes advantage of the native chemical ligation (NCL) chemistry has been developed for the synthesis and labeling of cyclic peptides in general. Ala scanning of the cLac peptide revealed a sophisticated model for PS binding, in which the peptide scaffold assembles multiple polar residues to balance the desolvation and electrostatic interactions (salt bridge and hydrogen bonding) to achieve lipid selectivity. The results suggest that cLac effectively mimics the membrane binding mechanism of the parent protein lactadherin.

  2. An Adult Gastric Duplication Cyst Mimicking a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Takenori; Furihata, Makoto; Nagao, Sayaka; Wada, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe a rare case of a 24-year-old man who presented with severe epigastralgia after consuming a considerable amount of broiled meat. Computed tomography revealed a cystic lesion adjacent to the distal stomach, with high intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Upper endoscopy showed a cystic mass measuring 6 cm in diameter, mimicking a submucosal tumor adjacent to the pyloric valve, with duodenum invagination, characteristic of ball valve syndrome. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed that the lesion was contiguous through the first to the third layer of the stomach. Therefore, we performed distal gastrectomy. Pathology showed that the lesion was a gastric duplication cyst without malignancy. PMID:27580540

  3. Isolated Gallbladder Intramucosal Metastatic Melanoma With Features Mimicking Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lo, Amy A; Peevey, Joseph; Lo, Edward C; Guitart, Joan; Rao, M Sambasivia; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Malignant melanoma has a variety of morphologic patterns and can metastasize and mimic any type of neoplastic process creating significant diagnostic difficulty. When metastasis to the gastrointestinal system is identified, it is most commonly associated with widely metastatic disease. We report a rare case of isolated gallbladder intramucosal metastatic melanoma with features mimicking lymphoepithelial carcinoma in an adult patient who presented with cholecystitis. Additionally, we report the imaging and morphologic features and discuss the importance of these findings along with a clear clinical history and immunohistochemical profile to make a definitive diagnosis.

  4. Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Due to Pyrenochaeta romeroi Mimicking a Synovial Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Aurélien; Levy, Bruno; Bouchand, Frédérique; Davido, Benjamin; Duran, Clara; Cristi, Marin; Felter, Adrien; Salomon, Jérôme; Ait Ammar, Nawel

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic subcutaneous fungal infections are increasing nowadays due to the growing number of medical conditions causing immunosuppression, especially organ transplant. The incidence rate of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis is very low. Most studies found are case reports. They showed a wide variation of clinical presentations. Pyrenochaeta romeroi, a fungus from the Dematiaceae group is a saprophyte found in soil and plants and a possible causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis. We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by P. romeroi mimicking a synovial cyst in a diabetic patient. PMID:27630637

  5. Characterization of various tissue mimicking materials for medical ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenot, Audrey; Poepping, Tamie; Peters, Terry M.; Chen, Elvis C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Tissue mimicking materials are physical constructs exhibiting certain desired properties, which are used in machine calibration, medical imaging research, surgical planning, training, and simulation. For medical ultrasound, those specific properties include acoustic propagation speed and attenuation coefficient over the diagnostic frequency range. We investigated the acoustic characteristics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and isopropanol using a time-of-light technique, where a pulse was passed through a sample of known thickness contained in a water bath. The propagation speed in PVC is approximately 1400ms-1 depending on the exact chemical composition, with the attenuation coefficient ranging from 0:35 dB cm-1 at 1MHz to 10:57 dB cm-1 at 9 MHz. The propagation speed in PDMS is in the range of 1100ms-1, with an attenuation coefficient of 1:28 dB cm-1 at 1MHz to 21:22 dB cm-1 at 9 MHz. At room temperature (22 °C), a mixture of water-isopropanol (7:25% isopropanol by volume) exhibits a propagation speed of 1540ms-1, making it an excellent and inexpensive tissue-mimicking liquid for medical ultrasound imaging.

  6. Circumscribed choroidal haemangioma mimicking chronic central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Rahman, W; Horgan, N; Hungerford, J

    2013-03-01

    We describe a rare case of bilateral circumscribed choroidal haemangioma in an otherwise healthy male, which mimicked chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). A 52-year-old Asian man presented with a one-year history of visual decline in his left eye. The vision in the right eye had been reduced for 15 years. Visual acuity was 6/60 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed an area of discoloration with overlying retinal pigment epithelial changes in the macula and evidence of prior surrounding argon laser photocoagulation. The left macula showed a raised choroidal lesion with overlying retinal pigment epithelial changes and associated subretinal fluid. This appearance illustrates how chronic retinal pigment epithelial alterations associated with longstanding subretinal fluid exudation from circumscribed choroidal haemangiomas may mimick the appearance of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. B-scan ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography helped to establish the diagnosis. The active lesion in the left eye was treated with verteporfin photodynamic therapy with improvement in vision.

  7. Optimization of replica exchange molecular dynamics by fast mimicking.

    PubMed

    Hritz, Jozef; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2007-11-28

    We present an approach to mimic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations (REMD) on a microsecond time scale within a few minutes rather than the years, which would be required for real REMD. The speed of mimicked REMD makes it a useful tool for "testing" the efficiency of different settings for REMD and then to select those settings, that give the highest efficiency. We present an optimization approach with the example of Hamiltonian REMD using soft-core interactions on two model systems, GTP and 8-Br-GTP. The optimization process using REMD mimicking is very fast. Optimization of Hamiltonian-REMD settings of GTP in explicit water took us less than one week. In our study we focus not only on finding the optimal distances between neighboring replicas, but also on finding the proper placement of the highest level of softness. In addition we suggest different REMD simulation settings at this softness level. We allow several replicas to be simulated at the same Hamiltonian simultaneously and reduce the frequency of switching attempts between them. This approach allows for more efficient conversions from one stable conformation to the other.

  8. Pseudotumor presentation of renal tuberculosis mimicking renal cell carcinoma: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Anubhav; Ranjan, Raju; Drall, Nityasha; Mishra, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis can involve any part of the body. Urogenital tuberculosis is a fairly common extra-pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and renal tuberculosis is the most common form of urogenital tuberculosis. Renal tuberculosis seldom presents as a mass, usually due to hydronephrosis of the involved kidney. However in extremely rare cases it may present as an inflammatory pseudotumor which may mimic renal cell carcinoma. We present a case of a 65- year- old male who was provisionally diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma based on clinical and radiological findings and managed accordingly but was finally diagnosed as renal tuberculosis based on histopathological examination of surgical specimen. PMID:27635298

  9. Pseudotumor presentation of renal tuberculosis mimicking renal cell carcinoma: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Anubhav; Ranjan, Raju; Drall, Nityasha; Mishra, Neha

    2016-09-01

    Tuberculosis can involve any part of the body. Urogenital tuberculosis is a fairly common extra-pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis and renal tuberculosis is the most common form of urogenital tuberculosis. Renal tuberculosis seldom presents as a mass, usually due to hydronephrosis of the involved kidney. However in extremely rare cases it may present as an inflammatory pseudotumor which may mimic renal cell carcinoma. We present a case of a 65- year- old male who was provisionally diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma based on clinical and radiological findings and managed accordingly but was finally diagnosed as renal tuberculosis based on histopathological examination of surgical specimen. PMID:27635298

  10. Humans mimicking animals: a cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds.

    PubMed

    Talkington, William J; Rapuano, Kristina M; Hitt, Laura A; Frum, Chris A; Lewis, James W

    2012-06-01

    Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STSs) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, superior temporal sulcus (STS) regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or "expertise" in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations-human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations-we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. Our results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages before the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins.

  11. Humans mimicking animals: A cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, William J.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Hitt, Laura; Frum, Chris A.; Lewis, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STS) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, STS regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or “expertise” in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations – human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations – we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. These results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages prior to the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins. PMID:22674283

  12. Static mechanical assessment of elastic Young's modulus of tissue mimicking materials used for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Duboeuf, François; Liebgott, Hervé; Basarab, Adrian; Brusseau, Elisabeth; Delachartre, Philippe; Vray, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Emerging medical imaging techniques usually provide quantitative diagnostic parameters. Since the description of a method for quantitative imaging of strain and elastic modulus distributions in soft tissues by Ophir et al. in 1991, research in elastography is progressing and experimental in vitro validation of new displacement estimators appears crucial for clinical applications. Materials mimicking biological tissues appear very useful to reach this goal. Nevertheless, correct validation necessitates knowledge of mechanical properties of the investigated material, which are often difficult to obtain. This study describes a simple method for mechanical characterization of gels used in elastography. We demonstrated the possibility to assess elasticity modulus with a reasonable reproducibility using simple tools and methods. For validation, the described method was further tested with 5 samples of Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel having different values of elasticity. Young's moduli, from 24 to 135 kPa according to the number of freeze-thaw cycles (from 1 to 5) have been measured with a reproducibility varying from 2 to 7%, in the respect of strict measurements conditions. The method demonstrates good feasibility and acceptable reproducibility to mechanically characterize phantoms.

  13. Radiation-induced anaplastic ependymoma mimicking a skull base meningioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SPALLONE, ALDO; MARCHIONE, PASQUALE; DI CAPUA, MARIO; BELVISI, DANIELE

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with headache, dizziness and vomiting due to a an ovoid mass in the left pre-bulbar cistern, apparently arising from the lower clivus and the foramen magnum. The clinical history revealed the subtotal removal of a right cerebellar low-grade glioma 15 years previously and subsequent conventional 60-Gy radiotherapy. Notably, following gross total resection, histopathological examination showed microscopic features that resulted in a diagnosis of anaplastic ependymoma. The patient underwent surgery to remove the mass and post-operative chemotherapy with temozolomide. A progressive improvement of neurological signs and symptoms was observed during the postoperative course. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient was free from clinical and radiological recurrence. The unusual features of this rare secondary brain tumor were the extrassial location in the posterior fossa, the unusual age-associated location of the histological subtype and the fact that it closely mimicked a skull-base meningioma. PMID:26893630

  14. Lesion mimicking perianal abscess in an immunocompromised patient: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Calero-Lillo, Aranzazu; Caubet, Enric

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ischiorrectal tumoral masses mimicking perianal abscess and abscess from uncommon microbiological origins have previously been reported. PRESENTATION OF CASE Unusual perianal abscess arising from an hematoma in an elderly woman with myelodysplastic syndrome: the patient presented on the emergency with gluteal pain and fever after intramuscular injection of analgesic drug. Physical examination revealed subcutaneous thickening on gluteus and perianal region, without skin changes. Magnetic resonance reported an heterogeneous mass sized 5 cm × 12 cm × 20 cm from gluteus maximus to ischioanal fat under levator ani muscle, through sciatic notch. Debridement of an staphylococceal infected hematoma through a single left lateral gluteus incision, and primary closure was performed. Proctologic examination was normal, so any perianal incision was done. The site infection progressed, so the patient required new surgery with wet cure. The patient contracted nosocomial pneumonia and died due to sepsis. DISCUSSION Hematological diseases can yield infectious and bleeding disorders. Intramuscular injections often cause haematomas that can lead to pyomyositis. Pyomyositis requires early debridement and continue cure. CONCLUSION Intramuscular administration of drugs should be avoided in patients with thrombocytopenia. Gluteal region is connected to perianal area through the sciatic notch. Usually perianal abscess in immunocompromised patients arise from proctologic origin, but other causes may be taken into account. PMID:25460429

  15. Ulcer in the basis of Zenker's diverticulum mimicking esophageal malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Odemis, Bolent; Ataseven, Hilmi; Basar, Omer; Ertugrul, Ibrahim; Yüksel, Osman; Turhan, Nesrin

    2006-01-01

    Complications of Zenker's diverticulum are rare and include ulcer, bleeding and malignancy. Ulcer in the basis of diverticulum is a very rare complication and to date only four cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a new case of ulcer in Zenker's diverticulum mimicking esophageal malignancy presumed to be due to aspirin and/or alcohol consumption. The exact diagnosis was troublesome and needed to perform diagnostic procedures repeatedly. The patient underwent external pharyngoesophageal diverticulectomy. We emphasize that endoscope should be withdrawn if any resistance is encountered during esophageal intubation-even with forward-viewing endoscope-especially when there is a Zenker's diverticulum suspicion and the patient receives ulcerogenic agents. Endoscopic examination should be performed prior to any definitive surgical procedure in all patients with Zenker's diverticulum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16895291

  16. Histopathologically Proven Autoimmune Pancreatitis Mimicking Neuroendocrine Tumor or Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Shinji; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Kanehira, Masaru; Fujioka, Shuichi; Harada, Tohru; Hano, Hiroshi; Fukunaga, Masaharu; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer. We report a case of histopathologically proven AIP mimicking neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or pancreatic cancer in a 53-year-old man. He was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of a pancreatic mass detected on ultrasonography at a medical check-up. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a 15-mm hypoechoic mass located in the pancreatic body. Computed tomography revealed a tumor without any contrast enhancement, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the mass to be hyperintense on diffusion-weighted image. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed slight dilatation of a branch of the pancreatic duct without stricture of the main pancreatic duct. The common bile duct seemed intact. Under suspicion of a non-functioning NET or malignant neoplasm, laparotomy was performed. At laparotomy, an elastic firm and well-circumscribed mass was found suggestive of a non-functioning NET, thus enucleation was performed. Histopathologically, the lesion corresponded to AIP. PMID:22423237

  17. Optofluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Ruiqi; King, Travis; Akl, Tony; Ericson, Milton Nance; Wilson, Mark A.; Cote, Gerard L.; McShane, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system.

  18. Verrucous tumor mimicking squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Villaverde, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cano, Daniel; Martinez-Peinado, Carmen M; Galan-Gutierrez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause a range of diseases in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. An increase in non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections targeting skin has been described. Many hypotheses have been developed in order to explain it: the increasing burden of immunocompromised individuals, immigration from endemic countries, improved laboratory identification techniques, and changes inhuman behavior that expose individuals to this NTM. Mycobacterium mucogenicum group comprises M. mucogenicum, Mycobacterium aubagnense, and Mycobacterium phocaicum. This group of organisms was first named Mycobacterium chelonae-like organism in 1982. Most clinically significant cases of those organisms involved catheter-related infections. Nevertheless, we report an interesting patient with a cutaneous infection produced by M. mucogenicum mimicking a squamous cell carcinoma; an excellent response to combined therapy with rifampicin and clarythromicin was observed. PMID:27267196

  19. Infection-mimicking materials to program dendritic cells in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Omar A.; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Cao, Lan; Dranoff, Glenn; Mooney, David J.

    2009-02-01

    Cancer vaccines typically depend on cumbersome and expensive manipulation of cells in the laboratory, and subsequent cell transplantation leads to poor lymph-node homing and limited efficacy. We propose that materials mimicking key aspects of bacterial infection may instead be used to directly control immune-cell trafficking and activation in the body. It is demonstrated that polymers can be designed to first release a cytokine to recruit and house host dendritic cells, and subsequently present cancer antigens and danger signals to activate the resident dendritic cells and markedly enhance their homing to lymph nodes. Specific and protective anti-tumour immunity was generated with these materials, as 90% survival was achieved in animals that otherwise die from cancer within 25days. These materials show promise as cancer vaccines, and more broadly suggest that polymers may be designed to program and control the trafficking of a variety of cell types in the body.

  20. Liquid optical phantoms mimicking spectral characteristics of laboratory mouse biotissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginova, D. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krainov, A. D.; Agrba, P. D.; Kirillin, M. Yu

    2016-06-01

    Optical phantoms mimicking optical properties of real biotissues in the visible and IR spectral regions are developed based on measurements of the spectral characteristics of ex vivo samples of laboratory mouse biotissues. The phantoms are composed of aqueous solutions of Lipofundin, Indian ink and red ink with different spectral characteristics. The deviations of the measured absorption and scattering coefficients of phantoms in the wavelength range 480 – 580 nm from the corresponding values for real biotissues do not exceed 25% and 2%, respectively. For phantoms in the wavelength region 580 – 880 nm, the deviations of the absorption coefficient do not exceed 40% and the deviations of the scattering coefficient do not exceed 25%. These values, in general, fall within the range of variations for different individual mice of one strain.

  1. Osteoid osteoma mimicking monoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a girl.

    PubMed

    Massei, Francesco; Laccetta, Gianluigi; Barrani, Monica; Fabbri, Luca; Zampa, Virna; Paolicchi, Alessandro; Cioni, Roberto; Ciancia, Eugenio Mario; Scaglione, Michelangelo; Consolini, Rita

    2016-08-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign osteogenic neoplasm, usually affecting children and young adults, that is typically characterized by nocturnal pain and response to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. OO is frequently misdiagnosed because it mimics juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), bone infection or malignancy. Herein we report the case of a girl who presented with chronic monoarthritis of the knee mimicking JIA. After 1 year, OO of the femoral distal metaphysis was diagnosed. OO was treated with computed tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation with disappearance of the symptoms and resolution of the neoplasm. No recurrences have been observed 3 years after the treatment. This case highlights that intra-articular or juxta-articular OO should be suspected in the case of misleading symptoms and signs, such as swelling, lack of typical pain and synovial thickening on ultrasound; needle biopsy of the lesion is necessary in the case of confusing imaging.

  2. Basal cell adenoma of maxillary sinus mimicking ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bhagde, Priya Anil; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Humbe, Jayanti G

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare basaloid tumor, with only 20% of cases occurring in minor salivary glands. Histologically, BCA is characterized by the presence of basaloid cells and may frequently be mistaken with canalicular adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry may aid in arriving at a final diagnosis as in the present case. Reported here is a case of locally aggressive BCA. Histologically, the lesion mimicked ameloblastoma and other entities which posed a diagnostic challenge. There are no reports of BCA presenting as an aggressive lesion available in English literature so far; moreover, merely a single case of BCA of maxillary sinus has been previously reported to the best of our cognition. This case report highlights the rarity of this tumor with regards to its site of origin, clinical behavior and histopathological mimics. PMID:27194878

  3. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  4. Mimicking diffuse supernova antineutrinos with the sun as a source

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, G. G.; Rashba, T. I.

    2010-04-15

    Measuring the {nu}-bar{sub e} component of the cosmic diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) is the next ambitious goal for low-energy neutrino astronomy. The largest flux is expected in the lowest accessible energy bin. However, for E {<=} 15 MeV a possible signal can be mimicked by a solar {nu}-bar{sub e} flux that originates from the usual {sup 8}B neutrinos by spin-flavor oscillations. We show that such an interpretation is possible within the allowed range of neutrino electromagnetic transition moments and solar turbulent field strengths and distributions. Therefore, an unambiguous detection of the DSNB requires a significant number of events at E {>=} 15 MeV.

  5. Tunable Transmission-Line Metamaterials Mimicking Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T. H.; Han, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Tunable transmission-line (TL) metamaterials mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been studied. Firstly, two types of tunable TL EIT-like metamaterial, based on the double split-ring resonator (DSRR) and single split-ring resonator (SSRR), were fabricated and their transmission properties carefully compared. The results showed that the transmittance maximum was almost invariable with shift of the transparency window for the tunable DSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, but for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial, the transmittance maximum gradually diminished with shift of the transparency window toward the center of the absorption band. Moreover, the reason for these different transmission properties was explored, revealing that the reduction of the transmittance maximum of the transparency window for the tunable SSRR-based TL EIT-like metamaterial is mainly due to energy loss caused by the resistance of the loaded varactor diodes.

  6. Subungual onycholemmal cyst of the toenail mimicking subungual melanoma.

    PubMed

    Busquets, Joanna; Banala, Mounica; Campanelli, Carmen; Sahu, Joya; Lee, Jason B

    2016-08-01

    This report highlights a rare case of a woman with horizontal ridging and tenderness of the right great toenail associated with dyspigmentation of 5 years' duration. Histopathology revealed a cystic structure with an epithelial lining mostly reminiscent of an isthmus-catagen cyst admixed with the presence of both an intermittent, focal granular layer and an eosinophilic cuticle surrounding pink, laminated keratin, most consistent with a diagnosis of subungual onycholemmal cyst (SOC). It is a rare and distinctive nail abnormality occurring in the dermis of the nail bed. We present a case of an SOC in the toenail mimicking subungual malignant melanoma, which may be an underrecognized and common entity that must be considered when discussing tumors of the nail unit, especially subungual melanoma. PMID:27622253

  7. Optofluidic phantom mimicking optical properties of porcine livers

    PubMed Central

    Long, Ruiqi; King, Travis; Akl, Tony; Ericson, M. Nance; Wilson, Mark; Coté, Gerard L.; McShane, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    One strategy for assessing efficacy of a liver transplant is to monitor perfusion and oxygenation after transplantation. An implantable optical sensor is being developed to overcome inadequacies of current monitoring approaches. To facilitate sensor design while minimizing animal use, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based liver phantom was developed to mimic the optical properties of porcine liver in the 630-1000 nm wavelength range and the anatomical geometry of liver parenchyma. Using soft lithography to construct microfluidic channels in pigmented elastomer enabled the 2D approximation of hexagonal liver lobules with 15mm sinusoidal channels, which will allow perfusion with blood-mimicking fluids to facilitate the development of the liver perfusion and oxygenation monitoring system. PMID:21750766

  8. Vaginal vascular malformation mimicking pelvic organ prolapse requiring serial embolizations.

    PubMed

    Pue, Leng Boi; Lo, Tsia-Shu; Wu, Pei-Ying

    2013-11-01

    Vaginal vascular malformation (VVM) is rare. There are, in fact, less than ten cases reported to date. VVM often presents as a mass protruding from the vagina, mimicking pelvic organ prolapse (POP). It can coexist with POP, thereby usually exaggerating the severity of POP. We report a case of VVM in a premenopausal woman who presented as severe POP and urinary incontinence. The diagnosis was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) scan and angiography. The patient underwent conservative management with embolization. These procedures had to be repeated three times in 1.5 years due to lesion recurrence. In mitigation, conservative treatment eliminates the risks associated with surgery, e.g. massive hemorrhage and visceral injuries. It does, however, require a long course of treatment and follow-up.

  9. [A giant myxoid leiomyoma mimicking an inguinal hernia].

    PubMed

    Huszár, Orsolya; Zaránd, Attila; Szántó, Gyöngyi; Juhász, Viktória; Székely, Eszter; Novák, András; Molnár, Béla Ákos; Harsányi, László

    2016-03-01

    Leiomyoma is a rare, smooth muscle tumour that can occur everywhere in the human body. The authors present the history of a 60-year-old female, who had a giant, Mullerian type myxoid leiomyoma in the inguinal region mimicking acute abdominal symptoms. After examination the authors removed the soft tissue mass in the right femoral region reaching down in supine position to the middle third of the leg measuring 335 × 495 × 437 mm in greatest diameters in weight 33 kg. Reconstruction of the tissue defect was performed using oncoplastic guidelines. During the follow-up time no tumour recurrence was detected and the quality of life of the patient improved significantly. PMID:26920330

  10. Targeting and mimicking collagens via triple helical peptide assembly

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Yu, S. Michael

    2013-01-01

    As the major structural component of the extracellular matrix, collagen plays a crucial role in tissue development and regeneration. Since structural and metabolic abnormalities of collagen are associated with numerous debilitating diseases and pathologic conditions, the ability to target collagens of diseased tissues could lead to new diagnostics and therapeutics. Collagen is also a natural biomaterial widely used in drug delivery and tissue engineering, and construction of synthetic collagen-like materials is gaining interests in the biomaterials community. The unique triple helical structure of collagen has been explored for targeting collagen strands, and for engineering collagen-like functional assemblies and conjugates. This review focuses on the forefront of research activities in the use of the collagen mimetic peptide for both targeting and mimicking collagens via its triple helix mediated strand hybridization and higher order assembly. PMID:24210894

  11. Epineurium-mimicking chitosan conduits for peripheral nervous tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nawrotek, Katarzyna; Tylman, Michał; Rudnicka, Karolina; Gatkowska, Justyna; Wieczorek, Marek

    2016-11-01

    In this investigation, we report on a fabrication method of epineurium-mimicking tubular conduits based on electrodeposition from chitosan solution. The pre-enrichment of electrodeposition solution with hyaluronic acid and/or collagen components results in structures which structural, morphological, and physicochemical properties can be controlled. In order to determine the optimal composition of the initial chitosan solution resulting in conduits meeting the requirements imposed on peripheral nerve implants, we perform chemical, physical, and biological studies. Both the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid and the concentration of additives are found to be crucial for the final mechanical as well as biological performance of conduits. Because, the obtained structures show biocompatibility when contacting with a mouse hippocampal cell line (mHippoE-18), we further plan to test their application potential on an animal model. PMID:27516256

  12. Mimicking interacting relativistic theories with stationary pulses of light.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Dimitris G; Huo, Ming-Xia; Chang, Darrick; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Korepin, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    One of the most well known relativistic field theory models is the Thirring model. Its realization can demonstrate the famous prediction for the renormalization of mass due to interactions. However, experimental verification of the latter requires complex accelerator experiments whereas analytical solutions of the model can be extremely cumbersome to obtain. In this work, following Feynman's original proposal, we propose an alternative quantum system as a simulator of the Thirring model dynamics. Here, the relativistic particles are mimicked, counterintuitively, by polarized photons in a quantum nonlinear medium. We show that the entire set of regimes of the Thirring model--bosonic or fermionic, and massless or massive--can be faithfully reproduced using coherent light trapping techniques. The correlation functions of the model can be extracted by simple probing of the coherence functions of the output light using standard optical techniques.

  13. Peripherally located endobronchial hamartoma mimicking aspergilloma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Minegishi, Kentaro; Tsubochi, Hiroyoshi; Nakano, Tomoyuki; Kanai, Yoshihiko; Tetsuka, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 75-year-old man with a pulmonary hamartoma that mimicked aspergilloma on chest computed tomography (CT). A CT scan performed to assess an asymptomatic lesion detected on a screening chest radiograph showed a 1.3-cm diameter nodule with an air crescent sign in the left lower lobe. A diagnosis of aspergilloma was made and the patient treated with an antifungal agent for 1 year, following which he underwent radical surgery because of failure of the radiologic lesion to resolve. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen showed an endobronchial hamartoma within the B9 periphery. Peripherally located hamartomas can develop within the peripheral bronchi resulting in an air crescent appearance on radiological images. PMID:26889493

  14. Metastatic gastrinoma in the breast mimicking primary solid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burt, Michael; Madan, Rashna; Fan, Fang

    2016-10-01

    We report a case of metastatic gastrinoma to the breast morphologically mimicking solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. A 59-year-old woman presented with a hypoechoic right breast mass that histologically revealed solid nests of small monotonous tumor cells, fibrovascular cores, and round to oval nuclei with fine chromatin and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated chromogranin and synaptophysin positivity. Tumor prognostic markers showed weak positivity for estrogen receptor and negativity for progesterone receptor. Although an initial diagnosis of solid papillary carcinoma was rendered, subsequent identification of the patient's clinical history of pancreatic gastrinoma and an additional immunohistochemical stain for gastrin supported a diagnosis of metastatic gastrinoma. We report this rare case to increase awareness of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors in the breast. Multiple breast lesions and lack of expression of estrogen/progesterone hormone receptors should prompt careful review of the patient's clinical history to rule out metastatic neuroendocrine disease. PMID:27342908

  15. Cervical vertebral actinomycosis mimicking malignancy in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Shyam; Yoon, Daniel J; Benitez, Carlos L; Buyuk, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Actinomyces spp are found in the flora of the oral cavity and vagina and may cause infection with abscess formation and draining sinuses. Cervicofacial manifestations of actinomycosis involve head and neck soft tissue, however, spread to the cervical spine is rare. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy, presenting with neck pain for 1 month and denying a history of trauma or procedures. Radiography revealed an ulceration of the posterior oropharyngeal mucosa with a defect extending to the C1-C2 vertebra, mimicking a neoplastic process. The patient underwent laryngoscopy and multiple biopsies were taken from the ulcer and bone, showing severe osteomyelitis and intraosseous filamentous organisms, morphologically consistent with Actinomyces spp. The boy received long-term antibiotics with response to treatment. Actinomycosis has rarely been reported in the cervical vertebrae of paediatric patients. This should be considered as a differential diagnosis for such a presentation as prompt antibiotic treatment may be lifesaving. PMID:27033296

  16. Spilled gallstones mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum-Soo; Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standard treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. Although spilled gallstones are considered harmless, unretrieved gallstones can result in intra-abdominal abscess. We report a case of abscess formation due to spilled gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy mimicking a retroperitoneal sarcoma on radiologic imaging. A 59-year-old male with a surgical history of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by gallstones spillage presented with a 1 mo history of constant right-sided abdominal pain and tenderness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a retroperitoneal sarcoma at the sub-hepatic space. On open exploration a 5 cm × 5 cm retroperitoneal mass was excised. The mass contained purulent material and gallstones. Final pathology revealed abscess formation and foreign body granuloma. Vigilance concerning the possibility of lost gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is important. If possible, every spilled gallstone during surgery should be retrieved to prevent this rare complication. PMID:27158213

  17. Riedel's Thyroiditis Mimicking as Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Unusual Presentation.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Arsheed Hussain; Chandramathyamma, Sreerenjini Kaithaparambil; Hakeem, Imtiyaz Hussain; Wani, Fozia Jeelani; Gomez, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare inflammatory process which not only involves thyroid gland but also the surrounding vital structures. It may also be associated with various forms of systemic fibrotic disorders. The exact etiology is not known, but currently most favored view is that of a localized form of systemic fibrotic process. We report a case of Riedel's thyroiditis in a patient, highlighting a rare presentation mimicking anaplastic carcinoma. Clinical awareness of such presentation of Riedel's thyroiditis would enhance our ability to make this diagnosis promptly. Apart from avoiding or minimizing aggressive surgical intervention, awareness of such clinical entity may avoid complications and hence morbidity. Our case also highlights the difficulty in histological diagnosis which is very important to rule out malignancy and avoiding any major surgical intervention fraught with complications. Good response to high dose steroids as seen in our case is the current accepted treatment of choice. PMID:27651702

  18. Engineered nanoparticles mimicking cell membranes for toxin neutralization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ronnie H; Luk, Brian T; Hu, Che-Ming J; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-08-01

    Protein toxins secreted from pathogenic bacteria and venomous animals rely on multiple mechanisms to overcome the cell membrane barrier to inflict their virulence effect. A promising therapeutic concept toward developing a broadly applicable anti-toxin platform is to administer cell membrane mimics as decoys to sequester these virulence factors. As such, lipid membrane-based nanoparticulates are an ideal candidate given their structural similarity to cellular membranes. This article reviews the virulence mechanisms employed by toxins at the cell membrane interface and highlights the application of cell-membrane mimicking nanoparticles as toxin decoys for systemic detoxification. In addition, the implication of particle/toxin nanocomplexes in the development of toxoid vaccines is discussed.

  19. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Mimicking an Oroantral Fistula: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Bárbara Vanessa de Brito; Grempel, Rafael Grotta; Gomes, Daliana Queiroga de Castro; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is one of the most frequent malignant salivary gland tumors, which commonly affects the minor salivary glands of the mouth and is rare in the nose and paranasal sinuses. In the maxillary sinus, ACC can mimic inflammatory diseases and has a poor prognosis. Objective To report a case of a 50-year-old man with ACC of the maxillary sinus whose clinical findings in the alveolar ridge mimicked an oroantral fistula. Case Report An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathologic analysis revealed ACC. Lung metastases and residual tumor in the maxillary sinus were detected by imaging methods. In view of the poor general health of the patient, no new surgical intervention was performed and he was only treated by radiotherapy and follow-up. Conclusion Although rare in the maxillary sinus, ACC should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions affecting this site. PMID:25992095

  20. Multi-modality tissue-mimicking phantom for thermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Mark; Lochhead, Shanna; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael J.

    2004-07-01

    A tissue-mimicking phantom material has been developed for use with thermal therapy devices and techniques. This material has magnetic resonance properties (primarily T2) which change drastically upon thermal coagulation, enabling its use for device characterization and treatment verification using simple T2-weighted imaging techniques. The coagulation temperature of the phantom can be changed from 50-60 °C by adjusting the pH from 4.3 to 4.7. The energy absorption properties can be adjusted to match the acoustical and optical properties of tissues. T2 relaxation measurements are provided as a function of temperature, along with T2-weighted MR images to illustrate the visualization of heating patterns. A complete recipe for fabricating phantoms is provided.

  1. Congenital Giant Keratinous Cyst Mimicking Lipoma: Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Sabhlok, Samrat; Kalele, Ketki; Phirange, Asmita; Kheur, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They arise following a localized inflammation of the hair follicle and occasionally after the implantation of the epithelium, following a trauma or surgery. Conventional epidermal cysts are about 5 cm in diameter; however, rare reports of cysts more than 5 cm are reported in the literature and are referred as “Giant epidermal cysts.” Epidermal cysts although common, can mimic other common benign lesions in the head and neck area. A thorough clinico-pathologic investigation is needed to diagnose these cutaneous lesions as they differ in their biologic behavior, treatment, and prognosis. We report a case of a giant epidermoid cyst in the scalp area of a young female patient which mimicked lipoma on clinical, as well as cyotological examination. We also present a brief review of epidermal cysts, their histopathological differential diagnosis, and their malignant transformation. PMID:26677303

  2. Horizon closeness bounds for static black hole mimickers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushkov, Sergey V.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2009-03-01

    We consider the question whether a wormhole can be converted into a nonextremal quasiblack hole by a continuous change of parameters. In other words, we ask whether “black” wormholes can exist as end points of families of static wormhole geometries. The answer is negative since the corresponding limit is singular. Similar conclusions are valid also for other types of black hole mimickers. Our treatment is model independent and applies to any static geometries. We also find an asymptotic expression for the Kretschmann scalar for wormholes on the threshold of horizon formation. We point out complementarity between the ability of wormholes to mimic black holes and their ability to be traversable “in practice.”

  3. Acoustical characterization of polysaccharide polymers tissue-mimicking materials.

    PubMed

    Cuccaro, Rugiada; Musacchio, Chiara; Giuliano Albo, P Alberto; Troia, Adriano; Lago, Simona

    2015-02-01

    Tissue-mimicking phantoms play a crucial role in medical ultrasound research because they can simulate biological soft tissues. In last years, many types of polymeric tissues have been proposed and characterized from an acoustical and a thermal point of view, but, rarely, a deep discussion about the quality of the measurements, in terms of the uncertainty evaluation, has been reported. In this work, considering the necessity to develop laboratory standards for the measurement of ultrasonic exposure and dose quantities, a detailed description of the experimental apparatuses for the sound speed and the attenuation coefficient measurements is given, focusing the attention on the uncertainty evaluation both of the results and analysis algorithms. In particular, this algorithm reveals a novel empirical relation, fixing a limit to the energy content (therefore limits the number of cycles) of the three parts in which the authors have proposed to divide the acoustical signal. Furthermore, the realisation of multi-components phantoms, Agar and Phytagel based tissue-mimicking gels along with others long chain molecules (dextrane or polyvinyl alcohol) and scattering materials (silicon carbide and kieselguhr) are investigated. This paper reports accurate speed of sound and attenuation coefficient measurements. Speed of sound is measured by a pulse-echo technique in far-field condition, using an optical glass buffer rod; while attenuation coefficient is determined by an insertion technique, using demineralized water as reference material. The experimental sound speed results are subjected to an overall estimated relative uncertainty of about 1.5% and the attenuation coefficient uncertainty is less than 2.5%. For the development of laboratory standards, a detailed analysis of the measurement uncertainty is fundamental to make sample properties comparable. The authors believe this study could represent the right direction to make phantoms characterizations referable and traceable.

  4. Study of optical clearing in polarization measurements by Monte Carlo simulations with anisotropic tissue-mimicking models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongsheng; Zeng, Nan; Wang, Yunfei; He, Honghui; Tuchin, Valery V; Ma, Hui

    2016-08-01

    We conducted Monte Carlo simulations based on anisotropic sclera-mimicking models to examine the polarization features in Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) parameters during the refractive index matching process, which is one of the major mechanisms of optical clearing. In a preliminary attempt, by changing the parameters of the models, wavelengths, and detection geometries, we demonstrate how the depolarization coefficient and retardance vary during the refractive index matching process and explain the polarization features using the average value and standard deviation of scattering numbers of the detected photons. We also study the depth-resolved polarization features during the gradual progression of the refractive index matching process. The results above indicate that the refractive index matching process increases the depth of polarization measurements and may lead to higher contrast between tissues of different anisotropies in deeper layers. MMPD-derived polarization parameters can characterize the refractive index matching process qualitatively. PMID:27240298

  5. Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum Infection With a Destructive Nasal Lesion Mimicking Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Takanori; Ishii, Makoto; Kikuchi, Taku; Kameyama, Kaori; Namkoong, Ho; Nakata, Noboru; Sugita, Kayoko; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Shimizu, Takayuki; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium marinum is a ubiquitous waterborne organism that mainly causes skin infection in immunocompetent patients, and its disseminated infection is rare. Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) usually localizes at the nasal and/or paranasal area, but occasionally disseminates into the skin/soft tissue and gastrointestinal tract. Compromised immunity is a risk factor for developing nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection and malignant lymphoma, and the 2 diseases may share similar clinical presentation; however, only a few reports have described NTM infection mimicking malignant lymphoma. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital complaining of multiple progressive skin nodules and purulent nasal discharge for 3 weeks. He was diagnosed with Crohn disease with refractory enteropathic arthritis and has been treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents for 25 years. Fiberoptic nasal examination revealed septal perforation with hemorrhagic mucus and purulent rhinorrhea. Histological examination of the nasal septum revealed the infiltration of atypical medium-to-large-sized cells with erosion. The cells were positive for cytoplasmic CD3, granzyme B, and Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNA. Histological examination of the skin nodules and auricle also showed infiltration of atypical lymphocytes. The patient was tentatively diagnosed with ENKL, and chemotherapy was considered. However, the skin lesions decreased in size after discontinuation of immunosuppressive agents and minocycline administration. Two weeks later, nasal septum and lavage fluid and left leg skin cultures were positive for M marinum, and minocycline was discontinued. The skin and the nasal lesions improved after 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated M marinum infection with a destructive nasal lesion mimicking ENKL. The differentiation between M marinum infection and ENKL is clinically important because

  6. An unusual case of fulminant myocarditis closely mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and presenting as refractory cardiogenic shock complicated by multiple life-threatening arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-quan; Li, Yi-Gang

    2015-12-01

    We report a case of severe fulminant myocarditis that closely mimicked acute inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and presented with refractory cardiogenic shock, multiple life-threatening arrhythmias and rapidly progressive liver failure. This case was successfully differentiated from STEMI by emergency coronary angiography. Recurrent cardiogenic shock was reversed by intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP). Life-threatening arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and high-degree atrioventricular block (AVB) were terminated by immediate cardioversion and temporary pacemaker. High-dose hydrocortisone effectively attenuated the inflammatory injury to the myocardium. The patient recovered and was well at the follow-up visit four months after discharge.

  7. Actinic lichen planus mimicking melasma. A clinical and histopathologic study of three cases.

    PubMed

    Salman, S M; Khallouf, R; Zaynoun, S

    1988-02-01

    Three cases of actinic lichen planus mimicking melasma are presented. Although the clinical similarity to melasma is striking, the histopathologic picture is distinctive. It is suggested that actinic lichen planus be considered in the differential diagnosis of melasma.

  8. Acute encephalopathy of Bacillus cereus mimicking Reye syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Kazushi; Gakumazawa, Masayasu; Inaba, Aya; Shiga, Kentaro; Takeshita, Saoko; Mori, Masaaki; Kikuchi, Nobuyuki

    2010-09-01

    We present an 11-year-old boy diagnosed as having acute encephalopathy and liver failure with the underlying condition of a metabolic dysfunction. He developed convulsions and severe consciousness disturbance following gastroenteritis after the ingestion of some fried rice. He showed excessive elevation of transaminases, non-ketotic hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia, which were presumed to reflect a metabolic dysfunction of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and he exhibited severe brain edema throughout the 5th hospital day. He was subjected to mild hypothermia therapy for encephalopathy, and treated with high-dose methylprednisolone, cyclosporine and continuous hemodiafiltration for liver failure, systemic organ damage and hyperammonemia. The patient recovered with the sequela of just mild intelligence impairment. In this case, Bacillus cereus, producing emetic toxin cereulide, was detected in a gastric fluid specimen, a stool specimen and the fried rice. It was suggested that the cereulide had toxicity to mitochondria and induced a dysfunction of the beta-oxidation process. The patient was considered as having an acute encephalopathy mimicking Reye syndrome due to food poisoning caused by cereulide produced by B. cereus.

  9. Chondroid chordoma of the sella turcica mimicking a pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Arthur W; Bhuta, Sunita; Salamon, Noriko; Martin, Neil; Wang, Marilene B

    2015-01-01

    We report an unusual case of a chondroid chordoma of the sella turcica that mimicked the clinical and radiologic presentation of the more common pituitary adenoma. A 50-year-old man presented with bitemporal visual field deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected a sellar mass that was suggestive of a pituitary adenoma. However, the intraoperative appearance of the mass was not consistent with an adenoma, and frozen-section pathology was obtained. Pathology identified the mass as a malignant lesion. Based on this finding, the mass was treated more aggressively. Chondroid chordomas are rare and slowly growing but locally aggressive tumors. The prognosis depends on the ability to totally resect the mass, so differentiating this tumor from a benign lesion is critical. An intrasellar chordoma can be confused clinically and radiologically with a pituitary adenoma. These two lesions are nearly identical on MRI, although T2-weighted imaging sometimes demonstrates higher intensity with a chondroid chordoma. Computed tomography may be helpful in demonstrating bony destruction by these lesions, as can the presence of intralesional calcifications. Intraoperative findings of bony invasion or a purple-red color may also lead the surgeon to suspect a diagnosis other than pituitary adenoma.

  10. Mimicking static anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2016-11-01

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic static anisotropic fluid sphere, (static and spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully mimicked by suitable linear combinations of theoretically attractive and quite simple classical matter: a classical (charged) isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore, we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of both electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model. The generalized TOV equation implies that the perfect fluid component in this model is automatically in internal equilibrium, with pressure forces, electric forces, and scalar forces balancing the gravitational pseudo-force. Consequently, we can build theoretically attractive matter models that can be used to mimic almost any static spherically symmetric spacetime.

  11. Modulated Fluorophore Signal Recovery Buried within Tissue Mimicking Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Saugata; Fan, Chaoyang; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Dickson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Optically modulated fluorescence from ~140nM Cy5 is visualized when embedded up to 6 mm within skin tissue-mimicking phantoms, even in the presence of overwhelming background fluorescence and scatter. Experimental and finite element analysis (FEA)-based computational models yield excellent agreement in signal levels and predict biocompatible temperature changes. Using Synchronously Amplified Fluorescence Image Recovery (SAFIRe), dual laser excitation (primary laser: λ = 594nm, 0.29 kW/cm2; secondary laser: λ = 710nm, 5.9 kW/cm2, intensity-modulated at 100Hz) simultaneously excites fluorescence, and dynamically optically reverses the dark state buildup of primary laser-excited Cy5 molecules. As the modulated secondary laser both directly modulates Cy5 emission and is of lower energy than the collected Cy5 fluorescence, modulated Cy5 fluorescence in phantoms is free of obscuring background emission. The modulated fluorescence emission due to the secondary laser was recovered by Fourier transformation, yielding a specific and unique signature of the introduced fluorophores, with largely background-free detection, at excitation intensities close to the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) for skin. Experimental and computational models agree to within 8%, validating the computational model. As modulated fluorescence depends on the presence of both lasers, depth information as a function of focal position is also readily obtained from recovered modulated signal strength. PMID:23692258

  12. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  13. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  14. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel “magic boron” counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters. PMID:25848014

  15. Tuberculosis of the skull mimicking a bony tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, Fadzlishah Johanabas; Haron, Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of calvarial tuberculosis mimicking a solitary bone tumor, which was surgically removed. A 52-year-old female presented with a right forehead swelling, which gradually enlarged over the course of 2 years, with no symptoms or raised intracranial pressure or neurological deficits. Plain and contrast-enhanced brain computed tomography scans were done, revealing a punched-out lesion of the right frontal bone, with a nonenhancing lytic mass. With an initial diagnosis of an intraosseous meningioma, and later on intraoperatively thought to be a metastatic tumor, the mass was excised along with a rim of bone. Histopathological examination results came back as caseous necrosis, highly suggestive of tuberculosis. The patient was then treated with a 1 year regimen of anti-tuberculous medications. Tuberculosis of the cranium is a rare entity, and can mimic tumors or multiple myeloma. A high index of suspicion and knowledge is required for an early diagnosis. A combined surgical and medical therapy is curative. PMID:26889285

  16. Thyroid Ultrasound Pitfalls: Esophageal Fibrovascular Polyp Mimicking Thyroid Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Brigante, G.; Madeo, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ultrasound (US) is the most accurate tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules if performed by expert physician. Misdiagnosis due to extrathyroidal lesions mimicking thyroid nodules is reported in literature. We describe the first case of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp misdiagnosed as a thyroid nodule on US examination. Patient Findings. A 54-year-old woman presented to emergency department for headache and underwent carotid Doppler extended to neck ultrasound with incidental finding of a nodule in the posterior side of the left thyroid lobe. A following thyroid US performed by an endocrinologist allowed the characterization of the lesion as an esophageal pathology, considering the extrathyroidal position, the typical peripheral hyperechoic spots and hypoechoic rim, the connection to the esophagus, and the swallowing connected movement. The patient was addressed to further investigations and finally to anterior pharyngotomy with histological diagnosis of esophageal fibrovascular polyp. Summary. Differential diagnosis between thyroid nodules and other neck lesions is important to prevent an unnecessary fine needle aspiration biopsy and to treat the extrathyroidal pathology. In this case, an US performed by an expert endocrinologist allowed detecting an esophageal fibrovascular polyp requiring surgical removal. In conclusion, the possibility of an esophageal pathology, and even fibrovascular polyp, should be considered during US thyroid examination. PMID:27022492

  17. Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry in blood-mimicking fluids

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry provides a major opportunity to overcome limitations of existing blood flow measuring methods. By enabling measurements with high spatial resolution several millimetres deep in tissue, it could probe microvascular blood flow abnormalities characteristic of many different diseases. Although previous work has demonstrated feasibility in solid phantoms, measurements in blood have proved significantly more challenging. This difficulty is commonly attributed to the requirement that the absorber spatial distribution is heterogeneous relative to the minimum detectable acoustic wavelength. By undertaking a rigorous study using blood-mimicking fluid suspensions of 3 μm absorbing microspheres, it was discovered that the perceived heterogeneity is not only limited by the intrinsic detector bandwidth; in addition, bandlimiting due to spatial averaging within the detector field-of-view also reduces perceived heterogeneity and compromises velocity measurement accuracy. These detrimental effects were found to be mitigated by high-pass filtering to select photoacoustic signal components associated with high heterogeneity. Measurement under-reading due to limited light penetration into the flow vessel was also observed. Accurate average velocity measurements were recovered using “range-gating”, which furthermore maps the cross-sectional velocity profile. These insights may help pave the way to deep-tissue non-invasive mapping of microvascular blood flow using photoacoustic methods. PMID:26892989

  18. Multimodal 3D cancer-mimicking optical phantom

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee Bowden, Audrey K.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing various aspects of optical systems, including for evaluating new probe designs, characterizing the diagnostic potential of new technologies, and assessing novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. We introduce and characterize the use of a new material, Dragon Skin (Smooth-On Inc.), and fabrication technique, air-brushing, for fabrication of a 3D phantom that mimics the appearance of a real organ under multiple imaging modalities. We demonstrate the utility of the material and technique by fabricating the first 3D, hollow bladder phantom with realistic normal and multi-stage pathology features suitable for endoscopic detection using the gold standard imaging technique, white light cystoscopy (WLC), as well as the complementary imaging modalities of optical coherence tomography and blue light cystoscopy, which are aimed at improving the sensitivity and specificity of WLC to bladder cancer detection. The flexibility of the material and technique used for phantom construction allowed for the representation of a wide range of diseased tissue states, ranging from inflammation (benign) to high-grade cancerous lesions. Such phantoms can serve as important tools for trainee education and evaluation of new endoscopic instrumentation. PMID:26977369

  19. Mimicking Neural Stem Cell Niche by Biocompatible Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Regalado-Santiago, Citlalli; Juárez-Aguilar, Enrique; Olivares-Hernández, Juan David; Tamariz, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) participate in the maintenance, repair, and regeneration of the central nervous system. During development, the primary NSCs are distributed along the ventricular zone of the neural tube, while, in adults, NSCs are mainly restricted to the subependymal layer of the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The circumscribed areas where the NSCs are located contain the secreted proteins and extracellular matrix components that conform their niche. The interplay among the niche elements and NSCs determines the balance between stemness and differentiation, quiescence, and proliferation. The understanding of niche characteristics and how they regulate NSCs activity is critical to building in vitro models that include the relevant components of the in vivo niche and to developing neuroregenerative approaches that consider the extracellular environment of NSCs. This review aims to examine both the current knowledge on neurogenic niche and how it is being used to develop biocompatible substrates for the in vitro and in vivo mimicking of extracellular NSCs conditions. PMID:26880934

  20. Mimicking the magnetic properties of rare earth elements using superatoms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Berkdemir, Cuneyt; Castleman, A W

    2015-04-21

    Rare earth elements (REs) consist of a very important group in the periodic table that is vital to many modern technologies. The mining process, however, is extremely damaging to the environment, making them low yield and very expensive. Therefore, mimicking the properties of REs in a superatom framework is especially valuable but at the same time, technically challenging and requiring advanced concepts about manipulating properties of atom/molecular complexes. Herein, by using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we provide original idea and direct experimental evidence that chosen boron-doped clusters could mimic the magnetic characteristics of REs. Specifically, the neutral LaB and NdB clusters are found to have similar unpaired electrons and magnetic moments as their isovalent REs (namely Nd and Eu, respectively), opening up the great possibility in accomplishing rare earth mimicry. Extension of the superatom concept into the rare earth group not only further shows the power and advance of this concept but also, will stimulate more efforts to explore new superatomic clusters to mimic the chemistry of these heavy atoms, which will be of great importance in designing novel building blocks in the application of cluster-assembled nanomaterials. Additionally, based on these experimental findings, a novel "magic boron" counting rule is proposed to estimate the numbers of unpaired electrons in diatomic LnB clusters.

  1. Preparation of artificial plasma membrane mimicking vesicles with lipid asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqing; London, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Lipid asymmetry, the difference in lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer, is one of the most important features of eukaryotic cellular membranes. However, commonly used model membrane vesicles cannot provide control of lipid distribution between inner and outer leaflets. We recently developed methods to prepare asymmetric model membrane vesicles, but facile incorporation of a highly controlled level of cholesterol was not possible. In this study, using hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin based lipid exchange, a simple method was devised to prepare large unilamellar model membrane vesicles that closely resemble mammalian plasma membranes in terms of their lipid composition and asymmetry (sphingomyelin (SM) and/or phosphatidylcholine (PC) outside/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) inside), and in which cholesterol content can be readily varied between 0 and 50 mol%. We call these model membranes "artificial plasma membrane mimicking" ("PMm") vesicles. Asymmetry was confirmed by both chemical labeling and measurement of the amount of externally-exposed anionic lipid. These vesicles should be superior and more realistic model membranes for studies of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interaction in a lipid environment that resembles that of mammalian plasma membranes.

  2. Darier-Roussy Sarcoidosis Mimicking Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Lokesh; Pallade, Siddanna; Krishnamurthy, B; Naveen, T; Preethi, B L; Pramod, K P R; Reddy, Obula; Padma, G

    2009-01-01

    Subcutaneous sarcoidosis (also known as 'Darier-Roussy sarcoid') is a cutaneous condition characterized by numerous deep-seated nodules on the trunk and extremities. Coexistence of sarcoidosis and breast cancer are reported in the literature, but there will always be a chance of misdiagnosis. It is very crucial to obtain a tissue diagnosis of suspicious metastatic lesions. We report a case of breast cancer presenting with a subcutaneous sarcoid lesion masquerading as a metastatic lesion. A 50-year-old female patient, who had had cancer of the left breast, was on hormone therapy 2 years after treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The patient presented with a sudden onset of a forehead subcutaneous swelling mimicking metastasis which on excision biopsy was proved to be sarcoidosis. In India, sarcoidosis is reported rarely. We have to keep in mind that there is a chance of the metastatic lesions being of sarcoidosis origin or another granulomatous disease. To avoid misdiagnosis, it is better to obtain a tissue diagnosis. PMID:20737045

  3. Laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma and vitamin d deficiency.

    PubMed

    Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio Lm; Rolla, Giovanni; Bucca, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratory flows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease in airflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calcium and vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calcium and vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy. PMID:24843804

  4. Riboswitch structure: an internal residue mimicking the purine ligand

    PubMed Central

    Delfosse, Vanessa; Bouchard, Patricia; Bonneau, Eric; Dagenais, Pierre; Lemay, Jean-François; Lafontaine, Daniel A.; Legault, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The adenine and guanine riboswitches regulate gene expression in response to their purine ligand. X-ray structures of the aptamer moiety of these riboswitches are characterized by a compact fold in which the ligand forms a Watson–Crick base pair with residue 65. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a strict restriction at position 39 of the aptamer that prevents the G39–C65 and A39–U65 combinations, and mutational studies indicate that aptamers with these sequence combinations are impaired for ligand binding. In order to investigate the rationale for sequence conservation at residue 39, structural characterization of the U65C mutant from Bacillus subtilis pbuE adenine riboswitch aptamer was undertaken. NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography studies demonstrate that the U65C mutant adopts a compact ligand-free structure, in which G39 occupies the ligand-binding site of purine riboswitch aptamers. These studies present a remarkable example of a mutant RNA aptamer that adopts a native-like fold by means of ligand mimicking and explain why this mutant is impaired for ligand binding. Furthermore, this work provides a specific insight into how the natural sequence has evolved through selection of nucleotide identities that contribute to formation of the ligand-bound state, but ensures that the ligand-free state remains in an active conformation. PMID:20022916

  5. Acoustic resolution photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry in blood-mimicking fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunker, Joanna; Beard, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic Doppler velocimetry provides a major opportunity to overcome limitations of existing blood flow measuring methods. By enabling measurements with high spatial resolution several millimetres deep in tissue, it could probe microvascular blood flow abnormalities characteristic of many different diseases. Although previous work has demonstrated feasibility in solid phantoms, measurements in blood have proved significantly more challenging. This difficulty is commonly attributed to the requirement that the absorber spatial distribution is heterogeneous relative to the minimum detectable acoustic wavelength. By undertaking a rigorous study using blood-mimicking fluid suspensions of 3 μm absorbing microspheres, it was discovered that the perceived heterogeneity is not only limited by the intrinsic detector bandwidth; in addition, bandlimiting due to spatial averaging within the detector field-of-view also reduces perceived heterogeneity and compromises velocity measurement accuracy. These detrimental effects were found to be mitigated by high-pass filtering to select photoacoustic signal components associated with high heterogeneity. Measurement under-reading due to limited light penetration into the flow vessel was also observed. Accurate average velocity measurements were recovered using “range-gating”, which furthermore maps the cross-sectional velocity profile. These insights may help pave the way to deep-tissue non-invasive mapping of microvascular blood flow using photoacoustic methods.

  6. A Case of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Mimicking Cushing's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Kang, Mira; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Min, Yong-Ki; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Kwang-Won

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by decreased adrenal hormone production due to enzymatic defects and subsequent rise of adrenocorticotrophic hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to become hyperplastic, and sometimes tumorous. As the pathophysiology is basically a defect in the biosynthesis of cortisol, one may not consider CAH in patients with hypercortisolism. We report a case of a 41-yr-old man with a 4 cm-sized left adrenal tumorous lesion mimicking Cushing's syndrome who was diagnosed with CAH. He had central obesity and acanthosis nigricans involving the axillae together with elevated 24-hr urine cortisol level, supporting the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. However, the 24-hr urine cortisol was suppressed by 95% with the low dose dexamethasone suppression test. CAH was suspected based on the history of precocious puberty, short stature and a profound suppression of cortisol production by dexamethasone. CAH was confirmed by a remarkably increased level of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone level. Gene mutation analysis revealed a compound heterozygote mutation of CYP21A2 (I173N and R357W). PMID:23166432

  7. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-06-13

    Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function.

  8. Gliomatosis cerebri mimicking encephalitis evaluated using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Krishnan, Vijayan; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shibu, Deepu; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare condition in which an infiltrative glial neoplasm spreads through the brain with preservation of the underlying structure. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has an important role in demonstrating the appropriate metabolism and differentiating pathologies mimicking GC on CT and magnetic resonance imaging. We describe imaging findings of FDG PET/CT in GC in a 9-year-old male child mimicking encephalitis. PMID:25589818

  9. Gliomatosis cerebri mimicking encephalitis evaluated using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Krishnan, Vijayan; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shibu, Deepu; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare condition in which an infiltrative glial neoplasm spreads through the brain with preservation of the underlying structure. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has an important role in demonstrating the appropriate metabolism and differentiating pathologies mimicking GC on CT and magnetic resonance imaging. We describe imaging findings of FDG PET/CT in GC in a 9-year-old male child mimicking encephalitis.

  10. Mimicking the biological neural system using electronic logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirikera, Goutham R.; Shinde, Vishal; Kang, Inpil; Schulz, Mark J.; Shanov, Vesselin; Datta, Saurabh; Hurd, Doug; Westheider, Bo; Sundaresan, Mannur; Ghoshal, Anindya

    2004-07-01

    Detecting and locating cracks in structural components and joints that have high feature densities is a challenging problem in the field of Structural Health Monitoring. There have been advances in piezoelectric sensors, actuators, wave propagation, MEMS, and optical fiber sensors. However, few sensor-signal processing techniques have been applied to the monitoring of joints and complex structural geometries. This is in part because maintaining and analyzing a large amount of data obtained from a large number of sensors that may be needed to monitor joints for cracks is difficult. Reliable low cost assessment of the health of structures is crucial to maintain operational availability and productivity, reduce maintenance cost, and prevent catastrophic failure of large structures such as wind turbines, aircraft, and civil infrastructure. Recently, there have also been advances in development of simple passive techniques for health monitoring including a technique based on mimicking the biological neural system using electronic logic circuits. This technique aids in reducing the required number of data acquisition channels by a factor of ten or more and is able to predict the location of a crack within a rectangular grid or within an arbitrarily arranged network of continuous sensors or neurons. The current paper shows results obtained by implementing this method on an aluminum plate and joint. The plates were tested using simulated acoustic emissions and also loading via an MTS machine. The testing indicates that the neural system can monitor complex joints and detect acoustic emissions due to propagating cracks. High sensitivity of the neural system is needed, and further sensor development and testing on different types of joints is required. Also indicated is that sensor geometry, sensor location, signal filtering, and logic parameters of the neural system will be specific to the particular type of joint (material, thickness, geometry) being monitored. Also, a

  11. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  12. Mimicking photosynthesis in a computationally designed synthetic metalloprotein.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Lidia; Piotrowiak, Piotr; Farid, Ramy S

    2003-10-01

    While advances in protein design have made possible the construction of protein architectures with nativelike properties and predictable structures and function, there are as of yet no examples of functional, protein-based, solar energy conversion systems. This communication describes the design and characterization of an artificial reaction center (RC) protein that closely resembles the function of the natural photosynthetic RC. The synthetic protein, designed by the protein design program CORE, participates in multiple reduction/oxidation cycles with exogenous acceptors/donors following photoexcitation. The designed metalloprotein, aRC, consists of a tetrahelical bundle functionalized with two bis-histidine bound metal cofactors: a Ru(bpy)2 moiety and a heme group. Two distinct bis-histidine binding sites were engineered for each of these metal centers. Photoexcitation of aRC results in rapid ET from the RuII complex to the heme group (kET >/= 5 x 1010 s-1) yielding a long-lived (70 ns) charge-separated state (CSS), RuIII/FeII. This long-lived CSS participates in subsequent ET reactions with exogenous donors and acceptors in multiple photocycles, thus mimicking the basic function of native photosynthetic RCs. This study illustrates the successful design and construction of a protein-based functional charge separation device using a combination of automated computational protein design and knowledge of the engineering principles of biological electron tunneling extracted from natural electron-transfer systems. To our knowledge, this represents the first example of a functional protein-based artificial reaction center. PMID:14505392

  13. Fate of pathogenic bacteria in microcosms mimicking human body sites.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Francesco; Ghidini, Valentina; Tafi, Maria Carla; Boaretti, Marzia; Lleo, Maria M

    2013-07-01

    During the infectious process, pathogens may reach anatomical sites where they are exposed to substances interfering with their growth. These substances can include molecules produced by the host, and his resident microbial population, as well as exogenous antibacterial drugs. Suboptimal concentrations of inhibitory molecules and stress conditions found in vivo (high or low temperatures, lack of oxygen, extreme pH) might induce in bacteria the activation of survival mechanisms blocking their division capability but allowing them to stay alive. These "dormant" bacteria can be reactivated in particular circumstances and would be able to express their virulence traits. In this study, it was evaluated the effect of some environmental conditions, such as optimal and suboptimal temperatures, direct light and antibiotic sub-inhibitory concentrations doses of antibiotic, on the human pathogens Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis when incubated in fluids accumulated in the body of patients with different pathologies. It is shown that inoculation in a number of accumulated body fluids and the presence of gentamicin, reliable conditions encountered during pathological states, induce stress-responding strategies enabling bacteria to persist in microcosms mimicking the human body. Significant differences were detected in Gram-negative and Gram-positive species with E. faecalis surviving, as starved or viable but non-culturable forms, in any microcosm and condition tested and E. coli activating a viable but non-culturable state only in some clinical samples. The persistence of bacteria under these conditions, being non-culturable, might explain some recurrent infections without isolation of the causative agent after application of the standard microbiological methods.

  14. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: unusual manifestations of multiple large pulmonary nodules with retroperitoneal lymph node involvement mimicking metastatic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-A; Han, Daehee; Moon, Hyeon Jong; Cheon, Hey Won; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, idiopathic disorder that predominantly affects the lung parenchyma of women of childbearing age. While the characteristic radiographic finding of pulmonary LAM consists of multiple well-defined thin-walled cysts, we describe a very unusual case of pulmonary LAM with multiple bilateral large pulmonary nodules and retroperitoneal involvement mimicking metastatic malignancy. A 48-year-old woman who had never smoked with a history of bilateral pneumothorax presented with progressive exertional dyspnea and abdominal discomfort. Imaging studies revealed multiple enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, ascites and bilateral multiple large pulmonary nodules ranging from 3 to 18 mm in diameter. Exploratory laparoscopic surgery for intra-abdominal lesions and video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection of lung nodules were carried out to rule out metastatic malignancy. Pathology showed benign looking smooth muscle cell proliferation and immunoreactivity for α-smooth muscle actin and HMB-45 in both specimens. After treatment with GnRH antagonist, the patient was well over a 6-month period without evidence of disease progression.

  15. Mimicking enzymatic active sites on surfaces for energy conversion chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutzler, Rico; Stepanow, Sebastian; Grumelli, Doris; Lingenfelder, Magalí; Kern, Klaus

    2015-07-21

    Metal-organic supramolecular chemistry on surfaces has matured to a point where its underlying growth mechanisms are well understood and structures of defined coordination environments of metal atoms can be synthesized in a controlled and reproducible procedure. With surface-confined molecular self-assembly, scientists have a tool box at hand which can be used to prepare structures with desired properties, as for example a defined oxidation number and spin state of the transition metal atoms within the organic matrix. From a structural point of view, these coordination sites in the supramolecular structure resemble the catalytically active sites of metallo-enzymes, both characterized by metal centers coordinated to organic ligands. Several chemical reactions take place at these embedded metal ions in enzymes and the question arises whether these reactions also take place using metal-organic networks as catalysts. Mimicking the active site of metal atoms and organic ligands of enzymes in artificial systems is the key to understanding the selectivity and efficiency of enzymatic reactions. Their catalytic activity depends on various parameters including the charge and spin configuration in the metal ion, but also on the organic environment, which can stabilize intermediate reaction products, inhibits catalytic deactivation, and serves mostly as a transport channel for the reactants and products and therefore ensures the selectivity of the enzyme. Charge and spin on the transition metal in enzymes depend on the one hand on the specific metal element, and on the other hand on its organic coordination environment. These two parameters can carefully be adjusted in surface confined metal-organic networks, which can be synthesized by virtue of combinatorial mixing of building synthons. Different organic ligands with varying functional groups can be combined with several transition metals and spontaneously assemble into ordered networks. The catalytically active metal

  16. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  17. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom

    2011-05-22

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication.

  18. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.

    PubMed

    Flower, Tom

    2011-05-22

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  19. Acute tuberculous myopericarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    REN, MANYI; ZHANG, CHUNSHENG; ZHANG, XIAOJUAN; ZHONG, JINGQUAN

    2016-01-01

    A number of cases of acute myopericarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have previously been reported in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, such a case resulting from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has not previously been described. The present study reports the case of a 21-year-old male patient presenting with acute chest pain, in whom focal ST-segment elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes mimicked a diagnosis of AMI. However, acute tuberculous myopericarditis was diagnosed on the basis of a variety of imaging examinations, laboratory tests, as well as the changes observed in electrocardiograms (ECGs) and in the cardiac enzyme levels. The case highlights the importance of a detailed collection of medical history, comprehensive explanations of serial ECGs, thoracic computed tomography, echocardiogram and coronary angiography in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute tuberculous myopericarditis mimicking AMI. PMID:27284323

  20. Lymphomatosis cerebri mimicking iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivero Sanz, Elena; Torralba Cabeza, Miguel Ángel; Portugal, Francisco Sanjuán; García-Bragado, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Lymphomatosis cerebri (LC) is a rare variant of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) whereby individual lymphoma cells infiltrate the cerebral white matter without causing a mass effect. The disease characteristically presents as a rapidly progressive dementia, which opens an ample differential diagnosis of toxic, metabolic, neurodegenerative and infective causes. Other presentations also include changes in personality, myoclonus and psychotic symptoms. Here we report a patient who presented with a rapidly progressive dementia with a unique surgical history of a dural mater graft in the 1970s. The diagnosis of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) was initially considered. However, the patient’s clinical status deteriorated rapidly with no response to symptomatic treatment and she died 2 months after symptom onset. A diagnosis of T-type LC was reached at autopsy. PMID:25199185

  1. Inflammatory morphea mimicking an acquired port-wine stain initially treated with pulsed-dye laser.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shanna Shan-Yi; Tay, Yong-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    The early inflammatory lesions of morphea may present with erythema or violaceous patches and plaques before evolving into areas of sclerosis. They have been misdiagnosed as acquired port-wine stains (PWSs). We report a previously well 7-year-old Chinese girl presenting with early facial morphea mimicking an acquired PWS with unusual histologic features of perineural inflammation. The presence of cutaneous perineural inflammation may be seen in a small percentage of cases of morphea and appears to be a feature of early inflammatory morphea. We report this case to highlight the importance in recognizing this entity and summarize the reported cases of inflammatory morphea mimicking acquired PWSs.

  2. Cheek and periorbital peculiar discoid lupus erythematosus: rare clinical presentation mimicking tinea faciei, cutaneous granulomatous disease or blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomoko; Umemoto, Naoka; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Wakatabi, Koji; Iida, Eri; Masaki, Masumi; Kakurai, Maki; Demitsu, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    We present clinically peculiar facial discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) that mimicked tinea faciei. Although DLE is a chronic autoimmune dermatosis, it has a variety of rare clinical presentations, including periorbital DLE, comedonic DLE and hypertrophic DLE recently. In this case, a scaly, erythematous lesion on the eyelid and the central healed, mildly elevated, annularly distributed facial DLE mimicked tinea faciei, complicating our diagnosis.

  3. Nucleus-staining with biomolecule-mimicking nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared by a fast neutralization heat strategy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Fei; Fang, Yang-Wu; Li, Yu-Hao; Li, Wen; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2015-12-11

    Biomolecule-mimicking nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-Cdots) were synthesized from dopamine by a neutralization heat strategy. Fluorescence imaging of various cells validated their nucleus-staining efficiency. The dopamine-mimicking N-Cdots "trick" nuclear membranes to achieve nuclear localization and imaging.

  4. Extraconal cystic schwannoma mimicking an orbital dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Eduardo Damous; Nery, Ana Carla de Souza; Caiado, Fábio Ramos; Prehis, Aline Maria; Limongi, Roberto Murillo

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, we report the first case of an extraconal orbital cystic schwannoma in Brazilian literature. The tumor grew slowly and progressively and was associated with minimal eccentric proptosis and diplopia. The radiologic study (orbital computed tomography) revealed a rounded, encapsulated, and extraconal cystic mass in the superior medial region of the right orbit in the supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve topography. An anterior orbitotomy with full excision of the tumor was performed, and the histopathology examination revealed that the tumor was a schwannoma. After the surgery, the patient experienced total remission of his symptoms. PMID:27626153

  5. Sandhoff disease mimicking adult-onset bulbospinal neuronopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P K; Young, E; King, R H

    1989-01-01

    A 32 year old male is described with an onset of upper limb postural tremor in adolescence followed by muscle cramps. Progressive proximal amyotrophy and weakness in the limbs developed late in the third decade. Examination disclosed, in addition, bilateral facial weakness and mild dysarthria. Enzyme studies revealed hexosaminidase A and B deficiency, indicating a diagnosis of Sandhoff disease. Intra-axonal membranocytoplasmic bodies were present in a rectal biopsy. The presentation, which resembled that of X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy, widens the clinical spectrum for disorders related to G(M2) gangliosidosis. Images PMID:2795083

  6. Cardiac and renal function are progressively impaired with aging in Zucker diabetic fatty type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Baynes, John; Murray, David B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the temporal relationship between cardiomyopathy and renal pathology in the type II diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. We hypothesized that changes in renal function will precede the development of cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat. Animals (10 weeks old) were divided into four experimental groups: Lean Control (fa/?) LC(n = 7), untreated ZDF rats (n = 7) sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and LC (n = 7) untreated ZDF rats (n = 9) sacrificed at 36 weeks of age. LV structural/functional parameters were assessed via Millar conductance catheter. Renal function was evaluated via markers of proteinuria and evidence of hydronephrosis. LV mass was significantly less in the ZDF groups at both time points compared to age-matched LC. End diastolic volume was increased by 16% at 16 weeks and by 37% at 36 weeks of age (p < 0.05 vs. LC). End diastolic pressure and end systolic volume were significantly increased (42% and 27%respectively) at 36 weeks of age in the ZDF compared to LC. Kidney weights were significantly increased at both 16 and 36 week in ZDF animals (p < 0.05 vs. LC). Increased urinary albumin and decreased urinary creatinine were paralleled by a marked progression in the severity of hydronephrosis from 16 to 36 weeks of age in the ZDF group. In summary, there is evidence of progressive structural and functional changes in both the heart and kidney, starting as early as 16 weeks,without evidence that one pathology precedes or causes the other in the ZDF model of type II diabetes.

  7. Multiple lung abscesses caused by Actinomyces graevenitzii mimicking acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Izumikawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-09-01

    Actinomyces graevenitzii is a newly recognized Actinomyces species that is seldom isolated from clinical specimens. A case of multiple pulmonary abscesses mimicking acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is described in this study, and the findings indicate that this organism is an opportunistic human pathogen.

  8. Redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO2 nanostructures: Intrinsic influence of exposed facets

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yushi; Mao, Zhou; Huang, Wenjie; Liu, Lihua; Li, Junli; Li, Jialiang; Wu, Qingzhi

    2016-01-01

    CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have been well demonstrated as an antioxidant in protecting against oxidative stress-induced cellular damages and a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases thanks to their redox enzyme-mimicking activities. The Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio and oxygen vacancies on the surface have been considered as the major originations responsible for the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO2 NPs. Herein, CeO2 nanostructures (nanocubes and nanorods) exposed different facets were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The characterizations by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy show that the Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio and oxygen vacancy content on the surfaces of as-synthesized CeO2 nanostructures are nearly at the same levels. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activity measurements indicate that the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of as-synthesized CeO2 nanostructures are greatly dependent on their exposed facets. CeO2 nanocubes with exposed {100} facets exhibit a higher peroxidase but lower superoxide dismutase activity than those of the CeO2 nanorods with exposed {110} facets. Our results provide new insights into the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO2 nanostructures, as well as the design and synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials-based artificial enzymes. PMID:27748403

  9. Constipation causing elevated iodine activity in the rectum mimicking thyroid cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Kaplan, Summer L; Yang, Hua; Codreanu, Ion; Zhuang, Hongming

    2015-05-01

    Iodine activity in the gastrointestinal tract on I or I imaging is usually diffuse and easy to recognize. Hereby we describe 2 cases of intense focal iodine activity in the rectum mimicking sacral metastases that were caused by constipation. Careful history taking and SPECT/CT imaging can be helpful in distinguishing rectal activity from metastatic lesions in such situations.

  10. Being Mimicked Increases Prosocial Behavior in 18-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Malinda; Uebel, Johanna; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Most previous research on imitation in infancy has focused on infants' learning of instrumental actions on objects. This study focused instead on the more social side of imitation, testing whether being mimicked increases prosocial behavior in infants, as it does in adults (van Baaren, Holland, Kawakami, & van Knippenberg, 2004).…

  11. Multiple Lung Abscesses Caused by Actinomyces graevenitzii Mimicking Acute Pulmonary Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Actinomyces graevenitzii is a newly recognized Actinomyces species that is seldom isolated from clinical specimens. A case of multiple pulmonary abscesses mimicking acute pulmonary coccidioidomycosis is described in this study, and the findings indicate that this organism is an opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:22760049

  12. Alleviation of capsular formations on silicone implants in rats using biomembrane-mimicking coatings.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Ung; Ham, Jiyeon; Kim, Sukwha; Seo, Ji-Hun; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Seonju; Min, Hye Jeong; Choi, Sunghyun; Choi, Ra Mi; Kim, Heejin; Oh, Sohee; Hur, Ji An; Choi, Tae Hyun; Lee, Yan

    2014-10-01

    Despite their popular use in breast augmentation and reconstruction surgeries, the limited biocompatibility of silicone implants can induce severe side effects, including capsular contracture - an excessive foreign body reaction that forms a tight and hard fibrous capsule around the implant. This study examines the effects of using biomembrane-mimicking surface coatings to prevent capsular formations on silicone implants. The covalently attached biomembrane-mimicking polymer, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), prevented nonspecific protein adsorption and fibroblast adhesion on the silicone surface. More importantly, in vivo capsule formations around PMPC-grafted silicone implants in rats were significantly thinner and exhibited lower collagen densities and more regular collagen alignments than bare silicone implants. The observed decrease in α-smooth muscle actin also supported the alleviation of capsular formations by the biomembrane-mimicking coating. Decreases in inflammation-related cells, myeloperoxidase and transforming growth factor-β resulted in reduced inflammation in the capsular tissue. The biomembrane-mimicking coatings used on these silicone implants demonstrate great potential for preventing capsular contracture and developing biocompatible materials for various biomedical applications.

  13. Redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO2 nanostructures: Intrinsic influence of exposed facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yushi; Mao, Zhou; Huang, Wenjie; Liu, Lihua; Li, Junli; Li, Jialiang; Wu, Qingzhi

    2016-10-01

    CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) have been well demonstrated as an antioxidant in protecting against oxidative stress-induced cellular damages and a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases thanks to their redox enzyme-mimicking activities. The Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio and oxygen vacancies on the surface have been considered as the major originations responsible for the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO2 NPs. Herein, CeO2 nanostructures (nanocubes and nanorods) exposed different facets were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The characterizations by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy show that the Ce3+/Ce4+ ratio and oxygen vacancy content on the surfaces of as-synthesized CeO2 nanostructures are nearly at the same levels. Meanwhile, the enzymatic activity measurements indicate that the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of as-synthesized CeO2 nanostructures are greatly dependent on their exposed facets. CeO2 nanocubes with exposed {100} facets exhibit a higher peroxidase but lower superoxide dismutase activity than those of the CeO2 nanorods with exposed {110} facets. Our results provide new insights into the redox enzyme-mimicking activities of CeO2 nanostructures, as well as the design and synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials-based artificial enzymes.

  14. Appendicitis in pregnancy mimicking haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Pooja; Aggarwal, Neelam; Chopra, Seema; Suri, Vanita

    2011-01-01

    We report a patient with pregnancy at term in whom appendicitis mimicked haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. A high index of suspicion of appendicitis should be kept in patients with abdominal pain and biochemical evidence of HELLP. PMID:27579095

  15. [Graft-versus-host disease as the cause of symptoms mimicking Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tuchocka-Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Kołczewska, Aleksandra; Majewski, Dominik

    2006-01-01

    A case of chronic graft-versus-host disease (chronic GvHD) mimicking symptoms associated with idiopathic Sjögren's syndrome is presented. Hypotheses on the pathophysiological origin of clinical syndromes associated with graft-versus-host disease are discussed. PMID:17474179

  16. Synonymies of wasp-mimicking species within the katydid genus Aganacris (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five neotropical wasp-mimicking species of the genus Aganacris—two known from females only and three from males only—are reviewed. Based on observations of interspecific interactions and morphological comparisons, sexual dimorphism is shown to occur within species, and that female species are consp...

  17. Mimicking time evolution within a quantum ground state: Ground-state quantum computation, cloning, and teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Mizel, Ari

    2004-07-01

    Ground-state quantum computers mimic quantum-mechanical time evolution within the amplitudes of a time-independent quantum state. We explore the principles that constrain this mimicking. A no-cloning argument is found to impose strong restrictions. It is shown, however, that there is flexibility that can be exploited using quantum teleportation methods to improve ground-state quantum computer design.

  18. An electronic prosthesis mimicking the dynamic vestibular function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkel, Andrei M.

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports our progress toward development of a unilateral vestibular prosthesis. The sensing element of the prosthesis is a custom designed one-axis MEMS gyroscope. Similarly to the natural semicircular canal, the microscopic gyroscope senses angular motion of the head and generates voltages proportional to the corresponding angular accelerations. Then, voltages are sent to the pulse generating unit where angular motion is translated into voltage pulses. The voltage pulses are converted into current pulses and are delivered through specially designed electrodes, conditioned to stimulate the corresponding vestibular nerve branch. Our preliminary experimental evaluations of the prosthesis on a rate table indicate that the device's output matches the average firing rate of vestibular neurons to those in animal models reported in the literature. The proposed design is scalable; the sensing unit, pulse generator, and the current source can be potentially implemented on a single chip using integrated MEMS technology.

  19. Pancreatic metastasis from mycosis fungoides mimicking primary pancreatic tumor.

    PubMed

    Ceriolo, Paola; Fausti, Valentina; Cinotti, Elisa; Bonadio, Silvia; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Fiocca, Roberto; Rongioletti, Franco; Pistoia, Vito; Borgonovo, Giacomo

    2016-03-28

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that can undergo local progression with possible systemic dissemination. We report a case of a patient affected by MF with a pancreatic mass that was a diagnostic challenge between primitive tumor and pancreatic metastasis from MF. Clinical setting findings and imaging studies raised the suspicion of a pancreatic primary neoplasm. A diagnostic clue was provided by the combined histomorphologic/immunohistochemical study of pancreatic and cutaneous biopsies, which revealed a pancreatic localization of MF. Considering the rarity of metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas, we next investigated whether chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions could be involved in the phenomenon to provide new insight into the possible mechanisms underlying metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas. Histological analyses of archival pancreatic tissue demonstrated that glucagon-secreting cells of the pancreatic islets expressed the CCL27 chemokine, which may have attracted in our case metastatic MF cells expressing the complementary receptor CCR10.

  20. Melanoma Stem Cells and Metastasis: Mimicking Hematopoietic Cell Trafficking?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nayoung; Barthel, Steven R.; Schatton, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer that bears responsibility for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Amidst the research efforts to better understand melanoma progression, there has been increasing evidence that hints at a role for a subpopulation of virulent cancer cells, termed malignant melanoma stem or initiating cells (MMICs), in metastasis formation. MMICs are characterized by their preferential ability to initiate and propagate tumor growth and their selective capacity for self-renewal and differentiation into less tumorigenic melanoma cells. The frequency of MMICs has been shown to correlate with poor clinical prognosis in melanoma. Additionally, MMICs are enriched among circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients, suggesting that MMICs may be a critical player in the metastatic cascade. Although these links exist between MMICs and metastatic disease, the mechanisms by which MMICs may advance metastatic progression are only beginning to be elucidated. Recent studies have shown that MMICs express molecules critical for hematopoietic cell maintenance and trafficking, providing a possible explanation for how circulating MMICs could drive melanoma dissemination. We therefore propose that MMICs might fuel melanoma metastasis by exploiting homing mechanisms commonly utilized by hematopoietic cells. Here we review the biological properties of MMICs and the existing literature on their metastatic potential. We will discuss possible mechanisms by which MMICs might initiate metastases in the context of established knowledge of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in other cancers and of hematopoietic homing molecules, with a particular focus on selectins, integrins, chemokines, and chemokine receptors known to be expressed by melanoma cells. Biological understanding of how these molecules might be utilized by MMICs to propel the metastatic cascade could critically impact the development of more effective therapies for advanced

  1. Bottom-up fabrication of artery-mimicking tubular co-cultures in collagen-based microchannel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Tan, A; Fujisawa, K; Yukawa, Y; Matsunaga, Y T

    2016-10-20

    We developed a robust bottom-up approach to construct open-ended, tubular co-culture constructs that simulate the human vascular morphology and microenvironment. By design, these three-dimensional artificial vessels mimic the basic architecture of an artery: a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (as the tunica externa), smooth muscle cells (SMCs) (as the tunica media), and an endothelial cell (EC) lining (as the tunica interna). A versatile needle-based fabrication technique was employed to achieve controllable arterial layouts within a PDMS-hosted collagen microchannel scaffold (330 ± 10 μm in diameter): (direct co-culture) a SMC/EC bilayer to follow the structure of an arteriole-like segment; and (encapsulated co-culture) a lateral SMC multilayer covered by an EC monolayer lining to simulate the architecture of a larger artery. Optical and fluorescence microscopy images clearly evidenced the progressive cell elongation and sprouting behavior of SMCs and ECs along the collagen gel contour and within the gel matrix under static co-culture conditions. The progressive cell growth patterns effectively led to the formation of a tubular co-culture with an internal endothelial lining expressing prominent CD31 (cluster of differentiation 31) intercellular junction markers. During a 4-day static maturation period, the artery constructs showed modest alteration in the luminal diameters (i.e. less than 10% changes from the initial measurements). This argues in favor of stable and predictable arterial architecture achieved via the proposed fabrication protocols. Both co-culture models showed a high glucose metabolic rate during the initial proliferation phase, followed by a temporary quiescent (and thus, mature) stage. These proof-of-concept models with a controllable architecture create an important foundation for advanced vessel manipulations such as the integration of relevant physiological functionality or remodeling into a vascular disease-mimicking tissue. PMID

  2. A patient with atonic seizures mimicking transient ischemic attacks

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Ju; Choi, Jun Young; An, Young-Sil; Park, Ki-Hyung; Park, Hyeon-Mi; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Sung, Young Hee; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    A focal atonic seizure is a partial seizure in which the ictal manifestation consists of paresis of the extremities or muscles on one side of the body, and this phenomenon can easily be misdiagnosed as a transient ischemic attack. An 86-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of transient right upper extremity weakness lasting for 10 min following an unusual sensation in her chest accompanied by palpitations. On the third hospital day, she again complained of right arm weakness, which progressed to jerky movements of her right extremity accompanied by facial twitching and then generalized into a tonic–clonic seizure. The EEG displayed several interictal spikes in the contralateral temporal area, and the ictal SPECT, analyzed using the SISCOM system, showed an increased signal in both the contralateral superior parietal area and the mesial frontal area. In this case, the patient was diagnosed with focal atonic seizures as the cause of the monolimb weakness, which had been initially misdiagnosed aas transient ischemic attacks. In cases in which a patient presents with monolimb paresis, physicians should consider the possibility of an atonic seizure as the cause. PMID:25870790

  3. Osteomalacia caused by tumors in facies cranii mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Xian-Ling, Wang; Jian-Ming, Ba; Wen-Wen, Zhong; Zhao-Hui, Lü; Jing-Tao, Dou; Ju-Ming, Lu; Yi-Ming, Mu

    2012-08-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an extremely rare metabolic bone disease and the occult offending tumor arising in facies cranii is even more uncommon. In this report, we described 2 middle-aged females with TIO caused by the tumor in facies cranii, which had ever been misdiagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis. Case 1 was present with diffuse bone pain and muscle weakness for 4 years, as well as esotropia in the right eye for 1 month. Case 2 was present with progressive bone pain in low back and hip for 2 years. Biochemical studies both showed persistent hypophosphatemia and urinary over wasting phosphate. Radiological examinations revealed the infiltrative mass in right apex partis petrosae ossis temporalis in case 1, and the soft mass in left nasal cavity and ethmoid sinuses in case 2, respectively. The offending tumors were resected completely in case 2, however, incompletely in case 1. Pathology examination revealed mixed connective tissue variant phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. In conclusion, TIO should be presumed in patients presenting with unexplained persistent hypophosphatemia osteomalacia, also a thorough detection for tumor in facies cranii should be performed.

  4. Paraganglioma of the filum terminale mimicking neurinoma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Hilmani, Said; Ngamasata, Trezor; Karkouri, Mehdi; Elazahri, Abdessamad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paraganglioma of the filum terminale is an uncommon tumor of cauda equina region. Lumbar radiculopathies are revelations that can get complicated from cauda equina syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the diagnosis without distinguishing it from a neurofibroma. Only histopathological study can bring certainty in the diagnosis. The treatment of choice is a complete removal. Case Description: We report a case of paraganglioma of the filum terminale in a 74-year-old female patient, admitted for cauda equina syndrome, which has been progressing for 2 years. MRI of medulla objectified an extramedullary lesion at L3–L4, diagnosed as neurinoma. A complete resection of the tumor was performed with a section of the filum terminale, which she was taking since birth. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of paraganglioma. The clinical course was characterized by a complete recovery of the deficit. Conclusion: Through this case report, the authors discuss clinical and radiological aspects of this tumor, as well as the management in the light of published data. PMID:27069748

  5. Myc Depletion Induces a Pluripotent Dormant State Mimicking Diapause

    PubMed Central

    Scognamiglio, Roberta; Cabezas-Wallscheid, Nina; Thier, Marc Christian; Altamura, Sandro; Reyes, Alejandro; Prendergast, Áine M.; Baumgärtner, Daniel; Carnevalli, Larissa S.; Atzberger, Ann; Haas, Simon; von Paleske, Lisa; Boroviak, Thorsten; Wörsdörfer, Philipp; Essers, Marieke A.G.; Kloz, Ulrich; Eisenman, Robert N.; Edenhofer, Frank; Bertone, Paul; Huber, Wolfgang; van der Hoeven, Franciscus; Smith, Austin; Trumpp, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are maintained in a naive ground state of pluripotency in the presence of MEK and GSK3 inhibitors. Here, we show that ground-state ESCs express low Myc levels. Deletion of both c-myc and N-myc (dKO) or pharmacological inhibition of Myc activity strongly decreases transcription, splicing, and protein synthesis, leading to proliferation arrest. This process is reversible and occurs without affecting pluripotency, suggesting that Myc-depleted stem cells enter a state of dormancy similar to embryonic diapause. Indeed, c-Myc is depleted in diapaused blastocysts, and the differential expression signatures of dKO ESCs and diapaused epiblasts are remarkably similar. Following Myc inhibition, pre-implantation blastocysts enter biosynthetic dormancy but can progress through their normal developmental program after transfer into pseudo-pregnant recipients. Our study shows that Myc controls the biosynthetic machinery of stem cells without affecting their potency, thus regulating their entry and exit from the dormant state. PMID:26871632

  6. Myc Depletion Induces a Pluripotent Dormant State Mimicking Diapause.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Roberta; Cabezas-Wallscheid, Nina; Thier, Marc Christian; Altamura, Sandro; Reyes, Alejandro; Prendergast, Áine M; Baumgärtner, Daniel; Carnevalli, Larissa S; Atzberger, Ann; Haas, Simon; von Paleske, Lisa; Boroviak, Thorsten; Wörsdörfer, Philipp; Essers, Marieke A G; Kloz, Ulrich; Eisenman, Robert N; Edenhofer, Frank; Bertone, Paul; Huber, Wolfgang; van der Hoeven, Franciscus; Smith, Austin; Trumpp, Andreas

    2016-02-11

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are maintained in a naive ground state of pluripotency in the presence of MEK and GSK3 inhibitors. Here, we show that ground-state ESCs express low Myc levels. Deletion of both c-myc and N-myc (dKO) or pharmacological inhibition of Myc activity strongly decreases transcription, splicing, and protein synthesis, leading to proliferation arrest. This process is reversible and occurs without affecting pluripotency, suggesting that Myc-depleted stem cells enter a state of dormancy similar to embryonic diapause. Indeed, c-Myc is depleted in diapaused blastocysts, and the differential expression signatures of dKO ESCs and diapaused epiblasts are remarkably similar. Following Myc inhibition, pre-implantation blastocysts enter biosynthetic dormancy but can progress through their normal developmental program after transfer into pseudo-pregnant recipients. Our study shows that Myc controls the biosynthetic machinery of stem cells without affecting their potency, thus regulating their entry and exit from the dormant state. PMID:26871632

  7. Pancreatic metastasis from mycosis fungoides mimicking primary pancreatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ceriolo, Paola; Fausti, Valentina; Cinotti, Elisa; Bonadio, Silvia; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Fiocca, Roberto; Rongioletti, Franco; Pistoia, Vito; Borgonovo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that can undergo local progression with possible systemic dissemination. We report a case of a patient affected by MF with a pancreatic mass that was a diagnostic challenge between primitive tumor and pancreatic metastasis from MF. Clinical setting findings and imaging studies raised the suspicion of a pancreatic primary neoplasm. A diagnostic clue was provided by the combined histomorphologic/immunohistochemical study of pancreatic and cutaneous biopsies, which revealed a pancreatic localization of MF. Considering the rarity of metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas, we next investigated whether chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions could be involved in the phenomenon to provide new insight into the possible mechanisms underlying metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas. Histological analyses of archival pancreatic tissue demonstrated that glucagon-secreting cells of the pancreatic islets expressed the CCL27 chemokine, which may have attracted in our case metastatic MF cells expressing the complementary receptor CCR10. PMID:27022231

  8. A case of a novel mutant vasopressin receptor-dependent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with bilateral non-obstructive hydronephrosis in a middle aged man: differentiation from aquaporin-dependent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by response of factor VII and von Willebrand factor to 1-diamino-8-arginine vasopressin administration.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kamoi, Kyuzi; Uchida, Shinichi; Sasaki, Sei

    2003-12-01

    We describe a case of a novel mutant vasopressin 2 receptor (V2R)-dependent nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) with bilateral non-obstructive hydronephrosis in a middle aged man. This could be distinguished from aquaporin 2 (AQP2)-dependent NDI by the response of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF) to 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) administration. A 47-year-old man was admitted to hospital because of polyuria, which had been present from infancy and was suspected of causing non-obstructive hydronephrosis. His mother's father, the older brother of his mother and his second daughter also all had polyuria. Sodium concentration, osmolality and vasopressin in blood were high, while sodium concentration and osmolality in urine were low. There were no changes in urine osmolality, factor VIII and vWF in response to DDAVP infusion. Neither was heart rate, diastolic blood pressure nor facial flushing affected. These findings suggested this case was V2R-dependent NDI rather than AQP2-dependent NDI. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated that the patient had a V2R missense mutation involving a substitution of cysteine for arginine at position 104 (R104C) located in the first extracellular loop of the V2R. It was also found that the patient's mother and his second daughter were heterozygous for this R104C mutation. PMID:14709855

  9. Discrimination of Umami Tastants Using Floating Electrode-Based Bioelectronic Tongue Mimicking Insect Taste Systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minju; Jung, Je Won; Kim, Daesan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Hong, Seunghun; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2015-12-22

    We report a floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems for the detection and discrimination of umami substances. Here, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with floating electrodes were hybridized with nanovesicles containing honeybee umami taste receptor, gustatory receptor 10 of Apis mellifera (AmGr10). This strategy enables us to discriminate between l-monosodium glutamate (MSG), best-known umami tastant, and non-umami substances with a high sensitivity and selectivity. It could also be utilized for the detection of MSG in liquid food such as chicken stock. Moreover, we demonstrated the synergism between MSG and disodium 5'-inosinate (IMP) for the umami taste using this platform. This floating electrode-based bioelectronic tongue mimicking insect taste systems can be a powerful platform for various applications such as food screening, and it also can provide valuable insights on insect taste systems.

  10. The Face of the Chameleon: The Experience of Facial Mimicry for the Mimicker and the Mimickee.

    PubMed

    Kulesza, Wojciech Marek; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Vallacher, Robin R; Nowak, Andrzej; Czekiel, Martyna; Bedynska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed three questions concerning facial mimicry: (a) Does the relationship between mimicry and liking characterize all facial expressions, or is it limited to specific expressions? (b) Is the relationship between facial mimicry and liking symmetrical for the mimicker and the mimickee? (c) Does conscious mimicry have consequences for emotion recognition? A paradigm is introduced in which participants interact over a computer setup with a confederate whose prerecorded facial displays of emotion are synchronized with participants' behavior to create the illusion of social interaction. In Experiment 1, the confederate did or did not mimic participants' facial displays of various subsets of basic emotions. Mimicry promoted greater liking for the confederate regardless of which emotions were mimicked. Experiment 2 reversed these roles: participants were instructed to mimic or not to mimic the confederate's facial displays. Mimicry did not affect liking for the confederate but it did impair emotion recognition. PMID:25811746

  11. Depth Evaluation of Soft Tissue Mimicking Phantoms Using Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Li, S.; Wei, C.; Wang, R. K.; Huang, Z.

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) shows advantages in revealing skin mechanical properties. In this paper, we evaluates the elasticity of tissue mimicking phantoms by inversion of SAWs phase velocity to Young's Modulus, the estimated SAWs evaluating depth is determined based on the assumption of that SAWs penetration approximately equals one wavelength. The tissue mimicking phantoms are made of agar with concentration of 1%, 2% and 3%. Their elasticity tested from our system is 13.3 kPa, 53.4 kPa and 257.9 kPa respectively, with expected gradient. The evaluation depth is then estimated as 0.542 mm to 3.403 mm underneath the phantom surface, which indicates that this method is suitable to measure elasticity in dermis layer of skin.

  12. Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix mimicking hydatid cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sikar, Hasan Ediz; Çetin, Kenan; Gündoğan, Ersin; Gündoğan, Gökçen Alinak; Kaptanoğlu, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele is a cystic dilatation of the appendix due to abnormal appendiceal mucinous secretion. Cystadenoma of the appendix is one of the most common causes and is encountered in 0.6% of all appendectomy specimens. The diagnosis may be difficult due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease; pain in the right lower quadrant may be the only symptom. Complex ovarian cyst, urolithiasis or cystic hydatid disease of the liver have been reported as mimicking appendiceal mucocele in the literature. In this study, we present a case of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix mimicking retroperitoneal hydatid cyst in a 59-year-old woman. The patient was treated with laparoscopic appendectomy with partial resection of the caecum following laparoscopic exploration. PMID:27446577

  13. Artifacts and organism mimickers in pathology: case examples and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Leber, Amy; Kahwash, Samir

    2010-07-01

    Despite the impressive advances in pathology and microbiology of recent years, the morphologic recognition of an organism remains a major component in rendering a specific diagnosis of an infectious process, or at minimum, a trigger in the process of identifying an infectious agent. Artifacts and mimickers may pose difficulty to the unwary, and may cause a potential "wild goose chase" that can result in wasted valuable time and resources. Fibrin, collagen exogenous fibers, and bacteria may mimic fungal hyphae. Morphologically altered or treated bacteria and Russel bodies may be mistaken for fungal yeasts, etc. Examples of artifacts and mimickers that may simulate infectious organisms are presented in this article. In addition, a review of literature on the subject, demonstrating a surprising dearth of published articles, despite the frequent encounters of this issue in the daily practice.

  14. Structure-Based Design of Inhibitors of Protein–Protein Interactions: Mimicking Peptide Binding Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Pelay-Gimeno, Marta; Glas, Adrian; Koch, Oliver; Grossmann, Tom N

    2015-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are involved at all levels of cellular organization, thus making the development of PPI inhibitors extremely valuable. The identification of selective inhibitors is challenging because of the shallow and extended nature of PPI interfaces. Inhibitors can be obtained by mimicking peptide binding epitopes in their bioactive conformation. For this purpose, several strategies have been evolved to enable a projection of side chain functionalities in analogy to peptide secondary structures, thereby yielding molecules that are generally referred to as peptidomimetics. Herein, we introduce a new classification of peptidomimetics (classes A–D) that enables a clear assignment of available approaches. Based on this classification, the Review summarizes strategies that have been applied for the structure-based design of PPI inhibitors through stabilizing or mimicking turns, β-sheets, and helices. PMID:26119925

  15. Self-assembled monolayer facilitates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mimicking odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Muni, Tanvi; Mrksich, Milan; George, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Cell-cell interactions are vital for embryonic organ development and normal function of differentiated cells and tissues. In this study we have developed a self-assembled monolayer-based co-culture system to study tooth morphogenesis. Specifically, we designed a 2-D microenvironment present in the dental tissue by creating a well-structured, laterally organized epithelial and mesenchymal cell co-culture system by patterning the cell-attachment substrate. Chemical modifications were used to develop tunable surface patterns to facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mimicking the developing tooth. Such a design promoted interactions between monolayer's of the 2 cell types and provided signaling cues that resulted in cellular differentiation and mineralized matrix formation. Gene expression analysis showed that these co-cultures mimicked in-vivo conditions than monolayer cultures of a single cell type.

  16. Fluidic and air-stable supported lipid bilayer and cell-mimicking microarrays.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yang; Wang, Yini; Holtz, Bryan; Li, Jingyi; Traaseth, Nathan; Veglia, Gianluigi; Stottrup, Benjamin J; Elde, Robert; Pei, Duanqing; Guo, Athena; Zhu, X-Y

    2008-05-14

    As drug delivery, therapy, and medical imaging are becoming increasingly cell-specific, there is a critical need for high fidelity and high-throughput screening methods for cell surface interactions. Cell membrane-mimicking surfaces, i.e., supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), are currently not sufficiently robust to meet this need. Here we describe a method of forming fluidic and air-stable SLBs through tethered and dispersed cholesterol groups incorporated into the bottom leaflet. Achieving air stability allows us to easily fabricate SLB microarrays from direct robotic spotting of vesicle solutions. We demonstrate their application as cell membrane-mimicking microarrays by reconstituting peripheral as well as integral membrane components that can be recognized by their respective targets. These demonstrations establish the viability of the fluidic and air-stable SLB platform for generating content microarrays in high throughput studies, e.g., the screening of drugs and nanomedicine targeting cell surface receptors.

  17. Mimicking the human smell sensing mechanism with an artificial nose platform.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kwon, Oh Seok; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Sung, Jong Hwan; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2012-02-01

    Sensing smell is a highly complex biological process, and characterizing and mimicking the interaction between the olfactory receptor (OR) protein and its ligands is extremely challenging. Herein, we report a highly sensitive and selective human nose-like nanobioelectronic nose (nbe-nose), which responds to gaseous odorants sensitively and selectively, has a signal specificity pattern similar to that in the cellular signal transduction pathway, and maintains an antagonistic behavior similar to the human nose. The human olfaction mechanism was mimicked by using carboxylated polypyrrole nanotubes (CPNTs) functionalized with human OR protein. The nbe-nose was able to detect gaseous odorants at a concentration as low as 0.02 parts-per-trillion (ppt), which was comparable to a highly trained, human expert's nose. The nbe-nose can be used scientifically for smell mechanism studies. It can be also applied to various fields that rely on smell monitoring for industrial and public purposes.

  18. The Face of the Chameleon: The Experience of Facial Mimicry for the Mimicker and the Mimickee

    PubMed Central

    Kulesza, Wojciech Marek; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Vallacher, Robin R.; Nowak, Andrzej; Czekiel, Martyna; Bedynska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research addressed three questions concerning facial mimicry: (a) Does the relationship between mimicry and liking characterize all facial expressions, or is it limited to specific expressions? (b) Is the relationship between facial mimicry and liking symmetrical for the mimicker and the mimickee? (c) Does conscious mimicry have consequences for emotion recognition? A paradigm is introduced in which participants interact over a computer setup with a confederate whose prerecorded facial displays of emotion are synchronized with participants’ behavior to create the illusion of social interaction. In Experiment 1, the confederate did or did not mimic participants’ facial displays of various subsets of basic emotions. Mimicry promoted greater liking for the confederate regardless of which emotions were mimicked. Experiment 2 reversed these roles: participants were instructed to mimic or not to mimic the confederate’s facial displays. Mimicry did not affect liking for the confederate but it did impair emotion recognition. PMID:25811746

  19. The Face of the Chameleon: The Experience of Facial Mimicry for the Mimicker and the Mimickee.

    PubMed

    Kulesza, Wojciech Marek; Cisłak, Aleksandra; Vallacher, Robin R; Nowak, Andrzej; Czekiel, Martyna; Bedynska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    This research addressed three questions concerning facial mimicry: (a) Does the relationship between mimicry and liking characterize all facial expressions, or is it limited to specific expressions? (b) Is the relationship between facial mimicry and liking symmetrical for the mimicker and the mimickee? (c) Does conscious mimicry have consequences for emotion recognition? A paradigm is introduced in which participants interact over a computer setup with a confederate whose prerecorded facial displays of emotion are synchronized with participants' behavior to create the illusion of social interaction. In Experiment 1, the confederate did or did not mimic participants' facial displays of various subsets of basic emotions. Mimicry promoted greater liking for the confederate regardless of which emotions were mimicked. Experiment 2 reversed these roles: participants were instructed to mimic or not to mimic the confederate's facial displays. Mimicry did not affect liking for the confederate but it did impair emotion recognition.

  20. Giant coronary artery aneurysm mimicking a compressive cardiac tumor Imaging features and operative strategy.

    PubMed

    Grandmougin, Daniel; Croisille, Pierre; Robin, Christophe; Péoc'h, Michel; Barral, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Giant atheromatous coronary aneurysms mimicking a cardiac tumor remain exceptional. We report the case of a patient who experienced a severe inferior myocardial infarction related to a giant thrombosed coronary aneurysm masquerading a cardiac tumor and compressing right cardiac cavities with mechanical detrimental consequences on tricuspid, mitral and aortic valvular competence. The contribution of imaging was essential to assess diagnosis, understand the physiopathogeny of myocardial and valvular consequences and plan the optimal surgical strategy. PMID:16168902

  1. Redundant Nerve Roots of Cauda Equina Mimicking Intradural Disc Herniation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sang Mi; Park, Hyung Ki; Cho, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Redundant Nerve Roots (RNRs) is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by a tortuous, serpentine, large and elongated nerve root of the cauda equina. To our knowledge, most cases of RNRs are associated with lumbar stenosis, and RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation has not been reported until now. Here we present a rare case of unusual RNRs associated with lumbar disc herniation mimicking intradural disc herniation. PMID:24757458

  2. Micro/Nanometer-scale fiber with highly ordered structures by mimicking the spinning process of silkworm.

    PubMed

    Chae, Su-Kyoung; Kang, Edward; Khademhosseini, Ali; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2013-06-11

    A new method for the microfluidic spinning of ultrathin fibers with highly ordered structures is proposed by mimicking the spinning mechanism of silkworms. The self-aggregation is driven by dipole-dipole attractions between polar polymers upon contact with a low-polarity solvent to form fibers with nanostrands. The induction of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the dehydrating interface between two miscible fluids generates multi-scale fibers in a single microchannel.

  3. Syphilis Mimicking Other Dermatological Diseases: Reactive Arthritis and Mucha-Habermann Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Carneiro, Sueli Coelho; Pirmez, Rodrigo; de Hollanda, Taciana Rocha; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The authors present two cases of syphilis: one mimicking reactive arthritis and the other Mucha-Habermann disease. Both reports illustrate syphilis as ‘the great imitator’, a description given by Sir William Osler, and call attention to the strong need for awareness among physicians of all specialties, especially the younger ones, who are not used to seeing this increasingly prevalent disease, as it once was in the past. PMID:23467097

  4. Mimickers and tumours in the lower urinary tract: Do we need more efficient vigilance?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Peter D.; Bascom, Alex; Sergi, Consolato

    2013-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in pediatric urology, but an atypical presentation may portend significant pathophysiology. We present 5 cases of young males with a sudden change in urinary symptoms, which resulted in the discovery of a variety of benign bladder tumours. We present the clinical, radiologic and histologic findings of these cases emphasizing on mimickers in clinics. Although rare tumours, these may be increasing in frequency and pediatric care may further be enhanced by the development of multinational registry. PMID:23826055

  5. Looks can be deceiving: three cases of neurological diseases mimicking Guillain-Barrè syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, G; Nicoletti, A; Fermo, S Lo; Mostile, G; Giliberto, C; Zappia, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) is an acute, paralyzing, inflammatory peripheral nerve disease, featured by monophasic disease course, symmetrical limb weakness and areflexia. Several pathologies can mimic the clinical presentation of GBS, making hard the differential diagnosis for patients complaining of acute flaccid paralysis. In this paper we describe three cases of different neurological diseases presenting with acute motor symptoms mimicking GBS, reviewing the relevant literature on misdiagnosis of GBS.

  6. Giant Presacral Tailgut Cyst Mimicking Rectal Duplication in a Girl: Report of a Pediatric Case

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Palacios, Maria; Méndez, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barca, Pablo; Estevez-Martinez, Elina; Pérez-Becerra, Eugenio; Bautista-Casasnovas, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Tailgut cyst, or retrorectal cystic hamartoma, is a rare congenital lesion found in the presacral space. The lession has been infrequently reported in medical literature. It is most common in middle-aged women and is rare in children. We report a case of a tailgut cyst mimicking a rectal duplication in an 8-year-old child. Excision and histological examination of the mass confirmed the tailgut cyst. PMID:25755954

  7. Round ligament lipoma mimicking acute appendicitis in a 24-week pregnant female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J; Paulk, D G

    2013-04-01

    An exhaustive search of the literature using the Pub Med database revealed no reports of round ligament lipomas mimicking acute appendicitis in pregnant patients. There are relatively few articles on round ligament lipomas and even less on round ligament lipomas during pregnancy. This case report is on a 27-year-old 24-week pregnant female who presented with signs and symptoms similar to acute appendicitis who in fact had a large right pelvic round ligament lipoma that was causing her pain.

  8. Abdominal varices mimicking an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage during technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Byrd, B.F.; Berger, D.E.; Turnbull, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    Abdominal varices consisting of a caput medusae and dilated mesenteric veins resulted in pooling of Tc-99m tagged red blood cells (RBC) within these dilated vessels in a 57-year-old man with severe Laennec's cirrhosis. The atypical radiotracer localization within the abdomen mimicked an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Clinical suspicion and careful evaluation of scintigraphic gastrointestinal bleeding studies will avoid false-positive interpretations.

  9. Large retroperitoneal schwannoma mimicking a cystic ovarian mass in a patient with Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Surendrababu, Narayanam R S; Cherian, Sucy Rekha; Janakiraman, Rajinikanth; Walter, Noel

    2008-06-01

    We present a rare case of retroperitoneal cystic schwannoma of the pelvis in a patient with Hansen's disease that mimicked an ovarian cyst. Due to economic constraints and because the lesion was assumed to be of ovarian origin, the patient did not undergo any cross-sectional imaging other than sonography. Sonographically guided fine needle aspiration of the cystic lesion was inconclusive. A cystic schwannoma was diagnosed at laparotomy.

  10. Activation of innate immune responses in a pathogen-mimicking manner by amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticle adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Latrisha K; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Broderick, Scott R; Kong, Chang-Sun; Ulery, Bret D; Rajan, Krishna; Wannemuehler, Michael J; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2011-10-01

    Techniques in materials design, immunophenotyping, and informatics can be valuable tools for using a molecular based approach to design vaccine adjuvants capable of inducing protective immunity that mimics a natural infection but without the toxic side effects. This work describes the molecular design of amphiphilic polyanhydride nanoparticles that activate antigen presenting cells in a pathogen-mimicking manner. Biodegradable polyanhydrides are well suited as vaccine delivery vehicles due to their adjuvant-like ability to: 1) enhance the immune response, 2) preserve protein structure, and 3) control protein release. The results of these studies indicate that amphiphilic nanoparticles possess pathogen-mimicking properties as evidenced by their ability to activate dendritic cells similarly to LPS. Specific molecular descriptors responsible for this behavior were identified using informatics analyses, including the number of backbone oxygen moieties, percent of hydroxyl end groups, polymer hydrophobicity, and number of alkyl ethers. Additional findings from this work suggest that the molecular characteristics mediating APC activation are not limited to hydrophobicity but vary in complexity (e.g., presentation of oxygen-rich molecular patterns to cells) and elicit unique patterns of cellular activation. The approach outlined herein demonstrates the ability to rationally design pathogen-mimicking nanoparticle adjuvants for use in next-generation vaccines against emerging and re-emerging diseases.

  11. Interaction of fengycin with stratum corneum mimicking model membranes: a calorimetry study.

    PubMed

    Eeman, Marc; Olofsson, Gerd; Sparr, Emma; Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Nylander, Tommy; Deleu, Magali

    2014-09-01

    Based on its outstanding antifungal properties, it is reasonable to believe that fengycin might be efficient to topically treat localized dermatomycoses. Since most of the fungi species involved in the formation of those mycotic skin diseases colonize primarily the stratum corneum (SC), studying the interaction between fengycin and SC-mimicking lipid membranes is a primary step to determine the potential of fengycin to overcome the physical barrier of the skin. In this respect, multilamellar lipid vesicles (MLVs), with a lipid composition mimicking that of the SC, were prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of fengycin was also assessed under skin conditions and found to be 1.2±0.1μM. The molecular interactions of fengycin with SC-mimicking MLVs were investigated by both DSC and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Results showed that the interactions were considerably affected by changes in lipid phase behaviour. At 40°C and below, fengycin induced exothermic changes in the lipid structures suggesting that less-ordered lipid domains became more-ordered in presence of fengycin. At 60°C, clearly endothermic interaction enthalpies were observed, which could arise from the "melting" of remaining solid domains enriched in high melting lipids that without fengycin melt at higher temperatures.

  12. Mimicking phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin affects its chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Ecroyd, Heath; Meehan, Sarah; Horwitz, Joseph; Aquilina, J Andrew; Benesch, Justin L P; Robinson, Carol V; Macphee, Cait E; Carver, John A

    2007-01-01

    AlphaB-crystallin is a member of the sHsp (small heat-shock protein) family that prevents misfolded target proteins from aggregating and precipitating. Phosphorylation at three serine residues (Ser19, Ser45 and Ser59) is a major post-translational modification that occurs to alphaB-crystallin. In the present study, we produced recombinant proteins designed to mimic phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin by incorporating a negative charge at these sites. We employed these mimics to undertake a mechanistic and structural investigation of the effect of phosphorylation on the chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin to protect against two types of protein misfolding, i.e. amorphous aggregation and amyloid fibril assembly. We show that mimicking phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin results in more efficient chaperone activity against both heat-induced and reduction-induced amorphous aggregation of target proteins. Mimick-ing phosphorylation increased the chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin against one amyloid-forming target protein (kappa-casein), but decreased it against another (ccbeta-Trp peptide). We observed that both target protein identity and solution (buffer) conditions are critical factors in determining the relative chaperone ability of wild-type and phosphorylated alphaB-crystallins. The present study provides evidence for the regulation of the chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin by phosphorylation and indicates that this may play an important role in alleviating the pathogenic effects associated with protein conformational diseases. PMID:16928191

  13. A reusable perfusion supporting tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound hyperthermia phantoms.

    PubMed

    Chin, R B; Madsen, E L; Zagzebski, J A; Jadvar, H; Wu, X K; Frank, G R

    1990-01-01

    A new ultrasonically and thermodynamically tissue-mimicking material is reported. The material is well suited for use in phantoms for testing ultrasound hyperthermia systems or related predictive models. Controlled convective heat transfer effects, mimicking to some extent perfusive heat transfer in tissues, can be instituted in the material with appropriate fluid sources and sinks. The material consists of closely packed agar spheres varying in diameters from 0.3-3.6 mm. The interstitial space between spheres is filled with 10% n-propanol solution. The material has two practical advantages over the solid-gel-type tissue-mimicking materials. The first advantage is that it allows rapid return of a hyperthermia phantom to thermal equilibrium following a heating test by rapid circulation of the perfusion fluid. The second advantage is that the material is in a "liquid" form. It can be easily siphoned in and out of phantom containers of any geometric shape for different purposes without change in its physical properties. Methods for measuring ultrasonic and thermodynamic properties of the material and the results of the measurements are reported. The physical parameters measured are the intensity attenuation and absorption coefficients, the ultrasonic speed, the thermal conductivity, specific-heat capacity and the mass density. Temperature measurements in a hyperthermia phantom made of the material are also reported. PMID:2385195

  14. Antimicrobial Peptide Mimicking Primary Amine and Guanidine Containing Methacrylamide Copolymers Prepared by Raft Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Sarah E.; Paslay, Lea C.; Sahukhal, Gyan S.; Abel, Brooks A.; Brown, Tyler D.; McCormick, Charles L.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Koul, Veena; Choudhary, Veena; Elasri, Mohamed O.; Morgan, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) display the ability to eliminate a wide variety of bacteria, without toxicity to the host eukaryotic cells. Synthetic polymers containing moieties mimicking lysine and arginine components found in AMPs have been reported to show effectiveness against specific bacteria, with the mechanism of activity purported to depend on the nature of the amino acid mimic. In an attempt to incorporate the antimicrobial activity of both amino acids into a single water-soluble copolymer, a series of copolymers containing lysine mimicking aminopropyl methacrylamide (APMA) and arginine mimicking guanadinopropyl methacrylamide (GPMA) were prepared via aqueous RAFT polymerization. Copolymers were prepared with varying ratios of the comonomers, with degree of polymerization of 35–40 and narrow molecular weight distribution to simulate naturally occurring AMPs. Antimicrobial activity was determined against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria under conditions with varying salt concentration. Toxicity to mammalian cells was assessed by hemolysis of red blood cells and MTT assays of MCF-7 cells. Antimicrobial activity was observed for APMA homopolymer and copolymers with low concentrations of GPMA against all bacteria tested, with low toxicity toward mammalian cells. PMID:26558609

  15. Cheek and periorbital peculiar discoid lupus erythematosus: rare clinical presentation mimicking tinea faciei, cutaneous granulomatous disease or blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomoko; Umemoto, Naoka; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Wakatabi, Koji; Iida, Eri; Masaki, Masumi; Kakurai, Maki; Demitsu, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    We present clinically peculiar facial discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) that mimicked tinea faciei. Although DLE is a chronic autoimmune dermatosis, it has a variety of rare clinical presentations, including periorbital DLE, comedonic DLE and hypertrophic DLE recently. In this case, a scaly, erythematous lesion on the eyelid and the central healed, mildly elevated, annularly distributed facial DLE mimicked tinea faciei, complicating our diagnosis. PMID:25969679

  16. Distinct effects of Abelson kinase mutations on myocytes and neurons in dissociated Drosophila embryonic cultures: mimicking of high temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) is known to regulate axon guidance, muscle development, and cell-cell interaction in vivo. The Drosophila primary culture system offers advantages in exploring the cellular mechanisms mediated by Abl with utilizing various experimental manipulations. Here we demonstrate that single-embryo cultures exhibit stage-dependent characteristics of cellular differentiation and developmental progression in neurons and myocytes, as well as nerve-muscle contacts. In particular, muscle development critically depends on the stage of dissociated embryos. In wild-type (WT) cultures derived from embryos before stage 12, muscle cells remained within cell clusters and were rarely detected. Interestingly, abundant myocytes were spotted in Abl mutant cultures, exhibiting enhanced myocyte movement and fusion, as well as neuron-muscle contacts even in cultures dissociated from younger, stage 10 embryos. Notably, Abl myocytes frequently displayed well-expanded lamellipodia. Conversely, Abl neurons were characterized with fewer large veil-like lamellipodia, but instead had increased numbers of filopodia and darker nodes along neurites. These distinct phenotypes were equally evident in both homo- and hetero-zygous cultures (Abl/Abl vs. Abl/+) of different alleles (Abl(1) and Abl(4) ) indicating dominant mutational effects. Strikingly, in WT cultures derived from stage 10 embryos, high temperature (HT) incubation promoted muscle migration and fusion, partially mimicking the advanced muscle development typical of Abl cultures. However, HT enhanced neuronal growth with increased numbers of enlarged lamellipodia, distinct from the characteristic Abl neuronal morphology. Intriguingly, HT incubation also promoted Abl lamellipodia expansion, with a much greater effect on nerve cells than muscle. Our results suggest that Abl is an essential regulator for myocyte and neuron development and that high-temperature incubation partially mimics the faster muscle development

  17. Biomimetic photo-actuation: progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicker, Michael P. M.; Weaver, Paul M.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Bond, Ian P.; Faul, Charl F. J.

    2016-04-01

    Photo-actuation, such as that observed in the reversible sun-tracking movements of heliotropic plants, is produced by a complex, yet elegant series of processes. In the heliotropic leaf movements of the Cornish Mallow, photo-actuation involves the generation, transport and manipulation of chemical signals from a distributed network of sensors in the leaf veins to a specialized osmosis driven actuation region in the leaf stem. It is theorized that such an arrangement is both efficient in terms of materials use and operational energy conversion, as well as being highly robust. We concern ourselves with understanding and mimicking these light driven, chemically controlled actuating systems with the aim of generating intelligent structures which share the properties of efficiency and robustness that are so important to survival in Nature. In this work we present recent progress in mimicking these photo-actuating systems through remote light exposure of a metastable state photoacid and the resulting signal and energy transfer through solution to a pH-responsive hydrogel actuator. Reversible actuation strains of 20% were achieved from this arrangement, with modelling then employed to reveal the critical influence hydrogel pKa has on this result. Although the strong actuation achieved highlights the progress that has been made in replicating the principles of biomimetic photo-actuation, challenges such as photoacid degradation were also revealed. It is anticipated that current work can directly lead to the development of high-performance and low-cost solartrackers for increased photovoltaic energy capture and to the creation of new types of intelligent structures employing chemical control systems.

  18. [A case of an anti-Ma2 antibody-positive patient presenting with variable CNS symptoms mimicking multiple system atrophy with a partial response to immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Wataru; Iwanaga, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    A 70-year-old man with a 5-month history of progressive bradykinesia of the bilateral lower extremities was admitted to our hospital. At the age of 64, he underwent proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. He also had a history of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord since the age of 67, which was successfully treated with vitamin B12 therapy. Four weeks before admission to our hospital, he admitted himself to his former hospital complaining of walking difficulty. Two weeks later, however, his symptoms progressed rapidly; he was immobilized for two weeks and did not respond to the vitamin therapy. On admission to our hospital, he showed moderate paralysis of the lower extremities, cog-wheel rigidity of the four extremities, and dystonic posture of his left hand. He also showed orthostatic hypotension and vesicorectal disorders. Blood examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed no remarkable abnormalities. Electroencephalography showed frontal dominant, high voltage, sharp waves. His brain and spinal MRI revealed no notable abnormalities. We suspected autoimmune disease and commenced one course of intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, resulting in improvement of the parkinsonism and orthostatic hypotension. Based on these results, we investigated possible neural antigens and detected anti-Ma2 antibody. In addition to limbic encephalitis, anti-Ma2 antibody-positive neural disorders are characterized by rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders or parkinsonism. Here, we report an anti-Ma2 antibody positive patient presenting variable CNS symptoms mimicking multiple system atrophy, who responded to immunotherapy. PMID:25746072

  19. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease mimicking lung cancer: Clinicoradiologic features and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy.Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus. Diagnostic procedures for microbiologic diagnosis of NTM disease and clinical outcome were reviewed.Incidence of NTM pulmonary disease presenting as solitary nodule/mass (n = 8) or mass-like consolidation (n = 6) was 3.6% (14 of 388). Most lesions were detected incidentally during routine health check-up or evaluation of other disease (11 of 14, 79%). Lesions typically showed poor contrast-enhancement (9 of 12) and internal calcification (6 of 14). No lesions had CT features suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease. All 4 lesions for which PET/CT imaging was performed showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose uptake simulating malignant lesions (mean, 4.9; range, 3.6-7.8). PCNB revealed mycobacterial histology in 6 of 11 specimens and positive culture results were obtained for 7 of 7 specimens.NTM pulmonary disease may present as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. CT features and PCNB are important to diagnose NTM disease mimicking lung cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27367996

  20. Low-grade mucinous cystic tumor mimicking urinary bladder tumor: imaging-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Ferlicot, Sophie; Bessède, Thomas; Soyer, Philippe; Rocher, Laurence

    2013-05-01

    Mucin-producing cystitis glandularis is a rare proliferative and metaplastic change of the bladder mucosa that produces large amounts of mucus, thus taking a pseudotumoral pattern and resulting in urinary tract obstruction. We report a case of florid mucin-producing cystitis glandularis mimicking bladder carcinoma in a 77-year-old man that was documented by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomography showed diffuse, circumferential, irregular, and lobulated thickening of the bladder wall suggestive of urinary bladder carcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed findings consistent with mucinous content and suggested the correct diagnosis preoperatively. PMID:23490529

  1. A case of scrotal swelling mimicking testicular torsion preceding Henoch-Schönlein vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Akgun, C

    2012-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is one of the most common types of multisystemic vasculitis seen in childhood. The major clinical manifestations are cutaneous purpura, arthritis, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and nephritis. Isolated central nervous system vasculitis, seizures, coma and hemorrhage, Guillan--Barré syndrome, ataxia and central and peripheral neuropathy, ocular involvement, orchitis, epididymitis or testicular torsion are medical or surgical complications. In this study, we report a 7-year-old boy with scrotal swelling mimicking testicular torsion with ultrasonographic and clinical findings that the typical clinical features of Henoch-Schönlein purpura including rashes and arthritis were developed after one week of surgery (Ref. 15).

  2. Syphilis associated with paretic neurosyphilis mimicking Reiter's syndrome in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Thales Costa; Maia, Daniela Cristina Caetano; Gomes, Nathália Matos; Menezes, Carla Kellen da Silva; Francesconi, Valeska; Francesconi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    HIV/syphilis co-infection is common because both conditions affect similar risk groups. HIV interferes with the natural history of syphilis, which often has atypical clinical features and nervous system involvement in the early stage of disease. We report the case of an HIV-positive patient with secondary syphilis, scaling palmoplantar keratoderma, scrotal eczema, balanitis and urethritis mimicking Reiter's syndrome. Immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against Treponema pallidum revealed the presence of spirochetes, associated with the paretic form of parenchymal neurosyphilis. The patient was given crystalline penicillin, with complete resolution of dermatological and neurological symptoms, and no sequelae. PMID:26312720

  3. Peripheral Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumour Mimicking a Gingival Inflammation: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Danielle Lima Corrêa; do Canto, Alan Motta; Eduardo, Fernanda de Paula; Bezinelli, Letícia Mello

    2016-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour (CEOT) is an extremely rare benign neoplasia, accounting for approximately 1% of all odontogenic tumours. CEOT can have two clinical manifestations: central or intraosseous (94% of the cases) and peripheral or extraosseous (6% of the cases). Although the latter is less common, the peripheral variant has been described as an insidious lesion, since it is usually asymptomatic and may be erroneously mistaken with gingival hyperplasia, hamartomas, or even metastasis of malignant neoplasia. We report a case of a young male patient presenting with a peripheral CEOT in the mandibular posterior region, mimicking a located gingival inflammation. PMID:27807486

  4. Tissue mimicking materials for the detection of prostate cancer using shear wave elastography: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Zhihong; Varghese, Tomy; Nabi, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of stiffness changes may provide important diagnostic information and aid in the early detection of cancers. Shear wave elastography is an imaging technique that assesses tissue stiffness using acoustic radiation force as an alternate to manual palpation reported previously with quasistatic elastography. In this study, the elastic properties of tissue mimicking materials, including agar, polyacrylamide (PAA), and silicone, are evaluated with an objective to determine material characteristics which resemble normal and cancerous prostate tissue. Methods: Acoustic properties and stiffness of tissue mimicking phantoms were measured using compressional mechanical testing and shear wave elastography using supersonic shear imaging. The latter is based on the principles of shear waves generated using acoustic radiation force. The evaluation included tissue mimicking materials (TMMs) within the prostate at different positions and sizes that could mimic cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Patient data on normal and prostate cancer tissues quantified using biopsy histopathology were used to validate the findings. Pathologist reports on histopathology were blinded to mechanical testing and elastographic findings. Results: Young's modulus values of 86.2 ± 4.5 and 271.5 ± 25.7 kPa were obtained for PAA mixed with 2% Al2O3 particles and silicone, respectively. Young's modulus of TMMs from mechanical compression testing showed a clear trend of increasing stiffness with an increasing percentage of agar. The silicone material had higher stiffness values when compared with PAA with Al2O3. The mean Young's modulus value in cancerous tissue was 90.5 ± 4.5 kPa as compared to 93.8 ± 4.4 and 86.2 ± 4.5 kPa obtained with PAA with 2% Al2O3 phantom at a depth of 52.4 and 36.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: PAA mixed with Al2O3 provides the most suitable tissue mimicking material for prostate cancer tumor material, while agar could form the surrounding

  5. Tissue Boundaries: Mimicking Tissue Boundaries by Sharp Multiparameter Matrix Interfaces (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 15/2016).

    PubMed

    Sapudom, Jiranuwat; Rubner, Stefan; Martin, Steve; Pompe, Tilo

    2016-08-01

    Engineering interfaces of extracellular compartments mimicking native tissues is key to study cell behavior in a physiologically relevant context and for a successful translation of these new biomaterials engineering principles in regenerative and therapeutic applications. Tilo Pompe and co-workers demonstrate a strategy to engineer multiparameter matrix interfaces using a sequential reconstitution of two well-defined Collagen I based matrices on page 1861. Such matrix interfaces trigger cell migration directionality normal to the interface plane in dependence on matrix pore size. PMID:27511951

  6. Digital speckle pattern interferometry based anomaly detection in breast mimicking phantoms: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K.; Sujatha, N.; Ganesan, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    Early screening of subsurface anomalies in breast can improve the patient survival rate. Clinically approved breast screening modalities may either have body ionizing effect/cause pain to the body parts/ involves body contact/ increased cost. In this paper, a non-invasive, whole field Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is used to study normal and abnormal breast mimicking tissue phantoms. While uniform fringes were obtained for a normal phantom in the out of plane speckle pattern interferometry configuration, the non uniformity in the observed fringes clearly showed the anomaly location in the abnormal phantom. The results are compared with deformation profiles using finite element analysis of the sample under similar loading conditions.

  7. Benign isolated histiocytosis mimicking chicken pox in a neonate: report of two cases with ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, E; Kahn, L B; Festa, R; Lanzkowsky, P

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of benign isolated cutaneous histiocytosis X in newborn infants are reported. Clinically, the lesions mimicked chicken pox, and the histologic findings in skin biopsies were indistinguishable from those described in infantile Letterer-Siwe disease. Electron microscopy showed Langerhans' cells with the classical trilaminar, racket-shaped granules. Our cases a well as 10 of the 21 previously reported cases showed spontaneous resolution of the skin lesions. Since this is a benign spontaneous resolving histiocytosis, we recommend that no therapy be given provided that no other signs of systemic involvement are found.

  8. Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma. PMID:21160780

  9. Non-absorbable suture granuloma mimicking a retroperitoneal metastatic implant in a patient with sigmoid neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Alberto; García-Espinosa, Jade

    2016-09-01

    The development of a foreign body granuloma from non-absorbable suture is a relatively uncommon condition, exceptional in the retroperitoneum of patients operated on for colorectal surgery. We report the case of a patient with a history of sigmoid neoplasm showing a retroperitoneal nodule on CT and high activity on PET, mimicking a tumor implant. Pathology found a foreign body granuloma. Foreign body granuloma from suture is a condition that may look identical to tumor relapse or metastatic disease on CT and PET scans, thus requiring pathology confirmation. PMID:27615018

  10. Speech-activated Myoclonus Mimicking Stuttering in a Patient with Myoclonus–Dystonia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, David A.; Hedera, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Acquired neurogenic stuttering has been considered a fairly uncommon clinical occurrence; speech-activated myoclonus is a rare entity that can mimic stuttering and is caused by a wide array of etiologies. Case Report Here we report a patient with myoclonus–dystonia syndrome (MDS), due to an identified disease-causing mutation, who displayed speech-activated myoclonus mimicking stuttering. Discussion In MDS, myoclonus has only infrequently been reported to affect speech. This case further expands the spectrum of conditions causing the rare clinical phenomenon of speech-activated myoclonus. PMID:27441098

  11. Pulmonary mass and multiple lung nodules mimicking a lung neoplasm as amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, J L.; García-Nieto, J C.; Ballesta, F; Prieto, E; Villanueva, M A.; Gallardo, J

    2001-07-01

    Amiodarone is an effective anti-arrhythmic agent. However, during long-term therapy, patients can develop severe adverse pulmonary reactions that are potentially life-threatening. A case of amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity is presented in a 78-year-old woman. She developed dyspnea and a pulmonary mass with associated multiple lung nodules mimicking a lung cancer following 5 years of treatment with amiodarone for atrial fibrillation. After drug withdrawal, and without any additional treatment, clinical and radiological improvement was observed, and radiological findings resolved completely within 6 months.

  12. Long bone florid reactive periostitis ossificans: a case in the distal femur mimicking osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Azorín, Daniel; López-Pino, Miguel A; González-Mediero, Imelda; Epeldegui, Tomás; López-Barea, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    Florid reactive periostitis ossificans is a well-known benign lesion classically described in hands and feet which histopathological features can lead to a misdiagnosis of osteosarcoma. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one previous report of this lesion in a long bone. In this study we report a case of florid reactive periostitis ossificans located in the distal metaphysis of the left femur that histologically mimicked an osteosarcoma and discuss the differential diagnosis between these two entities to warn about a diagnostic pitfall.

  13. Long-term follow up of renal anastomosing hemangioma mimicking renal angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Pichler, Renate; Schäfer, Georg; Zelger, Bernhard; Zelger, Bettina; Aigner, Friedrich; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Anastomosing hemangioma of the kidney is a very rare neoplasm, currently 19 cases have been reported in the literature. First described in 2009, histopathologically anastomosing hemangioma is similar to aggressive angiosarcoma. No long-term follow-up data of anastomosing hemangioma have been described yet. Here, we present the case of a healthy 56-year-old man diagnosed in 2002 with a 7 × 5-cm anastomosing hemangioma mimicking an aggressive renal angiosarcoma. The patient underwent nephrectomy and has been followed up disease free for 13 years.

  14. Primary Paranasal Tuberculosis in a Diabetic Mimicking Odontogenic Infection: A Rare Case; A Unique Presentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Mehendirratta, Monica; Sareen, Chanchal; Aggarwal, Anju

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) is high especially in developing countries but primary para-nasal TB is still a rarity. The latter often remains quiescent until it reaches an advanced stage and offers a diagnostic challenge. In the present case report maxillary sinus TB mimicked a destructive periodontitis induced space infection, thus causing a delay in treatment. The present case report describes clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of a 50-year-old diabetic/HIV seronegative patient with histopathologically confirmed case of maxillary sinus TB. PMID:27135017

  15. Primary Paranasal Tuberculosis in a Diabetic Mimicking Odontogenic Infection: A Rare Case; A Unique Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mehendirratta, Monica; Sareen, Chanchal; Aggarwal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) is high especially in developing countries but primary para-nasal TB is still a rarity. The latter often remains quiescent until it reaches an advanced stage and offers a diagnostic challenge. In the present case report maxillary sinus TB mimicked a destructive periodontitis induced space infection, thus causing a delay in treatment. The present case report describes clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of a 50-year-old diabetic/HIV seronegative patient with histopathologically confirmed case of maxillary sinus TB. PMID:27135017

  16. Bioinspired micrograting arrays mimicking the reverse color diffraction elements evolved by the butterfly Pierella luna

    PubMed Central

    England, Grant; Kolle, Mathias; Kim, Philseok; Khan, Mughees; Muñoz, Philip; Mazur, Eric; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Recently, diffraction elements that reverse the color sequence normally observed in planar diffraction gratings have been found in the wing scales of the butterfly Pierella luna. Here, we describe the creation of an artificial photonic material mimicking this reverse color-order diffraction effect. The bioinspired system consists of ordered arrays of vertically oriented microdiffraction gratings. We present a detailed analysis and modeling of the coupling of diffraction resulting from individual structural components and demonstrate its strong dependence on the orientation of the individual miniature gratings. This photonic material could provide a basis for novel developments in biosensing, anticounterfeiting, and efficient light management in photovoltaic systems and light-emitting diodes. PMID:25288730

  17. Mimicking Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.

    1989-04-01

    Although the concept of an artificial photosynthetic reaction center that mimics natural electron- and energytransfer processes is an old one, in recent years major advances have occurred. In this review, some relatively simple molecular dyads that mimic certain aspects of photosynthetic electron transfer and singlet or triplet energy transfer are described. Dyads of this type have proven to be extremely useful for elucidating basic photochemical principles. In addition, their limitations, particularly in the area of temporal stabilization of electronic charge separation, have inspired the development of much more complex multicomponent molecular devices. The use of the basic principles of photoinitiated electron transfer to engineer desirable properties into the more complex species is exemplified. The multiple electrontransfer pathways available with these molecules make it possible to fine-tune the systems in ways that are impossible with simpler molecules. The study of these devices not only contributes to our understanding of natural photosynthesis, but also aids in the design of artificial solar energy harvesting systems and provides an entry into the nascent field of molecular electronics.

  18. Improved antireflection properties of moth eye mimicking nanopillars on transparent glass: flat antireflection and color tuning.

    PubMed

    Ji, Seungmuk; Park, Joonsik; Lim, Hyuneui

    2012-08-01

    The sub-wavelength structures in moth eyes exhibit fascinating antireflective properties over the broadband wavelength region and at large incident angle by generating an air-mixed heterogeneous optical interface. In this work, antireflective behavior of transparent glass is observed with the elaborate controls of the nanopillar morphology. The reflectance spectrum shows a red shift and a notable light scattering with increase of the height of the nanopillars. The nanopillar arrays with a pointed cone shape have better optical performance in visible range than the rounded cone shape which is typical antireflective nanostructures in nature. Based on the observed antireflective behaviors, the flat and low value reflectance spectrum in the visible wavelength range is demonstrated by moth eye mimicking nanostructures on both sides of a glass surface. It is a unique strategy to realize a flat and broadband spectrum in the visible range showing 99% transparency via the appropriate matching of nanopillar height on the front and back sides of glass. The controlled reflection based color tuning on the antireflective and transparent glass is also obtained by adjusting the height of the nanopillar arrays on both sides. The visibility and self-cleaning ability of moth eye mimicking glass are examined for practical applications such as antireflection and self-cleaning.

  19. Overview of IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Its Mimickers

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Shin, Su-Jin; Lim, Beom Jin

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common form of renal involvement in IgG4-related disease. It is characterized by a dominant infiltrate of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the interstitium and storiform fibrosis. Demonstration of IgG4-positive plasma cells is essential for diagnosis, but the number of IgG4-positive cells and the ratio of IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells may vary from case to case and depending on the methods of tissue sampling even in the same case. IgG4-positive plasma cells can be seen in TIN associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody–associated vasculitis, which further add diagnostic confusion and difficulties. To have a more clear view of IgG4-TIN and to delineate differential points from other TIN with IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltrates, clinical and histological features of IgG4-TIN and its mimickers were reviewed. In the rear part, cases suggesting overlap of IgG4-TIN and its mimickers and glomerulonephritis associated with IgG4-TIN were briefly described. PMID:26666884

  20. Overview of IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis and Its Mimickers.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Shin, Su-Jin; Lim, Beom Jin

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common form of renal involvement in IgG4-related disease. It is characterized by a dominant infiltrate of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the interstitium and storiform fibrosis. Demonstration of IgG4-positive plasma cells is essential for diagnosis, but the number of IgG4-positive cells and the ratio of IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells may vary from case to case and depending on the methods of tissue sampling even in the same case. IgG4-positive plasma cells can be seen in TIN associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, which further add diagnostic confusion and difficulties. To have a more clear view of IgG4-TIN and to delineate differential points from other TIN with IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltrates, clinical and histological features of IgG4-TIN and its mimickers were reviewed. In the rear part, cases suggesting overlap of IgG4-TIN and its mimickers and glomerulonephritis associated with IgG4-TIN were briefly described.

  1. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-09-02

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people's attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design.

  2. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma mimicking an aneurysm: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yu-Chen; Li, Yan; Hu, Jing-Xia; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Yan, Peng-Xiang; Zuo, Huan-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas (HBMs) are highly vascular tumors of the central nervous system. Sporadic HBMs are nearly always solitary, and solitary HBMs are similar to intracranial arteriovenous malformations due to their highly vascular characteristics. However, to the best of our knowledge, cases of HBM in the cerebellum mimicking an aneurysm have never been reported in the literature. The present study reports a case of an HBM on the right cerebellar hemisphere mimicking an aneurysm, which originated from the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery, as determined using magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography. The patient was admitted the Department of Neurosurgery at the Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital (Beijing, China) in January 2015 due to a 4-year history of intermittent headaches. The diagnosis of an HBM was determined during surgery and the tumor was totally resected by changing the operation technique, with no complications. In conclusion, it is difficult to distinguish between HBMs and intracranial vascular diseases, particularly aneurysms. Surgeons should consider the possibility carefully prior to surgery and careful prepare for each eventuality.

  3. Precise mimicking of exercise hyperpnea to investigate the oxygen cost of breathing.

    PubMed

    Dominelli, P B; Render, J N; Molgat-Seon, Y; Foster, G E; Sheel, A W

    2014-09-15

    The oxygen cost of exercise hyperpnea (V˙(O2 RM)) has been quantified using a variety of techniques with inconsistent findings. Between-study variation relates to poor control of breathing patterns and lung mechanics. We developed a methodology allowing precise matching of exercising WOB in order to estimate V˙(O2 RM). Thirteen healthy young subjects (7 male) completed an incremental cycle exercise test, familiarization and experimental days where exercise hyperpnea was mimicked. On experimental days, feedback of exercise flow, volume and the respiratory pressures were provided while end-tidal CO2 was kept at exercise levels during each 5-min trial. Minute ventilation levels between 50 and 100% maximum were mimicked 3-5 times. The r(2) between exercise and mimic trails was 0.99 for frequency, tidal volume and minute ventilation; 0.86 for esophageal pressure swings and 0.93 for WOB. The coefficient of variation for (V˙(O2) averaged 4.3, 4.4 and 5.7% for 50, 75 and 100% ventilation trials. When WOB and other respiratory parameters are tightly controlled, the V˙(O2 RM) can be consistently estimated.

  4. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma mimicking an aneurysm: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yu-Chen; Li, Yan; Hu, Jing-Xia; Zhang, Hong-Bo; Yan, Peng-Xiang; Zuo, Huan-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Hemangioblastomas (HBMs) are highly vascular tumors of the central nervous system. Sporadic HBMs are nearly always solitary, and solitary HBMs are similar to intracranial arteriovenous malformations due to their highly vascular characteristics. However, to the best of our knowledge, cases of HBM in the cerebellum mimicking an aneurysm have never been reported in the literature. The present study reports a case of an HBM on the right cerebellar hemisphere mimicking an aneurysm, which originated from the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery, as determined using magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography. The patient was admitted the Department of Neurosurgery at the Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital (Beijing, China) in January 2015 due to a 4-year history of intermittent headaches. The diagnosis of an HBM was determined during surgery and the tumor was totally resected by changing the operation technique, with no complications. In conclusion, it is difficult to distinguish between HBMs and intracranial vascular diseases, particularly aneurysms. Surgeons should consider the possibility carefully prior to surgery and careful prepare for each eventuality. PMID:27698835

  5. First adult case of sporadic localized glomerulocystic kidney mimicking a tumor

    PubMed Central

    KOJIMA, FUMIYOSHI; ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; TSUJIMOTO, YUICHI; HOSOMI, MASAHIRO; TOSHIAKI, KINOUCHI; OKABE, HIDETOSHI

    2015-01-01

    Glomerulocystic kidneys (GCKs) are mainly observed in infants and young children, and are characterized by the cystic dilatation of Bowman's space to form glomerular cysts (GCs). GCKs are associated with various conditions. Additionally, the cystogenesis of GCKs remains controversial. The present study describes a rare adult case of a sporadic localized GCK that radiologically mimicked a multilocular cystic tumor, and analyses the features of GC. A 42-year-old male with hematuria underwent a right partial nephrectomy for a cystic mass. The majority of the cyst was distributed in the cortex and contained a single collapsed glomerulus. Using serial sections, narrow and serpiginous proximal tubules that continued to the GCs were detected. These findings suggested that obliteration at the glomerulotubular junction was not the primary cause of GC in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first adult case of a sporadic localized GCK mimicking a tumor. Unnecessary surgical procedures may be avoided by careful evaluation of computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging, although localized GCKs are quite rare. PMID:26137072

  6. Mimicry and just world beliefs: mimicking makes men view the world as more personally just.

    PubMed

    Stel, Mariëlle; van den Bos, Kees; Sim, Samantha; Rispens, Sonja

    2013-09-01

    People's just world beliefs are related to how they feel and behave towards others: the stronger people hold beliefs that the world treats them fairly, the more they feel and act pro-socially towards others. It is conceivable, therefore, that pro-social feelings and behaviours towards others can strengthen people's personal belief in a just world, especially when people expect these positive feelings to be returned. Because mimicry enhances pro-social feelings towards others, we argue that mimicry may strengthen peoples' personal just world beliefs via positive feelings for the mimicked person and the expectation that these positive feelings are returned. Moreover, we expect these effects to be more pronounced for men because men have stronger reciprocity beliefs than women. The results of three studies supported this line of reasoning, showing that mimicry made men believe more strongly that the world is personally just to them. Further support for our line of reasoning was obtained by positive feelings for the (non)mimicked person (Study 2) and reciprocity beliefs (Study 3) mediating the effects. Taken together, the findings suggest that mimicry makes men view the world as more just.

  7. Superhydrophobic surfaces developed by mimicking hierarchical surface morphology of lotus leaf.

    PubMed

    Latthe, Sanjay S; Terashima, Chiaki; Nakata, Kazuya; Fujishima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The lotus plant is recognized as a 'King plant' among all the natural water repellent plants due to its excellent non-wettability. The superhydrophobic surfaces exhibiting the famous 'Lotus Effect', along with extremely high water contact angle (>150°) and low sliding angle (<10°), have been broadly investigated and extensively applied on variety of substrates for potential self-cleaning and anti-corrosive applications. Since 1997, especially after the exploration of the surface micro/nanostructure and chemical composition of the lotus leaves by the two German botanists Barthlott and Neinhuis, many kinds of superhydrophobic surfaces mimicking the lotus leaf-like structure have been widely reported in the literature. This review article briefly describes the different wetting properties of the natural superhydrophobic lotus leaves and also provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art discussion on the extensive research carried out in the field of artificial superhydrophobic surfaces which are developed by mimicking the lotus leaf-like dual scale micro/nanostructure. This review article could be beneficial for both novice researchers in this area as well as the scientists who are currently working on non-wettable, superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24714190

  8. Optical sensing of a pulsating liquid in a brain-mimicking phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllylä, Teemu; Popov, Alexey; Korhonen, Vesa; Bykov, Alexander; Kinnunen, Matti

    2013-06-01

    In study of the brain, oxygenation changes in the cerebral cortex are increasingly monitored using optical methods based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). When monitoring blood oxygenation in the cerebral cortex, at depth of approximately 15 mm - 20 mm from the skin surface, separation distance between source and detector becomes significant. Many studies show that by increasing the source-detector distance, illuminating light penetrates deeper into tissue. In this work, we use optical phantoms to determine experimentally the minimum source-detector distance between that allows sensing of the cerebral cortex, particularly the grey matter of the brain. A multilayered forehead phantom was fabricated and a silicon tube was added inside the phantom at depths of 15 mm and 19 mm, measured from the surface of the skin mimicking layer. This depth corresponds to the grey matter layer of the brain. The phantom's optical properties were specifically designed to mimic the optical properties of tissue layers of the forehead and to facilitate near-infrared sensing. Optical sensing of liquid movement within the tube was measured by varying the distance between the near-infrared light source and the detector. Based on our measurements, we can conclude that it is possible to sense pulsations from a grey matter mimicking layer of the brain using near-infrared spectroscopy at a source-detector distance of 3 - 4 cm.

  9. Unusual lesions mimicking impingement syndrome in the shoulder joint - Think medially.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Malhotra, Akshay; Cribb, Gillian; Cool, Paul; Hay, Stuart

    2016-09-01

    Impingement syndrome is usually caused by irritation of the rotator cuff within the sub acromial space and this includes the coraco-acromial arch (Acromion and Coraco-acromial ligament), the acromio-clavicular joint and occasionally the coracoid. Iatrogenic causes such as sutures, pins, plates or wires left from previous surgery can cause similar symptoms. We present a series of four cases mimicking "classical" impingement symptoms/signs in which the causal pathology was identified outside the sub-acromial space. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed lesions that were present in the supra-spinatus fossa but were causing pressure effects on the sub-acromial space, namely - a ganglion cyst in one case, lipomata in two other cases, and a glomus tumour. A ganglion cyst and glomus tumour mimicking impingement syndrome is a rare reported case to our knowledge. These are unusual causes that should be considered when investigating classical impingement syndrome and particularly those who may have failed to respond to decompression surgery. They highlight the potential value of looking beyond the sub-acromial space for causal lesions and in these cases, at a time when limited ultrasound investigation has become increasingly popular; MRI has clearly played an important and was essential in planning surgery as these lesions would not have been identified on USS. Even though the symptoms were classical. PMID:27594993

  10. Cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: clinical utility of radionuclide imaging for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yazaki, Y; Isobe, M; Hayasaka, M; Tanaka, M; Fujii, T; Sekiguchi, M

    1998-06-01

    A 62-year-old woman with skin sarcoidosis was admitted to our hospital to ascertain whether she had cardiac involvement. Although she displayed no cardiac signs or symptoms, the electrocardiogram showed first-degree atrioventricular block, right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block, and giant negative T waves in the V3 lead. Echocardiography revealed marked hypertrophy localized in the basal portion of the interventricular septum (IVS) without systolic dysfunction, mimicking hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging revealed redistribution in the anteroseptal region. Both gallium-67 (67Ga) and technetium-99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP) scintigraphy revealed abnormal uptake in the myocardium. These findings disappeared after 2 months of steroid treatment. Reports of cardiac sarcoidosis mimicking HCM are rare. However, hypertrophy in the basal portion of the IVS is an important sign of early cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis. 67Ga and 99mTc-PYP scintigraphy were useful and necessary to differentiate this type of cardiac sarcoidosis from HCM.

  11. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people’s attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design. PMID:26329726

  12. Mimicking Livor Mortis: a Well-Known but Unsubstantiated Color Profile in Sapromyiophily.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Ma, Xiao-Kai; Jürgens, Andreas; Lu, Jun; Liu, Er-Xi; Sun, Wei-Bang; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2015-09-01

    By emitting strong scents resembling rotting organic materials suitable for oviposition and/or foraging of flies, sapromyiophilous flowers mimic the substrates that attract flies as pollinators. It has been suggested that the wide range of volatile organic compounds emitted by this deceptive pollination system reflects the trophic preferences of flies to different types of substrate, including herbivore and carnivore feces, carrion, and fruiting bodies of fungi. Previous studies suggest that floral scents play a particularly important role in sapromyiophily. However, few studies on the relative importance of floral color or synergy between visual and olfactory cues in sapromyiophily have been substantiated. In this study, we analyzed fetid floral odor, floral pigment composition, and reflectance of an Amorphophallus konjac C. Koch inflorescence, and we conducted bioassays with different visual and/or olfactory cues to explore an unsubstantiated color profile in sapromyiophily: mimicking livor mortis. Our analysis showed A. konjac can emit oligosulphide-dominated volatile blends similar to those emitted by carrion. Necrophagous flies cannot discriminate between the color of an inflorescence, livor mortis, and floral pigments. We concluded that mimicking livor mortis may represent a common tactic of pollinator attraction in "carrion flower" systems within angiosperms.

  13. Deriving a blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry in Sylgard-184 vascular models.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Majid Y; Holdsworth, David W; Poepping, Tamie L

    2009-01-01

    A new blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed for particle image velocimetry (PIV), which enables flow studies in vascular models (phantoms). A major difficulty in PIV that affects measurement accuracy is the refraction and distortion of light passing through the interface between the model and the fluid, due to the difference in refractive index (n) between the two materials. The problem can be eliminated by using a fluid with a refractive index matching that of the model. Such fluids are not commonly available, especially for vascular research where the fluid should also have a viscosity similar to human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid, composed of water (47.38% by weight), glycerol (36.94% by weight) and sodium iodide salt (15.68% by weight), was developed for compatibility with our silicone (Sylgard 184; n = 1.414) phantoms. The fluid exhibits a dynamic viscosity of 4.31+/-0.03 cP which lies within the range of human blood viscosity (4.4+/-0.6 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at 22.2+/-0.2 degrees C, which is a feasible room temperature, thus eliminating the need for a temperature-control system. The fluid will be used to study hemodynamics in vascular flow models fabricated from Sylgard 184.

  14. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  15. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  16. An anatomical fetal brain structure and a normal variant mimicking anomalies on routine neurosonographic imaging: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Correa, F F; Lara, C; Bellver, J; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Serra, V

    2004-11-01

    We present two cases in which an anatomical structure, the calcar avis, and a normal variant, a bifid choroid plexus, mimicked abnormalities on routine prenatal ultrasound examination. To the best of our knowledge these pitfalls have only been described in neonates. A familiarity with these false images is important to avoid erroneous diagnoses.

  17. Time course of biochemical, physiological, and molecular responses to field-mimicked conditions of drought, salinity, and recovery in two maize lines

    PubMed Central

    Morari, Francesco; Meggio, Franco; Lunardon, Alice; Scudiero, Elia; Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Drought and salinity stresses will have a high impact on future crop productivity, due to climate change and the increased competition for land, water, and energy. The response to drought (WS), salinity (SS), and the combined stresses (WS+SS) was monitored in two maize lines: the inbred B73 and an F1 commercial stress-tolerant hybrid. A protocol mimicking field progressive stress conditions was developed and its effect on plant growth analyzed at different time points. The results indicated that the stresses limited growth in the hybrid and arrested it in the inbred line. In SS, the two genotypes had different ion accumulation and translocation capacity, particularly for Na+ and Cl−. Moreover, the hybrid perceived the stress, reduced all the analyzed physiological parameters, and kept them reduced until the recovery. B73 decreased all physiological parameters more gradually, being affected mainly by SS. Both lines recovered better from WS than the other stresses. Molecular analysis revealed a diverse modulation of some stress markers in the two genotypes, reflecting their different response to stresses. Combining biochemical and physiological data with expression analyses yielded insight into the mechanisms regulating the different stress tolerance of the two lines. PMID:26029220

  18. Dendritic Cells Transfected with scFv from Mab 7.B12 Mimicking Original Antigen gp43 Induces Protection against Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Karen S.; Maranhão, Andrea Q.; Garcia, Maria C. C.; Brígido, Marcelo M.; Santos, Suelen S.; Lopes, José D.; Almeida, Sandro R.

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), endemic in Latin America, is a progressive systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis), which primarily attacks lung tissue. Dendritic cells (DCs) are able to initiate a response in naïve T cells, and they also participate in Th-cell education. Furthermore, these cells have been used for therapy in several disease models. Here we transfected DCs with a plasmid (pMAC/PS-scFv) encoding a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an anti-Id antibody that is capable of mimicking gp43, the main antigenic component of P. brasiliensis. First, Balb/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with pMAC/PS-scFv and, after seven days, scFv protein was presented to the regional lymph nodes cells. Moreover, we showed that the DCs transfected with scFv were capable of efficiently activating proliferation of total lymph node cells and inducing a decrease in lung infection. Therefore, our results suggested that the use of scFv-transfected DCs may be a promising therapy in the paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) model. PMID:21249212

  19. Elevated expression of TDP-43 in the forebrain of mice is sufficient to cause neurological and pathological phenotypes mimicking FTLD-U.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Yang, Chun-Hung; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Chien, Wei-Lin; Wang, Wei-Ting; Wu, Tzu-Wei; Lin, Ching-Po; Fu, Wen-Mei; Shen, Che-Kun James

    2010-08-01

    TDP-43 is a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding factor that has been implicated in the regulation of neuronal plasticity. TDP-43 has also been identified as the major constituent of the neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) that are characteristic of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, including the frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin(+) inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have generated a FTLD-U mouse model (CaMKII-TDP-43 Tg) in which TDP-43 is transgenically overexpressed in the forebrain resulting in phenotypic characteristics mimicking those of FTLD-U. In particular, the transgenic (Tg) mice exhibit impaired learning/memory, progressive motor dysfunction, and hippocampal atrophy. The cognitive and motor impairments are accompanied by reduced levels of the neuronal regulators phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein and increased levels of gliosis in the brains of the Tg mice. Moreover, cells with TDP-43(+), ubiquitin(+) NCIs and TDP-43-deleted nuclei appear in the Tg mouse brains in an age-dependent manner. Our data provide direct evidence that increased levels of TDP-43 protein in the forebrain is sufficient to lead to the formation of TDP-43(+), ubiquitin(+) NCIs and neurodegeneration. This FTLD-U mouse model should be valuable for the mechanistic analysis of the role of TDP-43 in the pathogenesis of FTLD-U and for the design of effective therapeutic approaches of the disease. PMID:20660618

  20. Giant serpentine aneurysm of vertebrobasilar artery mimicking dolichoectasia--an unusual complication of pediatric AIDS. Report of a case with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, A; Tagore, R; Siddappa, N B; Santosh, V; Yasha, T C; Ranga, U; Chandramouli, B A; Shankar, S K

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children differ strikingly from adults. Developmental delay, subacute AIDS encephalitis and basal ganglia calcification are common in children, in contrast to opportunistic infections and dementia in adults. Intracranial aneurysms are being recognized with increasing frequency in pediatric AIDS. Fusiform dilatation of vessels of circle of Willis to form large aneurysms, termed cerebral aneurysmal childhood arteriopathy, is an exceedingly rare complication of pediatric AIDS. We report a case of massive fusiform dilatation of vertebrobasilar system mimicking congenital dolichoectasia with evidence suggesting direct causation by HIV-1 Clade C virus. In view of scant literature that exists on this unusual complication of pediatric AIDS, we present a detailed review of all previously recorded cases and review the etiopathogenesis. There are 20 reports (32 cases) on record till date that have mostly involved the anterior circulation, occurring between 4-15 years of age. Occurrence is associated with profound immunosuppression, and perinatally acquired HIV with latent interval of 5.5-11 years to onset of symptoms. Direct causation by HIV is favored as reports demonstrate presence of virus in affected vessels, association with high viral load and, more conclusively, arrest in progression or reversal with early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The fusiform nature and location of these aneurysms makes any form of surgical intervention or embolization impossible. High degree of clinical suspicion and awareness of this entity is, therefore, important as this can place young patients at risk for major cerebrovascular accidents.

  1. NK-cell enteropathy: a benign NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease mimicking intestinal lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and follow-up in a unique case series.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Adnan; Pittaluga, Stefania; Beck, Paul L; Wilson, Wyndham H; Ferry, Judith A; Jaffe, Elaine S

    2011-02-01

    Intestinal T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas are clinically aggressive and can be challenging to diagnose in small endoscopic biopsies. We describe 8 patients in whom atypical NK-cell lymphoproliferative lesions mimicked NK- or T-cell lymphoma. The patients (2 men; 6 women; ages 27-68 years) presented with vague gastrointestinal symptoms with lesions involving stomach, duodenum, small intestine, and colon. At endoscopy, the lesions exhibited superficial ulceration, edema, and hemorrhage. Biopsies revealed a mucosal infiltrate of atypical cells with an NK-cell phenotype (CD56(+)/TIA-1(+)/Granzyme B(+)/cCD3(+)), which displaced but did not invade the glandular epithelium. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA in situ hybridization was negative, and T-cell receptor-γ gene rearrangement showed no evidence of a clonal process. Based on an original diagnosis of lymphoma, 3 patients received aggressive chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation in 2. Five patients were followed without treatment. However, no patient developed progressive disease or died of lymphoma (median follow-up, 30 months). Repeat endoscopies in 6 of 8 patients showed persistence or recurrence of superficial gastrointestinal lesions. This unique entity mimics intestinal and NK-/T-cell lymphomas on endoscopic biopsies and can result in erroneous diagnosis, leading to aggressive chemotherapy. We propose the term "NK-cell enteropathy" for this syndrome of as yet unknown etiology.

  2. Titanium plate artefact mimicking popliteal artery dissection on digital subtraction CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Woodacre, Timothy; Wienand-Barnett, Sophie

    2013-04-05

    Titanium plates used for the internal fixation of long bone fractures cause significant artefact on CT scans but have not been reported to affect digital subtraction CT angiography. We present a patient with clinical suspicion of popliteal artery injury following a high tibial osteotomy. The osteotomy was stabilised with a titanium locking plate. During the digital subtraction process used to produce reconstruction CT angiography, removal of artefact caused by the titanium plate produced CT images mimicking the appearance of a popliteal artery dissection. The imaging inaccuracy was realised prior to the patient undergoing further intervention. We highlight the potential error caused by titanium plates on digital subtraction CT angiography and recommend careful analysis of such images prior to further treatment.

  3. A Case of Hyperventilation Syndrome Mimicking Complex Partial Seizure: Usefulness of EEG Monitoring in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong Su

    2015-01-01

    Acute hyperventilation syndrome not only can be clinically misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures, but also complex partial seizures may involve hyperventilation as a part of aura. Although electrography (EEG) monitoring is one of the most important procedure to differentiate these conditions, it could not be widely used in emergency department. Variety forms of epileptic attack, mainly idiopathic generalized epilepsy, are provoked by voluntary hyperventilation. In contrast, it is not clear whether hyperventilation can activate the partial seizures. We reported a case of acute hyperventilation syndrome (HSV) mimicking first onset complex partial seizure, impending non-convulsive status epilepticus, which was diagnosed by EEG in the emergency department. The electrographic seizure was provoked again by voluntary hyperventilation after clinical improvement. PMID:26157670

  4. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  5. Accessory spleen arising from the gastric fundus mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumor following splenectomy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, GUANGYAO; CHEN, PING; ZONG, LIANG

    2014-01-01

    The current case report presents an accessory spleen mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach in a patient who had undergone a splenectomy ~20 years previously. A 61-year-old male, who presented with upper abdominal discomfort lasting three months, underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a smooth, hemispherical mass of ~2 cm in diameter, with homogenous echogenicity originating from the gastric muscular layer. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed that the well-marginated ovoid mass was ~2.6×1.9 cm in size. The patient was diagnosed with GIST. Subsequent therapy consisted of partial gastrectomy. The pathological results indicated the mass contained splenic tissue, which confirmed it to be an accessory spleen. Changes in the postoperative platelet count were noted. The observations of this case study highlight that platelet count should be used as a routine indicator for monitoring accessory spleen arising from gastric fundus lesion. PMID:24396402

  6. Brachyury: A Diagnostic Marker for the Differential Diagnosis of Chordoma and Hemangioblastoma versus Neoplastic Histological Mimickers

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, Antonio; Branca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Brachyury is a transcription factor which is required for posterior mesoderm formation and differentiation as well as for notochord development during embryogenesis. Due to its expression in the neoplastic cells of chordoma, a malignant tumour deriving from notochordal remnants, but not in tumors showing a similar histology, brachyury has been proposed as a diagnostic marker of this neoplasia. Though commonly considered a hallmark of chordoma, the expression of brachyury has been also documented in the stromal cells of hemangioblastoma (HBL), a slow growing tumor which may involve the central nervous system (CNS) and, rarely, the kidney. Herein we review the role of brachyury immunohistochemical detection in the identification and differential diagnosis of chordoma and HBL towards histological mimickers and suggest that brachyury is added to the panel of immunohistochemical markers for the recognition of HBL in routinary practice, principally in unusual sites. PMID:24591762

  7. Mimicking the Fenton reaction-induced wood decay by fungi for pretreatment of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Hyun Min; Park, Yong-Cheol; Park, Kyungmoon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the Fenton reaction, which is naturally used by fungi for wood decay, was employed to pretreat rice straw and increase the enzymatic digestibility for the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. Using an optimized Fenton's reagent (FeCl3 and H2O2) for pretreatment, an enzymatic digestibility that was 93.2% of the theoretical glucose yield was obtained. This is the first report of the application of the Fenton reaction to lignocellulose pretreatment at a moderate temperature (i.e., 25°C) and with a relatively high loading of biomass (i.e., 10% (w/v)). Substantial improvement in the process economics of cellulosic fuel and chemical production can be achieved by replacing the conventional pretreatment with this Fenton-mimicking process.

  8. Osteopathic Approach to the Diagnosis of Appendiceal Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma Mimicking Primary Ovarian Malignant Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Martingano, Daniel; Gurm, Hashroop; Oliff, Andrew; Martingano, Francis X; Aglialoro, George

    2016-07-01

    The fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in the United States is ovarian cancer. An estimated 21,980 new cases and 14,270 estimated deaths occurred nationwide in 2014. More than two-thirds of cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed at stage III or IV when the peritoneal cavity or other organs are affected. Primary appendiceal malignant neoplasms may mimic advanced-stage ovarian cancer and can be misdiagnosed because of its presentation as a palpable adnexal mass. The authors describe a 42-year-old woman who was admitted to the department of obstetrics and gynecology to receive treatment for presumed advanced-stage ovarian cancer. She subsequently received a diagnosis of primary pseudomyxoma peritonei metastatic to the ovaries, mimicking a primary ovarian cancer by osteopathic structural examination findings, serum tumor markers, surgical exploration, and histopathologic confirmation. PMID:27367953

  9. Intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma: report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baoshi; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Yanwei; You, Gan; Wang, Jiangfei; Wang, Junmei; Jiang, Zhongli; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primary benign fibrous histiocytoma involving the central nervous system is an exceedingly rare tumor with most cases originating from the dura or parenchymal tissue. Diagnosis of primary benign fibrous histiocytoma is difficult due to its confusing histopathological characteristics. Two cases of primary intracranial benign fibrous histiocytoma mimicking parasagittal meningioma are presented in this report. Both tumors were gross totally resected and the patients showed no evidence of recurrence at follow-up of 12 months. The clinical features and prognosis of this rare tumor that were reported previously in the literature were also reviewed. Histopathological examination coupled with immunohistochemical staining is proved to be the convincing diagnostic method for the primary benign fibrous histiocytoma. Surgical resection is the recommendation for the therapy of the tumor. PMID:26617915

  10. Improved antireflection properties of moth eye mimicking nanopillars on transparent glass: flat antireflection and color tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Seungmuk; Park, Joonsik; Lim, Hyuneui

    2012-07-01

    The sub-wavelength structures in moth eyes exhibit fascinating antireflective properties over the broadband wavelength region and at large incident angle by generating an air-mixed heterogeneous optical interface. In this work, antireflective behavior of transparent glass is observed with the elaborate controls of the nanopillar morphology. The reflectance spectrum shows a red shift and a notable light scattering with increase of the height of the nanopillars. The nanopillar arrays with a pointed cone shape have better optical performance in visible range than the rounded cone shape which is typical antireflective nanostructures in nature. Based on the observed antireflective behaviors, the flat and low value reflectance spectrum in the visible wavelength range is demonstrated by moth eye mimicking nanostructures on both sides of a glass surface. It is a unique strategy to realize a flat and broadband spectrum in the visible range showing 99% transparency via the appropriate matching of nanopillar height on the front and back sides of glass. The controlled reflection based color tuning on the antireflective and transparent glass is also obtained by adjusting the height of the nanopillar arrays on both sides. The visibility and self-cleaning ability of moth eye mimicking glass are examined for practical applications such as antireflection and self-cleaning.The sub-wavelength structures in moth eyes exhibit fascinating antireflective properties over the broadband wavelength region and at large incident angle by generating an air-mixed heterogeneous optical interface. In this work, antireflective behavior of transparent glass is observed with the elaborate controls of the nanopillar morphology. The reflectance spectrum shows a red shift and a notable light scattering with increase of the height of the nanopillars. The nanopillar arrays with a pointed cone shape have better optical performance in visible range than the rounded cone shape which is typical antireflective

  11. An Approach to Mimicking the Sesquiterpene Cyclase Phase by Nickel-Promoted Diene/Alkyne Cooligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Holte, Dane; Götz, Daniel C. G.; Baran, Phil S.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially mimicking the cyclase phase of terpene biosynthesis inspires the invention of new methodologies, since working with carbogenic frameworks containing minimal functionality limits the chemist’s toolbox of synthetic strategies. For example, the construction of terpene skeletons from five-carbon building blocks would be an exciting pathway to mimic in the laboratory. Nature oligomerizes, cyclizes, and then oxidizes γ,γ-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to all of the known terpenes. Starting from isoprene, the goal of this work was to mimic Nature’s approach for rapidly building molecular complexity. In principle, the controlled oligomerization of isoprene would drastically simplify the synthesis of terpenes used in the medicine, perfumery, flavor, and materials industries. This article delineates our extensive efforts to cooligomerize isoprene or butadiene with alkynes in a controlled fashion by zero-valent nickel catalysis building off the classic studies by Günther Wilke and coworkers. PMID:22229741

  12. Giant mucinous cystic adenoma with pancreatic atrophy mimicking dorsal agenesis of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Gagnière, Johan; Dupré, Aurélien; Ines, David Da; Tixier, Lucie; Pezet, Denis; Buc, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Mucinous cystic adenoma (MCA) of the pancreas is a rare benign cystic tumor with ovarian-like stroma and lack of communication with the pancreatic ductal system. The ovarian tissue is incorporated from the left gonad within the dorsal pancreas during embryogenesis. Consequently, congenital dorsal agenesis of the pancreas (DAP) cannot be associated with MCA. We report the case of a giant MCA associated with atrophy of the dorsal pancreas mimicking complete DAP. Pancreato-magnetic resonance imaging failed to identify the dorsal pancreas but the absence of diabetes mellitus and compression of the splenic vein with major tributaries rectified the diagnosis of secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. Unusual proximal location of the cyst in the pancreas may have induced chronic obstruction of both the dorsal pancreatic duct and the splenic vein, with secondary atrophy of the distal pancreas. PMID:24672649

  13. Methylesterase behaviour is related to polysaccharide organisation in model systems mimicking cell walls.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Estelle; Mutic, Jelena; Nikolic, Jasna; Burr, Sally; Robert, Paul; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne

    2015-06-25

    Pectin gels and pectin-cellulose binary gels were used as cell wall-mimicking systems to investigate the diffusion ability of a fungal pectin methylesterase. Increasing content of cellulose in the gel appears to result: (i) in longer demethylated blocks thus favouring AaPME processivity, and (ii) in accelerated enzyme kinetics. To better understand this unexpected behaviour, a method was set up to investigate the gel porosity as a function of the cellulose content by following the passive diffusion of three pullulans having different hydrodynamic volumes. Like the enzyme, the pullulans diffused more efficiently in the gels containing the highest proportions of cellulose. Altogether, these results suggest that the gel settled differently during formation according to the respective proportions of the two polysaccharides. With cellulose present, a fraction of pectin would form close interactions with the microfibrils resulting in a larger volume accessible to diffusing molecules. This volume would be related to the cellulose concentration. PMID:25839794

  14. Temperature Increase Dependence on Ultrasound Attenuation Coefficient in Innovative Tissue-mimicking Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccaro, R.; Magnetto, C.; Albo, P. A. Giuliano; Troia, A.; Lago, S.

    Although high intensity focused ultrasound beams (HIFU) have found rapid agreement in clinical environment as a tool for non invasive surgical ablation and controlled destruction of cancer cells, some aspects related to the interaction of ultrasonic waves with tissues, such as the conversion of acoustic energy into heat, are not thoroughly understood. In this work, innovative tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs), based on Agar and zinc acetate, have been used to conduct investigations in order to determine a relation between the sample attenuation coefficient and its temperature increase measured in the focus region when exposed to an HIFU beam. An empirical relation has been deduced establishing useful basis for further processes of validations of numerical models to be adopted for customizing therapeutic treatments.

  15. Heating efficiency evaluation with mimicking plasma conditions of integrated fast-ignition experiment.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Morace, Alessio; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Kojima, Sadaoki; Sakata, Shohei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Hattori, Shoji; Hosoda, Tatsuya; Lee, Seung Ho; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Youichiro; Sunahara, Atsushi; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Mima, Kunioki; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Yamanoi, Kohei; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Tokita, Shigeki; Nakata, Yoshiki; Kawanaka, Junji; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the energy-coupling efficiency from heating laser to a fuel core in the fast-ignition scheme of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion. Although the efficiency is determined by a wide variety of complex physics, from intense laser plasma interactions to the properties of high-energy density plasmas and the transport of relativistic electron beams (REB), here we simplify the physics by breaking down the efficiency into three measurable parameters: (i) energy conversion ratio from laser to REB, (ii) probability of collision between the REB and the fusion fuel core, and (iii) fraction of energy deposited in the fuel core from the REB. These three parameters were measured with the newly developed experimental platform designed for mimicking the plasma conditions of a realistic integrated fast-ignition experiment. The experimental results indicate that the high-energy tail of REB must be suppressed to heat the fuel core efficiently. PMID:26172803

  16. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making.

  17. Nanogranular SiO2 proton gated silicon layer transistor mimicking biological synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M. J.; Huang, G. S.; Feng, P.; Guo, Q. L.; Shao, F.; Tian, Z. A.; Li, G. J.; Wan, Q.; Mei, Y. F.

    2016-06-01

    Silicon on insulator (SOI)-based transistors gated by nanogranular SiO2 proton conducting electrolytes were fabricated to mimic synapse behaviors. This SOI-based device has both top proton gate and bottom buried oxide gate. Electrical transfer properties of top proton gate show hysteresis curves different from those of bottom gate, and therefore, excitatory post-synaptic current and paired pulse facilitation (PPF) behavior of biological synapses are mimicked. Moreover, we noticed that PPF index can be effectively tuned by the spike interval applied on the top proton gate. Synaptic behaviors and functions, like short-term memory, and its properties are also experimentally demonstrated in our device. Such SOI-based electronic synapses are promising for building neuromorphic systems.

  18. rBTI extends Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan by mimicking calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Cui, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhuanhua; Li, Yuying

    2015-07-01

    Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (BTI) is a low molecular weight polypeptide extracted from buckwheat. This study examined the effects of BTI on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and investigated the mechanism involved. Our results showed that recombinant BTI (rBTI) extended life expectancy by mimicking calorie restriction (CR) in C. elegans. rBTI promoted formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increasing respiration, induced activities of ROS defense enzymes by activating DAF-16, and increased oxidative stress resistance and survival rates. The inhibition of ROS signal by antioxidants reduced rBTI-mediated longevity by up to 65%. Moreover, it was shown that the disruption of daf-2 abolished the extension of the lifespan and the increased ROS. Taken together, these data indicate that rBTI-mediated longevity mimics CR by down-regulating insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway, implying that BTI has the potential to be a novel anti-aging drug. PMID:25959406

  19. Appendiceal phlegmon mimicking intussusception on ultrasound: correspondence between sonographic and operative findings.

    PubMed

    Mentessidou, Anastasia; Mirilas, Petros

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the possibility that ruptured appendicitis may produce a false sonographic appearance of intussusception. We present here a case of a periappendiceal phlegmon mimicking ileocolic intussusception on ultrasound in a 3.5-year-old girl and provide a surgico-anatomic explanation on the basis of the intraoperative findings for the false sonographic image. CT imaging was used to make the diagnosis. Intraoperatively, it was revealed that the cecum and sigmoid, which were adherent to each other with pseudomembranes, formed an intestinal mass around the appendix. Accordingly, the appendicolith at the center of the phlegmon was responsible for the central echogenicity, and the surrounding cecum and sigmoid for the external hypoechoic and hyperechoic rings of the target-sign appearing mass on the preoperative ultrasound. Such an understanding of the etiology of the false sonographic image may help to increase awareness and avoid misdiagnosis.

  20. Silent and Malignant Early Repolarization Syndrome Mimicking Hyper-Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Tam, Weng-Chio; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Lin, Yung-Kuo; Yeh, Jong-Shiuan

    2016-07-01

    A 55-year-old male with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented at our emergency department with ventricular fibrillation-related cardiac arrest. Hyper-acute ST elevation myocardial infarction was the preliminary diagnosis by 12-lead electrocardiography, which simultaneously showed J point ST elevation and tall T waves. However, the echocardiography showed concentric left ventricle hypertrophy and preserved left ventricular systolic function with no regional wall motion abnormalities, and coronary angiography did not show any critical coronary artery lesion. Malignant early repolarization syndrome was diagnosed, and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted. Early repolarization syndrome is associated with J point elevation, and more involved leads and an increased J point elevation amplitude can increase the risk of arrhythmogenicity. In summary, we report a case with asymptomatic type 3 early repolarization syndrome-induced idiopathic ventricular fibrillation mimicking hyper-acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:27471366

  1. Effect of Frequency-Dependent Attenuation on Predicted Histotripsy Waveforms in Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Crowe, Michael J; Raymond, Jason L; Holland, Christy K

    2016-07-01

    Tissue-mimicking phantoms are employed for the assessment of shocked histotripsy pulses in vitro. These broadband shock waves are critical for tissue ablation and are influenced by the frequency-dependent attenuation of the medium. The density, sound speed and attenuation spectra (2-25 MHz) were measured for phantoms that mimic key histotripsy targets. The influence of non-linear propagation relative to the attenuation was described in terms of Gol'dberg number. An expression was derived to estimate the bandwidth of shocked histotripsy pulses for power law-dependent attenuation. The expression is independent of the fundamental frequency of the histotripsy pulse for linear frequency-dependent attenuation. PMID:27108036

  2. Anti-adhesive film mimicking local recurrence during follow up after surgical treatment of gynecologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kwack, J Y; Kwon, Y S; Im, K S

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman received a laparoscopic surgical staging operation due to endometrial carcinoma. Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy was performed when the endometrial carcinoma was staged at FIGO Stage IIIC1, adnexa metastasis. Three months completing adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy, a 2.5-cm vaginal stump mass was found by abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (AP-CT). To rule out local recurrence, diagnostic laparoscopic exploration was performed. The pathologic report revealed chronic inflammation due to the presence of a foreign body. To avoid unnecessary surgery during the follow-up of patients with gynecologic malignancies, anti-adhesive material should be avoided which can possibly cause a lesion mimicking local recurrence. PMID:27048126

  3. Acute myocarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: a clinical nightmare with forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; Villani, Angelo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2006-09-10

    Authors present the case of the sudden death of a 30-year-old man, 3 h since his hospitalization by the onset of aspecific chest pain. ECG findings revealed the presence of localized ST segment elevation in precordial leads (V1-V4) and DII-DII, and aVF mimicking acute antero-inferior myocardial infarction. A diagnosis of acute antero-inferior myocardial infarction was advanced and the patient introduced to thrombolytic therapy. Suddenly, on ECG monitor, conduction abnormalities were early recorded (ventricular extrasystole) followed by ventricular tachycardia degenerating in fatal ventricular fibrillation. An alleged medical malpractice was sued against the cardiologist. A complete immunohistochemical study was performed. Histologically, the heart presented massive interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate and focal myocytes necrosis. The diagnosis of acute lymphocytic myocarditis was established as the cause of death.

  4. Lung abscess mimicking lung cancer developed around staples in a patient with permanent tracheostoma.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yui; Aoki, Masaya; Suzuki, Soichi; Umehara, Tadashi; Harada, Aya; Wakida, Kazuhiro; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Kariatsumari, Kota; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Masami

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old male with a tracheostoma due to hypopharyngeal cancer was admitted because his chest computed tomography (CT) showed a small nodule in the right middle lobe. Following a partial resection of the right middle lobe, histopathological diagnosis of the resected sample was that of organizing pneumonia. Eleven months later, chest CT showed a mass with pleural indentation and spiculation in the right middle lobe. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography showed significant accumulation in the middle lobe tumor mass shadow. The abnormal chest shadow that had developed around surgical staples suggested inadequate resection and tumor recurrence. As the abnormal radiological shadow was enlarging, middle lobectomy was carried out. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was a lung abscess without malignant features. This is a unique case of lung abscess mimicking lung cancer which developed around staples used during partial resection of the lung.

  5. Acute cervical cord infarction in anterior spinal artery territory with acute swelling mimicking myelitis.

    PubMed

    Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; AbouAl-Shaar, Iyad; Al-Kawi, Mohammed Z

    2015-10-01

    Acute infarction of the cervical segment of the spinal cord is extremely uncommon. Patients may present with signs and symptoms mimicking that of acute myelitis. On imaging, both conditions may present as a hyperintense area on T-2 weighted MRI. History of sudden onset is essential in establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of cervical spinal cord infarction in a 40-year-old man who was diagnosed with acute transverse myelitis, and was treated with high dose intravenous corticosteroids followed by 5 sessions of plasma exchange. An MRI of the spine revealed abnormal high T2 signal intensity extending from the C2 to C7 level involving the anterior two-thirds of the cord with more central involvement. The findings were consistent with anterior spinal artery territory cervical cord infarction.

  6. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma mimicking multiple lung metastases: report of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission findings.

    PubMed

    Lien, Chi-Tun; Yang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2010-05-01

    Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG) is a rare disease characterized by multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules of uncertain etiology. We describe a 71-year-old female patient with thyroid papillary carcinoma in whom bilateral pulmonary nodules were found during a routine chest radiography examination. Subsequent fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan gave the impression of multiple pulmonary metastases based on high maximum standardized uptake value. She underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with wedge resection, and PHG was diagnosed on the basis of histopathologic findings. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PHG developing in a patient as a solid cancer, mimicking multiple pulmonary metastases. We also present the first description of positron emission tomography in PHG, according to a Medline search. PMID:20351580

  7. Diet mimicking fasting promotes regeneration and reduces autoimmunity and multiple sclerosis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Young; Piccio, Laura; Childress, Patra; Bollman, Bryan; Ghosh, Arko; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Suarez, Jorge; Michalsen, Andreas; Cross, Anne H.; Morgan, Todd E.; Wei, Min; Paul, Friedemann; Bock, Markus; Longo, Valter D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dietary interventions have not been effective in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that periodic 3 day cycles of a fasting mimicking diet (FMD) are effective in ameliorating demyelination and symptoms in a murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. The FMD reduced clinical severity in all mice, and completely reversed symptoms in 20% of the animals. These improvements were associated with increased corticosterone levels and Treg cell number, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TH1 and TH17 cells, and antigen presenting cells (APCs). Moreover, the FMD promoted oligodendrocyte precursor cell regeneration and remyelination in axons in response to both EAE and cuprizone MS models, supporting its effects on both suppression of autoimmunity and remyelination. We also report preliminary data suggesting that a FMD or a chronic ketogenic diet are safe, feasible and potentially effective in the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients (NCT01538355). PMID:27239035

  8. Large enhancement in neurite outgrowth on a cell membrane-mimicking conducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Luo, Shyh-Chyang; Zhao, Haichao; Lin, Hsing-An; Sekine, Jun; Nakao, Aiko; Chen, Chi; Yamashita, Yoshiro; Yu, Hsiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Although electrically stimulated neurite outgrowth on bioelectronic devices is a promising means of nerve regeneration, immunogenic scar formation can insulate electrodes from targeted cells and tissues, thereby reducing the lifetime of the device. Ideally, an electrode material capable of electrically interfacing with neurons selectively and efficiently would be integrated without being recognized by the immune system and minimize its response. Here we develop a cell membrane-mimicking conducting polymer possessing several attractive features. This polymer displays high resistance towards nonspecific enzyme/cell binding and recognizes targeted cells specifically to allow intimate electrical communication over long periods of time. Its low electrical impedance relays electrical signals efficiently. This material is capable to integrate biochemical and electrical stimulation to promote neural cellular behaviour. Neurite outgrowth is enhanced greatly on this new conducting polymer; in addition, electrically stimulated secretion of proteins from primary Schwann cells can also occur on it. PMID:25060339

  9. Fabrication and characterization of biotissue-mimicking phantoms in the THz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakhov, E.; Smolyanskaya, O.; Popov, A.; Odlyanitskiy, E.; Balbekin, N.; Khodzitsky, M.

    2016-08-01

    The study revealed the most promising candidates for phantoms mimicking different biological tissues in the terahertz frequency range. Closest to biological tissues in terms of the refractive index appeared to be gelatin-based gels; in terms of the absorption coefficient they were agar-based gels. Gelatin is more stable in time, but requires special storage conditions to limit water evaporation. The dense structure of the agar-based phantom allows its use without mold and risk of damage. However, agar is a nutrient medium for bacteria and its parameters degrade even when the phantom form and water content are retained. Use of liquid suspensions of lecithin and milk powder are found to be extremely limited.

  10. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia mimicking apical periodontitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Rekabi, Ali Reza; Ashouri, Rezvan; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia may present as a focal, periapical or florid lesion in the mandible or maxilla. The lesion may sometimes appear similar to peri-radicular lesions on a periapical radiograph. This report presents a case with irreversible pulpitis and root resorption as well as a mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion around a mandibular molar tooth root. Root canal treatment was performed and because of the radiographic signs of root resorption and the patient's fear of having a malignant disease, periapical surgery was also performed. The histopathology report confirmed the presence of florid cement-osseous dysplasia which was mimicking apical periodontitis. Follow-up radiography 12 months after the surgery illustrated complete healing of the radiolucent area. PMID:24279668

  11. Primary dural non-hodgkin's lymphoma mimicking meningioma: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kudrimoti, Jyoti K; Gaikwad, Manish J; Puranik, Shaila C; Chugh, Ashish P

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old immunocompetent female presented with headache, vomiting and diminished unilateral vision. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were suggestive of high-grade meningioma. Neurological examination and routine hematological parameters were within normal limits. Craniotomy was performed; the tumor was arising from the dura mater, which was completely resected. Hematoxylin and eosin showed lesion comprising a tumor mass with monomorphic population of tumor cells arranged in sheets and small follicles. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for leukocyte common antigen and CD20 and immunonegative for glial fibrillary acid protein, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, CD3 and CD30. Rest of the body scan was normal. A diagnosis of primary dural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made. We report this exceedingly rare case of primary dural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which mimicked clinically and radiologically as meningioma. PMID:26458614

  12. Nanovesicle-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structures Mimicking Mammalian Pain Sensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Youngtac; Jin, Hye Jun; An, Jeong Mi; Park, Juhun; Moon, Seok Jun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    We developed a ``chemical-pain sensor'' based on a single-walled carbon nanotube-based field effect transistor (SWNT-FET) functionalized with rat pain sensory receptor, rat transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (rTRPV1) mimicking a mammalian pain sensory system. The sensor can selectively detect chemical pain stimuli such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin with a sensitivity of a 1 pM detection limit. Since this sensor allows one to quantitatively measure the concentration of chemical pain stimuli just like animal sensory systems, it can be used for various practical applications such as food screening. In addition, TRP families including rTRPV1 protein used for the sensor are now suggested as potential drug targets related to nerve and circulation disorders. Thus, the capability of measuring TRP responses using our sensor platform should open up other applications such as drug screening and basic research related with nerve and circulation systems.

  13. Medial Wall Fracture and Orbital Emphysema Mimicking Inferior Rectus Entrapment in a Child.

    PubMed

    Collin, John; Afshar, Farid; Thomas, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Orbital emphysema is commonly associated with fractures of the orbital floor or medial wall. The air often dissipates spontaneously, but rarely can cause increased intraocular pressure and even loss of vision. Entrapment of the extraocular muscles can also occur with orbital fractures and may require prompt treatment in the pediatric patient due to the risk muscle ischemia. Both conditions can cause diplopia due to restriction of eye movement and differentiation of the two etiologies is important to prevent unnecessary surgical exploration. Identification and prompt management of raised intraocular pressure is essential in patients with orbital trauma. We present a case of orbital emphysema mimicking inferior rectus entrapment following trauma in an 11-year-old boy.

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of adrenal glands in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism or mimicking diseases.

    PubMed

    Wenger, M; Mueller, C; Kook, P H; Reusch, C E

    2010-08-01

    The adrenal glands of 30 dogs with primary adrenal insufficiency (hypoadrenocorticism) were measured ultrasonographically and compared with those of 14 healthy dogs and those of 10 dogs with diseases mimicking hypoadrenocorticism. Thickness and length of the adrenals were measured on abdominal ultrasonography and the results for each group were compared. Dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism had significantly thinner adrenals compared with the other two groups, and their left adrenal glands were also significantly shorter than those of healthy dogs. Adrenal ultrasonography may be of diagnostic value in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of primary hypoadrenocorticism, as a left adrenal gland measuring less than 3.2 mm in thickness is strongly suggestive of the disease.

  15. A case of pulmonary Serratia marcescens granuloma radiologically mimicking metastatic malignancy and tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Das, Joyutpal; Layton, Benjamin; Lamb, Harriet; Sinnott, Nicola; Leahy, Bernard C

    2015-11-01

    Serratia marcescens is a saprophytic gram-negative bacillus capable of causing a wide range of infections. A 57-year-old female was admitted to our hospital for four weeks with community acquired pneumonia. A chest x-ray, six weeks after discharge, demonstrated multiple, bilateral 'cannon ball'-like opacities and mediastinal lymphadenopathy which were highly suspicious of disseminated malignancy or tuberculosis. The only symptom that this patient had was a productive cough. She had multiple commodities, but no specific immunodeficiency disorder. Interestingly, her sputum and bronchial washing samples grew S. marcescens. The computed tomography-guided lung biopsy demonstrated necrotic granulomatous changes. There was no pathological evidence of tuberculosis or fungal infection, malignancy or vasculitis. There are only a handful of reported cases of Serratia granulomas. Thus, we are reporting a rare instance of pulmonary Serratia marcescens granuloma radiologically mimicking metastatic malignancy and tuberculosis infection.

  16. Enhanced Immunostimulating Activity of Lactobacilli-Mimicking Materials by Controlling Size.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Koji; Kumano, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Oyama, Naho; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Moriyama, Kaoru; Shida, Kan; Nomoto, Koji; Chiba, Katsuyoshi; Koumoto, Kazuya; Matsui, Jun

    2015-08-19

    The design and synthesis of materials capable of activating the immune system in a safe manner is of great interest in immunology and related fields. Lactobacilli activate the innate immune system of a host when acting as probiotics. Here, we constructed lactobacilli-mimicking materials in which polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complexes (PS-PGs) derived from lactobacilli were covalently conjugated to the surfaces of polymeric microparticles with a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 200 nm to 3 μm. The artificial lactobacilli successfully stimulated macrophages without cytotoxicity. Importantly, we found that the size of artificial lactobacilli strongly influenced their immunostimulating activities, and that artificial lactobacilli of 1 μm exhibited 10-fold higher activity than natural lactobacilli. One major advantage of the artificial lactobacilli is facile control of size, which cannot be changed in natural lactobacilli. These findings provide new insights into the design of materials for immunology as well as the molecular biology of lactobacillus.

  17. Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm Mimicking a Mediastinal Cyst With Compression Effects: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah Tirani, Heidar; Aghajanzadeh, Manouchehr; Pourbahador, Reza; Hassanzadeh, Rasool; Ebrahimi, Hannan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Giant coronary artery aneurysm is an extremely rare form of coronary artery disease. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Although it is usually asymptomatic, it may have various clinical presentations, including angina, myocardial infarction or sudden death. Case Presentation A 32-year-old woman presented with edema of the upper and lower limbs, palpitation, and chest pain, and was diagnosed with a giant right coronary artery aneurysm that had initially mimicked a mediastinal cyst. Although computed tomography (CT) suggested a mediastinal cyst, trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed an extra pericardial cyst. The definitive diagnosis of right coronary artery aneurysm was made based on CT angiography and coronary angiography findings. As treatment, aneurysmectomy was performed, and she was discharged on the sixth postoperative day with good general health condition. Conclusions Coronary artery aneurysm should be a differential diagnosis in cases of mediastinal cyst and mass lesion. PMID:27800453

  18. Isolated granulomatous hepatitis-A histopathological surprise mimicking cholangiocarcinoma in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Ashish; Gorsi, Ujjwal; Marginean, E Celia; Papadatos, Demetri; George, Uttam

    2013-01-01

    A 63-yr-old woman, known case of ulcerative colitis, was diagnosed with sclerosing cholangitis 2 years back. She was admitted for investigation of abdominal discomfort, fatigue with elevated alkaline phosphatase and deranged liver function test. Imaging studies (computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) demonstrated a normal biliary tree with focal hepatic lesion which was showing features of cholangiocarcinoma. Ultrasound guided biopsy of the lesion surprisingly revealed non caseating granulomata. Granulomatous hepatitis occurs in less than 1 percent of cases of inflammatory bowel disease. A clinical diagnosis of isolated granulomatous hepatitis was established as the lesion remained stable on follow up and no other cause for it was identified on further investigation. Although the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesion in patients with ulcerative colitis with sclerosing cholangitis is wide, granulomatous hepatitis presenting as focal mass lesion mimicking cholangiocarcinoma has never been described previously.

  19. Benign retroperitoneal schwannoma mimicking a pancreatic cystic tumor: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, W C; Lin, P W; Chang, K C

    1998-01-01

    A rare case of benign retroperitoneal schwannoma mimicking a pancreatic cystic tumor is reported herein. The tumor mass, based on a computed tomography scan and an abdominal echo examination, was initially suspected to be a mucinous cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma of the pancreas. However, the surgical and pathohistological findings made a final diagnosis of benign pancreatic schwannoma. The patient is doing well at a 2-year follow-up. The tumor, 18x17x15 cm in size, represented the largest among reported pancreatic schwannomas. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of reported cases of pancreatic schwannoma was carried out to summarize corresponding findings, including benign or malignant forms, adherence to other tissues, cystic change of the tumor, as well as relation to von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis.

  20. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia mimicking apical periodontitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Rekabi, Ali Reza; Ashouri, Rezvan; Torabi, Molok; Parirokh, Masoud; Abbott, Paul V

    2013-12-01

    Cemento-osseous dysplasia may present as a focal, periapical or florid lesion in the mandible or maxilla. The lesion may sometimes appear similar to peri-radicular lesions on a periapical radiograph. This report presents a case with irreversible pulpitis and root resorption as well as a mixed radiolucent/radiopaque lesion around a mandibular molar tooth root. Root canal treatment was performed and because of the radiographic signs of root resorption and the patient's fear of having a malignant disease, periapical surgery was also performed. The histopathology report confirmed the presence of florid cement-osseous dysplasia which was mimicking apical periodontitis. Follow-up radiography 12 months after the surgery illustrated complete healing of the radiolucent area.

  1. Diagnosis and perioperative management of ruptured AAA mimicking symptomatic groin hernia

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Holger Jan; Becker, Daniel; Rancic, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) can infrequently present as symptomatic groin hernia. This misleading form of presentation often leads to erroneous preoperative management resulting in poor survival. Case presentation Two patients with RAAA mimicking symptomatic groin hernia underwent different preoperative managements pointing out the importance of the principles of hypotensive haemostasis in the scope of this emergency scenario. Conclusion Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) remains the recommended diagnostic tool—for both safe diagnosis of the ruptured aneurysm and precise preoperative planning. Endovascular aortic repair of the RAAA—if feasible—is the treatment of choice. This rare form of RAAA manifestation should call physicians attention—especially in patients with known abdominal aortic aneurysms in their preceding medical history. PMID:26656148

  2. Osteoid osteoma mimicking Brodie's abscess in a 13-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Schlur, Charles; Bachy, Manon; Wajfisz, Anthony; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Josset, Patrice; Vialle, Raphaël

    2013-04-01

    Osteoid osteoma is a solitary, benign lesion of bone causing significant nocturnal pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and bone scan are commonly used in this diagnosis. A case of osteoid osteoma of the distal femur mimicking chronic osteomyelitis with Brodie's abscess is reported and discussed. Initial radiographs and MRI showed a lesion of the distal femur consistent with subacute osteomyelitis with a Brodie's abscess. Because primary malignant tumor could not be eliminated, surgical biopsy was carried out. Histological examination showed a typical nidus consistent with the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Subacute osteomyelitis (Brodie's abscess) may be difficult to distinguish from other malignant or benign bone lesions as osteoid osteoma. CT usually is recommended as the best imaging procedure to identify the nidus and confirm the diagnosis. MRI also can be used for this purpose. Surgical biopsy remains mandatory for unclear lesions before deciding on appropriate treatment.

  3. Analogue black holes in relativistic BECs: Mimicking Killing and universal horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    Relativistic Bose-Einstein condensates (rBECs) have recently become a well-established system for analogue gravity. Indeed, while such relativistic systems cannot be yet realized experimentally, they provide an interesting framework for mimicking metrics for which no analogue is yet available, thus paving the way for further theoretical and numerical explorations. In this vein, we here discuss black holes in rBECs and explore how their features relate to the bulk properties of the system. We then propose the coupling of external fields to the rBEC as a way to mimic nonmetric features. In particular, we use a Proca field to simulate an aether field, as found in Einstein-aether or Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. This allows us to mimic a universal horizon, the causal barrier relevant for superluminal modes in these modified gravitational theories.

  4. Localized mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum mimicking cancer in the rhinolaryngeal region.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Gómez-Camarasa, Cristina; Sampedro, Antonio; Aliaga-Martínez, Luis; Navarro, José María; Fernández, José Gutiérrez

    2016-09-01

    The clinical, microbiological, and histopathological findings of six patients with mucosal leishmaniasis are reported. Five of these patients were Spanish with no history of travel abroad, while the other was from Bolivia but had lived in Spain for more than 5 years. Two patients had no underlying disease, while the other four had several other medical conditions. Lesions were located in the nose in three patients and in the larynx in the other three. Symptoms included difficulty in swallowing, nasal obstruction, dysphonia, and polypoid lesions mimicking cancer. The diagnosis was based on the identification of parasites, or on PCR assay or culture. Five patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B and the other with antimonial compounds. PMID:27515498

  5. Acute chylous peritonitis mimicking ovarian torsion in a patient with advanced gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang Moo; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Bub Woo; Kim, Kyung Sik; Choi, Jin Sub; Lee, Woo Jung; Kim, Byong Ro

    2007-09-01

    The extravasation of chyle into the peritoneal space usually does not accompany an abrupt onset of abdominal pain with symptoms and signs of peritonitis. The rarity of this condition fails to reach preoperative diagnosis prior to laparotomy. Here, we introduce a case of chylous ascites that presented with acute abdominal pain mimicking peritonitis caused by ovarian torsion in a 41-yr-old female patient with advanced gastric carcinoma. An emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed but revealed no evidence of ovarian torsion. Only chylous ascites was discovered in the operative field. She underwent a complete abdominal hysterectomy and salphingo-oophorectomy. Only saline irrigation and suction-up were performed for the chylous ascites. The postoperative course was uneventful. Her bowel movement was restored within 1 week. She was allowed only a fat-free diet, and no evidence of re-occurrence of ascites was noted on clinical observation. She now remains under consideration for additional chemotherapy.

  6. Heating efficiency evaluation with mimicking plasma conditions of integrated fast-ignition experiment.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Morace, Alessio; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Kojima, Sadaoki; Sakata, Shohei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Hattori, Shoji; Hosoda, Tatsuya; Lee, Seung Ho; Shigemori, Keisuke; Hironaka, Youichiro; Sunahara, Atsushi; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Mima, Kunioki; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Yamanoi, Kohei; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Tokita, Shigeki; Nakata, Yoshiki; Kawanaka, Junji; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the energy-coupling efficiency from heating laser to a fuel core in the fast-ignition scheme of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion. Although the efficiency is determined by a wide variety of complex physics, from intense laser plasma interactions to the properties of high-energy density plasmas and the transport of relativistic electron beams (REB), here we simplify the physics by breaking down the efficiency into three measurable parameters: (i) energy conversion ratio from laser to REB, (ii) probability of collision between the REB and the fusion fuel core, and (iii) fraction of energy deposited in the fuel core from the REB. These three parameters were measured with the newly developed experimental platform designed for mimicking the plasma conditions of a realistic integrated fast-ignition experiment. The experimental results indicate that the high-energy tail of REB must be suppressed to heat the fuel core efficiently.

  7. Multimodal, 3D pathology-mimicking bladder phantom for evaluation of cystoscopic technologies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and blue light cystoscopy (BLC) have shown significant potential as complementary technologies to traditional white light cystoscopy (WLC) for early bladder cancer detection. Three-dimensional (3D) organ-mimicking phantoms provide realistic imaging environments for testing new technology designs, the diagnostic potential of systems, and novel image processing algorithms prior to validation in real tissue. Importantly, the phantom should mimic features of healthy and diseased tissue as they appear under WLC, BLC, and OCT, which are sensitive to tissue color and structure, fluorescent contrast, and optical scattering of subsurface layers, respectively. We present a phantom posing the hollow shape of the bladder and fabricated using a combination of 3D-printing and spray-coating with Dragon Skin (DS) (Smooth-On Inc.), a highly elastic polymer to mimic the layered structure of the bladder. Optical scattering of DS was tuned by addition of titanium dioxide, resulting in scattering coefficients sufficient to cover the human bladder range (0.49 to 2.0 mm^-1). Mucosal vasculature and tissue coloration were mimicked with elastic cord and red dye, respectively. Urethral access was provided through a small hole excised from the base of the phantom. Inserted features of bladder pathology included altered tissue color (WLC), fluorescence emission (BLC), and variations in layered structure (OCT). The phantom surface and underlying material were assessed on the basis of elasticity, optical scattering, layer thicknesses, and qualitative image appearance. WLC, BLC, and OCT images of normal and cancerous features in the phantom qualitatively matched corresponding images from human bladders.

  8. Ligand Binding Alters Dimerization and Sequestering of Urokinase Receptors in Raft-Mimicking Lipid Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yifan; Siegel, Amanda P.; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid heterogeneities, such as lipid rafts, are widely considered to be important for the sequestering of membrane proteins in plasma membranes, thereby influencing membrane protein functionality. However, the underlying mechanisms of such sequestration processes remain elusive, in part, due to the small size and often transient nature of these functional membrane heterogeneities in cellular membranes. To overcome these challenges, here we report the sequestration behavior of urokinase receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, in a planar model membrane platform with raft-mimicking lipid mixtures of well-defined compositions using a powerful optical imaging platform consisting of confocal spectroscopy XY-scans, photon counting histogram, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analyses. This methodology provides parallel information about receptor sequestration, oligomerization state, and lateral mobility with single molecule sensitivity. Most notably, our experiments demonstrate that moderate changes in uPAR sequestration are not only associated with modifications in uPAR dimerization levels, but may also be linked to ligand-mediated allosteric changes of these membrane receptors. Our data show that these modifications in uPAR sequestration can be induced by exposure to specific ligands (urokinase plasminogen activator, vitronectin), but not via adjustment of the cholesterol level in the planar model membrane system. Good agreement of our key findings with published results on cell membranes confirms the validity of our model membrane approach. We hypothesize that the observed mechanism of receptor translocation in the presence of raft-mimicking lipid mixtures is also applicable to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. PMID:25418095

  9. A theoretical and experimental investigation of nonlinear propagation of ultrasound through tissue mimicking media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rielly, Matthew Robert

    An existing numerical model (known as the Bergen code) is used to investigate finite amplitude ultrasound propagation through multiple layers of tissue-like media. This model uses a finite difference method to solve the nonlinear parabolic KZK wave equation. The code is modified to include an arbitrary frequency dependence of absorption and transmission effects for wave propagation across a plane interface at normal incidence. In addition the code is adapted to calculate the total intensity loss associated with the absorption of the fundamental and nonlinearly generated harmonics. Measurements are also taken of the axial nonlinear pressure field generated from a circular focused, 2.25 MHz source, through single and multiple layered tissue mimicking fluids, for source pressures in the range from 13 kPa to 310 kPa. Two tissue mimicking fluids are developed to provide acoustic properties similar to amniotic fluid and a typical soft tissue. The values of the nonlinearity parameter, sound velocity and frequency dependence of attenuation for both fluids are presented, and the measurement procedures employed to obtain these characteristics are described in detail. These acoustic parameters, together with the measured source conditions are used as input to the numerical model, allowing the experimental conditions to be simulated. Extensive comparisons are made between the model's predictions and the axial pressure field measurements. Results are presented in the frequency domain showing the fundamental and three subsequent harmonic amplitudes on axis, as a function of axial distance. These show that significant nonlinear distortion can occur through media with characteristics typical of tissue. Time domain waveform comparisons are also made. An excellent agreement is found between theory and experiment indicating that the model can be used to predict nonlinear ultrasound propagation through multiple layers of tissue-like media. The numerical code is also used to model the

  10. Ligand binding alters dimerization and sequestering of urokinase receptors in raft-mimicking lipid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yifan; Siegel, Amanda P; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A

    2014-11-01

    Lipid heterogeneities, such as lipid rafts, are widely considered to be important for the sequestering of membrane proteins in plasma membranes, thereby influencing membrane protein functionality. However, the underlying mechanisms of such sequestration processes remain elusive, in part, due to the small size and often transient nature of these functional membrane heterogeneities in cellular membranes. To overcome these challenges, here we report the sequestration behavior of urokinase receptor (uPAR), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, in a planar model membrane platform with raft-mimicking lipid mixtures of well-defined compositions using a powerful optical imaging platform consisting of confocal spectroscopy XY-scans, photon counting histogram, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analyses. This methodology provides parallel information about receptor sequestration, oligomerization state, and lateral mobility with single molecule sensitivity. Most notably, our experiments demonstrate that moderate changes in uPAR sequestration are not only associated with modifications in uPAR dimerization levels, but may also be linked to ligand-mediated allosteric changes of these membrane receptors. Our data show that these modifications in uPAR sequestration can be induced by exposure to specific ligands (urokinase plasminogen activator, vitronectin), but not via adjustment of the cholesterol level in the planar model membrane system. Good agreement of our key findings with published results on cell membranes confirms the validity of our model membrane approach. We hypothesize that the observed mechanism of receptor translocation in the presence of raft-mimicking lipid mixtures is also applicable to other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

  11. Platelet-like nanoparticles: mimicking shape, flexibility, and surface biology of platelets to target vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Aaron C; Modery-Pawlowski, Christa Lynn; Menegatti, Stefano; Kumar, Sunny; Vogus, Douglas R; Tian, Lewis L; Chen, Ming; Squires, Todd M; Sen Gupta, Anirban; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-11-25

    Targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents in the vascular compartment represents a significant hurdle in using nanomedicine for treating hemorrhage, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. While several types of nanoparticles have been developed to meet this goal, their utility is limited by poor circulation, limited margination, and minimal targeting. Platelets have an innate ability to marginate to the vascular wall and specifically interact with vascular injury sites. These platelet functions are mediated by their shape, flexibility, and complex surface interactions. Inspired by this, we report the design and evaluation of nanoparticles that exhibit platelet-like functions including vascular injury site-directed margination, site-specific adhesion, and amplification of injury site-specific aggregation. Our nanoparticles mimic four key attributes of platelets, (i) discoidal morphology, (ii) mechanical flexibility, (iii) biophysically and biochemically mediated aggregation, and (iv) heteromultivalent presentation of ligands that mediate adhesion to both von Willebrand Factor and collagen, as well as specific clustering to activated platelets. Platelet-like nanoparticles (PLNs) exhibit enhanced surface-binding compared to spherical and rigid discoidal counterparts and site-selective adhesive and platelet-aggregatory properties under physiological flow conditions in vitro. In vivo studies in a mouse model demonstrated that PLNs accumulate at the wound site and induce ∼65% reduction in bleeding time, effectively mimicking and improving the hemostatic functions of natural platelets. We show that both the biochemical and biophysical design parameters of PLNs are essential in mimicking platelets and their hemostatic functions. PLNs offer a nanoscale technology that integrates platelet-mimetic biophysical and biochemical properties for potential applications in injectable synthetic hemostats and vascularly targeted payload delivery. PMID:25318048

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth mimicking acute flare as a pitfall in patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized by excessive proliferation of colonic bacterial species in the small bowel. Potential causes of SIBO include fistulae, strictures or motility disturbances. Hence, patients with Crohn's Disease (CD) are especially predisposed to develop SIBO. As result, CD patients may experience malabsorption and report symptoms such as weight loss, watery diarrhea, meteorism, flatulence and abdominal pain, mimicking acute flare in these patients. Methods One-hundred-fifty patients with CD reporting increased stool frequency, meteorism and/or abdominal pain were prospectively evaluated for SIBO with the Hydrogen Glucose Breath Test (HGBT). Results Thirty-eight patients (25.3%) were diagnosed with SIBO based on positive findings at HGBT. SIBO patients reported a higher rate of abdominal complaints and exhibited increased stool frequency (5.9 vs. 3.7 bowel movements/day, p = 0.003) and lower body weight (63.6 vs 70.4 kg, p = 0.014). There was no correlation with the Crohn's Disease Activity Index. SIBO was significantly more frequent in patients with partial resection of the colon or multiple intestinal surgeries; there was also a clear trend in patients with ileocecal resection that did not reach statistical significance. SIBO rate was also higher in patients with affection of both the colon and small bowel, while inflammation of the (neo)terminal ileum again showed only tendential association with the development of SIBO. Conclusion SIBO represents a frequently ignored yet clinically relevant complication in CD, often mimicking acute flare. Because symptoms of SIBO are often difficult to differentiate from those caused by the underlying disease, targeted work-up is recommended in patients with corresponding clinical signs and predisposing factors. PMID:19643023

  13. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  14. Calea zacatechichi dichloromethane extract exhibits antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, M; Kowalczuk, A; Zielinska, M; Błażewicz, A; Fichna, J

    2015-10-01

    Calea zacatechichi Schltdl. (Asteraceae alt. Compositae) is a Mexican plant commonly used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of C. zacatechichi extracts in mouse models mimicking the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Powdered C. zacatechichi herb (leaves, stems, and flowers) was extracted with methanol. Methanolic extract was filtered and evaporated giving methanolic fraction. The residue was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). Methanolic and DCM (200 mg/kg, per os) extracts were screened for their effect on GI motility in several in vitro tests, and the antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects were assessed using mouse models. The influence of the DCM extract on motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors was also assessed. Finally, the composition of C. zacatechichi DCM extract was qualitatively analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. C. zacatechichi DCM extract significantly inhibited the contractility of mouse colon in vitro (IC50 = 17 ± 2 μg/ml). Administration of the DCM extract in vivo (200 mg/kg, per os) significantly prolonged the time of whole GI transit (46 ± 1 vs. 117 ± 27 min for control and DCM-treated animals, respectively; P = 0.0023), inhibited hypermotility, and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. Our findings suggest that constituents of the C. zacatechichi DCM extract exhibit antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. The extract may thus become an attractive material for isolation of compounds that may be used as a supplementary treatment for pain and diarrhea associated with IBS in the future. PMID:26068703

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Cao, Hailong; Wang, Sinan; Wang, Dan; Xu, Mengque; Piao, Meiyu; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Dieulafoy lesion is a rare but serious cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, some cases can be occasionally found without bleeding during the endoscopic screening, and the management remains unclear. The aim of this article was to report the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions, which presented as protrusion lesions mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Methods: Data from the patients with gastric protrusion lesions who underwent ESD from September 2008 to April 2016 in General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, China were recorded. Seven cases with pathological diagnosis of Dieulafoy lesion without bleeding were enrolled for further analysis. Results: A total of 7 patients (2 males and 5 females) with mean age of 57.7 ± 4.15 years were pathologically diagnosed as Dieulafoy lesion. Four of the lesions were located in gastric antrum, 2 in the fundus, and 1 in the body of stomach, respectively. The mean sizes of the Dieulafoy lesions under white light endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) were 1.06 ± 0.28 and 0.84 ± 0.29 cm. The origins of these lesions were submucosa (6/7, 85.7%) and muscularis propria (1/7, 14.3%). Three of them appeared with mixed echo under EUS, 3 with hypoechogenicity, and 1 with hyperechogenicity. En bloc complete resection was achieved in all the lesions by ESD with average time of 76.00 ± 16.86 minutes, and no intraoperative bleeding happened. In addition, all patients were followed up for 1 to 53 months, and no recurrence or long-term complications was observed. Conclusion: Therefore, ESD can be an effective and safe treatment for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions with clinical presentations of submucosal protrusion lesions mimicking GISTs. PMID:27603399

  16. Heparin-mimicking multilayer coating on polymeric membrane via LbL assembly of cyclodextrin-based supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Liu, Xinyue; Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; Shi, Wenbin; Nie, Chuanxiong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2014-12-10

    In this study, multifunctional and heparin-mimicking star-shaped supramolecules-deposited 3D porous multilayer films with improved biocompatibility were fabricated via a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly method on polymeric membrane substrates. Star-shaped heparin-mimicking polyanions (including poly(styrenesulfonate-co-sodium acrylate; Star-PSS-AANa) and poly(styrenesulfonate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate; Star-PSS-EGMA)) and polycations (poly(methyl chloride-quaternized 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; Star-PMeDMA) were first synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based cores. Then assembly of 3D porous multilayers onto polymeric membrane surfaces was carried out by alternating deposition of the polyanions and polycations via electrostatic interaction. The surface morphology and composition, water contact angle, blood activation, and thrombotic potential as well as cell viability for the coated heparin-mimicking films were systematically investigated. The results of surface ATR-FTIR spectra and XPS spectra verified successful deposition of the star-shaped supramolecules onto the biomedical membrane surfaces; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations revealed that the modified substrate had 3D porous surface morphology, which might have a great biological influence on the biointerface. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigation of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, human platelet factor 4 (PF4, indicates platelet activation), activate partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT, indicates blood coagulant)), and blood-related complement activation (C3a and C5a, indicates inflammation potential) confirmed that the heparin-mimicking multilayer coated membranes exhibited ultralow blood component activations and excellent hemocompatibility. Meanwhile, after surface coating

  17. Learning numerical progressions.

    PubMed

    Vitz, P C; Hazan, D N

    1974-01-01

    Learning of simple numerical progressions and compound progressions formed by combining two or three simple progressions is investigated. In two experiments, time to solution was greater for compound vs simple progressions; greater the higher the progression's solution level; and greater if the progression consisted of large vs small numbers. A set of strategies is proposed to account for progression learning based on the assumption S computes differences between integers, differences between differences, etc., in a hierarchical fashion. Two measures of progression difficulty, each a summary of the strategies, are proposed; C1 is a count of the number of differences needed to solve a progression; C2 is the same count with higher level differences given more weight. The measures accurately predict in both experiments the mean time to solve 16 different progressions with C2 being somewhat superior. The measures also predict the learning difficulty of 10 other progressions reported by Bjork (1968).

  18. Adventitial Vessel Growth and Progenitor Cells Activation in an Ex Vivo Culture System Mimicking Human Saphenous Vein Wall Strain after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Prandi, Francesca; Piola, Marco; Soncini, Monica; Colussi, Claudia; D’Alessandra, Yuri; Penza, Eleonora; Agrifoglio, Marco; Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Gaetano, Carlo; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino; Pesce, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein graft disease is a timely problem in coronary artery bypass grafting. Indeed, after exposure of the vein to arterial blood flow, a progressive modification in the wall begins, due to proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the intima. As a consequence, the graft progressively occludes and this leads to recurrent ischemia. In the present study we employed a novel ex vivo culture system to assess the biological effects of arterial-like pressure on the human saphenous vein structure and physiology, and to compare the results to those achieved in the presence of a constant low pressure and flow mimicking the physiologic vein perfusion. While under both conditions we found an activation of Matrix Metallo-Proteases 2/9 and of microRNAs-21/146a/221, a specific effect of the arterial-like pressure was observed. This consisted in a marked geometrical remodeling, in the suppression of Tissue Inhibitor of Metallo-Protease-1, in the enhanced expression of TGF-β1 and BMP-2 mRNAs and, finally, in the upregulation of microRNAs-138/200b/200c. In addition, the veins exposed to arterial-like pressure showed an increase in the density of the adventitial vasa vasorum and of cells co-expressing NG2, CD44 and SM22α markers in the adventitia. Cells with nuclear expression of Sox-10, a transcription factor characterizing multipotent vascular stem cells, were finally found in adventitial vessels. Our findings suggest, for the first time, a role of arterial-like wall strain in the activation of pro-pathologic pathways resulting in adventitial vessels growth, activation of vasa vasorum cells, and upregulation of specific gene products associated to vascular remodeling and inflammation. PMID:25689822

  19. Development of Abnormal Hemispheric Vascular Networks Mimicking Cerebral Proliferative Angiopathy in a Child Originally Diagnosed with Deep-Seated Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Miki; Sato, Kenichi; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Endo, Hidenori; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA), which is characterized by diffuse vascular abnormalities with intermingled normal brain parenchyma, is a rare clinical entity distinct from classical cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Its pathology at initial state and subsequent course of progression has totally been undetermined. We herein presented a case of a child who was initially diagnosed with deep-seated arteriovenous fistula (AVF), and ultimately developed symptomatic CPA-like vascular lesion over a long period of clinical follow-up. A 7-month-old boy was incidentally found to have an AVF in the right basal ganglia and conservatively followed up. Serial magnetic resonance angiograms revealed the gradual proliferation and enlargement of pial and medullary vessels surrounding the AVF. Seven years later, he had a transient ischemic attack followed by intraventricular hemorrhage. A catheter angiogram showed a diffuse large vascular malformation composed of 2 distinct structures, including AVF in the right basal ganglia and the surrounding proliferated pial and medullary arteries in the right hemisphere. Single-photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl[123I]-p-iodoamphetamine revealed apparent hemodynamic compromise on the right hemisphere. Targeted embolization of the pseudoaneurysm originating from the right A1 perforator was performed to prevent rebleeding without complications. The patient had no further cerebrovascular events. Perinidal hypoperfusion induced by a deep-seated AVF could be one of the underlying pathologies of progressive angiogenic activity. This is the first case showing the development of abnormal hemispheric vascular networks mimicking CPA, which offers insight into the pathogenesis of this new entity.

  20. Targeting oncomiRNAs and mimicking tumor suppressor miRNAs: New trends in the development of miRNA therapeutic strategies in oncology (Review)

    PubMed Central

    GAMBARI, ROBERTO; BROGNARA, ELEONORA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; FABBRI, ENRICA

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA or miR) therapeutics in cancer are based on targeting or mimicking miRNAs involved in cancer onset, progression, angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis. Several studies conclusively have demonstrated that miRNAs are deeply involved in tumor onset and progression, either behaving as tumor-promoting miRNAs (oncomiRNAs and metastamiRNAs) or as tumor suppressor miRNAs. This review focuses on the most promising examples potentially leading to the development of anticancer, miRNA-based therapeutic protocols. The inhibition of miRNA activity can be readily achieved by the use of miRNA inhibitors and oligomers, including RNA, DNA and DNA analogues (miRNA antisense therapy), small molecule inhibitors, miRNA sponges or through miRNA masking. On the contrary, the enhancement of miRNA function (miRNA replacement therapy) can be achieved by the use of modified miRNA mimetics, such as plasmid or lentiviral vectors carrying miRNA sequences. Combination strategies have been recently developed based on the observation that i) the combined administration of different antagomiR molecules induces greater antitumor effects and ii) some anti-miR molecules can sensitize drug-resistant tumor cell lines to therapeutic drugs. In this review, we discuss two additional issues: i) the combination of miRNA replacement therapy with drug administration and ii) the combination of antagomiR and miRNA replacement therapy. One of the solid results emerging from different independent studies is that miRNA replacement therapy can enhance the antitumor effects of the antitumor drugs. The second important conclusion of the reviewed studies is that the combination of anti-miRNA and miRNA replacement strategies may lead to excellent results, in terms of antitumor effects. PMID:27175518

  1. MRI-based morphological modeling, synthesis and characterization of cardiac tissue-mimicking materials.

    PubMed

    Kossivas, Fotis; Angeli, S; Kafouris, D; Patrickios, C S; Tzagarakis, V; Constantinides, C

    2012-06-01

    This study uses standard synthetic methodologies to produce tissue-mimicking materials that match the morphology and emulate the in vivo murine and human cardiac mechanical and imaging characteristics, with dynamic mechanical analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and magnetic resonance imaging. In accordance with such aims, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) elastomeric materials were synthesized (at two different glycerol (G)-sebacic (S) acid molar ratios; the first was synthesized using a G:S molar ratio of 2:2, while the second from a 2:5 G:S molar ratio, resulting in PGS2:2 and PGS2:5 elastomers, respectively). Unlike the synthesized PGS2:2 elastomers, the PGS2:5 materials were characterized by an overall mechanical instability in their loading behavior under the three successive loading conditions tested. An oscillatory response in the mechanical properties of the synthesized elastomers was observed throughout the loading cycles, with measured increased storage modulus values at the first loading cycle, stabilizing to lower values at subsequent cycles. These elastomers were characterized at 4 °C and were found to have storage modulus values of 850 and 1430 kPa at the third loading cycle, respectively, in agreement with previously reported values of the rat and human myocardium. SEM of surface topology indicated minor degradation of synthesized materials at 10 and 20 d post-immersion in the PBS buffer solution, with a noted cluster formation on the PGS2:5 elastomers. AFM nanoindentation experiments were also conducted for the measurement of the Young modulus of the sample surface (no bulk contribution). Correspondingly, the PGS2:2 elastomer indicated significantly decreased surface Young's modulus values 20 d post-PBS immersion, compared to dry conditions (Young's modulus = 1160 ± 290 kPa (dry) and 200 ± 120 kPa (20 d)). In addition to the two-dimensional (2D) elastomers, an integrative platform for accurate construction of

  2. Hybrid vitronectin-mimicking polycaprolactone scaffolds for human retinal progenitor cell differentiation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Elodie; Baranov, Petr; Young, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made in an attempt to treat retinal degenerative diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. The irreversible loss of photoreceptors is common to both, and currently no restorative clinical treatment exists. It has been shown that retinal progenitor and photoreceptor precursor cell transplantation can rescue the retinal structure and function. Importantly, retinal progenitor cells can be collected from the developing neural retina with further expansion and additional modification in vitro, and the delivery into the degenerative host can be performed as a single-cell suspension injection or as a complex graft transplantation. Previously, we have described several polymer scaffolds for culture and transplantation of retinal progenitor cells of both mouse and human origin. This tissue engineering strategy increases donor cell survival and integration. We have also shown that biodegradable poly(ɛ-caprolactone) induces mature photoreceptor differentiation from human retinal progenitor cells. However, poor adhesive properties limit its use, and therefore it requires additional surface modification. The aim of this work was to study vitronectin-mimicking oligopeptides (Synthemax II-SC) poly(ɛ-caprolactone) films and their effects on human retinal progenitor cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Here, we show that the incorporation of vitronectin-mimicking oligopeptide into poly(ɛ-caprolactone) leads to dose-dependent increases in cell adhesion; the optimum dose identified as 30 µg/ml. Inhibition of human retinal progenitor cells proliferation was seen on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and was maintained with the hybrid scaffold. This has been shown to be beneficial for driving cell differentiation. Additionally, we observed equal expression of Nrl, rhodopsin, recoverin, and rod outer membrane 1 after differentiation on the hybrid scaffold as compared to the standard fibronectin coating of poly

  3. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue-mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80 – 500 MHz and at temperatures of 24°C, 37°C, and 45°C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15 – 55°C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical 4-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz), by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumor). For muscle and tumor materials, MR imaging was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 Tesla) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change vs. temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the

  4. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Kidney Disease: A Comprehensive Pictorial Review of the Imaging Spectrum, Mimickers, and Clinicopathological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Nieun; Byun, Jae Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) has recently been demonstrated to be an important part of IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-SD). However, since IgG4-KD is still relatively unfamiliar to radiologists and physicians as compared to IgG4-SD involving other organs, it could, therefore, be easily missed. In this article, we present a comprehensive pictorial review of IgG4-KD with regards to the imaging spectrum, mimickers, and clinicopathologic characteristics, based on our clinical experience with 48 patients during the past 13 years, as well as a literature review. Awareness of the broad imaging spectrum of IgG4-KD and differential diagnosis from its mimickers will thus facilitate its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26357500

  5. Dynamic optical coherence tomography measurements of elastic wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms and mouse cornea in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Manapuram, Ravi Kiran; Singh, Manmohan; Menodiado, Floredes M.; Aglyamov, Salavat; Emelianov, Stanislav; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept-source optical coherence tomography to assess the propagation of low-amplitude (micron-level) waves induced by a focused air-pulse system in tissue-mimicking phantoms, a contact lens, a silicone eye model, and the mouse cornea in vivo. The results show that the wave velocity can be quantified from the analysis of wave propagation, thereby enabling the estimation of the sample elasticity using the model of surface wave propagation for the tissue-mimicking phantoms. This noninvasive, noncontact measurement technique involves low-force methods of tissue excitation that can be potentially used to assess the biomechanical properties of ocular and other delicate tissues in vivo.

  6. Increased FDG uptake of the bone marrow mimicking malignancy in a patient of eosinophilia secondary to Sparganum mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Gao, Lei; Zuo, Changjing

    2014-07-01

    Secondary eosinophilia is usually associated with parasitosis in Third World countries. We present a case of eosinophilia secondary to Sparganum mansoni infection showing multifocal FDG uptake in the axial bones mimicking malignancy. Bone marrow aspirations and biopsy revealed remarkable proliferation of eosinophils which may be related to the increased FDG uptake. This case indicates that secondary eosinophilia associated with parasitosis may be one cause of diffuse FDG uptake in the bone marrow.

  7. The chemical mimicking of the mechanical stimulation, photoinhibition, and recovery from photoinhibition of bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra

    SciTech Connect

    Hamman, J.P.; Seliger, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanically stimulable bioluminescence and photoinhibition of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra can be mimicked by a number of cations, proportional to the logarithm of their external concentrations. The data are consistent with mechanical stimulability as a membrane depolarization resulting in an increase in H/sup +/ ions at bioluminescence sites and with photoinhibition as a hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.

  8. The chemical mimicking of the mechanical stimulation, photoinhibition, and recovery from photoinhibition of bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra

    SciTech Connect

    Hamman, J.P.; Seliger, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    Mechanically stimulable bioluminescence and photoinhibition of sensitivity to mechanical stimulation in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra can be mimicked by a number of cations, proportional to the logarithm of their external concentrations. The data are consistent with mechanical stimulability as a membrane depolarization resulting in an increase in H/sup +/ ions at bioluminescence sites and with photoinhibition as a hyperpolarization of the cell membrane.

  9. (99m)Tc-MDP- and (18F)-FDG-avid florid reactive periostitis ossificans mimicking recurrent osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Koh, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Ji Young; Lim, Sang Moo; Kong, Chang-Bae

    2013-06-01

    Florid reactive periostitis ossificans is a rare benign lesion usually affecting the tubular bones of the hands and feet, and its histological features may be confused with those of infection and osteosarcoma. We report a case with florid reactive periostitis ossificans of the femur showing increased tracer uptake on both Tc-MDP bone scan and F-FDG PET/CT mimicking a local recurrence in a 15-year-old patient with high-grade osteosarcoma.

  10. Skin color correction for tissue spectroscopy: demonstration of a novel approach with tissue-mimicking phantoms.

    PubMed

    Soyemi, Olusola O; Landry, Michelle R; Yang, Ye; Idwasi, Patrick O; Soller, Babs R

    2005-02-01

    The application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to visible-near-infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy for modeling important blood and tissue parameters is generally complicated by the variation in skin pigmentation (melanin) across the human population. An orthogonal correction method for removing the influence of skin pigmentation has been demonstrated in diffuse reflectance spectra from two-layer tissue-mimicking phantoms. The absorption properties of the phantoms were defined by lyophilized human hemoglobin (bottom layer) and synthetic melanin (top layer). Tissue-like scattering was simulated in both layers with intralipid. The approach uses principal components analysis (PCA) loading vectors from a separate set of phantom spectra that encode the unwanted melanin variation to remove the effect of melanin from the test phantoms. The preprocessing of phantom spectra using this orthogonal correction method resulted in PLS models with reduced complexity and enhanced prediction performance. Preliminary results from a separate study that evaluates the feasibility of defining skin color variation in an experiment with a single human subject are also presented.

  11. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis due to Actinomyces Mimicking a Perforation of the Proximal Jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Eenhuis, Louise L.; de Lange, Marleen E.; Samson, Anda D.; Busch, Olivier R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis due to actinomyces Symptoms: Abdominal distension • abdominal pain • acute abdomen • fever • intermenstrual bleeding • nausea • sepsis • septic shock Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pelvic-abdominal actinomycosis is a rare chronic condition caused by an anaerobic, gram-negative rod-shaped commensal bacterium of the Actinomyces species. When Actinomyces becomes pathogenic, it frequently causes a chronic infection with granulomatous abscess formation with pus. Due to diversity in clinical and radiological presentation, actinomycosis can easily be mistaken for several other conditions. Peritonitis without preceding abscess formation caused by Actinomyces species has been described in only few cases before in literature. Case report: We report a case of spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis with presence of pneumoperitoneum and absence of preceding abscesses due to acute actinomycosis mimicking a perforation of the proximal jejunum in a 42-year-old female with an intra-uterine contraceptive device in place. Explorative laparotomy revealed 2 liters of odorless pus but no etiological explanation for the peritonitis. The intra-uterine contraceptive device was removed. Cultivation showed growth of Actinomyces turicensis. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin. Conclusions: In the case of primary bacterial peritonitis or lower abdominal pain without focus in a patient with an intrauterine device in situ, Actinomyces should be considered as a pathogen. PMID:27561364

  12. Cystic teratoma mimicking recurrent pleural effusion, complicated by Mycobacterium abscessus infection

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Radzi, Adli Azam; Bakar, Nor Salmah; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Shukry; Ismail, Ahmad Izuanuddin; Abdul Rani, Mohamed Fauzi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Teratomas of anterior mediastinum are rare. They are often slow growing, asymptomatic, and detected incidentally on chest imaging. Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) is an acid‐fast bacillus that is classified as a pathogenic “rapid growing” non‐tuberculous mycobacteria. It is an uncommon cause of human pathology, which may cause skin and soft tissue infection after skin injury following inoculation, minor trauma, and surgery. Here, we present an unusual case of benign cystic teratoma mimicking recurrent pleural effusion, which was subsequently complicated by M. abscessus infection following thoracotomy. Cystic teratoma is rare, but it needs to be considered whenever clinical and investigative work‐up fails to provide a convincing diagnosis. A combined clinical, radiological, surgical, and histopathological assessment is important to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Rapidly growing mycobacteria needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with non‐resolving infected post‐thoracotomy wound and who do not respond to broad‐spectrum antibiotics. PMID:27516884

  13. A heparin-mimicking reverse thermal gel for controlled delivery of positively charged proteins

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Brisa; Shandas, Robin; Park, Daewon

    2014-01-01

    Positively charged therapeutic proteins have been used extensively for biomedical applications. However, the safety and efficacy of proteins are mostly limited by their physical and chemical instability and short half-lives in physiological conditions. To this end, we created a heparin-mimicking sulfonated reverse thermal gel as a novel protein delivery system by sulfonation of a graft copolymer, poly(serinol hexamethylene urea)-co-poly(N-isopropylacylamide), or PSHU-NIPAAm. The net charge of the sulfonated PSHU-NIPAAm was negative due to the presence of sulfonate groups. The sulfonated PSHU-NIPAAm showed a typical temperature-dependent sol-gel phase transition, where polymer solutions turned to a physical gel at around 32°C and maintained gel status at body temperature. Both in vitro cytotoxicity tests using C2C12 myoblast cells and in vivo cytotoxicity tests by subcutaneous injections demonstrated excellent biocompatibility. In vitro release tests using bovine serum albumin (BSA) revealed that the release from the sulfonated PSHU-NIPAAm was more sustained than that from the plain PSHU-NIPAAm. Furthermore, this sulfonated PSHU-NIPAAm system did not affect protein structure after 70-day observation periods. PMID:25294242

  14. Solitary sarcoid granuloma of the iris mimicking tuberculosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rejdak, Robert; Pogorelov, Pavel; Mardin, Christian Y; Szkaradek, Małgorzata; Juenemann, Anselm G M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. We report a case of a male patient presented with sarcoid lesions of the iris and conjunctiva, mimicking tuberculosis due to epithelioid cell granulomas with small central necrosis in conjunctival biopsy. Patient. A 25-year-old man was referred to our department for further management of an "iris tumor with iridocyclitis" in his right eye. Initial examination showed an isolated vascular tumor of the iris and ciliary body with anterior uveitis and mutton-fat keratic precipitates, suggesting the diagnosis of a granulomatous disease. Conjunctival biopsy revealed granulomatous epithelioid cell inflammation with small central necrosis without acid-fast bacilli. Extensive systemic examination, including bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy, provided the diagnosis of sarcoidosis stage 2 with pulmonary involvement, thus ruling out tuberculosis. Systemic and local steroid therapy was initiated, leading to complete recovery of our patient with complete disappearance of the iris lesion and improvement of the pulmonary function. Conclusion. Although noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas are typical for sarcoidosis, small central necrosis can be found in some granulomas, leading to presumption of tuberculosis. Extensive systemic checkup in cooperation with other specialists is essential to confirm the correct diagnosis and to initiate the appropriate therapy. PMID:24734169

  15. Solitary Sarcoid Granuloma of the Iris Mimicking Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pogorelov, Pavel; Mardin, Christian Y.; Szkaradek, Małgorzata; Juenemann, Anselm G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. We report a case of a male patient presented with sarcoid lesions of the iris and conjunctiva, mimicking tuberculosis due to epithelioid cell granulomas with small central necrosis in conjunctival biopsy. Patient. A 25-year-old man was referred to our department for further management of an “iris tumor with iridocyclitis” in his right eye. Initial examination showed an isolated vascular tumor of the iris and ciliary body with anterior uveitis and mutton-fat keratic precipitates, suggesting the diagnosis of a granulomatous disease. Conjunctival biopsy revealed granulomatous epithelioid cell inflammation with small central necrosis without acid-fast bacilli. Extensive systemic examination, including bronchoscopy and transbronchial biopsy, provided the diagnosis of sarcoidosis stage 2 with pulmonary involvement, thus ruling out tuberculosis. Systemic and local steroid therapy was initiated, leading to complete recovery of our patient with complete disappearance of the iris lesion and improvement of the pulmonary function. Conclusion. Although noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas are typical for sarcoidosis, small central necrosis can be found in some granulomas, leading to presumption of tuberculosis. Extensive systemic checkup in cooperation with other specialists is essential to confirm the correct diagnosis and to initiate the appropriate therapy. PMID:24734169

  16. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis due to Actinomyces Mimicking a Perforation of the Proximal Jejunum.

    PubMed

    Eenhuis, Louise L; de Lange, Marleen E; Samson, Anda D; Busch, Olivier R C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pelvic-abdominal actinomycosis is a rare chronic condition caused by an anaerobic, gram-negative rod-shaped commensal bacterium of the Actinomyces species. When Actinomyces becomes pathogenic, it frequently causes a chronic infection with granulomatous abscess formation with pus. Due to diversity in clinical and radiological presentation, actinomycosis can easily be mistaken for several other conditions. Peritonitis without preceding abscess formation caused by Actinomyces species has been described in only few cases before in literature. CASE REPORT We report a case of spontaneous pelvic-abdominal peritonitis with presence of pneumoperitoneum and absence of preceding abscesses due to acute actinomycosis mimicking a perforation of the proximal jejunum in a 42-year-old female with an intra-uterine contraceptive device in place. Explorative laparotomy revealed 2 liters of odorless pus but no etiological explanation for the peritonitis. The intra-uterine contraceptive device was removed. Cultivation showed growth of Actinomyces turicensis. The patient was successfully treated with penicillin. CONCLUSIONS In the case of primary bacterial peritonitis or lower abdominal pain without focus in a patient with an intra-uterine device in situ, Actinomyces should be considered as a pathogen. PMID:27561364

  17. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grown in xylem mimicking medium.

    PubMed

    Hiery, Eva; Adam, Susanne; Reid, Stephen; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Sophia; Burkovski, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with its host, the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), is poorly understood and only few virulence factors are known. While studying of the bacteria in planta is time-consuming and difficult, the analysis in vitro would facilitate research. Therefore, a xylem mimicking medium (XMM) for C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was established in this study based on an apoplast medium for Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. In contrast to the apoplast medium, XMM contains no sugars, but amino acids which serve as nitrogen and carbon source. As a result, growth in XMM induced transcriptional changes of genes encoding putative sugar, amino acid and iron uptake systems. In summary, mRNA levels of about 8% of all C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genes were changed when XMM-grown bacteria were compared to M9 minimal medium-grown cells. Almost no transcriptional changes of genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes were detected, leading to the idea that XMM reflects the situation in the beginning of infection and therefore allows the characterization of virulence factors in this early stage of infection. The addition of the plant wound substance acetosyringone to the XMM medium led to a change in transcript amount, including genes coding for proteins involved in protein transport, iron uptake and regulation processes.

  18. Pseudogranulomatous Spitz nevus: a variant of Spitz nevus with heavy inflammatory infiltrate mimicking a granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sabater Marco, Vicente; Escutia Muñoz, Begoña; Morera Faet, Arturo; Mata Roig, Manuel; Botella Estrada, Rafael

    2013-03-01

    Spitz nevus is a benign melanocytic proliferation that shows relatively characteristic clinicopathologic features. Despite this, Spitz nevus is clinically confused with many other lesions, and histopathologically it is sometimes difficult to distinguish it from melanoma. However, Spitz nevus rarely causes differential diagnostic problems with granulomatous dermatitis. This article describes an 8-year-old girl who presented with a nodule on her right arm, a clinical appearance of a pyogenic granuloma. Histopathologically, there was a dermal lesion composed of aggregates of large epithelioid cells surrounded by a heavy inflammatory infiltrate, mimicking a sarcoid-like granulomatous dermatitis. Immunohistochemistry showed epithelioid cells with strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining with S-100 protein, thus establishing the diagnosis of a melanocytic tumor. The heavy T-cell lymphocytic infiltrate that accompanies the large epithelioid cells caused its granulomatous appearance. Molecular assessment showed H27H mutation in the HRAS gene. We suggest the term 'pseudogranulomatous' for this variant of Spitz nevus because it indicates that the lesion is not authentically granulomatous and simply mimics a granulomatous dermatitis.

  19. Oxaliplatin-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, JUNG-HYE; WON, YOUNG-WOONG; KIM, HYUN SUNG; OH, YOUNG-HA; LIM, SANGHYEOK; KIM, HAN-JOON

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer; however, it may cause liver injury, particularly sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Although SOS does not usually present with focal lesions on radiological images, the present study describes the case of a 22-year-old woman with oxaliplatin-induced SOS mimicking metastatic colon cancer in the liver. An abdominal computed tomography revealed a novel 1 cm, low-density lesion in segment 1 of the liver following the administration of the fourth round of oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer. Since the lesion was indistinguishable from metastasis, even with detailed imaging studies, including magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography, an isolated caudate lobectomy was planned. The cut surface of the resected liver showed a localized reddish congested lesion measuring 1.4 cm in diameter. The adjacent hepatic parenchyma also demonstrated diffuse sinusoidal congestion with a nutmeg-like appearance. Histologically, the lesion exhibited severe sinusoidal congestion with peliosis hepatis-like features. The widened sinusoidal space was outlined by markedly attenuated hepatic cords and filled with erythrocytes. The final diagnosis was oxaliplatin-induced SOS. The patient recovered completely and was relapse-free at the time of writing. PMID:27073565

  20. Paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastaisis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RONGXING; ZHANG, MINJIA; CHENG, NANSHENG; ZHOU, YONG

    2016-01-01

    Typical human paragonimiasis demonstrates an elevated eosinophil count, positive immunoblot, nodular shadows of the lung and pleural thickening with pleural effusion, and these symptoms may be confused with chest cancer. In the present case, a rare case of human paragonimiasis mimicking chest cancer and abdominal wall metastasis is described, the 39-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital for cough, weight loss 5 kg and a firm mass in right upper abdominal wall. The laboratory test showed unremarkable hematology and biochemistry results. Chest X-ray, Plain computed tomography of the chest and abdomen showed right pleural effusion, several nodules in right lower lung and a mass in the right upper abdominal wall. The initial diagnosis was lung or chest cancer with abdominal wall metastasis, and the abdominal wall mass was resected for the final diagnosis. The biopsy revealed eosinophilic granuloma with Charcot-Leyden crystal formation infiltrated in the muscular fibers. Subsequent to assessment of the antibodies against parasites, the final diagnosis of paragonimiasis was made. PMID:27313691

  1. InxAl1-xN chiral nanorods mimicking the polarization features of scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, R.; Birch, J.; Hsiao, C.-L.; Sandström, P.; Arwin, H.; Järrendahl, K.

    2015-03-01

    The scarab beetle Cetonia aurata is known to reflect light with brilliant colors and a high degree of circular polarization. Both color and polarization effects originate from the beetles exoskeleton and have been attributed to a Bragg reflection of the incident light due to a twisted laminar structure. Our strategy for mimicking the optical properties of the Cetonia aurata was therefore to design and fabricate transparent, chiral films. A series of films with tailored transparent structures of helicoidal InxAl1-xN nanorods were grown on sapphire substrates using UHV magnetron sputtering. The value of x is tailored to gradually decrease from one side to the other in each nanorod normal to its growth direction. This introduces an in-plane anisotropy with different refractive indices in the direction of the gradient and perpendicular to it. By rotating the sample during film growth the in-plane optical axis will be rotated from bottom to top and thereby creating a chiral film. Based on Muellermatrix ellipsometry, optical modeling has been done suggesting that both the exoskeleton of Cetonia aurata and our artificial material can be modeled by an anisotropic film made up of a stack of thin layers, each one with its in-plane optical axis slightly rotated with respect to the previous layer. Simulations based on the optical modeling were used to investigate how pitch and thickness of the film together with the optical properties of the constitutive materials affects the width and spectral position of the Bragg reflection band.

  2. Cystic teratoma mimicking recurrent pleural effusion, complicated by Mycobacterium abscessus infection.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Nurul Yaqeen; Mohd Radzi, Adli Azam; Bakar, Nor Salmah; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Shukry; Ismail, Ahmad Izuanuddin; Abdul Rani, Mohamed Fauzi

    2016-05-01

    Teratomas of anterior mediastinum are rare. They are often slow growing, asymptomatic, and detected incidentally on chest imaging. Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) is an acid-fast bacillus that is classified as a pathogenic "rapid growing" non-tuberculous mycobacteria. It is an uncommon cause of human pathology, which may cause skin and soft tissue infection after skin injury following inoculation, minor trauma, and surgery. Here, we present an unusual case of benign cystic teratoma mimicking recurrent pleural effusion, which was subsequently complicated by M. abscessus infection following thoracotomy. Cystic teratoma is rare, but it needs to be considered whenever clinical and investigative work-up fails to provide a convincing diagnosis. A combined clinical, radiological, surgical, and histopathological assessment is important to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Rapidly growing mycobacteria needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with non-resolving infected post-thoracotomy wound and who do not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics. PMID:27516884

  3. Process of stellar nucleosynthesis which mimicks mass fractionation in P-xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of the O-shell theory of Heymann and Dziczkaniec and the supernova theory of Woosley and Howard clearly identifies the astrophysical sites for the formation of the anomalous light Xe component in carbonaceous chondrites. These sites are the O- and Ne-shells, and possibly C-shell of a massive star. Most of the Xe-124 and Xe-126 are formed in the O-shell during hydrostatic core silicon-burning, when a seed of heavy nuclei is exposed to an effective temperature near T9 2.0. Xe-128 is formed via Ba-128 in the O-shell, but the amounts appear too small to satisfy the deduced Xe-128/Xe-124 and Xe-128/Xe-126 yield ratios from the chondrites. However, substantial amounts of Xe-128 can be formed in the adjacent Ne- and C-shells during the explosion. The formation of Ba-128 in the O-shell would increase if the (gamma, alpha) photodisintegration rate in Ba-128 is actually smaller than calculated by Woosley and Howard. Lewis et al. have proposed that the anomalous light Xe component is mass-fractionated normal Xe. It is in this sense that the process of stellar nucleosynthesis of the present paper mimicks mass-fractionation.

  4. A process of stellar nucleosynthesis which mimicks mass fractionation in P-xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.

    1980-03-01

    The combination of the O-shell theory of Heymann and Dziczkaniec and the supernova theory of Woosley and Howard clearly identifies the astrophysical sites for the formation of the anomalous light Xe component in carbonaceous chondrites. These sites are the O- and Ne-shells, and possibly C-shell of a massive star. Most of the Xe-124 and Xe-126 are formed in the O-shell during hydrostatic core silicon-burning, when a seed of heavy nuclei is exposed to an effective temperature near T9 = 2.0. Xe-128 is formed via Ba-128 in the O-shell, but the amounts appear too small to satisfy the deduced Xe-128/Xe-124 and Xe-128/Xe-126 yield ratios from the chondrites. However, substantial amounts of Xe-128 can be formed in the adjacent Ne- and C-shells during the explosion. The formation of Ba-128 in the O-shell would increase if the (gamma, alpha) photodisintegration rate in Ba-128 is actually smaller than calculated by Woosley and Howard. Lewis et al. have proposed that the anomalous light Xe component is mass-fractionated normal Xe. It is in this sense that the process of stellar nucleosynthesis of the present paper mimicks mass-fractionation.

  5. Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma: incidental finding of two cases.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ang; Liu, Wendy; Qian, Hong-Gang; Leng, Jia-Hua; Hao, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia is a rare disease that forms a mass-like lesion and is characterized by the proliferation of non-neoplastic, polyclonal lymphocytes forming follicles. We recently encountered 2 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of liver, both of which were asymptomatic and mimicked hepatocellular carcinoma by various imaging modalities. Based on the clinical impression of hepatocellular carcinoma, surgical resections were performed. Microscopic findings revealed that both lesions consisted of an aggregation of lymphocytes consisting of predominantly B-cells, with multiple lymphoid follicles positive for CD10 and negative for bcl-2, consistent with the diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Polyclonality of both lesions was further confirmed by B cell receptor gene rearrangement study. The incidence of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in the liver is exceedingly rare, and it is difficult to differentiate such lesions from hepatic malignancies based upon clinical grounds. The clinicopathological findings and literature review of this report may be helpful to improve the clinical decision-making. PMID:26191310

  6. Cationic chlorophyl derivatives with SOD mimicking activity suppress the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Maniki, M; Nakamura, K

    1996-06-01

    Derivatives of chlorophyl, e.g. Fe-chlorin e6-Na, alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetraphenylporphine-tetrasulfonic acid disulfonic acid salt tetrahydrate (Fe-TPPTS) and alpha, beta, gamma, delta-Tetrakis (4-N-trimethylaminophenyl) porphine, tetra (p-toluensulfonate (Fe-TTMAPP), express SOD mimicking activity. Examination was made of suppressive effects of human cancer cell lines by derivatives of chlorophyl. Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP suppressed proliferation of the human ovarian cancer cell lines but Fe-chlorin e6-Na failed to suppress the proliferation. Lipid peroxide was increased by application of Fe-TPPTS and Fe-TTMAPP, but decreased by application of Fe-chlorin e6-Na. SOD activity of the cancer cells did not change by application of these drugs. TPPTS and TTMAPP have a cationic charge but Fe-chlorin e6-Na has an anionic charge. It is suggested that charge of these drugs relates to the suppressive effects of the cancer cell proliferation. PMID:10851538

  7. Capillary rise on legs of a small animal and on artificially textured surfaces mimicking them.

    PubMed

    Tani, Marie; Ishii, Daisuke; Ito, Shuto; Hariyama, Takahiko; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Okumura, Ko

    2014-01-01

    The wharf roach Ligia exotica is a small animal that lives by the sea and absorbs water from the sea through its legs by virtue of a remarkable array of small blades of micron scale. We find that the imbibition dynamics on the legs is rather complex on a microscopic scale, but on a macroscopic scale the imbibition length seems to simply scale linearly with elapsed time. This unusual dynamics of imbibition, which usually slows down with time, is advantageous for long-distance water transport and results from repetition of unit dynamics. Inspired by the remarkable features, we study artificially textured surfaces mimicking the structure on the legs of the animal. Unlike the case of the wharf roach, the linear dynamics were not reproduced on the artificial surfaces, which may result from more subtle features on the real legs that are not faithfully reflected on the artificial surfaces. Instead, the nonlinear dynamics revealed that hybrid structures on the artificial surfaces speed up the water transport compared with non-hybrid ones. In addition, the dynamics on the artificial surfaces turn out to be well described by a composite theory developed here, with the theory giving useful guiding principles for designing hybrid textured surfaces for rapid imbibition and elucidating physical advantages of the microscopic design on the legs.

  8. Tau mediates microtubule bundle architectures mimicking fascicles of microtubules found in the axon initial segment

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Peter J.; Song, Chaeyeon; Deek, Joanna; Miller, Herbert P.; Li, Youli; Choi, Myung Chul; Wilson, Leslie; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2016-01-01

    Tau, an intrinsically disordered protein confined to neuronal axons, binds to and regulates microtubule dynamics. Although there have been observations of string-like microtubule fascicles in the axon initial segment (AIS) and hexagonal bundles in neurite-like processes in non-neuronal cells overexpressing Tau, cell-free reconstitutions have not replicated either geometry. Here we map out the energy landscape of Tau-mediated, GTP-dependent ‘active' microtubule bundles at 37 °C, as revealed by synchrotron SAXS and TEM. Widely spaced bundles (wall-to-wall distance Dw–w≈25–41 nm) with hexagonal and string-like symmetry are observed, the latter mimicking bundles found in the AIS. A second energy minimum (Dw–w≈16–23 nm) is revealed under osmotic pressure. The wide spacing results from a balance between repulsive forces, due to Tau's projection domain (PD), and a stabilizing sum of transient sub-kBT cationic/anionic charge–charge attractions mediated by weakly penetrating opposing PDs. This landscape would be significantly affected by charge-altering modifications of Tau associated with neurodegeneration. PMID:27452526

  9. Paraffin-gel tissue-mimicking material for ultrasound-guided needle biopsy phantom.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Sílvio L; Pavan, Theo Z; Junior, Jorge E; Carneiro, Antonio A O

    2013-12-01

    Paraffin-gel waxes have been investigated as new soft tissue-mimicking materials for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy training. Breast phantoms were produced with a broad range of acoustical properties. The speed of sound for the phantoms ranged from 1425.4 ± 0.6 to 1480.3 ± 1.7 m/s at room temperature. The attenuation coefficients were easily controlled between 0.32 ± 0.27 dB/cm and 2.04 ± 0.65 dB/cm at 7.5 MHz, depending on the amount of carnauba wax added to the base material. The materials do not suffer dehydration and provide adequate needle penetration, with a Young's storage modulus varying between 14.7 ± 0.2 kPa and 34.9 ± 0.3 kPa. The phantom background material possesses long-term stability and can be employed in a supine position without changes in geometry. These results indicate that paraffin-gel waxes may be promising materials for training radiologists in ultrasound biopsy procedures.

  10. Tau mediates microtubule bundle architectures mimicking fascicles of microtubules found in the axon initial segment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Peter J.; Song, Chaeyeon; Deek, Joanna; Miller, Herbert P.; Li, Youli; Choi, Myung Chul; Wilson, Leslie; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2016-07-25

    Tau, an intrinsically disordered protein confined to neuronal axons, binds to and regulates microtubule dynamics. Although there have been observations of string-like microtubule fascicles in the axon initial segment (AIS) and hexagonal bundles in neurite-like processes in non-neuronal cells overexpressing Tau, cell-free reconstitutions have not replicated either geometry. Here we map out the energy landscape of Tau-mediated, GTP-dependent ‘active’ microtubule bundles at 37°C, as revealed by synchrotron SAXS and TEM. Widely spaced bundles (wall-to-wall distance Dw–w≈25–41nm) with hexagonal and string-like symmetry are observed, the latter mimicking bundles found in the AIS. A second energy minimum (Dw–w≈16–23nm) is revealed under osmoticmore » pressure. The wide spacing results from a balance between repulsive forces, due to Tau’s projection domain (PD), and a stabilizing sum of transient sub-kBT cationic/anionic charge–charge attractions mediated by weakly penetrating opposing PDs. In the end, we find that this landscape would be significantly affected by charge-altering modifications of Tau associated with neurodegeneration.« less

  11. Bupivacaine induced cardiac toxicity mimicking an acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ho Yoel; Kim, Jang-Young; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Yoon, Junghan; Yoo, Byung-Su; Choe, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2007-04-30

    Bupivacaine is widely used as a local anesthetic. Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular toxicity are well known side effects. However, there has been no report of bupivacaine-induced myocardial injury. We present a case of bupivacaine cardiac toxicity mimicking an acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, which was eventually diagnosed as bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity without CNS toxicity. As soon as a healthy young woman at a private clinic was given a spinal anesthesia of 6mg bupivacaine for hemorrhoidectomy, she developed arrhythmia and hypotension. She was transferred to our emergency room. There was an accelerated idioventricular rhythm with ST segment depression on electrocardiogram, coarse breathing sounds with rales on whole lung field and a butterfly sign on the chest radiograph. 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed reduced left ventricle systolic ejection fraction (approximately 27%). There was regional wall motion abnormality of the left ventricle on 2D TTE and the cardiac marker was increased. We diagnosed the patient as having acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction but her impaired cardiac function improved gradually. On the seventh day from admission, there was a complete spontaneous recovery of cardiac function, and coronary angiography revealed a normal coronary artery. Therefore, we firmly believe that bupivacaine directly injures the cardiac cell.

  12. Vaginal foreign body mimicking cervical cancer in postmenopausal woman - case study.

    PubMed

    Ciebiera, Michał; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Ledowicz, Witold; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    We present a case report of a 73-year-old, postmenopausal woman with detailed history of breast cancer and oncology treatment including tamoxifen therapy. She presented at the clinic of gynecology and obstetrics with recurrent inflammation of the urinary and genital tract and suspicion of a cervical mass. She also presented occasional abdominal complaints and malodorous vaginal discharge. These symptoms were observed in the patient for several years. Before hospitalization she received many kinds of empirical, antimicrobial treatment such as chlorquinaldol, metronidazole, nifuratel, and nystatin. She did not receive further guidance from doctors about the causes of ailments and further diagnostic and treatment capabilities. In our clinic a detailed diagnostic process including ultrasound transvaginal examination and a minisurgical procedure revealed the presence of a vaginal foreign body (which turned out to be a plastic, shampoo bottle cap) surrounded by a mass of inflamed tissue mimicking a cervical tumor. All symptoms and complaints subsided after surgical removal of the foreign body and antibacterial therapy with metronidazole and cefuroxime. Our study draws attention to the need of thorough gynecological care including prophylaxis, especially in the case of complaints of an intimate nature. Even trivial, frequently occurring disorders can be dangerous and require proper and responsible doctor's supervision and management through the healing process. PMID:26528112

  13. Fluorescent BODIPY Rotor: Viscometer for Cellular Organelles and Membrane-Mimicking Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, J.; Raut, S.; Fudala, R.; Doan, H.; Maliwal, B.; Sabnis, N.; Lacko, A.; Gryczynski, I.; Dzyuba, S.; Gryczynski, Z.

    2015-03-01

    Many cellular processes, such as mass and signal transport, metabolism and protein-protein interactions are governed in part by diffusion, and thus affected by their local microviscosity. Changes in this microviscosity has also been linked to various diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. Therefore, directly measuring the heterogeneous viscosity of cellular constitutes can lead to greater understanding of these processes. To this effect, a novel homodiemeric BODIPY dye was evaluated as a fluorescent rotor probe for this application. A linear dependence on viscosity in the range of typical cellular microviscosity was established for steady-state and time-resolved properties of the dye. It was then embedded in vitro to membrane-mimicking lipid vesicles (DPPC, POPC, and POPC plus cholesterol) and results indicated it to be a viable sensor for lifetime-based determination of microviscosity. The BODIPY dye was lastly endocytosed by SKOV3 cells and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was performed, successfully mapping the viscosity of internal cell components. This work was supported by the NIH Grant R01EB12003, the NSF Grant CBET-1264608, and the INFOR Grant from TCU.

  14. Vaginal foreign body mimicking cervical cancer in postmenopausal woman – case study

    PubMed Central

    Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Ledowicz, Witold; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of a 73-year-old, postmenopausal woman with detailed history of breast cancer and oncology treatment including tamoxifen therapy. She presented at the clinic of gynecology and obstetrics with recurrent inflammation of the urinary and genital tract and suspicion of a cervical mass. She also presented occasional abdominal complaints and malodorous vaginal discharge. These symptoms were observed in the patient for several years. Before hospitalization she received many kinds of empirical, antimicrobial treatment such as chlorquinaldol, metronidazole, nifuratel, and nystatin. She did not receive further guidance from doctors about the causes of ailments and further diagnostic and treatment capabilities. In our clinic a detailed diagnostic process including ultrasound transvaginal examination and a minisurgical procedure revealed the presence of a vaginal foreign body (which turned out to be a plastic, shampoo bottle cap) surrounded by a mass of inflamed tissue mimicking a cervical tumor. All symptoms and complaints subsided after surgical removal of the foreign body and antibacterial therapy with metronidazole and cefuroxime. Our study draws attention to the need of thorough gynecological care including prophylaxis, especially in the case of complaints of an intimate nature. Even trivial, frequently occurring disorders can be dangerous and require proper and responsible doctor's supervision and management through the healing process. PMID:26528112

  15. Organelle-mimicking liposome dissociates G-quadruplexes and facilitates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Smritimoy; Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Important biological reactions involving nucleic acids occur near the surface of membranes such as the nuclear membrane (NM) and rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER); however, the interactions between biomembranes and nucleic acids are poorly understood. We report here that transcription was facilitated in solution with liposomes, which mimic a biomembrane surface, relative to the reaction in a homogeneous aqueous solution when the template was able to form a G-quadruplex. The G-quadruplex is known to be an inhibitor of transcription, but the stability of the G-quadruplex was decreased at the liposome surface because of unfavourable enthalpy. The destabilization of the G-quadruplex was greater at the surface of NM- and ER-mimicking liposomes than at the surfaces of liposomes designed to mimic other organelles. Thermodynamic analyses revealed that the G-rich oligonucleotides adopted an extended structure at the liposome surface, whereas in solution the compact G-quadruplex was formed. Our data suggest that changes in structure and stability of nucleic acids regulate biological reactions at membrane surfaces. PMID:25336617

  16. Fabrication and properties of dual-level hierarchical structures mimicking gecko foot hairs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Liu, Shiyuan; Lv, Hao

    2013-02-01

    In nature, geckos have extraordinary adhesive capabilities. The multi-scale hierarchical structure of the gecko foot hairs, especially the high-aspect-ratio structure of its micro-scale seta and nano-scale spatulae is the critical factor of the gecko's ability to adopt and stick to any different surface with powerful adhesion force. In this paper, we present a simple and effective approach to fabricate dual-level hierarchical structures mimicking gecko foot hairs. Polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) hierarchical arrays were fabricated by demolding from a double stack mold that was composed of an SU-8 mold by thick film photolithography and a silicon mold by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching. Top pillars of the fabricated structures have 3 micom diameter and 18 microm in height, while base pillars have 25 microm diameter and 40 microm in height. The water droplet contact angle tests indicate that the hierarchical structures increase the hydrophobic property significantly compared with the single-level arrays and the unstructured polymers, exhibiting superhydrophobicity (154.2 degrees) like the Tokay gecko's (160.9 degrees). The shear force tests show that the top pillars make attachment through side contact with a value of about 0.25 N/cm2, and moreover, the hierarchical structures are demonstrated to be more suitable for contacting with rough surfaces.

  17. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  18. Targeted Protein Degradation by Salmonella under Phagosome-Mimicking Culture Conditions Investigated Using Comparative Peptidomics

    SciTech Connect

    Manes, Nathan P.; Gustin, Jean K.; Rue, Joanne; Mottaz, Heather M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Zimmer, Jennifer S.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred

    2007-04-01

    The pathogen Salmonella enterica is known to cause both food poisoning and typhoid fever. Due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant isolates and the threat of bioterrorism (e.g., contamination of the food supply), there is a growing need to study this bacterium. In this investigation, comparative peptidomics was used to study Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cultured in either a rich medium or in an acidic, low magnesium, and minimal nutrient medium designed to roughly mimic the macrophage phagosomal compartment (within which Salmonella are known to survive). Native peptides from cleared cell lysates were enriched by using isopropanol extraction and analyzed by using both LC-MS/MS and LC-FTICR-MS. We identified 5,163 distinct peptides originating from 682 proteins and the data clearly indicated that compared to cells cultured in the rich medium, Salmonella cultured in the phagosome-mimicking medium had dramatically higher abundances of a wide variety of protein degradation products, especially from ribosomal proteins. Salmonella from the same cultures were also analyzed by using bottom-up proteomics, and when the peptidomic and proteomic data were analyzed together, two clusters of proteins targeted for proteolysis were tentatively identified. Possible roles of targeted proteolysis by phagocytosed Salmonella are discussed.

  19. Epidermoid cyst of the coronal sulcus mimicking penile cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidermoid cysts represent common benign tumors occurring anywhere in the body but very rarely in the penis. Only a few cases of penile localization have been reported in the literature so far, most of them being congenital and/or idiopathic, usually presenting in children as slow-growing, solitary, well-delimited cystic lesions. Here, we describe the case of a patient with a penile epidermoid cyst presenting as an ulcerated lesion of the coronal sulcus, thus mimicking penile cancer. Case presentation A 36-year-old Caucasian man presented with a three-month history of a rapidly growing asymptomatic ulcerated lesion in the ventral portion of the penile coronal sulcus. At surgical exploration, the area under the ulcerated lesion had a well-demarcated cystic shape; following its wide excision, an intraoperative histological examination revealed an epidermoid cyst. No recurrence had occurred at nine years of follow-up. Conclusions Rare benign tumors of the penis, like the described epidermoid cyst, may mimic cancer. Nevertheless, penile ulcerated lesions should always be surgically explored as wide excision and intraoperative histological examination remain the only means of obtaining a precise disease definition and, consequently, administering the appropriate treatment. PMID:24906506

  20. A Novel Chip for Cyclic Stretch and Intermittent Hypoxia Cell Exposures Mimicking Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Campillo, Noelia; Jorba, Ignasi; Schaedel, Laura; Casals, Blai; Gozal, David; Farré, Ramon; Almendros, Isaac; Navajas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of OSA-associated morbidities, especially in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by IH are suggested as main contributors of end-organ dysfunction in OSA patients and animal models. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo pathological responses remain poorly understood, implementation of experimental in vitro cell-based systems capable of inducing high-frequency IH would be highly desirable. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and validation of a versatile chip for subjecting cultured cells to fast changes in gas partial pressure and to cyclic stretch. The chip is fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and consists of a cylindrical well-covered by a thin membrane. Cells cultured on top of the membrane can be subjected to fast changes in oxygen concentration (equilibrium time ~6 s). Moreover, cells can be subjected to cyclic stretch at cardiac or respiratory frequencies independently or simultaneously. Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to IH mimicking OSA and cyclic stretch at cardiac frequencies revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression was increased in response to both stimuli. Thus, the chip provides a versatile tool for the study of cellular responses to cyclical hypoxia and stretch. PMID:27524971

  1. Metastatic Calcinosis of Aortic Valve Secondary to Renal Failure Mimicking Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Masroor A.; Chardon, Guillermo Juan Morell

    2016-01-01

    End stage renal disease has a list of consequences, cardiovascular being the most common. Inefficient dialysis can cause significant deposition of calcium all over the body, including heart valves making heart function impaired. We illustrate a case of 38-year-old female with end stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis. The patient had been complaining of pain and swelling of the right hand for the last few months and had been seen by hand surgeon and was admitted electively for the biopsy of hand lesions. Before her planned surgery, she developed severe shortness of breath. Urgent echocardiogram revealed severe aortic regurgitation and large vegetation on the aortic valve. Infective endocarditis was suspected but blood cultures were negative for any microorganism and the patient did not meet the Duke criteria. Because of her hemodynamic instability immediate mechanical valve replacement surgery was performed. The pathology report showed extensive calcification and myxoid degeneration. No infectious agent was found. Later on, biopsy of her hand lesions showed extensive calcification with macrophages and giant cells. No atypia or malignancy was identified. This is a rare case of the metastatic calcinosis of aortic valve secondary to renal failure mimicking aortic valve infective endocarditis. PMID:27738529

  2. A process of stellar nucleosynthesis which mimicks mass fractionation in P-xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Dziczkaniec, M.

    1980-01-01

    The combination of the O-shell theory of Heymann and Dziczkaniec and the supernova theory of Woosley and Howard clearly identifies the astrophysical sites for the formation of the anomalous light Xe component in carbonaceous chondrites. These sites are the O- and Ne-shells, and possibly C-shell of a massive star. Most of the Xe-124 and Xe-126 are formed in the O-shell during hydrostatic core silicon-burning, when a seed of heavy nuclei is exposed to an effective temperature near T9 = 2.0. Xe-128 is formed via Ba-128 in the O-shell, but the amounts appear too small to satisfy the deduced Xe-128/Xe-124 and Xe-128/Xe-126 yield ratios from the chondrites. However, substantial amounts of Xe-128 can be formed in the adjacent Ne- and C-shells during the explosion. The formation of Ba-128 in the O-shell would increase if the (gamma, alpha) photodisintegration rate in Ba-128 is actually smaller than calculated by Woosley and Howard. Lewis et al. have proposed that the anomalous light Xe component is mass-fractionated normal Xe. It is in this sense that the process of stellar nucleosynthesis of the present paper mimicks mass-fractionation.

  3. hiPS-MSCs differentiation towards fibroblasts on a 3D ECM mimicking scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ruodan; Taskin, Mehmet Berat; Rubert, Marina; Seliktar, Dror; Besenbacher, Flemming; Chen, Menglin

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblasts are ubiquitous cells that constitute the stroma of virtually all tissues and play vital roles in homeostasis. The poor innate healing capacity of fibroblastic tissues is attributed to the scarcity of fibroblasts as collagen-producing cells. In this study, we have developed a functional ECM mimicking scaffold that is capable to supply spatial allocation of stem cells as well as anchorage and storage of growth factors (GFs) to direct stem cells differentiate towards fibroblasts. Electrospun PCL fibers were embedded in a PEG-fibrinogen (PF) hydrogel, which was infiltrated with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) to form the 3D nanocomposite PFP-C. The human induced pluripotent stem cells derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPS-MSCs) with an advance in growth over adult MSCs were applied to validate the fibrogenic capacity of the 3D nanocomposite scaffold. The PFP-C scaffold was found not only biocompatible with the hiPS-MSCs, but also presented intriguingly strong fibroblastic commitments, to an extent comparable to the positive control, tissue culture plastic surfaces (TCP) timely refreshed with 100% CTGF. The novel scaffold presented not only biomimetic ECM nanostructures for homing stem cells, but also sufficient cell-approachable bio-signaling cues, which may synergistically facilitate the control of stem cell fates for regenerative therapies. PMID:25684543

  4. Reactive actuators and sensors integrated in one device: mimicking brain-muscles feedback communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Toribio F.; Martinez, Jose G.

    2013-04-01

    Artificial muscles based on carbon derivative molecular structures are chemical (electro-chemo-mechanical) actuators. The electrochemical reaction drives the film volume variation and the actuation. The applied current controls the movement rate and the charge controls the amplitude of the displacement (Faraday' motors). Any working or surrounding variable influencing the reaction rate will be sensed by the muscle potential, or by the consumed electrical energy, evolution during actuation. Experimental results and full theoretical description of the basic reactive material and of any dual electrochemical sensing-actuator will be presented. During current flow the muscle potential and the consumed electrical energy evolution are influenced by the working variables: temperature, electrolyte concentration, driving current, film volume variation (external pressure, applied strain, hanged masses, obstacles in its way). The working muscle becomes an electrochemical sensor. Only two connecting wires contain actuating (current) and sensing (potential) signals read and controlled, at any time from the computer-generator. One device integrates several sensing and actuating tools working simultaneously mimicking muscles/brain feedback communication.

  5. Reduction in Neural Performance following Recovery from Anoxic Stress Is Mimicked by AMPK Pathway Activation

    PubMed Central

    Money, Tomas G. A.; Sproule, Michael K. J.; Hamour, Amr F.; Robertson, R. Meldrum

    2014-01-01

    Nervous systems are energetically expensive to operate and maintain. Both synaptic and action potential signalling require a significant investment to maintain ion homeostasis. We have investigated the tuning of neural performance following a brief period of anoxia in a well-characterized visual pathway in the locust, the LGMD/DCMD looming motion-sensitive circuit. We hypothesised that the energetic cost of signalling can be dynamically modified by cellular mechanisms in response to metabolic stress. We examined whether recovery from anoxia resulted in a decrease in excitability of the electrophysiological properties in the DCMD neuron. We further examined the effect of these modifications on behavioural output. We show that recovery from anoxia affects metabolic rate, flight steering behaviour, and action potential properties. The effects of anoxia on action potentials can be mimicked by activation of the AMPK metabolic pathway. We suggest this is evidence of a coordinated cellular mechanism to reduce neural energetic demand following an anoxic stress. Together, this represents a dynamically-regulated means to link the energetic demands of neural signaling with the environmental constraints faced by the whole animal. PMID:24533112

  6. Short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation mimicked in single inorganic synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-08-01

    Memory is believed to occur in the human brain as a result of two types of synaptic plasticity: short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP; refs , , , ). In neuromorphic engineering, emulation of known neural behaviour has proven to be difficult to implement in software because of the highly complex interconnected nature of thought processes. Here we report the discovery of a Ag2S inorganic synapse, which emulates the synaptic functions of both STP and LTP characteristics through the use of input pulse repetition time. The structure known as an atomic switch, operating at critical voltages, stores information as STP with a spontaneous decay of conductance level in response to intermittent input stimuli, whereas frequent stimulation results in a transition to LTP. The Ag2S inorganic synapse has interesting characteristics with analogies to an individual biological synapse, and achieves dynamic memorization in a single device without the need of external preprogramming. A psychological model related to the process of memorizing and forgetting is also demonstrated using the inorganic synapses. Our Ag2S element indicates a breakthrough in mimicking synaptic behaviour essential for the further creation of artificial neural systems that emulate characteristics of human memory.

  7. A Novel Chip for Cyclic Stretch and Intermittent Hypoxia Cell Exposures Mimicking Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Noelia; Jorba, Ignasi; Schaedel, Laura; Casals, Blai; Gozal, David; Farré, Ramon; Almendros, Isaac; Navajas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of OSA-associated morbidities, especially in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by IH are suggested as main contributors of end-organ dysfunction in OSA patients and animal models. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying these in vivo pathological responses remain poorly understood, implementation of experimental in vitro cell-based systems capable of inducing high-frequency IH would be highly desirable. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, and validation of a versatile chip for subjecting cultured cells to fast changes in gas partial pressure and to cyclic stretch. The chip is fabricated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and consists of a cylindrical well-covered by a thin membrane. Cells cultured on top of the membrane can be subjected to fast changes in oxygen concentration (equilibrium time ~6 s). Moreover, cells can be subjected to cyclic stretch at cardiac or respiratory frequencies independently or simultaneously. Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to IH mimicking OSA and cyclic stretch at cardiac frequencies revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression was increased in response to both stimuli. Thus, the chip provides a versatile tool for the study of cellular responses to cyclical hypoxia and stretch. PMID:27524971

  8. GBT440 Inhibits Sickling of Sickle Cell Trait Blood Under In Vitro Conditions Mimicking Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Dufu, Kobina; Lehrer-Graiwer, Josh; Ramos, Eleanor; Oksenberg, Donna

    2016-01-01

    In sickle cell trait (SCT), hemoglobin A (HbA) and S (HbS) are co-expressed in each red blood cell (RBC). While homozygous expression of HbS (HbSS) leads to polymerization and sickling of RBCs resulting in sickle cell disease (SCD) characterized by hemolytic anemia, painful vaso-occlusive episodes and shortened life-span, SCT is considered a benign condition usually with minor or no complications related to sickling. However, physical activities that cause increased tissue oxygen demand, dehydration and/or metabolic acidosis leads to increased HbS polymerization and life-threatening complications including death. We report that GBT440, an agent being developed for the treatment of SCD, increases the affinity of oxygen for Hb and inhibits in vitro polymerization of a mixture of HbS and HbA that simulates SCT blood. Moreover, GBT440 prevents sickling of SCT blood under in vitro conditions mimicking strenuous exercise with hypoxia, dehydration and acidosis. Together, our results indicate that GBT440 may have the potential to protect SCT individuals from sickling-related complications during conditions that favor HbS polymerization. PMID:27757216

  9. Biomembrane-mimicking lipid bilayer system as a mechanically tunable cell substrate

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C. Y.; Auernheimer, V.; Naumann, C.; Goldmann, W. H.; Fabry, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cell behavior such as cell adhesion, spreading, and contraction critically depends on the elastic properties of the extracellular matrix. It is not known, however, how cells respond to viscoelastic or plastic material properties that more closely resemble the mechanical environment that cells encounter in the body. In this report, we employ viscoelastic and plastic biomembrane-mimicking cell substrates. The compliance of the substrates can be tuned by increasing the number of polymer-tethered bilayers. This leaves the density and conformation of adhesive ligands on the top bilayer unaltered. We then observe the response of fibroblasts to these property changes. For comparison, we also study the cells on soft polyacrylamide and hard glass surfaces. Cell morphology, motility, cell stiffness, contractile forces and adhesive contact size all decrease on more compliant matrices but are less sensitive to changes in matrix dissipative properties. These data suggest that cells are able to feel and respond predominantly to the effective matrix compliance, which arises as a combination of substrate and adhesive ligand mechanical properties. PMID:24439398

  10. Pseudocyclops: two cases of ACL graft partial tears mimicking cyclops lesions on MRI.

    PubMed

    Simpfendorfer, Claus; Miniaci, Anthony; Subhas, Naveen; Winalski, Carl S; Ilaslan, Hakan

    2015-08-01

    Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using autografts or allografts is a common surgical procedure, particularly in young athletes. Although the procedure has excellent success rates, complications such as mechanical impingement, graft rupture, and arthrofibrosis can occur, often necessitating additional surgery. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become a valuable tool in evaluating complications after ACL reconstruction. We report two cases of ACL reconstruction complicated by arthroscopically proven partial graft tears. In both cases the torn anterior graft fibers were flipped into the intercondylar notch, mimicking anterior arthrofibrosis, i.e., a "cyclops lesion," on MR imaging. Careful review of the direction of graft fibers on MR imaging in the "pseudocyclops" lesions can help differentiate these partial tears from the fibrosis of a true cyclops. The "pseudocyclops" lesion is a previously undescribed MR imaging sign of partial ACL graft tear. Larger studies are required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the sign, as well as the clinical importance of these partial graft tears. PMID:25620690

  11. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Choi, Bok Kyoung

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  12. Oral candidiasis mimicking an oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Paiva, Helena Borges; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; da Silva, Fernanda Bragança Monteiro; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Dos Santos Pinto, Décio

    2012-03-01

    Oral candidiasis is a significant problem in immune-compromised patients. The most common forms of mucosal candidiasis are oropharyngeal, oesophageal and vaginal, and more than 90% of HIV positive persons will manifest at least one episode of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Local and systemic factors such as uninterrupted daily use of a prosthesis by patients, smoking habit, as well as high glucose intake may contribute to the development of the lesion. The aim of this article is to report an uncommon case of oral candidiasis presenting an aggressive clinical behaviour in a 64-year-old male patient, with a significant smoking habit and a medical history of non-controlled diabetes. The lesion affected the hard and soft palate of the right side, revealing erythematous and ulcerated areas, elevated borders and central portions resembling necrosis, mimicking the clinical features of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the correct diagnosis of oral candidiasis was obtained after histopathological and cytological examinations and the patient was easily treated with traditional antifungal drugs and correction of his glucose levels.

  13. A Comprehensive Subcellular Proteomic Survey of Salmonella Grown under Phagosome-Mimicking versus Standard Laboratory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Roslyn N.; Sanford, James A.; Park, Jea H.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Champion, Boyd L.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2012-06-01

    Towards developing a systems-level pathobiological understanding of Salmonella enterica, we performed a subcellular proteomic analysis of this pathogen grown under standard laboratory and infection-mimicking conditions in vitro. Analysis of proteins from cytoplasmic, inner membrane, periplasmic, and outer membrane fractions yielded coverage of over 30% of the theoretical proteome. Confident subcellular location could be assigned to over 1000 proteins, with good agreement between experimentally observed location and predicted/known protein properties. Comparison of protein location under the different environmental conditions provided insight into dynamic protein localization and possible moonlighting (multiple function) activities. Notable examples of dynamic localization were the response regulators of two-component regulatory systems (e.g., ArcB, PhoQ). The DNA-binding protein Dps that is generally regarded as cytoplasmic was significantly enriched in the outer membrane for all growth conditions examined, suggestive of moonlighting activities. These observations imply the existence of unknown transport mechanisms and novel functions for a subset of Salmonella proteins. Overall, this work provides a catalog of experimentally verified subcellular protein location for Salmonella and a framework for further investigations using computational modeling.

  14. Dislocated double-layered lateral meniscus mimicking the bucket-handle tear.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Won; Yang, Dae Suk; Choy, Won Sik

    2013-10-01

    Various shapes of congenital abnormalities of the meniscus have been reported. Among them, the double-layered meniscus is rare. This article describes a 22-year-old man with a double-layered lateral meniscus who reported right knee pain with no history of trauma. The double-layered lateral meniscus included both the upper and lower meniscus. The anterior and posterior edge of the upper meniscus was attached to the lower lateral meniscus, and its periphery was not connected to the capsule and the lower meniscus. In addition, the upper meniscus was dislocated into the intercondylar notch, mimicking a bucket-handle tear. However, the lower meniscus was normal in appearance, so a bucket-handle or horizontal tear of the meniscus was ruled out of the differential diagnosis. Although this is a rare case, clinicians should be aware of this anomaly due to the potential for a double-layered meniscus to contribute to a bucket-handle or horizontal tear of the lower meniscus. Therefore, early diagnosis and proper treatment of a double-layered meniscus are needed before an additional injury occurs to a normal meniscus.

  15. Brain metastasis from a lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma mimicking a brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Taiichi; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Kadoyama, Shigeru; Higa, Takashi; Shiono, Saori; Teramoto, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare tumor of the lung that accounts for 0.1–0.2% of all pulmonary tumors. To the best of our knowledge, brain metastasis from lung MEC is rare and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of this lesion have not been documented. Case Description: We herein report the case of a 72-year-old male. MRI revealed a left parietal tumor showing ring enhancement with medium gadolinium contrast and an evident high intensity area in the nonenhanced central portion on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) mimicking a brain abscess. Histologically, MEC is composed of a mixture of different cell types including mucin-secreting glandular cells and squamous cells. Accordingly, we suggest that the high DWI signal can be explained by the development of intracellular and intraluminal mucin, which have a high viscosity. Conclusion: Further accumulation of cases with brain metastasis from MEC is needed to establish the characteristic image findings, which would lead to prompt and adequate treatment. PMID:26167374

  16. Three dimensional microfluidic cell arrays for ex vivo drug screening with mimicked vascular flow.

    PubMed

    Dereli-Korkut, Zeynep; Akaydin, H Dogus; Ahmed, A H Rezwanuddin; Jiang, Xuejun; Wang, Sihong

    2014-03-18

    Currently, there are no reliable ex vivo models that predict anticancer drug responses in human tumors accurately. A comprehensive method of mimicking a 3D microenvironment to study effects of anticancer drugs on specific cancer types is essential. Here, we report the development of a three-dimensional microfluidic cell array (3D μFCA), which reconstructs a 3D tumor microenvironment with cancer cells and microvascular endothelial cells. To mimic the in vivo spatial relationship between microvessels and nonendothelial cells embedded in extracellular matrix, three polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers were built into this array. The multilayer property of the device enabled the imitation of the drug delivery in a microtissue array with simulated blood circulation. This 3D μFCA system may provide better predictions of drug responses and identification of a suitable treatment for a specific patient if biopsy samples are used. To the pharmaceutical industry, the scaling-up of our 3D μFCA system may offer a novel high throughput screening tool. PMID:24568664

  17. Temperature-dependent Physical Properties of a HIFU Blood Mimicking Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; King, Randy L.; Herman, Bruce A.; Wear, Keith A.

    2009-04-01

    A blood mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed and characterized in a temperature dependent manner for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation devices. The BMF is based on a degassed and de-ionized water solution dispersed with low density polyethylene micro-spheres, nylon particles, gellan gum and glycerol. A broad range of physical parameters, including frequency dependent ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were characterized as a function of temperature (20° C to 70° C). The nonlinear parameter B/A and backscatter coefficient were also measured at room temperature. The attenuation coefficient is linearly proportional to the frequency (2 MHz-8 MHz) with a slope of about 0.2 dB cm-1 MHz-1 in the 20° C to 70° C range as has been reported for human blood. All the other temperature dependent physical parameters are also close to the reported values in human blood. These properties make the BMF a useful HIFU research tool for developing standardized exposimetry techniques, validating numerical models, and determining the safety and efficacy of HIFU ablation devices.

  18. Investigation of Tumor Cell Behaviors on a Vascular Microenvironment-Mimicking Microfluidic Chip

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Zheng, Wenfu; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Long, Yunze; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    The extravasation of tumor cells is a key event in tumor metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying tumor cell extravasation remains unknown, mainly hindered by obstacles from the lack of complexity of biological tissues in conventional cell culture, and the costliness and ethical issues of in vivo experiments. Thus, a cheap, time and labor saving, and most of all, vascular microenvironment-mimicking research model is desirable. Herein, we report a microfluidic chip-based tumor extravasation research model which is capable of simultaneously simulating both mechanical and biochemical microenvironments of human vascular systems and analyzing their synergistic effects on the tumor extravasation. Under different mechanical conditions of the vascular system, the tumor cells (HeLa cells) had the highest viability and adhesion activity in the microenvironment of the capillary. The integrity of endothelial cells (ECs) monolayer was destroyed by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a hemodynamic background, which facilitated the tumor cell adhesion, this situation was recovered by the administration of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). This model bridges the gap between cell culture and animal experiments and is a promising platform for studying tumor behaviors in the vascular system. PMID:26631692

  19. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness.

  20. Mid common bile duct inflammatory pseudotumor mimicking cholangiocarcinoma. A case report and literature review☆

    PubMed Central

    Vasiliadis, K.; Fortounis, K.; Papavasiliou, C.; Kokarhidas, A.; Al Nimer, A.; Fachiridis, D.; Pervana, S.; Makridis, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Biliary inflammatory pseudotumors (IPTs) represent an exceptional benign cause of obstructive jaundice. These lesions are often mistaken for cholangiocarcinomas and are treated with major resections, because their final diagnosis can be achieved only after formal pathological examination of the resected specimen. Consequently, biliary IPTs are usually managed with unnecessary major resections. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 71-year-old female patient underwent an extra-hepatic bile duct resection en-bloc with the gallbladder and regional lymph nodes for an obstructing intraluminal growing tumor of the mid common bile duct (CBD). Limited resection was decided intraoperatively because of negative for malignancy fast frozen sections analysis in addition to the benign macroscopic features of the lesion. Histologically the tumor proved an IPT, arising from the bile duct epithelium, composed of inflammatory cells and reactive mesenchymal tissues. DISCUSSION The present case underlines the value of intraoperative reassessment of patients undergoing surgical resection for histopathologically undiagnosed biliary occupying lesions, in order to optimize their surgical management. CONCLUSION The probability of benign lesions mimicking cholangiocarcinoma should always be considered to avoid unnecessary major surgical resections, especially in fragile and/or elderly patients. PMID:24394855

  1. Quality assurance for ultrasound scanners using a durable tissue-mimicking phantom and radial MTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaar, Marcus; Semturs, Friedrich; Figl, Michael; Hoffmann, Rainer; Hummel, Johann

    2014-03-01

    For the use in routine technical quality assurance (TQA) we developed a tissue-mimicking phantom and an evaluation algorithm. Key properties of US phantom materials are sound velocity and acoustic attenuation. For daily clinical use the material also has to be nontoxic, durable and easy in handling and maintenance. The base material of our phantom is Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), a synthetic polymer. By freezing the phantom body during the production process, it changes its sound velocity to closely match the one of the human body. The phantom's base form is a cuboid containing a large anechoic cylindric target. In routine QA it is required to gain comparable and reproducible results from a single image. To determine spatial resolution of phantom images, we calculate a modulation transfer function (MTF). We developed an algorithm, that calculates a radial MTF from a circular structure representing spatial resolution averaged across all directions. For evaluation of the algorithm, we created a set of synthetic images. A comparison of the results from a traditional slanted edge algorithm and our solution showed a close correlation. The US phantom was imaged with a commercial US-scanner at different sound frequencies. The computed MTFs of higher frequency images show higher transfer percentages in all spatial frequencies than the MTFs of lower frequency images. The results suggest that the proposed method produces clear statements about the spatial resolution of evaluated imaging devices. We therefore consider the method as suitable for application in technical quality assurance of diagnostic ultrasound scanners.

  2. Abdominal ultrasound findings mimicking hematological malignancies in a study of 218 Gaucher patients.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, O; Hadas-Halpern, I; Elstein, D; Abrahamov, A; Zimran, A

    1997-05-01

    Gaucher disease, the most prevalent sphingolipidosis, generally presents with splenomegaly, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Hence, hematologists are often the specialists involved in diagnosis and management of these patients. We present ultrasonographic characteristics in a cohort of 218 consecutive Gaucher patients evaluated in our clinic during the past 5 years. Our data emphasize the high prevalence of lesions mimicking hematological malignancies in Gaucher disease. One fifth of 184 non-splenectomized patients had intra-splenic lesions, 6% of all patients had similar lesions in the liver, and 32% of 34 splenectomized patients (but none of the other patients) had marked retroperitoneal or peri-portal lymphadenopathy. The presence of splenic lesions correlated with age and splenic size, but not with extent of bone involvement or genotype. Interestingly, they were not affected by reduction in splenomegaly following enzyme replacement therapy. The importance of these findings is to include Gaucher disease in the differential diagnosis of splenic or hepatic lesions, especially in Ashkenazi Jews. Conversely, they are relevant for follow-up of all Gaucher patients, including asymptomatic individuals, because of the reported increased incidence of hematological malignancies in Gaucher disease. PMID:9136914

  3. A young woman with recurrent vesicles on the lower lip: fixed drug eruption mimicking herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Benedix, Frauke; Schilling, Melany; Schaller, Martin; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2008-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with recurrent herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip, but all diagnostic measures for herpes virus infection including herpes viridae specific PCR were negative. Medical history revealed that she also had chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, which had been treated with various regimes, including repetitive applications of fluconazole. Consequently, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption was suspected, but skin tests performed with fluconazole remained with-out response. Consecutive repeated oral provocation tests with fluconazole were carried out and resulted in the development of burning herpetiform vesicles of the lower lip. Histopathology revealed a subepidermal and superficial perivascular infiltrate, basal vacuolated and apoptotic keratinocytes, intra-epidermal lymphocytes and intra-epidermal multilocular vesicles. Together with the clinical history and picture, fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption mimicking labial herpes simplex virus infection was diagnosed. Oral provocation tests with an alternative systemic antifungal treatment, itraconazole, were well tolerated, systemic therapy with itraconazole was initiated, and no further labial vesicles developed. PMID:18779889

  4. Optical tracking of acoustic radiation force impulse-induced dynamics in a tissue-mimicking phantom

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Richard R.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Streeter, Jason E.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Optical tracking was utilized to investigate the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-induced response, generated by a 5-MHz piston transducer, in a translucent tissue-mimicking phantom. Suspended 10-μm microspheres were tracked axially and laterally at multiple locations throughout the field of view of an optical microscope with 0.5-μm displacement resolution, in both dimensions, and at frame rates of up to 36 kHz. Induced dynamics were successfully captured before, during, and after the ARFI excitation at depths of up to 4.8 mm from the phantom’s proximal boundary. Results are presented for tracked axial and lateral displacements resulting from on-axis and off-axis (i.e., shear wave) acquisitions; these results are compared to matched finite element method modeling and independent ultrasonically based empirical results and yielded reasonable agreement in most cases. A shear wave reflection, generated by the proximal boundary, consistently produced an artifact in tracked displacement data later in time (i.e., after the initial ARFI-induced displacement peak). This tracking method provides high-frame-rate, two-dimensional tracking data and thus could prove useful in the investigation of complex ARFI-induced dynamics in controlled experimental settings. PMID:19894849

  5. Hepatic tuberculosis mimicking metastasis in a case of carcinoma sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Hassan, Mohammad Jaseem

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) presenting as isolated liver mass without clinical evidence of TB is difficult to diagnose preoperatively and is usually mimicked by primary or metastatic carcinoma of the liver. Hepatic TB associated with carcinoma colon is a rare association which has very rarely been reported in the literature. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties of hepatic TB and the need to consider it in the differential diagnosis of hepatic nodular lesions in carcinoma colon patients. Here, we report a case of 48-year-old female who presented in the casualty with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Preoperatively a mass was seen at the hepatic flexure along with three lesions in the liver presumed to be metastatic in origin. However, histopathology of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma colon and the liver lesion proved to be hepatic TB. We wish to highlight that on encountering a hepatic lesion in a carcinoma colon patient the possibility of hepatic TB should also be kept in mind apart from the obvious possibility of metastasis especially in an endemic country like India.

  6. A heparin-mimicking polymer conjugate stabilizes basic fibroblast growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi H.; Kim, Sung-Hye; Decker, Caitlin G.; Wong, Darice Y.; Loo, Joseph A.; Maynard, Heather D.

    2013-03-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in diverse cellular functions, from wound healing to bone regeneration. However, a major obstacle to the widespread application of bFGF is its inherent instability during storage and delivery. Here, we describe the stabilization of bFGF by covalent conjugation with a heparin-mimicking polymer, a copolymer consisting of styrene sulfonate units and methyl methacrylate units bearing poly(ethylene glycol) side chains. The bFGF conjugate of this polymer retained bioactivity after synthesis and was stable to a variety of environmentally and therapeutically relevant stressors—such as heat, mild and harsh acidic conditions, storage and proteolytic degradation—unlike native bFGF. Following the application of stress, the conjugate was also significantly more active than the control conjugate system in which the styrene sulfonate units were omitted from the polymer structure. This research has important implications for the clinical use of bFGF and for the stabilization of heparin-binding growth factors in general.

  7. Probability of cavitation for single ultrasound pulses applied to tissues and tissue-mimicking materials

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the negative pressure values at which inertial cavitation consistently occurs in response to a single, 2-cycle, focused ultrasound pulse were measured in several media relevant to cavitation-based ultrasound therapy. The pulse was focused into a chamber containing one of the media, which included liquids, tissue-mimicking materials, and ex-vivo canine tissue. Focal waveforms were measured by two separate techniques using a fiber-optic hydrophone. Inertial cavitation was identified by high-speed photography in optically transparent media and an acoustic passive cavitation detector. The probability of cavitation (Pcav) for a single pulse as a function of peak negative pressure (p−) followed a sigmoid curve, with the probability approaching 1 when the pressure amplitude was sufficient. The statistical threshold (defined as Pcav = 0.5) was between p− = 26.0–30.0 MPa in all samples with a high water content, but varied between p− = 13.7 to > 36 MPa for other media. A model for radial cavitation bubble dynamics was employed to evaluate the behavior of cavitation nuclei at these pressure levels. A single bubble nucleus with an inertial cavitation threshold of p− = 28.2 MPa was estimated to have a 2.5 nm radius in distilled water. These data may be valuable for cavitation-based ultrasound therapy to predict the likelihood of cavitation at different pressure levels and dimensions of cavitation-induced lesions in tissue. PMID:23380152

  8. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Minjie; Liu, Xue; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xiaoqian; Zhou, X Edward; Melcher, Karsten; Gao, Pan; Wang, Fuxing; Zeng, Liang; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Yang; Deng, Pan; Zhong, Dafang; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses. ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling. It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought, cold and soil salinity. However, chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit the practical application of ABA itself. Here we report the identification of a small molecule ABA mimic (AM1) that acts as a potent activator of multiple members of the family of ABA receptors. In Arabidopsis, AM1 activates a gene network that is highly similar to that induced by ABA. Treatments with AM1 inhibit seed germination, prevent leaf water loss, and promote drought resistance. We solved the crystal structure of AM1 in complex with the PYL2 ABA receptor and the HAB1 PP2C, which revealed that AM1 mediates a gate-latch-lock interacting network, a structural feature that is conserved in the ABA-bound receptor/PP2C complex. Together, these results demonstrate that a single small molecule ABA mimic can activate multiple ABA receptors and protect plants from water loss and drought stress. Moreover, the AM1 complex crystal structure provides a structural basis for designing the next generation of ABA-mimicking small molecules. PMID:23835477

  9. Assessment of tissue Doppler imaging measurements of arterial wall motion using a tissue mimicking test rig.

    PubMed

    Thrush, Abigail J; Brewin, Mark P; Birch, Malcolm J

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study is to assess the accuracy of the tissue Doppler imaging arterial wall motion (TDI AWM) technique in measuring dilation over a range of distances and velocities. A test rig, consisting of two parallel blocks of tissue mimicking material (TMM), has been developed to generate known wall motion. One block remains stationary while the other moves in a cyclical motion. A calibrated laser range finder was used to measure the TMM motion. The TDI AWM measurements were found to underestimate the dilation by 21% +/- 4.7% when using the recommended scanner parameters. The size of the error was found to increase with a decrease in ultrasound output power. Results suggested that errors in the TDI AWM dilation measurements relate to underestimates in the velocity measured by the TDI technique. The error demonstrated in this study indicates a limitation in the value of TDI AWM result obtained in vivo. (E-mail: abigail.thrush@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk). PMID:17964065

  10. A blood-mimicking fluid for particle image velocimetry with silicone vascular models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Majid Y.; Holdsworth, David W.; Poepping, Tamie L.

    2011-03-01

    For accurate particle image velocimetry measurements in hemodynamics studies, it is important to use a fluid with a refractive index ( n) matching that of the vascular models (phantoms) and ideally a dynamic viscosity matching human blood. In this work, a blood-mimicking fluid (BMF) composed of water, glycerol, and sodium iodide was formulated for a range of refractive indices to match most common silicone elastomers ( n = 1.40-1.43) and with corresponding dynamic viscosity within the average cited range of healthy human blood (4.4 ± 0.5 cP). Both refractive index and viscosity were attained at room temperature (22.2 ± 0.2°C), which eliminates the need for a temperature-control system. An optimally matched BMF, suitable for use in a vascular phantom ( n = 1.4140 ± 0.0008, Sylgard 184), was demonstrated with composition (by weight) of 47.38% water, 36.94% glycerol (44:56 glycerol-water ratio), and 15.68% sodium iodide salt, resulting in a dynamic viscosity of 4 .31 ± 0 .03 cP.

  11. An Adolescent Case of Citrin Deficiency With Severe Anorexia Mimicking Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satsuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamada, Shinji; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Inui, Akio; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2015-08-01

    We report a 12-year-old female citrin-deficient patient presenting with severe anorexia and body weight loss, mimicking the restricting type of anorexia nervosa (AN). She showed normal development until age 10 years when she started to play volleyball at school. She then became gradually anorexic, and her growth was stunted. At age 12, she was admitted to hospital because of severe anorexia and thinness. She was first thought to have AN, and drip infusion of glucose solution and high-calorie drinks were given, but her condition deteriorated further. She had a history of neonatal hepatitis and was therefore suspected to have citrin deficiency (CD). Genetic analysis of SLC25A13 revealed that she was compound heterozygous for 851del4 and IVS16ins3kb, and a diagnosis of CD was made. A low-carbohydrate diet with oral intake of arginine and ursodeoxycholic acid was started, and her condition gradually improved. The clinical features in our patient were similar to those of AN, and therefore AN may also be an important clinical sign in adolescent patients with CD.

  12. Acoustic Assessment of a Konjac–Carrageenan Tissue-Mimicking Material at 5–60 MHz

    PubMed Central

    Kenwright, David A.; Sadhoo, Neelaksh; Rajagopal, Srinath; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hadoke, Patrick W.; Gray, Gillian A.; Zeqiri, Bajram; Hoskins, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic properties of a robust tissue-mimicking material based on konjac–carrageenan at ultrasound frequencies in the range 5–60 MHz are described. Acoustic properties were characterized using two methods: a broadband reflection substitution technique using a commercially available preclinical ultrasound scanner (Vevo 770, FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Toronto, ON, Canada), and a dedicated high-frequency ultrasound facility developed at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, Teddington, UK), which employed a broadband through-transmission substitution technique. The mean speed of sound across the measured frequencies was found to be 1551.7 ± 12.7 and 1547.7 ± 3.3 m s−1, respectively. The attenuation exhibited a non-linear dependence on frequency, f (MHz), in the form of a polynomial function: 0.009787f2 + 0.2671f and 0.01024f2 + 0.3639f, respectively. The characterization of this tissue-mimicking material will provide reference data for designing phantoms for preclinical systems, which may, in certain applications such as flow phantoms, require a physically more robust tissue-mimicking material than is currently available. PMID:25438864

  13. Pathogen-Mimicking Polymeric Nanoparticles based on Dopamine Polymerization as Vaccines Adjuvants Induce Robust Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Jia, Jilei; Yang, Tingyuan; Fan, Qingze; Wang, Lianyan; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    Aiming to enhance the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines, a novel antigen delivery and adjuvant system based on dopamine polymerization on the surface of poly(D,L-lactic-glycolic-acid) nanoparticles (NPs) with multiple mechanisms of immunity enhancement is developed. The mussel-inspired biomimetic polydopamine (pD) not only serves as a coating to NPs but also functionalizes NP surfaces. The method is facile and mild including simple incubation of the preformed NPs in the weak alkaline dopamine solution, and incorporation of hepatitis B surface antigen and TLR9 agonist unmethylated cytosine-guanine (CpG) motif with the pD surface. The as-constructed NPs possess pathogen-mimicking manners owing to their size, shape, and surface molecular immune-activating properties given by CpG. The biocompatibility and biosafety of these pathogen-mimicking NPs are confirmed using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Pathogen-mimicking NPs hold great potential as vaccine delivery and adjuvant system due to their ability to: 1) enhance cytokine secretion and immune cell recruitment at the injection site; 2) significantly activate and maturate dendritic cells; 3) induce stronger humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo. Furthermore, this simple and versatile dopamine polymerization method can be applicable to endow NPs with characteristics to mimic pathogen structure and function, and manipulate NPs for the generation of efficacious vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26849717

  14. Progressive Pigmentary Purpura

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Progressive Pigmentary Purpura Share | Progressive pigmentary purpura (we will call it PPP) is a group ... conditions ( Schamberg's disease , Lichenoid dermatitis of Gourgerot-Blum, purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi and Lichen aureus). Schamberg's ...

  15. A rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking "myxedema coma" established by microscopic total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yosuke; Fujita, Masanori; Ono, Sachiko; Ogata, Sho; Tachibana, Shoichi; Tanaka, Yuji

    2016-06-30

    Myxedema coma (MC) is a life-threatening endocrine crisis caused by severe hypothyroidism. However, validated diagnostic criteria and treatment guidelines for MC have not been established owing to its rarity. Therefore, a valid animal model is required to investigate the pathologic and therapeutic aspects of MC. The aim of the present study was to establish an animal model of MC induced by total thyroidectomy. We utilized 14 male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized via intramuscular ketamine and xylazine administration. A total of 7 rabbits were completely thyroidectomized under a surgical microscope (thyroidectomized group) and the remainder underwent sham operations (control group). The animals in both groups were monitored without thyroid hormone replacement for 15 weeks. Pulse rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein immediately prior to the thyroidectomy and 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. The thyroidectomized rabbits showed a marked reduction of serum thyroxine levels at 4 weeks after the surgical procedure vs. controls (0.50±0.10 vs. 3.32±0.68 μg/dL, p<0.001). Additionally, thyroidectomized rabbits exhibited several signs of hypothyroidism such as hypothermia, systolic hypotension, bradycardia, and low voltage on ECGs, compared with controls. Of the 7 rabbits with severe hypothyroidism, 6 died from 4 to 14 weeks after the thyroidectomy possibly owing to heart failure, because histopathologic examinations revealed a myxedema heart. In summary, we have established a rabbit model of fatal hypothyroidism mimicking MC, which may facilitate pathophysiological and molecular investigations of MC and evaluations of new therapeutic interventions. PMID:26924647

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive secondary syphilis mimicking cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Ozaki, Keiji; Urano, Yoshio; Iwasa, Masami; Nakamura, Shingen; Fujii, Shiro; Abe, Masahiro; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant syphilis or lues maligna is a severe form of secondary syphilis that was commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, and has now reemerged with the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, the characteristic histopathological findings of malignant syphilis remain controversial. The aim of this case report was to clarify the clinical and histopathological findings of HIV-positive malignant secondary syphilis. A Japanese man in his forties complained of fever, skin lesions, headache, and myalgia without lymphadenopathy during the previous 4 weeks. The skin lesions manifested as erythematous, nonhealing, ulcerated papules scattered on his trunk, extremities, palm, and face. Although the skin lesions were suspected to be cutaneous T-cell lymphomas on histological analyses, they lacked T-cell receptor Jγ rearrangement; moreover, immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the presence of spirochetes. The patient was administered antibiotics and anti-retroviral therapy, which dramatically improved the symptoms. On the basis of these observations of the skin lesions, we finally diagnosed the patient with HIV-associated secondary syphilis that mimicked cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The patient's systemic CD4+ lymphocyte count was very low, and the infiltrate was almost exclusively composed of CD8+ atypical lymphocytes; therefore, the condition was easily misdiagnosed as cutaneous lymphoma. Although the abundance of plasma cells is a good indicator of malignant syphilis on skin histological analyses, in some cases, the plasma cell count may be very low. Therefore, a diagnosis of malignant secondary syphilis should be considered before making a diagnosis of primary cutaneous peripheral T-cell lymphoma or lymphoma associated with HIV infection. PMID:26449225

  17. "Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin high mimicking abuse doses on oxidative stress processes in rats".

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sara; Fusi, Jonathan; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Giovannini, Luca; Galetta, Fabio; Mannari, Claudio; Guidotti, Emanuele; Tocchini, Leonardo; Santoro, Gino

    2016-08-01

    Although many studies highlight how long-term moderate dose of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatments result in beneficial and antioxidants effects, few studies take into account the effects that short-term high doses of rHuEPO (mimicking abuse conditions) might have on the oxidative stress processes. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo antioxidant activity of rHuEPO, administered for a short time and at high doses to mimic its sports abuse as doping. Male Wistar healthy rats (n=36) were recruited for the study and were treated with three different concentrations of rHuEPO: 7.5, 15, 30μg/kg. Plasma concentrations of erythropoietin, 8-epi Prostaglandin F2α, plasma and urinary concentrations of NOx were evaluated with specific assay kit, while hematocrit levels were analyzed with an automated cell counter. Antioxidant activity of rHuEPO was assessed analyzing the possible variation of the plasma scavenger capacity against hydroxylic and peroxylic radicals by TOSC (Total Oxyradical Scavenging Capacity) assay. Statistical analyses showed higher hematocrit values, confirmed by a statistically significant increase of plasmatic EPO concentration. An increase in plasma scavenging capacity against peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, in 8-isoprostane plasmatic concentrations and in plasmatic and urinary levels of NOX were also found in all the treated animals, though not always statistically significant. Our results confirm the literature data regarding the antioxidant action of erythropoietin administered at low doses and for short times, whereas they showed an opposite incremental oxidative stress action when erythropoietin is administered at high doses. PMID:27470373

  18. Coaxially electrospun axon-mimicking fibers for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng-Lei; Hubbard, Penny L; Eichhorn, Stephen J; Parker, Geoffrey J M

    2012-11-01

    The study of brain structure and connectivity using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has recently gained substantial interest. However, the use of dMRI still faces major challenges because of the lack of standard materials for validation. The present work reports on brain tissue-mimetic materials composed of hollow microfibers for application as a standard material in dMRI. These hollow fibers were fabricated via a simple and one-step coaxial electrospining (co-ES) process. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were employed as shell and core materials, respectively, to achieve the most stable co-ES process. These co-ES hollow PCL fibers have different inner diameters, which mainly depend on the flow rate of the core solution and have the potential to cover the size range of the brain tissue we aimed to mimic. Co-ES aligned hollow PCL fibers were characterized using optical and electron microscopy and tested as brain white matter mimics on a high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that co-ES hollow fibers have been successfully used as a tissue mimic or phantom in diffusion MRI. The results of the present study provide evidence that this phantom can mimic the dMRI behavior of cellular barriers imposed by axonal cell membranes and myelin; the measured diffusivity is compatible with that of in vivo biological tissues. Together these results suggest the potential use of co-ES hollow microfibers as tissue-mimicking phantoms in the field of medical imaging.

  19. Hypoxia-mimicking bioactive glass/collagen glycosaminoglycan composite scaffolds to enhance angiogenesis and bone repair.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Elaine; Partap, Sonia; Azevedo, Maria M; Jell, Gavin; Stevens, Molly M; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-06-01

    One of the biggest challenges in regenerative medicine is promoting sufficient vascularisation of tissue-engineered constructs. One approach to overcome this challenge is to target the cellular hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α) pathway, which responds to low oxygen concentration (hypoxia) and results in the activation of numerous pro-angiogenic genes including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cobalt ions are known to mimic hypoxia by artificially stabilising the HIF-1α transcription factor. Here, resorbable bioactive glass particles (38 μm and 100 μm) with cobalt ions incorporated into the glass network were used to create bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds optimised for bone tissue engineering. Inclusion of the bioactive glass improved the compressive modulus of the resulting composite scaffolds while maintaining high degrees of porosity (>97%). Moreover, in vitro analysis demonstrated that the incorporation of cobalt bioactive glass with a mean particle size of 100 μm significantly enhanced the production and expression of VEGF in endothelial cells, and cobalt bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold conditioned media also promoted enhanced tubule formation. Furthermore, our results prove the ability of these scaffolds to support osteoblast cell proliferation and osteogenesis in all bioactive glass/collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffolds irrespective of the particle size. In summary, we have developed a hypoxia-mimicking tissue-engineered scaffold with pro-angiogenic and pro-osteogenic capabilities that may encourage bone tissue regeneration and overcome the problem of inadequate vascularisation of grafts commonly seen in the field of tissue engineering.

  20. Native ligands change integrin sequestering but not oligomerization in raft-mimicking lipid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Amanda P; Kimble-Hill, Ann; Garg, Sumit; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A

    2011-10-01

    Distinct lipid environments, including lipid rafts, are increasingly recognized as a crucial factor affecting membrane protein function in plasma membranes. Unfortunately, an understanding of their role in membrane protein activation and oligomerization has remained elusive due to the challenge of characterizing these often small and transient plasma membrane heterogeneities in live cells. To address this difficulty, we present an experimental model membrane platform based on polymer-supported lipid bilayers containing stable raft-mimicking domains (type I) and homogeneous cholesterol-lipid mixtures (type II) into which transmembrane proteins are incorporated (α(v)β(3) and α(5)β(1) integrins). These flexible lipid platforms enable the use of confocal fluorescence spectroscopy, including the photon counting histogram method, in tandem with epifluorescence microscopy to quantitatively probe the effect of the binding of native ligands from the extracellular matrix ligands (vitronectin and fibronectin for α(v)β(3) and α(5)β(1), respectively) on domain-specific protein sequestration and on protein oligomerization state. We found that both α(v)β(3) and α(5)β(1) sequester preferentially to nonraft domains in the absence of extracellular matrix ligands, but upon ligand addition, α(v)β(3) sequesters strongly into raft-like domains and α(5)β(1) loses preference for either raft-like or nonraft-like domains. A corresponding photon counting histogram analysis showed that integrins exist predominantly in a monomeric state. No change was detected in oligomerization state upon ligand binding in either type I or type II bilayers, but a moderate increase in oligomerization state was observed for increasing concentrations of cholesterol. The combined findings suggest a mechanism in which changes in integrin sequestering are caused by ligand-induced changes in integrin conformation and/or dynamics that affect integrin-lipid interactions without altering the integrin