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Sample records for hydrophobic grid membrane

  1. Colony counting on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A N; Diotte, M P; Dudas, I; Malcolm, S; Peterkin, P I

    1983-07-01

    A device to facilitate manual scoring of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (HGMF) is described. Variations in scores were generally less than 2.5% between 41 analysts from six laboratories, who, using the apparatus, scored a set of five specimen HGMF in different ways, and there was good agreement between scores from positive and negative grid-cell counts by each analyst. A scoring procedure for use in routine microbiological analysis, suitable for HGMF at various degrees of saturation, is recommended.

  2. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h. PMID:16349033

  3. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  4. Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Diotte, M P; Dudas, I; Michaud, G L

    1978-01-01

    Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems. PMID:100054

  5. Hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Entis, P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) method for aerobic plate count by comparing its performance against the AOAC/APHA pour plate method. Raw milk, raw poultry, whole egg powder, flours, and spices were included in the study. Counts obtained by the HGMF and pour plate methods did not differ significantly, except in the case of whole egg powder, for which the HGMF method produced significantly higher counts. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter method for aerobic plate count in foods has been adopted official first action.

  6. Enumeration of High Numbers of Bacteria Using Hydrophobic Grid-Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Anthony N.; Michaud, Gregory L.

    1975-01-01

    Printing a wax grid on a conventional membrane filter yields a device functioning as a most probable number apparatus (MPN), used at a single dilution but with a very large number of growth compartments (e.g., 3,650). By restraining the lateral spread and confluence of colonies, the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) allows growth- or colony-forming units (GU) to be resolved at levels far above those which produce an uncountable lawn on a conventional membrane filter. It also eliminates the size variation of normal bacterial colonies. As a result, the HGMF can give more accurate estimates of the concentration of GU. The method by which grid-cell count observations can be used to obtain MPN estimates of the number of GUs is described, and estimates obtained using the MPN method on the HGMF are compared with those resulting from conventional colony count procedures on membrane filters. A linear relation was observed between MPNGU and the number of GUs, at levels up to 30,000 GUs, for pure cultures of bacteria and for samples of natural waters. The HGMF has great potential for reducing the labor required in quantitative microbiology, since it allows, with one filter, enumeration of microorganisms over a very large concentration range and therefore reduces the need to make dilutions. PMID:1103728

  7. Enumeration of high numbers of bacteria using hydrophobic grid-membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A N; Michaud, G L

    1975-10-01

    Printing a wax grid on a conventional membrane filter yields a device functioning as a most probable number apparatus (MPN), used at a single dilution but with a very large number of growth compartments (e.g., 3,650). By restraining the lateral spread and confluence of colonies, the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) allows growth- or colony-forming units (GU) to be resolved at levels far above those which produce an uncountable lawn on a conventional membrane filter. It also eliminates the size variation of normal bacterial colonies. As a result, the HGMF can give more accurate estimates of the concentration of GU. The method by which grid-cell count observations can be used to obtain MPN estimates of the number of GUs is described, and estimates obtained using the MPN method on the HGMF are compared with those resulting from conventional colony count procedures on membrane filters. A linear relation was observed between MPNGU and the number of GUs, at levels up to 30,000 GUs, for pure cultures of bacteria and for samples of natural waters. The HGMF has great potential for reducing the labor required in quantitative microbiology, since it allows, with one filter, enumeration of microorganisms over a very large concentration range and therefore reduces the need to make dilutions.

  8. Enumeration of coliforms in nonfat dry milk and canned custard by hydrophobic grid membrane filter method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Entis, P

    1983-07-01

    A collaborative study was conducted in 14 laboratories to evaluate the performance of the hydrophobic grid membrane filter method against the official final action method, 46.016, for enumeration of coliforms in foods. Twelve artificially contaminated samples of nonfat dry milk and canned custard were analyzed by each laboratory. The random errors (S2r) associated with the hydrophobic grid membrane filter method were significantly lower than those of the official method, and the counts obtained by the new method fell within the 95% confidence interval of the reference method. The coliform counts obtained by the hydrophobic grid membrane filter method did not differ significantly from those obtained by the reference method as measured by a 3-way analysis of variance. The new method has been adopted official first action.

  9. Automation of microbial enumeration: development of a disposable hydrophobic grid-membrane filter unit.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K; Bussey, D M

    1986-01-01

    A disposable filter unit containing a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) was developed. The unit is liquid tight to serve as a specimen transport container and, by removal of the funnel extender (175- or 300-ml capacity), the unit becomes less than the height of two stacked petri plates to save space during in situ incubation. The polyethylene mesh which supports the HGMF facilitates rinse removal of any substance(s) that would interfere with microbial growth. The correlations between a pour plate, a conventional square HGMF, and a disposable filter unit on microbial enumeration were examined. Characteristics (e.g., clumping, spreading, etc.) of some microorganisms limit the linear counting range to less than 1,000 CFU per filter. Images PMID:3096206

  10. Automation of microbial enumeration: development of a disposable hydrophobic grid-membrane filter unit.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, K; Bussey, D M

    1986-10-01

    A disposable filter unit containing a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) was developed. The unit is liquid tight to serve as a specimen transport container and, by removal of the funnel extender (175- or 300-ml capacity), the unit becomes less than the height of two stacked petri plates to save space during in situ incubation. The polyethylene mesh which supports the HGMF facilitates rinse removal of any substance(s) that would interfere with microbial growth. The correlations between a pour plate, a conventional square HGMF, and a disposable filter unit on microbial enumeration were examined. Characteristics (e.g., clumping, spreading, etc.) of some microorganisms limit the linear counting range to less than 1,000 CFU per filter.

  11. Rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in food by use of the ISO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter.

    PubMed Central

    Entis, P; Brodsky, M H; Sharpe, A N; Jarvis, G A

    1982-01-01

    A rapid hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) method was developed and compared with the Health Protection Branch cultural method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in 798 spiked samples and 265 naturally contaminated samples of food. With the HGMF method, Salmonella spp. were isolated from 618 of the spiked samples and 190 of the naturally contaminated samples. The conventional method recovered Salmonella spp. from 622 spiked samples and 204 unspiked samples. The isolation rates from Salmonella-positive samples for the two methods were not significantly different (94.6% overall for the HGMF method and 96.7% for the conventional approach), but the HGMF results were available in only 2 to 3 days after sample receipt compared with 3 to 4 days by the conventional method. Images PMID:7059168

  12. Rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in food by use of the ISO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter.

    PubMed

    Entis, P; Brodsky, M H; Sharpe, A N; Jarvis, G A

    1982-02-01

    A rapid hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) method was developed and compared with the Health Protection Branch cultural method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in 798 spiked samples and 265 naturally contaminated samples of food. With the HGMF method, Salmonella spp. were isolated from 618 of the spiked samples and 190 of the naturally contaminated samples. The conventional method recovered Salmonella spp. from 622 spiked samples and 204 unspiked samples. The isolation rates from Salmonella-positive samples for the two methods were not significantly different (94.6% overall for the HGMF method and 96.7% for the conventional approach), but the HGMF results were available in only 2 to 3 days after sample receipt compared with 3 to 4 days by the conventional method.

  13. Measurement of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli in Pig Feces with a Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter Interpreter System

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, R. Hugo; McEwen, Scott A.; Meek, Alan H.; Clarke, Robert C.; Friendship, Robert M.; Black, William D.; Sharpe, Anthony N.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrophobic grid membrane filter technology was used to measure resistance among Escherichia coli in pig fecal samples to ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline. The method accurately measured resistance, with sensitivities ranging from 96.5 to 99.5% and specificities ranging from 87.0 to 98.3%, and it identified E. coli with 96% confidence. PMID:9435092

  14. Novel Campylobacter isolation method using hydrophobic grid membrane filter and semisolid medium.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso-Garcia, Alfonso; Harris, Kathleen; Riche, Edward; Campbell, Stephanie; Jarvie, Anne; Popa, Maria; Deckert, Anne; Reid-Smith, Richard; Rahn, Kris

    2007-02-01

    Culture procedures for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters from food matrices are complex, labor intensive, and time-consuming. Most available methods include the use of antibiotics as selective agents to prevent the growth of competing microflora. A simple procedure for isolation of thermophilic campylobacters after enrichment in Rosef's enrichment broth was developed using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) on semisolid medium (SSM). SSM contains no antibiotics, and the HGMF physically separates Campylobacter from the enrichment broth, allowing isolation based on differential motility. The HGMF-SSM method was compared to the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Food Safety Procedures Manual (FSPM-10) method (Isolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from Fresh Pork, Beef Veal, Poultry and Ready-to-Eat Meat Products), which includes the use of selective antibiotics. During the initial study, after enrichment the HGMF-SSM method yielded pure cultures of campylobacters after 16 to 18 h (overnight) compared with 48 h for the FSPM-10 method. Ninety-four turkey samples collected at local retail stores and 38 frozen pig fecal samples were processed by both methods. Thirty-five samples (26.5%) were positive by the HGMF-SSM method; 24 (18.2%) of these positive samples contained Campylobacter jejuni and 11 (8.3%) contained Campylobacter coli. With the FSPM-10 method, 25 samples (18.9%) were positive: 21 (15.9%) with C. jejuni and 4 (3%) with C. coli. For a subsequent field study, only the HGMF-SSM method was used to isolate Campylobacter from 1,200 chicken samples and 454 turkey samples sold at retail. Analysis of five subisolates from various samples indicated that only one type of Campylobacter was recovered by the HGMF-SSM method, as ascertained by MICs for 10 antimicrobials, sequencing of the short variable region of the flaA gene, and fingerprinting based on amplified fragment length polymorphism. The absence of antibiotics in the SSM may explain the higher

  15. Hydrophobic grid membrane filter/MUG method for total coliform and Escherichia coli enumeration in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Entis, P

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four laboratories participated in a collaborative study to validate a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) method incorporating the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) for enumeration of total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in foods by comparing its performance against the AOAC 3-tube MPN method (46.013-46.016). Raw milk, raw ground poultry, whole egg powder, cheese powder, and ground black pepper were included in the study. The total coliform methods did not differ significantly, except that the 3-tube method detected a significantly higher level of total coliforms than did the HGMF method in the ground black pepper. Conversely, the HGMF/MUG E. coli method detected significantly higher numbers of E. coli present in the egg powder, cheese powder, and ground black pepper samples, while not differing significantly from the 3-tube method for the raw milk and raw ground poultry samples. The overall confirmation rate of MUG-positive colonies isolated using the HGMF method was 99.5%. The hydrophobic grid membrane filter/MUG method has been adopted official first action as an additional method to AOAC official final action method 46.030-46.034.

  16. Improved hydrophobic grid membrane filter method, using EF-18 agar, for detection of Salmonella in foods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Entis, P

    1990-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in 30 laboratories to validate improvements to the official final action hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) screening method for Salmonella in foods, 985.42, by comparing the performance of the improved HGMF method against that of the AOAC/BAM conventional culture method. Six products were included in the collaborative study: milk chocolate, raw deboned poultry meat, black pepper, soy flour, egg yolk powder, and nonfat dry milk. The raw deboned poultry meat was naturally contaminated with Salmonella, and the remaining 5 products were each inoculated in advance with low levels of individual Salmonella serotypes. The AOAC/BAM method produced 11 false negative results and the improved HGMF method produced 18 false negative results. The improved HGMF Salmonella method has been approved interim official first action for all foods to replace the HGMF official final action method, 985.42.

  17. Comparison of the hydrophobic-grid membrane filter procedure and standard methods for coliform analysis of water.

    PubMed

    McDaniels, A E; Bordner, R H; Menkedick, J R; Weber, C I

    1987-05-01

    The hydrophobic-grid membrane filter (HGMF) has been proposed as an alternate method to the standard membrane filter (MF) procedure for the detection and enumeration of coliforms from water. Eight samples of nonchlorinated wastewater effluents were analyzed by the HGMF, standard MF, and tube fermentation most-probable-number methods for fecal coliforms, and eight samples each of polluted surface and dosed drinking waters were analyzed by the same methods for total coliforms. The drinking waters were dosed with coliforms and other heterotrophs concentrated from nonchlorinated domestic wastewater and treated with chlorine to reduce the numbers of organisms and simulate stress caused by chlorination. Statistical analyses determined that recoveries of fecal coliforms were significantly higher by the filtration methods for the nonchlorinated domestic wastewaters but not for the other waters. The results also indicated that recoveries of fecal and total coliforms did not differ significantly when either MFs or HGMFs were used. Total coliform results obtained with HGMFs having greater than 100 positive grid cells were significantly more precise than estimates obtained by the standard MF method only for polluted surface waters.

  18. Comparison of the hydrophobic-grid membrane filter procedure and standard methods for coliform analysis of water.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniels, A E; Bordner, R H; Menkedick, J R; Weber, C I

    1987-01-01

    The hydrophobic-grid membrane filter (HGMF) has been proposed as an alternate method to the standard membrane filter (MF) procedure for the detection and enumeration of coliforms from water. Eight samples of nonchlorinated wastewater effluents were analyzed by the HGMF, standard MF, and tube fermentation most-probable-number methods for fecal coliforms, and eight samples each of polluted surface and dosed drinking waters were analyzed by the same methods for total coliforms. The drinking waters were dosed with coliforms and other heterotrophs concentrated from nonchlorinated domestic wastewater and treated with chlorine to reduce the numbers of organisms and simulate stress caused by chlorination. Statistical analyses determined that recoveries of fecal coliforms were significantly higher by the filtration methods for the nonchlorinated domestic wastewaters but not for the other waters. The results also indicated that recoveries of fecal and total coliforms did not differ significantly when either MFs or HGMFs were used. Total coliform results obtained with HGMFs having greater than 100 positive grid cells were significantly more precise than estimates obtained by the standard MF method only for polluted surface waters. Images PMID:3606086

  19. Application of a DNA hybridization-hydrophobic-grid membrane filter method for detection and isolation of verotoxigenic escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Todd, E C; Szabo, R A; MacKenzie, J M; Martin, A; Rahn, K; Gyles, C; Gao, A; Alves, D; Yee, A J

    1999-11-01

    Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains were isolated from food and animal fecal samples by using PCR to screen for the presence of VTEC after broth enrichment and then filtering VTEC-positive cultures through hydrophobic-grid membrane filters (HGMFs) which were incubated on MacConkey agar. The filters were probed with a digoxigenin-labeled PCR product generated by amplification of a conserved verotoxin gene sequence. Replication of the growth on filters allowed probe-positive colonies to be picked. When ground beef samples were inoculated with VTEC strains, 100% of the strains were recovered, and the detection limit was 0.1 CFU per g. Similar results were obtained with seven types of artificially contaminated vegetables. A survey of 32 packages of vegetables and 23 samples of apple cider obtained at the retail level did not reveal the presence of VTEC. However, the intestinal fecal contents of a moose, 1 of 35 wild mammals and birds examined, contained E. coli O157:H7. The DNA hybridization-HGMF method was also used in a prevalence survey of 327 raw and 744 ready-to-eat products; VTEC strains were recovered from 4.9% of the raw products and 0.7% of the ready-to-eat products. No serotype O157:H7 strains were detected. This method is particularly suited for surveys in which low numbers of VTEC-positive samples are expected and isolates are required.

  20. Application of a DNA Hybridization–Hydrophobic-Grid Membrane Filter Method for Detection and Isolation of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Todd, E. C. D.; Szabo, R. A.; MacKenzie, J. M.; Martin, A.; Rahn, K.; Gyles, C.; Gao, A.; Alves, D.; Yee, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains were isolated from food and animal fecal samples by using PCR to screen for the presence of VTEC after broth enrichment and then filtering VTEC-positive cultures through hydrophobic-grid membrane filters (HGMFs) which were incubated on MacConkey agar. The filters were probed with a digoxigenin-labeled PCR product generated by amplification of a conserved verotoxin gene sequence. Replication of the growth on filters allowed probe-positive colonies to be picked. When ground beef samples were inoculated with VTEC strains, 100% of the strains were recovered, and the detection limit was 0.1 CFU per g. Similar results were obtained with seven types of artificially contaminated vegetables. A survey of 32 packages of vegetables and 23 samples of apple cider obtained at the retail level did not reveal the presence of VTEC. However, the intestinal fecal contents of a moose, 1 of 35 wild mammals and birds examined, contained E. coli O157:H7. The DNA hybridization-HGMF method was also used in a prevalence survey of 327 raw and 744 ready-to-eat products; VTEC strains were recovered from 4.9% of the raw products and 0.7% of the ready-to-eat products. No serotype O157:H7 strains were detected. This method is particularly suited for surveys in which low numbers of VTEC-positive samples are expected and isolates are required. PMID:10543785

  1. Comparison of membrane filtration rates and hydrophobic grid membrane filter coliform and Escherichia coli counts in food suspensions using paddle-type and pulsifier sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A N; Hearn, E M; Kovacs-Nolan, J

    2000-01-01

    Food suspensions prepared by Pulsifier contained less debris and filtered 1.3x to 12x faster through hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) than those prepared by Stomacher 400. Coliform and Escherichia coli counts made by an HGMF method yielded 84 and 36 paired samples, respectively, positive by both suspending methods. Overall counts of pulsificates and stomachates did not differ significantly for either analysis, though coliform counts by Pulsifier were significantly higher in mushrooms and significantly lower in ground pork (P = 0.05). Regression equations for log10 counts of coliform and E. coli by Pulsifier and Stomacher were: Pulsifier = 0.12 + 0.97 x Stomacher, and Pulsifier = 0.01 + 1.01 x Stomacher, respectively.

  2. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by direct colony hybridization on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters by using a chromogen-labeled DNA probe.

    PubMed Central

    Peterkin, P I; Idziak, E S; Sharpe, A N

    1991-01-01

    A DNA probe specific for Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from a beta-hemolytic recombinant clone of an L. monocytogenes gene bank. It was labeled with horseradish peroxidase and used in a direct colony hybridization method on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters for the detection of the organism. Following color development of the chromogen, a commercial counter (HGMF Interpreter) was able to detect and count the organisms electronically. The method gave a positive reaction with 70 L. monocytogenes strains, while showing a negative reaction with 10 strains of other Listeria spp. and with 20 organisms of other genera. Images PMID:1901711

  3. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes by direct colony hybridization on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters by using a chromogen-labeled DNA probe.

    PubMed

    Peterkin, P I; Idziak, E S; Sharpe, A N

    1991-02-01

    A DNA probe specific for Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from a beta-hemolytic recombinant clone of an L. monocytogenes gene bank. It was labeled with horseradish peroxidase and used in a direct colony hybridization method on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters for the detection of the organism. Following color development of the chromogen, a commercial counter (HGMF Interpreter) was able to detect and count the organisms electronically. The method gave a positive reaction with 70 L. monocytogenes strains, while showing a negative reaction with 10 strains of other Listeria spp. and with 20 organisms of other genera.

  4. Rapid hydrophobic grid membrane filter-enzyme-labeled antibody procedure for identification and enumeration of Escherichia coli O157 in foods.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, E C; Szabo, R A; Peterkin, P; Sharpe, A N; Parrington, L; Bundle, D; Gidney, M A; Perry, M B

    1988-01-01

    An O-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody, labeled by horseradish peroxidase-protein A, was used in a hydrophobic grid membrane filter-enzyme-labeled antibody method for rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157 in foods. The method yielded presumptive identification within 24 h and recovered, on average, 95% of E. coli O157:H7 artificially inoculated into comminuted beef, veal, pork, chicken giblets, and chicken carcass washings. In food samples from two outbreaks involving E. coli O157:H7, the organism was isolated at levels of up to 10(3)/g. The lower limit of sensitivity was 10 E. coli O157 per g of meat. Specific typing for E. coli O157:H7 can be achieved through staining with labeled H7 antiserum or tube agglutination. Images PMID:3060018

  5. A rapid and improved method for the detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus strains grown on hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S K; Pandian, S; Todd, E C; Farber, J M

    2002-06-01

    DNA probe-based detection methods were developed and characterized as an alternative to time-consuming and less specific conventional protocols. Digoxigenin-labeled probes were prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the targeted sequences in the specific amplicons generated from genomic DNA. Specific probes with high yields were generated for the detection of the tlh gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and the cth gene of V. vulnificus. Colony (Southern) hybridization analyses were carried out using hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) to allow biotype-specific differentiation of the two species. Eight strains of V. vulnificus and five strains of V. parahaemolyticus, including one standard (ATCC) strain of each biotype, were examined. Colony lysis, hybridization, and nonradioactive detection parameters were optimized for identification of the target biotypes arranged on the same HGMF and also on a conventional nylon membrane, thereby confirming the specificity of the probes and the comparative usefulness of the HGMFs. The experimental procedure presented here can be completed in 1 day. The protocol was designed specifically to identify the target Vibrio spp. and could potentially be used for the enumeration and differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in foods.

  6. Evaluating survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in frozen and thawed apple cider: potential use of a hydrophobic grid membrane filter-SD-39 agar method.

    PubMed

    Sage, J R; Ingham, S C

    1998-04-01

    To determine the susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to freezing and thawing in apple cider, methods that recover injured cells are needed for accurate enumeration. This study compared the ISO-GRID hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) SD-39 agar method to two other methods: a reference most probable number (MPN) method, and plating on sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMA). To determine numbers of injured cells, SMA spread plating was also compared to Trypticase soy agar (TSA) spread plating. Two strains of E. coli O157:H7 QA 326 and ATCC 43895, were inoculated into presterilized apple cider (10 ml) which was then frozen (-20 degrees C for 24 h). Samples were thawed at 4 degrees C for 4 h, or at 23 degrees C for 1.5 h, or in a microwave oven (700 W for 10 s). Substantial cell death (0.69- to 6.33 log10 CFU/ml decreases) and injury (0.70- to 2.38-log10 CFU/ml decreases) occurred during freezing and thawing. The extent of death and injury varied with strain and thawing method. The TSA spread plating method recovered the most cells while the HGMF method always recovered more viable cells than the reference MPN method and also either recovered significantly more (P < 0.05) cells or a not significantly different number of cells than SMA spread plating. Some injured cells of both strains were not counted by the HGMF method. Significant numbers of cells injured by freezing and thawing at 4 degrees C in apple cider were enumerated in the cider was diluted 1:2 Trypticase soy broth immediately before plating. Two epifluorescent microscopic methods showed that injury was not associated with loss of cell membrane integrity.

  7. Increased sensitivity of the rapid hydrophobic grid membrane filter enzyme-labeled antibody procedure for Escherichia coli O157 detection in foods and bovine feces.

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, R; Todd, E; MacKenzie, J; Parrington, L; Armstrong, A

    1990-01-01

    Several strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 artificially inoculated into vegetables and dairy products were recovered on hydrophobic grid membrane filters and enumerated by an enzyme-labeled antibody assay. The mean of the recoveries from 12 fresh vegetables was 108.8%, whereas that from 10 dairy products was 93.2%. Modified tryptic soy broth at 43 degrees C with shaking at 100 rpm provided optimum recovery of the organism from meat, with a sensitivity of less than or equal to 1 CFU/g, which is 10 times more sensitive than direct plating. The method performed equally well with vegetable and dairy products. Tryptic soy broth, however, under the same conditions gave the best results for fecal samples. Of 22 asymptomatic dairy cattle, reported as having positive Brucella titers when assayed with polyclonal antibodies, eight were found to contain E. coli O157 in their feces as demonstrated by the enzyme-labeled antibody assay by using monoclonal antibodies. This finding may explain some of the false-positive Brucella tests. PMID:2268161

  8. Repeatability of the Petrifilm HEC test and agreement with a hydrophobic grid membrane filtration method for the enumeration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Power, C A; McEwen, S A; Johnson, R P; Shoukri, M M; Rahn, K; Griffiths, M W; De Grandis, S A

    1998-04-01

    The Petrifilm HEC test (3M Canada Inc., London, Ontario), a quantitative microbiological test for Escherichia coli O157:H7, was evaluated for its performance as a beef-carcass monitoring test. Test repeatability and agreement and agreement with an E. coli O157:H7 detection method using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) overlaid onto cefixime-tellurite-sorbitol MacConkey agar (CT-SMAC) followed by a latex agglutination test for the O157 antigen were determined by using pure cultures of E. coli O157:H7, beef samples experimentally contaminated with bovine feces containing E. coli O157:H7, and naturally contaminated beef carcasses of unknown E. coli O157:H7 status from a local abattoir. The Petrifilm HEC test showed excellent repeatability and excellent agreement with the HGMF-CT-SMAC method when test samples were obtained from pure cultures and experimentally contaminated meat. All 125 naturally contaminated beef carcasses surveyed were negative for E. coli O157:H7 with both microbial methods. The Petrifilm HEC test, however, demonstrated a significantly lower proportion of cross-reactive organisms (false-positive reactions) than the HGMF-CT-SMAC method. Given the performance of this test coupled with its ease of use and compact size, it shows considerable promise for carcass testing where abattoir laboratory facilities are limited and as a substitute for more complex laboratory testing methods used in established laboratories.

  9. Comparison of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter DNA probe method and the Health Protection Branch standard method for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Malik, M N; Peterkin, P I; Sharpe, A N

    1996-07-01

    The standard Health Protection Branch (HPB) method for the detection of L. monocytogenes in foods involves lengthy enrichment, selection and biochemical testing, requiring up to 8 days to complete. A hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) method employing a digoxigenin-labelled listeriolysin O probe required 5 days to complete, and included an image-analysis system for electronic data acquisition. A total of 200 food samples encompassing 8 high-risk food groups (soft and semi-soft cheeses, packaged raw vegetables, frozen cooked shrimp, ground poultry, ground pork, ground beef, jellied meats, and pâté) were screened for the presence of L. monocytogenes by the two methods. Overall, 32 (16%) and 30 (15%) of the naturally-contaminated food samples tested positive for L. monocytogenes by the HPB and DNA methods, respectively. The DNA probe method was highly specific in discriminating L. monocytogenes from other Listeria spp. present in 50 of the samples tested. Results showed 94% sensitivity and 100% specificity between the two methods. The HGMF DNA probe method is an efficient and reliable alternative to the HPB standard method for detecting L. monocytogenes in foods.

  10. Use of MRSD medium and the hydrophobic grid membrane filter technique to differentiate between pediococci and lactobacilli in fermented meat and starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Holley, R A; Millard, G E

    1988-10-01

    Modifications of MRS medium were made by incorporation of 0.1 M L-arginine-HCl, 0.0025% phenol red, 100 IU polymyxin B sulfate, by deletion of meat extract, use of only 1.2% (w/v) glucose and increase of Mn2+ to 1000 ppm. In addition, adoption of the hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) system with 0.025% Fast Green FCF dye and adjustment of the agar medium to pH 5.5 gave MRSD (differential) medium. Incubation at 25 degrees C anaerobically under N2 or CO2 followed by a post-growth staining procedure involving use of 0.4% (w/v) bromocresol purple yielded conditions under which pediococci colonies were blue whereas homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli were green in color. Under these conditions, 7 pediococci, 16 lactobacilli, and 18 commercial meat starter cultures were successfully analyzed by plate count to yield a differential assessment of the lactobacilli and pediococci present without interference from the 9 other genera tested. Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostoc spp. produced blue and green colonies, respectively, at 25 degrees C which might interference but these organisms are not present in significant numbers in fermented meats. Pediococcus parvulus and Streptococcus faecalis produced green and blue colonies, respectively, but their very poor growth at 25 degrees C prevented their interference. Use of the developed MRSD medium was described for enumeration of both pediococci and lactobacilli in starter cultures and in fermenting dry sausages to enable documentation of starter culture performance.

  11. Hydrophobic Compounds Reshape Membrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Barnoud, Jonathan; Rossi, Giulia; Marrink, Siewert J.; Monticelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Cell membranes have a complex lateral organization featuring domains with distinct composition, also known as rafts, which play an essential role in cellular processes such as signal transduction and protein trafficking. In vivo, perturbations of membrane domains (e.g., by drugs or lipophilic compounds) have major effects on the activity of raft-associated proteins and on signaling pathways, but they are difficult to characterize because of the small size of the domains, typically below optical resolution. Model membranes, instead, can show macroscopic phase separation between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains, and they are often used to investigate the driving forces of membrane lateral organization. Studies in model membranes have shown that some lipophilic compounds perturb membrane domains, but it is not clear which chemical and physical properties determine domain perturbation. The mechanisms of domain stabilization and destabilization are also unknown. Here we describe the effect of six simple hydrophobic compounds on the lateral organization of phase-separated model membranes consisting of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and cholesterol. Using molecular simulations, we identify two groups of molecules with distinct behavior: aliphatic compounds promote lipid mixing by distributing at the interface between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains; aromatic compounds, instead, stabilize phase separation by partitioning into liquid-disordered domains and excluding cholesterol from the disordered domains. We predict that relatively small concentrations of hydrophobic species can have a broad impact on domain stability in model systems, which suggests possible mechanisms of action for hydrophobic compounds in vivo. PMID:25299598

  12. ICMSF methods study. XVII. An international comparative study of the direct plate and hydrophobic grid-membrane filter methods for enumeration of Escherichia coli in foods. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A N; Rayman, M K; Malik, N; Beckers, H J; Delfgou, E; Christian, J H; Eyles, M; Dodsworth, P; Nafziger, M; Gibbs, P A

    1987-02-01

    Eight laboratories compared counts of Escherichia coli from naturally or artificially contaminated ground beef, other meats and poultry, vegetables, fish and shellfish, cheese, and diverse sources such as swabs, by the Anderson-Baird-Parker direct plate (DP) and a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter (HGMF) method. For five of the eight laboratories overall counts by HGMF were significantly low (51-83%) compared with those by DP. Counts by HGMF tended to be lower for naturally contaminated samples; several possible causes were investigated. In a subsidiary study, analyst variation in counting HGMF ranged from 0.8-7.3%, with little evidence of effects from counting positive versus negative grid cells or from the fullness of growth or staining intensity.

  13. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A comparison study of the EF-18 agar/Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter (HGMF) method and the enzyme linked antibody (ELA)/HGMF method to the HPB standard method in the isolation of Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Warburton, D W; Arling, V; Worobec, S; Mackenzie, J; Todd, E C; Lacasse, P; Lamontagne, G; Plante, R; Shaw, S; Bowen, B

    1994-09-01

    As part of a comparative and collaborative study of rapid methods for the detection of Salmonella and the standard Health Protection Branch (HPB) method, six Federal and Provincial Laboratories compared the EF-18 agar/Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters (HGMF) method to the standard HPB method. Two Federal Laboratories also compared the enzyme linked antibody (ELA)/HGMF method (which is a further development of the EF-18 agar/HGMF method) to the standard method. During this study the false-negative rates ranged from 0% to 15% for the standard HPB method, from 5.88% to 43.5% for the EF-18 agar/HGMF method, and from 0% to 10.5% for the ELA/HGMF method. The EF-18 agar/HGMF method did not compare well with the standard HPB method due to the number of false-negatives. Problems with this method resulted from the inability to isolate colonies of Salmonella on the HGMF due to the small colony size, abnormal colony coloration, and overgrowth by competitors. The ELA/HGMF method, however, was shown to be comparable to the standard HPB method. The main advantages of this method are that the antibody-staining step is independent of colony coloration and carbohydrate utilization on the plating media; the ability to detect some unusual strains of Salmonella irrespective of their atypical reactions on the media; and the ELA staining can indicate the presence of Salmonella even when the HGMF is overgrown by competitors. Also, cultural confirmation can proceed simultaneously yet independently of the ELA staining procedure. The data presented here indicate that this method is worth further study.

  15. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  16. Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Dragomir; Honigmann, Alf; Koike, Seiichi; Göttfert, Fabian; Pähler, Gesa; Junius, Meike; Müllar, Stefan; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas; Grubmüller, Helmut; Risselada, Herre J.; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; van den Bogaart, Geert; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The clustering of proteins and lipids in distinct microdomains is emerging as an important principle for the spatial patterning of biological membranes. Such domain formation can be the result of hydrophobic and ionic interactions with membrane lipids as well as of specific protein–protein interactions. Here using plasma membrane-resident SNARE proteins as model, we show that hydrophobic mismatch between the length of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the thickness of the lipid membrane suffices to induce clustering of proteins. Even when the TMDs differ in length by only a single residue, hydrophobic mismatch can segregate structurally closely homologous membrane proteins in distinct membrane domains. Domain formation is further fine-tuned by interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositides and homo and heterotypic protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch contributes to the structural organization of membranes. PMID:25635869

  17. Hydrophobic mismatch sorts SNARE proteins into distinct membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Dragomir; Honigmann, Alf; Koike, Seiichi; Göttfert, Fabian; Pähler, Gesa; Junius, Meike; Müllar, Stefan; Diederichsen, Ulf; Janshoff, Andreas; Grubmüller, Helmut; Risselada, Herre J; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W; van den Bogaart, Geert; Jahn, Reinhard

    2015-01-30

    The clustering of proteins and lipids in distinct microdomains is emerging as an important principle for the spatial patterning of biological membranes. Such domain formation can be the result of hydrophobic and ionic interactions with membrane lipids as well as of specific protein-protein interactions. Here using plasma membrane-resident SNARE proteins as model, we show that hydrophobic mismatch between the length of transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the thickness of the lipid membrane suffices to induce clustering of proteins. Even when the TMDs differ in length by only a single residue, hydrophobic mismatch can segregate structurally closely homologous membrane proteins in distinct membrane domains. Domain formation is further fine-tuned by interactions with polyanionic phosphoinositides and homo and heterotypic protein interactions. Our findings demonstrate that hydrophobic mismatch contributes to the structural organization of membranes.

  18. A biologically inspired hydrophobic membrane for application in pervaporation.

    PubMed

    Jullok, Nora; Martínez, Rodrigo; Wouters, Christine; Luis, Patricia; Sanz, María Teresa; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-02-05

    An artificial polydimethylsiloxane/polyphenylsulfone (PDMS/PPSU) membrane, which emulates the hydrophobic behavior of natural membranes, was synthesized. Hydrophobicity was achieved by coating the membrane surface sublayer using conventional silicon material, which imitates the character of epicuticular wax (EW) of Prunus laurocerasus L. leaves. It was then applied as a separation medium in pervaporation (PV) of diluted mixtures of ethyl acetate and aroma compounds. The membrane's biomimetic characteristics were evaluated using surface morphology analyses, that is, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), water contact angle measurements, and SEM imaging. A comparison of properties of the membranes synthesized in this work against selected hydrophobic plant leaves indicated a good agreement. PV using these biologically inspired artificial membranes demonstrated preference for the permeation of ethyl acetate. Besides intrinsic characteristics, it was also observed that the chemical potential is highly influential in activating sorption, diffusion, and desorption of a specific compound.

  19. FOLDING AMPHIPATHIC HELICES INTO MEMBRANES: AMPHIPHILICITY TRUMPS HYDROPHOBICITY

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Jayasinghe, Sajith; Ladokhin, Alexey S.; White, Stephen H.

    2007-01-01

    High amphiphilicity is a hallmark of interfacial helices in membrane proteins and membrane-active peptides, such as toxins and antimicrobial peptides. Although there is general agreement that amphiphilicity is important for membrane-interface binding, an unanswered question is its importance relative to simple hydrophobicity-driven partitioning. We have examined this fundamental question using measurements of the interfacial partitioning of a family of seventeen-residue amidated-acetylated peptides into both neutral and anionic lipid vesicles. Composed only of Ala, Leu, and Gln residues, the amino acid sequences of the peptides were varied to change peptide amphiphilicity without changing total hydrophobicity. We found that peptide helicity in water and interface increased linearly with hydrophobic moment, as did the favorable peptide partitioning free energy. This observation provides simple tools for designing amphipathic helical peptides. Finally, our results show that helical amphiphilicity is far more important for interfacial binding than simple hydrophobicity. PMID:17532340

  20. Marginally hydrophobic transmembrane α-helices shaping membrane protein folding

    PubMed Central

    De Marothy, Minttu T; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Cells have developed an incredible machinery to facilitate the insertion of membrane proteins into the membrane. While we have a fairly good understanding of the mechanism and determinants of membrane integration, more data is needed to understand the insertion of membrane proteins with more complex insertion and folding pathways. This review will focus on marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices and their influence on membrane protein folding. These weakly hydrophobic transmembrane segments are by themselves not recognized by the translocon and therefore rely on local sequence context for membrane integration. How can such segments reside within the membrane? We will discuss this in the light of features found in the protein itself as well as the environment it resides in. Several characteristics in proteins have been described to influence the insertion of marginally hydrophobic helices. Additionally, the influence of biological membranes is significant. To begin with, the actual cost for having polar groups within the membrane may not be as high as expected; the presence of proteins in the membrane as well as characteristics of some amino acids may enable a transmembrane helix to harbor a charged residue. The lipid environment has also been shown to directly influence the topology as well as membrane boundaries of transmembrane helices—implying a dynamic relationship between membrane proteins and their environment. PMID:25970811

  1. Marginally hydrophobic transmembrane α-helices shaping membrane protein folding.

    PubMed

    De Marothy, Minttu T; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-07-01

    Cells have developed an incredible machinery to facilitate the insertion of membrane proteins into the membrane. While we have a fairly good understanding of the mechanism and determinants of membrane integration, more data is needed to understand the insertion of membrane proteins with more complex insertion and folding pathways. This review will focus on marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices and their influence on membrane protein folding. These weakly hydrophobic transmembrane segments are by themselves not recognized by the translocon and therefore rely on local sequence context for membrane integration. How can such segments reside within the membrane? We will discuss this in the light of features found in the protein itself as well as the environment it resides in. Several characteristics in proteins have been described to influence the insertion of marginally hydrophobic helices. Additionally, the influence of biological membranes is significant. To begin with, the actual cost for having polar groups within the membrane may not be as high as expected; the presence of proteins in the membrane as well as characteristics of some amino acids may enable a transmembrane helix to harbor a charged residue. The lipid environment has also been shown to directly influence the topology as well as membrane boundaries of transmembrane helices-implying a dynamic relationship between membrane proteins and their environment. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  2. Dehydration processes using membranes with hydrophobic coating

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer

    2013-07-30

    Processes for removing water from organic compounds, especially polar compounds such as alcohols. The processes include a membrane-based dehydration step, using a membrane that has a dioxole-based polymer selective layer or the like and a hydrophilic selective layer, and can operate even when the stream to be treated has a high water content, such as 10 wt % or more. The processes are particularly useful for dehydrating ethanol.

  3. Highly efficient hydrophobic titania ceramic membranes for water desalination.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Joanna; Cerneaux, Sophie; Koter, Stanisław; Kujawski, Wojciech

    2014-08-27

    Hydrophobic titania ceramic membranes (300 kD) were prepared by grafting of C6F13C2H4Si(OC2H5)3 and C12F25C2H4Si(OC2H5)3 molecules and thus applied in membrane distillation (MD) process of NaCl solutions. Grafting efficiency and hydrophobicity were evaluated by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and liquid entry pressure measurement of water. Desalination of NaCl solutions was performed using the modified hydrophobic membranes in air gap MD (AGMD) and direct contact MD (DCMD) processes in various operating conditions. High values of NaCl retention coefficient (>99%) were reached. The permeate fluxes were in the range 231-3692 g·h(-1)·m(-2), depending on applied experimental conditions. AGMD mode appeared to be more efficient showing higher fluxes and selectivity in desalination. Overall mass transfer coefficients (K) for membranes tested in AGMD were constant over the investigated temperature range. However, K values in DCMD increased at elevated temperature. The hydrophobic layer was also stable after 4 years of exposure to open air.

  4. Influence of Hydrophobic Mismatching on Membrane Protein Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Guigas, Gernot; Weiss, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    The observation of membrane domains in vivo and in vitro has triggered a renewed interest in the size-dependent diffusion of membrane inclusions (e.g., clusters of transmembrane proteins and lipid rafts). Here, we have used coarse-grained membrane simulations to quantify the influence of a hydrophobic mismatch between the inclusion's transmembrane portion and the surrounding lipid bilayer on the diffusive mobility of the inclusion. Our data indicate only slight changes in the mobility (<30%) when altering the hydrophobic mismatch, and the scaling of the diffusion coefficient D is most consistent with previous hydrodynamic predictions, i.e., with the Saffman-Delbruck relation and the edgewise motion of a thin disk in the limit of small and large radii, respectively. PMID:18502792

  5. Influence of hydrophobic mismatching on membrane protein diffusion.

    PubMed

    Guigas, Gernot; Weiss, Matthias

    2008-08-01

    The observation of membrane domains in vivo and in vitro has triggered a renewed interest in the size-dependent diffusion of membrane inclusions (e.g., clusters of transmembrane proteins and lipid rafts). Here, we have used coarse-grained membrane simulations to quantify the influence of a hydrophobic mismatch between the inclusion's transmembrane portion and the surrounding lipid bilayer on the diffusive mobility of the inclusion. Our data indicate only slight changes in the mobility (<30%) when altering the hydrophobic mismatch, and the scaling of the diffusion coefficient D is most consistent with previous hydrodynamic predictions, i.e., with the Saffman-Delbruck relation and the edgewise motion of a thin disk in the limit of small and large radii, respectively.

  6. The hydrophobic proteome of mitochondrial membranes from Arabidopsis cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Brugière, Sabine; Kowalski, Solène; Ferro, Myriam; Seigneurin-Berny, Daphné; Miras, Stéphane; Salvi, Daniel; Ravanel, Stéphane; d'Hérin, Pierre; Garin, Jérôme; Bourguignon, Jacques; Joyard, Jacques; Rolland, Norbert

    2004-06-01

    The development of mitochondria and the integration of their function within a plant cell rely on the presence of a complex biochemical machinery located within their limiting membranes. The aim of the present work was: (1) to enhance our understanding of the biochemical machinery of mitochondrial membranes and (2) to test the versatility of the procedure developed for the identification of the hydrophobic proteome of the chloroplast envelope [Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 2 (2003) 325-345]. A proteomic analysis was performed, to provide the most exhaustive view of the protein repertoire of these membranes. For this purpose, highly purified mitochondria were prepared from Arabidopsis cultured cells and membrane proteins were extracted. To get a more exhaustive array of membrane proteins from Arabidopsis mitochondria, from the most to the less hydrophobic ones, various extraction procedures (chloroform/methanol extraction, alkaline or saline treatments) were applied. LC-MS/MS analyses were then performed on each membrane subfraction, leading to the identification of more than 110 proteins. The identification of these proteins is discussed with respect to their mitochondrial localization, their physicochemical properties and their implications in the metabolism of mitochondria. In order to provide a new overview of the biochemical machinery of the plant mitochondria, proteins identified during this work were compared to the lists of proteins identified during previous proteomic analyses performed on plant and algae mitochondria (Arabidopsis, pea, Chlamydomonas, rice, etc.). A total of 502 proteins are listed. About 40% of the 114 proteins identified during this work were not identified during previous proteomic studies performed on mitochondria.

  7. Tunable Surface Hydrophobicity and Fluid Transport through Nanoporous Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Joseph H. J.

    There are more than three billion people across the globe that struggle to obtain clean drinkable water. One of the most promising avenues for generating potable water is through reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Both solutions require a semipermeable membrane that prohibits passage of unwanted solute particles but allows passage of the solvent. Atomically thin two-dimensional membranes based on porous graphene show great promise as semipermeable materials, but modeling fluid flow on length scales between the microscopic (nanometer and smaller) and macroscopic (micron and larger) regimes presents formidable challenges. This thesis explores both equilibrium and nonequilibrium aspects of this problem and develops new methodology for simulating systems away from thermal equilibrium. First, we hypothesize that there is a wetting penalty for water as it tries to breach a sheet of graphene that should be naturally hydrophobic. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the hydrophobicity depends sensitively on the degree of electrical doping, offering an opportunity to tune the hydrophobic effect of graphene using small amounts of doping. The wetting contact angle, a measure of hydrophobicity, changes dramatically with the voltage applied to single layer graphene. We find that the sensitivity of the hydrophobic effect to voltage depends not on hydrogen bonding motifs at the interface between graphene and water, but instead on a phenomenon known as electrowetting. The theory of electrowetting predicts that the difference in surface tensions that defines the contact angle is quartic in the voltage, rather than quadratic, as it would be in bilayer graphene or in a two-dimensional metal. To explore the nonequilibrium aspects of fluid passage through atomically thin membranes, we developed a molecular dynamics methodology for simulating fluid flow at constant flux based on Gauss's principle of least constraint. This method develops microscopic

  8. Why Hydrophilic Water can Permeate Hydrophobic Interior of Lipid Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Baofu; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    Water molecules as well as some small molecules have long been found to be able to diffuse across lipid membranes. Such permeation is of significant biological and biotechnological importance. For instance, the permeation of water across lipid membrane plays a important role in regulating ionic concentrations inside of cells. Such water permeation without the assistance of proteins embedded in membranes has been found to be a energetically unfavorable process. We, for the first time, explicitly depict the driving force for such an energetically unfavorable process. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate water diffusion in both liquid-crystalline and ordered gel phases of membranes containing zwitterionic DPPC or anionic DLPS lipid. The membrane conformation is calculated to have a critical role in water permeation, regardless of the type of lipid. The fluctuations in the potential energy are found to have a significant, if not the exclusive, role in the transportation of water across lipid membranes. Our results are also informative for the diffusion of small molecules of CO2, O2 and drug molecules, the absence of diffusion of ions, and the diffusion of water into the hydrophobic pores of carbon nanotubes. The authors acknowledge the support from the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR & E) under Award No. FA9550-10-1-0167.

  9. Facile preparation of salt-tolerant anion-exchange membrane adsorber using hydrophobic membrane as substrate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2017-03-24

    In this study, a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hydrophobic membrane with high mechanical property was used as substrate to prepare salt-tolerant anion-exchange (STAE) membrane adsorber. Effective hydrophilization and functionalization of PVDF membrane was realized via polydopamine (PDA) deposition, thus overcoming the drawbacks of hydrophobic substrates including poor water permeability, inert property as well as severe non-specific adsorption. The following polyallylamine (PAH) coupling was carried out at pH 10.0, where unprotonated amine groups on PAH chains were more prone to couple with PDA. This membrane adsorber could remain 75% of protein binding capacity when NaCl concentration increased from 0 to 150mM, while its protein binding capacity was independent of flow rate from 10 to 100 membrane volume (MV)/min due to its high mechanical strength (tensile strength: 43.58±2.30MPa). With 200mM NaCl addition at pH 7.5, high purity (above 99%) and high recovery (almost 100%) of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were obtained when using the STAE membrane adsorber to separate IgG/human serum albumin (HSA) mixture, being similar to that without NaCl at pH 6.0 (both under the flow rate of 10-100MV/min). Finally, the reliable reusability was confirmed by five reuse cycles of protein binding and elution operations. In comparison with commercial membrane adsorber, the new membrane adsorber exhibited a better mechanical property, higher IgG polishing efficiency and reusability, while the protein binding capacity was lower due to less NH2 density on the membrane. The outcome of this work not only offers a facile and effective approach to prepare membrane adsorbers based on hydrophobic membranes, but also demonstrates great potential of this new designed STAE membrane adsorbers for efficient monoclonal antibody (mAb) polishing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New insight into the fouling behavior of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polypropylene membranes in integrated membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Fen; Sun, Pi-Chao; Wei, Jun-Fu

    2017-09-04

    To investigate the effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic polypropylene hollow fiber membranes (PPHFMs) applied in membrane bioreactors (MBR), the fouling behaviors of membrane surfaces and pores has been tested. The structural and morphological features on the membrane surface were characterized using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/ATR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and laser granularity distribution analysis. The results showed that significantly more polysaccharide, protein and inorganic ingredients were accumulated in the original membrane compared to the hydrophilic membrane. Furthermore, it was found that the pore size influenced the particle distribution and accumulation, such that smaller pore size membranes tended to contain fewer pollutants and a narrow size distribution. Under a constant flux of 11.5 L/m(2)h, the transmembrane pressure (TMP) varied narrowly between 38 and 53 KPa. Alongside this, a relatively hydrophilic membrane (PP-g-AA) showed the characteristics of lower TMP in comparison to hydrophobic membranes (PP). Indeed, the flux recovery (FR) was 30% higher than those of the original PPHFMM. This investigation broadens our understanding of membrane modifying and fouling behavior in integrated MBRs.

  11. Ammonia recovery from landfill leachate using hydrophobic membrane contactors.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Magalhães, Nátalie C; Moravia, Wagner G; Ferreira, Carolina D

    2016-11-01

    This article aims to evaluate membrane contactors capability to remove and recover ammonia from landfill leachate (LFL). A hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane module was used to achieve such purpose. A sulfuric acid diluted solution was used as extraction solution to speed up ammonia content removal. Several factors that have influence on ammonia removal and recovery capability such as ammonia solution pH, concentration of sulfuric acid solutions and flow rate of liquid phases have been examined. Microfiltration was the method used as pretreatment. The results have shown that membrane contactor operated with LFL (pH 10), 0.1 M acid solution and liquid flow rate up to 0.5 L min(-1) achieved 99.9% of ammonia removal, which corresponds to 79.1% of ammonia recovery from the extraction solution, and it is capable to produce highly purified ammonium sulfate solutions (41.2%, wt wt(-1)) to be used as fertilizer. The concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in the residual LFL complies with Brazilian law requirements of 20.0 mg L(-1) of TAN, regarding the disposal of effluents.

  12. Dynamics of Membrane Proteins within Synthetic Polymer Membranes with Large Hydrophobic Mismatch.

    PubMed

    Itel, Fabian; Najer, Adrian; Palivan, Cornelia G; Meier, Wolfgang

    2015-06-10

    The functioning of biological membrane proteins (MPs) within synthetic block copolymer membranes is an intriguing phenomenon that is believed to offer great potential for applications in life and medical sciences and engineering. The question why biological MPs are able to function in this completely artificial environment is still unresolved by any experimental data. Here, we have analyzed the lateral diffusion properties of different sized MPs within poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-containing amphiphilic block copolymer membranes of membrane thicknesses between 9 and 13 nm, which results in a hydrophobic mismatch between the membrane thickness and the size of the proteins of 3.3-7.1 nm (3.5-5 times). We show that the high flexibility of PDMS, which provides membrane fluidities similar to phospholipid bilayers, is the key-factor for MP incorporation.

  13. A new method for permeability measurement of hydrophobic membranes in Vacuum Membrane Distillation process.

    PubMed

    Dao, T D; Mericq, J-P; Laborie, S; Cabassud, C

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, a new method for permeability measurement of hydrophobic membranes used in Vacuum Membrane Distillation, instead of common measurement methods, was proposed. As VMD is a pressure and temperature driven process, the idea of this work is to propose a new water vapour permeability measurement method based on variation of feed temperature at a fixed vacuum pressure. This new method showed a greater stability and simplicity than the existing pressure variation method by not only allowing a wide range of feed temperature (25 °C ÷ 60 °C) to be scanned continuously, but also avoiding fluctuations of the system as observed in the pressure variation test. Permeabilities of two different kinds of hydrophobic membranes were measured by this new method and also by the existing pressure variation test. A comparison between these two methods was also presented to assess the feasibility and applicability of this new method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of hydrophobic PVDF hollow fiber membranes for desalination through membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Qu, Dan; Luan, Zhaokun; Zhao, Changwei; Ren, Xiaojing

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hydrophobic asymmetric hollow fiber membranes was studied by introducing inorganic salt LiCl and water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1500, using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) as solvent and tap water as the coagulation medium. The membranes properties also were tested and characterized. It is found that the non-solvent additive can increase membranes porosity, ether LiCl or PEG 1500. Because of the addition of PEG 1500, the PVDF membranes obtained a rough topography on the membrane surface and the contact angle of the PVDF membranes increased to 113.50 degrees compared to 89.82 degrees of the PVDF membranes spun without an additive. During direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) of 0.6 M sodium chloride solution, the PVDF membranes spun with PEG 1500 as a non-solvent additive achieved higher water permeation flux compared to the membranes spun from PVDF/DMAc and PVDF/DMAC/LiCl dopes, but the latter two membranes exhibited higher salt rejection rate.

  15. Membrane solubilization by a hydrophobic polyelectrolyte: surface activity and membrane binding.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J L; Barton, S W; Tirrell, D A

    1994-01-01

    We have previously observed that the hydrophobic polyelectrolyte poly(2-ethylacrylic acid) solubilizes lipid membranes in a pH-dependent manner, and we have exploited this phenomenon to prepare lipid vesicles that release their contents in response to pH, light, or glucose (Thomas, J. L., and D. A. Tirrell. Acc. Chem. Res. 25:336-342, 1992). The physical basis for the interaction between poly(2-ethylacrylic acid) and lipid membranes has been explored using surface tensiometry and fluorimetry. Varying the polymer concentration results in changes in surface activity and membrane binding that correlate with shifts in the critical pH for membrane solubilization. Furthermore, the binding affinity is reduced as the amount of bound polymer increases. These results are consistent with a hydrophobically driven micellization process, similar to those observed with apolipoproteins, melittin, and other amphiphilic alpha-helix-based polypeptides. The absence of specific secondary structure in the synthetic polymer suggests that amphiphilicity, rather than structure, is the most important factor in membrane micellization by macromolecules. PMID:7811920

  16. Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography for bioseparation and responsive polymer ligands involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingling; Peng, Rong; Chen, Xiaonong

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is a rapid growing bioseparation technique, which separates biomolecules, such as therapeutic proteins and antibodys, based on the reversible hydrophobic interaction between immobilized hydrophobic ligands on chromatographic resin spheres and non-polar regions of solute molecule. In this review, the fundamental concepts of HIC and the factors that may affect purification efficiency of HIC is summarized, followed by the comparison of HIC with affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC) combines the advantages of HIC and membrane process and has showed great potential in bioseparation. For better understanding of HIMC, this review presents an overview of two main concerns about HIMC, i.e. membrane materials and hydrophobic ligands. Specifically, cellulose fiber-based membrane substrate and environment-responsive ligands are emphasized.

  17. Oxygen-Permeable, Hydrophobic Membranes of Silanized alpha-Al2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Membranes made of silanized alumina have been prepared and tested as prototypes of derivatized ceramic membranes that are both highly permeable to oxygen and hydrophobic. Improved oxygen-permeable, hydrophobic membranes would be attractive for use in several technological disciplines, including supporting high-temperature aqueousphase oxidation in industrial production of chemicals, oxygenation of aqueous streams for bioreactors, and oxygenation of blood during open-heart surgery and in cases of extreme pulmonary dysfunction. In comparison with organic polymeric oxygen-permeable membranes now commercially available, the derivatized ceramic membranes are more chemically robust, are capable of withstanding higher temperatures, and exhibit higher oxygen-diffusion coefficients.

  18. Study on structure and hydrophobicity of PP/EVA co-blending membrane: Quenching rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Na; Li, Zhao; Hua, Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) co-blending hydrophobic microporous membranes for vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) were prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS). In the process of preparation, quenching rate has a great influence on the membrane morphology.

  19. Effect of membranes with various hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties on lipase immobilized activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Jie; Kuo, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chih-I; Yu, Chung-Cheng; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2012-02-01

    In this study, three membranes: regenerated cellulose (RC), glass fiber (GF) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), were grafted with 1,4-diaminobutane (DA) and activated with glutaraldehyde (GA) for lipase covalent immobilization. The efficiencies of lipases immobilized on these membranes with different hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties were compared. The lipase immobilized on hydrophobic PVDF-DA-GA membrane exhibited more than an 11-fold increase in activity compared to its immobilization on a hydrophilic RC-DA-GA membrane. The relationship between surface hydrophobicity and immobilized efficiencies was investigated using hydrophobic/hydrophilic GF membranes which were prepared by grafting a different ratio of n-butylamine/1,4-diaminobutane (BA/DA). The immobilized lipase activity on the GF membrane increased with the increased BA/DA ratio. This means that lipase activity was exhibited more on the hydrophobic surface. Moreover, the modified PVDF-DA membrane was grafted with GA, epichlorohydrin (EPI) and cyanuric chloride (CC), respectively. The lipase immobilized on the PVDF-DA-EPI membrane displayed the highest specific activity compared to other membranes. This immobilized lipase exhibited more significant stability on pH, thermal, reuse, and storage than did the free enzyme. The results exhibited that the EPI modified PVDF is a promising support for lipase immobilization. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrophobic Light-to-Heat Conversion Membranes with Self-Healing Ability for Interfacial Solar Heating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianbin; Tang, Bo; Wu, Jinbo; Li, Renyuan; Wang, Peng

    2015-09-02

    Self-healing hydrophobic light-to-heat conversion membranes for interfacial solar heating are fabricated by deposition of light-to-heat conversion material of polypyrrole onto a porous stainless-steel mesh, followed by hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane modification. The mesh-based membranes spontaneously stay at the water-air interface, collect and convert solar light into heat, and locally heat only the water surface for enhanced evaporation.

  1. Interfacial polymerization on hydrophobic PVDF UF membranes surface: Membrane wetting through pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju Sung; Lee, Hyun Ho; Seo, Jin Ah; Park, Hyun Sic; Park, Jinwon; Min, Byoung Ryul

    2015-11-01

    PVDF is widely used in water treatment membranes because of it high chemical resistance and thermal stability levels, and desirable mechanical properties. On the other hand, it is seldom used as support membrane for RO membranes, as it is difficult to undertake interfacial polymerization by traditional methods due to characteristic of hydrophobic surface. However, if the MPD solution is applied at pressures which exceed the pressure at which the PVDF membrane pushes water away, then it can be wetted within the membrane and PA/PVDF composite membrane can be prepared through the reaction of the wetted MPD and TMC. The theoretical penetration pressure needed to wet MPD solution in PVDF with pore size of 10 nm, calculated using Jurin's Law, is 8.8 bar. In this study, PVDF membrane was immersed in MPD solution for 4 h at pressures higher than theoretical penetration pressure using N2 gas at 25 °C. Interfacial polymerization with TMC was undertaken with surface of the PVDF membrane wetted in MPD solution in this manner to form a thin but consistent PA layer, which was verified through FT-IR and SEM. Salt rejection and permeation flux measurements for NaCl 5000 ppm was conducted for the PA/PVDF membranes prepared in this manner at 25 °C, 30 bar using cross-flow water permeation system. PA/PVDF composite membrane wetted with MPD solution and interfacial polymerization undertaken at 10, 16 and 20 bar with N2 gas displayed salt rejection ratio of 37.94, 41.79 and 51.03%, and permeation flux of 7.38, 5.26 and 7.94LMH, respectively. The salt rejection ratio for membrane wetted with MPD at 16 bar with CO2 gas displayed salt rejection ratio of 78.26% and permeation flux of 4.91LMH. The results confirmed the possibility of using PVDF UF membrane of superior properties as support membrane for NF and RO.

  2. Polymeric nanopore membranes for hydrophobicity-based separations by conformal initiated chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Asatekin, Ayse; Gleason, Karen K

    2011-02-09

    High-aspect ratio hydrophobic, cylindrical nanopores having diameters as low as 5 nm are rapidly fabricated using conformal vapor deposition of fluorinated polymeric layers into porous track-etched polycarbonate membranes. The resultant selectivity of these membranes for pairs of small molecules of similar size, but of different hydrophobicity, arises from solute-pore wall interactions emphasized by confinement. Increasing selectivity was observed as pore diameter decreased and as the surface of the pore became more hydrophobic. Cylindrical pores provided higher selectivity than bottleneck-shaped pores having the same minimum diameter. A maximum selectivity of 234 was achieved between mesitylene and phloroglucinol by the best performing membrane. Membranes with small fluorinated pores exhibited an effective cutoff based on the polar surface area of the molecules, with limited correlation with solute size. This technology could lead to a new generation of membrane separations based on specific interactions.

  3. Organic solvent extraction as a versatile procedure to identify hydrophobic chloroplast membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Ferro, M; Seigneurin-Berny, D; Rolland, N; Chapel, A; Salvi, D; Garin, J; Joyard, J

    2000-10-01

    As a complementary approach to genome projects, proteomic analyses have been set up to identify new gene products. One of the major challenges in proteomics concerns membrane proteins, especially the minor ones. A procedure based on the differential extraction of membrane proteins in chloroform/methanol mixtures, was tested on the two different chloroplast membrane systems: envolope and thylakoid membranes. Combining the use of classical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and mass spectrometry analyses, this procedure enabled identification of hydrophobic proteins. The propensity of hydrophobic proteins to partition in chloroform/methanol mixtures was directly correlated with the number of amino acid residues/number of putative transmembrane regions (Res/TM ratio). Regardless of the particular case of some lipid-interacting proteins, chloroform/methanol extractions allowed enrichment of hydrophobic proteins and exclusion of hydrophilic proteins from both membrane systems, thus demonstrating the versatility of the procedure.

  4. Sticking polydisperse hydrophobic magnetite nanoparticles to lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Michael; Degen, Patrick; Brenner, Thorsten; Tiemeyer, Sebastian; Struth, Bernd; Tolan, Metin; Rehage, Heinz

    2010-10-19

    The formation of a layer of hydrophobic magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles stabilized by lauric acid is analyzed by in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements. The data analysis shows that the nanoparticles partially disperse their hydrophobic coating. Consequently, a Langmuir layer was formed by lauric acid molecules that can be compressed into an untilted condensed phase. A majority of the nanoparticles are attached to the Langmuir film integrating lauric acid residue on their surface into the Langmuir film. Hence, the particles at the liquid-gas interface can be identified as so-called Janus beads, which are amphiphilic solids having two sides with different functionality.

  5. Engineering Hydrophobic Organosilica Nanoparticle-Doped Nanofibers for Enhanced and Fouling Resistant Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Mohammed Amen; Croissant, Jonas G; Francis, Lijo; Alsaiari, Shahad K; Anjum, Dalaver H; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Khashab, Niveen M

    2017-01-18

    Engineering and scaling-up new materials for better water desalination are imperative to find alternative fresh water sources to meet future demands. Herein, the fabrication of hydrophobic poly(ether imide) composite nanofiber membranes doped with novel ethylene-pentafluorophenylene-based periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles is reported for enhanced and fouling resistant membrane distillation. Novel organosilica nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into electrospun nanofiber membranes depicting a proportional increase of hydrophobicity to the particle contents. Direct contact membrane distillation experiments on the organosilica-doped membrane with only 5% doping showed an increase of flux of 140% compared to commercial membranes. The high porosity of organosilica nanoparticles was further utilized to load the eugenol antimicrobial agent which produced a dramatic enhancement of the antibiofouling properties of the membrane of 70% after 24 h.

  6. Hydrophobic forces drive spontaneous membrane insertion of the bacteriophage Pf3 coat protein without topological control.

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, D; Kuhn, A

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial integral inner membrane proteins are either translocated across the lipid bilayer using an energy-driven enzyme, such as the Sec translocase, or they might interact directly with the membrane due to hydrophobic forces. We report that the single-spanning Pf3 coat protein is spontaneously inserted into the membrane of Escherichia coli and requires the electrical component of the membrane potential (DeltaPsi) to translocate its N-terminal region. This results in a final N(out)C(in) orientation of the protein in the cytoplasmic membrane, due the potential-driven translocation of the aspartyl residue at position 18 in the hydrophilic N-terminal tail. Uncharged protein tails are only translocated when the hydrophobic transmembrane region of the protein has been extended. An extended transmembrane anchor allows membrane insertion in the absence of an electrochemical membrane potential, but also causes the loss of a strict determination of the topology. PMID:10562542

  7. How hydrophobic nanoparticles aggregate in the interior of membranes: A computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Falin; Zhang, Xianren; Dong, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-based dispersion of hydrophobic nanoparticles (NPs) not only gives fundamental insight into how nanomaterials distribute in live cells and organisms, but also provides a quite general route to designing nanocarrier agents in triggered drug delivery and medical imaging. It is not clearly understood how hydrophobic NPs arrange in the interior of a membrane. In this paper, with computer simulation techniques, we demonstrate that hydrophobic NPs having a diameter compared to the hydrophobic thickness of the membrane are capable of clustering in the hydrophobic interior of a cell membrane. Except from the isotropic aggregation, an unexpected linear arrangement of spherical NPs, which is still not found from experiments, is identified here. The free-energy costs associated with linear and isotropic aggregations are computed explicitly to interpret aggregation behavior and the obtained phase diagrams give us a comprehensive understanding of where linear aggregation is expected. In this work we also shows that NP size and membrane tension play key roles in determining the NP aggregate, while the effects of NP concentration and membrane curvature seem to be relatively weak.

  8. Peptide environment specifies conformation. Helicity of hydrophobic segments compared in aqueous, organic, and membrane environments.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Deber, C M

    1993-11-05

    Transmembrane segments in integral membrane proteins exist characteristically as helices in lipid bilayers, yet are often rich in residues considered helix-destabilizing (Val, Ile, Gly) in soluble proteins. We propose that helicity of a transmembrane segment is likely to be affected by factors other than the "intrinsic" helical propensities of its component amino acids. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the conformation(s) in aqueous, organic, membrane-mimetic (micellar), and membrane (bilayer) environments of designed model peptides with systematically altered helical propensity and/or segmental hydrophobicity. Peptides of prototypic sequence NH2-(Ser-Lys)2-Ala5-Leu6-Ala7-Ala8-Leu9-Ala10-++ +Trp11-Ala12-Leu13-Ala14- (Lys-Ser)3-OH were synthesized, which incorporate a hydrophobic core "guest" segment (residues 5-14) into a water-soluble hydrophilic host matrix. Related peptides featured substitution of Leu6,9,13-->Gly, Leu6,9,13-->Ala, and Ala7,10,14-->Gly. Circular dichroism spectra revealed that algorithms for soluble proteins correctly predicted peptide helical proclivities in aqueous solutions, but peptide helicity in organic (trifluoroethanol) solvents, membrane-mimetic SDS micelles, and negatively charged lipid bilayer vesicles, was found to be governed almost exclusively by the segmental hydrophobicity of the peptide mid-hydrophobic core segment. In related Trp fluorescence studies, peptide-membrane association was similarly correlated with extent of hydrophobic interaction.

  9. How hydrophobic nanoparticles aggregate in the interior of membranes: A computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Falin; Zhang, Xianren; Dong, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-based dispersion of hydrophobic nanoparticles (NPs) not only gives fundamental insight into how nanomaterials distribute in live cells and organisms, but also provides a quite general route to designing nanocarrier agents in triggered drug delivery and medical imaging. It is not clearly understood how hydrophobic NPs arrange in the interior of a membrane. In this paper, with computer simulation techniques, we demonstrate that hydrophobic NPs having a diameter compared to the hydrophobic thickness of the membrane are capable of clustering in the hydrophobic interior of a cell membrane. Except from the isotropic aggregation, an unexpected linear arrangement of spherical NPs, which is still not found from experiments, is identified here. The free-energy costs associated with linear and isotropic aggregations are computed explicitly to interpret aggregation behavior and the obtained phase diagrams give us a comprehensive understanding of where linear aggregation is expected. In this work we also shows that NP size and membrane tension play key roles in determining the NP aggregate, while the effects of NP concentration and membrane curvature seem to be relatively weak.

  10. Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside a hydrophobic membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Steffen; Gerwert, Klaus; Freier, Erik; Cui, Qiang

    2014-12-14

    Proton conduction along protein-bound “water wires” is an essential feature in membrane proteins. Here, we analyze in detail a transient water wire, which conducts protons via a hydrophobic barrier within a membrane protein to create a proton gradient. It is formed only for a millisecond out of three water molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement into a hydrophobic environment causes characteristic shifts of the water bands reflecting their different chemical properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference spectroscopy and analyzed by biomolecular Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical simulations. A non-hydrogen bonded (“dangling”) O–H stretching vibration band and a broad continuum absorbance caused by a combined vibration along the water wire are identified as characteristic marker bands of such water wires in a hydrophobic environment. The results provide a basic understanding of water wires in hydrophobic environments.

  11. Paper-PEG-based membranes for hydrophobic interaction chromatography: purification of monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deqiang; Chen, Xiaonong; Pelton, Robert; Ghosh, Raja

    2008-04-15

    This article discusses the preparation of novel Paper-PEG interpenetrating polymer network-based membranes as inexpensive alternative to currently available adsorptive membranes. The Paper-PEG membranes were developed for carrying out hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC). PEG is normally very hydrophilic but can undergo phase separation and become hydrophobic in the presence of high antichaotropic salt concentrations. Two variants of the Paper-PEG membranes, Paper-PEG 1 and Paper-PEG 2 were prepared by grafting different amounts of the polymer on filter paper and these were tested for their hydraulic properties and antibody binding capacity. The better of the two membranes (Paper-PEG 1) was then used for purifying the monoclonal antibody hIgG1-CD4 from simulated mammalian cell culture supernatant. The processing conditions required for purification were systematically optimized. The dynamic antibody binding capacity of the Paper-PEG 1 membrane was about 9 mg/mL of bed volume. A single step membrane chromatographic process using Paper-PEG 1 membrane gave high monoclonal antibody purity and recovery. The hydraulic permeability of the paper-based membrane was high and was maintained even after many runs, indicating that membrane fouling was negligible and the membrane was largely incompressible.

  12. Super-hydrophobic surfaces of layer-by-layer structured film-coated electrospun nanofibrous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tasuku; Ding, Bin; Sone, Yuji; Shiratori, Seimei

    2007-04-01

    We have recently fabricated super-hydrophobic membrane surfaces based on the inspiration of self-cleaning silver ragwort leaves. This biomimetic super-hydrophobic surface was composed of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS)-modified layer-by-layer (LBL) structured film-coated electrospun nanofibrous membranes. The rough fibre surface caused by the electrostatic LBL coating of TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was used to imitate the rough surface of nanosized grooves along the silver ragwort leaf fibre axis. The results showed that the FAS modification was the key process for increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the fibrous membranes. Additionally, the dependence of the hydrophobicity of the membrane surfaces upon the number of LBL coating bilayers was affected by the membrane surface roughness. Moreover, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results further indicated that the surface of LBL film-coated fibres absorbed more fluoro groups than the fibre surface without the LBL coating. A (TiO2/PAA)10 film-coated cellulose acetate nanofibrous membrane with FAS surface modification showed the highest water contact angle of 162° and lowest water-roll angle of 2°.

  13. Temporal changes in extracellular polymeric substances on hydrophobic and hydrophilic membrane surfaces in a submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Matar, Gerald; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2016-05-15

    Membrane surface hydrophilic modification has always been considered to mitigating biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Four hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membranes (pore sizes ∼0.1 μm) differing only in hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface characteristics were operated at a permeate flux of 10 L/m(2) h in the same lab-scale MBR fed with synthetic wastewater. In addition, identical membrane modules without permeate production (0 L/m(2) h) were operated in the same lab-scale MBR. Membrane modules were autopsied after 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of MBR operation, and total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) accumulated on the membranes were extracted and characterized in detail using several analytical tools, including conventional colorimetric tests (Lowry and Dubois), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), fluorescence excitation - emission matrices (FEEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The transmembrane pressure (TMP) quickly stabilized with higher values for the hydrophobic membranes than hydrophilic ones. The sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) membrane had the highest negatively charged membrane surface, accumulated the least amount of foulants and displayed the lowest TMP. The same type of organic foulants developed with time on the four membranes and the composition of biopolymers shifted from protein dominance at early stages of filtration (day 1) towards polysaccharides dominance during later stages of MBR filtration. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of LC-OCD data showed that biofilm samples clustered according to the sampling event (time) regardless of the membrane surface chemistry (hydrophobic or hydrophilic) or operating mode (with or without permeate flux). These results suggest that EPS composition may not be the dominant parameter for evaluating membrane performance and possibly other parameters such as biofilm thickness, porosity, compactness and structure should be

  14. Visualizing and quantifying the nanoscale hydrophobicity and chemical distribution of surface modified polyethersulfone (PES) membranes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wanyi; Carbrello, Christina; Wu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-06

    Chemical modifications bring unique properties into polymeric membranes that may have enhanced filtration or separation efficiencies, antifouling, antimicrobial activity and selectivity. However, there is a lack of nanoscale characterization of the chemical additive distribution and the impacts of chemical modifiers or additives on membrane surface properties, especially those at the nanoscale. In this study, a series of industrially relevant polyethersulfone (PES) membranes modified with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were analysed systematically. Particularly, hydrophobicity and chemical distribution were scrutinized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM coupled with infrared analysis capability (AFM-IR) for the first time that successfully resolved nanoscale structural and chemical properties of the chemically modified PES membranes. Our results indicated the heterogeneous spatial distribution of PVP and PEG based on their characteristic IR bands and the resulting hydrophobicity distribution on modified membrane surfaces at the nanoscale. Particularly, we established a linear correlation (R(2) = 0.9449) between the measured adhesion force and water contact angles, which enabled the examination of local surface hydrophobicity. The PES membranes became more hydrophilic with the increasing blend of PVP and PEG. With AFM-IR, trace amounts (1-4%) of PVP could be identified sensitively on PES membranes based on their unique characteristic IR bands, which were not achieved by FTIR or IR mapping. Overall, these novel characterization approaches hold paramount importance for the design and quality control of polymer membrane modification and manufacturing.

  15. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities.

    PubMed

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M; Marquez, Victor E; Jelinek, Raz

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a 'molecular rod', namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Use of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques revealed that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of the PKC translocation from the cytosol to membranes that is induced by the molecular-rod DAG lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side residues of DAG lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions, and thus may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands.

  16. Engineering of the E. coli outer membrane protein FhuA to overcome the hydrophobic mismatch in thick polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Noor; Dworeck, Tamara; Fioroni, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2011-03-17

    Channel proteins like the engineered FhuA Δ1-159 often cannot insert into thick polymeric membranes due to a mismatch between the hydrophobic surface of the protein and the hydrophobic surface of the polymer membrane. To address this problem usually specific block copolymers are synthesized to facilitate protein insertion. Within this study in a reverse approach we match the protein to the polymer instead of matching the polymer to the protein. To increase the FhuA Δ1-159 hydrophobic surface by 1 nm, the last 5 amino acids of each of the 22 β-sheets, prior to the more regular periplasmatic β-turns, were doubled leading to an extended FhuA Δ1-159 (FhuA Δ1-159 Ext). The secondary structure prediction and CD spectroscopy indicate the β-barrel folding of FhuA Δ1-159 Ext. The FhuA Δ1-159 Ext insertion and functionality within a nanocontainer polymeric membrane based on the triblock copolymer PIB(1000)-PEG(6000)-PIB(1000) (PIB = polyisobutylene, PEG = polyethyleneglycol) has been proven by kinetic analysis using the HRP-TMB assay (HRP = Horse Radish Peroxidase, TMB = 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine). Identical experiments with the unmodified FhuA Δ1-159 report no kinetics and presumably no insertion into the PIB(1000)-PEG(6000)-PIB(1000) membrane. Furthermore labeling of the Lys-NH(2) groups present in the FhuA Δ1-159 Ext channel, leads to controllability of in/out flux of substrates and products from the nanocontainer. Using a simple "semi rational" approach the protein's hydrophobic transmembrane region was increased by 1 nm, leading to a predicted lower hydrophobic mismatch between the protein and polymer membrane, minimizing the insertion energy penalty. The strategy of adding amino acids to the FhuA Δ1-159 Ext hydrophobic part can be further expanded to increase the protein's hydrophobicity, promoting the efficient embedding into thicker/more hydrophobic block copolymer membranes.

  17. Improvement of hydrophobic integral membrane protein identification by mild performic acid oxidation-assisted digestion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Liu, Yisong; Chen, Ping; Lv, Rong; Song, Qin; Sheng, Tingting; He, Quanyuan; Wang, Yin; Wang, Xianchun; Liang, Songping

    2010-12-15

    Integral membrane proteins (IMPs) are critical for the maintenance of biological systems and represent important targets for the treatment of disease. The hydrophobicity and low abundance of IMPs make them difficult to analyze. In proteomic analyses, hydrophobic peptides including transmembrane domains are often underrepresented, and this reduces the sequence coverage and reliability of the identified IMPs. Here we report a new strategy, mild performic acid oxidation treatment (mPAOT), for improvement of IMP identification. In the mPAOT strategy, the hydrophobicity of IMPs is significantly decreased by oxidizing their methionine and cysteine residues with performic acid, thereby improving the solubility and enzymolysis of these proteins. The application of the mPAOT strategy to the analysis of IMPs from human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cell line demonstrated that many IMPs, including those with high hydrophobicity, could be reliably identified.

  18. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology

    PubMed Central

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is −6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il). PMID:27562165

  19. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology.

    PubMed

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-09-13

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is -6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il).

  20. Roles of Hydrophobicity and Charge Distribution of Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides in Peptide-Membrane Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lois M.; Edwards, Michelle A.; Li, Jessica; Yip, Christopher M.; Deber, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) occur as important innate immunity agents in many organisms, including humans, and offer a viable alternative to conventional antibiotics, as they physically disrupt the bacterial membranes, leading to membrane lysis and eventually cell death. In this work, we studied the biophysical and microbiological characteristics of designed CAPs varying in hydrophobicity levels and charge distributions by a variety of biophysical and biochemical approaches, including in-tandem atomic force microscopy, attenuated total reflection-FTIR, CD spectroscopy, and SDS-PAGE. Peptide structural properties were correlated with their membrane-disruptive abilities and antimicrobial activities. In bacterial lipid model membranes, a time-dependent increase in aggregated β-strand-type structure in CAPs with relatively high hydrophobicity (such as KKKKKKALFALWLAFLA-NH2) was essentially absent in CAPs with lower hydrophobicity (such as KKKKKKAAFAAWAAFAA-NH2). Redistribution of positive charges by placing three Lys residues at both termini while maintaining identical sequences minimized self-aggregation above the dimer level. Peptides containing four Leu residues were destructive to mammalian model membranes, whereas those with corresponding Ala residues were not. This finding was mirrored in hemolysis studies in human erythrocytes, where Ala-only peptides displayed virtually no hemolysis up to 320 μm, but the four-Leu peptides induced 40–80% hemolysis at the same concentration range. All peptides studied displayed strong antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4–32 μm). The overall findings suggest optimum routes to balancing peptide hydrophobicity and charge distribution that allow efficient penetration and disruption of the bacterial membranes without damage to mammalian (host) membranes. PMID:22253439

  1. Hydrophobic asymmetric ultrafiltration PVDF membranes: an alternative separator for VFB with excellent stability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenping; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongzhang; Li, Yun; Vankelecom, Ivo

    2013-02-14

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes were investigated for the first time in vanadium redox flow battery (VFB) applications. Surprisingly, PVDF ultrafiltration membranes with hydrophobic pore walls and relatively large pore sizes of several tens of nanometers proved able to separate vanadium ions and protons efficiently, thus being suitable as a VFB separator. The ion selectivity of this new type of VFB membrane could be tuned readily by controlling the membrane morphology via changes in the composition of the membrane casting solution, and the casting thickness. The results showed that the PVDF membranes offered good performances and excellent stability in VFB applications, where it could, performance-wise, truly substitute Nafion in VFB applications, but at a much lower cost.

  2. Purification of plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli ferments using anion-exchange membrane and hydrophobic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Germán, Patricia; Montesinos-Cisneros, Rosa Ma; Prazeres, D Miguel F; Tejeda-Mansir, Armando

    2011-01-01

    A novel downstream bioprocess was developed to obtain purified plasmid DNA (pDNA) from Escherichia coli ferments. The intermediate recovery and purification of the pDNA in cell lysate was conducted using hollow-fiber tangential filtration and frontal anion-exchange membrane and elution hydrophobic chromatographies. The purity of the solutions of pDNA obtained during each process stage was investigated. The results show that the pDNA solution purity increased 30-fold and more than 99% of RNA in the lysate was removed during the process operations. The combination of membrane operations and hydrophobic interaction chromatography resulted in an efficient way to recover pDNA from cell lysates. A better understanding of membrane-based technology for the purification of pDNA from clarified E. coli lysate was developed in this research.

  3. Lateral diffusion of membrane proteins: consequences of hydrophobic mismatch and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Ramadurai, Sivaramakrishnan; Duurkens, Ria; Krasnikov, Victor V; Poolman, Bert

    2010-09-08

    Biological membranes are composed of a large number lipid species differing in hydrophobic length, degree of saturation, and charge and size of the headgroup. We now present data on the effect of hydrocarbon chain length of the lipids and headgroup composition on the lateral mobility of the proteins in model membranes. The trimeric glutamate transporter (GltT) and the monomeric lactose transporter (LacY) were reconstituted in giant unilamellar vesicles composed of unsaturated phosphocholine lipids of varying acyl chain length (14-22 carbon atoms) and various ratios of DOPE/DOPG/DOPC lipids. The lateral mobility of the proteins and of a fluorescent lipid analog was determined as a function of the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer (h) and lipid composition, using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient of LacY decreased with increasing thickness of the bilayer, in accordance with the continuum hydrodynamic model of Saffman-Delbrück. For GltT, the mobility had its maximum at diC18:1 PC, which is close to the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer in vivo. The lateral mobility decreased linearly with the concentration of DOPE but was not affected by the fraction of anionic lipids from DOPG. The addition of DOPG and DOPE did not affect the activity of GltT. We conclude that the hydrophobic thickness of the bilayer is a major determinant of molecule diffusion in membranes, but protein-specific properties may lead to deviations from the Saffman-Delbrück model.

  4. How To Functionalize Ceramics by Perfluoroalkylsilanes for Membrane Separation Process? Properties and Application of Hydrophobized Ceramic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Joanna; Cerneaux, Sophie; Kujawski, Wojciech; Bryjak, Marek; Kujawski, Jan

    2016-03-23

    The combination of microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and goniometric (static and dynamic measurements) techniques, and surface characterization (surface free energy determination, critical surface tension, liquid entry pressure, hydraulic permeability) was implemented to discuss the influence of perfluoroalkylsilanes structure and grafting time on the physicochemistry of the created hydrophobic surfaces on the titania ceramic membranes of 5 kD and 300 kD. The impact of molecular structure of perfluoroalkylsilanes modifiers (possessing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms in the fluorinated part of the alkyl chain) and the time of the functionalization process in the range of 5 to 35 h was studied. Based on the scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, it was found that the localization of grafting molecules depends on the membrane pore size (5 kD or 300 kD). In the case of 5 kD titania membranes, modifiers are attached mainly on the surface and only partially inside the membrane pores, whereas, for 300 kD membranes, the perfluoroalkylsilanes molecules are present within the whole porous structure of the membranes. The application of 4 various types of PFAS molecules enabled for interesting observations and remarks. It was explained how to obtain ceramic membrane surfaces with controlled material (contact angle, roughness, contact angle hysteresis) and separation properties. Highly hydrophobic surfaces with low values of contact angle hysteresis and low roughness were obtained. These surfaces possessed also low values of critical surface tension, which means that surfaces are highly resistant to wetting. This finding is crucial in membrane applicability in separation processes. The obtained and characterized hydrophobic membranes were subsequently applied in air-gap membrane distillation processes. All membranes were very efficient in MD processes, showing good transport and selective properties (∼99% of Na

  5. Achieving enhanced hydrophobicity of graphene membranes by covalent modification with polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei-Wei; Li, Hang; Shi, Ling-Ying; Diao, Yong-Fu; Zhang, Yu-Lin; Ran, Rong; Ni, Wei

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the graphene oxide was covalently modified by amino terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through amidation reaction. And the membranes of the graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and PDMS-covalently modified graphene were prepared respectively by a vacuum filtration method, and the wettability of these membranes were investigated. Infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry analysis combined with dispersion ability indicated that PDMS chains were successfully grafted on the surface of graphene oxide sheets. The morphology of the prepared membranes had smooth surface and well-stacked structure in the cross-section indicated by the scanning electron microscope and EDS-mapping. The contact angle measurements indicated that the PDMS-modified graphene membrane with water contact angle 129.5° showed increased hydrophobicity compared with GO and RGO membranes.

  6. Membrane anchoring of diacylglycerol-lactones substituted with rigid hydrophobic acyl domains correlates with biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Raifman, Or; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Comin, Maria J.; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Jelinek, Raz

    2009-01-01

    Summary Synthetic diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) are effective modulators of critical cellular signaling pathways, downstream of the lipophilic second messenger diacylglycerol, that activate a host of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes as well as other non-kinase proteins that share with PKC similar C1 membrane-targeting domains. A fundamental determinant of the biological activity of these amphiphilic molecules is the nature of their interactions with cellular membranes. This study characterizes the membrane interactions and bilayer anchoring of a series of DAG-lactones in which the hydrophobic moiety is a “molecular rod”, namely a rigid 4-[2-(R-phenyl)ethynyl]benzoate moiety in the acyl position. Application of assays employing chromatic biomimetic vesicles and biophysical techniques reveals that the mode of membrane anchoring of the DAG-lactone derivatives was markedly affected by the presence of the hydrophobic diphenyl rod and by the size of the functional unit displayed at the terminus of the rod. Two primary mechanisms of interaction were observed: surface binding of the DAG-lactones at the lipid/water interface and deep insertion of the ligands into the alkyl core of the lipid bilayer. These membrane-insertion properties could explain the different patterns of PKC translocation from cytosol to membranes induced by the molecular-rod DAG-lactones. This investigation emphasizes that the side-residues of DAG-lactones, rather than simply conferring hydrophobicity, profoundly influence membrane interactions and in that fashion may further contribute to the diversity of biological actions of these synthetic biomimetic ligands. PMID:19961537

  7. The role of hydrophobic interactions in positioning of peripheral proteins in membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lomize, Andrei L; Pogozheva, Irina D; Lomize, Mikhail A; Mosberg, Henry I

    2007-01-01

    Background Three-dimensional (3D) structures of numerous peripheral membrane proteins have been determined. Biological activity, stability, and conformations of these proteins depend on their spatial positions with respect to the lipid bilayer. However, these positions are usually undetermined. Results We report the first large-scale computational study of monotopic/peripheral proteins with known 3D structures. The optimal translational and rotational positions of 476 proteins are determined by minimizing energy of protein transfer from water to the lipid bilayer, which is approximated by a hydrocarbon slab with a decadiene-like polarity and interfacial regions characterized by water-permeation profiles. Predicted membrane-binding sites, protein tilt angles and membrane penetration depths are consistent with spin-labeling, chemical modification, fluorescence, NMR, mutagenesis, and other experimental studies of 53 peripheral proteins and peptides. Experimental membrane binding affinities of peripheral proteins were reproduced in cases that did not involve a helix-coil transition, specific binding of lipids, or a predominantly electrostatic association. Coordinates of all examined peripheral proteins and peptides with the calculated hydrophobic membrane boundaries, subcellular localization, topology, structural classification, and experimental references are available through the Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database. Conclusion Positions of diverse peripheral proteins and peptides in the lipid bilayer can be accurately predicted using their 3D structures that represent a proper membrane-bound conformation and oligomeric state, and have membrane binding elements present. The success of the implicit solvation model suggests that hydrophobic interactions are usually sufficient to determine the spatial position of a protein in the membrane, even when electrostatic interactions or specific binding of lipids are substantial. Our results demonstrate that

  8. A minimal hydrophobicity is needed to employ amphiphilic p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) random copolymers in membrane research.

    PubMed

    Stangl, Michael; Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Allmeroth, Mareli; Zentel, Rudolf; Schneider, Dirk

    2014-03-11

    Because a polymer environment might be milder than a detergent micelle, amphiphilic polymers have attracted attention as alternatives to detergents in membrane biochemistry. The polymer poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamid] [p(HPMA)] has recently been modified with hydrophobic lauryl methacrylate (LMA) moieties, resulting in the synthesis of amphiphilic p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) polymers. p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) polymers with a LMA content of 5 or 15% have unstable hydrophobic cores. This, on one hand, promotes interactions of the hydrophobic LMA moieties with membranes, resulting in membrane rupture, but at the same time prevents formation of a hydrophobic, membrane mimetic environment that is sufficiently stable for the incorporation of transmembrane proteins. On the other hand, the p(HPMA)-co-p(LMA) polymer with a LMA content of 25% forms a stable hydrophobic core structure, which prevents hydrophobic interactions with membrane lipids but allows stable incorporation of membrane proteins. On the basis of our data, it becomes obvious that amphiphilic polymers have to have threshold hydrophobicities should an application in membrane protein research be anticipated.

  9. Hydrophobic ion interactions with membranes. Thermodynamic analysis of tetraphenylphosphonium binding to vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Flewelling, R F; Hubbell, W L

    1986-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties for the interaction of the hydrophobic ion tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) with egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles were studied in detail by equilibrium dialysis and spin label techniques. A partition coefficient of beta = 4.2 + 0.4 x 10(-6) cm (K congruent to 100) was determined. Electrostatic saturation sets in at approximately 600 microM (about one absorbed TPP+ molecule per 100 lipids), and is not screened by salt. The temperature dependence of binding was determined, which reveals that the binding is entropy-driven with a positive (repulsive) enthalpy of binding, a result to be compared with hydrophobic anions in which the binding enthalpy is negative. The membrane dipole potential may be responsible for this binding difference. Activity coefficients are determined and shown to be significantly different from those of most common salts, an important result that should be considered in all hydrophobic ion studies. Comparison of the TPP+ results with those of its anionic structural analogue, tetraphenylboron (TPB-), permits a general analysis of hydrophobic ion interactions with membranes. A theoretical model consistent with the entire set of data is developed in an accompanying article. PMID:3006814

  10. Performance of hydrophobic interaction ligands for human membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase purification.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fátima Milhano; Pedro, Augusto Quaresma; Soares, Rui Filipe; Martins, Rita; Bonifácio, Maria João; Queiroz, João António; Passarinha, Luís António

    2013-06-01

    Despite of membrane catechol-O-methyltransferase (MBCOMT, EC 2.1.1.6) physiological importance on catecholamines' O-methylation, no studies allowed their total isolation. Therefore, for the first time, we compare the performance of three hydrophobic adsorbents (butyl-, epoxy-, and octyl-Sepharose) in purification of recombinant human COMT (hMBCOMT) from crude Brevibacillus choshinensis cell lysates to develop a sustainable chromatographic process. Hydrophobic matrices were evaluated in terms of selectivity and hMBCOMT's binding and elution conditions. Results show that hMBCOMT's adsorption was promoted on octyl and butyl at ≤375 mM NaH2 PO4, while on epoxy higher concentrations (>850 mM) were required. Additionally, hMBCOMT's elution was promoted on epoxy, butyl, and octyl using respectively 0.1-0.5, 0.25-1, and 1% of Triton X-100. On butyl media, a stepwise strategy using 375 and 0 mM NaH2PO4, followed by three elution steps at 0.25, 0.7 and 1% Triton X-100, allowed selective hMBCOMT isolation. In conclusion, significant amounts of MBCOMT were purified with high selectivity on a single chromatography procedure, despite its elution occurs on multiple peaks. Although successful applications of hydrophobic interaction chromatography in purification of membrane proteins are uncommon, we proved that traditional hydrophobic matrices can open a promising unexplored field to fulfill specific requirements for kinetic and pharmacological trials.

  11. Change of apocytochrome c translocation across membrane in consequence of hydrophobic segment deletion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Han, Xuehai; Jia, Songtao; Yang, Fuyu

    2002-04-01

    Wild-type apocytochrome c and its hydrophobic segment deleted mutants, named delta28-39, delta72-86 and delta28-29/72-86 were constructed, expressed and highly purified respectively. Insertion ability into phospholipid monolayer, inducing leakage of entrapped fluorescent dye fluorescein sulfonate (FS) from liposomes, and translocation across model membrane system showed that the wild-type apoprotein and delta28-39 almost exhibited the same characteristics, while mutants with segment 72-86 deletion did not. Furthermore, CD spectra, intrinsic fluorescence emission spectra, and the accessibility of the protein to the fluorescence quenchers: KI, acrylamide and HB demonstrated that the segment 72-86 deletion has a significant effect on the conformational changes of apocytochrome c following its interaction with phospholipid. On the basis of these results it is postulated that the C-terminal hydrophobic segment 72-86 plays an important role in the translocation of apocytochrome c across membrane.

  12. Theoretical analysis of hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated interactions in lipid bilayers containing gramicidin.

    PubMed Central

    Harroun, T A; Heller, W T; Weiss, T M; Yang, L; Huang, H W

    1999-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions exhibited by gramicidin embedded in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) bilayers (Harroun et al., 1999. Biophys. J. 76:937-945). Incorporating gramicidin, at 1:10 peptide/lipid molar ratio, decreases the phosphate-to-phosphate (PtP) peak separation in the DMPC bilayer from 35.3 A without gramicidin to 32.7 A. In contrast, the same molar ratio of gramicidin in DLPC increases the PtP from 30.8 A to 32.1 A. Concurrently, x-ray in-plane scattering showed that the most probable nearest-neighbor separation between gramicidin channels was 26.8 A in DLPC, but reduced to 23.3 A in DMPC. In this paper we review the idea of hydrophobic matching in which the lipid bilayer deforms to match the hydrophobic surface of the embedded proteins. We use a simple elasticity theory, including thickness compression, tension, and splay terms to describe the membrane deformation. The energy of membrane deformation is compared with the energy cost of hydrophobic mismatch. We discuss the boundary conditions between a gramicidin channel and the lipid bilayer. We used a numerical method to solve the problem of membrane deformation profile in the presence of a high density of gramicidin channels and ran computer simulations of 81 gramicidin channels to find the equilibrium distributions of the channels in the plane of the bilayer. The simulations contain four parameters: bilayer thickness compressibility 1/B, bilayer bending rigidity Kc, the channel-bilayer mismatch Do, and the slope of the interface at the lipid-protein boundary s. B, Kc, and Do were experimentally measured; the only free parameter is s. The value of s is determined by the requirement that the theory produces the experimental values of bilayer thinning by gramicidin and the shift in the peak position of the in-plane scattering due to membrane-mediated channel

  13. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin.

  14. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  15. A rapid method to assess the hydrophobicity of the intestinal microvillus membrane in vivo.

    PubMed

    Meddings, J B; Dietschy, J M

    1989-08-01

    Absorption rates for many biologically important compounds are determined by the relative hydrophobicity of the jejunal microvillus membrane. An estimate of this parameter may be obtained by measuring the incremental change in free energy that occurs when a methylene group partitions into the bilayer form an external aqueous solution. Although sensitive, this measurement has been difficult to quantitate in vivo; therefore, these studies have historically been performed in vitro. We describe a rapid, simple technique to measure this parameter in vivo. Furthermore, this method directly quantitates the resistance of aqueous unstirred layers that lie external to the microvillus membrane.

  16. Probabilistic aspects of polymorph selection by heterogeneous nucleation on microporous hydrophobic membrane surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curcio, Efrem; Di Profio, Gianluca; Drioli, Enrico

    2008-12-01

    In this work, probabilistic aspects related to the heterogeneous nucleation on microporous hydrophobic surfaces, i.e. polymeric membranes, have been theoretically investigated to understand the ability of this innovative crystallization technique to promote the formation of different polymorphs. The theoretical results, which clarify the effects of physicochemical properties of membranes (i.e. porosity, contact angle between supersaturated solution, and polymeric substrate) on the nucleation process of polymorphs, have been used to discuss the experimentally observed selective crystallization of forms I and II of paracetamol.

  17. Side Chain Hydrophobicity Modulates Therapeutic Activity and Membrane Selectivity of Antimicrobial Peptide Mastoparan-X

    PubMed Central

    Gjetting, Torben; Andresen, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of new anti-infective compounds is stagnating and multi-resistant bacteria continue to emerge, threatening to end the “antibiotic era”. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lipo-peptides such as daptomycin offer themselves as a new potential class of antibiotics; however, further optimization is needed if AMPs are to find broad use as antibiotics. In the present work, eight analogues of mastoparan-X (MPX) were investigated, having side chain modifications in position 1, 8 and 14 to modulate peptide hydrophobicity. The self-association properties of the peptides were characterized, and the peptide-membrane interactions in model membranes were compared with the bactericidal and haemolytic properties. Alanine substitution at position 1 and 14 resulted in higher target selectivity (red blood cells versus bacteria), but also decreased bactericidal potency. For these analogues, the gain in target selectivity correlated to biophysical parameters showing an increased effective charge and reduction in the partitioning coefficient for membrane insertion. Introduction of an unnatural amino acid, with an octyl side chain by amino acid substitution, at positions 1, 8 and 14 resulted in increased bactericidal potency at the expense of radically reduced membrane target selectivity. Overall, optimized membrane selectivity or bactericidal potency was achieved by changes in side chain hydrophobicity of MPX. However, enhanced potency was achieved at the expense of selectivity and vice versa in all cases. PMID:24621994

  18. Morphology and albumin secretion of adult rat hepatocytes cultured on a hydrophobic porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Yuminamochi, Eri; Yasuda, Ruri; Amano, Yoshifumi

    2003-01-01

    Primary culture of rat hepatocytes was performed on a hydrophobic porous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane incorporated into the base of a culture dish. Two types of ePTFE membranes, a uniaxially expanded type (ePTFE-1) and a biaxially expanded type (ePTFE-2), could be used as the culture surfaces for hepatocytes. The formation of multicellular aggregates was observed in the culture dish when each membrane type was used. A pore size of 1 mum or higher was adequate for cell adhesion and albumin secretion for both membrane types. The activity of albumin secretion in the dish with the ePTFE membrane was markedly higher than that in the polystyrene dish. Spheroidal multicellular aggregates (spheroids) were observed when hepatocytes were cultured on the ePTFE-1 membrane. The ePTFE-1 membrane maintained the albumin secretion activity for a longer period than the non-expanded PTFE film. It was assumed that the cooperative action of membrane structure and oxygen permeability promoted the formation of cell aggregates and increased the albumin secretion activity.

  19. Experimental evidence for hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated interactions in lipid bilayers containing gramicidin.

    PubMed Central

    Harroun, T A; Heller, W T; Weiss, T M; Yang, L; Huang, H W

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophobic matching, in which transmembrane proteins cause the surrounding lipid bilayer to adjust its hydrocarbon thickness to match the length of the hydrophobic surface of the protein, is a commonly accepted idea in membrane biophysics. To test this idea, gramicidin (gD) was embedded in 1, 2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) and 1, 2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers at the peptide/lipid molar ratio of 1:10. Circular dichroism (CD) was measured to ensure that the gramicidin was in the beta6.3 helix form. The bilayer thickness (the phosphate-to-phosphate distance, or PtP) was measured by x-ray lamellar diffraction. In the Lalpha phase near full hydration, PtP is 30.8 A for pure DLPC, 32.1 A for the DLPC/gD mixture, 35.3 A for pure DMPC, and 32.7 A for the DMPC/gD mixture. Gramicidin apparently stretches DLPC and thins DMPC toward a common thickness as expected by hydrophobic matching. Concurrently, gramicidin-gramicidin correlations were measured by x-ray in-plane scattering. In the fluid phase, the gramicidin-gramicidin nearest-neighbor separation is 26.8 A in DLPC, but shortens to 23.3 A in DMPC. These experiments confirm the conjecture that when proteins are embedded in a membrane, hydrophobic matching creates a strain field in the lipid bilayer that in turn gives rise to a membrane-mediated attractive potential between proteins. PMID:9929495

  20. Membrane penetration of Sendai virus glycoproteins during the early stages of fusion with liposomes as determined by hydrophobic photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, S.L.; Hoekstra, D.

    1988-10-01

    The hydrophobic photoaffinity label 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-(/sup 125/I)iodophenyl)diazirine was used to label Sendai virus proteins during fusion with cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine liposomes. Preferential labeling of the viral fusion protein during the initial stages of fusion demonstrated that this protein interacts with the hydrophobic core of the target membrane as an initiating event of virus-liposome fusion. Labeling showed time, temperature, and pH dependence consistent with earlier fluorescent measurements of fusion kinetics. The present method provides conclusive evidence supporting the hypothesis that hydrophobic interaction of the fusion protein with the target bilayer is an initial event in the fusion mechanism of viral membranes.

  1. Cholesterol expels ibuprofen from the hydrophobic membrane core and stabilizes lamellar phases in lipid membranes containing ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Armstrong, Clare L; Maqbool, Amna; Toppozini, Laura; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-06-28

    There is increasing evidence that common drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, interact with lipid membranes. Ibuprofen is one of the most common over the counter drugs in the world, and is used for relief of pain and fever. It interacts with the cyclooxygenase pathway leading to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. From X-ray diffraction of highly oriented model membranes containing between 0 and 20 mol% ibuprofen, 20 mol% cholesterol, and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), we present evidence for a non-specific interaction between ibuprofen and cholesterol in lipid bilayers. At a low ibuprofen concentrations of 2 mol%, three different populations of ibuprofen molecules were found: two in the lipid head group region and one in the hydrophobic membrane core. At higher ibuprofen concentrations of 10 and 20 mol%, the lamellar bilayer structure is disrupted and a lamellar to cubic phase transition was observed. In the presence of 20 mol% cholesterol, ibuprofen (at 5 mol%) was found to be expelled from the membrane core and reside solely in the head group region of the bilayers. 20 mol% cholesterol was found to stabilize lamellar membrane structure and the formation of a cubic phase at 10 and 20 mol% ibuprofen was suppressed. The results demonstrate that ibuprofen interacts with lipid membranes and that the interaction is strongly dependent on the presence of cholesterol.

  2. Cyclotides insert into lipid bilayers to form membrane pores and destabilize the membrane through hydrophobic and phosphoethanolamine-specific interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Conan K; Wacklin, Hanna P; Craik, David J

    2012-12-21

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived circular proteins with potential therapeutic applications arising from their remarkable stability, broad sequence diversity, and range of bioactivities. Their membrane-binding activity is believed to be a critical component of their mechanism of action. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we studied the binding of the prototypical cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 (and various mutants) to dodecylphosphocholine micelles and phosphoethanolamine-containing lipid bilayers. Although binding is predominantly an entropy-driven process, suggesting that hydrophobic forces contribute significantly to cyclotide-lipid complex formation, specific binding to the phosphoethanolamine-lipid headgroup is also required, which is evident from the enthalpic changes in the free energy of binding. In addition, using a combination of dissipative quartz crystal microbalance measurements and neutron reflectometry, we elucidated the process by which cyclotides interact with bilayer membranes. Initially, a small number of cyclotides bind to the membrane surface and then insert first into the outer membrane leaflet followed by penetration through the membrane and pore formation. At higher concentrations of cyclotides, destabilization of membranes occurs. Our results provide significant mechanistic insight into how cyclotides exert their bioactivities.

  3. Cyclotides Insert into Lipid Bilayers to Form Membrane Pores and Destabilize the Membrane through Hydrophobic and Phosphoethanolamine-specific Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Conan K.; Wacklin, Hanna P.; Craik, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived circular proteins with potential therapeutic applications arising from their remarkable stability, broad sequence diversity, and range of bioactivities. Their membrane-binding activity is believed to be a critical component of their mechanism of action. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we studied the binding of the prototypical cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 (and various mutants) to dodecylphosphocholine micelles and phosphoethanolamine-containing lipid bilayers. Although binding is predominantly an entropy-driven process, suggesting that hydrophobic forces contribute significantly to cyclotide-lipid complex formation, specific binding to the phosphoethanolamine-lipid headgroup is also required, which is evident from the enthalpic changes in the free energy of binding. In addition, using a combination of dissipative quartz crystal microbalance measurements and neutron reflectometry, we elucidated the process by which cyclotides interact with bilayer membranes. Initially, a small number of cyclotides bind to the membrane surface and then insert first into the outer membrane leaflet followed by penetration through the membrane and pore formation. At higher concentrations of cyclotides, destabilization of membranes occurs. Our results provide significant mechanistic insight into how cyclotides exert their bioactivities. PMID:23129773

  4. Water-membrane partition thermodynamics of an amphiphilic lipopeptide: an enthalpy-driven hydrophobic effect.

    PubMed

    Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J Andrew

    2008-10-01

    To shed light on the driving force for the hydrophobic effect that partitions amphiphilic lipoproteins between water and membrane, we carried out an atomically detailed thermodynamic analysis of a triply lipid modified H-ras heptapeptide anchor (ANCH) in water and in a DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer. Combining molecular mechanical and continuum solvent approaches with an improved technique for solute entropy calculation, we obtained an overall transfer free energy of approximately -13 kcal mol(-1). This value is in qualitative agreement with free energy changes derived from a potential of mean force calculation and indirect experimental observations. Changes in free energies of solvation and ANCH conformational reorganization are unfavorable, whereas ANCH-DMPC interactions-especially van der Waals-favor insertion. These results are consistent with an enthalpy-driven hydrophobic effect, in accord with earlier calorimetric data on the membrane partition of other amphiphiles. Furthermore, structural and entropic analysis of molecular dynamics-generated ensembles suggests that conformational selection may play a hitherto unappreciated role in membrane insertion of lipid-modified peptides and proteins.

  5. Transmembrane helix hydrophobicity is an energetic barrier during the retrotranslocation of integral membrane ERAD substrates

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Christopher J.; Reutter, Karl-Richard; Augustine, Andrew A.; Preston, G. Michael; Weiberth, Kurt F.; Mackie, Timothy D.; Cleveland-Rubeor, Hillary C.; Bethel, Neville P.; Callenberg, Keith M.; Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Grabe, Michael; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins fold inefficiently and are susceptible to turnover via the endoplasmic reticulum–associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. During ERAD, misfolded proteins are recognized by molecular chaperones, polyubiquitinated, and retrotranslocated to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. Although many aspects of this pathway are defined, how transmembrane helices (TMHs) are removed from the membrane and into the cytoplasm before degradation is poorly understood. In this study, we asked whether the hydrophobic character of a TMH acts as an energetic barrier to retrotranslocation. To this end, we designed a dual-pass model ERAD substrate, Chimera A*, which contains the cytoplasmic misfolded domain from a characterized ERAD substrate, Sterile 6* (Ste6p*). We found that the degradation requirements for Chimera A* and Ste6p* are similar, but Chimera A* was retrotranslocated more efficiently than Ste6p* in an in vitro assay in which retrotranslocation can be quantified. We then constructed a series of Chimera A* variants containing synthetic TMHs with a range of ΔG values for membrane insertion. TMH hydrophobicity correlated inversely with retrotranslocation efficiency, and in all cases, retrotranslocation remained Cdc48p dependent. These findings provide insight into the energetic restrictions on the retrotranslocation reaction, as well as a new computational approach to predict retrotranslocation efficiency. PMID:28539401

  6. The effects of non-solvent on surface morphology and hydrophobicity of dip-coated polypropylene membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiqotul Himma, Nurul; Kusuma Wardani, Anita; Gede Wenten, I.

    2017-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP) has been widely used for fabrication of hydrophobic microporous membrane due to its good thermal and chemical stability. However, the hydrophobicity of PP is inadequate to prevent membrane wetting which hinders its application in long-term operation of membrane contactor and other hydrophobic membrane processes. Endowing the membrane with superhydrophobicity has become an attractive way to improve wetting resistance. In this work, superhydrophobic PP membrane was prepared by coating with roughened polymer film. A simple technique of two-step dip-coating was used for deposition of the non-solvent solution and polymer solution. The effects of five non-solvent types were investigated, including ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA), acetone, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), and cyclohexanone. All non-solvents increased the surface roughness, leading to an improvement of membrane hydrophobicity. Superhydrophobic PP membranes with high water contact angle (WCA) of 150.4° and 151.3° have been successfully prepared by using IPA and MEK, respectively. Morphology characterization revealed that both modified membranes had more uniform and larger number of smaller aggregates which might minimize surface area in contact with liquid, resulting in increased contact angle. As the coating was conducted separately, the utilization of non-solvent could be more effective.

  7. Tuning surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of hydrocarbon proton exchange membranes (PEMs).

    PubMed

    He, Chenfeng; Mighri, Frej; Guiver, Michael D; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-03-15

    The effect of annealing on the surface hydrophilicity of various representative classes of hydrocarbon-based proton exchange membranes (PEMs) is investigated. In all cases, a more hydrophilic membrane surface develops after annealing at elevated temperatures. The annealing time also had some influence, but in different ways depending on the class of PEM. Longer annealing times resulted in more hydrophilic membrane surfaces for copolymerized sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK-HQ), while the opposite behavior occurred in sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (Ph-SPEEK), sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (Ph-m-SPEEKK) and sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether nitrile) (SPAEEN-B). Increased surface hydrophilicity upon annealing results from ionic cluster decomposition, according to the "Eisenberg-Hird-Moore model" (EHM). The increased surface hydrophilicity is supported by contact angle (CA) measurements, and the cluster decomposition is auxiliarily supported by probing the level of atomic sulfur (sulfonic acid) within different surface depths using angle-dependent XPS as well as ATR-FTIR. Membrane acidification leads to more hydrophilic surfaces by elimination of the hydrogen bonding that occurs between strongly-bound residual solvent (dimethylacetamide, DMAc) and PEM sulfonic acid groups. The study of physicochemical tuning of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of PEMs by annealing and acidification provides insights for improving membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication in fuel cell (FC).

  8. Membrane bioreactor with a porous hydrophobic membrane as a gas-liquid contactor for waste gas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Reij, M.W.; Gooijer, K.D. de; Bont, J.A.M. de; Hartmans, S. )

    1995-01-20

    A novel type of bioreactor for waste gas treatment has been designed. The reactor contains a microporous hydrophobic membrane to create a large interface between the waste gas and the aqueous phase. To test the new reactor, propene was chosen because of its high air/water partition coefficient, which causes a low water concentration and hampers its removal from air. Propene transfer from air to a suspension of propene-utilizing Xanthobacter Py2 cells in the membrane bioreactor proved to be controlled by mass transfer in the liquid phase. The resistance of the membrane was negligible. Simulated propene transfer rates agreed well with the experimental data. A stable biofilm of Xanthobacter Py2 developed on the membrane during prolonged operation. The propene flux into the biofilm was 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] at a propene concentration of 9.3 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] mol m[sup [minus]3] in the gas phase.

  9. Role of hydrophobicity in adhesion of wild yeast isolated from the ultrafiltration membranes of an apple juice processing plant.

    PubMed

    Tarifa, María Clara; Brugnoni, Lorena Inés; Lozano, Jorge Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The role of cell surface hydrophobicity in the adhesion to stainless steel (SS) of 11 wild yeast strains isolated from the ultrafiltration membranes of an apple juice processing plant was investigated. The isolated yeasts belonged to four species: Candida krusei (5 isolates), Candida tropicalis (2 isolates), Kluyveromyces marxianus (3 isolates) and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (1 isolate). Surface hydrophobicity was measured by the microbial adhesion to solvents method. Yeast cells and surfaces were incubated in apple juice and temporal measurements of the numbers of adherent cells were made. Ten isolates showed moderate to high hydrophobicity and 1 strain was hydrophilic. The hydrophobicity expressed by the yeast surfaces correlated positively with the rate of adhesion of each strain. These results indicated that cell surface hydrophobicity governs the initial attachment of the studied yeast strains to SS surfaces common to apple juice processing plants.

  10. Hydrophobicity, topography in membranes and photosensitization of silicon phthalocyanines with axial ligands of varying lengths.

    PubMed

    Sholto, Alan; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2008-03-01

    Six amphiphilic silicon phthalocyanines (SiPc's) axially linked to a dimethylated amino alkyl group of varying length have been examined for their potential suitability as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). This group of molecules was chosen because the length of the axial ligand might place the chromophoric part of the molecule at different vertical depths in the membrane and possibly affect the extent of membrane localized damage caused by singlet oxygen. We tested the relative penetration depth of the SiPc groups in the membrane by the extent to which their fluorescence was quenched by external iodide ions. We also measured singlet oxygen quantum yields of the SiPc's in a liposome membrane, using the fluorescent target for singlet oxygen, 9,10-dimethylanthracene. The hydrophobicity parameters, LogP, were calculated and were also measured. Some correlation was found between them and Kb's, the binding constants for liposomes. The effect of the axial ligand's length is less striking than in similar cases with hematoporphyrins and protoporphyrins. We link this smaller effect with a bending of the linker chain that enables, sterically, a better positioning of the sensitizer molecules within the ordered lipid layer structure.

  11. Hydrophobic pillared square grids for selective removal of CO 2 from simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Mohamed, Mona H.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Kumar, Amrit; Lusi, Matteo; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; Space, Brian; Xu, Wenqian; Halder, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2015-01-01

    Capture of CO2 from flue gas or air is considered as feasible way to reduce the anthropogenic emission of CO2. Herein we reported the impact of metal substitution on tuning the physicochemical properties in isostructural family of metal organic materials (MOMs) based on pyrazine as organic linker, hexaflouro silicate as anionic pillar and Zn, Cu, Ni and Co as metal centres. Two new isostructural square grid networks namely SIFSIX-3-Ni and SIFSIX-Co are fully characterized and compared with the parent Zn(II) and Cu(II). Interestingly the new Ni(II) and Co (II) analogues higher loading capacity for CO2 at 0.15 bar and higher CO2/N2 selectivity at condition relevant to flue gas separation. Our data show that a small change in the structure could lead to dramatic enhancement in the physicochemical properties of MOMs.

  12. Inhibition of Sendai virus fusion with phospholipid vesicles and human erythrocyte membranes by hydrophobic peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, D.R.; Flanagan, T.D.; Young, J.E.; Yeagle, P.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Hydrophobic di- and tripeptides which are capable of inhibiting enveloped virus infection of cells are also capable of inhibiting at least three different types of membrane fusion events. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of N-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (N-methyl DOPE), containing encapsulated 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid (ANTS) and/or p-xylene bis(pyridinium bromide) (DPX), were formed by extrusion. Vesicle fusion and leakage were then monitored with the ANTS/DPX fluorescence assay. Sendai virus fusion with lipid vesicles and Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes were measured by following the relief of fluorescence quenching of virus labeled with octadecylrhodamine B chloride (R18). This study found that the effectiveness of the peptides carbobenzoxy-L-Phe-L-Phe (Z-L-Phe-L-Phe), Z-L-Phe, Z-D-Phe, and Z-Gly-L-Phe-L-Phe in inhibiting N-methyl DOPE LUV fusion or fusion of virus with N-methyl DOPE LUV also paralleled their reported ability to block viral infectivity. Furthermore, Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly and Z-Gly-L-Phe inhibited Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes with the same relative potency with which they inhibited vesicle-vesicle and virus-vesicle fusion. The evidence suggests a mechanism by which these peptides exert their inhibition of plaque formation by enveloped viruses. This class of inhibitors apparently acts by inhibiting fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane, thereby preventing viral infection. The physical pathway by which these peptides inhibit membrane fusion was investigated. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of proposed intermediates in the pathway for membrane fusion in LUV revealed that the potent fusion inhibitor Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly selectively altered the structure (or dynamics) of the hypothesized fusion intermediates and that the poor inhibitor Z-Gly-L-Phe did not.

  13. A molecular model for lipid-protein interaction in membranes: the role of hydrophobic mismatch.

    PubMed

    Fattal, D R; Ben-Shaul, A

    1993-11-01

    The interaction free energy between a hydrophobic, transmembrane, protein and the surrounding lipid environment is calculated based on a microscopic model for lipid organization. The protein is treated as a rigid hydrophobic solute of thickness dP, embedded in a lipid bilayer of unperturbed thickness doL. The lipid chains in the immediate vicinity of the protein are assumed to adjust their length to that of the protein (e.g., they are stretched when dP > doL) in order to bridge over the lipid-protein hydrophobic mismatch (dP-doL). The bilayer's hydrophobic thickness is assumed to decay exponentially to its asymptotic, unperturbed, value. The lipid deformation free energy is represented as a sum of chain (hydrophobic core) and interfacial (head-group region) contributions. The chain contribution is calculated using a detailed molecular theory of chain packing statistics, which allows the calculation of conformational properties and thermodynamic functions (in a mean-field approximation) of the lipid tails. The tails are treated as single chain amphiphiles, modeled using the rotational isometric state scheme. The interfacial free energy is represented by a phenomenological expression, accounting for the opposing effects of head-group repulsions and hydrocarbon-water surface tension. The lipid deformation free energy delta F is calculated as a function of dP-doL. Most calculations are for C14 amphiphiles which, in the absence of a protein, pack at an average area per head-group ao approximately equal to 32 A2 (doL approximately 24.5 A), corresponding to the fluid state of the membrane. When dP = doL, delta F > 0 and is due entirely to the loss of conformational entropy experienced by the chains around the protein. When dP > doL, the interaction free energy is further increased due to the enhanced stretching of the tails. When dP < doL, chain flexibility (entropy) increases, but this contribution to delta F is overcounted by the increase in the interfacial free energy

  14. Colorful Hydrophobic Poly(Vinyl Butyral)/Cationic Dye Fibrous Membranes via a Colored Solution Electrospinning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xu; You, Ming-Hao; Lou, Tao; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Gong, Mao-Gang; Lv, Fu-Yan; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yun-Ze

    2016-12-01

    Colorful nanofibrous membranes have attracted much attention for their visual varieties and various functionalities. In this article, a colored solution electrospinning process was used to fabricate colorful hydrophobic poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)/cationic dye nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) successfully. The color and morphology of these as-spun nanofibrous membranes have been analyzed by colorimetry, spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the as-spun colorful PVB-based membranes exhibit excellent level-dyeing property and color stability. Furthermore, the doping of cationic dye and the increase of dye concentration can decrease the diameter of the as-spun colored fibers, which results in better level-dyeing property and higher water contact angle more than 140°. The stained PVB fibrous membranes with excellent level-dyeing property and hydrophobicity are promising in some applications such as textiles, wallpapers, and anticorrosive coating/painting.

  15. Colorful Hydrophobic Poly(Vinyl Butyral)/Cationic Dye Fibrous Membranes via a Colored Solution Electrospinning Process.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xu; You, Ming-Hao; Lou, Tao; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Gong, Mao-Gang; Lv, Fu-Yan; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yun-Ze

    2016-12-01

    Colorful nanofibrous membranes have attracted much attention for their visual varieties and various functionalities. In this article, a colored solution electrospinning process was used to fabricate colorful hydrophobic poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)/cationic dye nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) successfully. The color and morphology of these as-spun nanofibrous membranes have been analyzed by colorimetry, spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the as-spun colorful PVB-based membranes exhibit excellent level-dyeing property and color stability. Furthermore, the doping of cationic dye and the increase of dye concentration can decrease the diameter of the as-spun colored fibers, which results in better level-dyeing property and higher water contact angle more than 140°. The stained PVB fibrous membranes with excellent level-dyeing property and hydrophobicity are promising in some applications such as textiles, wallpapers, and anticorrosive coating/painting.

  16. Influence of hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of extracellular organic matters of Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiqing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Li, Lei; Deng, Jing; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhu, Mingqiu

    2014-02-01

    Fouling is a major obstacle to maintain the efficiency of ultrafiltration-based drinking water treatment process. Algal extracellular organic matters (EOMs) are currently considered as one of the major sources of membrane fouling. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions of EOM extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa on ultrafiltration membrane fouling at lab scale. The experimental data indicated that EOM exhibited similar flux decline trends on polyethersulfone (PES) and regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes but caused greater irreversible fouling on PES membrane than RC membrane due to its hydrophobic property. It was also observed that charged hydrophilic (CHPI) and neutral hydrophilic (NHPI) fractions caused greater flux decline over hydrophobic (HPO) and transphilic (TPI) fractions. For PES membrane, the order of the irreversible fouling potentials for the four fractions was HPO>TPI>CHPI>NHPI, while the irreversible fouling potentials of RC membrane were tiny and could be ignored. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra suggested that protein-like, polysaccharide-like and humic-like substances were the major components responsible for membrane fouling. The results also indicated that the irreversible fouling increased as the pH decreased. The addition of calcium to feed solutions led to more severe flux decline and irreversible fouling. © 2013.

  17. Lateral diffusion in model membranes is independent of the size of the hydrophobic region of molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Balcom, B J; Petersen, N O

    1993-01-01

    We have systematically investigated the probe size and shape dependence of lateral diffusion in model dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes. Linear hydrophobic polymers, which differ in length by an order of magnitude, were used to explore the effect on the lateral diffusion coefficient of hydrodynamic restrictions in the bilayer interior. The polymers employed are isoprenoid alcohols--citronellol, solanesol, and dolichol. Tracer lateral diffusion coefficients were measured by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Despite the large difference in lengths, the nitrobenzoxadiazole labelled alcohols all diffuse at the rate of lipid self-diffusion (5.0 x 10(-12) m2 s-1, 29 degrees C) in the liquid crystal phase. Companion measurements in isotropic polymer solution, in gel phase lipid membranes and with nonpolar fluorescent polyaromatic hydrocarbons, show a marked dependence of the lateral diffusion coefficient on the probe molecule size. Our results in the liquid crystal phase are in accord with free area theory which asserts that lateral diffusion in the membrane is restricted by the surface-free area. Probe molecules which are significantly longer than the host phospholipid, seven times longer in the case of dolichol, are still restricted in their lateral motion by the surface properties of the bilayer in the liquid crystal phase. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that the nitrobenzoxadiazole label does not reside at the aqueous interface, although it must reside in close proximity according to the diffusion measurements. PMID:8218892

  18. Evaluation of persistent hydrophobic organic compounds in the Columbia River Basin using semipermeable-membrane devices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent hydrophobic organic compounds are of concern in the Columbia River because they have been correlated with adverse effects on wildlife. We analysed samples from nine main-stem and six tributary sites throughout the Columbia River Basin (Washington and Oregon) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and priority-pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Because these compounds may have important biological consequences at aqueous concentrations well below the detection limits associated with conventional sampling methods, we used semipermeable-membrane devices to sample water and achieved parts-per-quintillion detection limits. All of these compound classes were prevalent within the basin, but concentrations of many analytes were highest in the vicinity of Portland-Vancouver, indicating that the Willamette subbasin-and perhaps the urban area in particular-is an important source of these compounds. Data collected during basin low-flow conditions in 1997 and again during basin high-flow conditions in 1998 indicate that in-stream processes such as dilution by relatively clean inflow, and flow through island hyporheic zones may be important mechanisms for attenuating dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic compounds.

  19. DNA Duplexes with Hydrophobic Modifications Inhibit Fusion between HIV-1 and Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Cai, Lifeng; Chen, Xueliang; Jiang, Xifeng; Chong, Huihui; Zheng, Baohua; Wang, Kun; He, Junlin; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Maosheng; He, Yuxian

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of new drugs for the treatment of AIDS typically possessing unique structures associated with novel mechanisms of action has been of great importance due to the quick drug-resistant mutations of HIV-1 strains. The work presented in this report describes a novel class of DNA duplex-based HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Hydrophobic groups were introduced into a DNA duplex skeleton either at one end, at both ends, or in the middle. These modified DNA duplexes inhibited fusion between HIV-1 and human cell membranes at micro- or submicromolar concentrations. Respective inhibitors adopted an aptamer pattern instead of a base-pairing interaction pattern. Structure-activity relationship studies of the respective DNA duplexes showed that the rigid and negatively charged DNA skeletons, in addition to the presence of hydrophobic groups, were crucial to the anti-HIV-1 activity of these compounds. A fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based inhibitory assay showed that these duplex inhibitors interacted with the primary pocket in the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) instead of interacting with the lipid bilayers. PMID:23896466

  20. Efficient Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) Modification of Membrane Proteins Requires a C-terminal Anchoring Signal of Marginal Hydrophobicity*

    PubMed Central

    Galian, Carmen; Björkholm, Patrik; Bulleid, Neil; von Heijne, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Many plasma membrane proteins are anchored to the membrane via a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety. The GPI anchor is attached to the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum by transamidation, a reaction in which a C-terminal GPI-attachment signal is cleaved off concomitantly with addition of the GPI moiety. GPI-attachment signals are poorly conserved on the sequence level but are all composed of a polar segment that includes the GPI-attachment site followed by a hydrophobic segment located at the very C terminus of the protein. Here, we show that efficient GPI modification requires that the hydrophobicity of the C-terminal segment is “marginal”: less hydrophobic than type II transmembrane anchors and more hydrophobic than the most hydrophobic segments found in secreted proteins. We further show that the GPI-attachment signal can be modified by the transamidase irrespective of whether it is first released into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum or is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. PMID:22431723

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Model Trans-Membrane Peptides in Lipid Bilayers: A Systematic Investigation of Hydrophobic Mismatch

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Senthil K.; Larson, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrophobic mismatch, which is the difference between the hydrophobic length of trans-membrane segments of a protein and the hydrophobic width of the surrounding lipid bilayer, is known to play a role in membrane protein function. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of trans-membrane KALP peptides (sequence: GKK(LA)nLKKA) in phospholipid bilayers to investigate hydrophobic mismatch alleviation mechanisms. By varying systematically the length of the peptide (KALP15, KALP19, KALP23, KALP27, and KALP31) and the lipid hydrophobic length (DLPC, DMPC, and DPPC), a wide range of mismatch conditions were studied. Simulations of durations of 50–200 ns show that under positive mismatch, the system alleviates the mismatch predominantly by tilting the peptide and to a smaller extent by increased lipid ordering in the immediate vicinity of the peptide. Under negative mismatch, alleviation takes place by a combination of local bilayer bending and the snorkeling of the lysine residues of the peptide. Simulations performed at a higher peptide/lipid molar ratio (1:25) reveal slower dynamics of both the peptide and lipid relative to those at a lower peptide/lipid ratio (1:128). The lysine residues have favorable interactions with specific oxygen atoms of the phospholipid headgroups, indicating the preferred localization of these residues at the lipid/water interface. PMID:16428278

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of model trans-membrane peptides in lipid bilayers: a systematic investigation of hydrophobic mismatch.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Senthil K; Larson, Ronald G

    2006-04-01

    Hydrophobic mismatch, which is the difference between the hydrophobic length of trans-membrane segments of a protein and the hydrophobic width of the surrounding lipid bilayer, is known to play a role in membrane protein function. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of trans-membrane KALP peptides (sequence: GKK(LA)nLKKA) in phospholipid bilayers to investigate hydrophobic mismatch alleviation mechanisms. By varying systematically the length of the peptide (KALP15, KALP19, KALP23, KALP27, and KALP31) and the lipid hydrophobic length (DLPC, DMPC, and DPPC), a wide range of mismatch conditions were studied. Simulations of durations of 50-200 ns show that under positive mismatch, the system alleviates the mismatch predominantly by tilting the peptide and to a smaller extent by increased lipid ordering in the immediate vicinity of the peptide. Under negative mismatch, alleviation takes place by a combination of local bilayer bending and the snorkeling of the lysine residues of the peptide. Simulations performed at a higher peptide/lipid molar ratio (1:25) reveal slower dynamics of both the peptide and lipid relative to those at a lower peptide/lipid ratio (1:128). The lysine residues have favorable interactions with specific oxygen atoms of the phospholipid headgroups, indicating the preferred localization of these residues at the lipid/water interface.

  3. Electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions differentially tune membrane binding kinetics of the C2 domain of protein kinase Cα.

    PubMed

    Scott, Angela M; Antal, Corina E; Newton, Alexandra C

    2013-06-07

    The cellular activation of conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes is initiated by the binding of their C2 domains to membranes in response to elevations in intracellular Ca(2+). Following this C2 domain-mediated membrane recruitment, the C1 domain binds its membrane-embedded ligand diacylglycerol, resulting in activation of PKC. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms by which the C2 domain controls the initial step in the activation of PKC. Using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy to measure association and dissociation rate constants, we show that hydrophobic interactions are the major driving force in the binding of the C2 domain to anionic membranes, whereas electrostatic interactions dominate in membrane retention. Specifically, mutation of select hydrophobic or select basic residues in the Ca(2+)-binding loops reduces membrane affinity by distinct mechanisms; mutation of hydrophobic residues primarily alters association rate constants, whereas mutation of charged residues affects dissociation rate constants. Live cell imaging reveals that introduction of these mutations into full-length PKCα not only reduces the Ca(2+)-dependent translocation to plasma membrane but, by impairing the plasma membrane-sensing role of the C2 domain, causes phorbol ester-triggered redistribution of PKCα to other membranes, such as the Golgi. These data underscore the key role of the C2 domain in driving conventional PKC isozymes to the plasma membrane and reveal that not only the amplitude but also the subcellular location of conventional PKC signaling can be tuned by altering the affinity of this module for membranes.

  4. Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Interactions Differentially Tune Membrane Binding Kinetics of the C2 Domain of Protein Kinase Cα*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Angela M.; Antal, Corina E.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular activation of conventional protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes is initiated by the binding of their C2 domains to membranes in response to elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Following this C2 domain-mediated membrane recruitment, the C1 domain binds its membrane-embedded ligand diacylglycerol, resulting in activation of PKC. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms by which the C2 domain controls the initial step in the activation of PKC. Using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy to measure association and dissociation rate constants, we show that hydrophobic interactions are the major driving force in the binding of the C2 domain to anionic membranes, whereas electrostatic interactions dominate in membrane retention. Specifically, mutation of select hydrophobic or select basic residues in the Ca2+-binding loops reduces membrane affinity by distinct mechanisms; mutation of hydrophobic residues primarily alters association rate constants, whereas mutation of charged residues affects dissociation rate constants. Live cell imaging reveals that introduction of these mutations into full-length PKCα not only reduces the Ca2+-dependent translocation to plasma membrane but, by impairing the plasma membrane-sensing role of the C2 domain, causes phorbol ester-triggered redistribution of PKCα to other membranes, such as the Golgi. These data underscore the key role of the C2 domain in driving conventional PKC isozymes to the plasma membrane and reveal that not only the amplitude but also the subcellular location of conventional PKC signaling can be tuned by altering the affinity of this module for membranes. PMID:23589289

  5. Effect of non-solvent additives on the morphology, pore structure, and direct contact membrane distillation performance of PVDF-CTFE hydrophobic membranes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Libing; Wu, Zhenjun; Zhang, Yong; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Four common types of additives for polymer membrane preparation including organic macromolecule and micromolecule additives, inorganic salts and acids, and the strong non-solvent H2O were used to prepare poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (PVDF-CTFE) hydrophobic flat-sheet membranes. Membrane properties including morphology, porosity, hydrophobicity, pore size and pore distribution were investigated, and the permeability was evaluated via direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) of 3.5g/L NaCl solution in a DCMD configuration. Both inorganic and organic micromolecule additives were found to slightly influence membrane hydrophobicity. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), organic acids, LiCl, MgCl2, and LiCl/H2O mixtures were proved to be effective additives to PVDF-CTFE membranes due to their pore-controlling effects and the capacity to improve the properties and performance of the resultant membranes. The occurrence of a pre-gelation process showed that when organic and inorganic micromolecules were added to PVDF-CTFE solution, the resultant membranes presented a high interconnectivity structure. The membrane prepared with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed a nonporous surface and symmetrical cross-section. When H2O and LiCl/H2O mixtures were also used as additives, they were beneficial for solid-liquid demixing, especially when LiCl/H2O mixed additives were used. The membrane prepared with 5% LiCl+2% H2O achieved a flux of 24.53kg/(m(2)·hr) with 99.98% salt rejection. This study is expected to offer a reference not only for PVDF-CTFE membrane preparation but also for other polymer membranes.

  6. Hydrophobic contributions to the membrane docking of synaptotagmin 7 C2A domain: mechanistic contrast between isoforms 1 and 7.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Devin S; Coffman, Matthew D; Falke, Joseph J; Knight, Jefferson D

    2012-10-02

    Synaptotagmin (Syt) triggers Ca(2+)-dependent membrane fusion via its tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B. The 17 known human isoforms are active in different secretory cell types, including neurons (Syt1 and others) and pancreatic β cells (Syt7 and others). Here, quantitative fluorescence measurements reveal notable differences in the membrane docking mechanisms of Syt1 C2A and Syt7 C2A to vesicles comprised of physiological lipid mixtures. In agreement with previous studies, the Ca(2+) sensitivity of membrane binding is much higher for Syt7 C2A. We report here for the first time that this increased sensitivity is due to the slower target membrane dissociation of Syt7 C2A. Association and dissociation rate constants for Syt7 C2A are found to be ~2-fold and ~60-fold slower than Syt1 C2A, respectively. Furthermore, the membrane dissociation of Syt7 C2A but not Syt1 C2A is slowed by Na(2)SO(4) and trehalose, solutes that enhance the hydrophobic effect. Overall, the simplest model consistent with these findings proposes that Syt7 C2A first docks electrostatically to the target membrane surface and then inserts into the bilayer via a slow hydrophobic mechanism. In contrast, the membrane docking of Syt1 C2A is known to be predominantly electrostatic. Thus, these two highly homologous domains exhibit distinct mechanisms of membrane binding correlated with their known differences in function.

  7. Deconvoluting the Effect of the Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Domains of an Amphiphilic Integral Membrane Protein in Lipid Bicontinuous Cubic Mesophases.

    PubMed

    van 't Hag, Leonie; Shen, Hsin-Hui; Lu, Jingxiong; Hawley, Adrian M; Gras, Sally L; Drummond, Calum J; Conn, Charlotte E

    2015-11-10

    Lipidic bicontinuous cubic mesophases with encapsulated amphiphilic proteins are widely used in a range of biological and biomedical applications, including in meso crystallization, as drug delivery vehicles for therapeutic proteins, and as biosensors and biofuel cells. However, the effect of amphiphilic protein encapsulation on the cubic phase nanostructure is not well-understood. In this study, we illustrate the effect of incorporating the bacterial amphiphilic membrane protein Ag43, and its individual hydrophobic β(43) and hydrophilic α(43) domains, in bicontinuous cubic mesophases. For the monoolein, monoalmitolein, and phytantriol cubic phases with and without 8% w/w cholesterol, the effect of the full length amphiphilic protein Ag43 on the cubic phase nanostructure was more significant than the sum of the individual hydrophobic β(43) and hydrophilic α(43) domains. Several factors were found to potentially influence the impact of the hydrophobic β(43) domain on the cubic phase internal nanostructure. These include the size of the hydrophobic β(43) domain relative to the thickness of the lipid bilayer, as well as its charge and diameter. The size of the hydrophilic α(43) domain relative to the water channel radius of the cubic mesophase was also found to be important. The secondary structure of the Ag43 proteins was affected by the hydrophobic thickness and physicochemical properties of the lipid bilayer and the water channel diameter of the cubic phase. Such structural changes may be small but could potentially affect membrane protein function.

  8. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (l-lactide) membranes obtained by CF₄microwave plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Wang, Jiajun; Jiao, Yanan

    2014-11-29

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF₄ microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF₄ plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF₄ plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreased from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF₄ plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.

  9. Deciphering the role of charge, hydration, and hydrophobicity for cytotoxic activities and membrane interactions of bile acid based facial amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manish; Singh, Ashima; Kundu, Somanath; Bansal, Sandhya; Bajaj, Avinash

    2013-08-01

    We synthesized four cationic bile acid based facial amphiphiles featuring trimethyl ammonium head groups. We evaluated the role of these amphiphiles for cytotoxic activities against colon cancer cells and their membrane interactions by varying charge, hydration and hydrophobicity. The singly charged cationic Lithocholic acid based amphiphile (LCA-TMA1) is most cytotoxic, whereas the triply charged cationic Cholic acid based amphiphile (CA-TMA3) is least cytotoxic. Light microscopy and Annexin-FITC assay revealed that these facial amphiphiles caused late apoptosis. In addition, we studied the interactions of these amphiphiles with model membrane systems by Prodan-based hydration, DPH-based anisotropy, and differential scanning calorimetry. LCA-TMA1 is most hydrophobic with a hard charge causing efficient dehydration and maximum perturbations of membranes thereby facilitating translocation and high cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In contrast, the highly hydrated and multiple charged CA-TMA3 caused least membrane perturbations leading to low translocation and less cytotoxicity. As expected, Chenodeoxycholic acid and Deoxycholic acid based amphiphiles (CDCA-TMA2, DCA-TMA2) featuring two charged head groups showed intermediate behavior. Thus, we deciphered that charge, hydration, and hydrophobicity of these amphiphiles govern membrane interactions, translocation, and resulting cytoxicity against colon cancer cells.

  10. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (l-lactide) membranes obtained by CF₄microwave plasma treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; ...

    2014-11-29

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF₄ microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF₄ plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF₄ plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreasedmore » from 116 ± 3.0° to ~0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF₄ plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.« less

  11. Contribution of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions to the membrane integration of the Shaker K+ channel voltage sensor domain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyan; Sato, Yoko; Hessa, Tara; von Heijne, Gunnar; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kodama, Itsuo; Sakaguchi, Masao; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2007-05-15

    Membrane-embedded voltage-sensor domains in voltage-dependent potassium channels (K(v) channels) contain an impressive number of charged residues. How can such highly charged protein domains be efficiently inserted into biological membranes? In the plant K(v) channel KAT1, the S2, S3, and S4 transmembrane helices insert cooperatively, because the S3, S4, and S3-S4 segments do not have any membrane insertion ability by themselves. Here we show that, in the Drosophila Shaker K(v) channel, which has a more hydrophobic S3 helix than KAT1, S3 can both insert into the membrane by itself and mediate the insertion of the S3-S4 segment in the absence of S2. An engineered KAT1 S3-S4 segment in which the hydrophobicity of S3 was increased or where S3 was replaced by Shaker S3 behaves as Shaker S3-S4. Electrostatic interactions among charged residues in S2, S3, and S4, including the salt bridges between E283 or E293 in S2 and R368 in S4, are required for fully efficient membrane insertion of the Shaker voltage-sensor domain. These results suggest that cooperative insertion of the voltage-sensor transmembrane helices is a property common to K(v) channels and that the degree of cooperativity depends on a balance between electrostatic and hydrophobic forces.

  12. Switchable hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface of electrospun poly (L-lactide) membranes obtained by CF4 microwave plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Mengyao; Zhou, Baoming; Jiao, Kunyan; Qian, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhiwei; Teng, Kunyue; Zhao, Lihuan; Wang, Jiajun; Jiao, Yanan

    2015-02-01

    A switchable surface that promotes either hydrophobic or hydrophilic wettability of poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) microfibrous membranes is obtained by CF4 microwave plasma treatment in this paper. The results indicated that both etching and grafting process occurred during the CF4 plasma treatment and these two factors synergistically affected the final surface wettability of PLLA membranes. When plasma treatment was taken under a relatively low power, the surface wettability of PLLA membranes turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Especially when CF4 plasma treatment was taken under 100 W for 10 min and 150 W for 5 min, the water contact angle sharply decreased from 116 ± 3.0° to ∼0°. According to Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results, the PLLA fibers were notably etched by CF4 plasma treatment. Combined with the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, only a few fluorine-containing groups were grafted onto the surface, so the etching effect directly affected the surface wettability of PLLA membranes in low plasma power condition. However, with the plasma power increasing to 200 W, the PLLA membrane surface turned to hydrophobic again. In contrast, the morphology changes of PLLA fiber surfaces were not obvious while a large number of fluorine-containing groups grafted onto the surface. So the grafting effect gradually became the major factor for the final surface wettability.

  13. Understanding the fouling of algogenic organic matter in microfiltration using membrane-foulant interaction energy analysis: effects of organic hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiwei; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2014-10-01

    Fouling caused by algogenic organic matter (AOM) in membrane filtration is a critical problem in algae-rich waters, and understanding fouling mechanisms, particularly by identifying the predominant membrane foulants, could have significant effects on algal fouling prediction and pretreatment. In this work, the fouling behavior of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (APF)- and Anabaena flos-aquae (ANF)-AOM fractions was analyzed using the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory. The results show that the interfacial energy of membranes and foulants could be used for AOM membrane fouling analysis. The attractive energy was highest between the membrane and the neutral hydrophilic fractions (N-HPI) on clean membrane surfaces, followed by the energy associated with the hydrophobic fractions (HPO) and the transphilic fractions (TPI) in both of the AOMs; on the other hand, the negatively charged hydrophilic organics (C-HPI) in the APF-AOM suffered from repulsive interactions when nearing the membrane surface, which was consistent with their initial filtration flux. After the formation of an initial fouling layer on the membrane surface, membrane fouling was controlled mainly by the cohesion free energy between the approaching foulants and the foulants on the fouled membranes. In addition, it was observed that the interfacial energy between foulants was the dominant factor controlling membrane fouling in AOM filtration. Finally, the interfacial energies between the N-HPI fractions had the greatest effect on both APF-AOM and ANF-AOM membrane fouling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange of hydrophobic peptides in model membranes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Raino K; Broadhurst, R William; Skelton, Paul C; Arkin, Isaiah T

    2002-12-01

    We demonstrate here that the hydrogen/deuterium solvent exchange (HDX) properties of the transmembrane fragment of the M2 protein of Influenza A (M2-TM) incorporated into lipid vesicles or detergent micelles can be studied with straightforward electrospray (ESI) and nanospray mass spectrometry (MS) configurations provided that key factors, including sample preparation techniques, are optimized. Small unilamellar vesicle preparations were obtained by solubilizing dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and the M2-TM peptide in aqueous solution with n-octyl-beta-D-glycopyranoside, followed by dialysis to remove the detergent. Electron microscopy experiments revealed that subsequent concentration by centrifugation introduced large multilamellar aggregates that were not compatible with ESI-MS. By contrast, a lyophilization-based concentration procedure, followed by thawing above the liquid crystal transition temperature of the lipid component, maintained the liposome size profile and yielded excellent ion fluxes in both ESI-MS and nano-ESI-MS. Using these methods the global HDX profile of M2-TM in aqueous DMPC vesicles was compared with that in methanol, demonstrating that several amide sites were protected from exchange by the lipid membrane. We also show that hydrophobic peptides can be detected by ESI-MS in the presence of a large molar excess of the detergent Triton X-100. The rate of HDX of M2-TM in Triton X-100 micelles was faster than that in DMPC vesicles but slower than when the peptide had been denatured in methanol. These results indicate that the accessibility of backbone amide sites to the solvent can be profoundly affected by membrane protein structure and dynamics, as well as the properties of model bilayer systems.

  15. Continuously Infusing Hyperpolarized 129Xe into Flowing Aqueous Solutions Using Hydrophobic Gas Exchange Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Möller, Harald E.; Hedlund, Laurence W.; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2009-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe yields high signal intensities in magnetic resonance (MR) and, through its large chemical shift range of ∼300 ppm, provides detailed information about the local chemical environment. To exploit these properties in aqueous solutions and living tissues requires the development of methods for efficiently dissolving HP 129Xe over an extended time period. To this end, we have used commercially available gas exchange modules to continuously infuse concentrated HP 129Xe into flowing liquids, including rat whole blood, for periods as long as one hour, and have demonstrated the feasibility of dissolved-phase MR imaging with sub-millimeter resolution within minutes. These modules, which exchange gases using hydrophobic microporous polymer membranes, are compatible with a variety of liquids and are suitable for infusing HP 129Xe into the bloodstream in vivo. Additionally, we have developed a detailed mathematical model of the infused HP 129Xe signal dynamics that should be useful in designing improved infusion systems that yield even higher dissolved HP 129Xe signal intensities. PMID:19702286

  16. Interaction of Phenylalanine with DPPC Model Membranes: More Than a Hydrophobic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Rosa, A S; Cutro, A C; Frías, M A; Disalvo, E A

    2015-12-31

    The negative free energy previously reported is explained by the stabilization of a PC-Phe (phosphocholine-phenylalanine) complex in the presence of water shown by the decrease in the symmetric stretching frequency of the phosphate group of the lipid (PO2(-)). An entropic contribution due to the disruption of the water network around the phenyl and in the membrane defect may be invoked. The dipole potential decrease is explained by the orientation of the carboxylate opposing to the CO of the lipids with oxygen moiety toward the low hydrated hydrocarbon core. The symmetric bending frequency of NH3(+) group of Phe, decreases in 5.2 cm(-1) in relation to water congruent with zeta potential shift to positive values. The Phe to DPPC dissociation constant is Kd = 2.23 ± 0.09 mM, from which the free energy change is about -4.54 kcal/mol at 25 °C. This may be due to hydrophobic contributions and two hydrogen bonds.

  17. Pore formation in lipid membrane I: Continuous reversible trajectory from intact bilayer through hydrophobic defect to transversal pore.

    PubMed

    Akimov, Sergey A; Volynsky, Pavel E; Galimzyanov, Timur R; Kuzmin, Peter I; Pavlov, Konstantin V; Batishchev, Oleg V

    2017-09-22

    Lipid membranes serve as effective barriers allowing cells to maintain internal composition differing from that of extracellular medium. Membrane permeation, both natural and artificial, can take place via appearance of transversal pores. The rearrangements of lipids leading to pore formation in the intact membrane are not yet understood in details. We applied continuum elasticity theory to obtain continuous trajectory of pore formation and closure, and analyzed molecular dynamics trajectories of pre-formed pore reseal. We hypothesized that a transversal pore is preceded by a hydrophobic defect: intermediate structure spanning through the membrane, the side walls of which are partially aligned by lipid tails. This prediction was confirmed by our molecular dynamics simulations. Conversion of the hydrophobic defect into the hydrophilic pore required surmounting some energy barrier. A metastable state was found for the hydrophilic pore at the radius of a few nanometers. The dependence of the energy on radius was approximately quadratic for hydrophobic defect and small hydrophilic pore, while for large radii it depended on the radius linearly. The pore energy related to its perimeter, line tension, thus depends of the pore radius. Calculated values of the line tension for large pores were in quantitative agreement with available experimental data.

  18. The use of UV-visible spectroscopy for the determination of hydrophobic interactions between neuropeptides and membrane model systems.

    PubMed

    Young, J K; Graham, W H; Beard, D J; Hicks, R P

    1992-08-01

    Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy has been used as a rapid method to evaluate the hydrophobic interactions between a series of cationic and zwitterionic neuropeptides and dipeptides with the hydrophobic core of two membrane model systems; sodium dodecyl sulfate and lysophosphatidylcholine micelles. If a hydrophobic interaction occurs, a 1-nm bathochromic shift is observed in the uv-visible spectrum of the aromatic side chains when going from aqueous solution to a micellar solution. The aromatic residues of substance P, bradykinin, and Des-Arg9 bradykinin all exhibited the 1-nm bathochromic shift in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate while those of Met-enkephalin did not. The opposite effects were observed in the presence of lysophosphatidylcholine micelles.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of a Hydrophobic Metal-Organic Framework Membrane Supported on Thin Porous Metal Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Canfield, Nathan L.; Liu, Wei

    2016-02-29

    A hydrophobic metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66-CH3 is prepared and its solvothermal stability is investigated in comparison to UiO-66. It is confirmed that the MOF stability is enhanced by introduction of the two methyl groups, while the water adsorption is reduced. Given its hydrophobicity and stability, UiO-66-CH3 is proposed as an attractive membrane material for gas separation under moisture conditions. The UiO-66-CH3 membrane is prepared on a 50µm-thin porous Ni support sheet for the first time by use of a secondary growth method. It is found that uniform seed coating on the support is necessary to form a continuous membrane. In addition to growth time and temperature, presence of a modulator in the growth solution is found to be useful for controlling hydrothermal membrane growth on the seeded support. A dense, inter-grown membrane layer is formed by 24-h growth over a temperature range from 120 oC to 160 oC. The membrane surface comprises 500 nm octahedral crystals, which are supposed to grow out of the original 100 nm spherical seeding crystals. The separation characteristics of resulting membranes are tested with pure CO2, air, CO2/air mixture, and humid CO2/air mixture. CO2 permeance as high as 1.9E-06 mol/m2/s/Pa at 31oC is obtained. Unlike the hydrophilic zeolite membranes, CO2 permeation through this membrane is not blocked by the presence of water vapor in the feed gas. The results suggest that this MOF framework is a promising membrane material worth to be further investigated for separation of CO2 and other small molecules from humid gas mixtures.

  20. Membrane Partitioning of the Pore-Forming Domain of Colicin A. Role of the Hydrophobic Helical Hairpin

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Ivan L.; Arnulphi, Cristina; Ibáñez de Opakua, Alain; Alonso-Mariño, Marián; Goñi, Félix M.; Viguera, Ana R.

    2013-01-01

    The colicins are bacteriocins that target Escherichia coli and kill bacterial cells through different mechanisms. Colicin A forms ion channels in the inner membranes of nonimmune bacteria. This activity resides exclusively in its C-terminal fragment (residues 387–592). The soluble free form of this domain is a 10 α-helix bundle. The hydrophobic helical hairpin, H8–H9, is buried inside the structure and shielded by eight amphipathic surface helices. The interaction of the C-terminal colicin A domain and several chimeric variants with lipidic vesicles was examined here by isothermal titration calorimetry. In the mutant constructions, natural sequences of the hydrophobic helices H8 and H9 were either removed or substituted by polyalanine or polyleucine. All the constructions fully associated with DOPG liposomes including the mutant that lacked helices H8 and H9, indicating that amphipathic rather than hydrophobic helices were the major determinants of the exothermic binding reactions. Alanine is not specially favored in the lipid-bound form; the chimeric construct with polyalanine produced lower enthalpy gain. On the other hand, the large negative heat capacities associated with partitioning, a characteristic feature of the hydrophobic effect, were found to be dependent on the sequence hydrophobicity of helices H8 and H9. PMID:24047995

  1. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L.

    2015-06-25

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. It is thought that this interaction is membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, including membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. Moreover, these gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.

  2. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth

    DOE PAGES

    Giannone, Richard J.; Wurch, Louie L.; Podar, Mircea; ...

    2015-06-25

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. It is thought that this interaction is membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins; proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitansproteins. We show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, includingmore » membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. Moreover, these gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.« less

  3. Rescuing Those Left Behind: Recovering and Characterizing Underdigested Membrane and Hydrophobic Proteins To Enhance Proteome Measurement Depth.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Richard J; Wurch, Louie L; Podar, Mircea; Hettich, Robert L

    2015-08-04

    The marine archaeon Nanoarchaeum equitans is dependent on direct physical contact with its host, the hyperthermophile Ignicoccus hospitalis. As this interaction is thought to be membrane-associated, involving a myriad of membrane-anchored proteins, proteomic efforts to better characterize this difficult to analyze interface are paramount to uncovering the mechanism of their association. By extending multienzyme digestion strategies that use sample filtration to recover underdigested proteins for reprocessing/consecutive proteolytic digestion, we applied chymotrypsin to redigest the proteinaceous material left over after initial proteolysis with trypsin of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extracted I. hospitalis-N. equitans proteins. Using this method, we show that proteins with increased hydrophobic character, including membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane helices, are enriched and recovered in the underdigested fraction. Chymotryptic reprocessing provided significant sequence coverage gains in both soluble and hydrophobic proteins alike, with the latter benefiting more so in terms of membrane protein representation. These gains were despite a large proportion of high-quality peptide spectra remaining unassigned in the underdigested fraction suggesting high levels of protein modification on these often surface-exposed proteins. Importantly, these gains were achieved without applying extensive fractionation strategies usually required for thorough characterization of membrane-associated proteins and were facilitated by the generation of a distinct, complementary set of peptides that aid in both the identification and quantitation of this important, under-represented class of proteins.

  4. Plasma membrane association of three classes of bacterial toxins is mediated by a basic-hydrophobic motif.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Brett; Ahrens, Sebastian; Satchell, Karla J F

    2012-02-01

    Plasma membrane targeting is essential for the proper function of many bacterial toxins. A conserved fourhelical bundle membrane localization domain (4HBM) was recently identified within three diverse families of toxins: clostridial glucosylating toxins, MARTX toxins and Pasteurella multocida-like toxins. When expressed in tissue culture cells or in yeast, GFP fusions to at least one 4HBM from each toxin family show significant peripheral membrane localization but with differing profiles. Both in vivo expression and in vitro binding studies reveal that the ability of these domains to localize to the plasma membrane and bind negatively charged phospholipids requires a basic-hydrophobic motif formed by the L1 and L3 loops. The different binding capacity of each 4HBM is defined by the hydrophobicity of an exposed residue within the motif. This study establishes that bacterial effectors utilize a normal host cell mechanism to locate the plasma membrane where they can then access their intracellular targets. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Enhanced cellular uptake of nanoparticles by increasing the hydrophobicity of poly(lactic acid) through copolymerization with cell-membrane-lipid components.

    PubMed

    Samadi Moghaddam, Mariam; Heiny, Markus; Shastri, V Prasad

    2015-10-07

    The influence of hydrophobicity on the internalization of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) remains poorly investigated. The hydrophobicity of poly(L-lactide) was increased by copolymerization with cell-membrane-lipid components, and this significantly enhanced the uptake of NPs up to 60% in the human cervical cancer cell line in comparison to unmodified poly(L-lactide) NPs.

  6. Study on the removal of organic micropollutants from aqueous and ethanol solutions by HAP membranes with tunable hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    He, Junyong; Li, Yulian; Cai, Xingguo; Chen, Kai; Zheng, Hejing; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Kaisheng; Lin, Dongyue; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-05-01

    A biocompatible and uniquely defined hydroxyapatite (HAP) adsorption membrane with a sandwich structure was developed for the removal of organic micropollutants for the first time. Both the adsorption and membrane technique were used for the removal of organic micropollutants. The hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the HAP adsorbent and membrane were tunable by controlling the surface structure of HAP. The adsorption of organic micropollutants on the HAP adsorbent was studied in batch experiments. The adsorption process was fit with the Freundlich model, while the adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The HAP membrane could remove organic micropollutants effectively by dynamic adsorption in both aqueous and ethanol solutions. The removal efficiencies of organic micropollutants depended on the solution composition, membrane thickness and hydrophilicity, flow rate, and the initial concentration of organic micropollutants. The adsorption capacities of the HAP membrane with a sandwich structure (membrane thickness was 0.3 mm) were 6700, 6510, 6310, 5960, 5490, 5230, 4980 and 4360 L m(-2) for 1-naphthyl amine, 2-naphthol, bisphenol S, propranolol hydrochloride, metolachlor, ethinyl oestradiol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and bisphenol A, respectively, when the initial concentration was 3.0 mg L(-1). The biocompatible HAP adsorption membrane can be easily regenerated by methanol and was thus demonstrated to be a novel concept for the removal of organic micropollutants from both aqueous and organic solutions.

  7. Quantitative measurement of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the plasma-polymerized naphthalene film (Super Support Film) and other support films and grids in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masashi; Aoyama, Toshihiro; Yamada, Norihiro; Chibana, Hiroji

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the surfaces of plasma-polymerized naphthalene film (Super Support Film, Nisshin EM Co. Ltd., Tokyo), carbon and formvar support films, and copper and nickel grids were quantitatively estimated by contact angles measured from diameters and heights of water droplets placed on various specimens. With treatment of glow discharge, the surfaces of plasma-polymerized naphthalene and carbon support films became fully hydrophilic in 20 s. They remained hydrophilic for 6 h. The surfaces of copper and nickel grids became fully hydrophilic with 60 s of glow discharge treatment. They remained hydrophilic for only 1 h. This information is useful for negative staining, ultrathin sectioning and rapid freezing of biological specimens using the sandwich method. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Steam-stable hydrophobic ITQ-29 molecular sieve membrane with H(2) selectivity prepared by secondary growth using Kryptofix 222 as SDA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aisheng; Caro, Jürgen

    2010-11-07

    A neutral framework cation-free hydrophobic ITQ-29 molecular sieve membrane with hydrogen selectivity was prepared on porous α-Al(2)O(3) supports by using Kryptofix 222 as organic structure directing agent through secondary growth method.

  9. Localization of Membrane-Associated Proteins in Vesicular Stomatitis Virus by Use of Hydrophobic Membrane Probes and Cross-Linking Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Zakowski, Jack J.; Wagner, Robert R.

    1980-01-01

    The location of membrane-associated proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus was investigated by using two monofunctional and three bifunctional probes that differ in the degree to which they partition into membranes and in their specific group reactivity. Two hydrophobic aryl azide probes, [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide and [3H]pyrenesulfonylazide, readily partitioned into virion membrane and, when activated to nitrenes by UV irradiation, formed stable covalent adducts to membrane constituents. Both of these monofunctional probes labeled the glyco-protein G and matrix M proteins, but [125I]5-iodonaphthyl-1-azide also labeled the nucleocapsid N protein and an unidentified low-molecular-weight component. Protein labeling of intact virions was unaffected by the presence of cytochrome c or glutathione, but disruption of membrane by sodium dodecyl sulfate greatly enhanced the labeling of all viral proteins except G. Labeling of G protein was essentially restricted to the membrane-embedded, thermolysin-resistant tail fragment. Three bifunctional reagents, tartryl diazide, dimethylsuberimidate, and 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide, were tested for their capacity to cross-link proteins to membrane phospholipids of virions grown in the presence of [3H]palmitate. Only G and M proteins of intact virions were labeled with 3H-phospholipid by these cross-linkers; the reactions were not affected by cytochrome c but were abolished by disruption of virus with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Dimethylsuberimidate, which reacts with free amino groups, cross-linked 3H-phospholipid to both G and M protein. In contrast, the hydrophilic tartryl diazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the M protein, whereas the hydrophobic 4,4′-dithiobisphenylazide cross-linked phospholipid primarily to the intrinsic G protein. These data support the hypothesis that the G protein traverses the virion membrane and that the M protein is membrane associated but does not penetrate very deeply, if at all. PMID:6255216

  10. Synthesis and characterization of partially fluorinated hydrophobic-hydrophilic multiblock copolymers containing sulfonate groups for proton exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanxiang; Roy, Abhishek; Badami, Anand S.; Hill, Melinda; Yang, Juan; Dunn, Stuart; McGrath, James E.

    A new hydrophobic-hydrophilic multiblock copolymer has been successfully synthesized based on the careful coupling of a fluorine terminated poly(arylene ether ketone) (6FK) hydrophobic oligomer and a phenoxide terminated disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) hydrophilic oligomer. 19F and 1H NMR spectra were used to characterize the oligomers' molecular weights and multiblock copolymer's structure. The comparison of the multiblock copolymer 13C NMR spectrum with that of the random copolymer showed that the transetherification side reaction was minimized in this synthesis. The morphologies of membranes were investigated by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), which showed that the multiblock membrane acidified by the high temperature method has sharp phase separation. Membrane properties like protonic conductivity, water uptake, and self-diffusion coefficient of water as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH) were characterized for the multiblock copolymer and compared with ketone type random copolymers at similar ion exchange capacity value and Nafion ® controls. The multiblock copolymers are promising candidates for proton exchange membranes especially for applications at high temperatures and low relative humidity.

  11. Role of amphipathicity and hydrophobicity in the balance between hemolysis and peptide-membrane interactions of three related antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Axel; Martínez, Melina; Noguera, Martín E; Augusto, Marcelo T; Disalvo, Anibal; Santos, Nuno C; Semorile, Liliana; Maffía, Paulo C

    2016-05-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) represent important self defense molecules in many organisms, including humans. These peptides have a broad spectrum of activities, killing or neutralizing many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The emergence of multidrug resistant microbes has stimulated research on the development of alternative antibiotics. In the search for new antibiotics, cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) offer a viable alternative to conventional antibiotics, as they physically disrupt the bacterial membranes, leading to lysis of microbial membranes and eventually cell death. In particular, the group of linear α-helical cationic peptides has attracted increasing interest from clinical as well as basic research during the last decade. In this work, we studied the biophysical and microbiological characteristics of three new designed CAMPs. We modified a previously studied CAMP sequence, in order to increase or diminish the hydrophobic face, changing the position of two lysines or replacing three leucines, respectively. These mutations modified the hydrophobic moment of the resulting peptides and allowed us to study the importance of this parameter in the membrane interactions of the peptides. The structural properties of the peptides were also correlated with their membrane-disruptive abilities, antimicrobial activities and hemolysis of human red blood cells.

  12. Hydrophobic Mismatch and Phase Transition in a Membrane Composed by a Mixture of Linear and Bola Phospholipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Gabriel; Szleifer, Igal

    2006-03-01

    Archeobacteria are microorganisms that can survive and proliferate in extreme habitats, such as high salt concentration environments, anaerobic conditions, and high or low temperatures. A membrane composed of bolaform phospholipids is what gives these unique survival qualities to the bacteria. The nature and composition of this membrane has not yet been elucidated. In this work, a membrane composed by a mixture of linear and bola phospholipids is studied using a molecular theory. The effect of changing the fraction of bolaform phospholipids, as well as the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the linear lipid are studied. A phase separation in the mixture between a thin bola rich membrane and a thick linear rich membrane is found. The thin membrane is mainly composed by ``spanning'' bola molecules whose polar heads are in opposed hydrophilic regions of the membrane. The phase separation is only present when the hydrocarbon chains of both molecular species have comparable sizes. The driving force for the phase separation is the size matching between the hydrophobic chains of the linear phospholipid and the spanning bola lipid.

  13. Field uptake rates of hydrophobic organic contaminants by semipermeable membrane devices: environmental monitoring considerations.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Borghini, F; Corral, A; Grimalt, J O

    2004-11-01

    The uptake rates of selected hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)--a polyethylene layflat containing the lipid triolein--were investigated under natural conditions. SPMDs were exposed in three sampling sites (industrial, urban, and agricultural areas) in the Tajo River (Toledo, Spain) for 5, 11 and 20 d. The organochlorine compounds 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in the SPMDs deployed in the three sampling sites. A linear uptake rate was found for DDTs and for 4-Cl- and 5-Cl-substituted PCB congeners in all sampling sites. Concentrations of HCHs (80.3 ng g(-1) SPMD for alpha-HCH and 109 ng g(-1) SPMD for gamma-HCH after 20 d of exposure) increased according to a linear uptake rate in the SPMDs deployed in the sampling site located in the agricultural area. Likewise, a marked increase of total PAH concentration (up to 300 ng g(-1) SPMD after 20 d of exposure) was solely found in the sampling site situated near a thermoelectric power station. Examination of individual PAHs revealed that PAHs with log K(OW) between 4.2 and 5.7 displayed a linear uptake rate over the 20 d of exposure. Water concentrations (ng L(-1)) of HCB (0.80-2.48), lindane (1.30-11.5), 4,4'-DDT (0.61-2.02), 4,4'-DDE (6.89-11.6) and total PAHs (12.0-26.7) estimated by a linear uptake kinetic model were found to be high in comparison with other polluted aquatic systems, and similar to concentrations in other Spanish rivers. Our results suggest that SPMD kinetic uptake studies in the natural environment are recommended for identifying point-pollution sources, and that shorter times of SPMD exposure (approximately 1 week) are desirable to minimize one of the main problems of field SPMD deployment, i.e., the biofouling, which negatively affects the estimation of the dissolved HOC

  14. Morphology-properties relationship of gas plasma treated hydrophobic meso-porous membranes and their improved performance for desalination by membrane distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumée, Ludovic F.; Alglave, Hortense; Chaffraix, Thomas; Lin, Bao; Magniez, Kevin; Schütz, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    The impact on performance of the surface energy and roughness of membrane materials used for direct contact membrane distillation are critical but yet poorly investigated parameters. The capacity to alter the wettability of highly hydrophobic materials such as poly(tetra-fluoro-ethylene) (PTFE) by gas plasma treatments is reported in this paper. An equally important contribution from this investigation arises from illustrating how vaporized material from the treated sample participates after a short while in the composition of the plasma and fundamentally changes the result of surface chemistry processes. The water contact angle across the hydrophobic membranes is generally controlled by varying the plasma gas conditions, such as the plasma power, chamber pressure and irradiation duration. Changes to surface porosity and roughness of the bulk material as well as the surface chemistry, through specific and partial de-fluorination of the surface were detected and systematically studied by Fourier transform infra-red analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the rupture of fibrils, formed during membrane processing by thermal-stretching, led to the formation of a denser surface composed of nodules similar to these naturally acting as bridging points across the membrane material between fibrils. This structural change has a profound and impart a permanent effect on the permeation across the modified membranes, which was found to be enhanced by up to 10% for long plasma exposures while the selectivity of the membranes was found to remain unaffected by the treatment at a level higher than 99.99%. This is the first time that an investigation demonstrates how the permeation characteristics of these membranes is directly related to data from spectral, morphological and surface charge analyses, which provide new insights on the impact of plasma treatments on both, the surface charge and roughness, of PTFE porous materials.

  15. Distribution and diffusivity of a hydrophobic probe molecule in the interior of a membrane: theory and simulation.

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, M L; Cruz, V; Cascales, J J; Acuña, A U; García de la Torre, J

    1996-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the distribution of position and orientation and the diffusion of a hydrophobic probe molecule embedded in a membrane. The molecule experiences both a Maier-Saupe orienting potential as well as an enclosing potential of repulsion from the membrane walls. A statistical thermodynamics treatment of the model provides predictions of the location and orientation of the molecule within the membrane. In particular, we evaluate the order parameter of the molecule in terms of the model constants. The diffusivity of the probe is studied by Brownian dynamics simulation. For rotational diffusion, we check an available analytical approximate treatment that allows for the prediction of the dynamics in terms of equilibrium quantities. We also pay attention to quantities related to the initial and mean reorientational rate of the probe. For translational diffusion, we use the simulation results to analyze some general aspects of lateral and transversal diffusion. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 PMID:8874017

  16. The Outer Membrane Protein OmpW Forms an Eight-Stranded beta-Barrel with a Hydrophobic Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Hong,H.; Patel, D.; Tamm, L.; van den Berg, B.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli OmpW belongs to a family of small outer membrane (OM) proteins that are widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. Their functions are unknown, but recent data suggest that they may be involved in the protection of bacteria against various forms of environmental stress. In order to gain insight into the function of these proteins we have determined the crystal structure of Escherichia coli OmpW to 2.7 Angstroms resolution. The structure shows that OmpW forms an eight-stranded beta-barrel with a long and narrow hydrophobic channel that contains a bound LDAO detergent molecule. Single channel conductance experiments show that OmpW functions as an ion channel in planar lipid bilayers. The channel activity can be blocked by the addition of LDAO. Taken together, the data suggest that members of the OmpW family could be involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules across the bacterial OM.

  17. Chemical studies of viral entry mechanisms: I. Hydrophobic protein-lipid interactions during Sendai virus membrane fusion. II. Kinetics of bacteriophage. lambda. DNA injection

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Sendai virus glycoprotein interactions with target membranes during the early stages of fusion were examined using time-resolved hydrophobic photoaffinity labeling with the lipid-soluble carbene generator 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m({sup 125}I) iodophenyl)diazirine. During Sendai virus fusion with liposomes composed of cardiolipin or phosphatidylserine, the viral fusion (F) protein is preferentially labeled at early time points, supporting the hypothesis that hydrophobic interaction of the fusion peptide at the N-terminus of the F{sub 1} subunit with the target membrane is an initiating event in fusion. Correlation of hydrophobic interactions with independently monitored fusion kinetics further supports this conclusion. The F{sub 1} subunit, containing the putative hydrophobic fusion sequence, is exclusively labeled, and the F{sub 2} subunit does not participate in fusion. Labeling shows temperature and pH dependence consistent with a need for protein conformational mobility and fusion at neutral pH. Higher amounts of labeling during fusion with CL vesicles than during virus-PS vesicle fusion reflects membrane packing regulation of peptide insertion into target membranes. Labeling of the viral hemagglutinin/neuraminidase (HN) at low pH indicates that HN-mediated fusion is triggered by hydrophobic interactions. Controls for diffusional labeling exclude a major contribution from this source. Labeling during reconstituted Sendai virus envelope-liposome fusion shows that functional reconstitution involves protein retention of the ability to undergo hydrophobic interactions. Examination of Sendai virus fusion with erythrocyte membranes indicates that hydrophobic interactions also trigger fusion between biological membranes. The data show that hydrophobic fusion protein interaction with both artificial and biological membranes is a triggering event in fusion.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of low-cost, bead-free, durable and hydrophobic electrospun membrane for 3D cell culture.

    PubMed

    Moghadas, Hajar; Saidi, Mohammad Said; Kashaninejad, Navid; Kiyoumarsioskouei, Amir; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2017-08-22

    This paper reports the fabrication of electrospun polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes/scaffolds that are suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. Through modification the ratio between PDMS and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as carrier polymer, we report the possibility of increasing PDMS weight ratio of up to 6 for electrospinning. Increasing the PDMS content increases the fiber diameter, the pore size, and the hydrophobicity. To our best knowledge, this is the first report describing beads-free, durable and portable electrospun membrane with maximum content of PDMS suitable for cell culture applications. To show the proof-of-concept, we successfully cultured epithelial lung cancer cells on these membranes in a static well plate without surface modification. Surprisingly, due to three-dimensional (3D) and hydrophobic nature of the electrospun fibers, cells aggregated into 3D multicellular spheroids. These easily detachable and cost-effective scaffolds with controllable thicknesses and high tensile strength are good candidates for cell-stretching devices, organ-on-a-chip devices, tissue engineering and studies of non-adherent mammalian cancer stem cells.

  19. Method of making a membrane having hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces for adhering cells or antibodies by using atomic oxygen or hydroxyl radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portion of an organic polymer article such as a membrane is made hydrophilic by exposing a hydrophobic surface of the article to a depth of about 50 to about 5000 angstroms to atomic oxygen or hydroxyl radicals at a temperature below 100C., preferably below 40 C, to form a hydrophilic uniform surface layer of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups. The atomic oxygen and hydroxyl radicals are generated by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, and the surface is outside of a plasma produced by the discharge. A membrane having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces can be used in an immunoassay by adhering antibodies to the hydrophobic surface. In another embodiment, the membrane is used in cell culturing where cells adhere to the hydrophilic surface. Prior to adhering cells, the hydrophilic surface may be grafted with a compatibilizing compound. A plurality of hydrophilic regions bounded by adjacent hydrophobic regions can be produced such that a maximum of one cell per each hydrophilic region adheres.

  20. Hydrophobic domains of mouse polyomavirus minor capsid proteins promote membrane association and virus exit from the ER.

    PubMed

    Huérfano, Sandra; Ryabchenko, Boris; Španielová, Hana; Forstová, Jitka

    2017-03-01

    The minor structural protein VP2 and its shorter variant, VP3, of mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) are essential for virus exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during viral trafficking to the nucleus. Here, we followed the role of putative hydrophobic domains (HD) of the minor proteins in membrane affinity and viral infectivity. We prepared variants of VP2, each mutated to decrease hydrophobicity of one of three predicted hydrophobic domains: VP2-mHD1, VP2-mHD2 or VP2-mHD3 mutated in HD1 (amino acids (aa) 60-101), HD2 (aa 125-165) or HD3 (aa 287-307), respectively. Transient production of the mutated proteins revealed that only VP2-mHD2 lost the affinity for intracellular membranes. Cytotoxicity connected with the ability of VP2/VP3 to perforate membranes decreased markedly for VP2-mHD2, but only slightly for VP2-mHD1. The mutant VP2-mHD3 exhibited properties similar to the wild-type protein. MPyV genomes, each carrying one of the mutations, were prepared for virus production. MPyV-mHD1 and MPyV-mHD2 viruses could be isolated, while the HD3 mutation in VP2/VP3 prevented virus assembly. We found that both MPyV-mHD1 and MPyV-mHD2 viruses arrived at the ER without delay and were processed by ER residential enzymes. However, the ability to associate with ER membranes was decreased in the case of MPyV-mHD1 and practically abolished in the case of MPyV-mHD2. Interestingly, while MPyV-mHD2 was not infectious, infection of MPyV-mHD1 virus was delayed. These findings reveal that HD2, common to both VP2 and VP3, is responsible for the membrane binding properties of the minor proteins, while HD1 of VP2 is likely required to stabilize VP2-membrane association and to enhance viral exit from the ER. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Effects of hydrophobicity of diffusion layer on the electroreduction of biomass derivatives in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Gaohong; Ge, Feilong; Xiao, Wu; Benziger, Jay; Wu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the hydrophobicity design of a diffusion layer based on the volatility of hydrogenation reactants in aqueous solutions is reported. The hydrophobicity of the diffusion layer greatly influences the hydrogenation performance of two model biomass derivatives, namely, butanone and maleic acid, in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors operated at atmospheric pressure. Hydrophobic carbon paper repels aqueous solutions, but highly volatile butanone can permeate in vapor form and achieve a high hydrogenation rate, whereas, for nonvolatile maleic acid, great mass transfer resistance prevents hydrogenation. With a hydrophilic stainless-steel welded mesh diffusion layer, aqueous solutions of both butanone and maleic acid permeate in liquid form. Hydrogenation of maleic acid reaches a similar level as that of butanone. The maximum reaction rate is 340 nmol cm(-2)  s(-1) for both hydrogenation systems and the current efficiency reaches 70 %. These results are better than those reported in the literature. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Pervaporative removal of organics from water using hydrophobic membranes. Binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Results of pervaporation experiments are presented for the separation of several polar and nonpolar organic solvents from their aqueous solutions. Three membranes were evaluated: a polydimethylsiloxane (PERVAP-1060) membrane, a PDMS ZSM-5 zeolite filled (PERVAP-1070) membrane, and a poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBAX-4033) membrane. The effect of feed composition on flux and selectivity was also investigated. Performance parameters of a given membrane depended both on the kind of the organic solvent and the feed composition. The PERVAP-1070 membrane exhibited the highest selectivity with a separation factor over 900 in contact with a water-butyl acetate mixture. Polar solvents like methanol were also preferentially separated from aqueous solutions, but the separation factors were close to those obtained from liquid-vapor equilibria data. Permeate fluxes of organics increased with increasing feed concentration. Synergetic effects between water and organics fluxes were also observed.

  3. Electrostatic Localization of RNA to Protocell Membranes by Cationic Hydrophobic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Neha P; Tobé, Sylvia; Hill, Ian T; Szostak, Jack W

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative interactions between RNA and vesicle membranes on the prebiotic earth may have led to the emergence of primitive cells. The membrane surface offers a potential platform for the catalysis of reactions involving RNA, but this scenario relies upon the existence of a simple mechanism by which RNA could become associated with protocell membranes. Here, we show that electrostatic interactions provided by short, basic, amphipathic peptides can be harnessed to drive RNA binding to both zwitterionic phospholipid and anionic fatty acid membranes. We show that the association of cationic molecules with phospholipid vesicles can enhance the local positive charge on a membrane and attract RNA polynucleotides. This phenomenon can be reproduced with amphipathic peptides as short as three amino acids. Finally, we show that peptides can cross bilayer membranes to localize encapsulated RNA. This mechanism of polynucleotide confinement could have been important for primitive cellular evolution. PMID:26223820

  4. The bacteriocin AS-48 requires dimer dissociation followed by hydrophobic interactions with the membrane for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, Rubén; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Albert, Armando; Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Barrena, María José

    2015-05-01

    The molecular mechanism underlining the antibacterial activity of the bacteriocin AS-48 is not known, and two different and opposite alternatives have been proposed. Available data suggested that the interaction of positively charged amino acids of AS-48 with the membrane would produce membrane destabilization and disruption. Alternatively, it has been proposed that AS-48 activity could rely on the effective insertion of the bacteriocin into the membrane. The biological and structural properties of the AS-48G13K/L40K double mutant were investigated to shed light on this subject. Compared with the wild type, the mutant protein suffered an important reduction in the antibacterial activity. Biochemical and structural studies of AS-48G13K/L40K mutant suggest the basis of its decreased antimicrobial activity. Lipid cosedimentation assays showed that the membrane affinity of AS-48G13K/L40K is 12-fold lower than that observed for the wild type. L40K mutation is responsible for this reduced membrane affinity and thus, hydrophobic interactions are involved in membrane association. Furthermore, the high-resolution crystal structure of AS-48G13K/L40K, together with the study of its dimeric character in solution showed that G13K stabilizes the inactive water-soluble dimer, which displays a reduced dipole moment. Our data suggest that the cumulative effect of these three affected properties reduces AS-48 activity, and point out that the bactericidal effect is achieved by the electrostatically driven approach of the inactive water-soluble dimer towards the membrane, followed by the dissociation and insertion of the protein into the lipid bilayer.

  5. Adamantane-based amphiphiles (ADAs) for membrane protein study: importance of a detergent hydrophobic group in membrane protein solubilisation.

    PubMed

    Chae, Pil Seok; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Das, Manabendra

    2014-10-21

    We prepared adamantane-containing amphiphiles and evaluated them using a large membrane protein complex in terms of protein solubilisation and stabilization efficacy. These agents were superior to conventional detergents, especially in terms of the membrane protein solubilisation efficiency, implying a new detergent structure-property relationship.

  6. Secretion of endothelin converting enzyme-1a: the hydrophobic signal anchor domain alone is not sufficient to promote membrane localization.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S C; Fernandez, L; Ergul, A

    2000-05-01

    Endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) is a type II membrane protein that is important for the proteolytic activation of big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1. Although the highly conserved zinc-binding motif is known to be located in the extracellular domain, the role(s) of the N-terminal and membrane-spanning signal anchor domains in the biosynthesis and function of ECE-1 isoforms, ECE-1a, ECE-1b, and ECE-1c, remain undetermined. In this study, we provide evidence that the deletion of the cytoplasmic N-terminal tail (residues 1-55) of ECE-1a results in the cleavage of a potential signal peptide located in the signal anchor domain leading to the partial secretion of the recombinant enzyme into the media. However, the truncation of N-terminal and/or signal anchor domain does not affect the activity of ECE-1a. Therefore, our results demonstrate that the hydrophobic signal anchor domain alone is not sufficient for the membrane anchoring of ECE-1a and that the N-terminal domain of ECE-1a is important for membrane targeting as well as the intracellular localization of the enzyme.

  7. Label-free proteomic analysis of the hydrophobic membrane protein complement in articular chondrocytes: a technique for identification of membrane biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Csaba; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liddell, Susan; Smith, Julia R.; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: There is insufficient knowledge about the chondrocyte membranome and its molecular composition. Objective: To develop a Triton X-114 based separation technique using nanoLC-MS/MS combined with shotgun proteomics to identify chondrocyte membrane proteins. Materials and methods: Articular chondrocytes from equine metacarpophalangeal joints were separated into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions; trypsin-digested proteins were analysed by nanoLC-MS/MS. Results: A total of 315 proteins were identified. The phase extraction method yielded a high proportion of membrane proteins (56%) including CD276, S100-A6 and three VDAC isoforms. Discussion: Defining the chondrocyte membranome is likely to reveal new biomarker targets for conventional and biological drug discovery. PMID:26864288

  8. Outer membrane permeability for nonpolar antimicrobial agents underlies extreme susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida to the hydrophobic biocide triclosan.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Matthew L; Champlin, Franklin R

    2007-10-06

    Pasteurella multocida exhibits nonspecific susceptibility to nonpolar antimicrobial agents such as triclosan, despite possessing an ultrastructurally typical gram-negative cell envelope. Capsulated and noncapsulated cell surface variants were examined to investigate the role outer membrane permeability plays in triclosan susceptibility. Test strains were unable to initiate growth in the presence of bile salts and were susceptible to triclosan with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.06 to 0.25 microg/ml. Disk agar diffusion bioassays revealed triclosan susceptibility to be dose dependent and all strains were susceptible to the hydrophobic antibiotics novobiocin, rifamycin SV, and chloramphenicol. Triclosan minimal bactericidal concentrations were greater than MICs, thereby suggesting that dose dependency reflected both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. Total and viable cell density growth kinetic determinations revealed a triclosan concentration of 2.0 microg/ml resulted in loss of batch culture viability within 4-24 h. Concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 microg/ml exerted either a bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect depending on the strain. Uptake of the hydrophobic probe 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine was greater in P. multocida strains than refractory control organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli thereby suggesting the presence of phospholipid bilayer regions in the outer membrane. Because triclosan inhibits a conserved enoyl-ACP reductase necessary for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis, these data support the notion that extreme susceptibility in P. multocida is due to the general inability of the outer membrane to exclude nonpolar compounds. Moreover, susceptibility is independent of the presence of capsular material and the biocide is bactericidal in a concentration dependent manner.

  9. Adsorption and transport of charged vs. neutral hydrophobic molecules at the membrane of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jia; Eckenrode, Heather M; Dai, Hai-Lung; Wilhelm, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    The adsorption and transport of hydrophobic molecules at the membrane surface of pre- and post-DMSO induced differentiated murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells were examined by time- and wavelength-resolved second harmonic light scattering. Two medium (<600 Da) hydrophobic molecules, cationic malachite green (MG) and neutral bromocresol purple (BCP), were investigated. While it was observed that the MG cation adsorbs onto the surface of the MEL cell, neutral BCP does not. It is suggested that an electrostatic interaction between the opposite charges of the cation and the MEL cell surface is the primary driving force for adsorption. Comparisons of adsorption density and free energy, measured at different pH and cell morphology, indicate that the interaction is predominantly through sialic acid carboxyl groups. MG cation adsorption densities have been determined as (0.6±0.3)×10(6) μm(-2) on the surface of undifferentiated MEL cells, and (1.8±0.5)×10(7) μm(-2) on differentiated MEL cells, while the deduced adsorption free energies are effectively identical (ca. -10.9±0.1 and -10.8±0.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively). The measured MG densities indicate that the total number of surface carboxyl groups is largely conserved following differentiation, and therefore the density of carboxylic groups is much larger on the differentiated cell surface than the undifferentiated one. Finally, in contrast to synthetic liposomes and bacterial membranes, surface adsorbed MG cations are unable to traverse the MEL cell membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A modified parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for evaluating the bioconcentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Escher, Beate I

    2008-03-01

    Low cost in vitro tools are needed at the screening stage of assessment of bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals because the number of chemical substances that needs to be tested highly exceeds the capacity of in vivo bioconcentration tests. Thus, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) system was modified to predict passive uptake/ elimination rate in fish. To overcome the difficulties associated with low aqueous solubility and high membrane affinity of highly hydrophobic chemicals, we measured the rate of permeation from the donor poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) disk to the acceptor PDMS disk through aqueous and PDMS membrane boundary layers and term the modified PAMPA system "PDMS-PAMPA". Twenty chemicals were selected for validation of PDMS-PAMPA. The measured permeability is proportional to the passive elimination rate constant in fish and was used to predict the "minimum" in vivo elimination rate constant. The in vivo data were very close to predicted values except for a few polar chemicals and metabolically active chemicals, such as pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, PDMS-PAMPA can be an appropriate in vitro system for nonmetabolizable chemicals. Combination with metabolic clearance rates using a battery of metabolic degradation assays would enhance the applicability for metabolizable chemicals.

  11. Imidazolium-containing, hydrophobic-ionic-hydrophilic ABC triblock copolymers: synthesis, ordered phase-separation, and supported membrane fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenauer, EF; Nguyen, PT; Newell, BS; Bailey, TS; Nobleb, RD; Gin, DL

    2013-01-01

    Novel ABC triblock copolymers containing hydrophobic, imidazolium ionic liquid (IL)-based ionic, and non-charged hydrophilic blocks were synthesized by direct sequential, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of three chemically immiscible norborene monomers. The resulting ABC triblock copolymers were found by small-angle X-ray scattering to phase-separate into different nanostructures in their pure melt states, depending on their block sequence and compositions. Supported composite membranes of these triblock copolymers were successfully fabricated with defect-free, <= 20 microns thick top coatings. Preliminary CO2/light gas transport studies demonstrated the potential of this new type of IL-based block copolymer material for gas separation applications.

  12. Hydrophilic TiO2 porous spheres anchored on hydrophobic polypropylene membrane for wettability induced high photodegrading activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Fang; Zhang, Le-Sheng; Chen, Chao-Qiu; Li, Wei; Li, Lin; Song, Wei-Guo; Jiang, Lei

    2010-08-01

    TiO2 porous nanospheres on polypropylene (PP) films (TiO2/PP composite) are produced at ambient temperature. Particle/pore size match up is the key anchoring point to overcome the low affinity between hydrophilic materials and hydrophobic materials. With the hydrophilic TiO2 catalyst evenly dispersed on a hydrophobic surface, the aqueous solution will selectively skip the substrate and wet the catalysts. Such a wettability-induced smart system maximizes the degrading activity of the TiO2 catalyst. In photodegrading reactions, the resulting TiO2/PP composite film exhibits a 10 times higher activity in flow-type setup than the same TiO2 catalyst in a traditional batch-type setup.TiO2 porous nanospheres on polypropylene (PP) films (TiO2/PP composite) are produced at ambient temperature. Particle/pore size match up is the key anchoring point to overcome the low affinity between hydrophilic materials and hydrophobic materials. With the hydrophilic TiO2 catalyst evenly dispersed on a hydrophobic surface, the aqueous solution will selectively skip the substrate and wet the catalysts. Such a wettability-induced smart system maximizes the degrading activity of the TiO2 catalyst. In photodegrading reactions, the resulting TiO2/PP composite film exhibits a 10 times higher activity in flow-type setup than the same TiO2 catalyst in a traditional batch-type setup. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD results for TiO2 porous nanospheres; photos of Methylene Blue, and Rhodamine B (100 mg L-1) aqueous solution degraded by TiO2/PP composite film under UV irradiation in the flow-type setup; quantitative plots of concentration profiles; contact angle of water droplets on TiO2 porous spheres and on PP membrane; SEM image of used TiO2/PP composite. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00182a

  13. Factors affecting alcohol-water pervaporation performance of hydrophobic zeolite-silicone rubber mixed matrix membranes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) consisting of ZSM-5 zeolite particles dispersed in silicone rubber exhibited ethanol-water pervaporation permselectivities up to 5 times that of silicone rubber alone and 3 times higher than simple vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). A number of conditi...

  14. Factors affecting alcohol-water pervaporation performance of hydrophobic zeolite-silicone rubber mixed matrix membranes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) consisting of ZSM-5 zeolite particles dispersed in silicone rubber exhibited ethanol-water pervaporation permselectivities up to 5 times that of silicone rubber alone and 3 times higher than simple vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). A number of conditi...

  15. The N-terminal hydrophobic region of the mature phosphate translocator is sufficient for targeting to the chloroplast inner envelope membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, J S; Gray, J C

    1995-01-01

    To locate the sequence required for directing the phosphate translocator to the chloroplast inner envelope membrane, a series of chimeric proteins constituting parts of the phosphate translocator and the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, which is normally located in the stroma, has been produced. Reciprocal exchanges of the presequences and mature sequences of the phosphate translocator and the small subunit indicated that the phosphate translocator presequence contains stromal targeting information and that the mature protein is responsible for inner envelope membrane targeting. Chimeric proteins containing the N-terminal 46 amino acid residues of the phosphate translocator were directed to the inner envelope membrane. Subdivision of this region into its composite hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions showed that the hydrophobic region alone, which consists of amino acid residues 24 to 45, was able to direct the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase to the inner envelope membrane. PMID:8589626

  16. Chemical Synthesis of the Highly Hydrophobic Antiviral Membrane-Associated Protein IFITM3 and Modified Variants.

    PubMed

    Harmand, Thibault J; Pattabiraman, Vijaya R; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2017-10-02

    Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an antiviral transmembrane protein that is thought to serve as the primary factor for inhibiting the replication of a large number of viruses, including West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Ebola virus, and Zika virus. Production of this 14.5 kDa, 133-residue transmembrane protein, especially with essential posttranslational modifications, by recombinant expression is challenging. In this report, we document the chemical synthesis of IFTIM3 in multi-milligram quantities (>15 mg) and the preparation of phosphorylated and fluorescent variants. The synthesis was accomplished by using KAHA ligations, which operate under acidic aqueous/organic mixtures that excel at solubilizing even the exceptionally hydrophobic C-terminal region of IFITM3. The synthetic material is readily incorporated into model vesicles and forms the basis for using synthetic, homogenous IFITM3 and its derivatives for further studying its structure and biological mode of action. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The cost of living in the membrane: A case study of hydrophobic mismatch for the multi-segment protein LeuT

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Sayan; Khelashvili, George; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel

    2013-01-01

    Many observations of the role of the membrane in the function and organization of transmembrane (TM) proteins have been explained in terms of hydrophobic mismatch between the membrane and the inserted protein. For a quantitative investigation of this mechanism in the lipid-protein interactions of functionally relevant conformations adopted by a multi-TM segment protein, the bacterial Leucine Transporter (LeuT), we employed a novel method, Continuum-Molecular Dynamics (CTMD), that quantifies the energetics of hydrophobic mismatch by combining the elastic continuum theory of membrane deformations with an atomistic level description of the radially asymmetric membrane-protein interface from MD simulations. LeuT has been serving as a model for structure-function studies of the mammalian Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters (NSSs), such as the dopamine and serotonin transporters, which are the subject of intense research in the field of neurotransmission. The membrane models in which LeuT was embedded for these studies were composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid, or 3:1 mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) lipids. The results show that deformation of the host membrane alone is not sufficient to alleviate the hydrophobic mismatch at specific residues of LeuT. The calculations reveal significant membrane thinning and water penetration due to the specific local polar environment produced by the charged K288 of TM7 in LeuT, that is membrane-facing deep inside the hydrophobic milieu of the membrane. This significant perturbation is shown to result in unfavorable polar-hydrophobic interactions at neighboring hydrophobic residues in TM1a and TM7. We show that all the effects attributed to the K288 residue (membrane thinning, water penetration, and the unfavorable polar-hydrophobic interactions at TM1a and TM7), are abolished in calculations with the

  18. The cost of living in the membrane: a case study of hydrophobic mismatch for the multi-segment protein LeuT.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sayan; Khelashvili, George; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel

    2013-04-01

    Many observations of the role of the membrane in the function and organization of transmembrane (TM) proteins have been explained in terms of hydrophobic mismatch between the membrane and the inserted protein. For a quantitative investigation of this mechanism in the lipid-protein interactions of functionally relevant conformations adopted by a multi-TM segment protein, the bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), we employed a novel method, Continuum-Molecular Dynamics (CTMD), that quantifies the energetics of hydrophobic mismatch by combining the elastic continuum theory of membrane deformations with an atomistic level description of the radially asymmetric membrane-protein interface from MD simulations. LeuT has been serving as a model for structure-function studies of the mammalian neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs), such as the dopamine and serotonin transporters, which are the subject of intense research in the field of neurotransmission. The membrane models in which LeuT was embedded for these studies were composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) lipid, or 3:1 mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) lipids. The results show that deformation of the host membrane alone is not sufficient to alleviate the hydrophobic mismatch at specific residues of LeuT. The calculations reveal significant membrane thinning and water penetration due to the specific local polar environment produced by the charged K288 of TM7 in LeuT, that is membrane-facing deep inside the hydrophobic milieu of the membrane. This significant perturbation is shown to result in unfavorable polar-hydrophobic interactions at neighboring hydrophobic residues in TM1a and TM7. We show that all the effects attributed to the K288 residue (membrane thinning, water penetration, and the unfavorable polar-hydrophobic interactions at TM1a and TM7), are abolished in calculations with the

  19. Formation of Pervaporation Membranes from Polyphosphazenes Having Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Pendant Groups: Synthesis and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Frederick Forrest; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Luther, Thomas Alan; Orme, Christopher Joseph; Lash, Robert Paul

    2001-02-01

    A series of new polyphosphazene polymers were synthesized using three different pendant groups with the goal of probing structure-function relationships between pendant group substitution and polymer swelling/water flux through thin dense films. Formation of polymers with relative degrees of hydrophilicity was probed by varying the stoichiometry of the pendant groups attached to the phosphazene backbone: p-methoxyphenol, 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol, and o-allylphenol. The polymers in this study were characterized using NMR, thermal methods, and dilute solution light-scattering techniques. These techniques revealed that the polymers were amorphous high polymers (Mw = 105-107) with varying ratios of pendant groups as determined by integration of the 1H- and 31P-NMR spectra. Thin dense film membranes were solution-cast with azo-bis(cyclohexane)carbonitrile included in the matrix and crosslinked using thermal initiation.

  20. Mycoplasma gallisepticum inactivated by targeting the hydrophobic domain of the membrane preserves surface lipoproteins and induces a strong immune response.

    PubMed

    Atalla, Hazem; Lysnyansky, Inna; Raviv, Yossef; Rottem, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach for inactivation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum using the hydrophobic photoinduced alkylating probe 1, 5-iodonaphthylazide (INA) is described. Treatment of washed M. gallisepticum mid-exponential culture (0.2 mg cell protein /mL) with INA followed by irradiation with far-ultraviolet light (310-380 nm) completely abolished viability. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the majority of the inactivated M. gallisepticum were comparable in size to intact cells, but that part of the INA-treated M. gallisepticum preparation also contained low density cells and membrane vesicles. Confocal microscopy revealed that untreated M. gallisepticum cells were internalized by chicken red blood cells (c-RBCs), whereas the INA-inactivated cells remained attached to the outer surface of the c-RBCs. INA treatment of M. gallisepticum resulted in a complete inactivation of F0F1 -ATPase and of the L-arginine uptake system, but the cytoplasmatic soluble NADH2 dehydrogenase was only partially affected. Western blot analysis of the lipoprotein fraction showed that the INA-treated M. gallisepticum retained their lipoproteins. Following subcutaneous injection of M. gallisepticum INA-bacterin, 100% and 68.8% of chickens were positive by the rapid serum agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively, 2 weeks post-injection. These data suggest that the photoinducible alkylating agent INA inactivates M. gallisepticum but preserves its surface lipoproteins and thus has the potential to be used as a general approach for the inactivation of mycoplasmas for vaccine development.

  1. New Method for Super Hydrophobic Treatment of Gas Diffusion Layers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Using Electrochemical Reduction of Diazonium Salts.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Yohann R J; Benayad, Anass; Schroder, Maxime; Morin, Arnaud; Pauchet, Joël

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this article is to report a new method for the surface functionalization of commercially available gas diffusion layers (GDLs) by the electrochemical reduction of diazonium salt containing hydrophobic functional groups. The method results in superhydrophobic GDLs, over a large area, without pore blocking. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study based on core level spectra and chemical mapping has demonstrated the successful grafting route, resulting in a homogeneous distribution of the covalently bonded hydrophobic molecules on the surface of the GDL fibers. The result was corroborated by contact angle measurement, showing similar hydrophobicity between the grafted and PTFE-modified GDLs. The electrochemically modified GDLs were tested in proton exchange membrane fuel cells under automotive, wet, and dry conditions and demonstrated improved performance over traditional GDLs.

  2. Nature of Interactions between PEO-PPO-PEO Triblock Copolymers and Lipid Membranes: (I) The Effect of Polymer Hydrophobicity on Its Ability to Protect Liposomes from Peroxidation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee C.

    2013-01-01

    PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers have opposing effects on lipid membrane integrity- they can behave either as membrane sealants or as membrane permeabilizers. To gain insights into their biomembrane activities, the fundamental interactions between a series of PEO-based polymers and phospholipid vesicles were investigated. Specifically, the effect of copolymer hydrophobicity on its ability to prevent liposomes from peroxidation was evaluated, and partitioning free energy and coefficient involved in the interactions were derived. Our results show that the high degree of hydrophilicity is a key feature of the copolymers that can effectively protect liposomes from peroxidation and the protective effect of the copolymers stems from their adsorption at the membrane surface without penetrating into the bilayer core. The origin of this protective effect induced by polymer absorption is attributed to the retardation of membrane hydration dynamics, which is further illustrated in the accompany study on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-derived hydration dynamics1. PMID:22808900

  3. Physical behavior of the hydrophobic core of membranes: properties of 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol.

    PubMed

    Di, L; Small, D M

    1995-12-26

    Phospholipids containing a saturated fatty acid in the primary position and an unsaturated fatty acid in the secondary position are a major structural part of biological membranes. The mixed-chain hydrophobic core of the membranes is the diacylglycerol part. To better understand the core properties of membranes we have studied the physical behavior of 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol (SLDG) by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the dry and hydrated states. Dry SLDG has four polymorphic phases: alpha (transition temperature, 11.6 degrees C; delta H = 7.5 kcal/mol); sub-alpha 1 (3.0 degrees C; 0.6 kcal/mol); sub-alpha 2(-1.0 degrees C; 0.5 kcal/mol); and beta' (16.1 degrees C; 15.4 kcal/mol). The alpha, sub-alpha 1, and sub-alpha 2 phases are metastable with a probable extended bilayer structure (d001 approximately 59.5 A). The chain packing of the alpha phase is hexagonal, while sub-alpha 1 and sub-alpha 2 have pseudohexagonal chain packing. The beta' phase has a tilted bilayer structure (46.9 A) with strong wide-angle diffractions, suggesting elements of orthorhombic perpendicular packing. Compared to saturated 1,2-diacylglycerols, SLDG packs much less efficiently, but, when compared to 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol, it appears to pack somewhat more efficiently. Thus polyunsaturated linoleate chains appear to pack marginally more effectively with the saturated stearate chains than do monounsaturated chains. SLDG hydrates with 0.5 mol of H2O, which prevents the beta' phase from forming. Only one hydrated alpha phase (alpha w) and two hydrated sub-alpha (sub-alpha w1, sub-alpha w2) phases are formed. These phases are similar in structure to the nonhydrated alpha phases, but the bilayer period is increased by about 2 A (d001 approximately 61.5 A). This causes minor changes in polymorphism, including lower melting temperatures and enthalpy. A comparison of diacylglycerols to phosphatidylcholines with the same chains shows that the

  4. Binding of cationic pentapeptides with modified side chain lengths to negatively charged lipid membranes: Complex interplay of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoernke, Maria; Schwieger, Christian; Kerth, Andreas; Blume, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    Basic amino acids play a key role in the binding of membrane associated proteins to negatively charged membranes. However, side chains of basic amino acids like lysine do not only provide a positive charge, but also a flexible hydrocarbon spacer that enables hydrophobic interactions. We studied the influence of hydrophobic contributions to the binding by varying the side chain length of pentapeptides with ammonium groups starting with lysine to lysine analogs with shorter side chains, namely omithine (Orn), alpha, gamma-diaminobutyric acid (Dab) and alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (Dap). The binding to negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membranes was investigated by calorimetry, FT-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and monolayer techniques. The binding was influenced by counteracting and sometimes compensating contributions. The influence of the bound peptides on the lipid phase behavior depends on the length of the peptide side chains. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments showed exothermic and endothermic effects compensating to a different extent as a function of side chain length. The increase in lipid phase transition temperature was more significant for peptides with shorter side chains. FTIR-spectroscopy revealed changes in hydration of the lipid bilayer interface after peptide binding. Using monolayer techniques, the contributions of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects could clearly be observed. Peptides with short side chains induced a pronounced decrease in surface pressure of PG monolayers whereas peptides with additional hydrophobic interactions decreased the surface pressure much less or even lead to an increase, indicating insertion of the hydrophobic part of the side chain into the lipid monolayer.

  5. A hydrophobic filter confers the cation selectivity of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii plasma-membrane Na+/H+ antiporter.

    PubMed

    Kinclova-Zimmermannova, Olga; Falson, Pierre; Cmunt, Denis; Sychrova, Hana

    2015-04-24

    Na(+)/H(+) antiporters may recognize all alkali-metal cations as substrates but may transport them selectively. Plasma-membrane Zygosaccharomyces rouxii Sod2-22 antiporter exports Na(+) and Li(+), but not K(+). The molecular basis of this selectivity is unknown. We combined protein structure modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, phenotype analysis and cation efflux measurements to localize and characterize the cation selectivity region. A three-dimensional model of the ZrSod2-22 transmembrane domain was generated based on the X-ray structure of the Escherichia coli NhaA antiporter and primary sequence alignments with homologous yeast antiporters. The model suggested a close proximity of Thr141, Ala179 and Val375 from transmembrane segments 4, 5 and 11, respectively, forming a hydrophobic hole in the putative cation pathway's core. A series of mutagenesis experiments verified the model and showed that structural modifications of the hole resulted in altered cation selectivity and transport activity. The triple ZrSod2-22 mutant T141S-A179T-V375I gained K(+) transport capacity. The point mutation A179T restricted the antiporter substrate specificity to Li(+) and reduced its transport activity, while serine at this position preserved the native cation selectivity. The negative effect of the A179T mutation can be eliminated by introducing a second mutation, T141S or T141A, in the preceding transmembrane domain. Our experimental results confirm that the three residues found through modeling play a central role in the determination of cation selectivity and transport activity in Z. rouxii Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and that the cation selectivity can be modulated by repositioning a single local methyl group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The membrane lateral pressure-perturbing capacity of parabens and their effects on the mechanosensitive channel directly correlate with hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Kamaraju, Kishore; Sukharev, Sergei

    2008-10-07

    Lipid bilayers provide a natural anisotropic environment for membrane proteins and can serve as apolar reservoirs for lipid-derived second messengers or lipophilic drugs. Partitioning of lipophilic agents changes the lateral pressure distribution in the bilayer, affecting integral proteins. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are amphipathic compounds widely used as food and cosmetics preservatives, but the mechanisms of their broad antibacterial action are unknown. Here we describe effects of ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens on the gating of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and compare them with the surface activity and lateral pressure changes measured in lipid monolayers in the presence of these substances. Near the bilayer-monolayer equivalence pressure of 35 mN/m, ethyl, propyl, or butyl paraben present in the subphase at 1 mM increased the surface pressure of the monolayer by 5, 12.5, or 20%, respectively. No spontaneous activation of MscS channels was observed in patch-clamp experiments with parabens added from either the cytoplasmic or periplasmic side. Increasing concentrations of parabens on the cytoplasmic side of excised patches shifted activation curves of MscS toward higher tensions. A good correlation between the pressure increases in monolayers and shifts in activation midpoints in patch-clamp experiments suggested that the more hydrophobic parabens partition more strongly into the lipid and exert larger effects on channel gating through changes in lateral pressure. We show that cytoplasmically presented ethyl or butyl parabens both hasten the process of desensitization of MscS and influence inactivation differently. The higher rate of desensitization is likely due to increased lateral pressure in the cytoplasmic leaflet surrounding the gate. Neither of the parabens strongly affects the rate of recovery and does not seem to penetrate the TM2-TM3 interhelical clefts in MscS. We conclude that the bacterial

  7. The Crystal Structure of OprG from Pseudomonas aeruginosa a Potential Channel for Transport of Hydrophobic Molecules across the Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    D Touw; D Patel; b van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides a barrier to the passage of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the cell. The OM has embedded proteins that serve important functions in signal transduction and in the transport of molecules into the periplasm. The OmpW family of OM proteins, of which P. aeruginosa OprG is a member, is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. The biological functions of OprG and other OmpW family members are still unclear. The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides a barrier to the passage of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the cell. The OM has embedded proteins that serve important functions in signal transduction and in the transport of molecules into the periplasm. The OmpW family of OM proteins, of which P. aeruginosa OprG is a member, is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. The biological functions of OprG and other OmpW family members are still unclear. The crystal structure, together with recent biochemical data, suggests that OprG and other OmpW family members form channels that mediate the diffusion of small hydrophobic molecules across the OM by a lateral diffusion mechanism similar to that of E. coli FadL.

  8. Characterization of histatin 5 with respect to amphipathicity, hydrophobicity, and effects on cell and mitochondrial membrane integrity excludes a candidacidal mechanism of pore formation.

    PubMed

    Helmerhorst, E J; van't Hof, W; Breeuwer, P; Veerman, E C; Abee, T; Troxler, R F; Amerongen, A V; Oppenheim, F G

    2001-02-23

    Histatin 5 is a 24-residue peptide from human saliva with antifungal properties. We recently demonstrated that histatin 5 translocates across the yeast membrane and targets to the mitochondria, suggesting an unusual antifungal mechanism (Helmerhorst, E. J., Breeuwer, P., van't Hof, W., Walgreen-Weterings, E., Oomen, L. C. J. M., Veerman, E. C. I., Nieuw Amerongen, A. V., and Abee, T. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 7286-7291). The present study used specifically designed synthetic analogs of histatin 5 to elucidate the role of peptide amphipathicity, hydrophobicity, and the propensity to adopt alpha-helical structures in relation to membrane permeabilization and fungicidal activity. Studies included circular dichroism measurements, evaluation of the effects on the cytoplasmic transmembrane potential and on the respiration of isolated mitochondria, and analysis of the peptide hydrophobicity/amphipathicity relationship (Eisenberg, D. (1984) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53, 595-623). The 14-residue synthetic peptides used were dh-5, comprising the functional domain of histatin 5, and dhvar1 and dhvar4, both designed to maximize amphipathic characteristics. The results obtained show that the amphipathic analogs exhibited a high fungicidal activity, a high propensity to form an alpha-helix, dissipated the cytoplasmic transmembrane potential, and uncoupled the respiration of isolated mitochondria, similar to the pore-forming peptide PGLa (Peptide with N-terminal Glycine and C-terminal Leucine-amide). In contrast, histatin 5 and dh-5 showed fewer or none of these features. The difference in these functional characteristics between histatin 5 and dh-5 on the one hand and dhvar1, dhvar4, and PGLa on the other hand correlated well with their predicted affinity for membranes based on hydrophobicity/amphipathicity analysis. These data indicate that the salivary protein histatin 5 exerts its antifungal function through a mechanism other than pore formation.

  9. A bioluminescence ATP assay for estimating surface hydrophobicity and membrane damage of Escherichia coli cells treated with pulsed electric fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatments, a non-thermal process have been reported to injure and inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, the effect of this treatment on bacterial cell surface charge and hydrophobicity has not been investigated. Apple juice (AJ, pH 3.8) purchased from a wholesale ...

  10. Nature of interactions between PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers and lipid membranes: (I) effect of polymer hydrophobicity on its ability to protect liposomes from peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Yu; Marks, Jeremy; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2012-09-10

    PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers have opposing effects on lipid membrane integrity: they can behave either as membrane sealants or as membrane permeabilizers. To gain insights into their biomembrane activities, the fundamental interactions between a series of PEO-based polymers and phospholipid vesicles were investigated. Specifically, the effect of copolymer hydrophobicity on its ability to prevent liposomes from peroxidation was evaluated, and partitioning free energy and coefficient involved in the interactions were derived. Our results show that the high degree of hydrophilicity is a key feature of the copolymers that can effectively protect liposomes from peroxidation and the protective effect of the copolymers stems from their adsorption at the membrane surface without penetrating into the bilayer core. The origin of this protective effect induced by polymer absorption is attributed to the retardation of membrane hydration dynamics, which is further illustrated in the accompanying study on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-derived hydration dynamics (Cheng, C.-Y.; Wang, J.-Y.; Kausik, R.; Lee, K. Y. C.; Han S. Biomacromolecules, 2012, DOI: 10.1021/bm300848c).

  11. Increased binding of a hydrophobic, photolabile probe to Escherichia coli inversely correlates to membrane potential but not adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, M K; Konisky, J

    1981-01-01

    We describe conditions for a quantitative determination of azidopyrene binding to Escherichia coli cells. In addition, we define conditions whereby irradiation of azidopyrene in the presence of cells leads to irreversible association of probe with cells. This is presumably due to the light-dependent generation of reactive nitrenes and subsequent incorporation of nitrenopyrene moieties into cellular components. These methods allowed us to determine that the amount of azidopyrene bound to cells was inversely correlated with the magnitude of the cellular membrane potential, but was not correlated with high or low adenosine 5-triphosphate levels per se. Cells bound more azidopyrene if the delta psi was low. Cell-bound azidopyrene was found to be entirely associated with the inner and outer membrane. We suggest that the decreased association of hydrophobic probes upon energization of whole cells reflects a rapid transition in structural properties of the cell envelope. PMID:7007317

  12. Application of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls from hydrophobic solutions: Extracts of fish and dialysates of semipermeable membrane devices: Chapter 26

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Huckins, James N.; Petty, Jimmie D.; Potts, Michael E.; Nardone, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Determination of PCBs in biological tissue extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) can be problematic, since the hydrophobic solvents used for their extraction and isolation from interfering biochemicals have limited compatibility with the polar solvents (e.g. methanol/water) and the immunochemical reagents used in ELISA. Our studies of these solvent effects indicate that significant errors can occur when microliter volumes of PCB containing extracts, in hydrophobic solvents, are diluted directly into methanol/water diluents. Errors include low recovery and excess variability among sub-samples taken from the same sample dilution. These errors are associated with inhomogeneity of the dilution, which is readily visualized by the use of a hydrophobic dye, Solvent Blue 35. Solvent Blue 35 is also used to visualize the evaporative removal of hydrophobic solvent and the dissolution of the resulting PCB/dye residue by pure methanol and 50% (v/v) methanol/water, typical ELISA diluents. Evaporative removal of isooctane by an ambient temperature nitrogen purge with subsequent dissolution in 100% methanol gives near quantitative recovery of model PCB congeners. We also compare concentrations of total PCBs from ELISA (ePCB) to their corresponding concentrations determined from capillary gas chromatography (GC) in selected fish sample extracts and dialysates of semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) passive samplers using an optimized solvent exchange procedure. Based on Aroclor 1254 calibrations, ePCBs (ng/mL) determined in fish extracts are positively correlated with total PCB concentrations (ng/mL) determined by GC: ePCB = 1.16 * total-cPCB - 5.92. Measured ePCBs (ng/3 SPMDs) were also positively correlated (r2 = 0.999) with PCB totals (ng/3 SPMDs) measured by GC for dialysates of SPMDs: ePCB = 1.52 * total PCB - 212. Therefore, this ELISA system for PCBs can be a rapid alternative to traditional GC analyses for determination of PCBs in extracts of biota or in

  13. Direct determination of hydration in the interdigitated and ripple phases of dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine: hydration of a hydrophobic cavity at the membrane/water interface.

    PubMed Central

    Channareddy, S; Janes, N

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophobic cavities at the membrane/water interface are stably expressed in interdigitated membranes. The nonsolvent water associated with 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Hxdc(2)GroPCho) in the interdigitated (L(beta)I) and ripple (P(beta')) states and with its ester analogue 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Pam(2)PtdCho) in the gel (L(beta')) and P(beta') states are determined directly. In the L(beta)I state at lower temperatures (4-20 degrees C), 16-18 water molecules per phospholipid are bound, consistent with water-filled cavities and hydrated headgroups. At 28 degrees C, the nonsolvent water decreases to 12, consistent with a reduction of the cavity depth by 0.34 nm due to increased chain interpenetration. This geometric lability may be a common feature of hydrophobic cavities. Only 5.4 waters are bound in the noninterdigitated P(beta') (40 degrees C), whereas the ester bound 8.1 waters in its P(beta') (37 degrees C), a difference of about one water per ester carbonyl. The relative dehydration of the ether linkage is consistent with it promoting more densely packed structures, which in turn, accounts for its ability to interdigitate. PMID:10512824

  14. Direct determination of hydration in the interdigitated and ripple phases of dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine: hydration of a hydrophobic cavity at the membrane/water interface.

    PubMed

    Channareddy, S; Janes, N

    1999-10-01

    Hydrophobic cavities at the membrane/water interface are stably expressed in interdigitated membranes. The nonsolvent water associated with 1,2-di-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Hxdc(2)GroPCho) in the interdigitated (L(beta)I) and ripple (P(beta')) states and with its ester analogue 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (Pam(2)PtdCho) in the gel (L(beta')) and P(beta') states are determined directly. In the L(beta)I state at lower temperatures (4-20 degrees C), 16-18 water molecules per phospholipid are bound, consistent with water-filled cavities and hydrated headgroups. At 28 degrees C, the nonsolvent water decreases to 12, consistent with a reduction of the cavity depth by 0.34 nm due to increased chain interpenetration. This geometric lability may be a common feature of hydrophobic cavities. Only 5.4 waters are bound in the noninterdigitated P(beta') (40 degrees C), whereas the ester bound 8.1 waters in its P(beta') (37 degrees C), a difference of about one water per ester carbonyl. The relative dehydration of the ether linkage is consistent with it promoting more densely packed structures, which in turn, accounts for its ability to interdigitate.

  15. A short C-terminal tail prevents mis-targeting of hydrophobic mitochondrial membrane proteins to the ER.

    PubMed

    Reithinger, Johannes H; Yim, Chewon; Park, Kwangjin; Björkholm, Patrik; von Heijne, Gunnar; Kim, Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Sdh3/Shh3, a subunit of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase, contains transmembrane domains with a hydrophobicity comparable to that of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins. Here, we show that a C-terminal reporter fusion to Sdh3/Shh3 results in partial mis-targeting of the protein to the ER. This mis-targeting is mediated by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and depends on the length of the C-terminal tail. These results imply that if nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins contain strongly hydrophobic transmembrane domains and a long C-terminal tail, they have the potential to be recognized by SRP and mis-targeted to the ER. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Binding of Sudan II and IV to lecithin liposomes and E. coli membranes: insights into the toxicity of hydrophobic azo dyes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Gao, Hong-Wen; Ren, Jiao-Rong; Chen, Ling; Li, Yu-Cheng; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Zhao, He-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Background Sudan red compounds are hydrophobic azo dyes, still used as food additives in some countries. However, they have been shown to be unsafe, causing tumors in the liver and urinary bladder in rats. They have been classified as category 3 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A number of hypotheses that could explain the mechanism of carcinogenesis have been proposed for dyes similar to the Sudan red compounds. Traditionally, investigations of the membrane toxicity of organic substances have focused on hydrocarbons, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and DDT. In contrast to hydrocarbons, Sudan red compounds contain azo and hydroxy groups, which can form hydrogen bonds with the polar head groups of membrane phospholipids. Thus, entry may be impeded. They could have different toxicities from other lipophilic hydrocarbons. The available data show that because these compounds are lipophilic, interactions with hydrophobic parts of the cell are important for their toxicity. Lipophilic compounds accumulate in the membrane, causing expansion of the membrane surface area, inhibition of primary ion pumps and increased proton permeability. Results This work investigated the interactions of the amphiphilic compounds Sudan II and IV with lecithin liposomes and live Escherichia coli (E. coli). Sudan II and IV binding to lecithin liposomes and live E. coli corresponds to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the Sudan red compounds – lecithin liposome solutions, the binding ratio of Sudan II to lecithin is 1/31 and that of Sudan IV to 1/314. The binding constant of the Sudan II-lecithin complex is 1.75 × 104 and that of the Sudan IV-lecithin complex 2.92 × 105. Besides, the influences of pH, electrolyte and temperature were investigated and analyzed quantitatively. In the Sudan red compounds – E.coli mixture, the binding ratios of Sudan II and Sudan IV to E.coli membrane phospholipid are 1/29 and 1/114. The binding constants

  17. The trans-membrane domain of Bcl-2α, but not its hydrophobic cleft, is a critical determinant for efficient IP3 receptor inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Hristina; Ritaine, Abigael; Wagner, Larry; Luyten, Tomas; Shapovalov, George; Welkenhuyzen, Kirsten; Seitaj, Bruno; Monaco, Giovanni; De Smedt, Humbert; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Yule, David I.; Parys, Jan B.; Bultynck, Geert

    2016-01-01

    The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein is emerging as an efficient inhibitor of IP3R function, contributing to its oncogenic properties. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain not fully understood. Using mutations or pharmacological inhibition to antagonize Bcl-2's hydrophobic cleft, we excluded this functional domain as responsible for Bcl-2-mediated IP3Rs inhibition. In contrast, the deletion of the C-terminus, containing the trans-membrane domain, which is only present in Bcl-2α, but not in Bcl-2β, led to impaired inhibition of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release and staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Strikingly, the trans-membrane domain was sufficient for IP3R binding and inhibition. We therefore propose a novel model, in which the Bcl-2's C-terminus serves as a functional anchor, which beyond mere ER-membrane targeting, underlies efficient IP3R inhibition by (i) positioning the BH4 domain in the close proximity of its binding site on IP3R, thus facilitating their interaction; (ii) inhibiting IP3R-channel openings through a direct interaction with the C-terminal region of the channel downstream of the channel-pore. Finally, since the hydrophobic cleft of Bcl-2 was not involved in IP3R suppression, our findings indicate that ABT-199 does not interfere with IP3R regulation by Bcl-2 and its mechanism of action as a cell-death therapeutic in cancer cells likely does not involve Ca2+ signaling. PMID:27494888

  18. Multilevel Precision-Based Rational Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Cleft of Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1)

    PubMed Central

    Muralikumar, Shalini; Mahalakshmi, B; Lily Therese, K; Madhavan, HN; Alameen, Mohamed; Thirumudi, Indhuja

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. It causes encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital infection. T. gondii invades the host cell by forming a moving junction (MJ) complex. This complex formation is initiated by intermolecular interactions between the two secretory parasitic proteins—namely, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) and is critically essential for the host invasion process. By this study, we propose two potential leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676 that can efficiently target the AMA1 hydrophobic cleft, which is a hotspot for targeting MJ complex formation. The proposed leads are the result of an exhaustive conformational search-based virtual screen with multilevel precision scoring of the docking affinities. These two compounds surpassed all the precision levels of docking and also the stringent post docking and cumulative molecular dynamics evaluations. Moreover, the backbone flexibility of hotspot residues in the hydrophobic cleft, which has been previously reported to be essential for accommodative binding of RON2 to AMA1, was also highly perturbed by these compounds. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations of these two compounds also revealed a significant affinity to AMA1. Machine learning approaches also predicted these two compounds to possess more relevant activities. Hence, these two leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676, may prove to be potential inhibitors targeting AMA1-RON2 complex formation towards combating toxoplasmosis. PMID:27445648

  19. Multilevel Precision-Based Rational Design of Chemical Inhibitors Targeting the Hydrophobic Cleft of Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1).

    PubMed

    Vetrivel, Umashankar; Muralikumar, Shalini; Mahalakshmi, B; Lily Therese, K; Madhavan, H N; Alameen, Mohamed; Thirumudi, Indhuja

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. It causes encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital infection. T. gondii invades the host cell by forming a moving junction (MJ) complex. This complex formation is initiated by intermolecular interactions between the two secretory parasitic proteins-namely, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2) and is critically essential for the host invasion process. By this study, we propose two potential leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676 that can efficiently target the AMA1 hydrophobic cleft, which is a hotspot for targeting MJ complex formation. The proposed leads are the result of an exhaustive conformational search-based virtual screen with multilevel precision scoring of the docking affinities. These two compounds surpassed all the precision levels of docking and also the stringent post docking and cumulative molecular dynamics evaluations. Moreover, the backbone flexibility of hotspot residues in the hydrophobic cleft, which has been previously reported to be essential for accommodative binding of RON2 to AMA1, was also highly perturbed by these compounds. Furthermore, binding free energy calculations of these two compounds also revealed a significant affinity to AMA1. Machine learning approaches also predicted these two compounds to possess more relevant activities. Hence, these two leads, NSC95522 and NSC179676, may prove to be potential inhibitors targeting AMA1-RON2 complex formation towards combating toxoplasmosis.

  20. High-Resolution Coarse-Grained Model of Hydrated Anion-Exchange Membranes that Accounts for Hydrophobic and Ionic Interactions through Short-Ranged Potentials.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jibao; Jacobson, Liam C; Perez Sirkin, Yamila A; Molinero, Valeria

    2017-01-10

    Molecular simulations provide a versatile tool to study the structure, anion conductivity, and stability of anion-exchange membrane (AEM) materials and can provide a fundamental understanding of the relation between structure and property of membranes that is key for their use in fuel cells and other applications. The quest for large spatial and temporal scales required to model the multiscale structure and transport processes in the polymer electrolyte membranes, however, cannot be met with fully atomistic models, and the available coarse-grained (CG) models suffer from several challenges associated with their low-resolution. Here, we develop a high-resolution CG force field for hydrated polyphenylene oxide/trimethylamine chloride (PPO/TMACl) membranes compatible with the mW water model using a hierarchical parametrization approach based on Uncertainty Quantification and reference atomistic simulations modeled with the Generalized Amber Force Field (GAFF) and TIP4P/2005 water. The parametrization weighs multiple properties, including coordination numbers, radial distribution functions (RDFs), self-diffusion coefficients of water and ions, relative vapor pressure of water in the solution, hydration enthalpy of the tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) salt, and cohesive energy of its aqueous solutions. We analyze the interdependence between properties and address how to compromise between the accuracies of the properties to achieve an overall best representability. Our optimized CG model FFcomp quantitatively reproduces the diffusivities and RDFs of the reference atomistic model and qualitatively reproduces the experimental relative vapor pressure of water in solutions of tetramethylammonium chloride. These properties are of utmost relevance for the design and operation of fuel cell membranes. To our knowledge, this is the first CG model that includes explicitly each water and ion and accounts for hydrophobic, ionic, and intramolecular interactions explicitly

  1. SCREENING BIOAVAILABLE HYDROPHOBIC TOXICANTS IN SURFACE WATERS WITH SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES: ROLE OF INHERENT OLEIC ACID IN TOXICITY EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed for 4 weeks in two rivers in Lithuania, The SPMD dialysates were tested in the Microtox assay and, surprisingly, the sample from the relatively clean (U) over bar la River exhibited three times more toxicity than the sample fro...

  2. Evaluation of hydrophobic micro-zeolite-mixed matrix membrane and integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation for enhanced butanol production.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Yang, Decai; Du, Guangqing; Chen, Lijie; Ren, Jiangang; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-01-01

    Butanol is regarded as an advanced biofuel that can be derived from renewable biomass. However, the main challenge for microbial butanol production is low butanol titer, yield and productivity, leading to intensive energy consumption in product recovery. Various alternative separation technologies such as extraction, adsorption and gas stripping, etc., could be integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with improving butanol productivity, but their butanol selectivities are not satisfactory. The membrane-based pervaporation technology is recently attracting increasing attention since it has potentially desirable butanol selectivity. The performance of the zeolite-mixed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes were evaluated to recover butanol from butanol/water binary solution as well as fermentation broth in the integrated ABE fermentation system. The separation factor and butanol titer in permeate of the zeolite-mixed PDMS membrane were up to 33.0 and 334.6 g/L at 80°C, respectively, which increased with increasing zeolite loading weight in the membrane as well as feed temperature. The enhanced butanol separation factor was attributed to the hydrophobic zeolites with large pore size providing selective routes preferable for butanol permeation. In fed-batch fermentation incorporated with pervaporation, 54.9 g/L ABE (34.5 g/L butanol, 17.0 g/L acetone and 3.4 g/L ethanol) were produced from 172.3 g/L glucose. The overall butanol productivity and yield increased by 16.0 and 11.1%, respectively, which was attributed to the alleviated butanol inhibition by pervaporation and reassimilation of acids for ABE production. The zeolite-mixed membrane produced a highly concentrated condensate containing 169.6 g/L butanol or 253.3 g/L ABE, which after phase separation easily gave the final product containing >600 g/L butanol. Zeolite loading in the PDMS matrix was attributed to improving the pervaporative performance of the membrane, showing great

  3. In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

    2008-04-01

    Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

  4. Membrane Vesicle Formation as a Multiple-Stress Response Mechanism Enhances Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E Cell Surface Hydrophobicity and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Sperling, Stefanie; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Steiniger, Frank; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2012-01-01

    Among the adaptive responses of bacteria to rapid changes in environmental conditions, those of the cell envelope are known to be the most crucial. Therefore, several mechanisms with which bacteria change their cell surface and membranes in the presence of different environmental stresses have been elucidated. Among these mechanisms, the release of outer membrane vesicles (MV) in Gram-negative bacteria has attracted particular research interest because of its involvement in pathogenic processes, such as that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in cystic fibrosis lungs. In this study, we investigated the role of MV formation as an adaptive response of Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E to several environmental stress factors and correlated it to the formation of biofilms. In the presence of toxic concentrations of long-chain alcohols, under osmotic stress caused by NaCl, in the presence of EDTA, and after heat shock, cells of this strain released MV within 10 min in the presence of a stressor. The MV formed showed similar size and charge properties, as well as comparable compositions of proteins and fatty acids. MV release caused a significant increase in cell surface hydrophobicity, and an enhanced tendency to form biofilms was demonstrated in this study. Therefore, the release of MV as a stress response could be put in a physiological context. PMID:22752175

  5. Nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation for off-grid water purification

    PubMed Central

    Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Alabastri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Seth; Zodrow, Katherine R.; Hogan, Nathaniel J.; Neumann, Oara; Wu, Jinjian; Wang, Tianxiao; Deshmukh, Akshay; Elimelech, Menachem; Li, Qilin; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.

    2017-01-01

    With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential due to its low operating temperature and pressure requirements, but the requirement of heating the input water makes it energy intensive. Here, we demonstrate nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD), where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water. Unlike MD, NESMD can be scaled to larger systems and shows increased efficiencies with decreased input flow velocities. Along with its increased efficiency at higher ambient temperatures, these properties all point to NESMD as a promising solution for household- or community-scale desalination. PMID:28630307

  6. Nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation for off-grid water purification.

    PubMed

    Dongare, Pratiksha D; Alabastri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Seth; Zodrow, Katherine R; Hogan, Nathaniel J; Neumann, Oara; Wu, Jinjian; Wang, Tianxiao; Deshmukh, Akshay; Elimelech, Menachem; Li, Qilin; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2017-07-03

    With more than a billion people lacking accessible drinking water, there is a critical need to convert nonpotable sources such as seawater to water suitable for human use. However, energy requirements of desalination plants account for half their operating costs, so alternative, lower energy approaches are equally critical. Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential due to its low operating temperature and pressure requirements, but the requirement of heating the input water makes it energy intensive. Here, we demonstrate nanophotonics-enabled solar membrane distillation (NESMD), where highly localized photothermal heating induced by solar illumination alone drives the distillation process, entirely eliminating the requirement of heating the input water. Unlike MD, NESMD can be scaled to larger systems and shows increased efficiencies with decreased input flow velocities. Along with its increased efficiency at higher ambient temperatures, these properties all point to NESMD as a promising solution for household- or community-scale desalination.

  7. Closed and Semiclosed Interhelical Structures in Membrane vs Closed and Open Structures in Detergent for the Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Fusion Peptide and Correlation of Hydrophobic Surface Area with Fusion Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ujjayini; Xie, Li; Jia, Lihui; Liang, Shuang; Weliky, David P

    2015-06-24

    The ∼25 N-terminal "HAfp" residues of the HA2 subunit of the influenza virus hemagglutinin protein are critical for fusion between the viral and endosomal membranes at low pH. Earlier studies of HAfp in detergent support (1) N-helix/turn/C-helix structure at pH 5 with open interhelical geometry and N-helix/turn/C-coil structure at pH 7; or (2) N-helix/turn/C-helix at both pHs with closed interhelical geometry. These different structures led to very different models of HAfp membrane location and different models of catalysis of membrane fusion by HAfp. In this study, the interhelical geometry of membrane-associated HAfp is probed by solid-state NMR. The data are well-fitted to a population mixture of closed and semiclosed structures. The two structures have similar interhelical geometries and are planar with hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces. The different structures of HAfp in detergent vs membrane could be due to the differences in interaction with the curved micelle vs flat membrane with better geometric matching between the closed and semiclosed structures and the membrane. The higher fusogenicity of longer sequences and low pH is correlated with hydrophobic surface area and consequent increased membrane perturbation.

  8. MALDI/MS peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification of hydrophobic proteins attached to eucaryote keratinocyte cytoplasmic membrane using different matrices in concert

    PubMed Central

    Gonnet, Florence; Lemaître, Gilles; Waksman, Gilles; Tortajada, Jeanine

    2003-01-01

    Background MALDI-TOF-MS has become an important analytical tool in the identification of proteins and evaluation of their role in biological processes. A typical protocol consists of sample purification, separation of proteins by 2D-PAGE, enzymatic digestion and identification of proteins by peptide mass fingerprint. Unfortunately, this approach is not appropriate for the identification of membrane or low or high pI proteins. An alternative technique uses 1D-PAGE, which results in a mixture of proteins in each gel band. The direct analysis of the proteolytic digestion of this mixture is often problematic because of poor peptide detection and consequent poor sequence coverage in databases. Sequence coverage can be improved through the combination of several matrices. Results The aim of this study was to trust the MALDI analysis of complex biological samples, in order to identify proteins that interact with the membrane network of keratinocytes. Peptides obtained from protein trypsin digestions may have either hydrophobic or hydrophilic sections, in which case, the direct analysis of such a mixture by MALDI does not allow desorbing of all peptides. In this work, MALDI/MS experiments were thus performed using four different matrices in concert. The data were analysed with three algorithms in order to test each of them. We observed that the use of at least two matrices in concert leads to a twofold increase of the coverage of each protein. Considering data obtained in this study, we recommend the use of HCCA in concert with the SA matrix in order to obtain a good coverage of hydrophilic proteins, and DHB in concert with the SA matrix to obtain a good coverage of hydrophobic proteins. Conclusion In this work, experiments were performed directly on complex biological samples, in order to see systematic comparison between different matrices for real-life samples and to show a correlation that will be applicable to similar studies. When 1D gel is needed, each band may

  9. MALDI/MS peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification of hydrophobic proteins attached to eucaryote keratinocyte cytoplasmic membrane using different matrices in concert.

    PubMed

    Gonnet, Florence; Lemaître, Gilles; Waksman, Gilles; Tortajada, Jeanine

    2003-05-06

    BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF-MS has become an important analytical tool in the identification of proteins and evaluation of their role in biological processes. A typical protocol consists of sample purification, separation of proteins by 2D-PAGE, enzymatic digestion and identification of proteins by peptide mass fingerprint. Unfortunately, this approach is not appropriate for the identification of membrane or low or high pI proteins. An alternative technique uses 1D-PAGE, which results in a mixture of proteins in each gel band. The direct analysis of the proteolytic digestion of this mixture is often problematic because of poor peptide detection and consequent poor sequence coverage in databases. Sequence coverage can be improved through the combination of several matrices. RESULTS: The aim of this study was to trust the MALDI analysis of complex biological samples, in order to identify proteins that interact with the membrane network of keratinocytes. Peptides obtained from protein trypsin digestions may have either hydrophobic or hydrophilic sections, in which case, the direct analysis of such a mixture by MALDI does not allow desorbing of all peptides. In this work, MALDI/MS experiments were thus performed using four different matrices in concert. The data were analysed with three algorithms in order to test each of them. We observed that the use of at least two matrices in concert leads to a twofold increase of the coverage of each protein. Considering data obtained in this study, we recommend the use of HCCA in concert with the SA matrix in order to obtain a good coverage of hydrophilic proteins, and DHB in concert with the SA matrix to obtain a good coverage of hydrophobic proteins. CONCLUSION: In this work, experiments were performed directly on complex biological samples, in order to see systematic comparison between different matrices for real-life samples and to show a correlation that will be applicable to similar studies. When 1D gel is needed, each band may

  10. The Outer Membrane of Brucella ovis Shows Increased Permeability to Hydrophobic Probes and Is More Susceptible to Cationic Peptides than Are the Outer Membranes of Mutant Rough Brucella abortus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Freer, Enrique; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Weintraub, Andrej; Bengoechea, José-Antonio; Moriyón, Ignacio; Hultenby, Kjell; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    1999-01-01

    The permeability of the outer membrane (OM) to hydrophobic probes and its susceptibility to bactericidal cationic peptides were investigated for natural rough Brucella ovis and for mutant rough Brucella abortus strains. The OM of B. ovis displayed an abrupt and faster kinetic profile than rough B. abortus during the uptake of the hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-naphthylamine. B. ovis was more sensitive than rough B. abortus to the action of cationic peptides. Bactenecins 5 and 7 induced morphological alterations on the OMs of both rough Brucella strains. B. ovis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) captured considerably more polymyxin B than LPSs from both rough and smooth B. abortus strains. Polymyxin B, poly-l-lysine, and poly-l-ornithine produced a thick coating on the surfaces of both strains, which was more evident in B. ovis than in rough B. abortus. The distinct functional properties of the OMs of these two rough strains correlate with some structural differences of their OMs and with their different biological behaviors in animals and culture cells. PMID:10531286

  11. Characterisation of organic matter in IX and PACl treated wastewater in relation to the fouling of a hydrophobic polypropylene membrane.

    PubMed

    Myat, Darli T; Mergen, Max; Zhao, Oliver; Stewart, Matthew B; Orbell, John D; Gray, Stephen

    2012-10-15

    Extensive organic characterisation of a wastewater using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV(254) and organic carbon detector (Method B) was undertaken, as well as with fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy (EEM). Characterisation was performed on the wastewater before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, and following microfiltration of the wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. Characterisation by EEM was unable to detect biopolymers within the humic rich wastewaters and was not subsequently used to characterise the MF permeates. IX treatment preferentially removed low molecular weight (MW) organic acids and neutrals, and moderate amounts of biopolymers in contrast to a previous report of no biopolymer removal with IX. PACl preferentially removed moderate MW humic and fulvic acids, and large amounts of biopolymers. PACl showed a great preference for removal of proteins from the biopolymer component in comparison to IX. An increase in the fluorescence response of tryptophan-like compounds in the biopolymer fraction following IX treatment suggests that low MW neutrals may influence the structure and/or inhibit aggregation of organic compounds. Fouling rates for IX and PACl treated wastewaters had high initial fouling rates that reduced to lower fouling rates with time, while the untreated Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) wastewater displayed a consistent, high rate of fouling. The results for the IX and PACl treated wastewaters were consistent with the long-term fouling rate being determined by cake filtration while both pore constriction and cake filtration contributed to the higher initial fouling rates. Higher rejection of biopolymers was observed for PACl and IX waters compared to the untreated ETP water, suggesting increased adhesion of biopolymers to the membrane or cake layer may lead to the higher rejection. Crown Copyright © 2012

  12. Purification of chimeric heavy chain monoclonal antibody EG2-hFc using hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography: an alternative to protein-A affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sadavarte, Rahul; Spearman, Maureen; Okun, Natalie; Butler, Michael; Ghosh, Raja

    2014-06-01

    Heavy chain monoclonal antibodies are being considered as alternative to whole-IgG monoclonal antibodies for certain niche applications. Protein-A chromatography which is widely used for purifying IgG monoclonal antibodies is also used for purifying heavy chain monoclonal antibodies as these molecules possess fully functional Fc regions. However, the acidic conditions used to elute bound antibody may sometimes also leach protein-A, which is immunotoxic. Low pH conditions also tend to make the mAb molecules unstable and prone to aggregation. Moreover, protein-A affinity chromatography does not remove aggregates already present in the feed. Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (or HIMC) has already been studied as an alternative to protein-A chromatography for purifying whole-IgG monoclonal antibodies. This paper describes the use of HIMC for capturing a humanized chimeric heavy chain monoclonal antibody (EG2-hFC). Binding and eluting conditions were suitably optimized using pure EG2-hFC. Based on this, an HIMC method was developed for capture of EG2-hFC directly from cell culture supernatant. The EG2-hFc purity obtained in this single-step process was high. The glycan profiles of protein-A and HIMC purified monoclonal antibody samples were similar, clearly demonstrating that both techniques captured similarly glycosylated population of EG2-hFc. Moreover, this technique was able to resolve aggregates from monomeric form of the EG2-hFc.

  13. Intermediate purification of CHO-derived recombinant human Factor IX using hydrophobic interaction membrane-based chromatography and its comparison to a sulfated resin.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Passos, Douglas F; Ferraz, Helen C; Castilho, Leda R

    2017-09-04

    This work investigated the use of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography for intermediate purification of recombinant human Factor IX (rFIX) produced by CHO cells. The first purification step was based on a strong anion exchange monolith, thus forming a purification process fully based on convective media, which allow operation at high flow rates and low pressure drops, as well as modular scale-up. Although the starting material was challenging (CHO cell culture supernatant harvested at 70% cell viability), the two-step purification process showed promising results, with a global purification factor of 298, a global recovery of 69%, and DNA and endotoxin levels close to regulatory limits. Final host cell DNA (68.8 ng per dose of 500 IU), endotoxins (60 EU per dose of 500 IU) and activated FIX (FIXa/FIX = 2.33%) were in levels close to those recommended by regulatory authorities. HCP removal was of 99.98%, decreasing from 9 424 358 ppm in the supernatant to a final HCP value of 2071 ppm. The use of a supernatant harvested at higher viability and/or the addition of a third polishing step focusing on HCP removal could allow meeting the desired HCP range of 50-100 ppm, as well as the regulatory requirements for the other critical contaminants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Voltage-Gated Hydrophobic Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrik, Nickolay V

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a fundamental property that is responsible for numerous physical and biophysical aspects of molecular interactions in water. Peculiar behavior is expected for water in the vicinity of hydrophobic structures, such as nanopores. Indeed, hydrophobic nanopores can be found in two distinct states, dry and wet, even though the latter is thermodynamically unstable. Transitions between these two states are kinetically hindered in long pores but can be much faster in shorter pores. As it is demonstrated for the first time in this paper, these transitions can be induced by applying a voltage across a membrane with a single hydrophobic nanopore. Such voltage-induced gating in single nanopores can be realized in a reversible manner through electrowetting of inner walls of the nanopores. The resulting I-V curves of such artificial hydrophobic nanopores mimic biological voltage-gated channels.

  15. Molecular Grid Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-11

    likely that larger pores could be engineered if desired. The band structures of ethynyl -bridged 2 -D porphyrin sheets have already been investigated...would dissolve Zn+ 2 . This observation nicely Zn Porphine on Water Interface -4 - 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 mmA ( 2 ) Figure 5 . Full...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS separations, optoelectronics, porphite, graphene, 2

  16. Mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 gag protein to Phe causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch, enhances membrane association, and polyubiquitination of Gag.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Age; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-10-02

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag.

  17. Mutation of the Highly Conserved Ser-40 of the HIV-1 p6 Gag Protein to Phe Causes the Formation of a Hydrophobic Patch, Enhances Membrane Association, and Polyubiquitination of Gag

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Friedrich; Setz, Christian; Friedrich, Melanie; Rauch, Pia; Solbak, Sara Marie; Frøystein, Nils Åge; Henklein, Petra; Votteler, Jörg; Fossen, Torgils; Schubert, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein contains two late assembly (l-) domains that recruit proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway to mediate membrane fission between the nascent virion and the cell membrane. It was recently demonstrated that mutation of the highly conserved Ser-40 to Phe (S40F) disturbs CA-SP1 processing, virus morphogenesis, and infectivity. It also causes the formation of filopodia-like structures, while virus release remains unaffected. Here, we show that the mutation S40F, but not the conservative mutation to Asp (S40D) or Asn (S40N), augments membrane association, K48-linked polyubiquitination, entry into the 26S proteasome, and, consequently, enhances MHC-I antigen presentation of Gag derived epitopes. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure analyses revealed that the newly introduced Phe-40, together with Tyr-36, causes the formation of a hydrophobic patch at the C-terminal α-helix of p6, providing a molecular rationale for the enhanced membrane association of Gag observed in vitro and in HIV-1 expressing cells. The extended exposure of the S40F mutant to unidentified membrane-resident ubiquitin E3-ligases might trigger the polyubiquitination of Gag. The cumulative data support a previous model of a so far undefined property of p6, which, in addition to MA, acts as membrane targeting domain of Gag. PMID:25279819

  18. Coating of TiO 2 photocatalysts on super-hydrophobic porous teflon membrane by an ion assisted deposition method and their self-cleaning performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, H.; Nakao, H.; Takeuchi, M.; Nakatani, Y.; Anpo, M.

    2003-05-01

    By means of an ion assisted deposition method, a TiO 2 photocatalyst was prepared at relatively lower temperature on porous Teflon sheets (PTS) that are good candidates for the coating materials with super-hydrophobic surfaces. UV light irradiation of TiO 2 photocatalyst on PTS led to the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants (self-cleaning), which wear off the water-repellent property of the original PTS surface. The PTS surface loading of a small amount of TiO 2 photocatalyst can keep the super-hydrophobic properties of PTS for a long time because of the photocatalytic degradation of the accumulated pollutants.

  19. The Hydrophobic Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huque, Entazul M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)

  20. The Hydrophobic Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huque, Entazul M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the physical basis and current understanding of hydrophobic effects. The thermodynamic background of the effects, hydrophobic hydration, and hydrophobic interactions are described. Four existing controversies are outlined. (YP)

  1. Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to Hydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic hydration plays a key role in a vast variety of biological processes, ranging from the formation of cells to protein folding and ligand binding. Hydrophobicity scales simplify the complex process of hydration by assigning a value describing the averaged hydrophobic character to each amino acid. Previously published scales were not able to calculate the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobicity directly. We present a new method, based on Molecular Dynamics simulations and Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory, that calculates hydrophobicity from enthalpic and entropic contributions. Instead of deriving these quantities from the temperature dependence of the free energy of hydration or as residual of the free energy and the enthalpy, we directly obtain these values from the phase space occupied by water molecules. Additionally, our method is able to identify regions with specific enthalpic and entropic properties, allowing to identify so-called “unhappy water” molecules, which are characterized by weak enthalpic interactions and unfavorable entropic constraints. PMID:27442443

  2. [Investigation of hydrophobicity of Proteus vulgaris strains and ability of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri strains to penetrate bladder membrane HCV T-29 cells ].

    PubMed

    Bartodziejska, Beata; Błaszczyk, Aleksandra; Wykrota, Marianna; Kwil, Iwona; Babicka, Dorota; Rózalski, Antoni

    2002-01-01

    Proteus bacilli play a particularly important role in urinary tract infections (UTI). Fimbriae and adherence ability and hemolysins production (HpmA, HlyA) are one of the factors of pathogenicity of these bacteria. In this paper we describe the invasion of HCV T-29 transitional bladder urothelial cells carcinoma strains of P. penneri, as well as P. vulgaris strains belonging to different serogroups. The cytotoxic effect was observed at 8 hour of incubation of the tested cells with P. vulgaris O21 and the same effect (complete lysis) at 6 hours by P. vulgaris O4 (this strain manifests maximal activity in the production of HlyA hemolysin). P. penneri strains, produce different types of fimbriae, expressed similar bacterial invasiveness. The hydrophobic properties of 25 P. vulgaris strains were also tested and only 3 strains occur to have hydrophobic cell surface.

  3. HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITE-SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES FOR ETHANOL-WATER SEPARATION: EFFECT OF ZEOLITE AND SILICONE COMPONENT SELECTION ON PERVAPORATION PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-silica ZSM 5 zeolites were incorporated into poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) polymers to form mixed matrix membranes for ethanol removal from water via pervaporation. Membrane formulation and preparation parameters were varied to determine the effect on pervaporation perform...

  4. HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITE-SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES FOR ETHANOL-WATER SEPARATION: EFFECT OF ZEOLITE AND SILICONE COMPONENT SELECTION ON PERVAPORATION PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-silica ZSM 5 zeolites were incorporated into poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) polymers to form mixed matrix membranes for ethanol removal from water via pervaporation. Membrane formulation and preparation parameters were varied to determine the effect on pervaporation perform...

  5. Surface self-assembled PEGylation of fluoro-based PVDF membranes via hydrophobic-driven copolymer anchoring for ultra-stable biofouling resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nien-Jung; Yang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Yung; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Chen, Wei-Hao; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Hsiao, Sheng-Wen; Aimar, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2013-08-13

    Stable biofouling resistance is significant for general filtration requirements, especially for the improvement of membrane lifetime. A systematic group of hyper-brush PEGylated diblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) and polystyrene (PS) was synthesized using an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and varying PEGMA lengths. This study demonstrates the antibiofouling membrane surfaces by self-assembled anchoring PEGylated diblock copolymers of PS-b-PEGMA on the microporous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. Two types of copolymers are used to modify the PVDF surface, one with different PS/PEGMA molar ratios in a range from 0.3 to 2.7 but the same PS molecular weights (MWs, ∼5.7 kDa), the other with different copolymer MWs (∼11.4, 19.9, and 34.1 kDa) but the similar PS/PEGMA ratio (∼1.7 ± 0.2). It was found that the adsorption capacities of diblock copolymers on PVDF membranes decreased as molar mass ratios of PS/PEGMA ratio reduced or molecular weights of PS-b-PEGMA increased because of steric hindrance. The increase in styrene content in copolymer enhanced the stability of polymer anchoring on the membrane, and the increase in PEGMA content enhanced the protein resistance of membranes. The optimum PS/PEGMA ratio was found to be in the range between 1.5 and 2.0 with copolymer MWs above 20.0 kDa for the ultrastable resistance of protein adsorption on the PEGylated PVDF membranes. The PVDF membrane coated with such a diblock copolymer owned excellent biofouling resistance to proteins of BSA and lysozyme as well as bacterium of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis and high stable microfiltration operated with domestic wastewater solution in a membrane bioreactor.

  6. Local hydrophobicity stabilizes secondary structures in proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kanehisa, M.I.; Tsong, T.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The probability of occurrence of helix and ..beta..-sheet residues in 47 globular proteins was determined as a function of local hydrophobicity, which was defined by the sum of the Nozaki-Tanford transfer free energies at two nearest-neighbors on both sides of the amino acid sequence. In general, hydrophilic amino acids favor neither helix nor ..beta..-sheet formations when neighbor residues are also hydrophilic but favor helix formation at higher local hydrophobicity. On the other hand, some hydrophobic amino acids such as Met, Leu, and Ile favor helix formation when neighbor residues are hydrophilic. None of the hydrophobic amino acids favor ..beta..-sheet formation with hydrophilic neighbors, but most of them strongly favor ..beta..-sheet formation at high local hydrophobicity. When the average of 20 amino acids is taken, both helix and ..beta..-sheet residue probabilities are higher at higher local hydrophobicity, although the increase is steeper for ..beta..-sheets. Therefore, ..beta..-sheet formation is more influenced by local hydrophobicity than helix formation. Generally, helices are nearer the surface and tend to have hydrophilic and hydrophobic faces at opposite sides. The tendency of alternating regions of hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues in a helical sequence was revealed by calculating the correlation of the Nozaki-Tanford values. Such amphipathic helices may be important in protein-protein-lipid interactions and in forming hydrophilic channels in the membrane. The choice of 30 nonhomologous proteins as the data set did not alter the above results.

  7. Structural Elucidation of the Cell-Penetrating Penetratin Peptide in Model Membranes at the Atomic Level: Probing Hydrophobic Interactions in the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Bera, Swapna; Kar, Rajiv K; Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-09-06

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have shown promise in nonpermeable therapeutic drug delivery, because of their ability to transport a variety of cargo molecules across the cell membranes and their noncytotoxicity. Drosophila antennapedia homeodomain-derived CPP penetratin (RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), being rich in positively charged residues, has been increasingly used as a potential drug carrier for various purposes. Penetratin can breach the tight endothelial network known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), permitting treatment of several neurodegenerative maladies, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. However, a detailed structural understanding of penetratin and its mechanism of action is lacking. This study defines structural features of the penetratin-derived peptide, DK17 (DRQIKIWFQNRRMKWKK), in several model membranes and describes a membrane-induced conformational transition of the DK17 peptide in these environments. A series of biophysical experiments, including high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, provides the three-dimensional structure of DK17 in different membranes mimicking the BBB or total brain lipid extract. Molecular dynamics simulations support the experimental results showing preferential binding of DK17 to particular lipids at atomic resolution. The peptide conserves the structure of the subdomain spanning residues Ile6-Arg11, despite considerable conformational variation in different membrane models. In vivo data suggest that the wild type, not a mutated sequence, enters the central nervous system. Together, these data highlight important structural and functional attributes of DK17 that could be utilized in drug delivery for neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Determination of intraliposomal pH and its effect on membrane partitioning and passive loading of a hydrophobic camptothecin, DB-67.

    PubMed

    Joguparthi, Vijay; Feng, Shaoxin; Anderson, Bradley D

    2008-03-20

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of pH on the liposomal encapsulation of a model camptothecin anti-tumor agent, DB-67, by considering the state of ionization and bilayer membrane/water partitioning of the drug as a function of pH. A novel fluorescence method was developed to monitor intravesicular pH in liposomal formulations containing entrapped DB-67 by using the drug itself as a pH indicator. Fluorescence spectra were recorded in aqueous buffers and liposomes and used to estimate the ionization constant of the A-ring phenol of DB-67 (pKappa(a2)) and shifts in ionization constants ( pKappa (a1) and pKappa(a2) ) due to membrane binding. Bilayer/water partitioning studies by equilibrium dialysis were employed to show that DB-67 is highly membrane bound over the entire pH range examined though binding decreases with an increase in pH. The observed ionization constants of membrane-bound DB-67 obtained from the equilibrium dialysis experiments were consistent with observations from fluorescence measurements and previous permeability results. The pH dependence of DB-67 loading using a passive loading technique was found to reflect the pH dependence of membrane binding of the drug. This results in poor encapsulation efficiency of DB-67 at high pH, necessitating further development of formulation strategies to improve loading efficiency.

  9. Determination of Intraliposomal pH and its Effect on Membrane Partitioning and Passive Loading of a Hydrophobic Camptothecin, DB-67

    PubMed Central

    Joguparthi, Vijay; Feng, Shaoxin; Anderson, Bradley D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of pH on the liposomal encapsulation of a model camptothecin anti-tumor agent, DB-67, by considering the state of ionization and bilayer membrane/water partitioning of the drug as a function of pH. A novel fluorescence method was developed to monitor intravesicular pH in liposomal formulations containing entrapped DB-67 by using the drug itself as a pH indicator. Fluorescence spectra were recorded in aqueous buffers and liposomes and used to estimate the ionization constant of the A-ring phenol of DB-67 (pKa2) and shifts in ionization constants (pKa1 and pKa2) due to membrane binding. Bilayer/water partitioning studies by equilibrium dialysis were employed to show that DB-67 is highly membrane bound over the entire pH range examined though binding decreases with an increase in pH. The observed ionization constants of membrane-bound DB-67 obtained from the equilibrium dialysis experiments were consistent with observations from fluorescence measurements and previous permeability results. The pH dependence of DB-67 loading using a passive loading technique was found to reflect the pH dependence of membrane binding of the drug. This results in poor encapsulation efficiency of DB-67 at high pH, necessitating further development of formulation strategies to improve loading efficiency. PMID:18065174

  10. Grid management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny

    1992-01-01

    A computational environment that allows many Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) engineers to work on the same project exists in the Special Project Office (SPO). This environment enables several users to carry out the task of grid generation. The grid management system, used by the engineers, is described in a brief overview. The topics will include the grid file naming system, the grid-generation procedure, grid storage, and the grid format standard.

  11. Preparative electrophoretic method for the purification of a hydrophobic membrane protein: subunit c of the mitochondrial ATP synthase from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, K

    1999-09-10

    A method is described for the purification of subunit c of ATP synthase from rat liver mitochondria. After sample preparation and solvent extraction, the protein was purified to homogeneity by a single-step preparative electrophoretic procedure, using aqueous buffer and containing lithium dodecyl sulfate. The subunit is an extremely hydrophobic and insoluble protein and all solubilization attempts, using a variety of detergents, were unsuccessful except for lithium dodecyl sulfate. Buffer exchange and FPLC gel filtration removed the detergent from the purified sample, leaving the protein in a soluble form. The mammalian protein is composed of 75 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 7602 Da and is classified as a proteolipid. Subunit c accounts for 25 and 85% of the intralysosomal accumulation, within neurons, of storage material in juvenile and late-infantile forms of Batten's disease, respectively. This purification procedure allows access to a continuous supply of pure subunit c from a conventional source such as rat liver and preserves precious autopsy materials. The protein could be used as substrate in future proteolytic studies involving pepstatin-insensitive lysosomal proteases and for raising of more specific antibodies. The procedure could also be adapted/modified and used as a model for purifying other extremely insoluble proteins.

  12. A competing hydrophobic tug on L596 to the membrane core unlatches S4-S5 linker elbow from TRP helix and allows TRPV4 channel to open.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jinfeng; Loukin, Stephen H; Anishkin, Andriy; Kung, Ching

    2016-10-18

    We have some generalized physical understanding of how ion channels interact with surrounding lipids but few detailed descriptions on how interactions of particular amino acids with contacting lipids may regulate gating. Here we discovered a structure-specific interaction between an amino acid and inner-leaflet lipid that governs the gating transformations of TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4). Many cation channels use a S4-S5 linker to transmit stimuli to the gate. At the start of TRPV4's linker helix is leucine 596. A hydrogen bond between the indole of W733 of the TRP helix and the backbone oxygen of L596 secures the helix/linker contact, which acts as a latch maintaining channel closure. The modeled side chain of L596 interacts with the inner lipid leaflet near the polar-nonpolar interface in our model-an interaction that we explored by mutagenesis. We examined the outward currents of TRPV4-expressing Xenopus oocyte upon depolarizations as well as phenotypes of expressing yeast cells. Making this residue less hydrophobic (L596A/G/W/Q/K) reduces open probability [Po; loss-of-function (LOF)], likely due to altered interactions at the polar-nonpolar interface. L596I raises Po [gain-of-function (GOF)], apparently by placing its methyl group further inward and receiving stronger water repulsion. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the distance between the levels of α-carbons of H-bonded residues L596 and W733 is shortened in the LOFs and lengthened in the GOFs, strengthening or weakening the linker/TRP helix latch, respectively. These results highlight that L596 lipid attraction counteracts the latch bond in a tug-of-war to tune the Po of TRPV4.

  13. Designing a hydrophobic barrier within biomimetic nanopores.

    PubMed

    Trick, Jemma L; Wallace, E Jayne; Bayley, Hagan; Sansom, Mark S P

    2014-11-25

    Nanopores in membranes have a range of potential applications. Biomimetic design of nanopores aims to mimic key functions of biological pores within a stable template structure. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to test whether a simple β-barrel protein nanopore can be modified to incorporate a hydrophobic barrier to permeation. Simulations have been used to evaluate functional properties of such nanopores, using water flux as a proxy for ionic conductance. The behavior of these model pores has been characterized as a function of pore size and of the hydrophobicity of the amino acid side chains lining the narrow central constriction of the pore. Potential of mean force calculations have been used to calculate free energy landscapes for water and for ion permeation in selected models. These studies demonstrate that a hydrophobic barrier can indeed be designed into a β-barrel protein nanopore, and that the height of the barrier can be adjusted by modifying the number of consecutive rings of hydrophobic side chains. A hydrophobic barrier prevents both water and ion permeation even though the pore is sterically unoccluded. These results both provide insights into the nature of hydrophobic gating in biological pores and channels, and furthermore demonstrate that simple design features may be computationally transplanted into β-barrel membrane proteins to generate functionally complex nanopores.

  14. Membrane filtration of food suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Dudas, I

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images PMID:760637

  15. Preparation of hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Branson, Eric D [Albuquerque, NM; Shah, Pratik B [Albuquerque, NM; Singh, Seema [Rio Rancho, NM; Brinker, C Jeffrey [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-02-03

    A method for preparing a hydrophobic coating by preparing a precursor sol comprising a metal alkoxide, a solvent, a basic catalyst, a fluoroalkyl compound and water, depositing the precursor sol as a film onto a surface, such as a substrate or a pipe, heating, the film and exposing the film to a hydrophobic silane compound to form a hydrophobic coating with a contact angle greater than approximately 150.degree.. The contact angle of the film can be controlled by exposure to ultraviolet radiation to reduce the contact angle and subsequent exposure to a hydrophobic silane compound to increase the contact angle.

  16. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  17. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  18. Krypton Derivatization of an O2 -Tolerant Membrane-Bound [NiFe] Hydrogenase Reveals a Hydrophobic Tunnel Network for Gas Transport.

    PubMed

    Kalms, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Andrea; Frielingsdorf, Stefan; van der Linden, Peter; von Stetten, David; Lenz, Oliver; Carpentier, Philippe; Scheerer, Patrick

    2016-04-25

    [NiFe] hydrogenases are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible heterolytic cleavage of hydrogen into protons and electrons. Gas tunnels make the deeply buried active site accessible to substrates and inhibitors. Understanding the architecture and function of the tunnels is pivotal to modulating the feature of O2 tolerance in a subgroup of these [NiFe] hydrogenases, as they are interesting for developments in renewable energy technologies. Here we describe the crystal structure of the O2 -tolerant membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha (ReMBH), using krypton-pressurized crystals. The positions of the krypton atoms allow a comprehensive description of the tunnel network within the enzyme. A detailed overview of tunnel sizes, lengths, and routes is presented from tunnel calculations. A comparison of the ReMBH tunnel characteristics with crystal structures of other O2 -tolerant and O2 -sensitive [NiFe] hydrogenases revealed considerable differences in tunnel size and quantity between the two groups, which might be related to the striking feature of O2 tolerance.

  19. Wetting: Intrinsically robust hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-04-01

    Ceramic surfaces can be rendered hydrophobic by using polymeric modifiers, but these are not robust to harsh environments. A known family of rare-earth oxide ceramics is now found to exhibit intrinsic hydrophobicity, even after exposure to high temperatures and abrasive wear.

  20. Grid Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pointwise Inc.'s, Gridgen Software is a system for the generation of 3D (three dimensional) multiple block, structured grids. Gridgen is a visually-oriented, graphics-based interactive code used to decompose a 3D domain into blocks, distribute grid points on curves, initialize and refine grid points on surfaces and initialize volume grid points. Gridgen is available to U.S. citizens and American-owned companies by license.

  1. MAGNETIC GRID

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1960-08-01

    An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.

  2. Prediction of transmembrane helices from hydrophobic characteristics of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ponnuswamy, P K; Gromiha, M M

    1993-10-01

    Membrane proteins, requiring to be embedded into the lipid bilayers, have evolved to have amino acid sequences that will fold with a hydrophobic surface in contact with the alkane chains of the lipids and polar surface in contact with the aqueous phases on both sides of the membrane and the polar head groups of the lipids. It is generally assumed that the characteristics of the aqueous parts of the membrane proteins are similar to those of normal globular proteins, and the embedded parts are highly hydrophobic. In our earlier works, we introduced the concept of 'surrounding hydrophobicity' and developed a hydrophobicity scale for the 20 amino acid residues, and applied it successfully to the study of the family of globular proteins. In this work we use the concept of surrounding hydrophobicity to indicate quantitatively how the aqueous parts of membrane proteins compare with the normal globular proteins, and how rich the embedded parts are in their hydrophobic activity. We then develop a surrounding hydrophobicity scale applicable to membrane proteins, by mixing judicially the surrounding hydrophobicities observed in the crystals of the membrane protein, photosynthetic reaction center from the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis, porin from Rhodobacter capsulatus and a set of 64 globular proteins. A predictive scheme based on this scale predicts from amino acid sequence, transmembrane segments in PRC and randomly selected 26 membrane proteins to 80% level of accuracy. This is a much higher predictive power when compared to the existing popular methods. A new procedure to measure the amphipathicity of sequence segments is proposed, and it is used to characterize the transmembrane parts of the sample membrane proteins.

  3. Thermally stable hydrophobicity in electrospun silica/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhonglin; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Chao; Cao, Jungang; Yao, Yongtao; Lu, Haibao; Li, Yibin; He, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve practical performances of silica-based inorganic/organic hybrid fibers, silica/polydimethylsiloxane hydrophobic fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning. Silica sol and polydimethylsiloxane can be mixed homogeneously and become stable precursor solution in dichloromethane, which allows the transformation of silica/polydimethylsiloxane precursor solution into ultrafine fibers. Flame can ignite organic groups in polydimethylsiloxane directly and destroy the hydrophobicity of hybrid fibers, but hydrophobic feature may survive if electrospun hybrid membrane is combined with thin stainless-steel-304 gauze of 150 meshes due to its thermally stable hydrophobicity (>600 °C).

  4. Electrohydrodynamics near hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Maduar, S R; Belyaev, A V; Lobaskin, V; Vinogradova, O I

    2015-03-20

    We show that an electro-osmotic flow near the slippery hydrophobic surface depends strongly on the mobility of surface charges, which are balanced by counterions of the electrostatic diffuse layer. For a hydrophobic surface with immobile charges, the fluid transport is considerably amplified by the existence of a hydrodynamic slippage. In contrast, near the hydrophobic surface with mobile adsorbed charges, it is also controlled by an additional electric force, which increases the shear stress at the slipping interface. To account for this, we formulate electrohydrodynamic boundary conditions at the slipping interface, which should be applied to quantify electro-osmotic flows instead of hydrodynamic boundary conditions. Our theoretical predictions are fully supported by dissipative particle dynamics simulations with explicit charges. These results lead to a new interpretation of zeta potential of hydrophobic surfaces.

  5. Electrokinetic instability near charge-selective hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelistov, V. S.; Demekhin, E. A.; Ganchenko, G. S.

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the texture of a hydrophobic surface on the electro-osmotic slip of the second kind and the electrokinetic instability near charge selective surfaces (permselective membranes, electrodes, or systems of microchannels and nanochannels) is investigated theoretically using a simple model based on the Rubinstein-Zaltzman approach. A simple formula is derived to evaluate the decrease in the instability threshold due to hydrophobicity. The study is complemented by numerical investigations both of linear and nonlinear instabilities near a hydrophobic membrane surface. Theory predicts a significant enhancement of the ion flux to the surface and shows a good qualitative agreement with the available experimental data.

  6. Electrokinetic instability near charge-selective hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shelistov, V S; Demekhin, E A; Ganchenko, G S

    2014-07-01

    The influence of the texture of a hydrophobic surface on the electro-osmotic slip of the second kind and the electrokinetic instability near charge selective surfaces (permselective membranes, electrodes, or systems of microchannels and nanochannels) is investigated theoretically using a simple model based on the Rubinstein-Zaltzman approach. A simple formula is derived to evaluate the decrease in the instability threshold due to hydrophobicity. The study is complemented by numerical investigations both of linear and nonlinear instabilities near a hydrophobic membrane surface. Theory predicts a significant enhancement of the ion flux to the surface and shows a good qualitative agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  8. Fibonacci Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.

  9. Fibonacci Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swinbank, Richard; Purser, James

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in a variety of non-standard computational grids for global numerical prediction. The motivation has been to reduce problems associated with the converging meridians and the polar singularities of conventional regular latitude-longitude grids. A further impetus has come from the adoption of massively parallel computers, for which it is necessary to distribute work equitably across the processors; this is more practicable for some non-standard grids. Desirable attributes of a grid for high-order spatial finite differencing are: (i) geometrical regularity; (ii) a homogeneous and approximately isotropic spatial resolution; (iii) a low proportion of the grid points where the numerical procedures require special customization (such as near coordinate singularities or grid edges). One family of grid arrangements which, to our knowledge, has never before been applied to numerical weather prediction, but which appears to offer several technical advantages, are what we shall refer to as "Fibonacci grids". They can be thought of as mathematically ideal generalizations of the patterns occurring naturally in the spiral arrangements of seeds and fruit found in sunflower heads and pineapples (to give two of the many botanical examples). These grids possess virtually uniform and highly isotropic resolution, with an equal area for each grid point. There are only two compact singular regions on a sphere that require customized numerics. We demonstrate the practicality of these grids in shallow water simulations, and discuss the prospects for efficiently using these frameworks in three-dimensional semi-implicit and semi-Lagrangian weather prediction or climate models.

  10. Overture: The grid classes

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, K.; Brown, D.; Chesshire, G.; Henshaw, W.

    1997-01-01

    Overture is a library containing classes for grids, overlapping grid generation and the discretization and solution of PDEs on overlapping grids. This document describes the Overture grid classes, including classes for single grids and classes for collections of grids.

  11. Grids = Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Linda; Carter, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that narrow columns provide a flexible system of organization for designers. Notes that grids serve the content on the pages, help to develop a layout that will clearly direct the reader to information; and prevent visual monotony. Concludes when grid layouts are used, school publications look as good as professional ones. (PM)

  12. Investigation of Beach Sand Trafficability Enhancement Using Sand-Grid Confinement and Membrane Reinforcement Concepts. Report 2. Sand Test Sections 3 and 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    report was prepared as part of the work authorized by the Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army, under "Mobility and Weapons Effects Technology...Webster, and S. J. Alford. This report was prepared by Mr. Webster. Directors of the WES during the conduct of the investigation and preparation of...all test items were constructed. Items 1-h (hexagonal aluminum grids) 16. A crew of six men installed the hexagonal aluminum grids on the prepared sand

  13. Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  14. [Effect of Membrane Wettability on Membrane Fouling and Chemical Durability of SPG Membranes].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Xiao, Tai-min; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Li-ya; Du, Ya-wei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membranes have been applied for microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment. In the present study, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic SPG membranes were used in a microbubble-aerated biofilm reactor with online chemical cleaning, and their membrane fouling and chemical durability were determined to be strongly dependent on the membrane wettability. The fouling layer formed on the surface of both membranes was confirmed to be mainly organic fouling, and the hydrophobic membrane showed a relatively stronger resistance to the organic fouling. The severe chemical corrosion of the hydrophilic membrane was observed due to exposure to the alkaline sodium hypochlorite solution used for chemical cleaning, which resulted in significant increases in the median pore diameter and the porosity. On the other hand, the pore structure of the hydrophobic membrane changed slightly when exposed to the alkaline sodium hypochlorite solution, suggesting its strong alkali-resistance due to the non-wetting surface. However, the surface hydrophobic groups of hydrophobic membrane could be oxidized by sodium hypochlorite solution, resulting in more wettable membrane surface. The hydrophobic membrane also showed better performance in the respects of oxygen transfer, contaminant removal and energy-saving. Therefore, the hydrophobic membrane seemed more appropriate to be applied for microbubble aeration in aerobic wastewater treatment process.

  15. Biochemical characterization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a paramyxovirus that has three membrane-associate proteins: glycoprotein (G), fusion (F), and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins. Among them, the SH protein is a small type II integral membrane protein that is incorporated into virions and is only present in certain para...

  16. Cationic Hydrophobic Peptides with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Margareta; Liu, Li-Ping; Deber, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    The MICs of cationic, hydrophobic peptides of the prototypic sequence KKAAAXAAAAAXAAWAAXAAAKKKK-amide (where X is one of the 20 commonly occurring amino acids) are in a low micromolar range for a panel of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with no or low hemolytic activity against human and rabbit erythrocytes. The peptides are active only when the average segmental hydrophobicity of the 19-residue core is above an experimentally determined threshold value (where X is Phe, Trp, Leu, Ile, Met, Val, Cys, or Ala). Antimicrobial activity could be increased by using peptides that were truncated from the prototype length to 11 core residues, with X being Phe and with 6 Lys residues grouped at the N terminus. We propose a mechanism for the interaction between these peptides and bacterial membranes similar to the “carpet model,” wherein the Lys residues interact with the anionic phospholipid head groups in the bacterial membrane surface and the hydrophobic core portion of the peptide is then able to interact with the lipid bilayer, causing disruption of the bacterial membrane. PMID:12384369

  17. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  18. Grid oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

  19. Grid oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, Zorana B.; Kim, Moonil; Rutledge, David B.

    1988-01-01

    Loading a two-dimensional grid with active devices offers a means of combining the power of solid-state oscillators in the microwave and millimeter-wave range. The grid structure allows a large number of negative resistance devices to be combined. This approach is attractive because the active devices do not require an external locking signal, and the combining is done in free space. In addition, the loaded grid is a planar structure amenable to monolithic integration. Measurements on a 25-MESFET grid at 9.7 GHz show power-combining and frequency-locking without an external locking signal, with an ERP of 37 W. Experimental far-field patterns agree with theoretical results obtained using reciprocity.

  20. Grid Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Ian

    2001-08-01

    The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.

  1. Hydrophobic sugar holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fontanilla-Urdaneta, R.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    The sugar matrix is used to record of phase holograms; it was modified with the purpose of obtaining a hydrophobic material to improve the stability of the registered image and to stimulate the photosensitivity of the sugar. The new material is formed by a sugar, pectin and vanillin dissolution. The diffraction efficiency parameter increases in comparison with only the sugar matrix, obtaining already of 10%.

  2. Transmembrane passage of hydrophobic compounds through a protein channel wall.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Elizabeth M; Patel, Dimki R; Lepore, Bryan W; Indic, Mridhu; van den Berg, Bert

    2009-03-19

    Membrane proteins that transport hydrophobic compounds have important roles in multi-drug resistance and can cause a number of diseases, underscoring the importance of protein-mediated transport of hydrophobic compounds. Hydrophobic compounds readily partition into regular membrane lipid bilayers, and their transport through an aqueous protein channel is energetically unfavourable. Alternative transport models involving acquisition from the lipid bilayer by lateral diffusion have been proposed for hydrophobic substrates. So far, all transport proteins for which a lateral diffusion mechanism has been proposed function as efflux pumps. Here we present the first example of a lateral diffusion mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic substrates by the Escherichia coli outer membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. A FadL mutant in which a lateral opening in the barrel wall is constricted, but which is otherwise structurally identical to wild-type FadL, does not transport substrates. A crystal structure of FadL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that the opening in the wall of the beta-barrel is conserved and delineates a long, hydrophobic tunnel that could mediate substrate passage from the extracellular environment, through the polar lipopolysaccharide layer and, by means of the lateral opening in the barrel wall, into the lipid bilayer from where the substrate can diffuse into the periplasm. Because FadL homologues are found in pathogenic and biodegrading bacteria, our results have implications for combating bacterial infections and bioremediating xenobiotics in the environment.

  3. Transmembrane Passage of Hydrophobic Compounds Through a Protein Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, E.; Patel, D; Lepore, D; Indic, M; van den Berg, B

    2009-01-01

    Membrane proteins that transport hydrophobic compounds have important roles in multi-drug resistance and can cause a number of diseases, underscoring the importance of protein-mediated transport of hydrophobic compounds. Hydrophobic compounds readily partition into regular membrane lipid bilayers, and their transport through an aqueous protein channel is energetically unfavourable3. Alternative transport models involving acquisition from the lipid bilayer by lateral diffusion have been proposed for hydrophobic substrates. So far, all transport proteins for which a lateral diffusion mechanism has been proposed function as efflux pumps. Here we present the first example of a lateral diffusion mechanism for the uptake of hydrophobic substrates by the Escherichia coli outer membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. A FadL mutant in which a lateral opening in the barrel wall is constricted, but which is otherwise structurally identical to wild-type FadL, does not transport substrates. A crystal structure of FadL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows that the opening in the wall of the {beta}-barrel is conserved and delineates a long, hydrophobic tunnel that could mediate substrate passage from the extracellular environment, through the polar lipopolysaccharide layer and, by means of the lateral opening in the barrel wall, into the lipid bilayer from where the substrate can diffuse into the periplasm. Because FadL homologues are found in pathogenic and biodegrading bacteria, our results have implications for combating bacterial infections and bioremediating xenobiotics in the environment.

  4. Liver plasma membranes: an effective method to analyze membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Cao, Rui; Liang, Songping

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins are critical for the maintenance of biological systems and represent important targets for the treatment of disease. The hydrophobicity and low abundance of plasma membrane proteins make them difficult to analyze. The protocols given here are the efficient isolation/digestion procedures for liver plasma membrane proteomic analysis. Both protocol for the isolation of plasma membranes and protocol for the in-gel digestion of gel-embedded plasma membrane proteins are presented. The later method allows the use of a high detergent concentration to achieve efficient solubilization of hydrophobic plasma membrane proteins while avoiding interference with the subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis.

  5. Mitigated membrane fouling of anammox membrane bioreactor by microbiological immobilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuotao; Liu, Sitong; Miyoshi, Taro; Matsuyama, Hideto; Ni, Jinren

    2016-02-01

    In this study, membrane fouling behavior of anammox MBR with or without carriers made by magnetic porous carbon microspheres was investigated. The results show that Trans Membrane Pressure was an order of magnitude lower after 50days due to use of carriers, which did not directly contact with membrane surface. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis indicates that abundance of anammox bacteria formed biofilm on membrane surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with amino acids contents analysis for membrane surface deposition show that metabolite released by anammox bacteria contains more hydrophobic groups than hydrophilic, which was considered as important reason for its abundant existence on hydrophobic membrane surface. Microbiological immobilization not only reduces biological membrane fouling, but also mitigates organic fouling including organic matter containing COO, hydrophobic groups (CH3, CH2 and CH etc), as well as inorganic deposition. Our finding provides an effective method for mitigating MBR membrane fouling in anammox process.

  6. Positive Charges of Translocating Polypeptide Chain Retrieve an Upstream Marginal Hydrophobic Segment from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Lumen to the Translocon

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hidenobu; Kida, Yuichiro; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Fumiko

    2010-01-01

    Positively charged amino acid residues are well recognized topology determinants of membrane proteins. They contribute to the stop-translocation of a polypeptide translocating through the translocon and to determine the orientation of signal sequences penetrating the membrane. Here we analyzed the function of these positively charged residues during stop-translocation in vitro. Surprisingly, the positive charges facilitated membrane spanning of a marginally hydrophobic segment, even when separated from the hydrophobic segment by 70 residues. In this case, the hydrophobic segment was exposed to the lumen, and then the downstream positive charges triggered the segment to slide back into the membrane. The marginally hydrophobic segment spanned the membrane, but maintained access to the water environment. The positive charges not only fix the hydrophobic segment in the membrane at its flanking position, but also have a much more dynamic action than previously realized. PMID:20427573

  7. Water on a Hydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, Ryan; Zhu, Mengjue; Poynor, Adele

    2012-02-01

    Hydrophobicity, meaning literally fear of water, is exhibited on the surfaces of non-stick cooking pans and water resistant clothing, on the leaves of the lotus plan, or even during the protein folding process in our bodies. Hydrophobicity is directly measured by determining a contact angle between water and an objects surface. Associated with a hydrophobic surface is the depletion layer, a low density region approximately 0.2 nm thick. We study this region by comparing data found in lab using surface plasmon resonance techniques to theoretical calculations. Experiments use gold slides coated in ODT and Mercapto solutions to model both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces respectively.

  8. Safe Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  9. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic control in polyphosphazene materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steely, Lee Brent

    sensitive phosphoranimine monomer storage, micelle formation in water from triblock copolymers, and single ion conductive membranes with increased hydrophobicity respectively. Although the appendixes examine polyphosphazene hydrophobic relationships they are not specific to surface hydrophobicity of solids and were not placed in the main text. Appendix A involves the optimization of storage conditions for a phosphoranimine monomer. Conditions examined include room temperature to -80 ºC and dilution with a variety of organic solvents. The micelle formation of A-B-A triblock copolymer of poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene]-poly(propylene-glycol)-poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] was explored in appendix B. It was determined with light scattering and TEM that hairpin folding of our triblock copolymer allowed micelle formation with the two hydrophobic poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] blocks facing the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Appendix C details the lithium ion conductivity of poly[norbornene-pendent-cyclotriphosphazene] with sulfonimide and methoxyethoxyethoxy groups attached. These results are then compared with unbound lithium counter ion systems.

  10. Rhodopsin/Lipid Hydrophobic Matching—Rhodopsin Oligomerization and Function

    PubMed Central

    Soubias, Olivier; Teague, Walter E.; Hines, Kirk G.; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition of the membrane and rhodopsin packing density strongly modulate the early steps of the visual response of photoreceptor membranes. In this study, lipid-order and bovine rhodopsin function in proteoliposomes composed of the sn-1 chain perdeuterated lipids 14:0d27-14:1-PC, 16:0d31-16:1-PC, 18:0d35-18:1-PC, or 20:0d39-20:1-PC at rhodopsin/lipid molar ratios from 1:70 to 1:1000 (mol/mol) were investigated. Clear evidence for matching of hydrophobic regions on rhodopsin transmembrane helices and hydrophobic thickness of lipid bilayers was observed from 2H nuclear magnetic resonance order parameter measurements at low rhodopsin concentrations. Thin bilayers stretched to match the length of transmembrane helices observed as increase of sn-1 chain order, while thicker bilayers were compressed near the protein. A quantitative analysis of lipid-order parameter changes suggested that the protein adjusts its conformation to bilayer hydrophobic thickness as well, which confirmed our earlier circular-dichroism measurements. Changes in lipid order parameters upon rhodopsin incorporation vanished for bilayers with a hydrophobic thickness of 27 ± 1 Å, suggesting that this is the bilayer thickness at which rhodopsin packs in bilayers at the lowest membrane perturbation. The lipid-order parameter studies also indicated that a hydrophobic mismatch between rhodopsin and lipids triggers rhodopsin oligomerization with increasing rhodopsin concentrations. Both hydrophobic mismatch and rhodopsin oligomerization result in substantial shifts of the equilibrium between the photointermediates metarhodopsin I and metarhodopsin II; increasing bilayer thickness favors formation of metarhodopsin II while oligomerization favors metarhodopsin I. The results highlight the importance of hydrophobic matching for rhodopsin structure, oligomerization, and function. PMID:25762324

  11. LapF and Its Regulation by Fis Affect the Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Lahesaare, Andrio; Ainelo, Hanna; Teppo, Annika; Kivisaar, Maia; Heipieper, Hermann J.; Teras, Riho

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to regulate cell surface hydrophobicity is important for the adaptation to different environmental conditions. The hydrophobicity of cell surface can be determined by several factors, including outer membrane and surface proteins. In this study, we report that an adhesin LapF influences cell surface hydrophobicity of Pseudomonas putida. Cells lacking LapF are less hydrophobic than wild-type cells in stationary growth phase. Moreover, the overexpression of the global regulator Fis decreases surface hydrophobicity by repressing the expression of lapF. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that bacteria producing LapF are more viable when confronted with methanol (a hydrophilic compound) but are more susceptible to 1-octanol (a hydrophobic compound). Thus, these results revealed that LapF is the hydrophobicity factor for the cell surface of P. putida. PMID:27812186

  12. Binding of cationic peptides (KX)4K to DPPG bilayers. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X drives formation of membrane bound β-sheets: A DSC and FT-IR study.

    PubMed

    Hädicke, André; Blume, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    The binding of cationic peptides of the sequence (KX)4K to lipid vesicles of negatively charged dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature dependent Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X was changed from G (glycine) over A (alanine), Abu (α-aminobutyric acid), V (valine) to L (leucine). The binding of the peptides caused an increase of the phase transition temperature (Tm) of DPPG by up to 20°C. The shift depended on the charge ratio and on the hydrophobicity of the amino acid X. Unexpectedly, the upward shift of Tm increased with increasing hydrophobicity of X. FT-IR spectroscopy showed a shift of the CH2 stretching vibrations of DPPG to lower frequency, particularly for bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase, indicating an ordering of the hydrocarbon chains when the peptides were bound. Changes in the lipid C=O vibrational band indicated a dehydration of the lipid headgroup region after peptide binding. (KG)4K was bound in an unordered structure at all temperatures. All other peptides formed intermolecular antiparallel β-sheets, when bound to gel phase DPPG. However, for (KA)4K and (KAbu)4K, the β-sheets converted into an unordered structure above Tm. In contrast, the β-sheet structures of (KV)4K and (KL)4K remained stable even at 80°C when bound to the liquid-crystalline phase of DPPG. Strong aggregation of DPPG vesicles occurred after peptide binding. For the aggregates, we suggest a structure, where aggregated single β-sheets are sandwiched between opposing DPPG bilayers with a dehydrated interfacial region.

  13. Datums, Ellipsoids, Grids, and Grid Reference Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Tunisie Grid, Sud Algerie Grid, Sud Maroc Grid, and Sud Tunisie Grid. 4-1.1.8 The...REFERENCES ON THE SUD ALGERIE AND SUD TUNISIE GRIDS 6-8.5.2 When oil reference boxes cannot be accommodated in the margin, the excess is shown in expanses...GIVING REFERENCES ON THE SUD ALGERIE AND SUD TUNISIE GRIDS 6-21 DMA TM 8358.1 I CHAPTER 7 GRIDS ON MAPS AT 1:250,000 AND 1:500,000 SCALE 7.1 GENERAL.

  14. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    PubMed

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  15. Membrane fission by protein crowding.

    PubMed

    Snead, Wilton T; Hayden, Carl C; Gadok, Avinash K; Zhao, Chi; Lafer, Eileen M; Rangamani, Padmini; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2017-04-18

    Membrane fission, which facilitates compartmentalization of biological processes into discrete, membrane-bound volumes, is essential for cellular life. Proteins with specific structural features including constricting rings, helical scaffolds, and hydrophobic membrane insertions are thought to be the primary drivers of fission. In contrast, here we report a mechanism of fission that is independent of protein structure-steric pressure among membrane-bound proteins. In particular, random collisions among crowded proteins generate substantial pressure, which if unbalanced on the opposite membrane surface can dramatically increase membrane curvature, leading to fission. Using the endocytic protein epsin1 N-terminal homology domain (ENTH), previously thought to drive fission by hydrophobic insertion, our results show that membrane coverage correlates equally with fission regardless of the hydrophobicity of insertions. Specifically, combining FRET-based measurements of membrane coverage with multiple, independent measurements of membrane vesiculation revealed that fission became spontaneous as steric pressure increased. Further, fission efficiency remained equally potent when helices were replaced by synthetic membrane-binding motifs. These data challenge the view that hydrophobic insertions drive membrane fission, suggesting instead that the role of insertions is to anchor proteins strongly to membrane surfaces, amplifying steric pressure. In line with these conclusions, even green fluorescent protein (GFP) was able to drive fission efficiently when bound to the membrane at high coverage. Our conclusions are further strengthened by the finding that intrinsically disordered proteins, which have large hydrodynamic radii yet lack a defined structure, drove fission with substantially greater potency than smaller, structured proteins.

  16. Temperature dependence of amino acid hydrophobicities.

    PubMed

    Wolfenden, Richard; Lewis, Charles A; Yuan, Yang; Carter, Charles W

    2015-06-16

    The hydrophobicities of the 20 common amino acids are reflected in their tendencies to appear in interior positions in globular proteins and in deeply buried positions of membrane proteins. To determine whether these relationships might also have been valid in the warm surroundings where life may have originated, we examined the effect of temperature on the hydrophobicities of the amino acids as measured by the equilibrium constants for transfer of their side-chains from neutral solution to cyclohexane (K(w > c)). The hydrophobicities of most amino acids were found to increase with increasing temperature. Because that effect is more pronounced for the more polar amino acids, the numerical range of K(w > c) values decreases with increasing temperature. There are also modest changes in the ordering of the more polar amino acids. However, those changes are such that they would have tended to minimize the otherwise disruptive effects of a changing thermal environment on the evolution of protein structure. Earlier, the genetic code was found to be organized in such a way that--with a single exception (threonine)--the side-chain dichotomy polar/nonpolar matches the nucleic acid base dichotomy purine/pyrimidine at the second position of each coding triplet at 25 °C. That dichotomy is preserved at 100 °C. The accessible surface areas of amino acid side-chains in folded proteins are moderately correlated with hydrophobicity, but when free energies of vapor-to-cyclohexane transfer (corresponding to size) are taken into consideration, a closer relationship becomes apparent.

  17. Changing water affinity from hydrophobic to hydrophilic in hydrophobic channels.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Shotaro; Kodaira, Tetsuya; Hata, Kenji

    2015-01-27

    The behavior of water at hydrophobic interfaces can play a significant role in determining chemical reaction outcomes and physical properties. Carbon nanotubes and aluminophosphate materials have one-dimensional hydrophobic channels, which are entirely surrounded by hydrophobic interfaces. Unique water behavior was observed in such hydrophobic channels. In this article, changes in the water affinity in one-dimensional hydrophobic channels were assessed using water vapor adsorption isotherms at 303 K and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Hydrophobic behavior of water adsorbed in channels wider than 3 nm was observed for both adsorption and desorption processes, owing to the hydrophobic environment. However, water showed hydrophilic properties in both adsorption and desorption processes in channels narrower than 1 nm. In intermediate-sized channels, the hydrophobic properties of water during the adsorption process were seen to transition to hydrophilic behavior during the desorption process. Hydrophilic properties in the narrow channels for both adsorption and desorption processes are a result of the relatively strong water-channel interactions (10-15 kJ mol(-1)). In the 2-3 nm channels, the water-channel interaction energy of 4-5 kJ mol(-1) was comparable to the thermal translational energy. The cohesive water interaction was approximately 35 kJ mol(-1), which was larger than the others. Thus, the water affinity change in the 2-3 nm channels for the adsorption and desorption processes was attributed to weak water-channel interactions and strong cohesive interactions. These results are inherently important to control the properties of water in hydrophobic environments.

  18. Production of single-walled carbon nanotube grids

    DOEpatents

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong; Pheasant, Sean

    2013-12-03

    A method of forming a nanotube grid includes placing a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles on a grid framework, contacting the catalyst nanoparticles with a gas mixture that includes hydrogen and a carbon source in a reaction chamber, forming an activated gas from the gas mixture, heating the grid framework and activated gas, and controlling a growth time to generate a single-wall carbon nanotube array radially about the grid framework. A filter membrane may be produced by this method.

  19. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  20. Air agglomeration of hydrophobic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Drzymala, J.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    The agglomeration of hydrophobic particles in an aqueous suspension was accomplished by introducing small amounts of air into the suspension while it was agitated vigorously. The extent of aggregation was proportional both to the air to solids ratio and to the hydrophobicity of the solids. For a given air/solids ratio, the extent of aggregation of different materials increased in the following order: graphite, gilsonite, coal coated with heptane, and Teflon. The structure of agglomerates produced from coarse Teflon particles differed noticeably from the structure of bubble-particle aggregates produced from smaller, less hydrophobic particles.

  1. Improved immunological membrane filter method for detection of food-borne Salmonella strains.

    PubMed Central

    Cerqueira-Campos, M L; Peterkin, P I; Sharpe, A N

    1986-01-01

    An improved membrane filter method that involves the use of an enzyme-labeled antibody stain has been developed for the rapid detection of Salmonella species in foods. The procedure is carried out directly on a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter without requiring transfer by blotting to nitrocellulose. Pure cultures of 54 Salmonella species and 10 foods artificially contaminated with Salmonella colindale gave a positive reaction in which Salmonella colonies were visible as purple dots. Of 11 nonsalmonella organisms, only Citrobacter freundii reacted with Spicer-Edwards antiserum. Of 22 naturally contaminated food samples, 10 were positive for both the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter procedure of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists and the improved enzyme-labeled antibody stain method, and there was perfect agreement between the methods. Of these 10 positive samples, one was negative by the Health Protection Branch method; of the negative samples, two were positive by this latter method. The improved enzyme-labeled antibody stain method allows detection of Salmonella spp. in foods within 48 h, requires little equipment, and is inexpensive, easy to perform, and suitable for automated detection. PMID:3524458

  2. Type II transmembrane domain hydrophobicity dictates the cotranslational dependence for inversion

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Dan; da Silva, Diogo V.; Nordholm, Johan; Wang, Hao; Daniels, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Membrane insertion by the Sec61 translocon in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is highly dependent on hydrophobicity. This places stringent hydrophobicity requirements on transmembrane domains (TMDs) from single-spanning membrane proteins. On examining the single-spanning influenza A membrane proteins, we found that the strict hydrophobicity requirement applies to the Nout-Cin HA and M2 TMDs but not the Nin-Cout TMDs from the type II membrane protein neuraminidase (NA). To investigate this discrepancy, we analyzed NA TMDs of varying hydrophobicity, followed by increasing polypeptide lengths, in mammalian cells and ER microsomes. Our results show that the marginally hydrophobic NA TMDs (ΔGapp > 0 kcal/mol) require the cotranslational insertion process for facilitating their inversion during translocation and a positively charged N-terminal flanking residue and that NA inversion enhances its plasma membrane localization. Overall the cotranslational inversion of marginally hydrophobic NA TMDs initiates once ∼70 amino acids past the TMD are synthesized, and the efficiency reaches 50% by ∼100 amino acids, consistent with the positioning of this TMD class in type II human membrane proteins. Inversion of the M2 TMD, achieved by elongating its C-terminus, underscores the contribution of cotranslational synthesis to TMD inversion. PMID:25165139

  3. Side Chain Degradable Cationic-Amphiphilic Polymers with Tunable Hydrophobicity Show in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Samaddar, Sandip; Hoque, Jiaul; Konai, Mohini M; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Shome, Bibek R; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-09-12

    Cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with optimal amphiphilicity generally target the bacterial membranes instead of mammalian membranes. To date, this balance has been achieved by varying the cationic charge or side chain hydrophobicity in a variety of cationic-amphiphilic polymers. Optimal hydrophobicity of cationic-amphiphilic polymers has been considered as the governing factor for potent antibacterial activity yet minimal mammalian cell toxicity. However, the concomitant role of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity with constant cationic charge in the interactions of antibacterial polymers with bacterial membranes is not understood. Also, degradable polymers that result in nontoxic degradation byproducts offer promise as safe antibacterial agents. Here we show that amide- and ester (degradable)-bearing cationic-amphiphilic polymers with tunable side chain hydrophobicity can modulate antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that an amide polymer can be a potent antibacterial agent with lower hydrophobicity whereas the corresponding ester polymer needs a relatively higher hydrophobicity to be as effective as its amide counterpart. Our studies reveal that at higher hydrophobicities both amide and ester polymers have similar profiles of membrane-active antibacterial activity and mammalian cell toxicity. On the contrary, at lower hydrophobicities, amide and ester polymers are less cytotoxic, but the former have potent antibacterial and membrane activity compared to the latter. Incorporation of amide and ester moieties made these polymers side chain degradable, with amide polymers being more stable than the ester polymers. Further, the polymers are less toxic, and their degradation byproducts are nontoxic to mice. More importantly, the optimized amide polymer reduces the bacterial burden of burn wound infections in mice models. Our design introduces a new strategy of interplay between the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions

  4. Membrane fouling and wetting in membrane distillation and their mitigation by novel membranes with special wettability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhangxin; Lin, Shihong

    2017-04-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) has been identified as a promising technology to desalinate the hypersaline wastewaters from fracking and other industries. However, conventional hydrophobic MD membranes are highly susceptible to fouling and/or wetting by the hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic constituents in these wastewaters of complex compositions. This study systematically investigates the impact of the surface wetting properties on the membrane wetting and/or fouling behaviors in MD. Specifically, we compare the wetting and fouling resistance of three types of membranes of different wetting properties, including hydrophobic and omniphobic membranes as well as composite membranes with a hydrophobic substrate and a superhydrophilic top surface. We challenged the MD membranes with hypersaline feed solutions that contained a relatively high concentration of crude oil with and without added synthetic surfactants, Triton X-100. We found that the composite membranes with superhydrophilic top surface were robustly resistant to oil fouling in the absence of Triton X-100, but were subject to pore wetting in the presence of Triton X-100. On the other hand, the omniphobic membranes were easily fouled by oil-in-water emulsion without Triton X-100, but successfully sustained stable MD performance with Triton X-100 stabilized oil-in-water emulsion as the feed solution. In contrast, the conventional hydrophobic membranes failed readily regardless whether Triton X-100 was present, although via different mechanisms. These findings are corroborated by contact angle measures as well as oil-probe force spectroscopy. This study provides a holistic picture regarding how a hydrophobic membrane fails in MD and how we can leverage membranes with special wettability to prevent membrane failure in MD operations.

  5. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  6. Wear resistance of hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, MA; Abenojar, J.; Pantoja, M.; López de Armentia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Nature has been an inspiration source to develop artificial hydrophobic surfaces. During the latest years the development of hydrophobic surfaces has been widely researched due to their numerous ranges of industrial applications. Industrially the use of hydrophobic surfaces is being highly demanded. This is why many companies develop hydrophobic products to repel water, in order to be used as coatings. Moreover, these coating should have the appropriated mechanical properties and wear resistance. In this work wear study of a hydrophobic coating on glass is carried out. Hydrophobic product used was Sika Crystal Dry by Sika S.A.U. (Alcobendas, Spain). This product is currently used on car windshield. To calculate wear resistance, pin-on-disk tests were carried out in dry and water conditions. The test parameters were rate, load and sliding distance, which were fixed to 60 rpm, 5 N and 1000 m respectively. A chamois was used as pin. It allows to simulate a real use. The friction coefficient and loss weight were compared to determinate coating resistance

  7. Data Grid Management Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Reagan W.; Jagatheesan, Arun; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael; Schroeder, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The "Grid" is an emerging infrastructure for coordinating access across autonomous organizations to distributed, heterogeneous computation and data resources. Data grids are being built around the world as the next generation data handling systems for sharing, publishing, and preserving data residing on storage systems located in multiple administrative domains. A data grid provides logical namespaces for users, digital entities and storage resources to create persistent identifiers for controlling access, enabling discovery, and managing wide area latencies. This paper introduces data grids and describes data grid use cases. The relevance of data grids to digital libraries and persistent archives is demonstrated, and research issues in data grids and grid dataflow management systems are discussed.

  8. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  9. Effect of hydrophobic mismatch on domain formation and peptide sorting in the multicomponent lipid bilayers in the presence of immobilized peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qing; Wu, Qing-Yan; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2014-08-01

    In the plasma membranes, many transmembrane (TM) proteins/peptides are anchored to the underlying cytoskeleton and/or the extracellular matrix. The lateral diffusion and the tilt of these proteins/peptides may be greatly restricted by the anchoring. Here, using the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the domain formation and peptide sorting in the ternary lipid bilayers in the presence of the immobilized peptide-grid and peptide-cluster. We mainly focused on examining the combining effect of the peptide immobilization and hydrophobic mismatch on the domain formation and peptide sorting in the lipid bilayers. Compared to the lipid bilayers inserted with free TM peptides, our results showed that, because of the tilt restriction imposed on the peptides, the hydrophobic mismatch effect more significantly influences the domain size, the dynamics of domain formation, and the peptide sorting in our systems. Our results provide some theoretical insights into understanding the formation of nanosized lipid rafts, the protein sorting in the lipid rafts and the interaction between the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, and the plasma membranes.

  10. Cluster formation of transmembrane proteins due to hydrophobic mismatching.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Guigas, Gernot; Weiss, Matthias

    2008-09-19

    Membranes are the defining envelopes of living cells. At this boundary a multitude of transmembrane proteins mediate signal and mass transfer between cells and their environment. Clustering of these proteins is a frequent and often vital phenomenon that relies at least in part on membrane-mediated interactions. Indeed, the mismatch between proteins' hydrophobic transmembrane domains and the surrounding lipid bilayer has been predicted to facilitate clustering, yet unequivocal quantitative data in support of these predictions have been lacking. Here, we have used coarse-grained membrane simulations to thoroughly address the clustering of transmembrane proteins in detail. Our results emphasize the universal nature of membrane-mediated attraction which relaxes the need for a plethora of fine-tuned interactions between membrane proteins.

  11. Hydrophobic peptide auxotrophy in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Brãnes, L V; Somers, J M; Kay, W W

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a pleiotropic membrane mutant of Salmonella typhimurium with modified lipopolysaccharide composition was found to be strictly dependent on the peptone component of complex media. Nutritional Shiftdown into minimal media allowed growth for three to four generations. Of 20 commercial peptones, only enzymatic digests supported growth to varying degrees. Neither trace cations, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, lipids, glutathione, polyamines, carbodimides, nor synthetic peptides stimulated growth; however, cells still metabolized carbohydrates, and amino acid transport systems were shown to be functional. A tryptic digest of casein was fractionated into four electrophoretically different peptide fractions of 1,000 to 1,200 molecular weight which supported growth to varying degrees. The best of these was further fractionated to two highly hydrophopic peptides. N-terminal modifications eliminated biological activity. Fluorescein-conjugated goat antibody to rabbit immunoglobulin G was used as a probe to detect antipeptide antibody-peptide complexes on membrane preparations. Cells grown on peptone distributed the peptide into both inner and outer membranes. The peptide could be removed with chaotropic agents, and cells had to be pregrown in peptone-containing media to bind the hydrophobic peptide. The gene (hyp) responsible for peptide auxotrophy was mapped at 44 to 45 units by conjugation. Images PMID:7024254

  12. Hydrophobic Gating in Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Prafulla; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Tucker, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Biological ion channels are nanoscale transmembrane pores. When water and ions are enclosed within the narrow confines of a sub-nanometer hydrophobic pore, they exhibit behavior not evident from macroscopic descriptions. At this nanoscopic level, the unfavorable interaction between the lining of a hydrophobic pore and water may lead to liquid-vapor oscillations. The resultant transient vapor state is ‘dewetted’ i.e. effectively devoid of water molecules within all, or part of the pore, thus leading to an energetic barrier to ion conduction. This process, termed ‘hydrophobic gating’, was first observed in molecular dynamics simulations of model nanopores, where the principles underlying hydrophobic gating (i.e. changes in diameter, polarity, or transmembrane voltage) have now been extensively validated. Computational, structural and functional studies now indicate that biological ion channels may also exploit hydrophobic gating to regulate ion flow within their pores. Here we review the evidence for this process, and propose that this unusual behavior of water represents an increasingly important element in understanding the relationship between ion channel structure and function. PMID:25106689

  13. Spatial services grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian; Li, Qi; Cheng, Jicheng

    2005-10-01

    This paper discusses the concept, key technologies and main application of Spatial Services Grid. The technologies of Grid computing and Webservice is playing a revolutionary role in studying the spatial information services. The concept of the SSG (Spatial Services Grid) is put forward based on the SIG (Spatial Information Grid) and OGSA (open grid service architecture). Firstly, the grid computing is reviewed and the key technologies of SIG and their main applications are reviewed. Secondly, the grid computing and three kinds of SIG (in broad sense)--SDG (spatial data grid), SIG (spatial information grid) and SSG (spatial services grid) and their relationships are proposed. Thirdly, the key technologies of the SSG (spatial services grid) is put forward. Finally, three representative applications of SSG (spatial services grid) are discussed. The first application is urban location based services gird, which is a typical spatial services grid and can be constructed on OGSA (Open Grid Services Architecture) and digital city platform. The second application is region sustainable development grid which is the key to the urban development. The third application is Region disaster and emergency management services grid.

  14. Lipid-Rhodopsin Hydrophobic Mismatch Alters Rhodopsin Helical Content

    SciTech Connect

    Soubias,O.; Niu, S.; Mitchell, D.; Gawrisch, K.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of photoactivated rhodopsin to achieve the enzymatically active metarhodopsin II conformation is exquisitely sensitive to bilayer hydrophobic thickness. The sensitivity of rhodopsin to the lipid matrix has been explained by the hydrophobic matching theory, which predicts that lipid bilayers adjust elastically to the hydrophobic length of transmembrane helices. Here, we examined if bilayer thickness adjusts to the length of the protein or if the protein alters its conformation to adapt to the bilayer. Purified bovine rhodopsin was reconstituted into a series of mono-unsaturated phosphatidylcholines with 14-20 carbons per hydrocarbon chain. Changes of hydrocarbon chain length were measured by 2H NMR, and protein helical content was quantified by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and conventional circular dichroism. Experiments were conducted on dark-adapted rhodopsin, the photo-intermediates metarhodopsin I/II/III, and opsin. Changes of bilayer thickness upon rhodopsin incorporation and photoactivation were mostly absent. In contrast, the helical content of rhodopsin increased with membrane hydrophobic thickness. Helical content did not change measurably upon photoactivation. The increases of bilayer thickness and helicity of rhodopsin are accompanied by higher metarhodopsin II/metarhodopsin I ratios, faster rates of metarhodopsin II formation, an increase of tryptophan fluorescence, and higher temperatures of rhodopsin denaturation. The data suggest a surprising adaptability of this G protein-coupled membrane receptor to properties of the lipid matrix.

  15. Hydrophobic and electrostatic cell surface properties of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Drozd, C; Schwartzbrod, J

    1996-04-01

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons and microelectrophoresis were investigated in order to characterize the surface properties of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocysts exhibited low removal rates by octane (only 20% on average), suggesting that the Cryptosporidium sp. does not demonstrate marked hydrophobic properties. A zeta potential close to -25 mV at pH 6 to 6.5 in deionized water was observed for the parasite. Measurements of hydrophobicity and zeta potential were performed as a function of pH and ionic strength or conductivity. Hydrophobicity maxima were observed at extreme pH values, with 40% of adhesion of oocysts to octane. It also appeared that ionic strength (estimated by conductivity) could influence the hydrophobic properties of oocysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts showed a pH-dependent surface charge, with zeta potentials becoming less negative as pH was reduced, starting at -35 mV for alkaline pH and reaching 0 at isoelectric points for pH 2.5. On the other hand, variation of surface charge with respect to conductivity of the suspension tested in this work was quite small. The knowledge of hydrophobic properties and surface charge of the parasite provides information useful in, for example, the choice of various flocculation treatments, membrane filters, and cleaning agents in connection with oocyst recovery.

  16. Protein-induced bilayer perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Frederic N R; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik; Nielsen, Claus Hélix

    2009-10-02

    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction between the model protein gramicidin and lipid bilayers of varying thickness. The free energy of the interaction is up to -6kJ/mol; thus not strongly favored over lipid-lipid interactions. Incorporation of gramicidin results in increased order parameters with increased protein concentration and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid<-->gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few A results in up to 10-fold increased exchange rates as compared to the 'optimal' match situation pointing to the regulatory role of hydrophobic coupling in lipid-protein interactions.

  17. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA; Park, Ho Bum [Austin, TX; Freeman, Benny D [Austin, TX

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  18. Evaporative Cooling Membrane Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lomax, Curtis (Inventor); Moskito, John (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An evaporative cooling membrane device is disclosed having a flat or pleated plate housing with an enclosed bottom and an exposed top that is covered with at least one sheet of hydrophobic porous material having a thin thickness so as to serve as a membrane. The hydrophobic porous material has pores with predetermined dimensions so as to resist any fluid in its liquid state from passing therethrough but to allow passage of the fluid in its vapor state, thereby, causing the evaporation of the fluid and the cooling of the remaining fluid. The fluid has a predetermined flow rate. The evaporative cooling membrane device has a channel which is sized in cooperation with the predetermined flow rate of the fluid so as to produce laminar flow therein. The evaporative cooling membrane device provides for the convenient control of the evaporation rates of the circulating fluid by adjusting the flow rates of the laminar flowing fluid.

  19. Hydrophobic Solvation: Aqueous Methane Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrod, Oliver; Lankau, Timm

    2007-01-01

    A basic introduction to concept of a solvation shell around an apolar solute as well as its detection is presented. The hydrophobic solvation of toluene is found to be a good teaching example which connects macroscopic, phenomenological thermodynamic results with an atomistic point of view.

  20. Hydrophobic Solvation: Aqueous Methane Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrod, Oliver; Lankau, Timm

    2007-01-01

    A basic introduction to concept of a solvation shell around an apolar solute as well as its detection is presented. The hydrophobic solvation of toluene is found to be a good teaching example which connects macroscopic, phenomenological thermodynamic results with an atomistic point of view.

  1. Molecular origins of fluorocarbon hydrophobicity

    PubMed Central

    Dalvi, Vishwanath H.; Rossky, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    We have undertaken atomistic molecular simulations to systematically determine the structural contributions to the hydrophobicity of fluorinated solutes and surfaces compared to the corresponding hydrocarbon, yielding a unified explanation for these phenomena. We have transformed a short chain alkane, n-octane, to n-perfluorooctane in stages. The free-energy changes and the entropic components calculated for each transformation stage yield considerable insight into the relevant physics. To evaluate the effect of a surface, we have also conducted contact-angle simulations of water on self-assembled monolayers of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon thiols. Our results, which are consistent with experimental observations, indicate that the hydrophobicity of the fluorocarbon, whether the interaction with water is as solute or as surface, is due to its “fatness.” In solution, the extra work of cavity formation to accommodate a fluorocarbon, compared to a hydrocarbon, is not offset by enhanced energetic interactions with water. The enhanced hydrophobicity of fluorinated surfaces arises because fluorocarbons pack less densely on surfaces leading to poorer van der Waals interactions with water. We find that interaction of water with a hydrophobic solute/surface is primarily a function of van der Waals interactions and is substantially independent of electrostatic interactions. This independence is primarily due to the strong tendency of water at room temperature to maintain its hydrogen bonding network structure at an interface lacking hydrophilic sites. PMID:20643968

  2. Parallel grid population

    DOEpatents

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  3. Random hydrophilic-hydrophobic copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, T.; Leibler, L.; Orland, H.

    1994-12-01

    We study a single statistical amphiphilic copolymer chain AB in a selective solvent (e.g. water). Two situations are considered. In the annealed case, hydrophilic (A) and hydrophobic (B) monomers are at local chemical equilibrium and both the fraction of A monomers and their location along the chain can vary, whereas in the quenched case (which is relevant to proteins), the chemical sequence along the chain is fixed by synthesis. In both cases, the physical behaviour depends on the average hydrophobicity of the polymer chain. For a strongly hydrophobic chain (large fraction of B), we find an ordinary continuous θ collapse, with a large conformational entropy in the collapsed phase. For a weakly hydrophobic, or a hydrophilic chain, there is an unusual first-order collapse transition. In particular, for the case of Gaussian disorder, this discontinuous transition is driven by a change of sign of the third virial coefficient. The entropy of this collapsed phase is strongly reduced with respect to the θ collapsed phase. Nous étudions un copolymère aléatoire amphiphile AB dans un solvant sélectif (par exemple, de l'eau). Nous considérons deux cas. Dans le cas du désordre mobile, les monomères hydrophiles (A) et hydrophobes (B) sont à l'équilibre chimique local, et la fraction de monomères A ainsi que leur position dans l'espace peuvent varier, alors que dans le cas du désordre gelé (qui est relié au problème des protéines), la séquence chimique est fixée par synthèse. Dans les deux cas, le comportement de la chaîne depend de son hydrophobicité moyenne. Pour une chaîne fortement hydrophobe (grande fraction de B), on trouve un point d'effondrement θ continu ordinaire, avec une grande entropie conformationnelle. Pour une chaîne faiblement hydrophobe ou hydrophile, on trouve une transition inhabituelle du premier ordre. En particulier, dans le cas du désordre gaussien, cette transition discontinue est pilotée par un changement de signe du troisi

  4. Scientific Grid computing.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V

    2005-08-15

    We introduce a definition of Grid computing which is adhered to throughout this Theme Issue. We compare the evolution of the World Wide Web with current aspirations for Grid computing and indicate areas that need further research and development before a generally usable Grid infrastructure becomes available. We discuss work that has been done in order to make scientific Grid computing a viable proposition, including the building of Grids, middleware developments, computational steering and visualization. We review science that has been enabled by contemporary computational Grids, and associated progress made through the widening availability of high performance computing.

  5. Influence of hydrophobic groups on thickening and emulsification properties of hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Bian, He; Zhang, Huiming

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides can be used to enhance oil recovery in tertiary oil recovery process because they have good thickening and emulsification properties. Hydrophobically modified polyacrylamides with different hydrophobic groups were synthesized using micellar polymerization. Above CAC, elastic polymer gel is formed by the aggregation of hydrophobic groups. Hydrophobicity of hydrophobic groups plays a substantially important role in properties of HMPAMs solutions. Higher hydrophobicity of hydrophobic groups leads to more intensive intermolecular association and thus helps to enhance the apparent viscosity of HMPAMs solutions and form stronger elastic polymer gel network structures in HMPAMs solutions which can enhance the stability of the O/W crude oil emulsions stabilized by HMPAMs.

  6. 50 years of amino acid hydrophobicity scales: revisiting the capacity for peptide classification.

    PubMed

    Simm, Stefan; Einloft, Jens; Mirus, Oliver; Schleiff, Enrico

    2016-07-04

    Physicochemical properties are frequently analyzed to characterize protein-sequences of known and unknown function. Especially the hydrophobicity of amino acids is often used for structural prediction or for the detection of membrane associated or embedded β-sheets and α-helices. For this purpose many scales classifying amino acids according to their physicochemical properties have been defined over the past decades. In parallel, several hydrophobicity parameters have been defined for calculation of peptide properties. We analyzed the performance of separating sequence pools using 98 hydrophobicity scales and five different hydrophobicity parameters, namely the overall hydrophobicity, the hydrophobic moment for detection of the α-helical and β-sheet membrane segments, the alternating hydrophobicity and the exact ß-strand score. Most of the scales are capable of discriminating between transmembrane α-helices and transmembrane β-sheets, but assignment of peptides to pools of soluble peptides of different secondary structures is not achieved at the same quality. The separation capacity as measure of the discrimination between different structural elements is best by using the five different hydrophobicity parameters, but addition of the alternating hydrophobicity does not provide a large benefit. An in silico evolutionary approach shows that scales have limitation in separation capacity with a maximal threshold of 0.6 in general. We observed that scales derived from the evolutionary approach performed best in separating the different peptide pools when values for arginine and tyrosine were largely distinct from the value of glutamate. Finally, the separation of secondary structure pools via hydrophobicity can be supported by specific detectable patterns of four amino acids. It could be assumed that the quality of separation capacity of a certain scale depends on the spacing of the hydrophobicity value of certain amino acids. Irrespective of the wealth of

  7. Dynamic Power Grid Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Top, Philip; Woodward, Carol; Smith, Steve; Banks, Lawrence; Kelley, Brian

    2015-09-14

    GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.

  8. Method of grid generation

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of grid generation that uses the geometry of the problem space and the governing relations to generate a grid. The method can generate a grid with minimized discretization errors, and with minimal user interaction. The method of the present invention comprises assigning grid cell locations so that, when the governing relations are discretized using the grid, at least some of the discretization errors are substantially zero. Conventional grid generation is driven by the problem space geometry; grid generation according to the present invention is driven by problem space geometry and by governing relations. The present invention accordingly can provide two significant benefits: more efficient and accurate modeling since discretization errors are minimized, and reduced cost grid generation since less human interaction is required.

  9. IPG Power Grid Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This presentation will describe what is meant by grids and then cover the current state of the IPG. This will include an overview of the middleware that is key to the operation of the grid. The presentation will then describe some of the future directions that are planned for the IPG. Finally the presentation will conclude with a brief overview of the Global Grid Forum, which is a key activity that will contribute to the successful availability of grid components.

  10. Parallel unstructured grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loehner, Rainald; Camberos, Jose; Merriam, Marshal

    1991-01-01

    A parallel unstructured grid generation algorithm is presented and implemented on the Hypercube. Different processor hierarchies are discussed, and the appropraite hierarchies for mesh generation and mesh smoothing are selected. A domain-splitting algorithm for unstructured grids which tries to minimize the surface-to-volume ratio of each subdomain is described. This splitting algorithm is employed both for grid generation and grid smoothing. Results obtained on the Hypercube demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms developed.

  11. Hydrophobicity and Charge Shape Cellular Metabolite Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Even, Arren; Noor, Elad; Flamholz, Avi; Buescher, Joerg M.; Milo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    What governs the concentrations of metabolites within living cells? Beyond specific metabolic and enzymatic considerations, are there global trends that affect their values? We hypothesize that the physico-chemical properties of metabolites considerably affect their in-vivo concentrations. The recently achieved experimental capability to measure the concentrations of many metabolites simultaneously has made the testing of this hypothesis possible. Here, we analyze such recently available data sets of metabolite concentrations within E. coli, S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis and human. Overall, these data sets encompass more than twenty conditions, each containing dozens (28-108) of simultaneously measured metabolites. We test for correlations with various physico-chemical properties and find that the number of charged atoms, non-polar surface area, lipophilicity and solubility consistently correlate with concentration. In most data sets, a change in one of these properties elicits a ∼100 fold increase in metabolite concentrations. We find that the non-polar surface area and number of charged atoms account for almost half of the variation in concentrations in the most reliable and comprehensive data set. Analyzing specific groups of metabolites, such as amino-acids or phosphorylated nucleotides, reveals even a higher dependence of concentration on hydrophobicity. We suggest that these findings can be explained by evolutionary constraints imposed on metabolite concentrations and discuss possible selective pressures that can account for them. These include the reduction of solute leakage through the lipid membrane, avoidance of deleterious aggregates and reduction of non-specific hydrophobic binding. By highlighting the global constraints imposed on metabolic pathways, future research could shed light onto aspects of biochemical evolution and the chemical constraints that bound metabolic engineering efforts. PMID:21998563

  12. GridKit

    SciTech Connect

    Peles, Slaven

    2016-11-06

    GridKit is a software development kit for interfacing power systems and power grid application software with high performance computing (HPC) libraries developed at National Labs and academia. It is also intended as interoperability layer between different numerical libraries. GridKit is not a standalone application, but comes with a suite of test examples illustrating possible usage.

  13. AstroGrid-PL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowski, Greg; Kundera, Tomasz; Ciecielag, Paweł; AstroGridPL Team

    2016-06-01

    We summarise the achievements AstroGrid-PL project, which aims to provide an infrastructure grid computing, distributed storage and Virtual Observatory services to the Polish astronomical community. It was developed from 2011-2015 as a domain grid component within the large PLGrid Plus project for scientific computing in Poland.

  14. Chimera Grid Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  15. Improved detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods by a membrane filter method.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Malik, N

    1979-09-01

    Analytical procedures based on filtration of homogenates through membrane filters, and particularly hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (HGMF), offer definite improvements in the enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms in foods. Whereas the counted specimen in pour plates may not usually be greater than 0.1 g, up to 1.0 g of ground beef, green beans, potato, cod, strawberries, or grapes could be filtered and counted on HGMF. Greatly improved limit of detection, reduced interference by noncoliforms, and complete removal of growth inhibitors such as polyphenols were demonstrated for HGMF, using violet red bile and mFC agars. In addition, counting on HGMF eliminated a false-positive reaction caused by sucrose in ice cream.

  16. Improved detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods by a membrane filter method.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Malik, N

    1979-01-01

    Analytical procedures based on filtration of homogenates through membrane filters, and particularly hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (HGMF), offer definite improvements in the enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms in foods. Whereas the counted specimen in pour plates may not usually be greater than 0.1 g, up to 1.0 g of ground beef, green beans, potato, cod, strawberries, or grapes could be filtered and counted on HGMF. Greatly improved limit of detection, reduced interference by noncoliforms, and complete removal of growth inhibitors such as polyphenols were demonstrated for HGMF, using violet red bile and mFC agars. In addition, counting on HGMF eliminated a false-positive reaction caused by sucrose in ice cream. Images PMID:394679

  17. Liposome transport of hydrophobic drugs: gel phase lipid bilayer permeability and partitioning of the lactone form of a hydrophobic camptothecin, DB-67.

    PubMed

    Joguparthi, Vijay; Xiang, Tian-Xiang; Anderson, Bradley D

    2008-01-01

    The design of liposomal delivery systems for hydrophobic drug molecules having improved encapsulation efficiency and enhanced drug retention would be highly desirable. Unfortunately, the poor aqueous solubility and high membrane binding affinity of hydrophobic drugs necessitates extensive validation of experimental methods to determine both liposome loading and permeability and thus the development of a quantitative understanding of the factors governing the encapsulation and retention/release of such compounds has been slow. This report describes an efflux transport method using dynamic dialysis to study the liposomal membrane permeability of hydrophobic compounds. A mathematical model has been developed to calculate liposomal membrane permeability coefficients of hydrophobic compounds from dynamic dialysis experiments and partitioning experiments using equilibrium dialysis. Also reported is a simple method to study the release kinetics of liposome encapsulated camptothecin lactone in plasma by comparing the hydrolysis kinetics of liposome entrapped versus free drug. DB-67, a novel hydrophobic camptothecin analogue has been used as a model permeant to validate these methods. Theoretical estimates of DB-67 permeability obtained from the bulk solubility diffusion model and the "barrier-domain" solubility diffusion model are compared to the experimentally observed value. The use of dynamic dialysis in drug release studies of liposome and other nanoparticle formulations is further discussed and experimental artifacts that can arise without adequate validation are illustrated through simulations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Evolutionary origins of membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Galperin, Michael Y.

    Although the genes that encode membrane proteins make about 30% of the sequenced genomes, the evolution of membrane proteins and their origins are still poorly understood. Here we address this topic by taking a closer look at those membrane proteins the ancestors of which were present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor, and in particular, the F/V-type rotating ATPases. Reconstruction of their evolutionary history provides hints for understanding not only the origin of membrane proteins, but also of membranes themselves. We argue that the evolution of biological membranes could occur as a process of coevolution of lipid bilayers and membrane proteins, where the increase in the ion-tightness of the membrane bilayer may have been accompanied by a transition from amphiphilic, pore-forming membrane proteins to highly hydrophobic integral membrane complexes.

  19. Role of the lid hydrophobicity pattern in pancreatic lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Annick; Allouche, Maya; Basyn, Frédéric; Brasseur, Robert; Kerfelec, Brigitte

    2005-12-02

    Pancreatic lipase is a soluble globular protein that must undergo structural modifications before it can hydrolyze oil droplets coated with bile salts. The binding of colipase and movement of the lipase lid open access to the active site. Mechanisms triggering lid mobility are unclear. The *KNILSQIVDIDGI* fragment of the lid of the human pancreatic lipase is predicted by molecular modeling to be a tilted peptide. Tilted peptides are hydrophobicity motifs involved in membrane fusion and more globally in perturbations of hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces. Analysis of this lid fragment predicts no clear consensus of secondary structure that suggests that its structure is not strongly sequence determined and could vary with environment. Point mutations were designed to modify the hydrophobicity profile of the [240-252] fragment and their consequences on the lipase-mediated catalysis were tested. Two mutants, in which the tilted peptide motif was lost, also have poor activity on bile salt-coated oil droplets and cannot be reactivated by colipase. Conversely, one mutant in which a different tilted peptide is created retains colipase dependence. These results suggest that the tilted hydrophobicity pattern of the [240-252] fragment is neither important for colipase binding to lipase, nor for interfacial binding but is important to trigger the maximal catalytic efficiency of lipase in the presence of bile salt.

  20. Vapor transport through short hydrophobic nanopores for desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Rahman, Faizur; Karnik, Rohit

    2011-11-01

    We propose a concept for desalination of water by reverse osmosis (RO) using a vapor-trapping membrane composed of short hydrophobic nanopores and separates the salt water (feed) and the fresh water (permeate) on each side. The feed water is vaporized by applied pressure and the water vapor condenses on the permeate side accompanied by recovery of latent heat. A probabilistic model based on rarified gas conditions predicted 3-5 times larger mass flux by the proposed membrane than conventional RO membranes at temperatures in the range of 30-50C. To realize the short hydrophobic nanopores, gold was deposited at the entrance of alumina pores followed by SAM formation. The fraction of leaking pores was confirmed to be less than 0.2% using a calcium ion indicator (Fluo-4). Finally, a microfluidic flow cell was fabricated for characterizing the transport properties of the membranes. The authors would like to thank the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, for funding the research reported in this paper through the Center for Clean Water and Clean Energy at MIT and KFUPM.

  1. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M

    1997-05-06

    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  2. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  3. FermiGrid

    SciTech Connect

    Yocum, D.R.; Berman, E.; Canal, P.; Chadwick, K.; Hesselroth, T.; Garzoglio, G.; Levshina, T.; Sergeev, V.; Sfiligoi, I.; Sharma, N.; Timm, S.; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    As one of the founding members of the Open Science Grid Consortium (OSG), Fermilab enables coherent access to its production resources through the Grid infrastructure system called FermiGrid. This system successfully provides for centrally managed grid services, opportunistic resource access, development of OSG Interfaces for Fermilab, and an interface to the Fermilab dCache system. FermiGrid supports virtual organizations (VOs) including high energy physics experiments (USCMS, MINOS, D0, CDF, ILC), astrophysics experiments (SDSS, Auger, DES), biology experiments (GADU, Nanohub) and educational activities.

  4. Role of Positional Hydrophobicity in the Leishmanicidal Activity of Magainin 2

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Esther; Saugar, José María; Matsuzaki, Katsumi; Rivas, Luis

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides as new alternatives against pathogens with multiantibiotic resistance requires the design of better analogues. Among the different physicochemical parameters involved in the optimization of linear antimicrobial peptides, positional hydrophobicity has recently been incorporated. This takes into consideration the concept of the topological distribution of hydrophobic residues throughout the sequence rather than the classical concept of hydrophobicity as a global parameter of the peptide, calculated as the summation of the individual hydrophobicities of the residues. In order to assess the contribution of this parameter to the leishmanicidal mechanisms of magainin 2 analogues, the activities of two of these analogues, MG-H1 (GIKKFLHIIWKFIKAFVGEIMNS) and MG-H2 (IIKKFLHSIWKFGKAFVGEIMNI), which have similar charges, amino acid compositions, and hydrophobicities but different positional hydrophobicities, against Leishmania donovani promastigotes were assayed (T. Tachi, R. F. Epand, R. M. Epand, and K. Matsuzaki, Biochemistry 41:10723-10731, 2002). The activities were compared with that of the parental peptide, F5W-magainin 2 (GIGKWLHSAKKFGKAFVGEIMNS). The three peptides were active at micromolar concentrations, in the order MG-H2 > MG-H1 > F5W-magainin 2. These activities differ from their hemolytic and bactericidal activities. The results demonstrate that positional hydrophobicity, which reflects the presence of short stretches of sequences rich in hydrophobic amino acids, plays an important role in the activities of leishmanicidal peptides. PMID:15273109

  5. Self-assembling of hydrophobic-hydrophilic copolymers in hydrophobic nanocylindrical tubes: formation of channels.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Ruckenstein, Eli

    2008-02-21

    By employing Monte Carlo simulations, the phase behavior of hydrophobic-hydrophilic copolymers confined in hydrophobic nanocylindrical tubes has been investigated by changing the hydrophobic-hydrophilic distribution, the ratio of the hydrophobic to hydrophilic segments, the hydrophobicity of the tube surface, and the tube diameter. The ratio of hydrophobic to hydrophilic segments, the number of blocks in a chain, and the number of segments in a block affected the generation of channels in the central region. Such channels were formed when the hydrophobicity of the tube surface was sufficiently strong for its attraction for the hydrophobic segments to overcome the attraction between the hydrophobic segments. When the numbers of hydrophobic and hydrophilic beads in a chain are constant, the number of blocks has opposite effects in small and large tubes. In the former, the formation of channels is stimulated by a larger number of blocks, while in the latter, it is stimulated by a smaller number of blocks.

  6. Hydrophobic-Core Microcapsules and Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M. (Inventor); Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic-core microcapsules and methods of their formation are provided. A hydrophobic-core microcapsule may include a shell that encapsulates a hydrophobic substance with a core substance, such as dye, corrosion indicator, corrosion inhibitor, and/or healing agent, dissolved or dispersed therein. The hydrophobic-core microcapsules may be formed from an emulsion having hydrophobic-phase droplets, e.g., containing the core substance and shell-forming compound, dispersed in a hydrophilic phase. The shells of the microcapsules may be capable of being broken down in response to being contacted by an alkali, e.g., produced during corrosion, contacting the shell.

  7. Which grids are Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Hedetniemi, S. M.; Hedetniemi, S. T.; Slater, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A complete grid G/sub m,n/ is a graph having m x n pertices that are connected to form a rectangular lattice in the plane, i.e., all edges of G/sub m,n/ connect vertices along horizontal or vertical lines. A grid is a subgraph of a complete grid. As an illustration, complete grids describe the basic pattern of streets in most cities. This paper examines the existence of Hamiltonian cycles in complete grids and complete grids with one or two vertices removed. It is determined for most values of m,n greater than or equal to 1, which grids G/sub m,n/ - (u) and G/sub m,n/ - (u,v) are Hamiltonian. 12 figures. (RWR)

  8. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-01-01

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed. PMID:24956947

  9. Pretreatment and membrane hydrophilic modification to reduce membrane fouling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-09-04

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  10. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  11. Navigation in Grid Space with the NAS Grid Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present a navigational tool for computational grids. The navigational process is based on measuring the grid characteristics with the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB) and using the measurements to assign tasks of a grid application to the grid machines. The tool allows the user to explore the grid space and to navigate the execution at a grid application to minimize its turnaround time. We introduce the notion of gridscape as a user view of the grid and show how it can be me assured by NGB, Then we demonstrate how the gridscape can be used with two different schedulers to navigate a grid application through a rudimentary grid.

  12. Grid enabled Service Support Environment - SSE Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goor, Erwin; Paepen, Martine

    2010-05-01

    The SSEGrid project is an ESA/ESRIN project which started in 2009 and is executed by two Belgian companies, Spacebel and VITO, and one Dutch company, Dutch Space. The main project objectives are the introduction of a Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure at the Image Processing Centre for earth observation products at VITO and the inclusion of Grid processing services in the Service Support Environment (SSE) at ESRIN. The Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure is meant to support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators (PI) and allow the design and execution of multi-sensor applications with geographically spread data while minimising the transfer of huge volumes of data. In the first scenario, 'support a Grid processing on demand model for Principal Investigators', we aim to provide processing power close to the EO-data at the processing and archiving centres. We will allow a PI (non-Grid expert user) to upload his own algorithm, as a process, and his own auxiliary data from the SSE Portal and use them in an earth observation workflow on the SSEGrid Infrastructure. The PI can design and submit workflows using his own processes, processes made available by VITO/ESRIN and possibly processes from other users that are available on the Grid. These activities must be user-friendly and not requiring detailed knowledge about the underlying Grid middleware. In the second scenario we aim to design, implement and demonstrate a methodology to set up an earth observation processing facility, which uses large volumes of data from various geographically spread sensors. The aim is to provide solutions for problems that we face today, like wasting bandwidth by copying large volumes of data to one location. We will avoid this by processing the data where they are. The multi-mission Grid-based processing on demand infrastructure will allow developing and executing complex and massive multi-sensor data (re-)processing applications more

  13. Composite Membrane with Underwater-Oleophobic Surface for Anti-Oil-Fouling Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhangxin; Hou, Deyin; Lin, Shihong

    2016-04-05

    In this study, we fabricated a composite membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a commercial hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with a nanocomposite coating comprising silica nanoparticles, chitosan hydrogel and fluoro-polymer. The composite membrane exhibits asymmetric wettability, with the modified surface being in-air hydrophilic and underwater oleophobic, and the unmodified surface remaining hydrophobic. By comparing the performance of the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in direct contact MD experiments using a saline emulsion with 1000 ppm crude oil (in water), we showed that the fabricated composite membrane was significantly more resistant to oil fouling compared to the pristine hydrophobic PVDF membrane. Force spectroscopy was conducted for the interaction between an oil droplet and the membrane surface using a force tensiometer. The difference between the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in their interaction with an oil droplet served to explain the difference in the fouling propensities between these two membranes observed in MD experiments. The results from this study suggest that underwater oleophobic coating can effectively mitigate oil fouling in MD operations, and that the fabricated composite membrane with asymmetric wettability can enable MD to desalinate hypersaline wastewater with high concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants.

  14. Advantages, problems and limitations of different field and laboratory approaches for investigating soil hydrophobicity switching patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Urbanek, E.; Shakesby, R. A.; Leighton-Boyce, G.; Doerr, S. H.; Ferreira, A. D. J.; Stoof, C.

    2009-04-01

    This poster presents the research approaches and early results of a programme of field and laboratory investigation to assess three-dimensional patterns of switching of soils between hydrophobic and hydrophilic states. It focuses on soils on terrain of burnt and unburnt eucalyptus, pine and scrub land-use in north-central Portugal. Although much is known about soil hydrophobicity, assessments of the overall hydrological and erosional significance of the soil property in any environmental situation are greatly hampered by a lack of knowledge on switching, mainly because of the destructive nature of methods of measuring the soil property, coupled with the often high local spatial variability of hydrophobicity within soils. In particular little is known about (i) three-dimensional patterns of change (are changes spatially progressive or near-simultaneous within soil profiles and across slopes), (ii) the speed and frequency of switching and (iii) the extent to which the degree of hydrophobicity at particular points change prior to becoming (and with increasing time since being) hydrophilic. Four complementary approaches are being adopted by the research programme reported here. 1) Statistical analysis of differences in the frequency distributions of degree of hydrophobicity of seasonal snapshot surveys of hydrophobicity (surface and subsurface) at four grid networks on unburned and burned eucalyptus terrain in a an area of schist lithology in northern Portugal; (2) A similar statistical analytical approach, but this time focussing on drying sequences provided by daily surveys following individual rainstorms of two grids on unburned and newly burned scrubland; (3) Daily three-dimensional surveys of hydrophobicity around root systems of eucalyptus globules seedlings using excavated pits before and after rainstorms; and (4) laboratory investigation of three-dimensional patterns of hydrophobicity at intervals during simulated wetting and drying phases for a range of

  15. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  16. Hydrophobicity, overland flow and erosion: influences of local spatial variability, vertical routeways and switching dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Leighton-Boyce, G.; Urbanek, E.; Shakesby, R. A.; Stoof, C.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Doerr, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    model, change is sudden rather than progressive, occurring throughout the soil volume over a short time period. The models are tested in two ways. The first approach is statistical using field data derived from grids of monitoring points, where the differences in frequency distribution of hydrophobicity classes between monitoring occasions can be inferred to indicate whether change is sudden or progressive. The field datasets used are (1) seasonal datasets derived from four 60-point grids (2 metres spacing) in burnt and different-aged Eucalyptus globulus terrain in northern Portugal and (2) daily datasets during drying phases following rainstorms from two 50-point grids (1 metre spacing) on unburned and newly burned heather moorland in central Portugal. Initial results are also presented and used from a laboratory-based programme assessing three-dimensional change in initially hydrophobic soil with and without different types of vertical routways (including those provided by contiguous stone clasts and vertical holes or cracks). Implications of the results for overland flow and erosion in different types of hydrophobicity-affected environments are considered.

  17. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2004-10-19

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  18. Preparation of hydrophobic organic aeorgels

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Gash, Alexander E.

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic methods for the preparation of hydrophobic organics aerogels. One method involves the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3-dimethoxybenzene or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene with formaldehyde in non-aqueous solvents. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be dried using either supercritical solvent extraction to generate the new organic aerogels or air dried to produce an xerogel. Other methods involve the sol-gel polymerization of 1,3,5 trihydroxy benzene (phloroglucinol) or 1,3 dihydroxy benzene (resorcinol) and various aldehydes in non-aqueous solvents. These methods use a procedure analogous to the one-step base and two-step base/acid catalyzed polycondensation of phloroglucinol and formaldehyde, but the base catalyst used is triethylamine. These methods can be applied to a variety of other sol-gel precursors and solvent systems. These hydrophobic organics aerogels have numerous application potentials in the field of material absorbers and water-proof insulation.

  19. Is Br2 hydration hydrophobic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaraz-Torres, A.; Gamboa-Suárez, A.; Bernal-Uruchurtu, M. I.

    2017-02-01

    The spectroscopic properties of bromine in aqueous systems suggest it can behave as either hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute. In small water clusters, the halogen bond and the hydrogen-halogen interaction are responsible for its specific way of binding. In water hydrates, it is efficiently hosted by two different cages forming the crystal structure and it has been frequently assumed that there is little or no interaction between the guest and the host. Bromine in liquid solution poses a challenging question due to its non-negligible solubility and the large blue shift measured in its absorption spectra. Using a refined semi-empirical force field, PM3-PIF, we performed a Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics study of bromine in liquid water. Here we present a detailed study in which we retrieved the most representative hydration structures in terms of the most frequent positions around bromine and the most common water orientations. Albeit being an approximate description of the total hydration phenomenon, it captures the contribution of the leading molecular interactions in form of the recurrent structures. Our findings confirm that the spectroscopic signature is mainly caused by the closest neighbors. The dynamics of the whole first hydration shell strongly suggests that the external molecules in that structure effectively isolate the bulk from the presence of bromine. The solvation structure fluctuates from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic-like environment along the studied trajectory.

  20. Understanding the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-14

    The electric power grid has been rightly celebrated as the single most important engineering feat of the 20th century. The grid powers our homes, offices, hospitals, and schools; and, increasingly, it powers our favorite devices from smartphones to HDTVs. With those and other modern innovations and challenges, our grid will need to evolve. Grid modernization efforts will help the grid make full use of today’s advanced technologies and serve our needs in the 21st century. While the vast majority of upgrades are implemented by private sector energy companies that own and operate the grid, DOE has been investing in technologies that are revolutionizing the way we generate, store and transmit power.

  1. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  2. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  3. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  4. Enhanced Elliptic Grid Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Upender K.

    2007-01-01

    An enhanced method of elliptic grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "Elliptic grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are

  5. Unstructured surface grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh-Abolhassani, Jamshid

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on unstructured surface grid generation are presented. Topics covered include: requirements for curves, surfaces, solids, and text; surface approximation; triangulation; advancing; projection; mapping; and parametric curves.

  6. Identification of hydrophobic proteins as biomarker candidates for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Chaver, Paula; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco J; Martínez-Zorzano, Vicenta S; Páez de la Cadena, María

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of cancer death in Western countries. Due to the lack of biomarkers with clinical utility for this pathology, and considering that membrane and hydrophobic proteins have not been studied in depth, we performed a prefractionation of colorectal tissues prior to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in order to identify hydrophobic proteins differentially expressed in colorectal cancer patients. Fractions enriched in hydrophobic proteins were obtained from healthy mucosa and tumor tissue by a specific extraction method based on temperature-dependent phase partitioning with Triton X-114. Proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and gels were silver-stained, scanned and compared using the PDQuest software. Those spots presenting significantly different abundance were submitted to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Alterations in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins, including a decrease of vimentin and the absence of desmin, were found. We also detected alterations in antioxidant and transport proteins, chaperones, and in two isoforms of the calcium-binding protein S100A6. On the other hand, vimentin was chosen to corroborate the electrophoretic results by specific immunodetection. Most of the altered proteins have been related to cellular membranes, many of them to lipid rafts microdomains in the plasma membrane, and they have also been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, or metastasis. In conclusion, all the proteins found altered in colorectal tumor samples could be considered as candidates for future studies focused on their utility as markers for colorectal diagnosis and prognosis, or as targets for colorectal cancer therapy.

  7. Computer simulations of phase field drops on super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedeli, Livio

    2017-09-01

    We present a novel quasi-Newton continuation procedure that efficiently solves the system of nonlinear equations arising from the discretization of a phase field model for wetting phenomena. We perform a comparative numerical analysis that shows the improved speed of convergence gained with respect to other numerical schemes. Moreover, we discuss the conditions that, on a theoretical level, guarantee the convergence of this method. At each iterative step, a suitable continuation procedure develops and passes to the nonlinear solver an accurate initial guess. Discretization performs through cell-centered finite differences. The resulting system of equations is solved on a composite grid that uses dynamic mesh refinement and multi-grid techniques. The final code achieves three-dimensional, realistic computer experiments comparable to those produced in laboratory settings. This code offers not only new insights into the phenomenology of super-hydrophobicity, but also serves as a reliable predictive tool for the study of hydrophobic surfaces.

  8. Directly electrospun ultrafine nanofibres with Cu grid spinneret

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwang; Zheng, Gaofeng; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Lei; Wang, Lingyun; Wang, Han; Sun, Daoheng

    2011-04-01

    A hydrophobic Cu grid was used as an electrospinning spinneret to fabricate ultrafine organic nanofibres. The Cu grid used in this study was that which holds samples in TEM. Due to the hydrophobic surface and larger contact angle of the electrospinning solution on the Cu grid surface, the solution flow was divided into several finer ones by the holes in the Cu grid instead of accumulating. Each finer flow was stretched into individual jets and established a multi-jet mode by the electrical field force. The finer jets played an important role in decreasing the diameter of the nanofibre. The charge repulsion force among charged jets enhanced the whipping instability motion of the liquid jets, which improved the uniformity of the nanofibre and decreased the diameter of the nanofibre. An ultrafine uniform nanofibre of diameter less than 80 nm could be fabricated directly with the novel Cu grid spinneret without any additive. This study provided a unique way to promote the application of one-dimensional organic nanostructures in micro/nanosystems.

  9. Characterisation of nanomaterial hydrophobicity using engineered surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Cloé; Valsesia, Andrea; Oddo, Arianna; Ceccone, Giacomo; Spampinato, Valentina; Rossi, François; Colpo, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    Characterisation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is of outmost importance for the assessment of the potential risks arising from their extensive use. NMs display indeed a large variety of physico-chemical properties that drastically affect their interaction with biological systems. Among them, hydrophobicity is an important property that is nevertheless only slightly covered by the current physico-chemical characterisation techniques. In this work, we developed a method for the direct characterisation of NM hydrophobicity. The determination of the nanomaterial hydrophobic character is carried out by the direct measurement of the affinity of the NMs for different collectors. Each collector is an engineered surface designed in order to present specific surface charge and hydrophobicity degrees. Being thus characterised by a combination of surface energy components, the collectors enable the NM immobilisation with surface coverage in relation to their hydrophobicity. The experimental results are explained by using the extended DLVO theory, which takes into account the hydrophobic forces acting between NMs and collectors.

  10. Expulsion of ions from hydrophobic hydration shells.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Blake M; Ben-Amotz, Dor

    2013-06-19

    Raman spectroscopy is combined with multivariate curve resolution to quantify interactions between ions and molecular hydrophobic groups in water. The molecular solutes in this study all have similar structures, with a trimethyl hydrophobic domain and a polar or charged headgroup. Our results imply that aqueous sodium and fluoride ions are strongly expelled from the first hydration shells of the hydrophobic (methyl) groups, while iodide ions are found to enter the hydrophobic hydration shell, to an extent that depends on the methyl group partial charge. However, our quantitative estimates of the corresponding ion binding equilibrium constants indicate that the iodide concentration in the first hydrophobic hydration shell is generally lower than that in the surrounding bulk water, and so an iodide ion cannot be viewed as having a true affinity for the molecular hydrophobic interface, but rather is less strongly expelled from such an interface than fluoride.

  11. Stability of proteins inside a hydrophobic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that enclosing a protein in an athermal cavity stabilizes the protein against reversible unfolding by virtue of eliminating many open chain conformations. Examples of such confined spaces include pores in chromatographic columns, Anfinsen's cage in Chaperonins, interiors of Ribosomes or regions of steric occlusion inside cells. However, the situation is more complex inside a hydrophobic cavity. The protein has a tendency to adsorb on the surface of the hydrophobic cavity, but at the same time it loses conformational entropy because of confinement. We study this system using a simple Hydrophobic Polar (HP) lattice protein model. Canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations at different temperatures and surface hydrophobicity show that proteins are stabilized at low and moderate hydrophobicity upon adsorption. The range of surface hydrophobicity over which a protein is stable increases with a decrease in radius of the cavity.

  12. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-11

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces.

  13. Lightweight Grid Shell Pavilion - Design, Manufacture and Erection of Full Scale Grid Shell Prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of author's research is to design and construct grid shell structures, which are subsequently realized as experimental structures in full scale. These structures should make the place suitable for various events and also a friendly, pleasant, relaxing and free time space. By thinking about how such structure should look like and what materials and structure types are suitable, there were many kinds of lightweight structures considered. The most logical solution is to create a grid shell structure combining with a single layer membrane that would fulfill all aspects of elegant remarkable lightweight structure using some original details and workflow advancements. These grid shell projects should demonstrate another possibility to build and think about unconventional structures and provoke a deeper interest in these unique structures. The goal of this project was to create a feasible design of a grid shell structure and to build up the structures while being capable to understand the core of such an interesting phenomenon.

  14. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approaches continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.

  15. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approachesmore » continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.« less

  16. Molecular simulation studies of hydrophobic gating in nanopores and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Trick, Jemma L; Aryal, Prafulla; Tucker, Stephen J; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-04-01

    Gating in channels and nanopores plays a key role in regulating flow of ions across membranes. Molecular simulations provide a 'computational microscope' which enables us to examine the physical nature of gating mechanisms at the level of the single channel molecule. Water enclosed within the confines of a nanoscale pore may exhibit unexpected behaviour. In particular, if the molecular surfaces lining the pore are hydrophobic this promotes de-wetting of the pore. De-wetting is observed as stochastic liquid-vapour transitions within a pore, and may lead to functional closure of a pore to the flow of ions and/or water. Such behaviour was first observed in simulations of simple model nanopores and referred to as 'hydrophobic gating'. Simulations of both the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and of TWIK-1 potassium channels (the latter alongside experimental studies) suggest hydrophobic gating may occur in some biological ion channels. Current studies are focused on designing hydrophobic gates into biomimetic nanopores.

  17. Behavior of aqueous solutions in hydrophobic confinement studied using molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sumit

    Biological processes, such as formation of cell membranes, vesicles and folding of protein molecules, entail formation of a predominantly hydrophobic interior devoid of water. These processes occur in crowded aqueous environments comprising of amino acids, carbohydrates, ionic species, protein molecules, etc. Kinetics of these processes involve drying of hydrophobic pockets. Previous studies reveal that the kinetics of evaporation of water in hydrophobic confinement significantly slow down as the confinement gap increases. Presumably, the constituents of aqueous environment in biological systems modulate the kinetics of evaporation of confined water. In this work, we employ forward flux sampling in molecular dynamics simulations to study the role of solutes at different concentrations in modulating the kinetics and mechanism of evaporation of water under hydrophobic confinement. The results of these simulations will be useful for understanding optimum conditions for protein folding and other biological self-assembly processes.

  18. Method for making nanoporous hydrophobic coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2013-04-23

    A simple coating method is used to form nanoporous hydrophobic films that can be used as optical coatings. The method uses evaporation-induced self-assembly of materials. The coating method starts with a homogeneous solution comprising a hydrophobic polymer and a surfactant polymer in a selective solvent. The solution is coated onto a substrate. The surfactant polymer forms micelles with the hydrophobic polymer residing in the particle core when the coating is dried. The surfactant polymer can be dissolved and selectively removed from the separated phases by washing with a polar solvent to form the nanoporous hydrophobic film.

  19. The physical origin of hydrophobic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    From the structural studies on water and air/water interface, hydration free energy is derived, and used to investigate the origin of hydrophobic effects. As a solute is dissolved into water, hydration free energy increases, and is divided into initial and hydrophobic solvation processes. In the initial process, hydration free energy is dominated by hydrogen bonding in interfacial water (topmost water layer at solute/water interface). For hydrophobic process, hydration free energy is related to the hydrogen bonding in bulk and interfacial water. Therefore, hydrophobic effects originate from the structural competition between hydrogen bonding in bulk water and that in interfacial water.

  20. Identification of soil bacteria able to degrade phenanthrene bound to a hydrophobic sorbent in situ.

    PubMed

    Regonne, Raïssa Kom; Martin, Florence; Mbawala, Augustin; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Jouanneau, Yves

    2013-09-01

    Efficient bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites is limited by the hydrophobic character and poor bioavailability of pollutants. In this study, stable isotope probing (SIP) was implemented to track bacteria that can degrade PAHs adsorbed on hydrophobic sorbents. Temperate and tropical soils were incubated with (13)C-labeled phenanthrene, supplied by spiking or coated onto membranes. Phenanthrene mineralization was faster in microcosms with PAH-coated membranes than in microcosms containing spiked soil. Upon incubation with temperate soil, phenanthrene degraders found in the biofilms that formed on coated membranes were mainly identified as Sphingomonadaceae and Actinobacteria. In the tropical soil, uncultured Rhodocyclaceae dominated degraders bound to membranes. Accordingly, ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase sequences recovered from this soil matched PAH-specific dioxygenase genes recently found in Rhodocyclaceae. Hence, our SIP approach allowed the detection of novel degraders, mostly uncultured, which differ from those detected after soil spiking, but might play a key role in the bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils.

  1. Hydrophobic coatings for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doms, M.; Feindt, H.; Kuipers, W. J.; Shewtanasoontorn, D.; Matar, A. S.; Brinkhues, S.; Welton, R. H.; Mueller, J.

    2008-05-01

    Different kinds of thin-film coatings were investigated with regard to their applicability as hydrophobic coatings for MEMS. The films were deposited onto silicon and borosilicate glass substrates by spincoating of Dyneon™ PTFE and PFA, plasmapolymerization of HMDS-N and C4F8 as well as liquid-phase and vapor-phase coating of SAMs from DDMS, FDTS, FOTS and Geleste Aquaphobe™ CM. The layer properties were analyzed using profilometry, FTIR, SEM and contact angle measurements. Furthermore, the adhesion of the layers to the substrates was determined in an acetone ultrasonic bath. The influence of various deposition process parameters on the properties of the films was investigated. As these layers can be used in microfluidic systems, as water-repellent layers and as anti-stiction coatings, they are suited for versatile fields of application.

  2. Revisiting Hydrophobic Mismatch with Free Energy Simulation Studies of Transmembrane Helix Tilt and Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehoon; Im, Wonpil

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Protein-lipid interaction and bilayer regulation of membrane protein functions are largely controlled by the hydrophobic match between the transmembrane (TM) domain of membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer. To systematically characterize responses of a TM helix and lipid adaptations to a hydrophobic mismatch, we have performed a total of 5.8-μs umbrella sampling simulations and calculated the potentials of mean force (PMFs) as a function of TM helix tilt angle under various mismatch conditions. Single-pass TM peptides called WALPn (n = 16, 19, 23, and 27) were used in two lipid bilayers with different hydrophobic thicknesses to consider hydrophobic mismatch caused by either the TM length or the bilayer thickness. In addition, different flanking residues, such as alanine, lysine, and arginine, instead of tryptophan in WALP23 were used to examine their influence. The PMFs, their decomposition, and trajectory analysis demonstrate that 1), tilting of a single-pass TM helix is the major response to a hydrophobic mismatch; 2), TM helix tilting up to ∼10° is inherent due to the intrinsic entropic contribution arising from helix precession around the membrane normal even under a negative mismatch; 3), the favorable helix-lipid interaction provides additional driving forces for TM helix tilting under a positive mismatch; 4), the minimum-PMF tilt angle is generally located where there is the hydrophobic match and little lipid perturbation; 5), TM helix rotation is dependent on the specific helix-lipid interaction; and 6), anchoring residues at the hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface can be an important determinant of TM helix orientation. PMID:20655845

  3. Real-time monitoring of hydrophobic aggregation reveals a critical role of cooperativity in hydrophobic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liguo; Cao, Siqin; Cheung, Peter Pak-Hang; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Leung, Chris Wai Tung; Peng, Qian; Shuai, Zhigang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Yao, Shuhuai; Huang, Xuhui

    2017-05-01

    The hydrophobic interaction drives nonpolar solutes to aggregate in aqueous solution, and hence plays a critical role in many fundamental processes in nature. An important property intrinsic to hydrophobic interaction is its cooperative nature, which is originated from the collective motions of water hydrogen bond networks surrounding hydrophobic solutes. This property is widely believed to enhance the formation of hydrophobic core in proteins. However, cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions has not been successfully characterized by experiments. Here, we quantify cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions by real-time monitoring the aggregation of hydrophobic solute (hexaphenylsilole, HPS) in a microfluidic mixer. We show that association of a HPS molecule to its aggregate in water occurs at sub-microsecond, and the free energy change is -5.8 to -13.6 kcal mol-1. Most strikingly, we discover that cooperativity constitutes up to 40% of this free energy. Our results provide quantitative evidence for the critical role of cooperativity in hydrophobic interactions.

  4. Efficient grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Bill

    1989-01-01

    The application of a new efficient grid generation method in computational fluid dynamics is discussed. After 100 iterations, final grids were produced in about 110 seconds using a VAX 8650 computer in a time-shared mode. Using a SUN 3/50 workstation, a similar version of the program completed 100 iterations in about 15 minutes.

  5. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  6. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  7. Geometric grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ives, David

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.

  8. Importance of hydrophobic traps for proton diffusion in lyotropic liquid crystals

    DOE PAGES

    McDaniel, Jesse G.; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-03-04

    The diffusion of protons in self-assembled systems is potentially important for the design of efficient proton exchange membranes. In this work, we study proton dynamics in a low-water content, lamellar phase of an sodium-carboxylate gemini surfactant/water system using computer simulations. The hopping of protons via the Grotthuss mechanism is explicity allowed through the multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method. We find that the hydronium ion is trapped on the hydrophobic side of the surfactant-water interface, and proton diffusion then proceeds by hopping between surface sites. The importance of hydrophobic traps is surprising, because one would expect the hydronium ions tomore » be trapped at the charged head-groups. Finally, the physics illustrated in this system should be relevant to the proton dynamics in other amphiphilic membrane systems, whenever there exists exposed hydrophobic surface regions.« less

  9. Importance of hydrophobic traps for proton diffusion in lyotropic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Jesse G.; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-03-04

    The diffusion of protons in self-assembled systems is potentially important for the design of efficient proton exchange membranes. In this work, we study proton dynamics in a low-water content, lamellar phase of an sodium-carboxylate gemini surfactant/water system using computer simulations. The hopping of protons via the Grotthuss mechanism is explicity allowed through the multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method. We find that the hydronium ion is trapped on the hydrophobic side of the surfactant-water interface, and proton diffusion then proceeds by hopping between surface sites. The importance of hydrophobic traps is surprising, because one would expect the hydronium ions to be trapped at the charged head-groups. Finally, the physics illustrated in this system should be relevant to the proton dynamics in other amphiphilic membrane systems, whenever there exists exposed hydrophobic surface regions.

  10. Qgrid: clustering tool for detecting charged and hydrophobic regions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shandar; Sarai, Akinori

    2004-07-01

    We have developed a simple but powerful method and web server to quickly locate charged and hydrophobic clusters in proteins (http://www.netasa.org/qgrid/index.html). For the charged clusters, each atom in the protein is first assigned a charge according to a standard force field. Then a box is created with dimensions corresponding to the range of atomic coordinates. This box is then divided into cubic grids of selected size, which now have one or more charged atoms in them. This leaves each grid with a certain amount of charge. Cubic grids with more than a cutoff charge are then clustered using a hierarchical clustering method based on Euclidean distance. A tree diagram made from the resulting clusters indicates the distribution of charged and hydrophobic regions of the protein. Hydrophobic clusters are developed by grouping the positions of C(alpha) atoms of such residues. We propose that such a tree representation will be helpful in detecting protein-protein interfaces, structure similarity and motif detection.

  11. Data Grid Implementations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Reagan W.; Studham, Ronald S.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Watson, Chip; Stockinger, Heinz; Kunszt, Peter; Charlie Catlett and Ian Foster

    2002-02-27

    Data grids link distributed, heterogeneous storage resources into a coherent data management system. From a user perspective, the data grid provides a uniform name space across the underlying storage systems, while supporting retrieval and storage of files. In the high energy physics community, at least six data grids have been implemented for the storage and distribution of experimental data. Data grids are also being used to support projects as diverse as digital libraries (National Library of Medicine Visible Embryo project), federation of multiple astronomy sky surveys (NSF National Virtual Observatory project), and integration of distributed data sets (Long Term Ecological Reserve). Data grids also form the core interoperability mechanisms for creating persistent archives, in which data collections are migrated to new technologies over time. The ability to provide a uniform name space across multiple administration domains is becoming a critical component of national-scale, collaborative projects.

  12. An Information Theory of Hydrophobic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Lawrence R.

    1998-03-01

    The hydrophobic effect is a central concept in rationalizing the structure and stability of proteins in solution. However, a consensus has not been achieved on a molecular scale physical theory explaining the broad array of hydrophobic effects. Here we present an information theory designed to achieve consensus by identifying and limiting the physical information and assumptions sufficient to predict hydrophobic effects. The information theory is based upon the study of the probabilities of occupancy by water molecule centers of molecular scale volumes observed in neat liquid water. Predictions for hydrophobic effects can be extracted from this probability distribution. Simulation results show that this probability distribution is accurately predicted by a maximum entropy model using the two moments that are obtained from the experimental liquid density and the experimental radial distribution of oxygen atoms. We show the role of solvent molecule correlation functions of higher order than pairs. We show that this two moment model predicts known atomic scale hydrophobic effects: hydrophobic solubilities, potentials of mean force, and hydrophobic effects on conformational equilibria. We comment on the kinship between the two moment maximum entropy model and the earlier Pratt-Chandler theory of hydrophobic effects. We show that the model predicts the entropy convergence emphasized by high sensitivity calorimetry on the thermal denaturation of globular proteins and explains why this entropy convergence is insensitive to solute molecular details within the broad category of hydrophobic solutes. Finally, we consider the pressure denaturation of globular proteins and discuss the perspective that emerges from the information theory treatment: increasing pressure squeezes water molecules into the protein globule eventually separating hydrophobic components analogously to the separation of hydrophobic solutes in formation of clathrate hydrates.

  13. Topology and cellular localization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type II integral membrane protein that is packaged into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses including metapneumovirus. In addition to a highly divergent primary sequence, SH proteins vary significantly in size among the different viruses. Hu...

  14. Exploring Hydrophobic Binding Surfaces Using Comfa and Flexible Hydrophobic Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakkar, Shraddha; Sanchez, Rosa. I.; Bhuveneswaran, Chidambaram; Compadre, Cesar M.

    2011-06-01

    Cysteine proteinases are a very important group of enzymes involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including cancer metastasis and rheumatoid arthritis. In this investigation we used 3D-Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (3D-QSAR) techniques to model the binding of a variety of substrates to two cysteine proteinases, papain, and cathepsin B. The analysis was performed using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA). The molecules were constructed using standard bond angles and lengths, minimized and aligned. Charges were calculated using the PM3 method in MOPAC. The CoMFA models derived for the binding of the studied substrates to the two proteinases were compared with the expected results from the experimental X-ray crystal structures of the same proteinases. The results showed the value of CoMFA modeling of flexible hydrophobic ligands to analyze ligand binding to protein receptors, and could also serve as the basis to design specific inhibitors of cysteine proteinases with potential therapeutic value.

  15. Optimization Of A Computational Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    In improved method of generation of computational grid, grid-generation process decoupled from definition of geometry. Not necessary to redefine boundary. Instead, continuous boundaries in physical domain specified, and then grid points in computational domain mapped onto continuous boundaries.

  16. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  17. Hydrophobic Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles and Nanocomposite Surfaces (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-04

    Fluorinated Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes are hydrophobic nanoparticles. One compound, FD8T8, is ultrahydrophobic, possessing a water contact ... angle of 154 deg. This is believed to be the most hydrophobic and lowest surface tension crystalline substance known. Analysis of the x-ray crystal

  18. Why are water-hydrophobic interfaces charged?

    PubMed

    Kudin, Konstantin N; Car, Roberto

    2008-03-26

    We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of hydroxide and hydronium ions near a hydrophobic interface, indicating that both ions behave like amphiphilic surfactants that stick to a hydrophobic hydrocarbon surface with their hydrophobic side. We show that this behavior originates from the asymmetry of the molecular charge distribution which makes one end of the ions strongly hydrophobic while the other end is even more hydrophilic than the regular water (H2O) molecules. The effect is more pronounced for the hydroxide than for the hydronium. Our results are consistent with several experimental observations and explain why hydrophobic surfaces in contact with water acquire a net negative charge, a phenomenon that has important implications for biology and polymer science.

  19. Unusual hydrophobic interactions in acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanning; Xu, Jianqing; Voth, Gregory A

    2009-05-21

    Hydrophobic interaction, which is believed to be a primary driving force for many fundamental chemical and biological processes such as nanostructure self-assembly, micelle formation, and protein folding, is different in acidic aqueous solutions compared to salt solutions. In this study, the aggregation/dispersion behavior of nonpolar hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions with varying acid (HCl) concentrations is investigated using novel molecular dynamics simulations and compared to the hydrophobic behavior in corresponding salt (NaCl) solutions. The formation of unusual weakly bound hydrophobe-hydrated proton solvation structures is observed and can be attributed to the unique "amphiphilic" characteristic of hydrated protons. This molecular-level mechanism for the acid-enhanced dissolution of hydrophobic particles also provides a novel interpretation for the apparent anomaly of the hydronium cation in the Hofmeister series.

  20. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  1. The open science grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE & NSF Laboratories and Universities & Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus.

  2. Extending the Hydrophobic Mismatch Concept to Amphiphilic Membranolytic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Rabanal, Francesc; Ulrich, Anne S

    2016-04-07

    A series of nine amphiphilic, pore-forming α-helical KIA peptides (KIAGKIA repeats) with lengths between 14 and 28 residues were studied by solid-state (15)N NMR to determine their alignment in oriented lipid bilayers. In a 2:1 mixture of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) with its corresponding 1-myristoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-MPC), which has a highly positive spontaneous curvature, the helix tilt angle was found to vary steadily with peptide length. The shortest peptide was aligned transmembrane and upright, while the longer ones successively became tilted away from the membrane normal. This behavior is in agreement with the hydrophobic matching concept, conceived so far only for hydrophobic helices. In 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, with a negative spontaneous curvature, all KIA peptides remained flat on the bilayer surface, while the cylindrical DMPC lipids permitted a slight tilt. Peptide insertion thus depends critically on the intrinsic lipid curvature, and helix orientation is then fine-tuned by membrane thickness. A refined toroidal pore model is proposed.

  3. Grid Connected Functionality

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baker, Kyri; Jin, Xin; Vaidynathan, Deepthi; Jones, Wesley; Christensen, Dane; Sparn, Bethany; Woods, Jason; Sorensen, Harry; Lunacek, Monte

    2016-08-04

    Dataset demonstrating the potential benefits that residential buildings can provide for frequency regulation services in the electric power grid. In a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation, simulated homes along with a physical laboratory home are coordinated via a grid aggregator, and it is shown that their aggregate response has the potential to follow the regulation signal on a timescale of seconds. Connected (communication-enabled), devices in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) received demand response (DR) requests from a grid aggregator, and the devices responded accordingly to meet the signal while satisfying user comfort bounds and physical hardware limitations.

  4. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Akihiko

    2006-01-01

    Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community. PMID:17254294

  5. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  6. Space Development Grid Portal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the development of a portal to provide secure and distributed grid computing for Payload Operations Integrated Center and Mission Control Center ground services.

  7. Grid Computing Education Support

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  8. Surface grid generation for multi-block structured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spekreijse, S. P.; Boerstoel, J. W.; Kuyvenhoven, J. L.; van der Marel, M. J.

    A new grid generation technique for the computation of a structured grid on a generally curved surface in 3D is discussed. The starting assumption is that the parameterization of the surface exists, i.e. a smooth geometrical shape function exists which maps the parametric space (the unit square) one-to-one on the surface. The grid generation system computes a grid on the surface with as boundary conditions the following data specified along the four edges of the surface: (1) the position of the boundary grid points, (2) the grid line slopes at the boundary grid points, (3) the first grid cell lengths at the boundary grid points. The fourth-order elliptic biharmonic equations are used to compute the two families of grid lines in the parametric space. After that, each grid point in the parametric space is found as the intersection point between two individual grid lines, one from each family. The grid points on the surface are finally found by mapping the grid points in the parametric space on the surface via the geometrical shape function. Results are shown for an O-type 2D Euler grid, a C-type 2D Navier-Stokes grid and on some curved surfaces in 3D space.

  9. Implementing Production Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Ziobarth, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have presented the essence of experience gained in building two production Grids, and provided some of the global context for this work. As the reader might imagine, there were a lot of false starts, refinements to the approaches and to the software, and several substantial integration projects (SRB and Condor integrated with Globus) to get where we are today. However, the point of this paper is to try and make it substantially easier for others to get to the point where Information Power Grids (IPG) and the DOE Science Grids are today. This is what is needed in order to move us toward the vision of a common cyber infrastructure for science. The author would also like to remind the readers that this paper primarily represents the actual experiences that resulted from specific architectural and software choices during the design and implementation of these two Grids. The choices made were dictated by the criteria laid out in section 1. There is a lot more Grid software available today that there was four years ago, and various of these packages are being integrated into IPG and the DOE Grids. However, the foundation choices of Globus, SRB, and Condor would not be significantly different today than they were four years ago. Nonetheless, if the GGF is successful in its work - and we have every reason to believe that it will be - then in a few years we will see that the 28 functions provided by these packages will be defined in terms of protocols and MIS, and there will be several robust implementations available for each of the basic components, especially the Grid Common Services. The impact of the emerging Web Grid Services work is not yet clear. It will likely have a substantial impact on building higher level services, however it is the opinion of the author that this will in no way obviate the need for the Grid Common Services. These are the foundation of Grids, and the focus of almost all of the operational and persistent infrastructure aspects of Grids.

  10. IDL Grid Web Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Costa, A.

    2008-08-01

    Image Data Language is a software for data analysis, visualization and cross-platform application development. The potentiality of IDL is well-known in the academic scientific world, especially in the astronomical environment where thousands of procedures are developed by using IDL. The typical use of IDL is the interactive mode but it is also possible to run IDL programs that do not require any interaction with the user, submitting them in batch or background modality. Through the interactive mode the user immediately receives images or other data produced in the running phase of the program; in batch or background mode, the user will have to wait for the end of the program, sometime for many hours or days to obtain images or data that IDL produced as output: in fact in Grid environment it is possible to access to or retrieve data only after completion of the program. The work that we present gives flexibility to IDL procedures submitted to the Grid computer infrastructure. For this purpose we have developed an IDL Grid Web Portal to allow the user to access the Grid and to submit IDL programs granting a full job control and the access to images and data generated during the running phase, without waiting for their completion. We have used the PHP technology and we have given the same level of security that Grid normally offers to its users. In this way, when the user notices that the intermediate program results are not those expected, he can stop the job, change the parameters to better satisfy the computational algorithm and resubmit the program, without consuming the CPU time and other Grid resources. The IDL Grid Web Portal allows you to obtain IDL generated images, graphics and data tables by using a normal browser. All conversations from the user and the Grid resources occur via Web, as well as authentication phases. The IDL user has not to change the program source much because the Portal will automatically introduce the appropriate modification before

  11. Characterisation of nanomaterial hydrophobicity using engineered surfaces.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Cloé; Valsesia, Andrea; Oddo, Arianna; Ceccone, Giacomo; Spampinato, Valentina; Rossi, François; Colpo, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Characterisation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) is of outmost importance for the assessment of the potential risks arising from their extensive use. NMs display indeed a large variety of physico-chemical properties that drastically affect their interaction with biological systems. Among them, hydrophobicity is an important property that is nevertheless only slightly covered by the current physico-chemical characterisation techniques. In this work, we developed a method for the direct characterisation of NM hydrophobicity. The determination of the nanomaterial hydrophobic character is carried out by the direct measurement of the affinity of the NMs for different collectors. Each collector is an engineered surface designed in order to present specific surface charge and hydrophobicity degrees. Being thus characterised by a combination of surface energy components, the collectors enable the NM immobilisation with surface coverage in relation to their hydrophobicity. The experimental results are explained by using the extended DLVO theory, which takes into account the hydrophobic forces acting between NMs and collectors. Graphical abstractDetermination of hydrophobicity character of nanomaterials by measuring their affinity to engineered surfaces.

  12. Quantification of hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, G.; Nasholm, N.; Wood, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    Colloids play an important role in a wide variety of disciplines, including water and wastewater treatment, subsurface transport of metals and organic contaminants, migration of fines in oil reservoirs, biocolloid (virus and bacteria) transport in subsurface, and are integral to laboratory transport studies. Although the role of hydrophobicity in adhesion and transport of colloids, particularly bacteria, is well known; there is scarcity of literature regarding hydrophobicity measurement of non-bacterial colloids and other micron-sized particles. Here we detail an experimental approach based on differential partitioning of colloids between two liquid phases (hydrocarbon and buffer) as a measure of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids. This assay, known as Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons or MATH, is frequently used in microbiology and bacteriology for quantifying the hydrophobicity of microbes. Monodispersed colloids and particles, with sizes ranging from 1 micron to 33 micron, were used for the experiments. A range of hydrophobicity values were observed for different particles. The hydrophobicity results are also verified against water contact angle measurements of these particles. This liquid-liquid partitioning assay is quick, easy-to-perform and requires minimal instrumentation. Estimation of the hydrophobic interaction affinity of colloids would lead to a better understanding of their adhesion to different surfaces and subsequent transport in porous media.

  13. Random array grid collimator

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-08-22

    A hexagonally shaped quasi-random no-two-holes touching grid collimator. The quasi-random array grid collimator eliminates contamination from small angle off-axis rays by using a no-two-holes-touching pattern which simultaneously provides for a self-supporting array increasng throughput by elimination of a substrate. The presentation invention also provides maximum throughput using hexagonally shaped holes in a hexagonal lattice pattern for diffraction limited applications. Mosaicking is also disclosed for reducing fabrication effort.

  14. Self-Spreading of Lipid Bilayer on a Hydrophobic Surface Made by Self-Assembled Monolayer with Short Alkyl Chain.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yuya; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Takahagi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    Behaviors of self-spreading of lipid bilayer membrane on a glass surface modified with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with short alkyl chain were observed with fluorescence microscopy. Hydrophobic surface made by SAM was found to hamper the self-spreading phenomenon but the lipid bilayer spread on a hydrophilic one where SAM was decomposed by oxidation. On a binary surface having a hydrophobic region and a hydrophilic one, the lipid bilayer spread on the hydrophilic region but it stopped at the boundary of the hydrophobic region.

  15. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  16. Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.

  17. Exploring Hypersonic, Unstructured-Grid Issues through Structured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Kleb, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Pure-tetrahedral unstructured grids have been shown to produce asymmetric heat transfer rates for symmetric problems. Meanwhile, two-dimensional structured grids produce symmetric solutions and as documented here, introducing a spanwise degree of freedom to these structured grids also yields symmetric solutions. The effects of grid skewness and other perturbations of structured-grids are investigated to uncover possible mechanisms behind the unstructured-grid solution asymmetries. By using controlled experiments around a known, good solution, the effects of particular grid pathologies are uncovered. These structured-grid experiments reveal that similar solution degradation occurs as for unstructured grids, especially for heat transfer rates. Non-smooth grids within the boundary layer is also shown to produce large local errors in heat flux but do not affect surface pressures.

  18. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  19. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Miyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue-penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste) and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste-disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  20. Tuning the hydrophobicity of ZSM-5 zeolites by surface silanization using alkyltrichlorosilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaolong; Wang, Lei; Li, Jiding; Zhan, Xia; Chen, Jian; Yang, Jichu

    2011-09-01

    ZSM-5 zeolites were modified with alkyltrichlorosilanes of various chain lengths (octyltrichlorosilane, decyltrichlorosilane, dodecyltrichlorosilane and hexadecyltrichlorosilane) and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and contact angle measurements (CA). The results showed that a closely packed and hydrophobic layer was presented at the particles surface and the surface wetting property varied from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, even to superhydrophobic. It was interesting to notice that the hydrophobic properties of modified ZSM-5 particles could be tuned by varying the chain length of chlorosilane and changing the pretreatment temperature before silanization. With increasing the alkyl chain length of trichlorosilane, the hydrophobicity increased. However, with an increase in the pretreatment temperature, the hydrophobicity decreased. Moreover, the relationship between the wetting properties and thermal stability was also investigated, the results showed that the modified ZSM-5 particles possessed good hydrophobicity at a temperature below 250 °C in air. These modified ZSM-5 particles may be utilized for many potential applications, such as membrane fillers, selective adsorbents, catalysts, chromatographic supports and so on.

  1. Hydrophobic ion hydration and the magnitude of the dipole potential.

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Jens; Clarke, Ronald J

    2002-01-01

    The magnitude of the dipole potential of lipid membranes is often estimated from the difference in conductance between the hydrophobic ions, tetraphenylborate, and tetraphenylarsonium or tetraphenylphosphonium. The calculation is based on the tetraphenylarsonium-tetraphenylborate hypothesis that the magnitude of the hydration energies of the anions and cations are equal (i.e., charge independent), so that their different rates of transport across the membrane are solely due to differential interactions with the membrane phase. Here we investigate the validity of this assumption by quantum mechanical calculations of the hydration energies. Tetraphenylborate (Delta G(hydr) = -168 kJ mol(-1)) was found to have a significantly stronger interaction with water than either tetraphenylarsonium (Delta G(hydr) = -145 kJ mol(-1)) or tetraphenylphosphonium (Delta G(hydr) = -157 kJ mol(-1)). Taking these differences into account, literature conductance data were recalculated to yield values of the dipole potential 57 to 119 mV more positive in the membrane interior than previous estimates. This may partly account for the discrepancy of at least 100 mV generally observed between dipole potential values calculated from lipid monolayers and those determined on bilayers. PMID:12023231

  2. Greywater-induced soil hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Maimon, Adi; Gross, Amit; Arye, Gilboa

    2017-10-01

    Greywater (GW) reuse for irrigation is a common method of reducing domestic consumption of fresh water. Most of the scientific research and legislation efforts have focused on GW's health risks, while less attention has been given to its environmental outcomes. One of the environmental risks of GW irrigation is its possible effect on soil hydraulic properties. This research examined the ability of GW to induce soil hydrophobicity, as well as its degree and persistence. Fresh water (control) and three model GW solutions representing raw, treated and highly treated GW were used to wet fine-grained sand. Every treatment was subjected to five cycles of wetting, incubation (at 5 °C or 30 °C) and drying (60 °C). After each cycle, capillary rise was measured and the contact angle (CA) was calculated. Samples were also tested by the Wilhelmy plate method to retrieve advancing and receding CA and reservoir surface tension. Water repellence of the sand, as implied from the CA, increased with increasing GW concentration and was highest in the sand coated with the model raw GW and incubated at 5 °C. However, none of the treatments resulted in what is considered to be "water-repellent soil". Furthermore, when raw GW-coated sand was immersed in water, its surface tension was significantly reduced relative to the other treatments, implying a release of surface-active compounds from the sand into the water. It was postulated that untreated GW may induce sub-critical water repellence in sand. However, this effect is sensitive to biodegradation and washing processes and is therefore temporary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaporation of droplets on strongly hydrophobic substrates.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Jutta M; Wilson, Stephen K; Duffy, Brian R; Sefiane, Khellil

    2015-03-31

    The manner in which the extreme modes of droplet evaporation (namely, the constant contact radius and the constant contact angle modes) become indistinguishable on strongly hydrophobic substrates is described. Simple asymptotic expressions are obtained which provide good approximations to the evolutions of the contact radius, the contact angle, and the volume of droplets evaporating in the extreme modes for a wide range of hydrophobic substrates. As a consequence, on strongly hydrophobic substrates it is appropriate to use the so-called "2/3 power law" to extrapolate the lifetimes of droplets evaporating in the constant contact radius mode as well as in the constant contact angle mode.

  4. Molecular Shape and the Hydrophobic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hillyer, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses in papers published since 2000 on the topic of the properties of solutes in water. More specifically, it evaluates the state-of-the-art of our understanding of the complex relationship between the shape of a hydrophobe and the Hydrophobic effect. To highlight this a selection of references covering both empirical and molecular dynamics studies of small (molecular-scale) solutes are presented. These include empirical studies of small molecules, synthetic hosts, crystalline monolayers, and proteins, as well as in silico investigations of entities including idealized hard and soft spheres, small solutes, hydrophobic plates, artificial concavity, molecular hosts, carbon nanotubes and spheres, and proteins. PMID:27215816

  5. Molecular Shape and the Hydrophobic Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillyer, Matthew B.; Gibb, Bruce C.

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on papers published since 2000 on the topic of the properties of solutes in water. More specifically, it evaluates the state of the art of our understanding of the complex relationship between the shape of a hydrophobe and the hydrophobic effect. To highlight this, we present a selection of references covering both empirical and molecular dynamics studies of small (molecular-scale) solutes. These include empirical studies of small molecules, synthetic hosts, crystalline monolayers, and proteins, as well as in silico investigations of entities such as idealized hard and soft spheres, small solutes, hydrophobic plates, artificial concavity, molecular hosts, carbon nanotubes and spheres, and proteins.

  6. Ice adhesion on super-hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinich, S. A.; Farzaneh, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, ice adhesion strength on flat hydrophobic and rough super-hydrophobic coatings with similar surface chemistry (based on same fluoropolymer) is compared. Glaze ice, similar to naturally accreted, was prepared on the surfaces by spraying super-cooled water microdroplets at subzero temperature. Ice adhesion was evaluated by spinning the samples at constantly increasing speed until ice delamination occurred. Super-hydrophobic surfaces with different contact angle hysteresis were tested, clearly showing that the latter, along with the contact angle, also influences the ice-solid adhesion strength.

  7. Super-hydrophobic fluorine containing aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2007-05-01

    An aerogel material with surfaces containing fluorine atoms which exhibits exceptional hydrophobicity, or the ability to repel liquid water. Hydrophobic aerogels are efficient absorbers of solvents from water. Solvents miscible with water are separated from it because the solvents are more volatile than water and they enter the porous aerogel as a vapor across the liquid water/solid interface. Solvents that are immisicble with water are separated from it by selectively wetting the aerogel. The hydrophobic property is achieved by formulating the aerogel using fluorine containing molecules either directly by addition in the sol-gel process, or by treating a standard dried aerogel using the vapor of fluorine containing molecules.

  8. Shear flow on super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Truesdell, Richard; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Mammoli, Andrea A.

    2007-10-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces, which exhibit large contact angles, can give rise to slip flow of aqueous fluids. We present our work on shear flow of atomistic fluids over simple super-hydrophobic surfaces. Molecular dynamic simulations are employed to investigate the flow field of fluid between two parallel surfaces, one of which is moving. Exploring a range of fluid thermodynamic state points, we demonstrate the influence of fluid phase and structure near the surfaces on prevalence, and degree, of slip at the super-hydrophobic surface.

  9. Grid generation strategies for turbomachinery configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    Turbomachinery flow fields involve unique grid generation issues due to their geometrical and physical characteristics. Several strategic approaches are discussed to generate quality grids. The grid quality is further enhanced through blending and adapting. Grid blending smooths the grids locally through averaging and diffusion operators. Grid adaptation redistributes the grid points based on a grid quality assessment. These methods are demonstrated with several examples.

  10. Arc Length Based Grid Distribution For Surface and Volume Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastin, C. Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Techniques are presented for distributing grid points on parametric surfaces and in volumes according to a specified distribution of arc length. Interpolation techniques are introduced which permit a given distribution of grid points on the edges of a three-dimensional grid block to be propagated through the surface and volume grids. Examples demonstrate how these methods can be used to improve the quality of grids generated by transfinite interpolation.

  11. GRIDS: Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: The 12 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s GRIDS Project, short for “Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage,” are developing storage technologies that can store renewable energy for use at any location on the grid at an investment cost less than $100 per kilowatt hour. Flexible, large-scale storage would create a stronger and more robust electric grid by enabling renewables to contribute to reliable power generation.

  12. Hydrophobic interactions increase attachment of gum Arabic- and PVP-coated Ag nanoparticles to hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Song, Jee Eun; Phenrat, Tanapon; Marinakos, Stella; Xiao, Yao; Liu, Jie; Wiesner, Mark R; Tilton, Robert D; Lowry, Gregory V

    2011-07-15

    A fundamental understanding of attachment of surface-coated nanoparticles (NPs) is essential to predict the distribution and potential risks of NPs in the environment. Column deposition studies were used to examine the effect of surface-coating hydrophobicity on NP attachment to collector surfaces in mixtures with varying ratios of octadecylichlorosilane (OTS)-coated (hydrophobic) glass beads and clean silica (hydrophilic) glass beads. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with organic coatings of varying hydrophobicity, including citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and gum arabic (GA), were used. The attachment efficiencies of GA and PVP AgNPs increased by 2- and 4-fold, respectively, for OTS-coated glass beads compared to clean glass beads. Citrate AgNPs showed no substantial change in attachment efficiency for hydrophobic compared to hydrophilic surfaces. The attachment efficiency of PVP-, GA-, and citrate-coated AgNPs to hydrophobic collector surfaces correlated with the relative hydrophobicity of the coatings. The differences in the observed attachment efficiencies among AgNPs could not be explained by classical DLVO, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between AgNPs and OTS-coated glass beads were responsible for the increase in attachment of surface-coated AgNPs with greater hydrophobicity. This study indicates that the overall attachment efficiency of AgNPs will be influenced by the hydrophobicity of the NP coating and the fraction of hydrophobic surfaces in the environment.

  13. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  14. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  15. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  16. Peptides bound to proteosomes via hydrophobic feet become highly immunogenic without adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Addition of either a lauroyl or a pentapeptide (FLLAV) hydrophobic foot to the NH2 terminus of a small, synthetic peptide allowed the peptide to hydrophobically complex to meningococcal outer membrane protein proteosomes by simple dialysis. Both conventional and LPS- hyporesponsive mice immunized with these complexes without any adjuvants developed high-titered and persistent anti-peptide IgG. Since proteosomes have been safely given to many people and since important antigenic determinants are generally hydrophilic, this system should be widely applicable to the development of peptide vaccines for human use. PMID:3346624

  17. Sensitivity of Prestin-Based Membrane Motor to Membrane Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Izumi, Chisako; Iwasa, Kuni H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Prestin is the membrane protein in outer hair cells that harnesses electrical energy by changing its membrane area in response to changes in the membrane potential. To examine the effect of membrane thickness on this protein, phosphatidylcholine (PC) with various acyl-chain lengths were incorporated into the plasma membrane by using γ-cyclodextrin. Incorporation of short chain PCs increased the linear capacitance and positively shifted the voltage dependence of prestin, up to 120 mV, in cultured cells. PCs with long acyl chains had the opposite effects. Because the linear capacitance is inversely related to the membrane thickness, these voltage shifts are attributable to membrane thickness. The corresponding voltage shifts of electromotility were observed in outer hair cells. These results demonstrate that electromotility is extremely sensitive to the thickness of the plasma membrane, presumably involving hydrophobic mismatch. These observations indicate that the extended state of the motor molecule, which is associated with the elongation of outer hair cells, has a conformation with a shorter hydrophobic height in the lipid bilayer. PMID:20550895

  18. Influence of hydrophobic residues on the activity of the antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 and its synergy with PGLa.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Erik; Zerweck, Jonathan; Horn, Diana; Pritz, Günther; Berditsch, Marina; Bürck, Jochen; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2015-05-01

    Magainin 2 (MAG2) and PGLa are two related antimicrobial peptides found in the skin of the African frog Xenopus laevis with a pronounced synergistic activity, which act by permeabilizing bacterial membranes. To probe the influence of hydrophobic peptide-lipid and peptide-peptide interactions on the antimicrobial activity and on synergy, the sequence of MAG2 was modified by replacing single amino acids either with a small alanine or with the stiff and bulky hydrophobic 3-(trifluoromethyl)-L-bicyclopent-[1.1.1]-1-ylglycine side chain. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 14 MAG2 analogs was strongly influenced by these single substitutions: the antimicrobial activity was consistently improved when the hydrophobicity was increased on the hydrophobic face of the amphiphilic helix, while the activity decreased when the hydrophobicity was reduced. The synergy with PGLa, on the other hand, was rather insensitive to mutations of hydrophobic residues. It thus seems that the antimicrobial effect of MAG2 on its own depends strongly on the hydrophobicity of the peptide, while the synergy with PGLa does not depend on the overall hydrophobicity of MAG2.

  19. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a.... It must be of purity suitable for intended use, and it must comply with the following specifications...

  20. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a.... It must be of purity suitable for intended use, and it must comply with the following specifications...

  1. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a.... It must be of purity suitable for intended use, and it must comply with the following specifications...

  2. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Foltz, Benjamin; Mahler, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum, we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion.

  3. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Mahler, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum , we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion. Supported by NSF CBET Award 1067598.

  4. Hydrophobic hydrophilic phenomena in biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2003-09-01

    The evolution of concepts developed in the study of the hydrophobic affect is surveyed, within the more general context of solvent-induced effects. A systematic analysis of the solvent-induced contribution to the driving force for the process of protein folding has led to two important modifications in our understanding of these effects. First, the conventional concepts of hydrophobic solvation and hydrophobic interactions had to be replaced by their respective conditional effects. Second, each of the hydrophobic effects has also a corresponding hydrophilic counterpart. Some of the latter effects could contribute significantly to the total driving force for the process of protein folding, and perhaps even dominate the driving force for biochemical processes.

  5. Preparation and characterization of hydrophobic superparamagnetic gel.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Kaminski, M. D.; Guan, Y.; Chen, H.; Liu, H.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago; Pritzker School of Medicine; Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the preparation and analysis of a highly concentrated hydrophobic oleic acid-coated magnetite gel. By contrast to conventional techniques to prepare magnetic fluids, herein the oleic acid was introduced as a reactant during the initial crystallization phase of magnetite that was obtained by the co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts by addition of ammonium hydroxide. The resulting gelatinous hydrophobic magnetite was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic properties, crystal structure, and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. This magnetic gel exhibited superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization of 46.0 emu/g at room temperature and could be well dispersed both in polar and nonpolar carrier liquids. This protocol produced highly concentrated hydrophobic magnetic gel for biopolymer encapsulations.

  6. Surface analysis of selected hydrophobic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewska, Sylwia Katarzyna

    This dissertation contains a series of studies on hydrophobic surfaces by various surface sensitive techniques such as contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hydrophobic surfaces have been classified as mineral surfaces, organic synthetic surfaces, or natural biological surfaces. As a model hydrophobic mineral surface, elemental sulfur has been selected. The sulfur surface has been characterized for selected allotropic forms of sulfur such as rhombic, monoclinic, plastic, and cyclohexasulfur. Additionally, dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface was measured. The structure of a dextrin molecule showing hydrophobic sites has been presented to support the proposed hydrophobic bonding nature of dextrin adsorption at the sulfur surface. As a model organic hydrophobic surface, primary fatty amines such as dodecylamine, hexadecylamine, and octadecylamine were chosen. An increase of hydrophobicity, significant changes of infrared bands, and surface topographical changes with time were observed for each amine. Based on the results it was concluded that hydrocarbon chain rearrangement associated with recrystallization took place at the surface during contact with air. A barley straw surface was selected as a model of biological hydrophobic surfaces. The differences in the contact angles for various straw surfaces were explained by the presence of a wax layer. SEM images confirmed the heterogeneity and complexity of the wax crystal structure. AFM measurements provided additional structural details including a measure of surface roughness. Additionally, straw degradation as a result of conditioning in an aqueous environment was studied. Significant contact angle changes were observed as soon as one day after conditioning. FTIR studies showed a gradual wax layer removal due to straw surface decomposition. SEM and AFM images revealed topographical changes and biological

  7. Interaction of O-acylated chitosans with biomembrane models: probing the effects from hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Pavinatto, Adriana; Souza, Adriano L; Delezuk, Jorge A M; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Campana-Filho, Sérgio P; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2014-02-01

    One of the major challenges in establishing the mechanisms responsible for the chitosan action in biomedical applications lies in the determination of the molecular-level interactions with the cell membrane. In this study, we probed hydrophobic interactions and H-bonding in experiments with O,O'-diacetylchitosan (DACT) and O,O'-dipropionylchitosan (DPPCT) incorporated into monolayers of distinct phospholipids, the zwitterionic dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC), and the negatively charged dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG) and dimyristoyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA). The importance of hydrophobic interactions was confirmed with the larger effects observed for DACT and DPPCT than for parent chitosan (Chi), particularly for the more hydrophobic DPPCT. Such larger effects were noted in surface pressure isotherms and elasticity of the monolayers. Since H-bonding is hampered for the chitosan derivatives, which have part of their hydroxyl groups shielded by O-acylation, these effects indicate that H-bonding does not play an important role in the chitosan-membrane interactions. Using polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption (PM-IRRAS) spectroscopy, we found that the chitosan derivatives were incorporated into the hydrophobic chain of the phospholipids, even at high surface pressures comparable to those in a real cell membrane. Taken together, these results indicate that the chitosan derivatives containing hydrophobic moieties would probably be more efficient than parent chitosan as antimicrobial agents, where interaction with the cell membrane is crucial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Combined Effect of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Bilayer Local Bending on the Regulation of Mechanosensitive Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Bavi, Omid; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Naghdabadi, Reza; Jamali, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic mismatch between the lipid bilayer and integral membrane proteins has well-defined effect on mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Also, membrane local bending is suggested to modulate MS channel activity. Although a number of studies have already shown the significance of each individual factor, the combined effect of these physical factors on MS channel activity have not been investigated. Here using finite element simulation, we study the combined effect of hydrophobic mismatch and local bending on the archetypal mechanosensitive channel MscL. First we show how the local curvature direction impacts on MS channel modulation. In the case of MscL, we show inward (cytoplasmic) bending can more effectively gate the channel compared to outward bending. Then we indicate that in response to a specific local curvature, MscL inserted in a bilayer with the same hydrophobic length is more expanded in the constriction pore region compared to when there is a protein-lipid hydrophobic mismatch. Interestingly in the presence of a negative mismatch (thicker lipids), MscL constriction pore is more expanded than in the presence of positive mismatch (thinner lipids) in response to an identical membrane curvature. These results were confirmed by a parametric energetic calculation provided for MscL gating. These findings have several biophysical consequences for understanding the function of MS channels in response to two major physical stimuli in mechanobiology, namely hydrophobic mismatch and local membrane curvature.

  9. The Combined Effect of Hydrophobic Mismatch and Bilayer Local Bending on the Regulation of Mechanosensitive Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Bavi, Omid; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Naghdabadi, Reza; Jamali, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The hydrophobic mismatch between the lipid bilayer and integral membrane proteins has well-defined effect on mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Also, membrane local bending is suggested to modulate MS channel activity. Although a number of studies have already shown the significance of each individual factor, the combined effect of these physical factors on MS channel activity have not been investigated. Here using finite element simulation, we study the combined effect of hydrophobic mismatch and local bending on the archetypal mechanosensitive channel MscL. First we show how the local curvature direction impacts on MS channel modulation. In the case of MscL, we show inward (cytoplasmic) bending can more effectively gate the channel compared to outward bending. Then we indicate that in response to a specific local curvature, MscL inserted in a bilayer with the same hydrophobic length is more expanded in the constriction pore region compared to when there is a protein-lipid hydrophobic mismatch. Interestingly in the presence of a negative mismatch (thicker lipids), MscL constriction pore is more expanded than in the presence of positive mismatch (thinner lipids) in response to an identical membrane curvature. These results were confirmed by a parametric energetic calculation provided for MscL gating. These findings have several biophysical consequences for understanding the function of MS channels in response to two major physical stimuli in mechanobiology, namely hydrophobic mismatch and local membrane curvature. PMID:26958847

  10. Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor for Acid Gas Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiqotul Himma, Nurul; Gede Wenten, I.

    2017-07-01

    Gas-liquid membrane contactor has gained a great attention as an alternative to conventional absorption columns in acid gas removal from natural gas or post-combustion. The membrane contactor offers high mass transfer area and excellent operational flexibility. However, hydrophobic microporous membranes commonly used are still susceptible to wetting by liquid absorbents, leading to the deterioration of absorption performance in long-term operation. Therefore, many studies were recently directed to improve the membrane wetting resistant by endowing superhydrophobicity. This article then presents a review on superhydrophobic membrane development and its application for acid gas removal using membrane contactor. An overview of gas-liquid membrane contactor is firstly presented, followed by the preparation of superhydrophobic membranes. The performances of superhydrophobic membranes in acid gas absorption are then discussed, and the recommendation for future research is finally outlined. This review may provide an insight into the further development of superhydrophobic membrane contactor.

  11. Biopores/membrane proteins in synthetic polymer membranes.

    PubMed

    Garni, Martina; Thamboo, Sagana; Schoenenberger, Cora-Ann; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2017-04-01

    Mimicking cell membranes by simple models based on the reconstitution of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers represents a straightforward approach to understand biological function of these proteins. This biomimetic strategy has been extended to synthetic membranes that have advantages in terms of chemical and mechanical stability, thus providing more robust hybrid membranes. We present here how membrane proteins and biopores have been inserted both in the membrane of nanosized and microsized compartments, and in planar membranes under various conditions. Such bio-hybrid membranes have new properties (as for example, permeability to ions/molecules), and functionality depending on the specificity of the inserted biomolecules. Interestingly, membrane proteins can be functionally inserted in synthetic membranes provided these have appropriate properties to overcome the high hydrophobic mismatch between the size of the biomolecule and the membrane thickness. Functional insertion of membrane proteins and biopores in synthetic membranes of compartments or in planar membranes is possible by an appropriate selection of the amphiphilic copolymers, and conditions of the self-assembly process. These hybrid membranes have new properties and functionality based on the specificity of the biomolecules and the nature of the synthetic membranes. Bio-hybrid membranes represent new solutions for the development of nanoreactors, artificial organelles or active surfaces/membranes that, by further gaining in complexity and functionality, will promote translational applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid order/lipid defects and lipid-control of protein activity edited by Dirk Schneider. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Recent progress in understanding hydrophobic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Emily E.; Rosenberg, Kenneth J.; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We present here a brief review of direct force measurements between hydrophobic surfaces in aqueous solutions. For almost 70 years, researchers have attempted to understand the hydrophobic effect (the low solubility of hydrophobic solutes in water) and the hydrophobic interaction or force (the unusually strong attraction of hydrophobic surfaces and groups in water). After many years of research into how hydrophobic interactions affect the thermodynamic properties of processes such as micelle formation (self-assembly) and protein folding, the results of direct force measurements between macroscopic surfaces began to appear in the 1980s. Reported ranges of the attraction between variously prepared hydrophobic surfaces in water grew from the initially reported value of 80–100 Å to values as large as 3,000 Å. Recent improved surface preparation techniques and the combination of surface force apparatus measurements with atomic force microscopy imaging have made it possible to explain the long-range part of this interaction (at separations >200 Å) that is observed between certain surfaces. We tentatively conclude that only the short-range part of the attraction (<100 Å) represents the true hydrophobic interaction, although a quantitative explanation for this interaction will require additional research. Although our force-measuring technique did not allow collection of reliable data at separations <10 Å, it is clear that some stronger force must act in this regime if the measured interaction energy curve is to extrapolate to the measured adhesion energy as the surface separation approaches zero (i.e., as the surfaces come into molecular contact). PMID:17023540

  13. A new model for humic materials and their interactions with hydrophobic organic chemicals in soil-water or sediment-water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A generalized model of humic materials in soils and sediments, which is consistent with their observed properties, is presented. This model provides a means of understanding the interaction of hydrophobic pollutants with humic materials. In this model, it is proposed that the humic materials in soils and sediments consist of a number of different oligomers and simple compounds which result from the partial degradation of plant remains. These degradation products are stabilized by incorporation into humic aggregates bound together by weak bonding mechanisms, such as hydrogen bonding, pi bonding, and hydrophobic interactions. The resulting structures are similar to micelles or membranes, in which the interiors of the structures are hydrophobic and the exteriors are hydrophilic. Hydrophobic compounds will partition into the hydrophobic interiors of the humic micelles or "membrane-like" structures. ?? 1986.

  14. Hydrophobic ions amplify the capacitive currents used to measure exocytotic fusion.

    PubMed

    Oberhauser, A F; Fernandez, J M

    1995-08-01

    The detection of exocytotic fusion in patch-clamped secretory cells depends on measuring an increase in the cell membrane capacitance as new membrane is added to the plasma membrane. However, in the majority of secretory cells, secretory vesicles are too small (< 200 nm in diameter) to cause a detectable signal. We have found that incubations of normal mouse mast cells with the hydrophobic anion dipicrylamine (DPA), increases cell membrane capacitance by about three times. The large capacitive current induced by DPA was voltage-dependent, having a maximum value at -10 mV. The DPA-induced charge movement could be described by a single barrier model in which the DPA molecules move between two stable states in the bulk lipid matrix of the membrane. More importantly, the DPA treatment produced a sevenfold increase in the size of the capacitance steps observed upon the exocytotic fusion of single secretory granules. A similar amplification of DPA on the secretory vesicle capacitance was observed in a cell with larger (< or = 5 microns in diameter) or with smaller secretory granules (< 250 nm in diameter). Additionally, the increased granule membrane capacitance enlarged the transient capacitive discharge measured upon formation of a fusion pore in normal mast cell granules. Our results indicate that hydrophobic ions provide an important tool for high resolution studies of membrane capacitance.

  15. Hydrophobicity of silver surfaces with microparticle geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, Ján; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Kovaľ, Karol; Kupková, Miriam; Erdélyi, Branislav; Kostecká, Zuzana; Smith, Roger M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the duration of the current deposition cycle and the number of current pulses on the geometry of silver microstructured surfaces and on the free surface energy, polarizability, hydrophobicity and thus adhesion force of the silver surfaces has been investigated. The changes in surface hydrophobicity were entirely dependent on the size and density of the microparticles on the surface. The results showed that formation of the silver microparticles was related to number of current pulses, while the duration of one current pulse played only a minor effect on the final surface microparticle geometry and thus on the surface tension and hydrophobicity. The conventional geometry of the silver particles has been transformed to the fractal dimension D. The surface hydrophobicity depended predominantly on the length of the dendrites not on their width. The highest silver surface hydrophobicity was observed on a surface prepared by 30 current pulses with a pulse duration of 1 s, the lowest one when deposition was performed by 10 current pulses with a duration of 0.1 s. The partial surface tension coefficients γDS and polarizability kS of the silver surfaces were calculated. Both parameters can be applied in future applications in living cells adhesion prediction and spectral method selection. Silver films with microparticle geometry showed a lower variability in final surface hydrophobicity when compared to nanostructured surfaces. The comparisons could be used to modify surfaces and to modulate human cells and bacterial adhesion on body implants, surgery instruments and clean surfaces.

  16. Characterization of surface hydrophobicity of engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yao; Wiesner, Mark R

    2012-05-15

    The surface chemistry of nanoparticles, including their hydrophobicity, is a key determinant of their fate, transport and toxicity. Engineered NPs often have surface coatings that control the surface chemistry of NPs and may dominate the effects of the nanoparticle core. Suitable characterization methods for surface hydrophobicity at the nano-scale are needed. Three types of methods, surface adsorption, affinity coefficient and contact angle, were investigated in this study with seven carbon and metal based NPs with and without coatings. The adsorption of hydrophobic molecules, Rose Bengal dye and naphthalene, on NPs was used as one measure of hydrophobicity and was compared with the relative affinity of NPs for octanol or water phases, analogous to the determination of octanol-water partition coefficients for organic molecules. The sessile drop method was adapted for measuring contact angle of a thin film of NPs. Results for these three methods were qualitatively in agreement. Aqueous-nC(60) and tetrahydrofuran-nC(60) were observed to be more hydrophobic than nano-Ag coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone or gum arabic, followed by nano-Ag or nano-Au with citrate-functionalized surfaces. Fullerol was shown to be the least hydrophobic of seven NPs tested. The advantages and limitations of each method were also discussed.

  17. Evaporation-induced failure of hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Liu, T.; Ma, J.; Wang, P.; Wang, Y.; Leprince-Wang, Y.; Jing, G.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic coatings have tremendous applications in many fields of industries, and their robustness is an important subject of investigation. Here we experimentally demonstrate the detachment of hydrophobic coating and the formation of the residual deposit resulting from an evaporating drop of water. A hydrophobic octadecanethiol (ODT) coating is employed to enhance the hydrophobicity of ZnO nanowire arrays (advancing and receding contact angle of 165° and 128°, respectively). Being a model system of the unique bonding interaction between ODT and ZnO, water drop drying on the structure of ODT/ZnO is examined. Our experimental results showed the significant depression and even failure of the hydrophobicity on this composite surface resulting from collecting the deposits of ODT molecules during the drop drying. By analyzing energy criterion and force balance, surface tension at the moving contact line is identified as a dominating destructive force to unstick the coating molecules. Interestingly, a normal rinsing stream does not damage this coating to alter its hydrophobicity, but rather is overshadowed by the evaporation of the tinny water drop. The drops of rain or condensed water outdoor may thus play the same role to damage the functional coatings after their evaporation. Our findings indicate that more delicate designs are needed to prevent the destructive effects of drop evaporation on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  18. Complex Volume Grid Generation Through the Use of Grid Reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of surface and volume grid generation techniques which reuse existing surface and volume grids. These methods use combinations of data manipulations to reduce grid generation time, improve grid characteristics, and increase the capabilities of existing domain discretization software. The manipulation techniques utilize physical and computational domains to produce basis function on which to operate and modify grid character and smooth grids using Trans-Finite Interpolation, a vector interpolation method and parametric re-mapping technique. With these new techniques, inviscid grids can be converted to viscous grids, multiple zone grid adaption can be performed to improve CFD solver efficiency, and topological changes to improve modeling of flow fields can be done simply and quickly. Examples of these capabilities are illustrated as applied to various configurations.

  19. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  20. An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    1999-01-01

    An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

  1. Nanofiber based triple layer hydro-philic/-phobic membrane - a solution for pore wetting in membrane distillation

    PubMed Central

    Prince, J. A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Ayyanar, N.; Shanmugasundaram, T. S.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    The innovative design and synthesis of nanofiber based hydro-philic/phobic membranes with a thin hydro-phobic nanofiber layer on the top and a thin hydrophilic nanofiber layer on the bottom of the conventional casted micro-porous layer which opens up a solution for membrane pore wetting and improves the pure water flux in membrane distillation. PMID:25377488

  2. Cryoprotective properties of completely synthetic polyampholytes via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and the effects of hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Robin; Jain, Minkle; Matsumura, Kazuaki

    2013-01-01

    A completely synthetic polyampholyte cryoprotectant was developed with cationic and anionic monomers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The neutralized random polyampholyte, which had an equal composition ratio of monomers, showed high cryoprotective properties in mammalian cells. Introduction of a small amount of hydrophobic monomer enhanced cell viability after cryopreservation, indicating the importance of hydrophobicity. Leakage experiments confirmed that these polyampholytes protected the cell membrane during cryopreservation. Due to low cytotoxicity, this polyampholyte has the potential to replace the convention cryoprotective agent dimethyl sulfoxide. The present study is the first to show that we can design a polymeric cryoprotectant that will protect the cell membrane during freezing using appropriate polymerization techniques.

  3. Linking hydrophobicity and hydrodynamics by the hybrid fluctuating hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics methodologies.

    PubMed

    Voulgarakis, Nikolaos K; Shang, Barry Z; Chu, Jhih-Wei

    2013-08-01

    The development of a hybrid fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method that combines the molecular dynamics of moving particles with the fluctuating hydrodynamics of solvent fields on Eulerian grid cells is presented. This method allows resolution of solute-solvent interfaces and realization of excluded volumes of particles in the presence of hydrodynamic coupling. With these capabilities, we show that the ubiquitous forces mediated by the solvent, hydrophobicity and hydrodynamics, can be linked in a mesoscopic simulation. The strategies we devise to overcome the numerical issues of mixing variables in the Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinate systems, i.e., using a pair of auxiliary fluids to realize the excluded volumes of particles and assigning collocating gridding systems on solutes to interface with solvent fields, are also presented. Simulation results show that the hybrid FHD and MD method can reproduce the solvation free energies and scaling laws of particles dynamics for hydrophobes of different sizes. The collapse of two hydrophobic particles was also simulated to illustrate that the hybrid FHD and MD method has the potential to be generally applied to study nanoscale self-assembly and dynamics-structure-function relationships of biomolecules.

  4. [DOM membrane fouling and effects on rejection behaviors of NF membranes].

    PubMed

    Feng, Gui-Zhen; Dong, Bing-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    This work investigated membrane fouling caused by two kinds of dissolved organic matters (DOMs), i. e., Qingcaosha (QCS) DOM and Taihu lake (TH) DOM, and the effects on the rejection behaviors of two different nanofiltration (NF) membranes, i. e., HL and ESNA1-K, using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a molecular indicator. The results showed that severe membrane fouling occurred in the presence of DOM. And the CBZ removal rate was associated with the properties and characteristics of the organic matters and the membranes. It was found that the hydrophobicity of adhered DOM cake layer was responsible for the flux decline and the influence of CBZ removal. QCS DOM increased the retention of CBZ, while TH DOM decreased the rejection rate of CBZ by both membranes tested. DOMs at medium relative molecular weight (M(r) 1 500-10 000) could adhere closely to NF membranes to form cake layer, thus changed the hydrophobicity of the membranes. DOMs at low molecular weight could enter the membrane pores reducing the M(r), which influenced the CBZ removal and resulted in membrane fouling. The experiment also showed that DOM of TH contained more hydrophobic organic matters than that of QCS, the adhesion free energy and cohesion free energy of which was more negative, and the resulting membrane fouling and membrane flux decline were more severe.

  5. Fusion Data Grid Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  6. Information Power Grid Posters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaziri, Arsi

    2003-01-01

    This document is a summary of the accomplishments of the Information Power Grid (IPG). Grids are an emerging technology that provide seamless and uniform access to the geographically dispersed, computational, data storage, networking, instruments, and software resources needed for solving large-scale scientific and engineering problems. The goal of the NASA IPG is to use NASA's remotely located computing and data system resources to build distributed systems that can address problems that are too large or complex for a single site. The accomplishments outlined in this poster presentation are: access to distributed data, IPG heterogeneous computing, integration of large-scale computing node into distributed environment, remote access to high data rate instruments,and exploratory grid environment.

  7. A Robust Elliptic Grid Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knupp, Patrick M.

    1992-06-01

    A variational principle is proposed that results in a robust elliptic grid generator having many of the strengths of original Winslow or homogeneous Thompson-Thames-Mastin method (hTTM). The new grid generator places grid lines more uniformly over the domain than does hTTM, without loss of orthogonality. Numerically generated examples are given to demonstrate these effects. Grid quality measures are introduced to quantify differences between discrete grids. Both the hTTM and the new grid generator can generate folded grids on certain pathological regions, but overall they are very robust. Grid weighting for solution-adaptive calculations is briefly considered. Generalization of the new method to surface and volume grid generation is straightforward.

  8. Contribution of Amphipathicity and Hydrophobicity to the Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity of β-Hairpin Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have acquired extensive resistance mechanisms to protect themselves against antibiotic action. Today the bacterial membrane has become one of the “final frontiers” in the search for new compounds acting on novel targets to address the threat of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and XDR bacterial pathogens. β-Hairpin antimicrobial peptides are amphipathic, membrane-binding antibiotics that exhibit a broad range of activities against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal pathogens. However, most members of the class also possess adverse cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity that preclude their development as candidate antimicrobials. We examined peptide hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and structure to better dissect and understand the correlation between antimicrobial activity and toxicity, membrane binding, and membrane permeability. The hydrophobicity, pI, net charge at physiological pH, and amphipathic moment for the β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides tachyplesin-1, polyphemusin-1, protegrin-1, gomesin, arenicin-3, and thanatin were determined and correlated with key antimicrobial activity and toxicity data. These included antimicrobial activity against five key bacterial pathogens and two fungi, cytotoxicity against human cell lines, and hemolytic activity in human erythrocytes. Observed antimicrobial activity trends correlated with compound amphipathicity and, to a lesser extent, with overall hydrophobicity. Antimicrobial activity increased with amphipathicity, but unfortunately so did toxicity. Of note, tachyplesin-1 was found to be 8-fold more amphipathic than gomesin. These analyses identify tachyplesin-1 as a promising scaffold for rational design and synthetic optimization toward an antibiotic candidate. PMID:27331141

  9. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the liposome permeability of a model hydrophobic weak Acid.

    PubMed

    Joguparthi, Vijay; Anderson, Bradley D

    2008-11-01

    This study examines the effect of a chemically modified beta-cyclodextrin on the liposome bilayer permeability of a liposomally entrapped model hydrophobic weak acid, DB-67 (7-t-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin). Permeability studies were conducted in liposomes prepared by hydration-extrusion in the presence or absence of entrapped hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD). A gradient HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection was developed for analysis of HPbetaCD. DB-67 was analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPbetaCD entrapped in the aqueous compartment of liposomes was found to be membrane impermeable. Gel phase liposomes were stable in the presence of HPbetaCD. HPbetaCD complexation did not significantly alter the apparent permeability of DB67 lactone, due to its high membrane binding. However, lactone ring-opening and ionization significantly decreased the apparent permeability and improved the liposomal retention of DB-67, an effect that was amplified in the presence of 50 mM HPbetaCD. In liposomes, cyclodextrin complexation competes with liposomal membrane binding which may temper the potential benefit of complexation in prolonging hydrophobic drug retention. Cyclodextrin complexation combined with drug ionization may nevertheless significantly enhance the retention of ionizable hydrophobic drugs in liposomes as complexation may compete more favorably with membrane binding when the drug is ionized.

  10. Susceptibility of compound 48/80-sensitized Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the hydrophobic biocide triclosan.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Matthew L; Roberts, Amity L; Champlin, Franklin R

    2007-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is intrinsically resistant to the hydrophobic biocide triclosan, and yet it can be sensitized to low concentrations by permeabilization of the outer membrane using compound 48/80. A selective plating assay revealed that compound 48/80-permeabilized YM64, a triclosan-recognizing efflux pump-deficient variant, was unable to initiate growth on a medium containing triclosan. Macrobroth dilution assay data revealed that treatment with compound 48/80 synergistically decreased minimal inhibitory concentrations of the hydrophobic antibacterial agents rifamycin SV and chloramphenicol for all cell envelope variant strains examined. A low concentration of triclosan exerted a transient bactericidal effect on permeabilized wild-type strain PAO1, after which exponential growth resumed within 4 h. Permeabilized strain YM64 was unable to overcome the inhibition; yet, both strains remained susceptible to chloramphenicol for as long as 6 h, thereby suggesting that the outer membrane remained permeable to nonpolar compounds. These data support the notion that the transitory nature of compound 48/80 sensitization to triclosan in P. aeruginosa does not involve obviation of the hydrophobic diffusion pathway through the outer membrane. The inability of strain YM64 to overcome the synergistic effect of compound 48/80 and triclosan strongly suggests that triclosan-recognizing efflux pumps are involved in maintaining viability in wild-type cells whose outer membranes are otherwise compromised.

  11. GridPV Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.

  12. Hydrophobically modified polyelectrolytes: Characterization, aggregation and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad Ferdous

    The focus of our work was to experimentally study the aggregation and adsorption behavior of model HM polyelectrolytes. Hydrophobically modified alkali soluble emulsions (HASE), the model HM polyelectrolytes, were chosen because they had complex architecture yet possessed key variables for systematic study. The HASE polymers have methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethyl acrylate (EA) in the backbone with pendent hydrophobic groups. Characterization of a single molecule is an important first step in understanding the aggregation and adsorption of these polymers. However, characterizations of the HASE polymers using conventional techniques such as gel permeation chromatography or static light scattering were difficult because of the hydrophobic association. In this study, two different approaches have been taken to prevent the hydrophobic association in aqueous solution: (1) hydrolyze the polymer to cleave the hydrophobic constituents, and (2) use methyl beta-cyclodextrin that has a hydrophobic cavity and a hydrophilic outer shell, to shield the hydrophobes from associating. By taking these two approaches and using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), dynamic (DLS) and static (SLS) light scattering techniques, the molecular weight, hydrodynamic radius and radius of gyration of a single molecule were determined. Except for one chemical site, we were able to determine that branching or grafting did not occur in the polymer chain during synthesis. Our aggregation studies showed that, in aqueous solutions, the HASE polymers formed small aggregates (presumably single micelles of single or a few chains) and large aggregates (presumably formed by bridging between micelles). The radii and masses of the larger aggregates, measured using DLS and SLS, were found to increase with an increase in the polymer concentration, indicating an open association process for the HASE polymers. Our SLS results also showed that, at high salt concentration, the aggregates of the HASE polymer with

  13. Internal packing of helical membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Eilers, Markus; Shekar, Srinivasan C.; Shieh, Ted; Smith, Steven O.; Fleming, Patrick J.

    2000-01-01

    Helix packing is important in the folding, stability, and association of membrane proteins. Packing analysis of the helical portions of 7 integral membrane proteins and 37 soluble proteins show that the helices in membrane proteins have higher packing values (0.431) than in soluble proteins (0.405). The highest packing values in integral membrane proteins originate from small hydrophobic (G and A) and small hydroxyl-containing (S and T) amino acids, whereas in soluble proteins large hydrophobic and aromatic residues have the highest packing values. The highest packing values for membrane proteins are found in the transmembrane helix–helix interfaces. Glycine and alanine have the highest occurrence among the buried amino acids in membrane proteins, whereas leucine and alanine are the most common buried residue in soluble proteins. These observations are consistent with a shorter axial separation between helices in membrane proteins. The tight helix packing revealed in this analysis contributes to membrane protein stability and likely compensates for the lack of the hydrophobic effect as a driving force for helix–helix association in membranes. PMID:10823938

  14. Multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging enables surface hydrophobicity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, Marie N.; Godet, Julien; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Tosatto, Laura; Carr, Alexander R.; Wirthensohn, David C.; Ranasinghe, Rohan T.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Ponjavic, Aleks; Fritz, Joelle V.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Klenerman, David; Lee, Steven F.

    2016-12-01

    Super-resolution microscopy allows biological systems to be studied at the nanoscale, but has been restricted to providing only positional information. Here, we show that it is possible to perform multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging to determine both the position and the environmental properties of single-molecule fluorescent emitters. The method presented here exploits the solvatochromic and fluorogenic properties of nile red to extract both the emission spectrum and the position of each dye molecule simultaneously enabling mapping of the hydrophobicity of biological structures. We validated this by studying synthetic lipid vesicles of known composition. We then applied both to super-resolve the hydrophobicity of amyloid aggregates implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, and the hydrophobic changes in mammalian cell membranes. Our technique is easily implemented by inserting a transmission diffraction grating into the optical path of a localization-based super-resolution microscope, enabling all the information to be extracted simultaneously from a single image plane.

  15. Multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging enables surface hydrophobicity mapping

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Marie N.; Godet, Julien; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Tosatto, Laura; Carr, Alexander R.; Wirthensohn, David C.; Ranasinghe, Rohan T.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Ponjavic, Aleks; Fritz, Joelle V.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Klenerman, David; Lee, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy allows biological systems to be studied at the nanoscale, but has been restricted to providing only positional information. Here, we show that it is possible to perform multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging to determine both the position and the environmental properties of single-molecule fluorescent emitters. The method presented here exploits the solvatochromic and fluorogenic properties of nile red to extract both the emission spectrum and the position of each dye molecule simultaneously enabling mapping of the hydrophobicity of biological structures. We validated this by studying synthetic lipid vesicles of known composition. We then applied both to super-resolve the hydrophobicity of amyloid aggregates implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, and the hydrophobic changes in mammalian cell membranes. Our technique is easily implemented by inserting a transmission diffraction grating into the optical path of a localization-based super-resolution microscope, enabling all the information to be extracted simultaneously from a single image plane. PMID:27929085

  16. Contribution of Hydrophobic Interactions to Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R.; Shirley, Bret A.; Hendricks, Marsha McNutt; Iimura, Satoshi; Gajiwala, Ketan; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability. We measured the change in conformational stability, Δ(ΔG), for hydrophobic mutants of four proteins: villin head piece subdomain (VHP) with 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) with 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa and T1. We compare our results with previous studies and reach the following conclusions. 1. Hydrophobic interactions contribute less to the stability of a small protein, VHP (0.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mole per –CH2– group), than to the stability of a large protein, VlsE (1.6 ± 0.3 kcal/mol per –CH2– group). 2. Hydrophobic interactions make the major contribution to the stability of VHP (40 kcal/mol) and the major contributors are (in kcal/mol): Phe 18 (3.9), Met 13 (3.1), Phe 7 (2.9), Phe 11 (2.7), and Leu 21 (2.7). 3. Based on Δ(ΔG) values for 148 hydrophobic mutants in 13 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes, on average, 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. 4. The experimental Δ(ΔG) values for aliphatic side chains (Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu) are in good agreement with their ΔGtr values from water to cyclohexane. 5. For 22 proteins with 36 to 534 residues, hydrophobic interactions contribute 60 ± 4% and hydrogen bonds 40 ± 4% to protein stability. 6. Conformational entropy contributes about 2.4 kcal/mol per residue to protein instability. The globular conformation of proteins is stabilized predominately by hydrophobic interactions. PMID:21377472

  17. Contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability.

    PubMed

    Pace, C Nick; Fu, Hailong; Fryar, Katrina Lee; Landua, John; Trevino, Saul R; Shirley, Bret A; Hendricks, Marsha McNutt; Iimura, Satoshi; Gajiwala, Ketan; Scholtz, J Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R

    2011-05-06

    Our goal was to gain a better understanding of the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to protein stability. We measured the change in conformational stability, Δ(ΔG), for hydrophobic mutants of four proteins: villin headpiece subdomain (VHP) with 36 residues, a surface protein from Borrelia burgdorferi (VlsE) with 341 residues, and two proteins previously studied in our laboratory, ribonucleases Sa and T1. We compared our results with those of previous studies and reached the following conclusions: (1) Hydrophobic interactions contribute less to the stability of a small protein, VHP (0.6±0.3 kcal/mol per -CH(2)- group), than to the stability of a large protein, VlsE (1.6±0.3 kcal/mol per -CH(2)- group). (2) Hydrophobic interactions make the major contribution to the stability of VHP (40 kcal/mol) and the major contributors are (in kilocalories per mole) Phe18 (3.9), Met13 (3.1), Phe7 (2.9), Phe11 (2.7), and Leu21 (2.7). (3) Based on the Δ(ΔG) values for 148 hydrophobic mutants in 13 proteins, burying a -CH(2)- group on folding contributes, on average, 1.1±0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. (4) The experimental Δ(ΔG) values for aliphatic side chains (Ala, Val, Ile, and Leu) are in good agreement with their ΔG(tr) values from water to cyclohexane. (5) For 22 proteins with 36 to 534 residues, hydrophobic interactions contribute 60±4% and hydrogen bonds contribute 40±4% to protein stability. (6) Conformational entropy contributes about 2.4 kcal/mol per residue to protein instability. The globular conformation of proteins is stabilized predominantly by hydrophobic interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  19. Distributed Accounting on the Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thigpen, William; Hacker, Thomas J.; McGinnis, Laura F.; Athey, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    By the late 1990s, the Internet was adequately equipped to move vast amounts of data between HPC (High Performance Computing) systems, and efforts were initiated to link together the national infrastructure of high performance computational and data storage resources together into a general computational utility 'grid', analogous to the national electrical power grid infrastructure. The purpose of the Computational grid is to provide dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to computational resources for the computing community in the form of a computing utility. This paper presents a fully distributed view of Grid usage accounting and a methodology for allocating Grid computational resources for use on a Grid computing system.

  20. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  1. Tracking membrane protein association in model membranes.

    PubMed

    Reffay, Myriam; Gambin, Yann; Benabdelhak, Houssain; Phan, Gilles; Taulier, Nicolas; Ducruix, Arnaud; Hodges, Robert S; Urbach, Wladimir

    2009-01-01

    Membrane proteins are essential in the exchange processes of cells. In spite of great breakthrough in soluble proteins studies, membrane proteins structures, functions and interactions are still a challenge because of the difficulties related to their hydrophobic properties. Most of the experiments are performed with detergent-solubilized membrane proteins. However widely used micellar systems are far from the biological two-dimensions membrane. The development of new biomimetic membrane systems is fundamental to tackle this issue.We present an original approach that combines the Fluorescence Recovery After fringe Pattern Photobleaching technique and the use of a versatile sponge phase that makes it possible to extract crucial informations about interactions between membrane proteins embedded in the bilayers of a sponge phase. The clear advantage lies in the ability to adjust at will the spacing between two adjacent bilayers. When the membranes are far apart, the only possible interactions occur laterally between proteins embedded within the same bilayer, whereas when membranes get closer to each other, interactions between proteins embedded in facing membranes may occur as well.After validating our approach on the streptavidin-biotinylated peptide complex, we study the interactions between two membrane proteins, MexA and OprM, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa efflux pump. The mode of interaction, the size of the protein complex and its potential stoichiometry are determined. In particular, we demonstrate that: MexA is effectively embedded in the bilayer; MexA and OprM do not interact laterally but can form a complex if they are embedded in opposite bilayers; the population of bound proteins is at its maximum for bilayers separated by a distance of about 200 A, which is the periplasmic thickness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also show that the MexA-OprM association is enhanced when the position and orientation of the protein is restricted by the bilayers. We extract a

  2. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Bockelman, Brian; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Swanson, David

    2011-12-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  3. Solvent and temperature effects on crambin, a hydrophobic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Llinas, M.; Lecomte, J.T.J.; De Marco, A.

    1980-10-01

    Crambin, a 5000-mol. wt. water-insoluble protein found in crambe abyssinica seeds is presently being studied by x-ray diffraction to 0.9 A resolution and /sup 1/H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Preliminary /sup 1/H-NMR data at 250 and 600 MHz have suggested that this hydrophobic protein retains a similar globular conformation in both glacial acetic acid (AA), a Bronsted acid, and dimethylformamide (DMF), a Lewis base. These observations suggest that the globular conformation observed in these organic solvents is most likely the native structure present in the crystalline state. As suggested by the high intrinsic resolution of the crystallographic x-ray diffraction pattern, and demonstrated by the NMR data, crambin is a very rigid protein. Work is in progress to assign the /sup 1/H-resonances and to correlate H and /sup 13/C NMR dynamic data with the crystallographic model. It is hoped that unravelling conformational features of this hydrophobic protein will provide clues to help us understand other membrane-bound functional proteins.

  4. Dynamic exposure of organisms and passive samplers to hydrophobic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bayen, Stéphane; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Buffle, Jacques; Hermens, Joop L M

    2009-04-01

    An insight into the dynamic aspects of the accumulation process is essential for understanding bioaccumulation as well as effect studies of hydrophobic organic chemicals. This review presents an overview of kinetic studies with organisms (fish, bivalve, crustacean, insect, worm, algae, and protozoan) as well as passive samplers (solid and liquid phase microextraction, semipermeable membrane device, polymer sheet, solid-phase extraction, Chemcatcher, etc.) for the uptake of neutral nonpolar chemicals from the aqueous phase. Information about uptake rates, elimination rates, and 95% equilibration times was collected and analyzed with diffusion based models. The present literature review suggests that the surface to volume ratio appears to be a critical parameter for the uptake rate of the more hydrophobic chemicals both for samplers and organisms. In addition, as a very first approximation, the combination of the first-order kinetic model with the assumption that diffusion through the aqueous boundary layers is rate limiting, gives a reasonable description of the experimental kinetic data. In this way, the presented model might be used to estimate uptake and elimination rate constants of chemicals by organisms or passive samplers.

  5. Hydrophobic Moiety of Cationic Lipids Strongly Modulates Their Transfection Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Koynova, Rumiana; Tenchov, Boris; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C.

    2010-01-18

    Synthetic cationic lipids are widely used components of nonviral gene carriers, and the factors regulating their transfection efficiency are the subject of considerable interest. In view of the important role that electrostatic interactions with the polyanionic nucleic acids play in formation of lipoplexes, a common empirical approach to improving transfection has been the synthesis and testing of amphiphiles with new versions of positively charged polar groups, while much less attention has been given to the role of the hydrophobic lipid moieties. On the basis of data for {approx}20 cationic phosphatidylcholine (PC) derivatives, here we demonstrate that hydrocarbon chain variations of these lipids modulate by over 2 orders of magnitude their transfection efficiency. The observed molecular structure-activity relationship manifests in well-expressed dependences of activity on two important molecular characteristics, chain unsaturation and total number of carbon atoms in the lipid chains, which is representative of the lipid hydrophobic volume and hydrophilic-lipophilic ratio. Transfection increases with decrease of chain length and increase of chain unsaturation. Maximum transfection was found for cationic PCs with monounsaturated 14:1 chains. It is of particular importance that the high-transfection lipids strongly promote cubic phase formation in zwitterionic membrane phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). These remarkable correlations point to an alternative, chain-dependent process in transfection, not related to the electrostatic cationic-anionic lipid interactions.

  6. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  7. Unlocking the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-10-15

    The country has progressed in a relatively short time from rotary dial phones to computers, cell phones, and iPads. With proper planning and orderly policy implementation, the same will happen with the Smart Grid. Here are some suggestions on how to proceed. (author)

  8. High flux and antifouling properties of negatively charged membrane for dyeing wastewater treatment by membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Jeong, Sanghyun; Lee, Eui-Jong; Tabatabai, S Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-10-15

    This study investigated the applicability of membrane distillation (MD) to treat dyeing wastewater discharged by the textile industry. Four different dyes containing methylene blue (MB), crystal violet (CV), acid red 18 (AR18), and acid yellow 36 (AY36) were tested. Two types of hydrophobic membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were used. The membranes were characterized by testing against each dye (foulant-foulant) and the membrane-dye (membrane-foulant) interfacial interactions and their mechanisms were identified. The MD membranes possessed negative charges, which facilitated the treatment of acid and azo dyes of the same charge and showed higher fluxes. In addition, PTFE membrane reduced the wettability with higher hydrophobicity of the membrane surface. The PTFE membrane evidenced especially its resistant to dye absorption, as its strong negative charge and chemical structure caused a flake-like (loose) dye-dye structure to form on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also enabled the recovery of flux and membrane properties by water flushing (WF), thereby direct-contact MD with PTFE membrane treating 100 mg/L of dye mixtures showed stable flux and superior color removal during five days operation. Thus, MD shows a potential for stable long-term operation in conjunction with a simple membrane cleaning process, and its suitability in dyeing wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Origin of hydrophobicity and enhanced water hydrogen bond strength near purely hydrophobic solutes

    PubMed Central

    Grdadolnik, Joze; Merzel, Franci; Avbelj, Franc

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophobicity plays an important role in numerous physicochemical processes from the process of dissolution in water to protein folding, but its origin at the fundamental level is still unclear. The classical view of hydrophobic hydration is that, in the presence of a hydrophobic solute, water forms transient microscopic “icebergs” arising from strengthened water hydrogen bonding, but there is no experimental evidence for enhanced hydrogen bonding and/or icebergs in such solutions. Here, we have used the redshifts and line shapes of the isotopically decoupled IR oxygen–deuterium (O-D) stretching mode of HDO water near small purely hydrophobic solutes (methane, ethane, krypton, and xenon) to study hydrophobicity at the most fundamental level. We present unequivocal and model-free experimental proof for the presence of strengthened water hydrogen bonds near four hydrophobic solutes, matching those in ice and clathrates. The water molecules involved in the enhanced hydrogen bonds display extensive structural ordering resembling that in clathrates. The number of ice-like hydrogen bonds is 10–15 per methane molecule. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have confirmed that water molecules in the vicinity of methane form stronger, more numerous, and more tetrahedrally oriented hydrogen bonds than those in bulk water and that their mobility is restricted. We show the absence of intercalating water molecules that cause the electrostatic screening (shielding) of hydrogen bonds in bulk water as the critical element for the enhanced hydrogen bonding around a hydrophobic solute. Our results confirm the classical view of hydrophobic hydration. PMID:28028244

  10. Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-03-20

    The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size, and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 Å and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm(2)), the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a 10 order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 Å. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50 kT and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm(2)) than by the smaller (1 nm(2)) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this rate enhancement is a consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning vapor tube.

  11. Hydrophobic Blocks Facilitate Lipid Compatibility and Translocon Recognition of Transmembrane Protein Sequences

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity

  12. Hydrophobic blocks facilitate lipid compatibility and translocon recognition of transmembrane protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Stone, Tracy A; Schiller, Nina; von Heijne, Gunnar; Deber, Charles M

    2015-02-24

    Biophysical hydrophobicity scales suggest that partitioning of a protein segment from an aqueous phase into a membrane is governed by its perceived segmental hydrophobicity but do not establish specifically (i) how the segment is identified in vivo for translocon-mediated insertion or (ii) whether the destination lipid bilayer is biochemically receptive to the inserted sequence. To examine the congruence between these dual requirements, we designed and synthesized a library of Lys-tagged peptides of a core length sufficient to span a bilayer but with varying patterns of sequence, each composed of nine Leu residues, nine Ser residues, and one (central) Trp residue. We found that peptides containing contiguous Leu residues (Leu-block peptides, e.g., LLLLLLLLLWSSSSSSSSS), in comparison to those containing discontinuous stretches of Leu residues (non-Leu-block peptides, e.g., SLSLLSLSSWSLLSLSLLS), displayed greater helicity (circular dichroism spectroscopy), traveled slower during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, had longer reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography retention times on a C-18 column, and were helical when reconstituted into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylglycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes, each observation indicating superior lipid compatibility when a Leu-block is present. These parameters were largely paralleled in a biological membrane insertion assay using microsomal membranes from dog pancreas endoplasmic reticulum, where we found only the Leu-block sequences successfully inserted; intriguingly, an amphipathic peptide (SLLSSLLSSWLLSSLLSSL; Leu face, Ser face) with biophysical properties similar to those of Leu-block peptides failed to insert. Our overall results identify local sequence lipid compatibility rather than average hydrophobicity as a principal determinant of transmembrane segment potential, while demonstrating that further subtleties of hydrophobic and helical patterning, such as circumferential hydrophobicity in

  13. The surveillance error grid.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  14. Hydrophobic free energy eigenfunctions of pore, channel, and transporter proteins contain beta-burst patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Selz, K A; Mandell, A J; Shlesinger, M F

    1998-01-01

    Hydropathy plots are often used in place of missing physical data to model transmembrane proteins that are difficult to crystallize. The sequential maxima of their graphs approximate the number and locations of transmembrane segments, but potentially useful additional information about sequential hydrophobic variation is lost in this smoothing procedure. To explore a broader range of hydrophobic variations without loss of the transmembrane segment-relevant sequential maxima, we utilize a sequence of linear decompositions and transformations of the n-length hydrophobic free energy sequences, Hi, i = 1...n, of proteins. Constructions of hydrophobic free energy eigenfunctions, psil, from M-lagged, M x M autocovariance matrices, CM, were followed by their all-poles, maximum entropy power spectral, Somega(psil), and Mexican Hat wavelet, Wa,b(psil), transformations. These procedures yielded graphs indicative of inverse frequencies, omega-1, and sequence locations of hydrophobic modes suggestive of secondary and supersecondary protein structures. The graphs of these computations discriminated between Greek Key, Jelly Role, and Up and Down categories of antiparallel beta-barrel proteins. With these methods, examples of porins, connexins, hexose transporters, nuclear membrane proteins, and potassium but not sodium channels appear to belong to the Up and Down antiparallel beta-barrel variety. PMID:9788928

  15. Hydrophobic free energy eigenfunctions of pore, channel, and transporter proteins contain beta-burst patterns.

    PubMed

    Selz, K A; Mandell, A J; Shlesinger, M F

    1998-11-01

    Hydropathy plots are often used in place of missing physical data to model transmembrane proteins that are difficult to crystallize. The sequential maxima of their graphs approximate the number and locations of transmembrane segments, but potentially useful additional information about sequential hydrophobic variation is lost in this smoothing procedure. To explore a broader range of hydrophobic variations without loss of the transmembrane segment-relevant sequential maxima, we utilize a sequence of linear decompositions and transformations of the n-length hydrophobic free energy sequences, Hi, i = 1...n, of proteins. Constructions of hydrophobic free energy eigenfunctions, psil, from M-lagged, M x M autocovariance matrices, CM, were followed by their all-poles, maximum entropy power spectral, Somega(psil), and Mexican Hat wavelet, Wa,b(psil), transformations. These procedures yielded graphs indicative of inverse frequencies, omega-1, and sequence locations of hydrophobic modes suggestive of secondary and supersecondary protein structures. The graphs of these computations discriminated between Greek Key, Jelly Role, and Up and Down categories of antiparallel beta-barrel proteins. With these methods, examples of porins, connexins, hexose transporters, nuclear membrane proteins, and potassium but not sodium channels appear to belong to the Up and Down antiparallel beta-barrel variety.

  16. Amphipathicity Determines Different Cytotoxic Mechanisms of Lysine- or Arginine-Rich Cationic Hydrophobic Peptides in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Cao, Rui; Wang, Sha; Jia, Junli; Fei, Hao

    2016-06-09

    Cationic amphipathic peptides (CAPs) are known to be able to cause membrane destabilization and induce cell death, yet how the hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and lysine (K)/arginine (R) composition synergistically affect the peptide activity remains incompletely understood. Here, we designed a panel of peptides based on the well-known anticancer peptide KLA. Increasing hydrophobicity enhanced the cytotoxicities of both the K- and R-rich peptides. Peptides with an intact amphipathic helical interface can cause instant cell death through a membrane lysis mechanism. Interestingly, rearranging the residue positions to minimize amphipathicity caused a great decrease of cytotoxicity to the K-rich peptides but not to the R-rich peptides. The amphipathicity-minimized R-rich peptide 6 (RL2) (RLLRLLRLRRLLRL-NH2) penetrated the cell membrane and induced caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death. We found that the modulation of hydrophobicity, amphipathicity, and K/R residues leads to distinct mechanisms of action of cationic hydrophobic peptides. Amphipathicity-reduced, arginine-rich cationic hydrophobic peptides (CHPs) may represent a new class of peptide therapeutics.

  17. Structures of KcsA in Complex with Symmetrical Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Reveal a Hydrophobic Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potassium channels allow for the passive movement of potassium ions across the cell membrane and are instrumental in controlling the membrane potential in all cell types. Quaternary ammonium (QA) compounds block potassium channels and have long been used to study the functional and structural properties of these channels. Here we describe the interaction between three symmetrical hydrophobic QAs and the prokaryotic potassium channel KcsA. The structures demonstrate the presence of a hydrophobic pocket between the inner helices of KcsA and provide insight into the binding site and blocking mechanism of hydrophobic QAs. The structures also reveal a structurally hidden pathway between the central cavity and the outside membrane environment reminiscent of the lateral fenestration observed in sodium channels that can be accessed through small conformational changes in the pore wall. We propose that the hydrophobic binding pocket stabilizes the alkyl chains of long-chain QA molecules and may play a key role in hydrophobic drug binding in general. PMID:25093676

  18. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura Katrina (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion.RTM., over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  19. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(TradeMark) over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  20. Ionomer-Membrane Water Processing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, Taber K. (Inventor); Kelsey, Laura (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    This disclosure provides water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods for recovering water from wastewater such as urine. The water processing apparatuses, systems, and methods can utilize membrane technology for extracting purified water in a single step. A containment unit can include an ionomer membrane, such as Nafion(Registered Trademark), over a hydrophobic microporous membrane, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The containment unit can be filled with wastewater, and the hydrophobic microporous membrane can be impermeable to liquids and solids of the wastewater but permeable to gases and vapors of the wastewater, and the ionomer membrane can be permeable to water vapor but impermeable to one or more contaminants of the gases and vapors. The containment unit can be exposed to a dry purge gas to maintain a water vapor partial pressure differential to drive permeation of the water vapor, and the water vapor can be collected and processed into potable water.

  1. Equil: A Global Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Sebastian; Reimer, Christioph; Paulik, Christoph; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Geophysical parameters derived from space-borne Earth Observation Systems are either assigned to discrete points on a fixed Earth grid (e.g. regular lon/lat grid) or located on orbital point nodes with a customized arrangement, often in-line with the instrument's measurement geometry. The driving factors of the choice and structure of a spatial reference system (i.e. the grid) are typically spatial resolution, instrument geometry, measurement technique or application.In this study we propose a global grid system, the so- called Equil grid, and demonstrate its realization and structure. An exemplary Equil grid with a base sampling distance of 12.5 km is compared against two other grids commonly used in the domain of remote sensing of soil moisture. The simple nearly-equidistant grid design makes it interesting for a wide range of other geophysical parameters as well.

  2. Controllable picoliter pipetting using hydrophobic microfluidic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Huang, J.; Qian, X.; Mi, S.; Wang, X.

    2017-06-01

    A picoliter pipetting technique using the microfluidic method is presented. Utilizing the hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer films patterned in microchannels as pressure-controlled valves, a small volume of liquid can be separated by a designed channel trap and then ejected from the channel end at a higher pressure. The liquid trap section is composed of a T-shaped channel junction and a hydrophobic patch. The liquid volume can be precisely controlled by varying the distance of the hydrophobic patch from the T-junction. By this means, liquid less than 100 pl can be separated and pipetted. The developed device is potentially useful for sample dispensing in biological, medical, and chemical applications.

  3. Hydrophobicity in Lennard-Jones solutions.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Mario; Tanaka, Hideki; Koga, Kenichiro

    2011-02-14

    The analogue of the hydrophobic hydration is explored for Lennard-Jones solutions. The free energy of solvation and its temperature derivatives, both in the constant-pressure process and in the constant-volume process, are obtained numerically for a variety of the size and energy parameters for the solute-solvent Lennard-Jones potential. We identify in the parameter space a region in which the solvation is of hydrophobic character, with an understanding that hydrophobicity is characterized by both the solvation free energy being positive and the solvation process being exothermic. Such a region is found in each case of the isobaric and isochoric conditions and the region is seen to be much wider in the isochoric process than in the isobaric one. Its origin and implication are discussed.

  4. Wire bundle formed into grids with minute interstices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, H. H.

    1965-01-01

    Deforming the ends of a bundle of closely packed parallel wires to restrict the interstices to substantially uniform and minute dimensions produces grids or filters for ion engines. Porous metal structures made by this process are also used as fuel cell electrodes, diffusion membranes, and catalysts.

  5. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  6. Morphology studies of hydrophobic silica on filter surface prepared via spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahfiq Zulkifli, Nazrul; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Ahmad, Azlinnorazia; Harun, Zawati; Akhair, Siti Hajar Mohd; Adibah Raja Ahmad, Raja; Hafeez Azhar, Faiz; Rashid, Abdul Qaiyyum Abd; Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of the hydrophobic surface treatment effect of air filter performance by using silica aerogel powder as an additive by using spray coating techniques. The membrane characterization tests were carried out on a filter prepared from different additive concentration. Studies on the cross-section and the distribution of particles on the membrane were carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the surface morphology was investigated by x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results are shown by SEM and EDS that the microstructure filter, especially in the upper layer and sub-layer has been changed. The results also show an increase of hydrophobicity due to the increased quantity of silica aerogel powder.

  7. Albumin-Encapsulated Liposomes: A Novel Drug Delivery Carrier With Hydrophobic Drugs Encapsulated in the Inner Aqueous Core.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuko; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Yamasaki, Keishi; Sakuragi, Mina; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Otagiri, Masaki

    2017-08-18

    Liposomes are clinically used in drug delivery, but loading hydrophobic substances is limited to the hydrophobic space of a lipid membrane, despite the fact that it is favorable to encapsulate substances into the inner aqueous core of liposome, from a drug stability of view. We report herein on the preparation of a liposome with bovine serum albumin encapsulated (BSA-liposome). Using this system, it is possible to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs in the inner aqueous core of the liposome based on the hypothesis that the water solubility of hydrophobic drugs is increased when bound to albumin. The physicochemical properties of the prepared BSA-liposomes could be easily regulated and the loading of hydrophobic drugs in the inner aqueous core of the liposome was dramatically improved by virtue of the drug-binding properties of albumin. An in vivo safety and pharmacokinetic study showed that BSA-liposomes possess favorable properties as a drug carrier, including biocompatibility and a stealth effect. This new type of hydrophobic drug carrier, an albumin-liposome, has the potential for use in delivering numerous hydrophobic drugs that typically bind to albumin. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Applications of algebraic grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques and applications of algebraic grid generation are described. The techniques are univariate interpolations and transfinite assemblies of univariate interpolations. Because algebraic grid generation is computationally efficient, the use of interactive graphics in conjunction with the techniques is advocated. A flexible approach, which works extremely well in an interactive environment, called the control point form of algebraic grid generation is described. The applications discussed are three-dimensional grids constructed about airplane and submarine configurations.

  9. Membrane Curvature Sensing by Amphipathic Helices

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller; Jao, Christine C.; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Pedersen, Søren L.; Jensen, Knud J.; Langen, Ralf; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Preferential binding of proteins on curved membranes (membrane curvature sensing) is increasingly emerging as a general mechanism whereby cells may effect protein localization and trafficking. Here we use a novel single liposome fluorescence microscopy assay to examine a common sensing motif, the amphipathic helix (AH), and provide quantitative measures describing and distinguishing membrane binding and sensing behavior. By studying two AH-containing proteins, α-synuclein and annexin B12, as well as a range of AH peptide mutants, we reveal that both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces of the helix greatly influence binding and sensing. Although increased hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with the membrane both lead to greater densities of bound protein, the former yields membrane curvature-sensitive binding, whereas the latter is not curvature-dependent. However, the relative contributions of both components determine the sensing of AHs. In contrast, charge density in the lipid membrane seems important primarily in attracting AHs to the membrane but does not significantly influence sensing. These observations were made possible by the ability of our assay to distinguish within our samples liposomes with and without bound protein as well as the density of bound protein. Our findings suggest that the description of membrane curvature-sensing requires consideration of several factors such as short and long range electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and the volume and structure of inserted hydrophobic residues. PMID:21953452

  10. Fluid infiltration pressure for hydrophobic nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jingwen; Li, Long; Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Dongyan; Huang, Baoling; Li, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    We investigate water infiltration pressure for hydrophobic nanochannels through molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the entrance energy barrier significantly raises the infiltration pressure, which makes the classic Young-Laplace equation invalid for nanochannels. As the channel surface is tuned from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic, the infiltration pressure is greatly reduced mainly due to the decrease of the capillary pressure (Young-Laplace equation) caused by the contact angle change, while the contribution of the entrance energy barrier to the infiltration pressure, which is termed entrance barrier pressure, increases from 25% to 60%.

  11. The search for the hydrophobic force law

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Malte U.; Anderson, Travers H.; Chaimovich, Aviel; Scott Shell, M.

    2010-01-01

    After nearly 30 years of research on the hydrophobic interaction, the search for the hydrophobic force law is still continuing. Indeed, there are more questions than answers, and the experimental data are often quite different for nominally similar conditions, as well as, apparently, for nano-, micro-, and macroscopic surfaces. This has led to the conclusion that the experimentally observed force–distance relationships are either a combination of different ‘fundamental’ interactions, or that the hydrophobic force-law, if there is one, is complex – depending on numerous parameters. The only unexpectedly strong attractive force measured in all experiments so far has a range of D ≈ 100–200 Å, increasing roughly exponentially down to ~ 10–20 Å and then more steeply down to adhesive contact at D = 0 or, for power-law potentials, effectively at D ≈ 2 Å. The measured forces in this regime (100–200 Å) and especially the adhesive forces are much stronger, and have a different distance-dependence from the continuum VDW force (Lifshitz theory) for non-conducting dielectric media. We suggest a three-regime force-law for the forces observed between hydrophobic surfaces: In the first, from 100–200 Å to thousands of ångstroms, the dominating force is created by complementary electrostatic domains or patches on the apposing surfaces and/or bridging vapour cavities; a ‘pure’ but still not well-understood ‘long-range hydrophobic force’ dominates the second regime from ~ 150 to ~ 15 Å, possibly due to an enhanced Hamaker constant associated with the ‘proton-hopping’ polarizability of water; while below ~ 10–15 Å to contact there is another ‘pure short-range hydrophobic force’ related to water structuring effects associated with surface-induced changes in the orientation and/or density of water molecules and H-bonds at the water–hydrophobic interface. We present recent SFA and other experimental results, as well as a simplified model for

  12. A grid spacing control technique for algebraic grid generation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Kudlinski, R. A.; Everton, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    A technique which controls the spacing of grid points in algebraically defined coordinate transformations is described. The technique is based on the generation of control functions which map a uniformly distributed computational grid onto parametric variables defining the physical grid. The control functions are smoothed cubic splines. Sets of control points are input for each coordinate directions to outline the control functions. Smoothed cubic spline functions are then generated to approximate the input data. The technique works best in an interactive graphics environment where control inputs and grid displays are nearly instantaneous. The technique is illustrated with the two-boundary grid generation algorithm.

  13. Grid Interaction Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Grid Interaction Technical Team (GITT) is to support a transition scenario to large scale grid-connected vehicle charging with transformational technology, proof of concept and information dissemination. The GITT facilitates technical coordination and collaboration between vehicle-grid connectivity and communication activities among U.S. DRIVE government and industry partners.

  14. Spectral methods on arbitrary grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David

    1995-01-01

    Stable and spectrally accurate numerical methods are constructed on arbitrary grids for partial differential equations. These new methods are equivalent to conventional spectral methods but do not rely on specific grid distributions. Specifically, we show how to implement Legendre Galerkin, Legendre collocation, and Laguerre Galerkin methodology on arbitrary grids.

  15. Membrane Based Thermal Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdoch, Karen

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of the feasibility of using a membrane device as a water boiler for thermal control is reported. The membrane device permits water vapor to escape to the vacuum of space but prevents the loss of liquid water. The vaporization of the water provides cooling to the water loop. This type of cooling device would have application for various types of short duration cooling needs where expenditure of water is allowed and a low pressure source is available such as in space or on a planet's surface. A variety of membrane samples, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic, were purchased to test for this thermal control application. An initial screening test determined if the membrane could pose a sufficient barrier to maintain water against vacuum. Further testing compared the heat transfer performance of those membranes that passed the screening test.

  16. The Art of Grid Fields: Geometry of Neuronal Time

    PubMed Central

    Shilnikov, Andrey L.; Maurer, Andrew Porter

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of grid cells in the entorhinal cortex has both elucidated our understanding of spatial representations in the brain, and germinated a large number of theoretical models regarding the mechanisms of these cells’ striking spatial firing characteristics. These models cross multiple neurobiological levels that include intrinsic membrane resonance, dendritic integration, after hyperpolarization characteristics and attractor dynamics. Despite the breadth of the models, to our knowledge, parallels can be drawn between grid fields and other temporal dynamics observed in nature, much of which was described by Art Winfree and colleagues long before the initial description of grid fields. Using theoretical and mathematical investigations of oscillators, in a wide array of mediums far from the neurobiology of grid cells, Art Winfree has provided a substantial amount of research with significant and profound similarities. These theories provide specific inferences into the biological mechanisms and extraordinary resemblances across phenomenon. Therefore, this manuscript provides a novel interpretation on the phenomenon of grid fields, from the perspective of coupled oscillators, postulating that grid fields are the spatial representation of phase resetting curves in the brain. In contrast to prior models of gird cells, the current manuscript provides a sketch by which a small network of neurons, each with oscillatory components can operate to form grid cells, perhaps providing a unique hybrid between the competing attractor neural network and oscillatory interference models. The intention of this new interpretation of the data is to encourage novel testable hypotheses. PMID:27013981

  17. Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

  18. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and