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Sample records for hydroquinones

  1. Hydroquinone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydroquinone ; CASRN 123 - 31 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  2. Hydroquinone Testing Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On January 4, 1984, the EPA proposed, under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), that manufacturers and processors of hydroquinone (CAS No. 123-31-9) conduct health and environmental effects testing of that chemical (49 FR 438).

  3. Hydroquinone: Environmental Pollution, Toxicity, and Microbial Answers

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone is a major benzene metabolite, which is a well-known haematotoxic and carcinogenic agent associated with malignancy in occupational environments. Human exposure to hydroquinone can occur by dietary, occupational, and environmental sources. In the environment, hydroquinone showed increased toxicity for aquatic organisms, being less harmful for bacteria and fungi. Recent pieces of evidence showed that hydroquinone is able to enhance carcinogenic risk by generating DNA damage and also to compromise the general immune responses which may contribute to the impaired triggering of the host immune reaction. Hydroquinone bioremediation from natural and contaminated sources can be achieved by the use of a diverse group of microorganisms, ranging from bacteria to fungi, which harbor very complex enzymatic systems able to metabolize hydroquinone either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Due to the recent research development on hydroquinone, this review underscores not only the mechanisms of hydroquinone biotransformation and the role of microorganisms and their enzymes in this process, but also its toxicity. PMID:23936816

  4. Synthetic Strategies to Terpene Quinones/Hydroquinones

    PubMed Central

    Gordaliza, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties of many natural sesquiterpene-quinones and -hydroquinones from sponges offer promising opportunities for the development of new drugs. A review dealing with different strategies for obtaining bioactive terpenyl quinones/hydroquinones is presented. The different synthetic approches for the preparation of the most relevant quinones/hydroquinones are described. PMID:22412807

  5. Exogenous ochronosis following hydroquinone for melasma.

    PubMed

    Zawar, V P; Mhaskar, S T

    2004-12-01

    A female Indian farmer with melasma developed progressive worsening of facial pigmentation while using topical hydroquinone. It manifested as bluish-black pigmentation, confirmed microscopically as ochronotic change, i.e. exogenous ochronosis (EO). Failure to follow adequate sun protective measures and usage of overly high concentrations of hydroquinone were the most likely causes of EO in this case. It is necessary to recognize this disorder at the earliest stage to avoid treatment disappointments.

  6. Environmental and health risks of hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Devillers, J.; Boule, P.; Vasseur, P.; Prevot, P.; Steiman, R.; Seigle-Murandi, F.; Benoit-Guyod, J.L.; Nendza, M.; Grioni, C.; Dive, D. )

    1990-06-01

    Hazard assessment of hydroquinone has been evaluated from bibliographical and original data on the physicochemical properties, the environmental behavior, and the biological effects of this aromatic compound. Hydroquinone, which is produced in large amounts and widely used, must be considered as an environmental contaminant. However, it is not persistent. The ecotoxicity of this molecule, which must be linked to its physicochemical properties, varies from species to species. Its acute and chronic toxicity toward higher terrestrial organisms is moderate. Hydroquinone is estimated to be nonmutagenic by the Ames test but induces chromosome aberrations or karyotypic effects in eucaryotic cells. Carcinogenic and teratogenic potentials have been at present inadequately studied. The study underlines the complementarity of QSAR models and experimental approaches when an attempt is made to obtain ecotoxicological profiles of pollutants.182 references.

  7. Environmental and health risks of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Boule, P; Vasseur, P; Prevot, P; Steiman, R; Seigle-Murandi, F; Benoit-Guyod, J L; Nendza, M; Grioni, C; Dive, D

    1990-06-01

    Hazard assessment of hydroquinone has been evaluated from bibliographical and original data on the physicochemical properties, the environmental behavior, and the biological effects of this aromatic compound. Hydroquinone, which is produced in large amounts and widely used, must be considered as an environmental contaminant. However, it is not persistent. The ecotoxicity of this molecule, which must be linked to its physicochemical properties, varies from species to species. Its acute and chronic toxicity toward higher terrestrial organisms is moderate. Hydroquinone is estimated to be nonmutagenic by the Ames test but induces chromosome aberrations or karyotypic effects in eucaryotic cells. Carcinogenic and teratogenic potentials have been at present inadequately studied. The study underlines the complementarity of QSAR models and experimental approaches when an attempt is made to obtain ecotoxicological profiles of pollutants.

  8. Reaction of N-sulfonyldiaryltellurimides with hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Naddaka, V.I.; Avanesyan, K.V.; Nesterova, M.A.; Minkin, V.I.

    1987-09-20

    While continuing an investigation into the reactivity of tellurimides, the authors studied the previously unknown reaction of N-sulfonyltellurimides with hydroquinone. The authors established that the reaction of N-sulfonyldiaryltellurimides with hydroquinone in chloroform at room temperature leads to the formation of the products from the coupling of the diaryl tellurides with p-benzoquinone, having the structure of telluronium salts and the corresponding sulfonamides. The PMR spectra of solutions of the substances in deuterochloroform were recorded on a Tesla-BS-487 C spectrometer at 80 MHz with HMDS as internal standard. The IR spectra were obtained on a Specord 71-IR instrument in Vaseline oil.

  9. Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Hydroquinone is an aromatic compound that functions in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance, reducing agent, or polymerization inhibitor. Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent. Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Hydroquinone is associated with altered immune function in vitro and in vivo in animals and an increased incidence of renal tubule cell tumors and leukemia in F344 rats, but the relevance to humans is uncertain. Quantitatively, however, the use of hydroquinone in cosmetics is unlikely to result in renal neoplasia through this mode of action. Thus, hydroquinone is safe at concentrations of ≤1% in hair dyes and is safe for use in nail adhesives. Hydroquinone should not be used in other leave-on cosmetics.

  10. Hydroquinone Based Synthesis of Gold Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Picciolini, Silvia; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Gramatica, Furio; Morasso, Carlo

    2016-08-10

    Gold nanorods are an important kind of nanoparticles characterized by peculiar plasmonic properties. Despite their widespread use in nanotechnology, the synthetic methods for the preparation of gold nanorods are still not fully optimized. In this paper we describe a new, highly efficient, two-step protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a mild reducing agent. Our approach allows the preparation of nanorods with a good control of size and aspect ratio (AR) simply by varying the amount of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and silver ions (Ag(+)) present in the "growth solution". By using this method, it is possible to markedly reduce the amount of CTAB, an expensive and cytotoxic reagent, necessary to obtain the elongated shape. Gold nanorods with an aspect ratio of about 3 can be obtained in the presence of just 50 mM of CTAB (versus 100 mM used in the standard protocol based on the use of ascorbic acid), while shorter gold nanorods are obtained using a concentration as low as 10 mM.

  11. The Use of Cellulose Nanocrystals for Potential Application in Topical Delivery of Hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Azade; Mohammadi, Mina

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems can enhance drug permeation through the skin and improve the drug stability. The biodegradability and biocompatibility of cellulose nanocrystals have made these nanoparticles good candidates to use in biomedical applications. The hyperpigmentation is a common skin disorder that could be caused by number of reasons such as sun exposure and pregnancy. Hydroquinone could inhibit the production of melanin and eliminate the discolorations of skin. This study is aimed at introducing cellulose nanocrystals as suitable carriers for drug delivery to skin. Prepared cellulose nanocrystals were characterized by dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy. The size of cellulose nanocrystals determined using dynamic light scattering was 301 ± 10 nm. Hydroquinone-cellulose nanocrystal complex was prepared by incubating of hydroquinone solution in cellulose nanocrystals suspension. The size of hydroquinone-cellulose nanocrystal complex determined using dynamic light scattering was 310 ± 10 nm. The hydroquinone content of the hydroquinone-cellulose complex was determined using UV/vis spectroscopy. Hydroquinone was bound to cellulose nanocrystals representing 79.3 ± 2% maximum binding efficiency when 1.1 mg hydroquinone was added to 1 mL of cellulose nanocrystals suspension (2 mg cellulose nanocrystal). The hydroquinone-cellulose nanocrystal complex showed an approximately sustained release profile of hydroquinone. Approximately, 80% of bound hydroquinone released in 4 h. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Coulometric titration of ruthenium and iridium by the generated hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Organeysan, L.S.; Butakova, N.A.

    1986-05-10

    This paper studies the electrogeneration of hydroquinone from solutions of quinone on platinum and glass-carbon electrodes in HC1 and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ media of different concentrations, to select the optimal conditions for the coulometric titration of Ru(IV) and Ir(IV).

  13. Successful treatment of hydroquinone-resistant melasma using topical methimazole.

    PubMed

    Malek, Joelle; Chedraoui, Adele; Nikolic, Damian; Barouti, Neda; Ghosn, Samer; Abbas, Ossama

    2013-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired hyperpigmentation skin disorder in sun-exposed areas. It occurs almost exclusively over the face, and is most commonly seen in women. Several depigmenting agents have been used for the treatment of melasma among which hydroquinone has been the most widely used due to its efficacy and safety in short-term use. However, hydroquinone is recently reported to be a cytotoxic and mutagenic compound in mammalian cells and is thus banned in several countries. Hydroquinone ban has caused investigators to search for alternative depigmenting agents for the treatment of melasma in recent years. Methimazole is an antithyroid agent orally used in humans since several decades and has been shown that when applied topically, it inhibits melanin synthesis and causes skin depigmentation in lab animals as well as human subjects. Herein, we report two hydroquinone-resistant melasma patients who were successfully treated with methimazole cream. Application of 5% methimazole cream once daily resulted in significant improvement of melasma in both patients after 8 weeks. The efficacy of methimazole for melasma treatment as well as its advantages over other known depigmenting compounds (non-mutagenicity, non-cytotoxicity and high tolerability profile) suggests that topical methimazole should be added to the armamentarium of anti-melasma treatment.

  14. Cytotoxicity and cell-proliferation induced by the nephrocarcinogen hydroquinone and its nephrotoxic metabolite 2,3,5-(tris-glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Peters, M M; Jones, T W; Monks, T J; Lau, S S

    1997-12-01

    Hydroquinone, an intermediate used in the chemical industry and a metabolite of benzene, is a nephrocarcinogen in the 2-year National Toxicology Program bioassay in male Fischer 344 rats. Current evidence suggests that certain chemicals may induce carcinogenesis by a mechanism involving cytotoxicity, followed by sustained regenerative hyperplasia and ultimately tumor formation. Glutathione (GSH) conjugates of a variety of hydroquinones are potent nephrotoxicants, and we now report on the effect of hydroquinone and 2,3,5-(tris-glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, on site-selective cytotoxicity and cell proliferation in rat kidney. Male Fischer 344 rats (160-200 g) were treated with hydroquinone (1.8 mmol/kg or 4.5 mmol/kg, p.o.) or 2,3,5-(tris-glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (7.5 micromol/kg; 1.2-1.5 micromol/rat, i.v.), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose were measured as indices of nephrotoxicity. Hydroquinone (1.8 mmol/kg, p.o.) is nephrotoxic in some rats, but not others, but cell proliferation (BrDU incorporation) in proximal tubular cells of the S3M region correlates with the degree of toxicity in individual rats. At 4.5 mmol/kg, hydroquinone causes significant increases in the urinary excretion of gamma-GT, ALP and GST. Pretreatment of rats with acivicin prevents hydroquinone-mediated nephrotoxicity, indicating that toxicity is dependent on the formation of metabolites that require processing by gamma-GT. Consistent with this view, 2,3,5-(tris-glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, a metabolite of hydroquinone, causes increases in BUN, urinary gamma-GT and ALP, all of which are maximal 12 h after administration of 2,3,5-(tris-glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone. In contrast, the maximal excretion of GST and glucose occurs after 24 h. By 72 h, BUN and glucose concentrations return to control levels, while gamma-GT, ALP and GST remain slightly elevated. Examination of

  15. Fungal hydroquinones contribute to brown rot of wood

    Treesearch

    Melissa R. Suzuki; Christopher G. Hunt; Carl J. Houtman; Zachary D. Dalebroux; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2006-01-01

    The fungi that cause brown rot of wood initiate lignocellulose breakdown with an extracellular Fenton system in which Fe2+ and H2O2 react to produce hydroxyl radicals (•OH), which then oxidize and cleave the wood holocellulose. One such fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum, drives Fenton chemistry on defined media by reducing Fe3+ and O2 with two extracellular hydroquinones,...

  16. Benzoquinones and Hydroquinones in Defensive Secretions of Tropical Millipedes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deml, R.; Huth, A.

    The defensive secretions of two tropical species of millipedes (the spirostreptid Telodeinopus aoutii and a species of Harpagophoridae) contain a complex mixture of closely related benzoquinones and hydroquinones. The major compounds are toluquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methylbenzoquinone, accompanied by the minor components, 2,3-dimethoxybenzoquinone and toluhydroquinone. Because of the large size and the geographic separation of the test animals a common defensive strategy of tropical, large millipedes against predation by vertebrates is assumed.

  17. Hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone by human skin bacteria and its effect on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bang, Seo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2008-09-01

    Arbutin, the beta-D-glucopyranoside of hydroquinone, is a skin whitening cosmetic ingredient. Compared with arbutin, hydroquinone is a more potent skin lightening agent, but shows cytotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and genotoxicity. To evaluate whether skin microflora can hydrolyze arbutin to hydroquinone, we measured the hydrolytic activity of the main skin microflora: Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. All strains hydrolyzed arbutin, with activities of 0.16-4.51 nmol/min/mg. The hydrolyzed hydroquinone showed more potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibition than arbutin. These findings suggest that normal skin microflora may increase the skin lightening effect of arbutin due to the antioxidant action of hydroquinone.

  18. A Study about Regioisomeric Hydroquinones with Multiple Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cifuentes, Maximiliano; Cardona, Wilson; Saitz, Claudio; Weiss-López, Boris; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro

    2017-04-07

    A theoretical exploration about hydrogen bonding in a series of synthetic regioisomeric antitumor tricyclic hydroquinones is presented. The stabilization energy for the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation in four structurally different situations were evaluated: (a) IHB between the proton of a phenolic hydroxyl group and an ortho-carbonyl group (forming a six-membered ring); (b) between the oxygen atom of a phenolic hydroxyl group and the proton of an hydroxyalkyl group (seven membered ring); (c) between the proton of a phenolic hydroxyl group with the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group of a hydroxyalkyl moiety (seven-membered ring); and (d) between the proton of a phenolic hydroxyl group and an oxygen atom directly bonded to the aromatic ring in ortho position (five-membered ring). A conformational analysis for the rotation around the hydroxyalkyl substituent is also performed. It is observed that there is a correspondence between the conformational energies and the IHB. The strongest intramolecular hydrogen bonds are those involving a phenolic proton and a carbonyl oxygen atom, forming a six-membered ring, and the weakest are those involving a phenolic proton with the oxygen atom of the chromenone, forming five-membered rings. Additionally, the synthesis and structural assignment of two pairs of regioisomeric hydroquinones, by 2D-NMR experiments, are reported. These results can be useful in the design of biologically-active molecules.

  19. Adsorbent for hydroquinone removal based on graphene oxide functionalized with magnetic cyclodextrin-chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Leilei; Fan, Lulu; Sun, Min; Qiu, Huamin; Li, Xiangjun; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic cyclodextrin-chitosan/graphene oxide (CCGO) with high surface area was synthesized via a simple chemical bonding method. The characteristics results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD showed that CCGO was prepared. The large saturation magnetization (22.35 emu/g) of the synthesized nanoparticles allows fast separation of the CCGO from liquid suspension. These composites could efficiently remove hydroquinone from simulated wastewater with a facile subsequent solid-liquid separation because of their large area, abundant hydroxyl and amino groups with handy operation, and hydrophobicity. The hydroquinone removal process was found to obey the Freundlich adsorption model and its kinetics followed pseudo-second-order rate equation. The hydroquinone removal mechanism of CCGO might be attributed to the electrostatic adsorption of hydroquinone in the form of negatively charged hydroquinone by positively charged chitosan, accompanying hydroquinone absorbed by cavities of the cyclodextrin, and forming hydrogen bonds between hydroquinone and the hydroxyl groups on the surface of CCGO. The used CCGO could be recovered with ethanol. This study provides a promising nanostructured adsorbent with easy separation property for heavy metal ions removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An electrochemical sensor based on polyaniline for monitoring hydroquinone and its damage on DNA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenwei; Zhang, Min; Li, Weihao; Zeng, Xinping

    2014-09-01

    A dsDNA/PANI/CTS/GCE biosensor was constructed by using the biocompatible chitosan (CTS) and the polyaniline (PANI) with excellent electric catalytic properties and large specific surface areas. The electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone on biosensor and its DNA-damaging mechanisms were investigated. Results showed that the redox peak current was remarkably increased after glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by PANI/CTS. The dsDNA damage by hydroquinone was concentration dependent, and increased along with the increase of hydroquinone oxidation peak current and the reduction of dsDNA guanine oxidation peak current. The linear detection range of hydroquinone with dsDNA/PANI/CTS/GCE was 1.25×10(-6)-3.2×10(-4) M, and the detection limit was 9.65×10(-7) M. It was confirmed by the UV method that applying dsDNA/PANI/CTS/GCE to monitor hydroquinone was accurate and reliable. In addition, it could be deduced that the mode of interaction between the hydroquinone and dsDNA was intercalation. The electrochemical oxidation of hydroquinone on the dsDNA/PANI/CTS/GCE electrode was an adsorption-controlled irreversible and a two-electron two-proton transfer process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Graphene quantum dots: Highly active bifunctional nanoprobes for nonenzymatic photoluminescence detection of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    He, Yuezhen; Sun, Jian; Feng, Dexiang; Chen, Hongqi; Gao, Feng; Wang, Lun

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, a simple and sensitive photoluminescence method is developed for the hydroquinone quantitation by using graphene quantum dots which simultaneously serve as a peroxidase-mimicking catalyst and a photoluminescence indicator. In the presence of dissolved oxygen, graphene quantum dots with intrinsic peroxidase-mimicking catalytic activity can catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone to produce p-benzoquinone, an intermediate, which can efficiently quench graphene quantum dots' photoluminescence. Based on this effect, a novel fluorescent platform is proposed for the sensing of hydroquinone, and the detection limit of 5 nM is found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ferroin-induced complex oscillations in the bromate-hydroquinone photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jichang

    2009-06-04

    This study presents an experimental investigation on the dynamics of the ferroin-bromate-hydroquinone photoreaction, in which two isolated oscillatory regimes emerge due to the presence of ferroin. Oscillations within the two isolated regimes exhibit different dependence on light intensity and initial compositions of the reaction solution. A phase diagram outlining the occurrence of the new oscillatory regime has been established in the bromate-ferroin concentration plane. As opposed to the ferroin-free system, in which there is nearly no difference in the reaction behavior whether benzoquinone or hydroquinone is used as the starting reactant, here the two-staged oscillatory behavior can only be obtained with hydroquinone as the initial reagent. This observation suggests that the reduction of ferriin by hydroquinone and the autocatalytic oxidation of ferroin by acidic bromate may have played a major role in the new oscillation window.

  3. Lack of pregnancy warnings on over-the-counter dermatologic products containing potentially harmful hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Bio, L L; Cies, J J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the presence of pregnancy warnings on over-the-counter (OTC) dermatologic products with hydroquinone, a potentially harmful ingredient. Data were obtained from the Food and Drug Administration National Drug Code Directory and Label Repository to identify OTC dermatologic products containing hydroquinone. Products were stratified based on pregnancy or general warning presence (WP) or absence (WA). Product characteristics were compared between groups: hydroquinone concentration, presence of external packaging, indication and warning statements. Of the 112 products studied, 21 had a pregnancy warning and 3 included a general warning against use: WP (n=24) and WA (n=88) group. External packaging was more prevalent in the WP group compared to WA (62.5% vs 29.5%, P=0.004). Majority of OTC dermatologic products containing hydroquinone did not have a pregnancy warning. This highlights the need for improved labeling and informs providers caring for pregnant women of OTC labeling limitations.

  4. Quinone and Hydroquinone Metabolites from the Ascidians of the Genus Aplidium

    PubMed Central

    Bertanha, Camila Spereta; Januário, Ana Helena; Alvarenga, Tavane Aparecida; Pimenta, Letícia Pereira; e Silva, Márcio Luis Andrade; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    Ascidians of the genus Aplidium are recognized as an important source of chemical diversity and bioactive natural products. Among the compounds produced by this genus are non-nitrogenous metabolites, mainly prenylated quinones and hydroquinones. This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of quinones, hydroquinones, rossinones, longithorones, longithorols, floresolides, scabellones, conicaquinones, aplidinones, thiaplidiaquinones, and conithiaquinones. A compilation of the 13C-NMR spectral data of these compounds is also presented. PMID:24927227

  5. Photo-controlled bifurcations in the 1,4-cyclohexanedione hydroquinone bromate ferroin reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Do Sung; Kim, Hye Sook; Kang, Jong Kon; Kim, Young Joon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Sung Hyun; Yadav, Krishan; Wang, Jichang

    2003-08-01

    The 1,4-cyclohexanedione/hydroquinone/BrO 3-/ferroin reaction system is uncovered to exhibit photo-controlled oscillatory reaction dynamics, in which illuminations with visible light can either induce or inhibit chemical oscillations. The observed behavior exhibits strong dependence on the wavelength of the incident light and the initial concentrations of hydroquinone and the metal catalyst ferroin. A possible photo-reaction path is suggested on the basis of experimental observations.

  6. Hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, induces Hog1-dependent stress response signaling and causes aneuploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takeki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Ayumi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that phenyl hydroquinone, a hepatic metabolite of the Ames test-negative carcinogen o-phenylphenol, efficiently induced aneuploidy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M transition as a result of the activation of the Hog1 (p38 MAPK homolog)-Swe1 (Wee1 homolog) pathway. In this experiment, we examined the aneuploidy forming effects of hydroquinone, a benzene metabolite, since both phenyl hydroquinone and hydroquinone are Ames-test negative carcinogens and share similar molecular structures. As was seen in phenyl hydroquinone, hydroquinone induced aneuploidy in yeast by delaying the cell cycle at the G2/M transition. Deficiencies in SWE1 and HOG1 abolished the hydroquinone-induced delay at the G2/M transition and aneuploidy formation. Furthermore, Hog1 was phosphorylated by hydroquinone, which may stabilize Swe1. These data indicate that the hydroquinone-induced G2/M transition checkpoint, which is activated by the Hog1-Swe1 pathway, plays a role in the formation of aneuploidy.

  7. Characterization of deoxyguanosine adducts from hydroquinone/benzoquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Jowa, J.; Winkel, S.; Witz, G.; Snyder, R.

    1986-03-01

    Occupational exposure to benzene has long been associated with the development of pancytopenia and leukemia. This toxicity has been attributed to the action of benzene metabolites. The authors have chosen to investigate the reaction of hydroquinone (HQ)/benzoquinone(BQ) with deoxyguanosine(dG) and DNA. (/sup 14/C)HQ was incubated with (/sup 3/H)dG in potassium phosphate buffer pH7.2 for 24 hours. Two dual labeled products were found by HPLC and presumed to be adducts. The same result was obtained when BQ was substituted in the reaction for HQ. Both adducts were found in isolated DNA from Clostridium perfringens, Micrococcus lysodeikticus, human placenta and calf thymus reacted with HO under similar conditions. One of the dG adducts was proposed to be (/sup 3/'OH) benzetheno(1,N-2)deoxyguanosine based on NMR and mass spectral results. The other adduct was characterized by a molecular weight of 339. The latter adduct was found in greater amounts than the former when HQ was reacted with denatured DNA.

  8. Molecular layer deposition of alucone films using trimethylaluminum and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Devika; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid organic–inorganic polymer film grown by molecular layer deposition (MLD) is demonstrated here. Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and hydroquinone [C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}] are used to deposit the polymeric films, which is a representative of a class of aluminum oxide polymers known as “alucones.” In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies are employed to determine the growth characteristics. An average growth rate of 4.1 Å per cycle at 150 °C is obtained by QCM and subsequently verified with x-ray reflectivity measurements. Surface chemistry during each MLD-half cycle is studied in depth by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy. Self limiting nature of the reaction is confirmed from both QCM and FTIR measurements. The conformal nature of the deposit, typical for atomic layer deposition and MLD, is verified with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements confirm the uniform elemental distribution along the depth of the films.

  9. Evaluation of in vivo mutagenicity of hydroquinone in Muta™ mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mariko; Masumori, Shoji; Hirata-Koizumi, Mutsuko; Ono, Atsushi; Honma, Masamitsu; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Hirose, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is used in skin bleaching agents, hair dyes, and finger nail treatments. Many skin-lightening cosmetics that contain HQ are currently marketed in Japan. Concerns have been expressed regarding health risks to the general population because the carcinogenicity of HQ was previously suggested in animal studies. HQ induced hepatocellular adenomas and forestomach hyperplasias in mice and renal tubular cell adenomas in male rats. In the present study, the lacZ transgenic mutation assay was conducted according to OECD test guideline 488 to determine whether mutagenic mechanisms were involved in HQ-induced carcinogenesis. Male Muta™ mice were repeatedly administered HQ orally at dosages of 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200mg/kg bw/day for 28 days. Body weight gain was decreased in all treatment groups. No significant differences were observed in mutant frequencies in the liver, stomach, lung, or kidney between HQ-treated mice and the concurrent negative controls, whereas the significant induction of mutations was noted in the positive control, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. These results suggest that a mutagenic mechanism is not responsible for HQ-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlling the reactivity of chlorinated ethylenes with flavin mononucleotide hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Ciptadjaya, Christopher G E; Guo, Wen; Angeli, Jayni M; Obare, Sherine O

    2009-03-01

    Reduction rate constants of the chlorinated ethylenes cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) reacted with flavin mononucleotide hydroquinone (FMNH2) under anoxic conditions were investigated. FMNH2 was produced in methanol solvent by the photoreduction of FMN. In aqueous solution, FMN was not fully reduced to FMNH2 but instead yielded the semiquinone radical FMNH*. However, when FMN was anchored to nanocrystalline TiO2, band gap irradiation resulted in electron transfer from the TiO2 conduction band to FMN, thus yielding FMNH2. The FMNH2 generated in aqueous solution on the TiO2 surface was a stronger reductant toward chlorinated ethylenes, relative to FMNH2 in solution. Furthermore, by combining the reactivity of the TiO2 conduction band electrons [TiO2(e-(CB)] with FMNH2, reduction rate constants for the chlorinated ethylenes increased by 2 orders of magnitude relative to FMNH2 alone. The results show how biological molecules such as FMNH2 could have significant effects toward the remediation of organic pollutants.

  11. Hydroquinone-Mediated Redox Cycling of Iron and Concomitant Oxidation of Hydroquinone in Oxic Waters under Acidic Conditions: Comparison with Iron-Natural Organic Matter Interactions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Garg, Shikha; Waite, T David

    2015-12-15

    Interactions of 1,4-hydroquinone with soluble iron species over a pH range of 3-5 in the air-saturated and partially deoxygenated solution are examined here. Our results show that 1,4-hydroquinone reduces Fe(III) in acidic conditions, generating semiquinone radicals (Q(•-)) that can oxidize Fe(II) back to Fe(III). The oxidation rate of Fe(II) by Q(•-)increases with increase in pH due to the speciation change of Q(•-) with its deprotonated form (Q(•-)) oxidizing Fe(II) more rapidly than the protonated form (HQ(•)). Although the oxygenation of Fe(II) is negligible at pH < 5, O2 still plays an important role in iron redox transformation by rapidly oxidizing Q(•-) to form benzoquinone (Q). A kinetic model is developed to describe the transformation of quinone and iron under all experimental conditions. The results obtained here are compared with those obtained in our previous studies of iron-Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) interactions in acidic solutions and support the hypothesis that hydroquinone moieties can reduce Fe(III) in natural waters. However, the semiquinone radicals generated in pure hydroquinone solution are rapidly oxidized by dioxygen, while the semiquinone radicals generated in SRFA solution are resistant to oxidation by dioxygen, with the result that steady-state semiquinone concentrations in SRFA solutions are 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than in solutions of 1,4-hydroquinone. As a result, semiquinone moieties in SRFA play a much more important role in iron redox transformations than is the case in solutions of simple quinones such as 1,4-hydroquinone. This difference in the steady-state concentration of semiquinone species has a dramatic effect on the cycling of iron between the +II and +III oxidation states, with iron turnover frequencies in solutions containing SRFA being 10-20 times higher than those observed in solutions of 1,4-hydroquinone.

  12. Structural, Spectroscopic, and Electrochemical Properties of Nonheme Fe(II)-Hydroquinonate Complexes: Synthetic Models of Hydroquinone Dioxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Amanda E.; Park, Heaweon; Wang, Denan; Lindeman, Sergey V.; Fiedler, Adam T.

    2012-01-01

    Using the tris(3,5-diphenylpyrazol-1-yl)borate (Ph2Tp) supporting ligand, a series of mono- and dinuclear ferrous complexes containing hydroquinonate (HQate) ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized with X-ray crystallography. The monoiron(II) complexes serve as faithful mimics of the substrate-bound form of hydroquinone dioxygenases (HQDOs) – a family of nonheme Fe enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage of 1,4-dihydroxybenzene units. Reflecting the variety of HQDO substrates, the synthetic complexes feature both mono- and bidentate HQate ligands. The bidentate HQates cleanly provide five-coordinate, high-spin Fe(II) complexes with the general formula [Fe(Ph2Tp)(HLX)] (1X), where HLX is a HQate(1-) ligand substituted at the 2-position with a benzimidazolyl (1A), acetyl (1B and 1C), or methoxy (1D) group. In contrast, the monodentate ligand 2,6-dimethylhydroquinone (H2LF) exhibited a greater tendency to bridge between two Fe(II) centers, resulting in formation of [Fe2(Ph2Tp)2(μ-LF)(MeCN)] [2F(MeCN)]. However, addition of one equivalent of “free” pyrazole (Ph2pz) ligand provided the mononuclear complex, [Fe(Ph2Tp)(HLF)(Ph2pz)] [1F(Ph2pz)], which is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the HLF and Ph2pz donors. Complex 1F(Ph2pz) represents the first crystallographically-characterized example of a monoiron complex bound to an untethered HQate ligand. The geometric and electronic structures of the Fe/HQate complexes were further probed with spectroscopic (UV-vis absorption, 1H NMR) and electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammograms of complexes in the 1X series revealed an Fe-based oxidation between 0 and −300 mV (vs. Fc+/0), in addition to irreversible oxidation(s) of the HQate ligand at higher potentials. The one-electron oxidized species (1Xox) were examined with UV-vis absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. PMID:22930005

  13. Metabolism and toxicity of 2-bromo-(diglutathion-S-yl)-hydroquinone and 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone in the in situ perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Rivera, M I; Hinojosa, L M; Hill, B A; Lau, S S; Monks, T J

    1994-01-01

    2-Br-(diglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (2-Br-(diGSyl)HQ) is a potent nephrotoxicant, causing glucosuria, enzymuria, proteinuria, elevations in blood urea nitrogen, and severe histological alterations to renal proximal tubules at doses of 10-15 mumol/kg. In contrast, 2-Br-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (2-Br-3-(GSyl)HQ) is substantially less nephrotoxic than 2-Br-(diGSyl)HQ and requires a dose of at least 50 mumol/kg to cause modest elevations in blood urea nitrogen concentrations. The reason or reasons for this difference in potency is unclear, but since inhibition of renal gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) prevents 2-Br-(diGSyl)HQ-mediated nephrotoxicity, metabolism of these conjugates by the kidney must play an important role. To address this question we have compared the metabolism and toxicity of 2-Br-(diGSyl)HQ and 2-Br-3-(GSyl)HQ in the in situ perfused rat kidney (ISPRK). Following infusion of 20 mumol 2-Br-3-(GSyl)HQ into the right renal artery of male Sprague Dawley rats, a total of 23.5 +/- 1.9% (mean +/- SE) of the dose was accounted for in urine and bile over a period of 180 min. 2-Bromo-3-(cystein-S-yl)hydroquinone and 2-bromo-3-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)hydroquinone were identified in urine, and unchanged 2-Br-3-(GSyl)HQ was identified in urine and bile. The product arising from the oxidative cyclization of 2-bromo-3-(cystein-S-glycine)hydroquinone, 2H-(3-glycine)-7-hydroxy-8-bromo-1,4-benzothiazine, was also identified in urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Reactive oxygen species and DNA damage in 2-bromo-(glutathion-S-yl) hydroquinone-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mertens, J J; Gibson, N W; Lau, S S; Monks, T J

    1995-06-20

    Exposure of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1) to the nephrotoxicants 2-bromo-6-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)-hydroquinone, and 2-bromo-(diglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone caused DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity. Viability measured by lysosomal neutral red accumulation was the most sensitive parameter of cytotoxicity, and preceded toxicity determined by either the mitochondrial MTT assay or by measuring intracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. DNA fragmentation was detected as early as 15 min after exposure to 2-bromo-6-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (100 microM), 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (200 microM), and 2-bromo-(diglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (400 microM) and prior to other indices of toxicity. The ability of the cells to repair DNA damage was evident by the decrease in the extent of single strand breaks following removal of 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone from the incubation medium. Moreover, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase with 3-amino-benzamide (10 mM), following exposure of LLC-PK1 cells to 0.5 mM 2-bromo-6-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone or 2-bromo-(diglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, decreased cytotoxicity, indicating that DNA repair processes, activated in response to DNA damage, exacerbate toxicity. Treatment with the endonuclease inhibitor, aurintricarboxylic acid did not decrease cytotoxicity. A decrease in the cytotoxicity caused by 2-bromo-6-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and 2-bromo-(diglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone was observed when cells were incubated with catalase or pretreated with deferoxamine (10 mM). The data suggest a mechanism whereby the conjugates generate hydrogen peroxide, and the subsequent iron-catalyzed generation of hydroxyl radicals causes DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity.

  15. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol at gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Tashkhourian, J; Daneshi, M; Nami-Ana, F; Behbahani, M; Bagheri, A

    2016-11-15

    A new electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles mesoporous silica modified carbon paste electrode (AuNPs-MPS) was developed for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol. Morphology and structure of the AuNPs-MPS were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone and catechol were investigated using square wave voltammetry and the results indicate that the electrochemical responses are improved significantly at the modified electrode. The observed oxidative peaks separation of about 120mV made possible the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in their binary-mixture. Under the optimized condition, a linear dynamic range of 10.0μM-1.0mM range for hydroquinone with the detection limit of 1.2μM and from 30.0μM-1.0mM for catechol with the detection limit of 1.1μM were obtained. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the recovery studies of hydroquinone and catechol in spiked tap water samples.

  16. Purification and characterization of hydroquinone dioxygenase from Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hydroquinone-1,2-dioxygenase, an enzyme involved in the degradation of alkylphenols in Sphingomonas sp. strain TTNP3 was purified to apparent homogeneity. The extradiol dioxygenase catalyzed the ring fission of hydroquinone to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde and the degradation of chlorinated and several alkylated hydroquinones. The activity of 1 mg of the purified enzyme with unsubstituted hydroquinone was 6.1 μmol per minute, the apparent Km 2.2 μM. ICP-MS analysis revealed an iron content of 1.4 moles per mole enzyme. The enzyme lost activity upon exposure to oxygen, but could be reactivated by Fe(II) in presence of ascorbate. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified enzyme yielded two bands of an apparent size of 38 kDa and 19 kDa, respectively. Data from MALDI-TOF analyses of peptides of the respective bands matched with the deduced amino acid sequences of two neighboring open reading frames found in genomic DNA of Sphingomonas sp strain TTNP3. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 62% and 47% identity to the large and small subunit of hydroquinone dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain ACB, respectively. This heterotetrameric enzyme is the first of its kind found in a strain of the genus Sphingomonas sensu latu. PMID:21906340

  17. Inhibition of topoisomerase II in 32D.3(G) cells by hydroquinone is associated with cell death.

    PubMed

    Fung, Jacqueline; Hoffmann, Matthew J; Kim, David D; Snyder, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Studies showing the inhibition of isolated human topoisomerase II (topo II) by benzene metabolites such as hydroquinone, coupled with the recognition that benzene-induced acute myelogenous leukemia bears a resemblance to second cancers caused by topo II inhibitors such as etoposide, suggested that topo II inhibition by hydroquinone might induce leukemogenic mutations. In these studies the inhibition of topo II by hydroquinone or etoposide was studied in parallel with the effects of these agents on differentiation, maturation and viability in murine bone marrow 32D.3(G) cells. Topoisomerase II of 32D.3(G) cells was inhibited by hydroquinone at concentrations of 5 micro M or higher and by etoposide at concentrations of 50 micro M or higher. At concentrations of either agent below those that inhibited topo II the cells responded normally to interleukin-3, which promoted proliferation, and to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which promoted differentiation and maturation. In dose ranges in which topo II was inhibited by either hydroquinone or etoposide, the cells became progressively less viable and cell counts decreased during the incubation period. Progressive inability to detect topo II protein by Western blot analysis as hydroquinone concentrations were increased suggested that either association of the probe with the enzyme was inhibited by hydroquinone or there was degradation of the protein as a function of hydroquinone-induced apoptosis. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Sun protection strength of a hydroquinone 4%/retinol 0.3% preparation containing sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, Joseph W; Feldman, Steven R; Levitt, Jacob

    2006-04-01

    Dyschromias are common and significantly impact patients' quality of life. Formulas containing hydroquinone 4% are effective in these conditions. Since exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can worsen disease and complicate treatment, the incorporation of sunscreens can avert this problem. We tested the sun protection factor of a hydroquinone formulation (Lustra-Ultra, TaroPharma, Hawthorne, NY) containing avobenzone 3%, and octinoxate 7.5% according to the FDA Sunscreen Monograph on 20 volunteer subjects. We also determined the UVR absorbance spectrum of the preparation. The mean sun protection factor (SPF) of 21.7 satisfied labeling requirements for SPF 20. The formulation exhibited strongest photoprotection near the wavelengths of peak sun burning effectiveness in the UVB region and maintains significant UVR absorbance through the entire UVA region. Avobenzone 3% and octinoxate 7.5% provide broad spectrum UV protection. Incorporating these sunscreens into a hydroquinone preparation simplifies the treatment regimen while providing significant photoprotection for patients being treated for dyschromia.

  19. Micellar liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Thogchai, W; Liawruangrath, B

    2013-06-01

    A simple micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) procedure for simultaneous determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products was proposed. This method was developed and validated. The chromatographic conditions were also optimized. All analyses were performed at room temperature in an isocratic mode, using a mixture of 1% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.006 mol L⁻¹ Brij 35 (pH 6.0) as a mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL min⁻¹. The analytical column was a 150 × 3.9 mm Nova-Pak C-18 column. The effluent from the analytical column was monitored by UV detection at 280 nm. Under the optimum conditions, arbutin and hydroquinone could be determined within a concentration range of 2-50 μg mL⁻¹ of arbutin, and hydroquinone was obtained with the regression equations; y = 0.045x + 0.042 (r² = 0.9923) and y = 0.091x + 0.050 (r² = 0.9930) respectively. The limits of detection were found to be 0.51 μg mL⁻¹ and 0.37 μg mL⁻¹ for arbutin and hydroquinone respectively. The proposed MLC method was applied for the determination of arbutin and hydroquinone contents in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products. This proposed MLC method is thus suitable for routine analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in the pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetic products and raw medicinal plant extracts. ICS © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Metabolism of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive products by macrophage peroxidase or purified prostaglandin H synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, M.J.; Shurina, R.D.; Kalf, G.F. )

    1989-07-01

    Macrophages, an important cell-type of the bone marrow stroma, are possible targets of benzene toxicity because they contain relatively large amounts of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS), which is capable of metabolizing phenolic compounds to reactive species. PHS also catalyzes the production of prostaglandins, negative regulators of myelopoiesis. Studies indicate that the phenolic metabolites of benzene are oxidized in bone marrow to reactive products via peroxidases. With respect to macrophages, PHS peroxidase is implicated, as in vivo benzene-induced myelotoxicity is prevented by low doses of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs that inhibit PHS. Incubations of either 14C-phenol or 14C-hydroquinone with a lysate of macrophages collected from mouse peritoneum (greater than 95% macrophages), resulted in an irreversible binding to protein that was dependent upon H2O2, incubation time, and concentration of radiolabel. Production of protein-bound metabolites from phenol or hydroquinone was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitor aminotriazole. Protein binding from 14C-phenol also was inhibited by 8 microM hydroquinone, whereas binding from 14C-hydroquinone was stimulated by 5 mM phenol. The nucleophile cysteine inhibited protein binding of both phenol and hydroquinone and increased the formation of radiolabeled water-soluble metabolites. Similar to the macrophage lysate, purified PHS also catalyzed the conversion of phenol to metabolites that bound to protein and DNA; this activation was both H2O2- and arachidonic acid-dependent. These results indicate a role for macrophage peroxidase, possibly PHS peroxidase, in the conversion of phenol and hydroquinone to reactive metabolites and suggest that the macrophage should be considered when assessing the hematopoietic toxicity of benzene.

  1. Electrochemical determination of hydroquinone using hydrophobic ionic liquid-type carbon paste electrodes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Three types of carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) with different liquid binders were fabricated, and their electrochemical behavior was characterized via a potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) probe. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid (IL) as a hydrophobic conductive pasting binder showed better electrochemical performance compared with the commonly employed binder. The IL-contained CPEs demonstrated excellent electroactivity for oxidation of hydroquinone. A diffusion control mechanism was confirmed and the diffusion coefficient (D) of 5.05 × 10-4 cm2 s-1 was obtained. The hydrophobic IL-CPE is promising for the determination of hydroquinone in terms of high sensitivity, easy operation, and good durability. PMID:20977733

  2. A Deceptively Simple Solution for Refractory Melasma: Glycolic Acid Peels and Hydroquinone at Home

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Aiko; Osawa, Ema; Koshima, Isao

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Although various treatment methods for melasma have developed, substantial improvement of the condition is sometimes difficult. We have experientially found that some of refractory melasma caused by daily friction can easily be treated by using a combination of a peeling agent (20% glycolic acid) and a depigmenting agent (5% hydroquinone) twice daily at home. And here, by performing skin biopsies, we revealed the pathological mechanism: hyperkeratosis caused by repeated physical stimulus, which prevents infiltration of topical therapeutic agents, was dramatically reduced by chemical peeling, resulting that the melanin pigments were effectively cleared by topical hydroquinone. PMID:28607861

  3. Effect of copper-hydroquinone complex on oxidative stress-related parameters in human erythrocytes (in vitro).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chandan; Mitra, Prasanta Kumar; Saha, Shyamaprasad; Nayak, Chittaranjan; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2009-02-01

    The effect of in vitro exposure of human erythrocytes to micromolar concentrations of hydroquinone and copper simultaneously on oxidative status-related biochemical parameters was studied. Hydroquinone is a component of cigarette smoke and serum copper level is increased in smokers. Copper forms a complex with hydroquinone and enhances its auto-oxidation to benzoquinone which covalently binds to sulfhydryl group containing compounds like reduced glutathione. In this study, copper increased H(2)O(2) production by hydroquinone. Hydroquinone either alone or in the presence of copper produced a decrease of reduced glutathione level without altering methemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation. Catalase inhibition by sodium azide depleted reduced glutathione level further. Copper-hydroquinone complex mediated glutathione depletion in the catalase containing RBC was not decreased by antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. From the known facts and above findings, it is suggested that depletion of reduced glutathione by hydroquinone in the presence of copper in catalase active RBC may be due to the formation of 1, 4 benzoquinone adduct of reduced glutathione and to some extent due to binding of copper to the thiol group of reduced glutathione rather than conversion to oxidized glutathione via reactive oxygen species. Depletion of reduced glutathione by N-ethylmaleimide pretreatment followed by copper-hydroquinone treatment had no effect on methemoglobin level or lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, copper-hydroquinone complex did not increase erythrocyte susceptibility to oxidative stress. This suggests hydroquinone in the presence of copper does not contribute to erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation seen in smokers. Criteria for ideal antioxidant supplementation in smokers were suggested.

  4. HPLC-UV Method for the Identification and Screening of Hydroquinone, Ethers of Hydroquinone and Corticosteroids Possibly Used as Skin-Whitening Agents in Illicit Cosmetic Products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bancilhon, Marjorie; Lassu, Nelly; Gornes, Hervé; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Corticosteroids, hydroquinone and its ethers are regulated in cosmetics by the Regulation 1223/2009. As corticosteroids are forbidden to be used in cosmetics and cannot be present as contaminants or impurities, an identification of one of these illicit compounds deliberately introduced in these types of cosmetics is enough for market survey control. In order to quickly identify skin-whitening agents present in illegal cosmetics, this article proposes an HPLC-UV method for the identification and screening of hydroquinone, 3 ethers of hydroquinone and 39 corticosteroids that may be found in skin-whitening products. Two elution gradients were developed to separate all compounds. The main solvent gradient (A) allows the separation of 39 compounds among the 43 compounds considered in 50 min. Limits of detection on skin-whitening cosmetics are given. For compounds not separated, a complementary gradient elution (B) using the same solvents is proposed. Between 2004 and 2009, a market survey on "skin-whitening cosmetic" was performed on 150 samples and highlights that more than half of the products tested do not comply with the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009 (amending the Council Directive 76/768/EEC). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Congenital Melanocytic Nevus of the Nose Removed Using Dermabrasion, Hydroquinone, and Serial Excision.

    PubMed

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Greene, Arin K

    2015-10-01

    We report a child with a congenital pigmented nevus of the nose involving the left ala, sidewall, soft triangle, and tip. Removal of the lesion was performed using dermabrasion, topical hydroquinone, and serial excision to optimize the aesthetic outcome. The patient was left with a linear scar and did not require reconstruction with a skin graft or flap.

  6. On the importance of hydroquinone/p-quinone redox system in the photoyellowing of mechanical pulps

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    1999-01-01

    In the area of photoyellowing of mechanical pulps, recently obtained experimental evidence has shown that hydroquinone/p-quinone redox couple is present in lignin-rich mechanical pulps. It was also noted that compared to a control pulp the concentration of p-quinones was significantly higher in a photoyellowed pulp. Under ambient conditions, upon exposure to light, the...

  7. Highly selective adsorption of hydroquinone by hydroxyethyl cellulose functionalized with magnetic/ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chaofan; Li, Yue; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Sun, Yuanling; Lin, Yanna; Sun, Weiyan; Luo, Chuannan

    2017-09-19

    Magnetic hydroxyethyl cellulose/ionic liquid (MHEC/IL) materials were fabricated through a facile and fast process and their application as excellent adsorbents for hydroquinone was also demonstrated. The thermal stability, chemical structure and magnetic property of the MHEC/IL were characterized by the Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The adsorbents were used for the removal of hydroquinone from simulated wastewater with a fast solid-liquid separation in the presence of external magnetic field. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of hydroquinone such as pH, contact time and initial ion concentration were studied in detail. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was 335.68mgg(-1), observed at pH 5 and temperature 30°C. Equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 30min. The kinetic data, obtained at the optimum pH 5, could be fitted with a pseudo-second order equation. Adsorption process could be well described by Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The obtained results indicated that the impregnation of the room temperature IL significantly enhances the removal efficiency of hydroquinone. The MHEC/IL may be suitable materials in phenols pollution cleanup if they are synthesized in largescale and at low price in near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Hydroquinone-induced exogenous ochronosis: a report of four cases and usefulness of dermoscopy.

    PubMed

    Charlín, Raúl; Barcaui, Carlos B; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Soares, Deborah Brazuna; Rabello-Fonseca, Rosa; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna

    2008-01-01

    Hydroquinone is the first choice of topical bleaching agents used in treatment of melasma. In Brazil, hydroquinone is widely prescribed by physicians and often used by patients without a prescription. The principal adverse effects of its chronic use are confetti-like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The latter manifests clinically with gray-brown or blue-black hyperpigmentation, as well as pinpoint hyperchromic papules that look like caviar, and therefore called caviar-like. On histopathology, curved ochre-colored structures, 'banana-shaped' fibers, appear in the papillary dermis. No description of dermoscopy in ochronosis is found in the literature. We report four cases of hydroquinone-induced exogenous ochronosis. Dermoscopy was performed in two patients on the areas with ochronosis, and in addition to the melasma findings, amorphous densely pigmented structures obliterating some follicular openings were observed. Exogenous ochronosis is an avoidable dermatosis that is difficult to treat. Dermatologists should be able to differentiate it from melasma and immediately discontinue hydroquinone. Dermoscopy might become a valuable resource in approaching exogenous ochronosis.

  9. In vitro Dermal Absorption of Hydroquinone: Protocol Validation and Applicability on Illegal Skin-Whitening Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Bart; Ates, Gamze; Courselle, Patricia; De Beer, Jacques O; Rogiers, Vera; Hendrickx, Benoit; Deconinck, Eric; De Paepe, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, hydroquinone is a forbidden cosmetic ingredient. It is, however, still abundantly used because of its effective skin-whitening properties. The question arises as to whether the quantities of hydroquinone used become systemically available and may cause damage to human health. Dermal absorption studies can provide this information. In the EU, dermal absorption has to be assessed in vitro since the Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009/EC forbids the use of animals. To obtain human-relevant data, a Franz diffusion cell protocol was validated using human skin. The results obtained were comparable to those from a multicentre validation study. The protocol was applied to hydroquinone and the dermal absorption ranged between 31 and 44%, which is within the range of published in vivo human values. This shows that a well-validated in vitro dermal absorption study using human skin provides relevant human data. The validated protocol was used to determine the dermal absorption of illegal skin-whitening cosmetics containing hydroquinone. All samples gave high dermal absorption values, rendering them all unsafe for human health. These results add to our knowledge of illegal cosmetics on the EU market, namely that they exhibit a negative toxicological profile and are likely to induce health problems. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Treating epidermal melasma with a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin cream 0.025%.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Pearl; Watson, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of treating melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system, including a proprietary cleanser, toner, 4% hydroquinone, exfoliation enhancer, and sunscreen, plus tretinoin cream 0.025%. Together these products offer not only treatment of melasma but also a complete skin care regimen. Twenty participants with mild or moderate epidermal melasma with Fitzpatrick skin types III to VI were instructed to use the hydroquinone skin care system and tretinoin cream for 12 weeks. Melasma severity, melasma pigmentation intensity, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) score were significantly reduced from week 4 onward relative to baseline (P < or = .01). The proportion of participants who felt embarrassed or self-conscious about their skin very much or a lot declined from 80% (16/20) to 20% (4/20) between baseline and week 12. Similarly, the proportion of those who made very much or a lot of effort to hide their skin discoloration declined from 90% (18/20) to 37% (7/19). In total, 85% (17/20) of participants were satisfied with the overall effectiveness of the study treatment. Three participants had adverse events probably related to treatment (dryness, erythema, peeling, and stinging sensation). The 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin cream 0.025% is effective and well-tolerated in the treatment of melasma.

  11. Comparative study of hydroquinone-free and hydroquinone-based hyperpigmentation regimens in treating facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging.

    PubMed

    Fabi, Sabrina G; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2013-03-01

    Photoaged skin, characterized by mottled, irregular areas of pigmentation, is a common skin condition that is often difficult to treat. The areas of hypermelanosis are an aesthetic concern to subjects and may lead to social distress and quality of life issues. There are many commercial hyperpigmentation regimens marketed to lighten dark spots and improve overall skin dyschromia. However, data to support efficacy of such kits are often lacking. This investigator-blinded, randomized trial was conducted to compare a new hydroquinone (HQ)-free hyperpigmentation regimen against a leading HQ-based hyperpigmentation regimen for the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging. Subjects with mottled pigmentation and photodamaged facial skin were randomized to treatment with either the new 4-product (HQ-free) SkinMedica® Hyperpigmentation System (SKM; SkinMedica, an Allergan Company, Carlsbad, CA) kit or the 7-product (HQ-containing) Obagi Nu-Derm System (OMP; Obagi Medical Products, Long Beach, CA) kit. Subjects were evaluated by a blinded investigator for clinical efficacy and tolerability using grading scales at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Standardized digital photographs were taken at baseline and week 12. Self-assessment questionnaires were completed at week 12. Thirty-six female subjects (16: SKM; 20: OMP) completed the 12-week comparative study. Both hyperpigmentation regimens significantly reduced Overall Hyperpigmentation, Mottled Pigmentation Area and Severity Index (MoPASI), global photoaging, and sallowness at week 12 compared to baseline. Significant reductions in tactile roughness were seen with the OMP regimen at week 12. In these investigator-blinded assessments, there were no significant differences between treatment groups, nor was there a difference in global response to treatment. Investigator assessments of tolerability showed mean scores were mild or below for all parameters with both treatment regimens. A new 4-product (HQ

  12. Arbutin production via biotransformation of hydroquinone in in vitro cultures of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Inga; Szopa, Agnieszka; Madej, Kornelia; Ekiert, Halina

    2013-01-01

    Arbutin (hydroquinone β-D-glucoside) is a compound of plant origin possessing valuable therapeutic (urinary tract disinfection) and cosmetic (skin whitening) properties, which can be obtained from in vitro cultures of plants belonging to different taxa via biotransformation of exogenously supplemented hydroquinone. Agitating cultures of Aronia melanocarpa were maintained on the Murashige and Skoog medium containing growth regulators: the cytokinin - BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), 2 mg/l and the auxin NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid), 2 mg/l. The biomass was cultured for 2 weeks and then hydroquinone was supplemented at the following doses: 96, 144, 192, 288 and 384 mg/l either undivided or divided into two or three portions added at 24-hour intervals. The content of the reaction product - arbutin, was determined using an HPLC method in methanolic extracts from biomass and lyophilized medium samples collected 24 hours after the addition of the last precursor dose. The total amounts of arbutin were very diverse, from 2.71 to 8.27 g/100g d.w. The production of arbutin rose with increasing hydroquinone concentration. The maximum content of the product was observed after hydroquinone addition at 384 mg/l divided into two portions. Biotransformation efficiency also varied widely, ranging from 37.04% do 73.80%. The identity of the product - arbutin, after its isolation and purification was confirmed by spectral analysis ((1)H-NMR spectrum). The maximum amount of arbutin obtained was higher than that required by the latest 9(th) Edition of the Polish Pharmacopoeia and by the newest 8th Edithion of European Pharmacopoeia for Uvae ursi folium (7.0 g/100g d.w.), and is interesting from practical point of view.

  13. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.-P.; Fang, W.-H.; Lin, L.-I.; Chiou, Robin Y.; Kan, L.-S.; Chi, N.-H.; Chen, Y.-R.; Lin, T.-Y.; Lin, S.-B.

    2008-03-15

    Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.

  14. Hydroquinone: an evaluation of the human risks from its carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    The toxicology of hydroquinone has been reviewed on a number of previous occasions. This review targets its potential for carcinogenicity and possible modes of carcinogenic action. The evaluation made by IARC (1999) of its carcinogenic risk to humans was that hydroquinone is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). This evaluation was based on inadequate evidence in humans and limited evidence in experimental animals. The epidemiological information comes from four cohort studies involving occupational exposures. A cohort of lithographers, some of whom had worked with hydroquinone, had an excess of malignant melanoma based on five cases, but only two of the cases had reported exposure to hydroquinone. In a study of photographic processors the number of exposed individuals was uncertain and the numbers of cases of individual cancer sites were small. In view of the statistical power limitations of these studies for individual diagnostic categories of cancers, they are not considered to be informative with regard to the carcinogenicity of hydroquinone. A cohort of workers with definite and lengthy exposure to hydroquinone, during either its manufacture or its use, had low cancer rates compared with two comparison populations; the reason for the lower than expected rates is unclear. In a motion picture film processing cohort there were significant excess malignancies of the respiratory system among workers engaged in developing, where there was exposure to hydroquinone as well as other chemicals. There was no information on tobacco smoking habits and no dose-response relationship. Hydroquinone has been shown reproducibly to induce benign neoplasms in the kidneys of male F344 rats dosed orally either by gavage (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) or diet (0.8%). The gavage study has been evaluated in considerable detail. This evaluation showed that all renal tubule adenomas and all cases of renal tubule atypical hyperplasia occurred in areas of severe or

  15. Identification of quinol thioethers in bone marrow of hydroquinone/phenol-treated rats and mice and their potential role in benzene-mediated hematotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bratton, S B; Lau, S S; Monks, T J

    1997-08-01

    Metabolism of benzene is required to produce the classical hematological disorders associated with its exposure. After coadministration of hydroquinone (0.9 mmol/kg, ip) and phenol (1.1 mmol/kg, ip) to male Sprague-Dawley rats and DBA/2 mice, 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone was identified in the bone marrow of both species. 2,5-Bis(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, 2,6-bis(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone, and 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone were also observed in the bone marrow of rats but were detected only sporadically in mice. Both species produced 2-(cystein-S-ylglycinyl)hydroquinone, 2-(cystein-S-yl)hydroquinone, and 2-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)hydroquinone, indicating the presence of a functional mercapturic acid pathway in bone marrow. The ability of bone marrow to acetylate 2-(cystein-S-yl)hydroquinone and deacetylate 2-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)hydroquinone was confirmed in vitro. Total quinol thioether concentrations were higher in, and eliminated more slowly from, the bone marrow of mice. Intravenous injection of 100 micromol/kg 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone to rats gave rise to substantially lower bone marrow C(max) and AUC values compared to values found following coadministration of hydroquinone/phenol, suggesting that the major fraction of the GSH conjugates present in bone marrow are formed in situ. Finally, the erythrotoxicity of several of these conjugates was determined in rats using the erythrocyte 59Fe incorporation assay. Administration of 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (17 micromol/kg, iv), 2,6-bis(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (50 micromol/kg, iv), and benzene (11 mmol/kg, sc) significantly decreased 59Fe incorporation into reticulocytes to 45 +/- 6%, 28 +/- 3%, and 20 +/- 9% of control values, respectively. Although the doses of 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and 2,6-bis(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone represented only 0.2% and 0.4% of the dose of benzene, both conjugates reduced 59Fe incorporation to the same degree as benzene. 2

  16. The induction of monocytopoiesis in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells is inhibited by hydroquinone, a toxic metabolite of benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, N.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chronic exposure of humans to benzene has been shown to have a cytotoxic effect on hematopoietic progenitor cells in intermediate stages of differentiation which can lead to aplastic anemia and acute myelogenous leukemia. This thesis examined the effect of hydroquinone, a toxic metabolite of benzene found in the bone marrow, on the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60) which can be induced to differentiate to both monocyte and myeloid cells, and thus has been used as a surrogate for a granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cell. Exposure of HL-60 cells to noncytotoxic concentrations of hydroquinone for three hours prior to induction with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the acquisition of characteristics of monocytic differentiation. These included adherence, nonspecific esterase activity and phagocytosis. Hydroquinone had no effect on cell proliferation. Hydroquinone appeared to be affecting maturation beyond the monoblast/promonocyte stages. Hydroquinone also prevented differentiation induced by 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D[sub 3], however, the block occurred after the acquisition of adherence. Hydroquinone at concentrations that inhibited monocytic differentiation had no effect on differentiation to granulocytes, suggesting that the block in the differentiation of these bipotential cells is at a step unique to the monocytic pathway. Hydroquinone was unable to prevent differentiation induced by the macrophage-derived cytokine interleukin-1, a differentiation factor for cells of the monocytic lineage. These data demonstrate that treatment of Hl-60 cells with hydroquinone prior to induction of differentiation prevents the acquisition of the monocytic phenotype induced by TPA or 1, 25(OH)[sub 2]D[sub 3] by a mechanism which at present is unknown, but which appears to be specific for the monocytic pathway. These results are of considerable significance for benzene hematotoxicity.

  17. Small structural changes on a hydroquinone scaffold determine the complex I inhibition or uncoupling of tumoral oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Urra, Félix A; Córdova-Delgado, Miguel; Lapier, Michel; Orellana-Manzano, Andrea; Acevedo-Arévalo, Luis; Pessoa-Mahana, Hernán; González-Vivanco, Jaime M; Martínez-Cifuentes, Maximiliano; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Oney; Millas-Vargas, Juan Pablo; Weiss-López, Boris; Pavani, Mario; Ferreira, Jorge; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro

    2016-01-15

    Mitochondria participate in several distinctiveness of cancer cell, being a promising target for the design of anti-cancer compounds. Previously, we described that ortho-carbonyl hydroquinone scaffold 14 inhibits the complex I-dependent respiration with selective anti-proliferative effect on mouse mammary adenocarcinoma TA3/Ha cancer cells; however, the structural requirements of this hydroquinone scaffold to affect the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) of cancer cells have not been studied in detail. Here, we characterize the mitochondrial metabolism of TA3/Ha cancer cells, which exhibit a high oxidative metabolism, and evaluate the effect of small structural changes of the hydroquinone scaffold 14 on the respiration of this cell line. Our results indicate that these structural changes modify the effect on OXPHOS, obtaining compounds with three alternative actions: inhibitors of complex I-dependent respiration, uncoupler of OXPHOS and compounds with both actions. To confirm this, the effect of a bicyclic hydroquinone (9) was evaluated in isolated mitochondria. Hydroquinone 9 increased mitochondrial respiration in state 4o without effects on the ADP-stimulated respiration (state 3ADP), decreasing the complexes I and II-dependent respiratory control ratio. The effect on mitochondrial respiration was reversed by 6-ketocholestanol addition, indicating that this hydroquinone is a protonophoric uncoupling agent. In intact TA3/Ha cells, hydroquinone 9 caused mitochondrial depolarization, decreasing intracellular ATP and NAD(P)H levels and GSH/GSSG ratio, and slightly increasing the ROS levels. Moreover, it exhibited selective NAD(P)H availability-dependent anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. Therefore, our results indicate that the ortho-carbonyl hydroquinone scaffold offers the possibility to design compounds with specific actions on OXPHOS of cancer cells.

  18. [Quantitative determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in leaves of Arctostaphylos, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, and the plant preparations].

    PubMed

    Chukarina, E V; Vlasov, A M; Eller, K I

    2007-01-01

    The optimal conditions of arbutin and hydroquinone extraction from plant raze, materials and biologically active supplements based on Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi leaves were developed. 25% ethanol was used for extraction in quantitation. Based on isocratic fluorometric HPLC chromatographic method of arbutin and hydroquinone detection in Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Arctostaphylos uvaursi leaves was developed. Fluorometric detector increases selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Detection limit averaged 0,1 mg/kg.

  19. Nrf2 and HSF-1 Pathway Activation via Hydroquinone-Based Proelectrophilic Small Molecules is Regulated by Electrochemical Oxidation Potential.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takumi; Stalder, Romain; McKercher, Scott R; Williamson, Robert E; Roth, Gregory P; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and heat-shock protein 90/heat-shock factor-1 signal-transduction pathways plays a central role in combatting cellular oxidative damage and related endoplasmic reticulum stress. Electrophilic compounds have been shown to be activators of these transcription-mediated responses through S-alkylation of specific regulatory proteins. Previously, we reported that a prototype compound (D1, a small molecule representing a proelectrophilic, para-hydroquinone species) exhibited neuroprotective action by activating both of these pathways. We hypothesized that the para-hydroquinone moiety was critical for this activation because it enhanced transcription of these neuroprotective pathways to a greater degree than that of the corresponding ortho-hydroquinone isomer. This notion was based on the differential oxidation potentials of the isomers for the transformation of the hydroquinone to the active, electrophilic quinone species. Here, to further test this hypothesis, we synthesized a pair of para- and ortho-hydroquinone-based proelectrophilic compounds and measured their redox potentials using analytical cyclic voltammetry. The redox potential was then compared with functional biological activity, and the para-hydroquinones demonstrated a superior neuroprotective profile.

  20. Inhibition of DNA cross-linking by mitomycin C by peroxidase-mediated oxidation of mitomycin C hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Penketh, P G; Hodnick, W F; Belcourt, M F; Shyam, K; Sherman, D H; Sartorelli, A C

    2001-09-14

    Mitomycin C requires reductive activation to cross-link DNA and express anticancer activity. Reduction of mitomycin C (40 microm) by sodium borohydride (200 microm) in 20 mm Tris-HCl, 1 mm EDTA at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4, gives a 50-60% yield of the reactive intermediate mitomycin C hydroquinone. The hydroquinone decays with first order kinetics or pseudo first order kinetics with a t(12) of approximately 15 s under these conditions. The cross-linking of T7 DNA in this system followed matching kinetics, with the conversion of mitomycin C hydroquinone to leuco-aziridinomitosene appearing to be the rate-determining step. Several peroxidases were found to oxidize mitomycin C hydroquinone to mitomycin C and to block DNA cross-linking to various degrees. Concentrations of the various peroxidases that largely blocked DNA cross-linking, regenerated 10-70% mitomycin C from the reduced material. Thus, significant quantities of products other than mitomycin C were produced by the peroxidase-mediated oxidation of mitomycin C hydroquinone or products derived therefrom. Variations in the sensitivity of cells to mitomycin C have been attributed to differing levels of activating enzymes, export pumps, and DNA repair. Mitomycin C hydroquinone-oxidizing enzymes give rise to a new mechanism by which oxic/hypoxic toxicity differentials and resistance can occur.

  1. Laccase-catalyzed α-arylation of benzoylacetonitrile with substituted hydroquinones

    DOE PAGES

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2014-09-03

    This article investigates a green method for α-arylation of a primary nitrile. Compounds possessing a benzylic nitrile have shown to exhibit biological activity. Laccases (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.2) were used as the catalysts to perform the cross-coupling reaction between benzoylacetonitrile and substituted hydroquinones. The corresponding 2-substituted 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanenitriles where synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in pH 7.0 buffered water under mild conditions. The substituent on the hydroquinone had a significant impact on product yields and regioselectivity of reaction. The use of laccases, which require O2 as their only co-substrate and produce H2O as their only by-product, to perform this transformationmore » is an environmentally benign method for α-arylation of primary nitriles.« less

  2. Laccase-catalyzed α-arylation of benzoylacetonitrile with substituted hydroquinones

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2014-09-03

    This article investigates a green method for α-arylation of a primary nitrile. Compounds possessing a benzylic nitrile have shown to exhibit biological activity. Laccases (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.2) were used as the catalysts to perform the cross-coupling reaction between benzoylacetonitrile and substituted hydroquinones. The corresponding 2-substituted 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanenitriles where synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in pH 7.0 buffered water under mild conditions. The substituent on the hydroquinone had a significant impact on product yields and regioselectivity of reaction. The use of laccases, which require O2 as their only co-substrate and produce H2O as their only by-product, to perform this transformation is an environmentally benign method for α-arylation of primary nitriles.

  3. Regulatory effect of hydroquinone-tetraethylene glycol conjugates on zebrafish pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Le, Hoa Thi; Hong, Bin Na; Lee, Yeong Ro; Cheon, Ji Hyun; Kang, Tong Ho; Kim, Tae Woo

    2016-01-15

    We synthesized two hydroquinone-tetraethylene glycol conjugates (HQ-TGs) and investigated their logP, photophysical stability, and redox chemical stability. HQ-TGs are a little more hydrophilic than hydroquinone (HQ) and show an enhanced photophysical and redox chemical stability compared with HQ. In addition we studied the effect of HQ-TGs on cell viability and on zebrafish pigmentation. MTT assay in HF-16 cells showed HQ-TGs are less cytotoxic than HQ. The phenotype-based image analysis of zebrafish larvae suggests that HQ-TGs suppress the pigmentation of zebrafish in a dose-dependent manner. The comparative experiments on stability, cytotoxicity, and zebrafish pigmentation between HQ and HQ-TGs suggest that mono tetraethylene glycol-functionalization of HQ is an alternative solution to overcome the adverse effect of HQ.

  4. Controlled particle growth of silver sols through the use of hydroquinone as a selective reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Stuart T; Fredericks, Stephen J; Krchnavek, Robert

    2009-03-03

    Hydroquinone (HQ) was used as the principal chemical reducing agent to prepare aqueous silver nanocolloids from silver nitrate. The data demonstrate that HQ is unable to initiate the particle growth process on its own, but is able to sustain particle growth in the presence of pre-existing metallic clusters. This unique selectivity is similar to that seen in photographic systems. Data are presented on two different approaches to initiating the HQ growth process. Very low levels of sodium borohydride can be used to form seed particles. Alternatively, the data show that controlled growth can be initiated by exposing the samples to UV radiation, relying on the photoreactivity of hydroquinone to start the process. These results were used to explore the dynamics of very dilute NaBH4 seed particles. They also were used to create nonspherical disk and triangular-plate morphologies directly from solution, without the need for subsequent reformation or template processing.

  5. Comparison of therapeutic effects of liposomal Tranexamic Acid and conventional Hydroquinone on melasma.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Zabolinejad, Naghmeh; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Salehi, Maryam; Jabari, Asma

    2015-09-01

    Melasma is one of the most common cosmetic disorders with skin darkening. Although several treatment modalities are available, none is satisfactorily used in management of this condition. Tranexamic acid (TA), a plasmin inhibitor, is reported to improve melasma when injected locally or used as oral and topical forms. The aim of this study was to compare therapeutic effects of liposomal tranexamic acid and conventional hydroquinone on melasma. Thirty women with bilateral melasma were enrolled in a split-face trial lasting 12 weeks. Patients blindly applied 5% topical liposomal TA and 4% hydroquinone cream, to the designated sides of the face twice daily in addition to the assigned sunscreen in the morning. Skin pigmentation was measured using MASI (Melasma Area and Severity Index) at each visit separately for each side at the base line and every month until one month after treatment course. Data were obtained from patients file and were analyzed statistically using SPSS software, paired samples t-test, and repeated measured ANOVA. Twenty-three patients completed the study. The mean MASI scores significantly reduced in both treated sides (P < P = 0.001) after 12 week. A greater decrease was observed with 5% liposomal TA, although this difference was not statistically significant. Irritation occurred in three patients with hydroquinone, while no serious adverse events occurred with TA. On the basis of these results, topical liposomal TA can be used as a new, effective, safe, and promising therapeutic agent in melasma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rapid proton-coupled electron-transfer of hydroquinone through phenylenevinylene bridges.

    PubMed

    Trammell, Scott A; Seferos, Dwight S; Moore, Martin; Lowy, Daniel A; Bazan, Guillermo C; Kushmerick, James G; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2007-01-16

    We describe the synthesis of two oligo(phenylene vinylene)s (OPVs) with a hydroquinone moiety and a thiol anchor group: 4-(2',5'-dihydroxystyryl)benzyl thioacetate and 4-[4'-(2' ',5' '-dihydroxystyryl)styryl]benzyl thioacetate. Monolayers on gold of these molecules were examined by electrochemical techniques to determine the electron transfer kinetics of the hydroquinone functionality (H2Q) through these delocalized tethers ("molecular wires") as a function of pH. Between pH 4 and 9, rate constants were ca. 100-fold faster than for the same H2Q functionality confined to the surface via alkane tethers. Also, in this same pH range rate constants were independent of the length of the OPV bridge. These new electroactive molecules in which the hydroquinone functionality is wired to the gold surface by means of OPV tethers should be useful platforms for constructing bioelectronic devices such as biosensors, biofuel cells, and biophotovoltaic cells with a fast response time.

  7. Flow injection amperometric sensor with a carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrode for determination of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Upan, Jantima; Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2016-01-01

    Flow injection amperometric (FI-Amp) sensor was developed for sensitive and selective determination of hydroquinone. A simple screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified with various nanomaterials for improvement of sensitivity on the determination of quinone. As a result, the appropriate sensitivity is obtained from the SPCE modified with carbon nanotube (CNT) which indicated that CNT contributed to the transfer of electron to quinone. The reproducibility (n=9) and repeatability (n=111) of SPCE-CNT were obtained at 4.4% and 3.6%RSD, respectively. The SPCE-CNT electrode and enzymatic column were incorporated to the FI-Amp system to determine hydroquinone. Laccase was immobilized on silica gel using a cross-linking method by glutaraldehyde modification and then packed in the column. The laccase column has high efficiency for catalytic oxidation of hydroquinone to quinone, which further detects by amperometric detection. Parameters affecting response of the proposed sensor, i.e., pH, ionic strength, and temperature have been optimized. The proposed system provided a wide linear range between 1 and 50 µM with detection limit of 0.1 µM. Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 91.2-103.8% were obtained for the analysis of water sample.

  8. Quantitative analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jurica, Karlo; Karačonji, Irena Brčić; Šegan, Sandra; Opsenica, Dušanka Milojković; Kremer, Dario

    2015-09-01

    The phenolic glycoside arbutin and its metabolite with uroantiseptic activity hydroquinone occur naturally in the leaves of various medicinal plants and spices. In this study, an extraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine arbutin and hydroquinone content in strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) leaves. The method showed good linearity (R2>0.9987) in the tested concentration range (0.5-200 μg mL(-1)), as well as good precision (RSD<5%), analytical recovery (96.2-98.0%), and sensitivity (limit of detection=0.009 and 0.004 μg mL(-1) for arbutin and hydroquinone, respectively). The results obtained by the validated GC-MS method corresponded well to those obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The proposed method was then applied for determining arbutin and hydroquinone content in methanolic leaf extracts. The amount of arbutin in the leaves collected on the island of Koločep (6.82 mg g(-1) dry weight) was found to be higher (tpaired=43.57, tc=2.92) in comparison to the amount of arbutin in the leaves collected on the island of Mali Lošinj (2.75 mg g(-1) dry weight). Hydroquinone was not detected in any of the samples. The analytical features of the proposed GC-MS method demonstrated that arbutin and hydroquinone could be determined alternatively by gas chromatography. Due to its wide concentration range, the method could also be suitable for arbutin and hydroquinone analysis in leaves of other plant families (Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, etc.).

  9. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, F R; Pagliuca, G; Multari, G; Panzini, G; D'amore, E; Altieri, I

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances.

  10. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, F. R.; Pagliuca, G.; Multari, G.; Panzini, G.; D’amore, E.; Altieri, I.

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances. PMID:26798166

  11. Co-drug strategy for promoting skin targeting and minimizing the transdermal diffusion of hydroquinone and tranexamic acid.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Chen, Chun-Che; Fang, Jia-You

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone and tranexamic acids (TXA) are skin-lightening agents with a hydrophilic nature and low skin absorption. A high dose is needed for clinical use, resulting in a high incidence of skin irritation. Co-drugs formed by conjugating hydroquinone and TXA were synthesized and their in vitro and in vivo skin absorption characteristics were evaluated. The two synthesized co-drugs were 4-hydroxyphenyl 4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (HAC) and 1,4- phenylene bis(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (BAC). The co-drugs were chemically stable in aqueous solution, but rapidly degraded to the respective parent drug in esterases and skin homogenates. Compared to hydroquinone application, 7.2- and 2.4-fold increments in the hydroquinone skin deposition were obtained with the in vitro application of HAC and BAC. HAC and BAC led to 3- and 2-fold enhancements of equivalent TXA deposition compared to TXA administration. The in vivo experiment showed a further enhancement of co-drugs compared to the in vitro setup. The transdermal penetration of co-drugs, especially BAC, was much lower than that of hydroquinone and TXA. This indicated high-level skin targeting by the co-drugs. HAC and BAC revealed strong affinities for the viable epidermis/dermis. Hair follicles are important reservoirs for co-drug delivery. Daily administration of co-drugs to the skin did not generate irritation for up to 7 days. Both co-drugs are superior candidates for treating skin hyperpigmentation.

  12. Co(salophen)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of p-Hydroquinone: Mechanism and Implications for Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Anson, Colin W; Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Stahl, Shannon S

    2016-03-30

    Macrocyclic metal complexes and p-benzoquinones are commonly used as co-catalytic redox mediators in aerobic oxidation reactions. In an effort to gain insight into the mechanism and energetic efficiency of these reactions, we investigated Co(salophen)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of p-hydroquinone. Kinetic and spectroscopic data suggest that the catalyst resting-state consists of an equilibrium between a Co(II)(salophen) complex, a Co(III)-superoxide adduct, and a hydrogen-bonded adduct between the hydroquinone and the Co(III)-O2 species. The kinetic data, together with density functional theory computational results, reveal that the turnover-limiting step involves proton-coupled electron transfer from a semi-hydroquinone species and a Co(III)-hydroperoxide intermediate. Additional experimental and computational data suggest that a coordinated H2O2 intermediate oxidizes a second equivalent of hydroquinone. Collectively, the results show how Co(salophen) and p-hydroquinone operate synergistically to mediate O2 reduction and generate the reactive p-benzoquinone co-catalyst.

  13. Metabolism of 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone and 2,3,5- (triglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone in the in situ perfused rat kidney: relationship to nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hill, B A; Davison, K L; Dulik, D M; Monks, T J; Lau, S S

    1994-11-01

    2,3,5-(Triglutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ] (20 mumol/kg) and 2-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [2-(GSyl)-HQ] (250 mumol/kg) both cause nephrotoxicity when administered to male rats, although the former is considerably more potent than the latter. To address the issue of the differential potency of these conjugates we investigated the metabolism and toxicity of 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ and 2-(GSyl)HQ in the in situ perfused rat kidney. Infusion of 5 and 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ into the right renal artery caused a time-dependent elevation in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) excretion into urine produced by both the perfused and the contralateral kidneys. At the lower concentration, gamma-GT excretion was greater from the perfused kidney, whereas gamma-GT excretion from the perfused and contralateral kidneys was the same at the higher concentration. Using HPLC-EC to analyze urine and bile, metabolites of 2,3,5-(triGSyl)HQ (10 mumol) were observed only within the first 30 min of perfusion. At the lower dose (5 mumol) neither parent compound nor metabolites were found in urine or bile. Infusion of 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)HQ into the right renal artery also caused a time-dependent excretion of gamma-GT into urine: excretion being greater from the perfused kidney. HPLC-EC analysis of urine and bile from 2-(GSyl)HQ perfused kidneys demonstrated the formation of three known metabolites; 2-(N-acetyl-cystein-S-yl)HQ (9.2 +/- 0.5 mumol). 2-(cystein-S-ylglycine)HQ (0.8 +/- 0.3 mumol), and 2-(cystein-S-yl)HQ (1.3 +/- 0.3 mumol). Unchanged 2-(GSyl)HQ was detected in the urine and bile (0.8 +/- 0.1 mumol). A greater fraction of the dose (74%) was recovered in urine following infusion of 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)[14C]HQ than of 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)[14C]HQ (29%). In contrast, a greater fraction of the dose was retained by the kidney following treatment with 10 mumol 2,3,5-(triGSyl)[14C]HQ than following treatment with 40 mumol 2-(GSyl)[14C]HQ (36 and 11%, respectively). This

  14. Aerobic oxidation of p-hydroquinone by horse radish peroxidase in the presence of a thiol and MnCl2.

    PubMed

    Esterbauer, H; Schwarzl, E

    1977-01-01

    In the presence of MnCl2 and a thiol (glutathione, cysteine, 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid) horse radish peroxidase oxidizes p-hydroquinone to p-benzoquinone which in turn immediately adds the thiol present yielding 2-S-substituted p-hydroquinone.

  15. Substituent effects on the electron transfer reactivity of hydroquinones with laccase blue copper.

    PubMed

    Clemmer, J D; Gilliland, B L; Bartsch, R A; Holwerda, R A

    1979-06-06

    Stopped-flow kinetic studies of the anaerobic reduction of Rhus vernicifera laccase (monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) type 1 copper by 25 mono- and disubstituted hydroquinones (H2Q-X) have been performed at 25 degrees C and pH 7.0 in 0.5 M phosphate. All of the data are compatible with a mechanism involving rapid enzyme-substrate complex formation followed by rate-limiting intra-complex electron transfer. ES complex formation constants (Qp) for many substrates are strikingly insensitive to the electronic characteristics of the substituent X, falling within the range 5--50 M-1. It is shown that this result may be accounted for if only the singly ionized forms of the substituted hydroquinones are bound by the enzyme. All of the substrates exhibiting exceptionally high Qp values (greater than 50 M-1) have X groups capable of functioning as ligands; substituents with lone pairs of electrons may facilitate enzyme-substrate complex formation by enabling hydroquinone to function as a bidentate bridging ligand between the type 2 and type 3 copper sites. Intra-complex electron transfer rate constants for most substrates are remarkably insensitive to the thermodynamic driving force for the oxidation of H2Q-X to the corresponding semiquinone, the average value for ten substrates being 30 +/- 10 s-1. The electron transfer reactivity of polyphenols with laccase blue copper therefore appears to be controlled largely by protein-dependent activation requirements rather than by the oxidizability of the substrate.

  16. The effects of galangin on a mouse model of vitiligo induced by hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shi-Xia; Liu, Xin-Ming; Ge, Chun-Hui; Gao, Li; Peng, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Ping-Ping; Yan, Ming

    2014-10-01

    Galangin, the main active component of Alpinia officinarum Hance, was tested in a mouse model of vitiligo induced in C57BL/6 mice by the topical application of 2 mL of 2.5% hydroquinone daily to shaved areas (2 × 2 cm) of dorsal skin for 60 days. Thirty days after the final application of hydroquinone, galangin (0.425, and 4.25 mg/kg) was administered orally for 30 days. The hair colour darkened when it grew back after treatment, and histological analysis showed that the number of melanin-containing hair follicles had increased after treatment with all doses of galangin groups and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, the positive control) compared with the untreated vitiligo group (p < 0.05). The number of skin basal layer melanocytes and melanin-containing epidermal cells had also increased significantly with the application of 4.25 mg/kg of galangin. The concentration of tyrosinase (TYR) in serum was found to have increased, whereas the content of malondialdehyde and the activity of cholinesterase had decreased after treatment with all doses of galangin and 8-MOP, compared with control (p < 0.05). The expression of TYR protein in treated areas of skin also increased with the application of 4.25 mg/kg galangin and 8-MOP. In conclusion, the results showed that galangin was able to improve vitiligo induced by hydroquinone in mice, with the activity related to concentrations of TYR, expression of TYR protein, activity of malondialdehyde and content of cholinesterase. Galangin may therefore be a potential candidate for the treatment of vitiligo, subject to further investigation.

  17. S-Glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases: a novel class of glutathione transferases

    PubMed Central

    XUN, Luying; BELCHIK, Sara M.; XUN, Randy; HUANG, Yan; ZHOU, Huina; SANCHEZ, Emiliano; KANG, ChulHee; BOARD, Philip G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphingobium chlorophenolicum completely mineralizes PCP (pentachlorophenol). Two GSTs (glutathione transferases), PcpC and PcpF, are involved in the degradation. PcpC uses GSH to reduce TeCH (tetrachloro-p-hydroquinone) to TriCH (trichloro-p-hydroquinone) and then to DiCH (dichloro-p-hydroquinone) during PCP degradation. However, oxidatively damaged PcpC produces GS-TriCH (S-glutathionyl-TriCH) and GS-DiCH (S-glutathionyl-TriCH) conjugates. PcpF converts the conjugates into TriCH and DiCH, re-entering the degradation pathway. PcpF was further characterized in the present study. It catalysed GSH-dependent reduction of GS-TriCH via a Ping Pong mechanism. First, PcpF reacted with GS-TriCH to release TriCH and formed disulfide bond between its Cys53 residue and the GS moiety. Then, a GSH came in to regenerate PcpF and release GS–SG. A TBLASTN search revealed that PcpF homologues were widely distributed in bacteria, halobacteria (archaea), fungi and plants, and they belonged to ECM4 (extracellular mutant 4) group COG0435 in the conserved domain database. Phylogenetic analysis grouped PcpF and homologues into a distinct group, separated from Omega class GSTs. The two groups shared conserved amino acid residues, for GSH binding, but had different residues for the binding of the second substrate. Several recombinant PcpF homologues and two human Omega class GSTs were produced in Escherichia coli and purified. They had zero or low activities for transferring GSH to standard substrates, but all had reasonable activities for GSH-dependent reduction of disulfide bond (thiol transfer), dehydroascorbate and dimethylarsinate. All the tested PcpF homologues reduced GS-TriCH, but the two Omega class GSTs did not. Thus PcpF homologues were tentatively named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases for catalysing the GSH-dependent reduction of GS-TriCH. PMID:20388120

  18. Induction of granulocytic differentiation in a mouse model by benzene and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Hazel, B.A.; O`Connor, A.; Niculescu, R.; Kalf, G.F.

    1996-12-01

    Chronic exposure of humans to benzene causes acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). The studies presented here were undertaken to determine whether benzene, or its reactive metabolite, hydroquinone (HQ), affects differentiation of myeloblasts. Benzene or HQ administered to C57BL/6J mice specifically induced granulocytic differentiation of myeloblasts. The ability of these compounds to induce differentiation of the myeloblast was tested directly using the murine interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent 32D.3 (G) myeloblastic cell line, and the human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line. 37 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Comparative study of therapeutic effects of 20% azelaic acid and hydroquinone 4% cream in the treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Farshi, Susan

    2011-12-01

      Melasma is an irregular brown or grayish-brown symmetric facial hypermelanosis, often affecting women, especially those living in areas with intense ultraviolet radiation.   Comparison of therapeutic effects of 20% azelaic acid and 4% hydroquinone cream in the treatment of melasma.   Twenty-nine women with melasma were recruited. Fifteen patients were treated with 4% hydroquinone cream and 14 patients were treated with azelaic acid cream for 2 months. The cream was applied twice daily. A broad-spectrum sunscreen was used concomitantly by both groups. The Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) scores were determined prior to treatment and at each follow-up.   The mean MASI score before treatment was 7.2 ± 3.2 in the hydroquinone group and 7.6 ± 3.5 in the azelaic acid group, with no significant difference between them (t-test, CI 95% = -2.9 to 2.2). One month after treatment, the mean MASI score reached 6.7 ± 3.4 with hydroquinone and 6.3 ± 3.4 with azelaic acid with no significant difference between them (t-test, CI 95% = -2.2 to 3). After 2 months' treatment, the MASI score was 6.2 ± 3.6 with hydroquinone and 3.8 ± 2.8 with azelaic acid, a significant statistical difference (t-test, CI 95% = 0.03-4.9).   In conclusion, this study suggests that 20% azelaic acid cream applied twice daily may be more effective than hydroquinone 4% in reducing mild melasma. However, because this was an open trial, it is suggested that further studies involving large groups of patients be conducted to achieve a more conclusive result. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Adalatkhah, Hassan; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of melasma is unsatisfactory most of the times. Hormonal role is shown to exist in pathogenesis of the melasma, and sex-hormone related drugs may have an effect on melasma. Aim To investigate efficacy of 1% flutamide cream versus 4% hydroquinone cream on melasma. Methods In a parallel randomized clinical trial, 74 women with melasma were allocated to receive a sunscreen along with 4% hydroquinone cream or 1% flutamide cream. Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), mexameter melanin assay, and patient satisfaction were investigated. Results Mean age of the participants was 33.8 years. Mean length of time suffering from Melasma was 96.3 months. The subjects reported in average 1.1 hours per day of exposure to sunlight. Mean standardized total patient satisfaction score was 28.8 (standard deviation [SD] 17.2) in flutamide group patients versus 18 (SD 15.5) in control group (P<0.01). Regardless of treatment group, the skin darkness assessed upon MASI scales was reduced over the treatment course (P<0.001). Using mixed effects, longitudinal modeling showed better treatment efficacy based on MASI scale for flutamide group compared to the hydroquinone group (P<0.05). However, longitudinal analysis of mexameter scores did not reveal any significant difference in melanin measurements between flutamide and hydroquinone. Conclusion Topical flutamide appeared as effective as topical hydroquinone in treating melasma using mexameter assessment but with a better MASI improvement trend and higher patient satisfaction in flutamide treatment versus topical hydroquinone. As the present study is possibly the first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma, it would be quite unreasonable to recommend clinical use of it before future studies replicate the results on its efficacy and safety. PMID:26345129

  1. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Adalatkhah, Hassan; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of melasma is unsatisfactory most of the times. Hormonal role is shown to exist in pathogenesis of the melasma, and sex-hormone related drugs may have an effect on melasma. To investigate efficacy of 1% flutamide cream versus 4% hydroquinone cream on melasma. In a parallel randomized clinical trial, 74 women with melasma were allocated to receive a sunscreen along with 4% hydroquinone cream or 1% flutamide cream. Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), mexameter melanin assay, and patient satisfaction were investigated. Mean age of the participants was 33.8 years. Mean length of time suffering from Melasma was 96.3 months. The subjects reported in average 1.1 hours per day of exposure to sunlight. Mean standardized total patient satisfaction score was 28.8 (standard deviation [SD] 17.2) in flutamide group patients versus 18 (SD 15.5) in control group (P<0.01). Regardless of treatment group, the skin darkness assessed upon MASI scales was reduced over the treatment course (P<0.001). Using mixed effects, longitudinal modeling showed better treatment efficacy based on MASI scale for flutamide group compared to the hydroquinone group (P<0.05). However, longitudinal analysis of mexameter scores did not reveal any significant difference in melanin measurements between flutamide and hydroquinone. Topical flutamide appeared as effective as topical hydroquinone in treating melasma using mexameter assessment but with a better MASI improvement trend and higher patient satisfaction in flutamide treatment versus topical hydroquinone. As the present study is possibly the first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma, it would be quite unreasonable to recommend clinical use of it before future studies replicate the results on its efficacy and safety.

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of combinations of hydroquinone, glycolic acid, and hyaluronic acid in the treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Zeinab A; Gheida, Shereen F; El Maghraby, Gamal M; Farag, Zeinab E

    2015-06-01

    Various treatments are currently available for melasma. However, results are often disappointing. 1 To assess the efficacy and safety of combinations of hydroquinone, glycolic acid, and hyaluronic acid in the treatment of melasma after topical application. 2 To evaluate the dermoscopy as a tool in diagnosis and follow-up of melasma treatment. One hundred patients with mild, moderate-to-severe melasma were divided into five groups. Group I (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone), group II (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 10% glycolic acid), group III (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 0.01% hyaluronic acid), group IV (twenty patients were treated with cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 10% glycolic acid + 0.01% hyaluronic acid), and group V (twenty patients were treated with placebo cream). All patients were subjected to dermoscopic examination and digital photographs before and after treatment. The response and side effects were evaluated. Groups I, III, and IV showed highly significant changes in modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score after using the treatment. Group II showed significant change in mMASI score after using the treatment. The side effects were more reported in group II, followed by group IV, followed by group I, followed by group III. There was highly significant difference between the dermoscopic color findings before and after treatment. Vascularization was another dermoscopic finding. A cream formula containing 4% hydroquinone + 10% glycolic acid + 0.01% hyaluronic acid was very effective in treatment of melasma with tolerable side effects. Dermoscope is a valuable noninvasive tool in the diagnosis and follow-up of melasma treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Solar photochemical oxidation of alcohols using catalytic hydroquinone and copper nanoparticles under oxygen: oxidative cleavage of lignin models.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Lorna J; Moody, Christopher J

    2014-11-21

    Alcohols are converted into to their corresponding carbonyl compounds using catalytic amounts of 1,4-hydroquinone with a copper nanoparticle electron transfer mediator with oxygen as the terminal oxidant in acetone as solvent under visible light irradiation. These conditions employing biorenewable hydroquinone as reagent were developed from initial experiments using stoichiometric amounts of 1,4-benzoquinone as oxidant. A range of benzylic and aliphatic primary and secondary alcohols are oxidized, affording the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in moderate to excellent yields. The methodology is also applicable to the oxidative degradation of lignin model compounds that undergo C-C bond cleavage to give simple aromatic compounds.

  4. Nephrotoxicity of 2-bromo-(cystein-S-yl) hydroquinone and 2-bromo-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl) hydroquinone thioethers.

    PubMed

    Monks, T J; Jones, T W; Hill, B A; Lau, S S

    1991-11-01

    The in vivo toxicity of isomeric cystein-S-yl and N-acetylcystein-S-yl conjugates of 2-bromohydroquinone was determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats. 2-Bromo-(dicystein-S-yl)hydroquinone [2-Br-(diCYS)HQ] and 2-bromo-(di-N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)hydroquinone [2-Br-(diNAC)HQ] were considerably more nephrotoxic than their corresponding monosubstituted thioethers and 2-Br-(diCYS)HQ was more nephrotoxic than 2-Br-(diNAC)HQ. 2-Br-(diCYS)HQ caused elevations in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations and increases in the urinary excretion of glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) at a dose of 25 mumol/kg (iv). In contrast, 2-Br-(diNAC)HQ caused significant elevations in BUN at 100 mumol/kg and glucosuria and enzymuria at 50 mumol/kg. 2-Br-3-(CYS)HQ and 2-Br-5&6-(CYS)HQ caused increases in the biochemical indices of nephrotoxicity at doses between 50 and 150 mumol/kg whereas 2-Br-5-(NAC)HQ and 2-Br-6-(NAC)HQ required doses of 150-200 mumol/kg to cause smaller, though significant increases in urinary glucose, gamma-GT, and LDH excretion. The histological alterations caused by each thioether were qualitatively similar; only differences in the extent of the renal proximal tubular damage were observed. The initial lesion appears to involve the cells of the medullary ray and the S3M within the outer stripe of the outer medulla. The in vivo nephrotoxicity of 2-Br-(DiCYS)HQ, 2-Br-(diNAC)HQ, and the most potent monosubstituted thioethers, 2-Br-5&6-(CYS)HQ and 2-Br-6-(NAC)HQ, was investigated further. Pretreatment of animals with aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of cysteine conjugate beta-lyase (beta-lyase), had no effect on the toxicity of 2-Br-(diCYS)HQ, partially inhibited the toxicity of 2-Br-5&6-(CYS)HQ, and almost completely protected against the toxicity of both 2-Br-6-(NAC)HQ and 2-Br-(diNAC)HQ. Thus, the nephrotoxicity of 2-Br-5&6-(CYS)HQ, 2-Br-6-(NAC)HQ, and 2-Br-(diNAC)HQ may be mediated, in part, via their processing by beta

  5. RATE AND CAPACITY OF HEPATIC MICROSOMAL RING HYDROXYLATION OF PHENOL TO HYDROQUINONE AND CATECHOL IN RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver microsomes were used to study the rate of ring-hydroxylation of phenol PH) by directly measuring the production of hydroquinone (HQ), the primary metabolite, and catechol (CAT), a secondary metabolite. An HPLC method with integrated ultra...

  6. RATE AND CAPACITY OF HEPATIC MICROSOMAL RING HYDROXYLATION OF PHENOL TO HYDROQUINONE AND CATECHOL IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout liver microsomes were used to study the rate of ring-hydroxylation of phenol (PH) by directly measuring the production of hydroquinone (HQ), the primary metabolite, and catechol (CAT), a secondary metabolite. An HPLC method with integrated ultroviolet (UV) and elect...

  7. A chemiluminescence method to detect hydroquinone with water-soluble sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangbin; Tang, Yuhai; Sun, Yang; Yu, Hua; Du, Wei; Fu, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    A water-soluble sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex with excellent catalytic properties was synthesized and demonstrated to greatly enhance the chemiluminescence signal of the hydrogen peroxide - luminol reaction. Coupled with flow-injection technique, a simple and sensitive chemiluminescence method was first developed to detect hydroquinone based on the chemiluminescence system of the hydrogen peroxide-luminol-sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex. Under optimal conditions, the assay exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 to 10 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.05 ng mL(-1) for hydroquinone. The method was applied successfully to detect hydroquinone in tap-water and mineral-water, with a sampling frequency of 120 times per hour. The relative standard deviation for determination of hydroquinone was less than 5.6%, and the recoveries ranged from 96.8 to 103.0%. The ultraviolet spectra, chemiluminescence spectra, and the reaction kinetics for the peroxide-luminol-sulphonato-(salen)manganese(III) complex system were employed to study the possible chemiluminescence mechanism. The proposed chemiluminescence analysis technique is rapid and sensitive, with low cost, and could be easily extended and applied to other compounds.

  8. Co(salophen)-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of p-Hydroquinone: Mechanism and Implications for Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, Colin W.; Ghosh, Soumya; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2016-03-30

    Macrocyclic metal complexes and p-benzoquinones are commonly used as co-catalytic redox mediators in aerobic oxidation reactions. In an effort to gain insight into the mechanism and energetic efficiency of these reactions, we investigated Co(salophen)-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of p-hydroquinone. Kinetic and spectroscopic data suggest that the catalyst resting-state consists of an equilibrium between a CoII(salophen) complex, a CoIII-superoxide adduct, and a hydrogen-bonded adduct between the hydroquinone and the CoIII–O2 species. The kinetic data, together with density functional theory data, suggest that the turnover-limiting step features proton-coupled electron transfer from a semi-hydroquinone species and a CoIII-hydroperoxide intermediate. Additional experimental and computational data suggest that a coordinated H2O2 intermediate oxidizes a second equivalent of hydroquinone. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The NSF provided partial support for the EPR instrumentation (NSF CHE-0741901).

  9. Impact of hydroquinone used as a redox effector model on potential denitrification, microbial activity and redox condition of a cultivable soil.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Elda B R

    2015-01-01

    In this microcosm study, we analyzed the effect produced by hydroquinone on the expression of soil biological denitrification, in relation to the redox state of the soil, both in terms of intensity factor (Eh') and capacity factor (amount of oxidized or reduced compounds). The supplementation of an Argiudoll soil with hydroquinone decreased the soil apparent reduction potential (Eh') and soil dehydrogenase activity (formazan production from tetrazolium chloride reduction; redox capacity factor), the relationship between both factors being highly significative, r=0.99 (p<0.001). The bacterial population (measured by colony forming units) increased, and the production of N2O was greater (p<0.001) at 200 and 400μg/g dry soil doses. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between soil dehydrogenase activity and the number of bacteria (r=-0.82; p<0.05), increased denitrification activity and changes in the CO2/N2O ratio value. These results suggest that hydroquinone at supplemented doses modified the soil redox state and the functional structure of the microbial population. Acetate supplementation on soil with hydroquinone, to ensure the availability of an energy source for microbial development, confirmed the tendency of the results obtained with the supplementation of hydroquinone alone. The differences observed at increased doses of hydroquinone might be explained by differences on the hydroquinone redox species between treatments. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. An electrochemically aminated glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyun; Xi, Min; Guo, Mengmeng; Sheng, Fangmeng; Xiao, Guang; Wu, Shuo; Uchiyama, Shunichi; Matsuura, Hiroaki

    2016-02-07

    In this contribution, a very simple and reliable strategy based on the easy modification of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by pre-electrolyzing GCE in ammonium carbamate aqueous solution was employed for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). Compared with bare GCE, the incorporation of nitrogen into the GCE surface structure improved the electrocatalytic properties of GCE towards the electro-oxidation of HQ and CC. The nitrogen-introduced GCE (N-GCE) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CC and the linear ranges for HQ and CC were both from 5 to 260 μM. Their detection limits were both evaluated to be 0.2 μM (S/N = 3). The present method was applied for the determination of HQ and CC in real river water samples with recoveries of 95.0-102.1%. In addition, a possible detection mechanism of HQ and CC was discussed.

  11. Towards High-Energy-Density Pseudocapacitive Flowable Electrodes by the Incorporation of Hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect

    Boota, M.; Hatzell, K. B.; Kumbur, E. C.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2015-01-29

    Our study reports an investigation of hydroquinone (HQ) as a multielectron organic redox molecule to enhance the performance of flowable electrodes. Moreover, two different methods to produce high-performance pseudocapacitive flowable electrodes were investigated for electrochemical flow capacitors. First, HQ molecules were deposited on carbon spheres (CSs) by a self-assembly approach using various HQ loadings. In the second approach, HQ was used as a redox-mediating agent in the electrolyte. Flowable electrodes composed of HQ showed a capacitance of 342 Fg 1, which is >200% higher than that of flowable electrodes based on nontreated CSs (160 Fg 1), and outperformed (in gravimetric performance) many reported film electrodes. A similar trend in capacitance was observed if HQ was used as a redox agent in the electrolyte; however, its poor cycle life restricted further consideration. Additionally, a twofold increase in capacitance was observed under flow conditions compared to that of previous studies.

  12. Towards High-Energy-Density Pseudocapacitive Flowable Electrodes by the Incorporation of Hydroquinone

    DOE PAGES

    Boota, M.; Hatzell, K. B.; Kumbur, E. C.; ...

    2015-01-29

    Our study reports an investigation of hydroquinone (HQ) as a multielectron organic redox molecule to enhance the performance of flowable electrodes. Moreover, two different methods to produce high-performance pseudocapacitive flowable electrodes were investigated for electrochemical flow capacitors. First, HQ molecules were deposited on carbon spheres (CSs) by a self-assembly approach using various HQ loadings. In the second approach, HQ was used as a redox-mediating agent in the electrolyte. Flowable electrodes composed of HQ showed a capacitance of 342 Fg 1, which is >200% higher than that of flowable electrodes based on nontreated CSs (160 Fg 1), and outperformed (in gravimetricmore » performance) many reported film electrodes. A similar trend in capacitance was observed if HQ was used as a redox agent in the electrolyte; however, its poor cycle life restricted further consideration. Additionally, a twofold increase in capacitance was observed under flow conditions compared to that of previous studies.« less

  13. Triple Guest Occupancy and Negative Compressibility in Hydrogen-Loaded β-Hydroquinone Clathrate.

    PubMed

    Rozsa, Viktor F; Strobel, Timothy A

    2014-06-05

    The molecular interactions and structural behavior of a previously unexplored clathrate system, hydrogen-loaded β-hydroquinone (β-HQ+H2), were investigated under high pressure with synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman/infrared spectroscopies. The β-HQ+H2 system exhibits coupling of two independently rare phenomena: multiple occupancy and negative compressibility. The number of H2 molecules per cavity increases from one to three, causing unit cell volume increase by way of unique crystallographic interstitial guest positioning. We anticipate these occupancy-derived trends may be general to a range of inclusion compounds and may aid the chemical and crystallographic design of both high-occupancy hydrogen storage clathrates and novel, variable-composition materials with tunable mechanical properties.

  14. Hydroquinone; A novel bioactive compound from plant-derived smoke can cue seed germination of lettuce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamran, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L.; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Imran, Qari M.; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Plant-derived smoke has been known to play an important role in distribution and growth of vegetation. Using a proficiently designed furnace, we extracted smoke from the leaves of four plant viz. Helianthus annuus, Aloe vera, Ginkgo biloba, and Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Smoke dilutions obtained from these plants were obtained in different concentrations to identify potential lettuce growth promoting smoke solution. Results revealed that smoke obtained from Ginkgo biloba significantly enhanced the lettuce seed germination. This solution was then partitioned into ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, n-hexane, chloroform and ether fractions. Ethyl acetate fraction was found to be potent to enhance seed germination. This fraction was subjected to column chromatography and spectroscopic techniques to obtain compound 1. This compound was identified as hydroquinone using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. At low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 ppm), compound 1 enhanced the lettuce seed germination; however, higher concentrations inhibited its growth as compared to control.

  15. Tyrosinase-catalyzed hydroxylation of hydroquinone, a depigmenting agent, to hydroxyhydroquinone: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    García-Molina, María del Mar; Muñoz Muñoz, Jose Luis; Martinez-Ortiz, Francisco; Martinez, José Rodriguez; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio; Rodriguez-López, José Neptuno; García-Cánovas, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is used as a depigmenting agent. In this work we demonstrate that tyrosinase hydroxylates HQ to 2-hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). Oxy-tyrosinase hydroxylates HQ to HHQ forming the complex met-tyrosinase-HHQ, which can evolve in two different ways, forming deoxy-tyrosinase and p-hydroxy-o-quinone, which rapidly isomerizes to 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone or on the other way generating met-tyrosinase and HHQ. In the latter case, HHQ is rapidly oxidized by oxygen to generate 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone, and therefore, it cannot close the enzyme catalytic cycle for the lack of reductant (HHQ). However, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, met-tyrosinase (inactive on hydroquinone) is transformed into oxy-tyrosinase, which is active on HQ. Similarly, in the presence of ascorbic acid, HQ is transformed into 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone by the action of tyrosinase; however, in this case, ascorbic acid reduces met-tyrosinase to deoxy-tyrosinase, which after binding to oxygen, originates oxy-tyrosinase. This enzymatic form is now capable of reacting with HQ to generate p-hydroxy-o-quinone, which rapidly isomerizes to 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone. The formation of HHQ during the action of tyrosinase on HQ is demonstrated by means of high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) by using hydrogen peroxide and high ascorbic acid concentrations. We propose a kinetic mechanism for the tyrosinase oxidation of HQ which allows us the kinetic characterization of the process. A possible explanation of the cytotoxic effect of HQ is discussed.

  16. The Effect of Butin on the Vitiligo Mouse Model Induced by Hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shi-Xia; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Xin-Min; Ge, Chun-Hui; Gao, Li; Peng, Xiao-Ming; Yan, Ming

    2017-05-01

    Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd has been traditionally used in the treatment of vitiligo in Uyghur medicine. This study used butin, the main component of V. anthelmintica, to study the influence on hydroquinone-induced vitiligo in mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 4.25 mg/kg), and butin (0.425, 4.25, and 42.5 mg/kg) groups. The number of melanin-containing hair follicles, basal layer melanocytes, melanin-containing epidermal cells, the expression of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), the malondialdehyde (MDA), and cholinesterase (CHE) activity in serum were measured. Our results indicated that compared with the model group, the melanin-containing hair follicles, the expression of TYR and TRP-1 increased, the activity of CHE decreased after treatment with 8-MOP and all doses of butin (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), the basal layer melanocytes and melanin-containing epidermal cells increased significantly after treatment with butin 4.25 and 42.5 mg/kg (p < 0.05, p < 0.01), and the MDA activity decreased after using butin 4.25 and 42.5 mg/kg and 8-MOP (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Our results support the use of butin on vitiligo, and its possible mechanisms may be related to increase the TYR and TRP-1 protein expression and decrease the activity of MDA and CHE in hydroquinone-induced vitiligo model in mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Oxidation of hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone by human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Krapfenbauer, G; Furtmüller, P G; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is very susceptible to reducing radicals because the reduction potential of the ferric/ferrous redox couple is much higher compared with other peroxidases. Semiquinone radicals are known to reduce heme proteins. Therefore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone with compounds I and II were investigated using both sequential-mixing stopped-flow techniques and conventional spectrophotometric measurements. At pH 7 and 15 degrees C the rate constants for compound I reacting with p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone were determined to be 5.6+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1), 1.3+/-0.1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and 3.1+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The corresponding reaction rates for compound II reduction were calculated to be 4.5+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), 1.9+/-0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and 4.5+/-0.2 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Semiquinone radicals, produced by compounds I and II in the classical peroxidation cycle, promote compound III (oxymyeloperoxidase) formation. We could monitor formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase as well as its direct transition to compound II by addition of molecular oxygen. Formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase is shown to depend strongly on the reduction potential of the corresponding redox couple benzoquinone/semiquinone. With 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone as substrate, myeloperoxidase is extremely quickly trapped as compound III. These MPO-typical features could have potential in designing specific drugs which inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid and consequently attenuate inflammatory tissue damage.

  18. Electrochemistry in Near-Critical and Supercritical Fluids. 3. Studies of Br(-), I(-), and Hydroquinone in Aqueous Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    extraction of coal , 5 tar sands, 6 and biomass. 7 Complete oxidation cf most organic pollutants has also been achieved in a mixture of supercritical water...80-8169 136 ELECTROCHEMISTRY IN MERM-CRI TICAL AMD SUPERCRITICAL In1 FLUIDS I STUDIES OF 9.. (U) TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN DEPT OF CHENISTRY N M FLARSHEIM... Supercritical Fluids. 3. Studies of B and Hydroquinone in Aqueous Solutions By William M. Flarsheim*, Yu-Min Tsou*, Isacc Trachtenberg*, Keith P. Johnson

  19. The Nitrite-Scavenging Properties of Catechol, Resorcinol, and Hydroquinone: A Comparative Study on Their Nitration and Nitrosation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunhao; Dong, Yanzuo; Li, Xueli; He, Qiang

    2016-10-14

    The nitration and nitrosation reactions of catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone (0.05 mmol/L) with sodium nitrite (0.05 mmol/L) at pH 3 and 37 °C were studied by using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and atom charge analysis, which was aimed to provide chemical insight into the nitrite-scavenging behavior of polyphenols. The 3 benzenediols showed different mechanisms to scavenge nitrite due to their differences in hydroxyl position. Catechol was nitrated with 1 NO2 group at the hydroxyl oxygen, and resorcinol was nitrosated with 2 NO groups at the C2 and C4 (or C6 ) positions of the benzene ring. Hydroquinone could scavenge nitrite through both nitration and nitrosation mechanisms. The nitrated hydroquinone had 1 NO2 group at the hydroxyl oxygen in the molecule, while the nitrosated 1 containing 2 NO groups at the benzene ring might have 3 structure probabilities. The results may provide a structure-activity understanding on the nitrite-scavenging property of polyphenols, so as to promote their application in the food industry for the removal of possibly toxic nitrites found in many vegetables and often in processed meat products.

  20. Tunable electrochemical pH modulation in a microchannel monitored via the proton-coupled electro-oxidation of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Contento, Nicholas M; Bohn, Paul W

    2014-07-01

    Electrochemistry is a promising tool for microfluidic systems because it is relatively inexpensive, structures are simple to fabricate, and it is straight-forward to interface electronically. While most widely used in microfluidics for chemical detection or as the transduction mechanism for molecular probes, electrochemical methods can also be used to efficiently alter the chemical composition of small (typically <100 nl) microfluidic volumes in a manner that improves or enables subsequent measurements and sample processing steps. Here, solvent (H2O) electrolysis is performed quantitatively at a microchannel Pt band electrode to increase microchannel pH. The change in microchannel pH is simultaneously tracked at a downstream electrode by monitoring changes in the i-V characteristics of the proton-coupled electro-oxidation of hydroquinone, thus providing real-time measurement of the protonated forms of hydroquinone from which the pH can be determined in a straightforward manner. Relative peak heights for protonated and deprotonated hydroquinone forms are in good agreement with expected pH changes by measured electrolysis rates, demonstrating that solvent electrolysis can be used to provide tunable, quantitative pH control within a microchannel.

  1. Case report: hydroquinone and/or glutaraldehyde induced acute myeloid leukaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Makropoulos , Vassilios; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C

    2006-01-01

    Background Exposures to high doses of irradiation, to chemotherapy, benzene, petroleum products, paints, embalming fluids, ethylene oxide, herbicides, pesticides, and smoking have been associated with an increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although there in no epidemiological evidence of relation between X-ray developer, fixer and replenisher liquids and AML, these included glutaraldehyde which has weakly associated with lymphocytic leukemia in rats and hydroquinone has been increasingly implicated in producing leukemia, causing DNA and chromosomal damage, inhibits topo-isomerase II, alter hematopoiesis and inhibit apoptosis of neoplastic cells. Case presentation Two white females (A and B) hired in 1985 as medical radiation technologists in a primary care center, in Greece. In July 2001, woman A, 38-years-old, was diagnosed as having acute monocytic leukaemia (FAB M5). The patient did not respond to therapy and died threeweeks later. In August 2001, woman B, 35-year-old, was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (FAB M3). Since discharge, she is in continuous complete remission. Both women were non smokers without any medical history. Shortly after these incidents official inspectors and experts inspected workplace, examined equipment, archives of repairs, notes, interviewed and monitored employees. They concluded that shielding was inadequate for balcony's door but personal monitoring did not show any exceeding of TLV of 20 mSv yearly and cytogenetics analysis did not reveal findings considered to be characteristics of ionizing exposure. Equipment for developing photos had a long list of repairs, mainly leakages of liquids and increases of temperature. On several occasions the floor has been flooded especially during 1987–1993 and 1997–2001. Inspection confirmed a complete lack of ventilation and many spoiled medical x-ray films. Employees reported that an "osmic" level was continuously evident and frequently developed symptoms of

  2. Simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones as compounds neuroprotective against oxidative stress in a manner associated with specific transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Takumi Saitoh, Sachie; Hosaka, Manami; Kosaka, Kunio

    2009-02-06

    Electrophilic compounds protect neurons through the activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway and the induction of phase-2 enzymes [T. Satoh, S.A. Lipton, Redox regulation of neuronal survival by electrophilic compounds, Trends Neurosci. 30 (2007) 38-45; T. Satoh, S. Okamoto, J. Cui, Y. Watanabe, K. Furuta, M. Suzuki, K. Tohyama, S.A. Lipton, Activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway for neuroprotection by electrophilic phase II inducers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (2006) 768-773]. Hydroquinone-type electrophilic compounds such as tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and carnosic acid (CA) have attracted special attention, because the oxidative conversion of 'hydroquinone' to 'quinone' is essential for the transcriptional activation of the above-mentioned enzymes [T. Satoh, K. Kosaka, K. Itoh, A. Kobayashi, M. Yamamoto, Y. Shimojo, C. Kitajima, J. Cui, J. Kamins, S. Okamoto, T. Shirasawa, S.A. Lipton, Carnosic acid, a catechol-type electrophilic compound, protect neurons both in vitro and in vivo through activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway via S-alkylation of specific cysteine, J. Neurochem. 104 (2008) 1161-1131; A.D. Kraft, D.A. Johnson, J.A. Johnson, Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-dependent antioxidant response element activation by tert-butylhydroquinone and sulforaphane occurring preferentially in astrocytes conditions neurons against oxidative insult, J. Neurosci. 24 (2004) 1101-1112]. In the present study, we examined the relationship between electrophilicity and the protective effects afforded by electrophilic compounds. Electrophilicity was assessed in terms of the ability of a compound to bind to a cysteine on bovine serum albumin, by which we found that neuroprotective hydroquinones [TBHQ (para-) and CA (ortho-)] had distinctive patterns of cysteine binding compared with other electrophilic compounds. Further, we found that isomers of simple ortho- and para-hydroquinones such as 2-methylhydroquinone (para-) and 4-methyl-catechol (ortho-) [not in abstract] had

  3. Analysis of the effects of hydroquinone and arbutin on the differentiation of melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yu; Hasegawa, Seiji; Yamada, Takaaki; Date, Yasushi; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is a chemical compound that inhibits the functions of melanocytes and has long been known for its skin-whitening effect. According to previous studies, the Tyrosinase (Tyr) activity inhibitory effect and melanocyte-specific cell toxicity are known depigmenting mechanisms; however, details of the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Arbutin (Arb) is also known for its Tyr activity inhibitory effect and is commonly used as a skin-whitening agent. However, the detailed depigmenting mechanism of Arb is also not yet fully understood. Few studies have attempted to elucidate the effects of HQ and Arb on undifferentiated melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of HQ and Arb throughout each stage of differentiation of melanocytes using a mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture system to induce melanocytes. The results showed that HQ in particular downregulated the early stage of differentiation, in which neural crest cells were generated, and the late stage of differentiation, in which melanogenesis became active. On the other hand, Arb had no effect on the differentiation of melanocytes, and only suppressed melanogenesis by specifically suppressing elevations in Tyr expression in the late stage of differentiation.

  4. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of excited state relaxation dynamics in phenol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Ruth A.; Thompson, James O. F.; Iljina, Marija; Donaldson, Ross J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.; Paterson, Martin J.; Townsend, Dave

    2012-11-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the dynamical evolution of the initially prepared S1 (ππ*) excited state of phenol (hydroxybenzene), catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene), and hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) following excitation at 267 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster and CASSCF levels of theory. In all cases, we observe rapid (<1 ps) intramolecular vibrational redistribution on the S1 potential surface. In catechol, the overall S1 state lifetime was observed to be 12.1 ps, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude shorter than in the other three molecules studied. This may be attributed to differences in the H atom tunnelling rate under the barrier formed by a conical intersection between the S1 state and the close lying S2 (πσ*) state, which is dissociative along the O-H stretching coordinate. Further evidence of this S1/S2 interaction is also seen in the time-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectron angular distributions we have observed. Our data analysis was assisted by a matrix inversion method for processing photoelectron images that is significantly faster than most other previously reported approaches and is extremely quick and easy to implement.

  5. Hydroquinone stimulates granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Henschler, R.; Glatt, H.R.; Heyworth, C.M.

    1996-12-01

    To investigate whether hydroxylated metabolites of benzene may be responsible for the amplification of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) observed in mice that inhale benzene, groups of six C57BL6 mice were injected with hydroquinone (HQ) (75 mg/kg) or HQ (50 mg/kg) plus phenol (PHE) (50 mg/kg) twice daily for 11 days. Deviations in blood leukocyte and erythrocyte levels by up to one-third were noted in the treated groups; however, the peripheral blood differential counts were unchanged. Although no changes in bone marrow cellularity were observed in mice treated with HQ, cellularity was decreased by a factor of two in the mice that had received HQ plus PHE. The number of GM-CFC per femur was doubled in both treated groups. In vitro experiments using the murine multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells FDCP mix also showed a duplication of GM-CFC formation in the presence of HQ at concentrations between 10{sup -6} M and 10{sup -10} M. When HQ and PHE were present at equimolar concentrations, significantly increased colony formation was still observed with 10{sup -12} M of metabolites. The effect was independent of the concentration of GM-colony-stimulating factor used. We suggest that HQ is a major mediator of the stimulatory effect of benzene on GM-CFC in mice. In addition, the in vitro data indicate that a direct effect on GM-CFC is involved. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Control of size and aspect ratio in hydroquinone-based synthesis of gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasso, Carlo; Picciolini, Silvia; Schiumarini, Domitilla; Mehn, Dora; Ojea-Jiménez, Isaac; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we describe how it is possible to tune the size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods obtained using a highly efficient protocol based on the use of hydroquinone as a reducing agent by varying the amounts of CTAB and silver ions present in the "seed-growth" solution. Our approach not only allows us to prepare nanorods with a four times increased Au3+ reduction yield, when compared with the commonly used protocol based on ascorbic acid, but also allows a remarkable reduction of 50-60 % of the amount of CTAB needed. In fact, according to our findings, the concentration of CTAB present in the seed-growth solution do not linearly influence the final aspect ratio of the obtained nanorods, and an optimal concentration range between 30 and 50 mM has been identified as the one that is able to generate particles with more elongated shapes. On the optimized protocol, the effect of the concentration of Ag+ ions in the seed-growth solution and the stability of the obtained particles has also been investigated.

  7. New host architecture of hydroquinone with enclathrated C[sub 70

    SciTech Connect

    Ermer, O.; Roebke, C. )

    1993-11-03

    The room-temperature crystal structure of a molecular 1:4.5:1 complex of C[sub 70], hydroquinone (HQ), and benzene (bz), C[sub 70](HQ)[sub 4.5]bz, is reported. The solid-state architecture of the donor-acceptor complex has trigonal symmetry and consists of a novel H-bonded superoctahedral HQ host network with three different types of cavities enclathrating the C[sub 70] and bz guest molecules. Giant HQ twin cages shaped according to the shell of a peanut house a pair of C[sub 70] molecules, large single cages accommodate one C[sub 70] guest, and smaller HQ cages of tetrahedral shape embrace a sandwich pair of bz molecules. The long axes of the C[sub 70] guest molecules are orthogonal to the trigonal crystal and cage axes. Their HQ host cages may be viewed as expanded supercubes and related to the simple supercube cavities of the sister complex C[sub 60](HQ)[sub 3] reported previously. A topological analogy exists between the tetrahedral HQ cages and the supertetrahedral building blocks of the pyrochlore network. The HQ host network of C[sub 70](HQ)[sub 4.5]bz is essentially ordered, and the C[sub 70] and bz guest species are orientationally disordered. The adopted benzene guest model is provisional only and requires further backing. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Methane emission from a simulated rice field ecosystem as influenced by hydroquinone and dicyandiamide.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Wang, Y; Zheng, X; Wang, M; Wang, Z; Zhou, L; Van Cleemput, O

    2000-12-18

    A simple apparatus for collecting methane emission from a simulated rice field ecosystem was formed. With no wheat straw powder amended all treatments with inhibitor(s) had so much lower methane emission during rice growth than the treatment with urea alone (control), which was contrary to methane emission from the cut rice-soil system. Especially for treatments with dicyandiamide (DCD) and with DCD plus hydroquinone (HQ), the total amount of methane emission from the soil system and intact rice-soil system was 68.25-46.64% and 46.89-41.78% of the control, respectively. Hence, DCD, especially in combination with HQ, not only increased methane oxidation in the floodwater-soil interface following application of urea, but also significantly enhanced methane oxidation in rice root rhizosphere, particularly from its tillering to booting stage. Wheat straw powder incorporated into flooded surface layer soil significantly weakened the above-mentioned simulating effects. Regression analysis indicated that methane emission from the rice field ecosystem was related to the turnover of ammonium-N in flooded surface layer soil. Diminishing methane emissions from the rice field ecosystem was significantly beneficial to the growth of rice.

  9. Gas-Phase Synthesis and Characterization of CH4-Loaded Hydroquinone Clathrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Lee, Y; Takeya, S; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Lee, Y; Yoon, J

    2010-01-01

    A CH{sub 4}-loaded hydroquinone (HQ) clathrate was synthesized via a gas-phase reaction using the {alpha}-form of crystalline HQ and CH{sub 4} gas at 12 MPa and room temperature. Solid-state {sup 13}C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR and Raman spectroscopic measurements confirm the incorporation of CH{sub 4} molecules into the cages of the HQ clathrate framework. The chemical analysis indicates that about 69% of the cages are filled by CH{sub 4} molecules, that is, 0.69 CH{sub 4} per three HQ molecules. Rietveld refinement using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data shows that the CH{sub 4}-loaded HQ clathrate adopts the {beta}-form of HQ clathrate in a hexagonal space group R3 with lattice parameters of a = 16.6191 {angstrom} and c = 5.5038 {angstrom}. Time-resolved synchrotron XRD and quadrupole mass spectroscopic measurements show that the CH{sub 4}-loaded HQ clathrate is stable up to 368 K and gradually transforms to the {alpha}-form by releasing the confined CH{sub 4} gases between 368-378 K. Using solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS NMR, the reaction kinetics between the {alpha}-form HQ and CH{sub 4} gas is qualitatively described in terms of the particle size of the crystalline HQ.

  10. Gas-phase synthesis and characterization of CH4-loaded hydroquinone clathrates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Won; Lee, Yongjae; Takeya, Satoshi; Kawamura, Taro; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Lee, Yun-Je; Yoon, Ji-Ho

    2010-03-11

    A CH(4)-loaded hydroquinone (HQ) clathrate was synthesized via a gas-phase reaction using the alpha-form of crystalline HQ and CH(4) gas at 12 MPa and room temperature. Solid-state (13)C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR and Raman spectroscopic measurements confirm the incorporation of CH(4) molecules into the cages of the HQ clathrate framework. The chemical analysis indicates that about 69% of the cages are filled by CH(4) molecules, that is, 0.69 CH(4) per three HQ molecules. Rietveld refinement using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data shows that the CH(4)-loaded HQ clathrate adopts the beta-form of HQ clathrate in a hexagonal space group R3 with lattice parameters of a = 16.6191 A and c = 5.5038 A. Time-resolved synchrotron XRD and quadrupole mass spectroscopic measurements show that the CH(4)-loaded HQ clathrate is stable up to 368 K and gradually transforms to the alpha-form by releasing the confined CH(4) gases between 368-378 K. Using solid-state (13)C CP/MAS NMR, the reaction kinetics between the alpha-form HQ and CH(4) gas is qualitatively described in terms of the particle size of the crystalline HQ.

  11. Time-resolved photoelectron imaging of excited state relaxation dynamics in phenol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Ruth A; Thompson, James O F; Iljina, Marija; Donaldson, Ross J; Sussman, Benjamin J; Paterson, Martin J; Townsend, Dave

    2012-11-14

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to investigate the dynamical evolution of the initially prepared S(1) (ππ*) excited state of phenol (hydroxybenzene), catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene), and hydroquinone (1,4-dihydroxybenzene) following excitation at 267 nm. Our analysis was supported by ab initio calculations at the coupled-cluster and CASSCF levels of theory. In all cases, we observe rapid (<1 ps) intramolecular vibrational redistribution on the S(1) potential surface. In catechol, the overall S(1) state lifetime was observed to be 12.1 ps, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude shorter than in the other three molecules studied. This may be attributed to differences in the H atom tunnelling rate under the barrier formed by a conical intersection between the S(1) state and the close lying S(2) (πσ*) state, which is dissociative along the O-H stretching coordinate. Further evidence of this S(1)/S(2) interaction is also seen in the time-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectron angular distributions we have observed. Our data analysis was assisted by a matrix inversion method for processing photoelectron images that is significantly faster than most other previously reported approaches and is extremely quick and easy to implement.

  12. Electrode Prepared with Combination of Different Conductive Polymers for Hydroquinone Determination in River Water.

    PubMed

    Ülker, Emine; Kavanoz, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Modified electrode based on combination of different conductive polymers (Polyaniline - Poly(3-methylthiophene) - Poly(3,3' diaminobenzidine) (PANI - P3MT - PDAB)) was previously synthesized in dichloromethane containing HClO(4) and tetrabutylammoniumperchlorate (TBAP) supporting electrolyte. In this study, determination of hydroquinone (HQ) with amperometric I-t method over this modified and its homopolymers coated electrode was successfully carried out in river water as real sample and in solution consisting of NaHSO(4)/Na(2)SO(4) (pH 2.0). For this method, potentials between 0.45 V and 0.65 V were applied and the best analytical response was obtained at 0.55 V using this modified electrode when compared its homopolymer. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) , the linear dynamic range and regression coefficient (R(2)) were found as 1.31 x 10(-4) mM, 4.37 x 10(-4) mM, 4.37 x 10(-4)- 95.0 mM and 0.998, respectively. These results were compared to homopolymers coated and uncoated Pt electrodes. For checking on the accuracy of the developed method and the matrices interference, determination of HQ was performed in artificially contaminated river water samples with HQ concentration 5.0 mM and 10.0 mM using this modified electrode and recovery values were calculated as % 100.6 and % 100.1, respectively.

  13. Inhibition of autophagy enhances Hydroquinone-induced TK6 cell death.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longmei; Liu, Jiaxian; Chen, Yuting; Yun, Lin; Chen, Shaoyun; Zhou, Kairu; Lai, Bei; Song, Li; Yang, Hui; Liang, Hairong; Tang, Huanwen

    2017-03-02

    Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the metabolic products of benzene, is a carcinogen. It can induce apoptosis in lymphoma cells. However, whether HQ can induce autophagy and what roles autophagy plays in TK6 cells exposured to HQ remains unclear. In this study, we found that HQ could induce autophagy through techniques of qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescent assay of LC3 and transmission electron microscope. Furthermore, inhibiting autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) significantly enhanced HQ-induced cell apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy may be a survival mechanism. Our study also showed that HQ activated PARP-1. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1 strongly exhibited decreased autophagy related genes expression. In contrast, the absence of SIRT1 increased that. Altogether, our data provided evidence that HQ induced autophagy in TK6 cells and autophagy protected TK6 from HQ attack-induced injury in vitro, and the autophagy was partially mediated via activation of the PARP-1-SIRT1 signaling pathway.

  14. Analysis of hydroquinone and some of its ethers by using capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Desiderio, C; Ossicini, L; Fanali, S

    2000-07-28

    Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was used for the analysis of relevant compounds in cosmetic preparation. Hydroquinone (HQ) and some of its ethers (methyl-, dimethyl-, benzyl-, phenyl-, propyl-HQ derivatives) were analyzed by using an octadecylsilica (ODS) stationary phase packed in fused-silica capillary (100 microm I.D.; 30 cm and 21.5 cm total and effective lengths, respectively). 20 mM Ammonium acetate pH 6-acetonitrile (50-70%) were the mobile phases used for the experiments. The acetonitrile (ACN) content strongly influenced the resolution of the studied compounds as well as the efficiency and the retention factor. Baseline resolution for the studied analytes was achieved at both the lowest and the highest percentage of ACN, the last one providing the shortest analysis time. Mobile phase containing 70% of ACN was therefore used for the analysis of an extract of skin-toning cream declared to contain HQ. Good repeatability of both retention times, peak areas and peak areas ratio (Asample/Ainternational standard) was found. The calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range studied (5-90 microg/ml) with correlation coefficients between 0.9975 and 09991. The analysis of the cosmetic preparation revealed the presence of HQ (1.72%, w/w) and of two additional peaks (not identified).

  15. Electrochemical preparation of activated graphene oxide for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Murugan; Karikalan, Natarajan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Cheng, Yi-Hui; Karuppiah, Chelladurai

    2017-03-31

    This paper describes the electrochemical preparation of highly electrochemically active and conductive activated graphene oxide (aGO). Afterwards, the electrochemical properties of aGO was studied towards the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). This aGO is prepared by the electrochemical activation of GO by various potential treatments. The resultant aGOs are examined by various physical and electrochemical characterizations. The high potential activation (1.4 to -1.5) process results a highly active GO (aGO1), which manifest a good electrochemical behavior towards the determination of HQ and CC. This aGO1 modified screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was furnished the sensitive detection of HQ and CC with linear concentration range from 1 to 312μM and 1 to 350μM. The aGO1 modified SPCE shows the lowest detection limit of 0.27μM and 0.182μM for the HQ and CC, respectively. The aGO1 modified SPCE reveals an excellent selectivity towards the determination of HQ and CC in the presence of 100 fold of potential interferents. Moreover, the fabricated disposable aGO1/SPCE sensor was demonstrated the determination of HQ and CC in tap water and industrial waste water.

  16. Ecological leads for natural product discovery: Novel sesquiterpene hydroquinones from the red macroalga Peyssonnelia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy L.; Mular, Laurlynn; Drenkard, Elizabeth J.; Shearer, Tonya L.; Engel, Sebastian; Fredericq, Suzanne; Fairchild, Craig R.; Prudhomme, Jacques; Le Roch, Karine; Hay, Mark E.; Aalbersberg, William; Kubanek, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacologically-motivated marine natural product investigations have yielded a large variety of structurally unique compounds with interesting biomedical properties, but the natural roles of these molecules often remain unknown. While secondary metabolites may function as antimicrobial chemical defenses, few studies have examined this hypothesis. In the present investigation, chromatographic fractions from 69 collections of Fijian red macroalgae representing at least 43 species were evaluated for growth inhibition of three microbial pathogens and saprophytes of marine macrophytes. At least one microbe was suppressed by fraction(s) of all evaluated algae, suggesting that antimicrobial defenses are common among tropical seaweeds. From these leads, peyssonoic acids A–B (1–2), novel sesquiterpene hydroquinones, were isolated from the crustose red alga Peyssonnelia sp. At ecologically realistic concentrations, both compounds inhibited growth of Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica, a bacterial pathogen of marine algae, and Lindra thalassiae, a fungal pathogen of marine algae, and exhibited modest antineoplastic activity against ovarian cancer cells. The peyssonoic acids included one novel carbon skeleton and illustrated the utility of ecological studies in natural product discovery. PMID:20661312

  17. Hydroquinone-ZnO nano-laminate deposited by molecular-atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Jie; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Kim, Jiyoung; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ha, Min-Woo

    2015-03-23

    In this study, we have deposited organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting hydroquinone (HQ)/zinc oxide (ZnO) superlattices using molecular-atomic layer deposition, which enables accurate control of film thickness, excellent uniformity, and sharp interfaces at a low deposition temperature (150 °C). Self-limiting growth of organic layers is observed for the HQ precursor on ZnO surface. Nano-laminates were prepared by varying the number of HQ to ZnO cycles in order to investigate the physical and electrical effects of different HQ to ZnO ratios. It is indicated that the addition of HQ layer results in enhanced mobility and reduced carrier concentration. The highest Hall mobility of approximately 2.3 cm{sup 2}/V·s and the lowest n-type carrier concentration of approximately 1.0 × 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} were achieved with the organic-inorganic superlattice deposited with a ratio of 10 ZnO cycles to 1 HQ cycle. This study offers an approach to tune the electrical transport characteristics of ALD ZnO matrix thin films using an organic dopant. Moreover, with organic embedment, this nano-laminate material may be useful for flexible electronics.

  18. Hydroquinone induces DNA hypomethylation-independent overexpression of retroelements in human leukemia and hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Conti, Anastasia; Rota, Federica; Ragni, Enrico; Favero, Chiara; Motta, Valeria; Lazzari, Lorenza; Bollati, Valentina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Dieci, Giorgio

    2016-06-10

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important benzene-derived metabolite associated with acute myelogenous leukemia risk. Although altered DNA methylation has been reported in both benzene-exposed human subjects and HQ-exposed cultured cells, the inventory of benzene metabolite effects on the epigenome is only starting to be established. In this study, we used a monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from cord blood to investigate the effects of HQ treatment on the expression of the three most important families of retrotransposons in the human genome: LINE-1, Alu and Endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), that are normally subjected to tight epigenetic silencing. We found a clear tendency towards increased retrotransposon expression in response to HQ exposure, more pronounced in the case of LINE-1 and HERV. Such a partial loss of silencing, however, was generally not associated with HQ-induced DNA hypomethylation. On the other hand, retroelement derepression was also observed in the same cells in response to the hypomethylating agent decitabine. These observations suggest the existence of different types of epigenetic switches operating at human retroelements, and point to retroelement activation in response to benzene-derived metabolites as a novel factor deserving attention in benzene carcinogenesis studies.

  19. Factors influencing hydroquinone degradation in aqueous solution using a modified microelectrolysis method.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Li, Tingting; Xiong, Houfeng; Zou, Donglei

    2015-01-01

    The discharge of hydroquinone (HQ), an important chemical raw material, to natural waters poses different ecological threats to aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated the removal performance of traditional and modified microelectrolysis methods in aqueous solutions. The traditional microelectrolysis packing was modified by adding manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) powder as additives. The factors affecting the removal performance of HQ, such as catalytic metal type, mass fraction of additive, reaction time, and initial pH, were examined. The results showed that the Mn modified packing exhibited the best performance compared to Zn and Cu powder. The removal rate of HQ using Mn modified packing can reach 94% after 4 h. In addition, 9% of Mn packing has a higher removal rate than other mass fractions. The acidic solution pH shows a more favorable degradation than a neutral and alkaline solution. The intermediates of HQ degradation by modified microelectrolysis were identified and then the pathway of HQ degradation was proposed. Our result indicates that Mn as catalytic metal holds promising potential to enhance HQ removal in water using the microelectrolysis method.

  20. Inhibition of human DNA topoisomerase II by hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone, reactive metabolites of benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Hutt, A.M.; Kalf, G.F.

    1996-12-01

    Chronic exposure of humans to benzene (BZ) causes acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Both BZ and therapy-related secondary AML are characterized by chromosomal translocations that may occur by inappropriate recombinational events. DNA topoisomerase 11 (topo 11) is an essential sulfhydryl (SH)-dependent endonuclease required for replication, recombination, chromosome segregation, and chromosome structure. Topo 11 cleaves DNA at purine(R)/pyrimidine(Y) repeat sequences that have been shown to be highly recombinogenic in vivo. Certain antineoplastic drugs stabilize topo 11-DNA cleavage complexes at RY repeat sequences, which leads to translocations of the type observed in leukemia. Hydroquinone (HQ) is metabolized to p-benzoquinone (BQ) in a peroxidase-mediated reaction in myeloid progenitor cells. BO interacts with SH groups of SH-dependent enzymes. Consequently, the aims of this research were to determine whether HQ and BO are topo 11 inhibitors. The ability of the compounds to inhibit the activity of topo, 11 was tested using an assay system that depends on the conversion, by homogeneous human topo 11, of catenated kinetoplast DNA into open and/or nicked open circular DNA that can be separated from the catenated DNA by electrophoresis in a 1% agarose-ethidium bromide gel. We provide preliminary data that indicate that both HQ and BO cause a time and concentration (pM)-dependent inhibition of topo 11 activity. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Efficacy of hydroquinone-free skin-lightening cream for photoaging.

    PubMed

    Dreher, Frank; Draelos, Zoe D; Gold, Michael H; Goldman, Mitchel P; Fabi, Sabrina G; Puissegur Lupo, Mary L

    2013-03-01

    Hyperpigmentation and solar damage remains a difficult problem to treat with topical agents. To evaluate a novel skin-lightening complex (SLC) comprising four actives targeting melanin formation at multiple levels, namely disodium glycerophosphate, L-leucine, phenylethyl resorcinol, and undecylenoyl phenylalanine, in an oil-in-water emulsion cream. Skin-lightening complex was evaluated in 80 female subjects of skin types I-III with at least moderate mottled hyperpigmentation. After a wash-out period of 1 month with a sunscreen, the subjects added a cream containing the SLC for 12 weeks twice daily to entire face and continued the sunscreen use. Whereas there was no significant change during the wash-out period, the primary endpoint mottled hyperpigmentation decreased by 32% after the 12-week treatment period with the SLC cream. Secondary endpoints such as severity and number of lentigines, skin tone, and skin brightness also improved. In all, 57% of the subjects showed at least a moderate response, 17% did not improve, and 3% got worse after the treatment. The SLC cream was well tolerated, in particular when comparing with exfoliating or peeling agent containing skin-lightening products. When used with a daily sunscreen, this study confirms that the SLC represents an alternative to hydroquinone, retinoids, and many other skin-lightening actives. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of various storage conditions and alterations of antioxidant contents on chromatic aberration of hydroquinone ointment.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Teruhisa; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kakumoto, Mikio; Funasaka, Yoko; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Fujita, Takuya; Kamiyama, Fumio; Yamamoto, Akira; Nordlund, James J; Kaneko, Masafumi; Iida, Akira; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Ointments of the skin depigmentation agent hydroquinone (HQ) have been prepared by extemporaneous nonsterile compounding in our hospital. The HQ ointments were highly effective in the treatment of various types of skin pigmentations; however, various problems have emerged including chromatic aberration of the ointments, a relatively large variability of efficacy, and mild side effects. Chromatic aberration is expected to induce non-compliance, and this may be the reason for the relatively large variability in efficacy. In this paper, the effects of various storage conditions on the chromatic aberration and HQ content of HQ ointments were evaluated, and it was suggested that the chromatic aberration was accelerated by exposure to high temperature, air and light, although these had no effect on the HQ content. In addition, various types of HQ ointments were prepared to find a formulation to minimize chromatic aberration, and it was found that the concentrations of antioxidants, Na(2)SO(3) and L(+)-ascorbic acid (AsA), seemed to be too high, and that the protective effect of AsA on chromatic aberration was mainly due to its acidifying effect.

  3. Simulations of guest transport in clathrates of Dianin's compound and hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Nemkevich, Alexandra; Spackman, Mark A; Corry, Ben

    2013-02-18

    Clathrates have been proposed for use in a variety of applications including gas storage, mixture separation and catalysis due to the potential for controlled guest diffusion through their porous lattices. Here molecular dynamics simulations are employed to study guest transport in clathrates of hydroquinone (HQ) and Dianin's compound (DC). Systems investigated were HQ with methanol and acetonitrile, and DC with methanol and ethanol. Simulations were set up with one guest in the pore, two guests in the pore and one vacancy in the pore and a filled pore, and free-energy barriers for movement between cavities of the pore were estimated for all cases. Comparison between these simulations indicates that guest transport most likely proceeds by molecules moving from full to empty cavities consecutively, one by one, rather than in a concerted manner. Thus, the presence of empty cavities is very important for guest transport, which becomes more energetically demanding in fully loaded systems. Flexibility of the host can assist guest transport. In the studied DC clathrates transport occurs via an intermediate conformation in which the hydroxyl group of the alcohol guest molecule participates in the hydrogen-bonded ring of the host. We also address the issue of the number of methanol guest molecules that DC accommodates, for which conflicting information exists. We found that this is likely to be temperature dependent and suggest that under some conditions the system is most likely non-stoichiometric.

  4. The molecular mechanisms of liver and islets of Langerhans toxicity by benzene and its metabolite hydroquinone in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bahadar, Haji; Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Ghafour-Boroujerdi, Elmira; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Benzene (C6H6) is one of the most commonly used industrial chemicals causing environmental pollution. This study aimed to examine the effect of benzene and its metabolite hydroquinone on glucose regulating organs, liver and pancreas, and to reveal the involved toxic mechanisms, in rats. In the in vivo part, benzene was dissolved in corn oil and administered through intragastric route at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, for 4 weeks. And, in the in vitro part, toxic mechanisms responsible for weakening the antioxidant system in islets of Langerhans by hydroquinone at different concentrations (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM), were revealed. Benzene exposure raised the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) enzymes and increased fasting blood sugar (FBS) in comparison to control animals. Also, the activity of hepatic glucokinase (GK) was decreased significantly. Along with, a significant increase was observed in hepatic tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and plasma insulin in benzene treated rats. Moreover, benzene caused a significant rise in hepatic lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and oxidation of proteins. In islets of Langerhans, hydroquinone was found to decrease the capability of antioxidant system to fight free radicals. Also, the level of death proteases (caspase 3 and caspase 9) was found higher in hydroquinone exposed islets. The current study demonstrated that benzene and hydroquinone causes toxic effects on liver and pancreatic islets by causing oxidative impairment.

  5. Successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication spectrophotometric method for determination of hydroquinone in complex mixture with its degradation products, tretinoin and methyl paraben.

    PubMed

    Elghobashy, Mohamed R; Bebawy, Lories I; Shokry, Rafeek F; Abbas, Samah S

    2016-03-15

    A sensitive and selective stability-indicating successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication (SRS-CM) spectrophotometric method was studied and developed for the spectrum resolution of five component mixture without prior separation. The components were hydroquinone in combination with tretinoin, the polymer formed from hydroquinone alkali degradation, 1,4 benzoquinone and the preservative methyl paraben. The proposed method was used for their determination in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The zero order absorption spectra of hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben were determined at 293, 357.5, 245 and 255.2 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 4.00-46.00, 1.00-7.00, 0.60-5.20, and 1.00-7.00 μg mL(-1) for hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben, respectively. The pharmaceutical formulation was subjected to mild alkali condition and measured by this method resulting in the polymerization of hydroquinone and the formation of toxic 1,4 benzoquinone. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the reported method.

  6. A randomized and placebo-controlled study to compare the skin-lightening efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase cream vs. 2% hydroquinone cream.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Tess; Karmon, Yoram; Khaiat, Alain

    2011-12-01

      Historically, the most effective treatments for skin lightening have contained hydroquinone. However, there is a need for an effective alternative.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skin-lightening efficacy and safety of lignin peroxidase (LIP) creams using a regimen of both day and night products compared with twice-daily application of 2% hydroquinone cream and placebo in Asian women.   This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face, single-center study of 51 patients. Patients were randomized to receive day and night LIP cream on one randomly selected side of their face and either 2% hydroquinone cream or placebo on the other.   A statistically significant change from baseline in the melanin index was observed in LIP-treated skin, with a mean reduction of 7.6% (P < 0.001) on Day 31. Conversely, hydroquinone and placebo did not provide a statistically significant lightening effect when instrumentally measured. Dermatologist scoring demonstrated a significant improvement in overall fairness as early as 8 days after treatment initiation in the LIP-treated group, which was not observed in the other groups. Overall, patients preferred the LIP creams.   The application of day/night LIP cream provided a significantly more rapid and observable skin-lightening effect than hydroquinone 2% cream or placebo. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication spectrophotometric method for determination of hydroquinone in complex mixture with its degradation products, tretinoin and methyl paraben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elghobashy, Mohamed R.; Bebawy, Lories I.; Shokry, Rafeek F.; Abbas, Samah S.

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive and selective stability-indicating successive ratio subtraction coupled with constant multiplication (SRS-CM) spectrophotometric method was studied and developed for the spectrum resolution of five component mixture without prior separation. The components were hydroquinone in combination with tretinoin, the polymer formed from hydroquinone alkali degradation, 1,4 benzoquinone and the preservative methyl paraben. The proposed method was used for their determination in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. The zero order absorption spectra of hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben were determined at 293, 357.5, 245 and 255.2 nm, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges of 4.00-46.00, 1.00-7.00, 0.60-5.20, and 1.00-7.00 μg mL- 1 for hydroquinone, tretinoin, 1,4 benzoquinone and methyl paraben, respectively. The pharmaceutical formulation was subjected to mild alkali condition and measured by this method resulting in the polymerization of hydroquinone and the formation of toxic 1,4 benzoquinone. The proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the reported method.

  8. Intermolecular Interactions and Electrostatic Properties of the [beta]-Hydroquinone Apohost: Implications for Supramolecular Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Henrik F.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Overgaard, Jacob; Koutsantonis, George A.; Spackman, Mark A.; Iversen, Bo B.

    2012-02-07

    The crystal structure of the {beta}-polymorph of hydroquinone ({beta}-HQ), the apohost of a large family of clathrates, is reported with a specific focus on intermolecular interactions and the electrostatic nature of its cavity. Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals subtle close contacts between two interconnecting HQ networks, and the local packing and related close contacts were examined by breakdown of the fingerprint plot. An experimental multipole model containing anisotropic thermal parameters for hydrogen atoms has been successfully refined against 15(2) K single microcrystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. The experimental electron density model has been compared with a theoretical electron density calculated with the molecule embedded in its own crystal field. Hirshfeld charges, interaction energies and the electrostatic potential calculated for both models are qualitatively in good agreement, but small differences in the electrostatic potential persist due to charge transfer from all hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atoms in the theoretical model. The electrostatic potential in the center of the cavity is positive, very shallow and highly symmetric, suggesting that the inclusion of polar molecules in the void will involve a balance between opposing effects. The electric field is by symmetry zero in the center of the cavity, increasing to a value of 0.0185 e/{angstrom}{sup 2} (0.27 V/{angstrom}) 1 {angstrom} along the 3-fold axis and 0.0105 e/{angstrom}{sup 2} (0.15 V/{angstrom}) 1 {angstrom} along the perpendicular direction. While these values are substantial in a macroscopic context, they are quite small for a molecular cavity and are not expected to strongly polarize a guest molecule.

  9. Enhanced stability and dermal delivery of hydroquinone using solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Hariri, Reza; Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Shokri, Javad; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2015-12-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ), a well-known anti-hyperpigmentation agent suffers from (a) instability due to rapid oxidation, (b) insufficient skin penetration because of hydrophilic structure, and (c) severe side effects as a results of systemic absorption. This study aimed to load HQ into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to overcome the mentioned drawbacks for the efficient treatment of hyperpigmentation. The optimized SLN formulation was prepared by hot melt homogenization method and fully characterized by various techniques. The ability of SLNs in dermal delivery of HQ was assessed through the excised rat skin. The optimized HQ-loaded SLNs (particle size of 86 nm, encapsulation efficiency% of 89.5% and loading capacity% of 11.2%) exhibited a good physicochemical stability during a period of five months. XRD and DSC results showed that HQ was dispersed in an amorphous state, confirming uniform drug dispersion in the SLNs structure and embedment of drug in the solid lipid matrix. In vitro penetration studies showed almost 3 times higher drug accumulation in the skin and 6.5 times lower drug entrance to receiving compartment of Franz diffusion cell from HQ-loaded SLN hydrogel compared with HQ Carbopol made hydrogel. These results indicated the better HQ localization in the skin and its lower systemic absorption. It was concluded that SLN is a promising colloidal drug carrier for topical administration of HQ in the treatment of hyperpigmentation due to suitable HQ loading value in spite of its hydrophilic structure, high stability against oxidation and appropriate skin penetration along with the low systemic absorption.

  10. Seed mediated synthesis of highly mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the presence of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Sykes, Peter

    2016-09-02

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being studied for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biomedical imaging, contrast agents and tumor targeting. The synthesis of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is critical for these applications. We report the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed AuNPs by a seed mediated approach, in the presence of tri-sodium citrate and hydroquinone (HQ). AuNPs with an average size of 18 nm were used for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanocrystals of an average size 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm; but the protocol is not limited to these sizes. The colloidal gold was subjected to UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, showing a red shift in lambda max wavelength, peaks at 518.47 nm, 526.37 nm, 535.73 nm, 546.03 nm and 556.50 nm for AuNPs seed (18 nm), 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm respectively. The analysis was consistent with dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Hydrodynamic diameters measured were 17.6 nm, 40.8 nm, 59.8 nm, 74.1 nm, and 91.4 nm (size by dynamic light scattering-volume %); with an average poly dispersity index value of 0.088, suggesting mono-dispersity in the size distribution, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The advantage of a seed mediated approach is a multi-step growth of nanoparticle size that enables us to control the number of nanoparticles in the suspension, for size ranging from 24.5 nm to 95.8 nm. In addition, the HQ-based synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals allowed control of the particle size and size distribution by tailoring either the number of seeds, amount of gold precursor or reducing agent (HQ) in the final reaction mixture.

  11. Seed mediated synthesis of highly mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the presence of hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Sykes, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being studied for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biomedical imaging, contrast agents and tumor targeting. The synthesis of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is critical for these applications. We report the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed AuNPs by a seed mediated approach, in the presence of tri-sodium citrate and hydroquinone (HQ). AuNPs with an average size of 18 nm were used for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanocrystals of an average size 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ˜100 nm; but the protocol is not limited to these sizes. The colloidal gold was subjected to UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, showing a red shift in lambda max wavelength, peaks at 518.47 nm, 526.37 nm, 535.73 nm, 546.03 nm and 556.50 nm for AuNPs seed (18 nm), 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ˜100 nm respectively. The analysis was consistent with dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Hydrodynamic diameters measured were 17.6 nm, 40.8 nm, 59.8 nm, 74.1 nm, and 91.4 nm (size by dynamic light scattering—volume %); with an average poly dispersity index value of 0.088, suggesting mono-dispersity in the size distribution, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The advantage of a seed mediated approach is a multi-step growth of nanoparticle size that enables us to control the number of nanoparticles in the suspension, for size ranging from 24.5 nm to 95.8 nm. In addition, the HQ-based synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals allowed control of the particle size and size distribution by tailoring either the number of seeds, amount of gold precursor or reducing agent (HQ) in the final reaction mixture.

  12. Evidence for the generation of reactive oxygen species from hydroquinone and benzoquinone: Roles in arsenite oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wenxiu; Wang, Yujun; Fang, Guodong; Wu, Tongliang; Liu, Cun; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-05-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) significantly affects the fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of arsenic in the environment. In the present study, we investigated the oxidation of As(III) in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) and benzoquinone (BQ), which were selected as model quinone moieties for NOM. It was found that As(III) was oxidized to As(V) in the presence of HQ or BQ at neutral conditions, and the oxidation efficiency of As(III) increased from 33% to 92% in HQ solutions and from 0 to 80% in BQ solutions with pH increasing from 6.5 to 8.5. The oxidation mechanism was further explored with electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The results showed that semiquinone radicals (SQ(-)) were generated from the comproportionation reaction between BQ and HQ, which mediated the formation of superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (OH). Both the SQ(-), H2O2 and OH contributed to the oxidation of As(III). The increase of pH favored the formation of SQ(-), and thus promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as As(III) oxidation. Increasing concentrations of HQ and BQ from 0.1 to 1.0 mM enhanced As(III) oxidation from 65% to 94% and from 10% to 53%, respectively. The findings of this study facilitate our understanding of the fate and transformation of As(III) in organic-rich aquatic environments and highlight quinone moieties as the potential oxidants for As(III) in the remediation of arsenic contaminated sites.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis and characterization of hydroquinone galactoside using Kluyveromyces lactis lactase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Go-Eun; Lee, Jin-Ha; Jung, Sun-Hwa; Seo, Eun-Seong; Jin, Sheng-De; Kim, Ghahyun J; Cha, Jaeho; Kim, Eui-Joong; Park, Ki-Deok; Kim, Doman

    2010-09-08

    Hydroquinone galactoside (HQ-Gal) as a potential skin whitening agent was synthesized by the reaction of lactase (beta-galactosidase) from Kluyveromyces lactis, Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus circulans, and Thermus sp. with lactose as a donor and HQ as an acceptor. Among these lactases, the acceptor reaction involving HQ and lactose with K. lactis lactase showed a higher conversion ratio to HQ-Gal (60.27%). HQ-Gal was purified using butanol partitioning and silica gel column chromatography. The structure of the purified HQ-Gal was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance, and the ionic product was observed at m/z 295 (C12H16O7Na)+ using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. HQ-Gal was identified as 4-hydroxyphenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside. The optimum conditions for HQ-Gal synthesis by K. lactis determined using response surface methodology were 50 mM HQ, 60 mM lactose, and 20 U mL(-1) lactase. These conditions produced a yield of 2.01 g L(-1) HQ-Gal. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was 3.31 mM, indicating a similar antioxidant activity compared to beta-arbutin (IC50=3.95 mM). The Ki value of HQ-Gal (0.75 mM) against tyrosinase was smaller than that of beta-arbutin (Ki=1.97 mM), indicating its superiority as an inhibitor. HQ-Gal inhibited (23%) melanin synthesis without being significantly toxic to the cells, while beta-arbutin exhibited only 8% reduction of melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells compared with the control. These results indicate that HQ-Gal may be a suitable functional component in the cosmetics industry.

  14. Protection of hydroquinone-induced apoptosis by downregulation of Fau is mediated by NQO1.

    PubMed

    Siew, E L; Chan, K M; Williams, G T; Ross, D; Inayat-Hussain, S H

    2012-10-15

    The Fau gene (Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MuSV)-associated ubiquitously expressed gene) was identified as a potential tumor suppressor gene using a forward genetics approach. Downregulation of Fau by overexpression of its reverse sequence has been shown to inhibit apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents. To address a potential role of Fau in benzene toxicity, we investigated the apoptotic effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a major benzene metabolite, in W7.2 mouse thymoma cells transfected with either a plasmid construct expressing the antisense sequence of Fau (rfau) or the empty vector (pcDNA3.1) as a control. HQ induced apoptosis via increased production of reactive oxygen species and DNA damage, measured using dihydroethidine (HE) staining and alkaline Comet assay, respectively, in W7.2 pcDNA3.1 cells. In contrast, when Fau was downregulated by the antisense sequence in W7.2 rfau cells, HQ treatment did not cause DNA damage and oxidative stress and these cells were markedly more resistant to HQ-induced apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that there was an upregulation of NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a detoxification enzyme for benzene-derived quinones, in W7.2 rfau cells. Compromising cellular NQO1 by use of a specific mechanism-based inhibitor (MAC 220) and NQO1 siRNA resensitized W7.2 rfau cells to HQ-induced apoptosis. Silencing of Fau in W7.2 wild-type cells resulted in increased levels of NQO1, confirming that downregulation of Fau results in NQO1 upregulation which protects against HQ-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine Hydroquinone Zonarol Prevents Inflammation and Apoptosis in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Mice Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Ueda, Yuki; Kitsuyama, Ryo; Shimizu, Hiroya; Tanimoto, Akihide; Wang, Ke-Yong; Nawata, Aya; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Satoh, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim We previously identified an anti-inflammatory compound, zonarol, a hydroquinone isolated from the brown algae Dictyopteris undulata as a marine natural product. To ascertain the in vivo functions of zonarol, we examined the pharmacological effects of zonarol administration on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC). Our goal is to establish a safe and effective cure for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using zonarol. Methods and Results We subjected Slc:ICR mice to the administration of 2% DSS in drinking water for 14 days. At the same time, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) at a dose of 50 mg/kg (positive control) and zonarol at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, were given orally once a day. DSS-treated animals developed symptoms similar to those of human UC, such as severe bloody diarrhea, which were evaluated by the disease activity index (DAI). Treatment with 20 mg/kg of zonarol, as well as 5-ASA, significantly suppressed the DAI score, and also led to a reduced colonic ulcer length and/or mucosal inflammatory infiltration by various immune cells, especially macrophages. Zonarol treatment significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory signaling molecules, and prevented the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, zonarol protected against in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation in the RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. Conclusions This is the first report that a marine bioproduct protects against experimental UC via the inhibition of both inflammation and apoptosis, very similar to the standard-of-care sulfasalazine, a well-known prodrug that releases 5-ASA. We believe that the oral administration of zonarol might offer a better treatment for human IBDs than 5-ASA, or may be useful as an alternative/additive therapeutic strategy against UC, without any evidence of side effects. PMID:25409433

  16. Simultaneous Detection and Estimation of Catechol, Hydroquinone, and Resorcinol in Binary and Ternary Mixtures Using Electrochemical Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Uzzal; Rahman, Md. Toufiqur; Ehsan, Md. Qamrul

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were performed with a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with polyglutamic acid (PGA) on the three dihydroxybenzene isomers, catechol (CT), hydroquinone (HQ), and resorcinol (RS). At bare GCE, these isomers exhibited voltammograms with highly overlapped redox peaks that impeded their simultaneous detection in binary and ternary mixtures. On the contrary, at PGA modified GCE binary and ternary mixtures of the dihydroxybenzene isomers showed well-resolved redox peaks in both CV and DPV experiments. This resolving ability of PGA modified GCE proves its potential to be exploited as an electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous detection of these isomers. PMID:26770198

  17. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of 4% Hydroquinone vs 0.75% Kojic Acid Cream in the Treatment of Facial Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rochelle C; Kishore, B Nanda; Bhat, Ramesh M; Sukumar, D; Martis, Jacintha; Ganesh, H Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired cause of facial hyperpigmentation seen predominantly among females with significant psychological and social impact. It is often recalcitrant to treatment. Several topical hypopigmenting agents have been used to combat melasma. Hydroquinone and Kojic Acid are well established monotherapeutic agents for treating melasma. Objectives: This study focuses mainly on the efficacy of once daily application of 4% Hydroquinone and 0.75% Kojic Acid cream (containing 0.75% Kojic acid and 2.5% vitamin C) so as to determine an effective modality of treatment for facial melasma. Materials and Methods: A total number of 60 patients with facial melasma attending the Out-patient department of Dermatology, Venerology and Leprosy, Fr. Muller Medical College Hospital, Mangalore from Oct 2008-April 2010 were studied. Patients were allocated alternately to group A and group B. Group A patients received 4% Hydroquinone cream and group B patient received a Kojic Acid cream (which contained 0.75% Kojic acid and 2.5% vitamin C) and were advised to apply topically once daily at night. Patients were followed up on 4th, 8th and 12th week. At each visit side effects were noted and clinical response to treatment was calculated using the MASI score. Statistical Methods: Chi square test, student ‘t’ test. Results: At the 4th week post treatment evaluation, facial hyperpigmentation responded early to 4% Hydroquinone cream than to 0.75% Kojic Acid cream. At the end of 12 week treatment period, 4% Hydroquinone cream had an overall superiority to 0.75% Kojic Acid cream as a topical hypopigmenting agent. Conclusion: The results of the study show that 4% Hydroquinone cream is a better topical hypopigmenting agent with rapid rate of clinical improvement when compared to 0.75% Kojic Acid cream. PMID:23716817

  18. Laccase-catalyzed carbon-nitrogen bond formation: coupling and derivatization of unprotected L-phenylalanine with different para-hydroquinones.

    PubMed

    Hahn, V; Mikolasch, A; Manda, K; Gördes, D; Thurow, K; Schauer, F

    2009-07-01

    Unprotected L-phenylalanine was derivatized by an innovative enzymatic method by means of laccases from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Myceliophthora thermophila. During the incubation of L-phenylalanine with para-hydroquinones using laccase as biocatalyst, one or two main products were formed. Dependent on the substitution grade of the hydroquinones mono- and diaminated products were detected. Differences of the used laccases are discussed. The described reactions are of interest for the derivatization of amino acids and a synthesis of pharmacological-active amino acid structures in the field of white biotechnology.

  19. Coordination versatility of p-hydroquinone-functionalized dibenzobarrelene-based PC(sp(3))P pincer ligands.

    PubMed

    De-Botton, Sophie; Romm, Ronit; Bensoussan, Guillaume; Hitrik, Maria; Musa, Sanaa; Gelman, Dmitri

    2016-10-12

    The manuscript describes the synthesis and coordination chemistry of a novel diphosphine pincer ligand based on a p-hydroquinone-functionalized dibenzobarrelene scaffold. The p-hydroquinone fragment of the ligand is oxidatively and coordinatively non-innocent and may render new reactivity to the metal center due to implied reversible redox behavior, tautomeric interconversion and metal-hydroxyl/alkoxide coordination switch of the pendant hydroxyl side-arm. Palladium, platinum and iridium complexes were prepared and characterized. Investigation of their coordination chemistry revealed that while tautomeric equilibrium exists in free ligands and in the chelate non-metalated complexes, it is essentially blocked in the corresponding C(sp(3))-pincer compounds due to stabilizing hemilabile coordination of the hydroxyl group. However, its presence in close proximity to the metal center is essential for catalyzing acceptorless dehydrogenation of alcohols by the iridium complexes via the outer-sphere hydrogen transfer mechanism. Remarkably, we found a similar activity for the analogous palladium complexes, which is not characteristic of this metal. This unprecedented reactivity of palladium stresses the fact that besides the choice of an active metal, transformation-oriented design of the ligand is crucial for catalysis.

  20. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-04

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  1. High-yield enzymatic bioconversion of hydroquinone to α-arbutin, a powerful skin lightening agent, by amylosucrase.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Ho; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Ha, Suk-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Kug; Jung, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Baek, Nam-In; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Park, Cheon-Seok

    2012-06-01

    α-Arbutin (α-Ab) is a powerful skin whitening agent that blocks epidermal melanin biosynthesis by inhibiting the enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). α-Ab was effectively synthesized from hydroquinone (HQ) by enzymatic biotransformation using amylosucrase (ASase). The ASase gene from Deinococcus geothermalis (DGAS) was expressed and efficiently purified from Escherichia coli using a constitutive expression system. The expressed DGAS was functional and performed a glycosyltransferase reaction using sucrose as a donor and HQ as an acceptor. The presence of a single HQ bioconversion product was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HQ bioconversion product was isolated by silica gel open column chromatography and its chemical structure determined by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The product was determined to be hydroquinone-O-α-D-glucopyranoside with a glucose molecule linked to HQ through an α-glycosidic bond. However, the production yield of the transfer reaction was significantly low (1.3%) due to the instability of HQ in the reaction mixture. The instability of HQ was considerably improved by antioxidant agents, particularly ascorbic acid, implying that HQ is labile to oxidation. A maximum yield of HQ transfer product of 90% was obtained at a 10:1 molar ratio of donor (sucrose) and acceptor (HQ) molecules in the presence of 0.2 mM ascorbic acid.

  2. Safety and efficacy of a novel multimodality hydroquinone-free skin brightener over six months.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Suzanne

    2013-03-01

    Abnormal accumulation of melanin is a common aesthetic skin concern. For years, the gold standard for the treatment of hyperpigmentary disorders has been 4% hydroquinone (HQ). Due to regulatory agencies around the world questioning the safety of HQ, there has been interest in developing new HQ-free skin brightening/lightening products. A multimodality product (skin brightening complex) addressing various pathways for melanogenesis was developed as an alternative to HQ. The skin brightening complex was studied for efficacy and tolerability in subjects with moderate to severe facial hyperpigmentation. Subjects were instructed to apply skin brightening complex to the entire face twice daily and to follow a standard skin care regimen (facial cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen) during the course of the study. The study was conducted over a 12-week period and consisted of evaluation visits at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. At each visit, subjects were evaluated by an investigator for clinical efficacy and tolerability using grading scales. Standardized digital photographs and spectrophotometric assessments were also taken. Self-assessment questionnaires were completed at weeks 4, 8, and 12. To assess longer-term safety and efficacy, 10 subjects elected to continue treatment for an additional 12 weeks (24 weeks total), with evaluations at weeks 18 and 24. Twenty-six subjects completed the 12-week study, and 8 subjects completed treatment for an additional 12 weeks (24 weeks in total). In the 12-week study, the skin brightening complex was shown to be effective and significantly improved Overall Hyperpigmentation at weeks 4, 8, and 12 compared with baseline. The skin brightening complex also significantly improved the Mottled Pigmentation Area and Severity Index ([MoPASI], a modified Melasma Area and Severity Index [MASI] scale) at weeks 8 and 12 compared with baseline. These efficacy benefits continued at 24 weeks. The product was well tolerated at all evaluation

  3. Role of hydroquinone-thiol conjugates in benzene-mediated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lau, Serrine S; Kuhlman, Christopher L; Bratton, Shawn B; Monks, Terrence J

    2010-03-19

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is a metabolite of benzene, and in combination with phenol (PHE), reproduces benzene myelotoxicity. HQ readily oxidizes to 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) followed by the reductive addition of glutathione (GSH). Subsequent cycles of oxidation and GSH addition give rise to a variety of mono-, and multi-GSH substituted conjugates. Following administration of PHE/HQ (1.1 mmol/kg/0.9 mmol/kg, ip) to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 2-(glutathion-S-yl)HQ [GS-HQ], 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)HQ [2,5-GS-HQ], 2,6-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)HQ [2,6-GS-HQ], and 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)HQ [2,3,5-GS-HQ] were all identified in bone marrow. 2-(Cystein-S-ylglycine)HQ [2-(CysGly)HQ], 2-(cystein-S-yl)HQ [2-(Cys)HQ], and 2-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)HQ [2-(NACys)HQ] were also found in the bone marrow of PHE/HQ and benzene treated rats and mice, indicating the presence of an active mercapturic acid pathway within bone marrow. Moreover, 2,6-GS-HQ and 2,3,5-GS-HQ were hematotoxic when administered to rats. All of the HQ-GSH conjugates retain the ability to redox cycle and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to arylate target proteins. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory revealed lysine and arginine residues as primary targets of 1,4-BQ, GS-HQ and 2-(NACys)HQ adduction. In contrast 1,4-BQ-adduction of cysteine residues may be a transient interaction, where physiological conditions dictate adduct stability. The generation of ROS and alkylation of proteins may both contribute to benzene-mediated myelotoxicity, and the two processes may be inter-dependent. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which benzene and HQ-GSH conjugates induce hematotoxicity remains to be determined. Within 18h of administration of PHE/HQ to SD rats a significant decrease in blood lymphocyte count was observed. At this early time point, erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin concentrations remained within the normal range. Concomitant with the decrease in lymphocyte count, western blot

  4. Inhibition by dietary hydroquinone of acetylaminofluorene induction of initiation of rat liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary M; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Jeffrey, Alan M; Duan, Jian-Dong

    2007-09-01

    Monocyclic phenolics (MPs) occur widely in foods, both naturally and as synthetic antioxidant additives. Several have been shown to inhibit the carcinogenicity of a variety of genotoxic carcinogens in various tissues. Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the simplest of the MPs, which occurs naturally as the glucose conjugate arbutin, was studied for its ability, at low dietary levels, to inhibit the initiating effects in the rat liver of the DNA-reactive carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF). Male Fischer 344 rats (F344), 8 weeks old at the start of the study, were allocated to six groups. HQ was fed daily ad libitum in PMI certified diet at either 0.05% (approximately 25 mg/kg bw/d) or 0.2% (approximately 100 mg/kg bw/d) for 13 weeks, starting one week before AAF administration was initiated, and at the same doses to two groups not receiving AAF. AAF was given intragastrically three times a week for 12 weeks at doses of 3mg/kg bw in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a basal diet group and two of the groups receiving HQ in the diet. Vehicle controls were fed basal diet and administered 0.5% CMC intragastrically three times a week. The rats were observed daily and body weights were taken before initial dosing and at weekly intervals thereafter. Body weight gain over time, terminal body weights and absolute (mg) and relative liver weights (relative to body weight) were measured. At the end of the study (13 weeks), DNA adducts ((32)P-postlabeling), cell proliferation (PCNA immunohistochemistry) and preneoplastic hepatocellular altered foci (HAF) (glutathione S-transferase-placental type immuno-histochemistry) were measured. No significant differences were observed in body weight gains or liver weights. AAF produced liver DNA adducts and at the low dose of HQ adduct levels were 90% of that for AAF alone, whereas at the high dose adducts were reduced by 33% (p<0.05). AAF exposure yielded about a 50% increase in hepatocellular proliferation and both HQ doses reduced the AAF

  5. Novel approach to the treatment of hyperpigmented photodamaged skin: 4% hydroquinone/0.3% retinol versus tretinoin 0.05% emollient cream.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2005-07-01

    Mild to moderately photodamaged skin is characterized by dyspigmentation, fine wrinkles, and tactile roughness. An optimal approach to the topical treatment of photoaging would simultaneously address all appearance issues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of 4% hydroquinone and 0.3% retinol in photoaging. A 16-week study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a single cream containing prescription topical 4% hydroquinone for dyspigmentation and the cosmeceutical 0.3% retinol for fine wrinkles in an emollient vehicle for tactile roughness. This novel formulation was compared with 0.05% tretinoin emollient cream, the standard against which all other topical photoaging treatments are compared. Investigator assessments, subject assessments, and photography represented the evaluation end points. The cosmeceutical emollient 4% hydroquinone/0.3% retinol cream more effectively diminished the collective signs of photodamage than 0.05% tretinoin emollient cream in terms of dyspigmentation, fine wrinkles, and tactile roughness in 16 weeks. Combination therapy of hydroquinone and retinol may improve photoaging-associated hyperpigmentation.

  6. Oxidative cyclization, 1,4-benzothiazine formation and dimerization of 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Monks, T J; Highet, R J; Lau, S S

    1990-07-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the renal-specific toxicity of quinol-linked GSH conjugates is probably a result of their metabolism by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and selective accumulation by proximal tubular cells. Transport of the resultant quinol-cysteine and/or cystein-S-ylglycine conjugate followed by oxidation to the quinone may be important steps in the mechanism of toxicity of these compounds. Factors modulating the intracellular and/or intralumenal concentration of the cystein-S-yl and cystein-S-ylglycine conjugate will, therefore, be important determinants of toxicity. We have now studied the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-mediated metabolism of 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone. The product of this reaction, 2-bromo-3-(cystein-S-ylglycyl)hydroquinone, undergoes an intramolecular cyclization to yield a 1,4-benzothiazine derivative that retains the glycine residue. A similar cyclization reaction occurs with 2-bromo-3-(cystein-S-yl)hydroquinone, which is unstable in aqueous solutions and undergoes a pH-dependent rearrangement that requires initial oxidation to the quinone. UV spectroscopy revealed that, at neutral pH, further reaction results in the formation of a chromophore, consistent with 1,4-benzothiazine formation. This product arises via cyclization of the cysteine residue via an intramolecular 1,4 Michael addition. Further reaction results in the precipitation of a pigment that exhibits properties of a pH indicator. The pigment undergoes a marked pH-dependent bathochromic shift (approximately 100 nm); it is red in alkali (lambda max, 480 nm) and violet in acid (lambda max, 578 nm). These properties are similar to those of the trichochrome polymers that are formed during melanin biosynthesis from S-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-L-cysteine. Because the intramolecular cyclization reactions remove the reactive quinone moiety from the molecules, they may be regarded as detoxication reactions. 1,4-Benzothiazine formation represents a novel

  7. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  8. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using 2,3,5,6-tetrakis-(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone as reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Manivel, P; Balamurugan, A; Ponpandian, N; Mangalaraj, D; Viswanathan, C

    2012-09-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetrakis-(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone (TMMH) was used as a reducing agent to synthesize spherical shaped silver nanoparticles in water-ethanol medium without using any stabilizing and capping agents. The reducing agent TMMH is prepared by Mannich-type reaction method and (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the compound (TMMH). The nature of bonding, structural and optical properties of the final product were analyzed using different techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The interaction between silver and reducing agent was confirmed by using FTIR analysis. The final product obtained showed higher crystallinity with cubic structure and an average crystalline size of about 20 nm. The results revealed that it is possible to synthesize crystalline Ag nanoparticles using organic compound as reducing agent.

  9. Hydroquinone Resin Induced Carbon Nanotubes on Ni Foam As Binder-Free Cathode for Li-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qian-Cheng; Du, Fei-Hu; Xu, Shu-Mao; Wang, Zong-Kai; Wang, Kai-Xue; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2016-02-17

    In this work, hydroquinone resin was used to grow carbon nanotubes directly on Ni foam. The composites were obtained via a simple carbonization method, which avoids using the explosive gaseous carbon precursors that are usually applied in the chemical vapor deposition method. When evaluated as cathode for Li-O2 batteries, the binder-free structure showed enhanced ORR/OER activities, thus giving a high rate capability (12690 mAh g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) and 3999 mAh g(-1) at 2000 mA g(-1)) and outstanding long-term cycling stability (capacity limited 2000 mAh g(-1), 110 cycles at 200 mA g(-1)). The excellent battery performance provides new insights into designing a low-cost and high-efficiency cathode for Li-O2 batteries.

  10. Novel synthesis of silver nanoparticles using 2,3,5,6-tetrakis-(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivel, P.; Balamurugan, A.; Ponpandian, N.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C.

    2,3,5,6-Tetrakis-(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone (TMMH) was used as a reducing agent to synthesize spherical shaped silver nanoparticles in water-ethanol medium without using any stabilizing and capping agents. The reducing agent TMMH is prepared by Mannich-type reaction method and 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the compound (TMMH). The nature of bonding, structural and optical properties of the final product were analyzed using different techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The interaction between silver and reducing agent was confirmed by using FTIR analysis. The final product obtained showed higher crystallinity with cubic structure and an average crystalline size of about 20 nm. The results revealed that it is possible to synthesize crystalline Ag nanoparticles using organic compound as reducing agent.

  11. Detection of hydrazine, methylhydrazine and isoniazid by capillary electrophoresis with a 4-pyridyl hydroquinone self-assembled microdisk platinum electrode.

    PubMed

    You, T; Niu, L; Gui, J Y; Dong, S; Wang, E

    1999-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE)/electrochemical detection (EC) for the simultaneous detection of hydrazine, methylhydrazine, and isoniazid has been developed with a 4-pyridyl hydroquinone self-assembled microdisk platinum electrode. Such an electrode has very high catalytic ability for hydrazines and they could be detected even at 0.0 V. The responses for hydrazine, methylhydrazine, and isoniazid are linear over 3 orders of detected concentration and of magnitude of 0.2-400 microM, 0.2-400 microM, 0.5 microM-2 mM, with correlation coefficients of 0.9998, 0.9991, and 0.9982, respectively. And they could be detected to levels of 0.1, 0.1 and 0.2 microM, respectively. This modified electrode was found to be very stable and reproducible when continuously used as detector for capillary electrophoresis for period of at least 4 weeks with no apparent loss of response.

  12. Adlayer of hydroquinone on Pt(111) in solution and in a vacuum studied by STM and LEED.

    PubMed

    Inukai, Junji; Wakisaka, Mitsuru; Yamagishi, Masaoki; Itaya, Kingo

    2004-08-31

    Hydroquinone (HQ) adlayers were formed on Pt(111) in HF solution and in a vacuum. By using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in solution, it was revealed that HQ formed an ordered structure on Pt(111) with a strong attractive interaction between two adjacent hydroxyl groups in neighboring HQ molecules. After the sample was transferred into a vacuum, low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) measurement was performed, which showed that the (2.56 x 2.56)R16 degrees incommensurate structure of the HQ adlayer was formed in solution. The HQ adlayer on Pt(111) was formed also by vapor deposition, and the identical (2.56 x 2.56)R16 degrees adlayer structure was found by LEED and STM in a vacuum.

  13. Electroless deposition of Au nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide/polyimide film for electrochemical detection of hydroquinone and catechol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xuan; Xia, Xiaohong; Du, Yongling; Wang, Chunming

    2017-09-01

    An electrochemical sensor for determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC) was developed using Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) fabricated on reduced graphene oxide/polyimide (PI/RGO) film by electroless deposition. The electrochemical behaviors of HQ and CC at PI/RGO-AuNPs electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under the optimized condition, the current responses at PI/RGO-AuNPs electrode were linear over ranges from 1 to 654 mol/L for HQ and from 2 to 1289 mol/L for CC, with the detection limits of 0.09 and 0.2 mol/L, respectively. The proposed electrode exhibited good reproducibility, stability and selectivity. In addition, the proposed electrode was successfully applied in the determination of HQ and CC in tap water and the Yellow River samples.

  14. Nanoscale Au-In alloy-oxide core-shell particles as electrocatalysts for efficient hydroquinone detection

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter, E.; Tong, X.; Medina-Plaza, C.; ...

    2015-10-09

    The presence of hydroquinone (HQ), a phenol ubiquitous in nature and widely used in industry, needs to be monitored because of its toxicity to the environment. Here we demonstrate efficient detection of HQ using simple, fast, and noninvasive electrochemical measurements on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with nanoparticles comprising bimetallic Au–In cores and mixed Au–In oxide shells. Whereas bare ITO electrodes show very low activity for the detection of HQ, their modification with Au–In core–shell nanoparticles induces a pronounced shift of the oxidation peak to lower potentials, i.e., facilitated oxidation. The response of the different electrodes was correlated withmore » the initial composition of the bimetallic nanoparticle cores, which in turn determined the amount of Au and In stabilized on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells available for the electrochemical reaction. While adding core–shell nanostructures with different compositions of the alloy core facilitates the electrocatalytic (reduction-) oxidation of HQ, the activity is highest for particles with AuIn cores (i.e., a Au:In ratio of 1). This optimal system is found to follow a single pathway, the two-electron oxidation of the quinone–hydroquinone couple, which gives rise to high oxidation peaks and is most effective in facilitating the electrode-to-analyte charge transfer and thus detection. The limits of detection (LOD) decreased when increasing the amount of Au exposed on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells. As a result the LODs were in the range of 10–5 – 10–6 M and were lower than those obtained using bulk Au.« less

  15. Nanoscale Au-In alloy-oxide core-shell particles as electrocatalysts for efficient hydroquinone detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, E.; Tong, X.; Medina-Plaza, C.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M. L.; Sutter, P.

    2015-10-09

    The presence of hydroquinone (HQ), a phenol ubiquitous in nature and widely used in industry, needs to be monitored because of its toxicity to the environment. Here we demonstrate efficient detection of HQ using simple, fast, and noninvasive electrochemical measurements on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with nanoparticles comprising bimetallic Au–In cores and mixed Au–In oxide shells. Whereas bare ITO electrodes show very low activity for the detection of HQ, their modification with Au–In core–shell nanoparticles induces a pronounced shift of the oxidation peak to lower potentials, i.e., facilitated oxidation. The response of the different electrodes was correlated with the initial composition of the bimetallic nanoparticle cores, which in turn determined the amount of Au and In stabilized on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells available for the electrochemical reaction. While adding core–shell nanostructures with different compositions of the alloy core facilitates the electrocatalytic (reduction-) oxidation of HQ, the activity is highest for particles with AuIn cores (i.e., a Au:In ratio of 1). This optimal system is found to follow a single pathway, the two-electron oxidation of the quinone–hydroquinone couple, which gives rise to high oxidation peaks and is most effective in facilitating the electrode-to-analyte charge transfer and thus detection. The limits of detection (LOD) decreased when increasing the amount of Au exposed on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells. As a result the LODs were in the range of 10–5 – 10–6 M and were lower than those obtained using bulk Au.

  16. Identification of the Monooxygenase Gene Clusters Responsible for the Regioselective Oxidation of Phenol to Hydroquinone in Mycobacteria▿

    PubMed Central

    Furuya, Toshiki; Hirose, Satomi; Osanai, Hisashi; Semba, Hisashi; Kino, Kuniki

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium goodii strain 12523 is an actinomycete that is able to oxidize phenol regioselectively at the para position to produce hydroquinone. In this study, we investigated the genes responsible for this unique regioselective oxidation. On the basis of the fact that the oxidation activity of M. goodii strain 12523 toward phenol is induced in the presence of acetone, we first identified acetone-induced proteins in this microorganism by two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of one of these acetone-induced proteins shares 100% identity with that of the protein encoded by the open reading frame Msmeg_1971 in Mycobacterium smegmatis strain mc2155, whose genome sequence has been determined. Since Msmeg_1971, Msmeg_1972, Msmeg_1973, and Msmeg_1974 constitute a putative binuclear iron monooxygenase gene cluster, we cloned this gene cluster of M. smegmatis strain mc2155 and its homologous gene cluster found in M. goodii strain 12523. Sequence analysis of these binuclear iron monooxygenase gene clusters revealed the presence of four genes designated mimABCD, which encode an oxygenase large subunit, a reductase, an oxygenase small subunit, and a coupling protein, respectively. When the mimA gene (Msmeg_1971) of M. smegmatis strain mc2155, which was also found to be able to oxidize phenol to hydroquinone, was deleted, this mutant lost the oxidation ability. This ability was restored by introduction of the mimA gene of M. smegmatis strain mc2155 or of M. goodii strain 12523 into this mutant. Interestingly, we found that these gene clusters also play essential roles in propane and acetone metabolism in these mycobacteria. PMID:21183637

  17. Fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhui; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2011-07-15

    A fast and sensitive HPLC method for analysis of cosmetic creams for hydroquinone, phenol and six preservatives has been developed. The influence of sample preparation conditions and the composition of the mobile phase and elution mode were investigated to optimize the separation of the eight studied components. Final conditions were 60% methanol and 40% water (v/v) extraction of the cosmetic creams. A C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm) was used as the separation column and the mobile phase consisted of methanol and 0.05 mol/L ammonium formate in water (pH=3.0) with gradient elution. The results showed that complete separation of the eight studied components was achieved within 10 min, the linear ranges were 1.0-200 μg/mL for phenol, 0.1-150 μg/mL for sorbic acid, 2.0-200 μg/mL for benzoic acid, 0.5-200 μg/mL for hydroquinone, methyl paraben, ethyl paraben and propyl paraben, butyl paraben, and good linear correlation coefficient (≥0.9997) were obtained, the detection limit was in the range of 0.05-1.0 μg/mL, the average recovery was between 86.5% and 116.3%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5.0% (n=6). The method is easy, fast and sensitive, it can be employed to analyze component residues in cosmetic creams especially in a quality control setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Copper-catalyzed hydroquinone oxidation and associated redox cycling of copper under conditions typical of natural saline waters.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiu; Pham, A Ninh; Miller, Christopher J; Waite, T David

    2013-08-06

    A detailed kinetic model has been developed to describe the oxidation of Cu(I) by O2 and the reduction of Cu(II) by 1,4-hydroquinone (H2Q) in the presence of O2 in 0.7 M NaCl solution over a pH range of 6.5-8.0. The reaction between Cu(I) and O2 is shown to be the most important pathway in the overall oxidation of Cu(I), with the rate constant for this oxidation process increasing with an increasing pH. In 0.7 M NaCl solutions, Cu(II) is capable of catalyzing the oxidation of H2Q in the presence of O2 with the monoanion, HQ(-), the kinetically active hydroquinone form, reducing Cu(II) with an intrinsic rate constant of (5.0 ± 0.4) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). Acting as a chain-propagating species, the deprotonated semiquinone radical (SQ(•) (-)) generated from both the one-electron oxidation of H2Q and the one-electron reduction of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) also reacts rapidly with Cu(II) and Cu(I), with the same rate constant of (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). In addition to its role in reformation of Cu(II) via continuous oxidation of Cu(I), O2 rapidly removes SQ(•) (-), resulting in the generation of O2(•) (-). Agreement between half-cell reduction potentials of different redox couples provides confirmation of the veracity of the proposed model describing the interactions of copper and quinone species in circumneutral pH saline solutions.

  19. Antimycobacterial activity of methanolic plant extract of Artemisia capillaris containing ursolic acid and hydroquinone against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Md Anirban; Nam, Kung-Woo; Jang, Woong Sik; Kim, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Kyung; Lee, Byung-Eui; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2016-04-01

    In order to protect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection, novel drugs and new targets should be screened from the vast source of plants. We investigated the potentiality of the herbal plant of Artemisia capillaris extract (AC) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we isolated ursolic acid and hydroquinone by bio-activity guided fractionation from the methanol extracts of AC, and tested the inhibitory effects against several strains of MTB. Anti-mycobacterial evaluation of these compounds was carried out using the MGIT™ 960 and resazurin assay. Mycobacterial morphological changes due to the treatment of these compounds were further evaluated by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ursolic acid (UA) and hydroquinone (HQ) inhibited the growth of both susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of both UA and HQ were 12.5 μg/ml against the susceptible strains of M. tuberculosis. Also both UA and HQ showed 12.5-25 μg/ml of MIC values against MDR/XDR MTB strains. However, against clinical strains of MTB, UA was found sensitive against those strains that are sensitive against both INH and RFP but resistant against those strains that are resistant to INH. On the other hand HQ was sensitive against all clinical strains. TEM image-analysis of the strain H37Ra after treatment with UA revealed cell wall lysis, whereas HQ-treated cells showed deformed cytoplasmic morphology. All these results indicate that AC extracts containing UA and HQ possess promising chemotherapeutic potency against MTB for future use. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetic modeling and determination role of sono/photo nanocatalyst-generated radical species on degradation of hydroquinone in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Sajad; Ayati, Bita; Rezaee, Abbas

    2016-06-01

    Experimental findings of sonophotocatalytic process were used in degradation of hydroquinone to assess kinetic modeling and determine the effect of various active radical species. First, the effects of three photocatalytic, sonocatalytic, and sonophotocatalytic processes were studied for hydroquinone removal to determine kinetic constants and calculate the activation energy of reactions, and then the selected process was evaluated to determine active radical species. The reactor was composed of two parts, one included ultrasonic probe (sonocatalytic part) with powers 22, 80, and 176 W and the second part was the location of UV lamp (photocatalytic part) with tubular flow and power 15 W. After three systems were examined and the efficient system was selected, the role of different active species such as hydroxyl radical (OH(·)), superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), hole (h(+)), electrons (e (-)), and single oxygen molecule ((1)O2) and contribution of each of them were determined in hydroquinone degradation. According to tests, the results of this study showed that sonophotocatalytic integrated method as selected system among three systems studied followed the first-order equation for hydroquinone degradation and active hydroxyl species with 45 % and electron and hole with 15 and 10 %, respectively, had the highest and lowest contributions to conversion of hydroquinone. The findings showed that dissolved oxygen increases the capability of active radical formation so that 28.2 % of hydroquinone removal was increased under aeration compared to without aeration. Also, removal efficiency decreased 62 % with N2 injection due to the withdrawal of oxygen from the sample. By adding 25 Mm of sodium azide (NaN3) to stock solution, 46.5 % reduction was developed because single oxygen ((1)O2) played the role of an active species. The advantages of integrated sonocatalytic and photocatalytic method are the generation of active radical species with more variety and ultimately

  1. Simultaneous determination of arbutin and its decomposed product hydroquinone in whitening creams using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection: Effect of temperature and pH on decomposition.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J S; Kim, B H; Lee, S H; Kwon, H J; Bae, H J; Kim, S K; Park, J A; Shim, J H; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, H C

    2015-12-01

    Arbutin is an effective agent for the treatment of melanin disorders. Arbutin may be converted to hydroquinone under conditions of high temperature, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dilute acid. The aim of the current study was to develop an analytical method to determine the levels of arbutin and hydroquinone in whitening cosmetic products using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-DAD). In addition, we investigated the effects of high temperature and pH on the decomposition of arbutin. Samples extracted using two-step sonications were separated on a C18 column using a gradient mobile phase consisting of water and methanol. A 60-mm (40 μL) DAD cell was used to enhance the sensitivity of hydroquinone determination. Thermal decomposition of arbutin was evaluated at temperatures ranging from 60 to 120°C for 1-36 h. The method showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9997), precision (relative standard deviation, RSD < 5%) and acceptable extraction recovery (90-102.6%). The limits of quantitation for arbutin and hydroquinone were 0.0085 and 0.0119 μg mL(-1) , respectively. One sample of 21 cosmetic products tested contained arbutin at a concentration 1.61 g 100 g(-1) cream and 0.12 g 100 g(-1) cream of hydroquinone. Arbutin (327.18 ppm) decomposed after 6 h at 120°C and produced 10.73 ppm of hydroquinone. The developed method is simple to detect both arbutin and hydroquinone simultaneously in cosmetic products, at an adequate level of sensitivity. Notably, temperature and pH did not influence the decomposition of arbutin to hydroquinone in a 2% arbutin cream. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Spectral Sensitization of the Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Oxidation of Hydroquinone in Aqueous Solutions at Phthalocyanine-Coated TiO2 Powders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    The photocatalyzed reaction of hydroquinone with oxygen at TiO2 (anatase) powders coated with metal-free or magnesium phthalocyanine under...irradiation with light of energy less than the TiO2 band gap is described. The behavior at the powders is correlated with current-potential curves at single...crystal n-type TiO2 electrode and an energy level scheme for the reaction is proposed. (Author)

  3. Crystal Structure of PnpCD, a Two-subunit Hydroquinone 1,2-Dioxygenase, Reveals a Novel Structural Class of Fe2+-dependent Dioxygenases*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiheng; Su, Tiantian; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Wen-Mao; Zhu, Deyu; Su, Jing; Wei, Tiandi; Wang, Kang; Huang, Yan; Guo, Liming; Xu, Sujuan; Zhou, Ning-Yi; Gu, Lichuan

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic microorganisms have evolved a variety of pathways to degrade aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. However, only several classes of oxygenolytic fission reaction have been identified for the critical ring cleavage dioxygenases. Among them, the most well studied dioxygenases proceed via catecholic intermediates, followed by noncatecholic hydroxy-substituted aromatic carboxylic acids. Therefore, the recently reported hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenases add to the diversity of ring cleavage reactions. Two-subunit hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase PnpCD, the key enzyme in the hydroquinone pathway of para-nitrophenol degradation, catalyzes the ring cleavage of hydroquinone to γ-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. Here, we report three PnpCD structures, named apo-PnpCD, PnpCD-Fe3+, and PnpCD-Cd2+-HBN (substrate analog hydroxyenzonitrile), respectively. Structural analysis showed that both the PnpC and the C-terminal domains of PnpD comprise a conserved cupin fold, whereas PnpC cannot form a competent metal binding pocket as can PnpD cupin. Four residues of PnpD (His-256, Asn-258, Glu-262, and His-303) were observed to coordinate the iron ion. The Asn-258 coordination is particularly interesting because this coordinating residue has never been observed in the homologous cupin structures of PnpCD. Asn-258 is proposed to play a pivotal role in binding the iron prior to the enzymatic reaction, but it might lose coordination to the iron when the reaction begins. PnpD also consists of an intriguing N-terminal domain that might have functions other than nucleic acid binding in its structural homologs. In summary, PnpCD has no apparent evolutionary relationship with other iron-dependent dioxygenases and therefore defines a new structural class. The study of PnpCD might add to the understanding of the ring cleavage of dioxygenases. PMID:26304122

  4. Kojic Acid vis-a-vis its Combinations with Hydroquinone and Betamethasone Valerate in Melasma: A Randomized, Single Blind, Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Kirti S.; Dash, Kedar N.; Sharma, Yugal K.; Virmani, Neha C.; Oberai, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a relatively common, acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by irregular light to gray-brown macules involving sun-exposed areas. Kojic acid, with its depigmenting potential due to tyrosinase inhibition and suppression of melanogenesis, has become a vital component of the dermatologists’ armamentarium against melasma. Aim: To study and compare the efficacy of kojic acid 1% alone, vis-a-vis its separate combinations with 2% hydroquinone or 0.1% betamethasone valerate and a combination of all these three agents with respect to the duration of symptoms and level of pigmentation in the therapy of melasma. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients from a single tertiary care center objectively assessed by calculating the melasma area severity index (MASI) and randomized (simple randomization) into four parallel groups (A, B, C, and D) of 20 each were prescribed once daily local application at night, (participants blinded regarding the difference in identity of interventions), as follows: Group A – kojic acid 1% cream. Group B – kojic acid 1% and hydroquinone 2% cream. Group C – kojic acid 1% and betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream. Group D – kojic acid 1%, hydroquinone 2%, and betamethasone valerate 0.1% cream. Strict photoprotection and use of a SPF 15 sunscreen was advised during the day. Patients were evaluated every 2 weeks and a fall in MASI score was calculated at the end of the study period of 12 weeks by the same investigator. Results: The response was compared according to percentage decrease in MASI score. Efficacy was evaluated among the groups at the end of 3 months using bivariate analysis and calculated by using the paired ‘t’ test. The clinical efficacy of group B was the highest followed closely by group D and group A, that of group C being the lowest. Conclusion: Kojic acid in synergy with hydroquinone is a superior depigmenting agent as compared with other combinations. PMID:23918998

  5. Characterization of MnpC, a hydroquinone dioxygenase likely involved in the meta-nitrophenol degradation by Cupriavidus necator JMP134.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ying; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134 utilizes meta-nitrophenol (MNP) as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. The metabolic reconstruction of MNP degradation performed in silico suggested that MnpC might have played an important role in MNP degradation. In order to experimentally confirm the prediction, we have now characterized the mnpC-encoded (amino)hydroquinone dioxygenase involved in the ring-cleavage reaction of MNP degradation. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that mnpC played an essential role in MNP degradation. MnpC was purified to homogeneity as an N-terminal six-His-tagged fusion protein, and it was proved to be a dimer as demonstrated by gel filtration. MnpC was a Fe(2+)- and Mn(2+)-dependent dioxygenase, catalyzing the ring-cleavage of hydroquinone to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in vitro and proposed as an aminohydroquinone dioxygenase involved in MNP degradation in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that MnpC diverged from the other (chloro)hydroquinone dioxygenases at an earlier point, which might result in the preference for its physiological substrate.

  6. Electrochemical behavior of ascorbic acid at a 2,2'-[3,6-Dioxa-1,8-octanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Taleat, Zahra; Mazloum Ardakani, Mohammad; Naeimi, Hossein; Beitollahi, Hadi; Nejati, Maryam; Reza Zare, Hamid

    2008-08-01

    Electrocatalytic oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) at a carbon paste electrode, chemically modified 2,2'-[3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone, was thoroughly investigated. The results of cyclic voltammetry, double potential-step chronoamperometry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies were used for the prediction of the mechanism of electrochemical oxidation of AA mediated with 2,2'-[3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone at the surface of the modified electrode. The diffusion coefficient (D = 2.45 x 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1)) and the kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient (alpha = 0.34) were also determined. The results of DPV using the 2,2'-[3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanediylbis(nitriloethylidyne)]-bis-hydroquinone-modified electrode were applied in a highly sensitive determination of AA in drug samples. A linear range of 3.0 x 10(-6) - 1.2 x 10(-4) M and the detection limit (3sigma) 3.8 x 10(-7) M were obtained for DPV determination of AA in buffered pH 7.00 solutions (0.1 M phosphate buffer).

  7. Effect of cobalt doping level of ferrites in enhancing sensitivity of analytical performances of carbon paste electrode for simultaneous determination of catechol and hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Lakić, Mladen; Vukadinović, Aleksandar; Kalcher, Kurt; Nikolić, Aleksandar S; Stanković, Dalibor M

    2016-12-01

    This work presents the simultaneous determination of catechol (CC) and hydroquinone (HQ), employing a modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) with ferrite nanomaterial. Ferrite nanomaterial was doped with different amount of cobalt and this was investigated toward simultaneous oxidation of CC and HQ. It was shown that this modification strongly increases electrochemical characteristics of the CPE. Also, electrocatalytic activity of such materials strongly depends on the level of substituted Co in the ferrite nanoparticles. The modified electrodes, labeled as CoFerrite/CPE, showed two pairs of well-defined redox peaks for the electrochemical processes of catechol and hydroquinone. Involving of ferrite material in the structure of CPE, cause increase in the potentials differences between redox couples of the investigated compounds, accompanied with increases in peaks currents. Several important parameters were optimized and calibration curves, with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.15 and 0.3µM for catechol and hydroquinone, respectively, were constructed by employing amperometric detection. Effect of possible interfering compounds was also studied, and proposed method was successfully applied for CC and HQ quantification in real samples.

  8. Speciation of ferric phenoxide intermediates during the reduction of iron(III)-μ-oxo dimers by hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Kerber, William D; Perez, Kaitlyn A; Ren, Chuqiao; Siegler, Maxime A

    2014-11-03

    The aqueous speciation of iron(III)-tris(pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) complexes was determined from potentiometric titration data, and the overall formation constants (β) for relevant species were calculated. At pH < 3 the mononuclear complex [Fe(TPA)](+3)(aq) predominates (log β = 10.75(15). Above pH 3 Fe(3+)-OH2 hydrolysis produces the μ-oxo dimer [Fe2(μ-O)(TPA)2(H2O)2](+4) (1a; log β = 19.91(12)). This species is a diprotic acid with the conjugate bases [Fe2(μ-O)(TPA)2(H2O)(OH)](+3) (1b; log β = 15.53(6)) and [Fe2(μ-O)(TPA)2(OH)2](+2) (1c; log β = 10.27(7)). The pKas of 1a are 4.38(14) and 5.26(9). Compounds 1a-c quantitatively oxidize hydroquinone to benzoquinone with concomitant formation of 2 equiv of Fe(II). Kinetic and spectroscopic data at pH 5.6 are consistent with rapid equilibrium formation of a diiron(III)-phenoxide intermediate followed by rate-controlling electron transfer. The equilibrium constant for the formation of the intermediate complex is 25(3) M(-1), and the rate constant for its decomposition is 0.56(9) s(-1). A kinetic isotope effect of kH/kD = 1.5 was determined from proton inventory experiments in mixed H/D media. The μ-oxo-diiron(III) phenoxide intermediate is hydrolyzed in a pH dependent process to form a mononuclear iron(III)-phenoxide, which complicates the kinetics by introducing a fractional dependence on total iron(III) concentration in the pH range 4.1-5.2. The pH-dependent cleavage of μ-oxo-diiron(III)-phenoxides was investigated with phenol, a redox-inert proxy for hydroquinone. The addition of phenol to 1 facilitates acidic cleavage of the μ-oxo dimer to form [Fe(TPA)(OPh)(H2O)](+2), which becomes the dominant iron(III)-phenoxide as the pH decreases to 4. The 2-naphtholate analogue of this intermediate, [Fe(TPA)(2-naphtholate)(OCH3)]ClO4 (6), was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (C29H28FeN4O2,ClO4; P21; a = 13.2646(2) Å, b = 15.2234(3) Å, c = 13.7942(3) Å; Z = 4).

  9. Study of Hydroquinone Mediated Cytotoxicity and Hypopigmentation Effects from UVB-Irradiated Arbutin and DeoxyArbutin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Nai-Fang; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Ying-Ju; Tai, Ting-Hsuan; Chen, An-Ni; Huang, Chen-Hsuan; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2017-01-01

    Arbutin (Arb) and deoxyArbutin (dA) are both effective hypopigmentation agents. However, they are glucoside derivatives of hydroquinone (HQ), which may be decayed into HQ under higher energy environments. Therefore, safety and toxicity are very important issues when considering the usage of these compounds. However, no study has verified the properties of Ultra-Violet B (UVB)-irradiated Arb and dA. In this work, we investigated the cytotoxicity and hypopigmentation effects of UVB-irradiated Arb and dA in Detroit 551 human fibroblast cells and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells. The results showed that UVB-irradiated Arb and dA have strong cytotoxicity for the fibroblast cells, especially for dA, the caspase-3 is also activated by the treatment of UVB-irradiated dA in Detroit 551 cells. The results correlated with the produced HQ. In addition, UVB-irradiated Arb and dA suppressed the production of melanin in melanoma cells; this is due to the release of HQ that compensates for the UVB triggered Arb and dA decomposition. PMID:28467382

  10. Graphene-like carbon nanosheets as a new electrode material for electrochemical determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongmei; Wang, Shuqin; Deng, Wenfang; Zhang, Youming; Tan, Yueming; Xie, Qingji; Ma, Ming

    2017-03-01

    We report here graphene-like carbon nanosheets (GCN) as a new electrode material for the electrochemical determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC). The GCN were prepared from maltose using ammonia chloride as a blowing agent and cobalt nitrate as a graphitization catalyst precursor. The as-prepared GCN material shows high graphitization degree, abundant porosity, and large specific surface area. Two well-separated anodic peaks for HQ and CC are obtained at GCN modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a peak-to-peak separation of 118mV. The redox peak currents of HQ and CC at GCN/GCE were much higher than those at bare GCE and reduced graphene oxide modified GCE. For differential pulse voltammetric detection of HQ and CC, the GCN/GCE shows linear response ranges of 1×10(-7) ̶ 3×10(-5)M for HQ and 5×10(-7) ̶ 5×10(-5)M for CC, with detection limits of 2×10(-8)M for HQ, and 5×10(-8) M for CC. Satisfactory recoveries were achieved for the determination of HQ and CC in real water samples.

  11. A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of Niacinamide 4% versus Hydroquinone 4% in the Treatment of Melasma.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Solís, Josefina; Castanedo-Cázares, Juan Pablo; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtemoc; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; González, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Ramírez, Juan David; Moncada, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Background. Multiple modalities have been used in the treatment of melasma with variable success. Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties and is able to decrease the transfer of melanosomes. Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of topical niacinamide versus hydroquinone (HQ) in melasma patients. Patients and Methods. Twenty-seven melasma patients were randomized to receive for eight weeks 4% niacinamide cream on one side of the face, and 4% HQ cream on the other. Sunscreen was applied along the observation period. They were assessed by noninvasive techniques for the evaluation of skin color, as well as subjective scales and histological sections initially and after the treatment with niacinamide. Results. All patients showed pigment improvement with both treatments. Colorimetric measures did not show statistical differences between both sides. However, good to excellent improvement was observed with niacinamide in 44% of patients, compared to 55% with HQ. Niacinamide reduced importantly the mast cell infiltrate and showed improvement of solar elastosis in melasma skin. Side effects were present in 18% with niacinamide versus 29% with HQ. Conclusion. Niacinamide induces a decrease in pigmentation, inflammatory infiltrate, and solar elastosis. Niacinamide is a safe and effective therapeutic agent for this condition.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on hydroquinone/benzoquinone as bio-inspired redox couple with different counter electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming; Yang, Xichuan; Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Jianghua; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng

    2013-09-28

    In the present study, tetramethylammonium hydroquinone (HQ)/benzoquinone (BQ) were developed for use as a redox couple, with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) being proposed for use as counter electrode (CE) catalysts in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Both metal-complex N719 and metal-free organic dye CM309 were employed to fabricate devices. For the devices sensitized by N719, when using PEDOT and MWNT CEs, power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 5.2 and 4.9% were obtained, respectively, which were much higher than that of the device using the traditional Pt CE (4.7%) when HQ/BQ electrolyte was employed. However, with the HQ/BQ redox shuttle, the efficiency of the devices sensitized by N719 is much lower than that of the devices when the traditional I(-)/I3(-) based electrolyte and Pt CE were employed (7.9%). While for the CM309 sensitized solar cells, when the HQ/BQ redox shuttle was employed, PEDOT and MWNT performed much better than Pt, the DSSC using the PEDOT CE showed an efficiency of 6.2%, which was close to that of the DSSC using the traditional I(-)/I3(-) electrolyte and Pt CE (6.3%).

  13. Synthesis, anti-HIV activity, integrase enzyme inhibition and molecular modeling of catechol, hydroquinone and quinol labdane analogs.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rohan; Das, Tiyasa; Mishra, Sanjay; Nutan; Pancholi, Boskey; Gupta, Satish K; Bhat, Sujata V

    2014-01-01

    Labdane analogs with o-quinol, catechol and hydroquinone moiety have been synthesized using Diels-Alder reaction of methyl 3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-carboxylate, 3,4-dioxocyclohexa-1,5-diene-carboxylic acid and 3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-dienecarboxylic acid with mono terpene 1,3-dienes, namely ocimene and myrcene. The resulting molecules and their derivatives were evaluated for their anti-HIV-1 activity using TZM-bl cell based virus infectivity assay. Two molecules 13 and 18 showed anti-HIV activity with IC50 values 5.0 (TI=11) and 4.6 (TI=46)μM, respectively. The compounds 17, 18 and 20 showed efficacy against HIV-1 integrase activity and showed inhibition with IC50 13.4, 11.1 and 11.5μM, respectively. The HIV-1 integrase inhibition activity of these synthetic molecules was comparable with integric acid, the natural fungal metabolite. Molecular modeling studies for the HIV-1 integrase inhibition of these active synthetic molecules indicated the binding to the active site residues of the enzyme.

  14. Poly(4-vinylphenylboronic acid) functionalized polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanosheets for simultaneous electrochemical determination of catechol and hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hui; Liu, Meihong; Cao, Zhenqian; Ji, Chunguang; Sun, Ying; Liu, Daliang; Wu, Shuyao; Zhang, Yu; Song, Xi-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Novel poly(4-vinylphenylboronic acid) (P4VPBA) functionalized polypyrrole/graphene oxide (PPy/GO) nanosheets, which combined the advantages of GO, PPy and PBA groups, were successfully prepared by a simple polymerization of 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (4VPBA) on the surface of pre-treated PPy/GO containing vinyl groups. Because of the synergistic effects of GO with excellent 2D structures and large surface area, PPy with good electronic conductivity and PBA with high recognition capability, P4VPBA/PPy/GO modified glassy carbon electrode presented excellent electrochemical sensing capabilities toward catechol (CC) and hydroquinone (HQ) with good stability, high sensitivity and selectivity, especially giving a large anodic peak potential difference between CC and HQ enough to well distinguish and simultaneously determine the two dihydroxybenzene isomers in their mixture. It is found that PBA groups on the surface of P4VPBA/PPy/GO nanosheets played an essential role for the discrimination and simultaneous electrochemical determination of CC and HQ, which may be due to the selective formation of stable cyclic esters by the covalent interaction between PBA groups and related molecules with a cis-diol in an alkaline aqueous solution. Therefore, P4VPBA/PPy/GO nanosheets can act as a good electrode material for building a steady electrochemical sensor for detecting the two dihydroxybenzene isomers with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  15. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol by voltammetry using graphene screen-printed electrodes and partial least squares calibration.

    PubMed

    Aragó, Miriam; Ariño, Cristina; Dago, Àngela; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2016-11-01

    Catechol (CC), resorcinol (RC) and hydroquinone (HQ) are dihydroxybenzene isomers that usually coexist in different samples and can be determined using voltammetric techniques taking profit of their fast response, high sensitivity and selectivity, cheap instrumentation, simple and timesaving operation modes. However, a strong overlapping of CC and HQ signals is observed hindering their accurate analysis. In the present work, the combination of differential pulse voltammetry with graphene screen-printed electrodes (allowing detection limits of 2.7, 1.7 and 2.4µmolL(-1) for HQ, CC and RC respectively) and the data analysis by partial least squares calibration (giving root mean square errors of prediction, RMSEP values, of 2.6, 4.1 and 2.3 for HQ, CC and RC respectively) has been proposed as a powerful tool for the quantification of mixtures of these dihydroxybenzene isomers. The commercial availability of the screen-printed devices and the low cost and simplicity of the analysis suggest that the proposed method can be a valuable alternative to chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for the considered species. The method has been applied to the analysis of these isomers in spiked tap water.

  16. A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of Niacinamide 4% versus Hydroquinone 4% in the Treatment of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Solís, Josefina; Castanedo-Cázares, Juan Pablo; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtemoc; Fuentes-Ahumada, Cornelia; González, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Ramírez, Juan David; Moncada, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Background. Multiple modalities have been used in the treatment of melasma with variable success. Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory properties and is able to decrease the transfer of melanosomes. Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of topical niacinamide versus hydroquinone (HQ) in melasma patients. Patients and Methods. Twenty-seven melasma patients were randomized to receive for eight weeks 4% niacinamide cream on one side of the face, and 4% HQ cream on the other. Sunscreen was applied along the observation period. They were assessed by noninvasive techniques for the evaluation of skin color, as well as subjective scales and histological sections initially and after the treatment with niacinamide. Results. All patients showed pigment improvement with both treatments. Colorimetric measures did not show statistical differences between both sides. However, good to excellent improvement was observed with niacinamide in 44% of patients, compared to 55% with HQ. Niacinamide reduced importantly the mast cell infiltrate and showed improvement of solar elastosis in melasma skin. Side effects were present in 18% with niacinamide versus 29% with HQ. Conclusion. Niacinamide induces a decrease in pigmentation, inflammatory infiltrate, and solar elastosis. Niacinamide is a safe and effective therapeutic agent for this condition. PMID:21822427

  17. Comparison between the efficacy of 10% zinc sulfate solution with 4% hydroquinone cream on improvement of melasma

    PubMed Central

    Iraji, Fariba; Tagmirriahi, Nabet; Gavidnia, Keyvan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Melasma, a common disorder of hyperpigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Although 10% zinc sulfate solution has been reported to be useful for patients with melasma, controlled trials are lacking. Materials and Methods: 72 women with moderate to severe melasma were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with 10% zinc sulfate solution and group B with 4% hydroquinone cream twice-daily. The results were evaluated by photoevaluation by patients based on subjective satisfaction and a blinded dermatologist using MASI score. Assessments were obtained at baseline and at 2 and 6 months after starting treatment. Results: According to MASI score changes during treatment, there was a reduction in both groups at 2 months, however, the reduction in group B was more significant (the reduction in mean ± SD MASI was 0.7 ± 0.7 in group A vs. 2.7 ± 1.6 in group B). In addition, the patients in group B continued to decrease MASI score for the remainder of the study period at 6 months follow-up (0.3 ± 0.5) in comparison with patients in group A who did not show more reduction in MASI score. Conclusions: The study indicates that topical zinc sulfate is not as effective in treating disease as was observed in the previous open study. A comparative study with sunscreen and placebo is necessary to determine if topical zinc sulfate is truly superior to sunscreen and placebo in this respect. PMID:23326770

  18. Carbon nanosheets-based supercapacitors: Design of dual redox additives of 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone and hydroquinone for improved performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Sun, Xiao Na; Hu, Wei; Chen, Xiang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Using thiocarbanilide and Mg(OH)2 powders as carbon precursor and template, respectively, novel 2D carbon nanosheets with large area have been produced. Next, based on the cooperative effect, 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone (DQ) and hydroquinone (HQ) regarded as efficient dual redox additives have been incorporated into the electrode carbon material and H2SO4 electrolyte, respectively, to largely elevate the capacitive performance of supercapacitors. More importantly, the cooperative effect results from the redox processes of DQ and HQ consecutively occurring in the electrode carbon material and aqueous H2SO4 electrolyte, respectively. Besides, the molar ratio of DQ and HQ exerts a crucial role in the determination of the electrochemical behaviors and eventually the optimum condition is the mass ratio of 1:1 concerning the DQ and porous carbon within solid electrode while retaining the HQ concentration as 20 mmol L-1 in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. As a result, the maximum specific capacitance is achieved of 239 F g-1 at 3 A g-1, and furthermore the maximum energy density up to 21.1 Wh kg-1 is almost 3.5 times larger than that of the one without introducing any redox additive.

  19. Intermittent therapy for melasma in Asian patients with combined topical agents (retinoic acid, hydroquinone and hydrocortisone): clinical and histological studies.

    PubMed

    Kang, W H; Chun, S C; Lee, S

    1998-09-01

    Melasma is a common problem in Asians, but treatments have not been satisfactory. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of a new formula containing 0.1% tretinoin, 5% hydroquinone, and 1% hydrocortisone (RHQ) in Korean patients with melasma. Twenty-five Korean females with therapy recalcitrant melasma applied RHQ on their faces for 4 months and were evaluated before and 4 weeks after treatment clinically and histologically. They were also evaluated clinically 4 months after treatment. To minimize unavoidable side effects (erythema or peeling), we applied RHQ twice a week instead of the usual daily application. However, we obtained clinical and histological results comparable to other reports from white populations. Statistically significant depigmentation in clinical and histological studies and increased subepidermal collagen synthesis were observed in this study. These effects were seen as early as 4 weeks after treatment with RHQ. We used mMASI scoring, a modified version of the original MASI, to quantify the effects of RHQ more objectively and easily.

  20. Arsenic redox changes by microbially and chemically formed semiquinone radicals and hydroquinones in a humic substance model quinone.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Bauer, Iris; Paul, Andrea; Kappler, Andreas

    2009-05-15

    Arsenic is a redox-active metalloid whose toxicity and mobility strongly depends on its oxidation state, with arsenite (As(III)) being more toxic and mobile than arsenate (As(V)). Humic substances (HS) are also redox-active and can potentially react with arsenic and change its redox state. In this study we show that semiquinone radicals produced during microbial or chemical reduction of a HS model quinone (AQDS, 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid) are strong oxidants. They oxidize arsenite to arsenate, thus decreasing As toxicity and mobility. This reaction depends strongly on pH with more arsenite (up to 67.3%) being oxidized at pH 11 compared to pH 7 (12.6% oxidation) and pH 3 (0.5% oxidation). In addition to As(III) oxidation by semiquinone radicals, hydroquinones that were also produced during quinone reduction reduced As(V) to As(III) at neutral and acidic pH values (less than 12%) but not at alkaline pH. In order to understand redox reactions between arsenite/arsenate and reduced/oxidized HS, we quantified the radical content in reduced quinone solutions and constructed Eh-pH diagrams that explain the observed redox reactions. The results from this study can be used to better predict the fate of arsenic in the environment and potentially explain the occurrence of oxidized As(V) in anoxic environments.

  1. In vitro hydroquinone-induced instauration of histone bivalent mark on human retroelements (LINE-1) in HL60 cells.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Monica; Mandruzzato, Martina; Garzia, Alba C; Sahnane, Nora; Magnani, Elena; Macchi, Filippo; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Oudet, Pierre; Bollati, Valentina; Fustinoni, Silvia; Furlan, Daniela; Bonapace, Ian M

    2017-04-01

    Benzene is extensively used in industry despite its leukemogenic activity, representing a significant occupational hazard. We investigated if long-term treatment with low-doses hydroquinone (HQ), a benzene metabolite, might be sufficient to alter in vitro the epigenetic signature underlining LINE-1 sequences, a poorly explored step in health risks associated with benzene exposure. In HL-60 cell line, exploring the epigenetic events occurring in chromatin, we found the transient instauration of the distinctive signature combining the repressive H3Lys27 tri-methylation mark and the activating H3Lys4 tri-methylation mark (H3K27me3/H3K4me3), indicating a tendency toward a poised chromatin conformation. These alterations are lost in time after short-term treatments, while the long-term setting, performed using a concentration within the levels of total HQ in peripheral blood of benzene-exposed workers, showed a gradual increase in H3K4me3. We observed the absence of statistically significant variations in DNA methylation and expression levels of LINE-1, despite a decrease in protein levels of UHRF1, DNA methyl-transferases and histone methyl-transferases. In conclusion, in vitro treatment with low-dose HQ determined the instauration of a reversible poised state of chromatin in LINE-1 sequences, suggesting that prolonged exposure could cause persistent epigenetic alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Uniaxially aligned electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers for thin layer chromatographic screening of hydroquinone and retinoic acid adulterated in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Tidjarat, Siripran; Winotapun, Weerapath; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak

    2014-11-07

    Uniaxially aligned cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning and applied to use as stationary phase for thin layer chromatography. The control of alignment was achieved by using a drum collector rotating at a high speed of 6000 rpm. Spin time of 6h was used to produce the fiber thickness of about 10 μm which was adequate for good separation. Without any chemical modification after the electrospinning process, CA nanofibers could be readily devised for screening hydroquinone (HQ) and retinoic acid (RA) adulterated in cosmetics using the mobile phase consisting of 65:35:2.5 methanol/water/acetic acid. It was found that the separation run on the aligned nanofibers over a distance of 5 cm took less than 15 min which was two to three times faster than that on the non-aligned ones. On the aligned nanofibers, the masses of HQ and RA which could be visualized were 10 and 25 ng, respectively, which were two times lower than those on the non-aligned CA fibers and five times lower than those on conventional silica plates due to the appearance of darker and sharper of spots on the aligned nanofibers. Furthermore, the proposed method efficiently resolved HQ from RA and ingredients commonly found in cosmetic creams. Due to the satisfactory analytical performance, facile and inexpensive production process, uniaxially aligned electrospun CA nanofibers are promising alternative media for planar chromatography.

  3. Crystal structures and redox responses coupled with ion recognition of p-benzoquinone- and hydroquinone-fused [18]crown-6.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Nakane, Yuta; Takeda, Takashi; Hoshino, Norihisa; Kawai, Hidetoshi; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structures and redox properties of p-benzoquinone (BQ)-fused [18]crown-6 1 and bis-BQ-fused [18]crown-6 2 were examined. The anion radicals of these BQ molecules were stabilized by addition of metal ions, through effective electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged BQ moiety and positively charged ion-capturing [18]crown-6 unit. The electrostatic interactions and solvation energy played important roles in determining the magnitudes of anodic redox shifts in the reduction potentials. Regular π-stacking of BQ units and regular arrays of [18]crown-6 units were observed in crystal 2, in which one-dimensional π-electron columns were separated by ionic channels. The hydroquinone-fused [18]crown-6 molecule 3 and a new BQ- and phenol-fused [18]crown-6 derivative 4 were obtained as single crystals. The molecular conformations of [18]crown-6 in crystal 3 and hydrated crystal 3⋅H2 O were different from each other.

  4. Hydroquinone-assisted synthesis of branched au-ag nanoparticles with polydopamine coating as highly efficient photothermal agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wenjing; Zhao, Liang; Rong, Li; Lan, Shijie; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2015-06-03

    Despite the success of galvanic replacement in preparing hollow nanostructures with diversified morphologies via the replacement reaction between sacrificial metal nanoparticles (NPs) seeds and less active metal ions, limited advances are made for producing branched alloy nanostructures. In this paper, we report an extended galvanic replacement for preparing branched Au-Ag NPs with Au-rich core and Ag branches using hydroquinone (HQ) as the reductant. In the presence of HQ, the preformed Ag seeds are replaceable by Au and, in turn, supply the growth of Ag branches. By altering the feed ratio of Ag seeds, HAuCl4, and HQ, the size and morphology of the NPs are tunable. Accordingly, the surface plasmon resonance absorption is tuned to near-infrared (NIR) region, making the branched NPs as potential materials in photothermal therapy. The branched NPs are further coated with polydopamine (PDA) shell via dopamine polymerization at room temperature. In comparison with bare NPs, PDA-coated branched Au-Ag (Au-Ag@PDA) NPs exhibit improved stability, biocompatibility, and photothermal performance. In vitro experiments indicate that the branched Au-Ag@PDA NPs are competitive agents for photothermal ablation of cancer cells.

  5. Structural characterization of 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase (PcpA) from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum, a new type of aromatic ring-cleavage enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Robert P.; Green, Abigail R.; Nissen, Mark S.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Xun, Luying; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-01-01

    Summary PcpA (2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase) from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum, a non-haem Fe(II) dioxygenase capable of cleaving the aromatic ring of p-hydroquinone and its substituted variants, is a member of the recently discovered p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenases. Here we report the 2.6 Å structure of PcpA, which consists of four βαβββ motifs, a hallmark of the vicinal oxygen chelate superfamily. The secondary co-ordination sphere of the Fe(II) centre forms an extensive hydrogen-bonding network with three solvent exposed residues, linking the catalytic Fe(II) to solvent. A tight hydrophobic pocket provides p-hydroquinones access to the Fe(II) centre. The p-hydroxyl group is essential for the substrate-binding, thus phenols and catechols, lacking a p-hydroxyl group, do not bind to PcpA. Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirm the critical catalytic role played by the highly conserved His10, Thr13, His226 and Arg259. Based on these results, we propose a general reaction mechanism for p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenases. PMID:23489289

  6. Simultaneous electroanalytical determination of hydroquinone and catechol in the presence of resorcinol at an SiO2/C electrode spin-coated with a thin film of Nb2O5.

    PubMed

    Canevari, Thiago C; Arenas, Leliz T; Landers, Richard; Custodio, Rogério; Gushikem, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-07

    This paper describes the development, characterization and application of an Nb(2)O(5) film formed on the surface of a carbon ceramic material, SiO(2)/C, obtained by a sol-gel method, using the spin-coating technique. The working electrode using this material will be designated as SiCNb. Hydroquinone and catechol can be oxidized at this electrode in the presence of resorcinol, allowing their simultaneous detection. The electrochemical properties of the resulting electrode were investigated using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry techniques. Well-defined and separated oxidation peaks were observed by differential pulse voltammetry in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7 containing 1 mol L(-1) KCl in the supporting electrolyte solution. The SiCNb electrode exhibited high sensitivity in the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol in the presence of resorcinol, with the limits of detection for hydroquinone and catechol being 1.6 μmol L(-1) and 0.8 μmol L(-1), respectively. Theoretical calculations were performed to determine the ionization energies of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol; the results were used to explain the simultaneous determination of species by differential pulse voltammetry. The presence of resorcinol did not produce any interference in the simultaneous detection of hydroquinone and catechol on the surface of the modified electrode.

  7. Assessment of strategies to increase chondrocyte viability in cryopreserved human osteochondral allografts: evaluation of the glycosylated hydroquinone, arbutin.

    PubMed

    Rosa, S C; Gonçalves, J; Judas, F; Lopes, C; Mendes, A F

    2009-12-01

    Allogeneic cartilage is used to repair damaged areas of articular cartilage, requiring the presence of living chondrocytes. So far, no preservation method can effectively meet that purpose. Identification of more effective cryoprotective agents (CPAs) can contribute to this goal. The aim of this study was to determine whether the glycosylated hydroquinone, arbutin, alone or in combination with low concentrations of other CPAs, has cryoprotective properties towards human articular cartilage. Human tibial plateaus were procured from multi-organ donors, with the approval of the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Coimbra. The tibial plateaus were treated with or without arbutin (50 or 100mM), alone or in combination with various concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol, for 0.5-1.5h/37 degrees C, then frozen at -20 degrees C and 24h later transferred to a biofreezer at -80 degrees C. Two to 3 months later, thawing was achieved by immersion in cell culture medium at 37 degrees C/1h. Chondrocyte viability was assessed before and after freeze-thawing using a colorimetric assay based on the cell's metabolic activity and fluorescent dyes to evaluate cell membrane integrity. Before freezing, chondrocyte metabolic activity was identical in all the conditions tested. After freeze-thawing, the highest activity, corresponding to 34.2+/-2.1% of that in the Fresh Control, was achieved in tibial plateaus incubated in 50mM arbutin for 1h whereas in those left untreated it was 11.1+/-4.7. Addition of DMSO and glycerol to arbutin did not increase chondrocyte viability any further. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed these results and showed that living chondrocytes were mainly restricted to the superficial cartilage layers. Arbutin seems to be an effective cryoprotective agent for osteochondral allografts with potential benefits over DMSO and glycerol.

  8. Experimental study on cross-reactivity of alpha-arbutin toward p-phenylenediamine and hydroquinone in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    To-o, Kenji; Nomura, Koji; Sugimoto, Kazuhisa; Nishimura, Takahisa; Kuriki, Takashi; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2010-05-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) has been used as a skin-lightening cosmetic ingredient, while it has been known that HQ shows sensitizing potential and cross-reactivity toward a strong sensitizer, p-phenylenediamine (PPD). alpha-Arbutin, a glycoside of HQ (4-hydroxyphenyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside), is used worldwide as a skin-lightening agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-reactivity of alpha-arbutin toward PPD and HQ. All tests were performed using the guinea pig maximization test. In experiments on the cross-reactivity of alpha-arbutin or HQ to PPD, six animals in each group were induced with PPD at 0.1% by i.d. injection and at 1.0% by topical application. The animals were challenged with alpha-arbutin, HQ or PPD (as a positive control) at concentrations of 0.01%, 0.05% and 0.1%. In experiments on the cross-reactivity of alpha-arbutin to HQ, four animals in each group were induced with HQ at 2% by i.d. injection and at 1% by topical application. The animals were challenged with alpha-arbutin or HQ (as a positive control) at concentrations of 0.2%, 2% and 20%. The cross-reactivity toward PPD was observed with HQ (4/6) only at 0.1% challenge. However, alpha-arbutin showed no apparent cross-reactivity to either PPD or HQ even at their highest challenge concentrations. Potent sensitization was observed with PPD (6/6) even at 0.01% challenge and with HQ (3/4) at 0.2%. In conclusion, glycosylation of HQ remarkably reduced the sensitization potency of HQ and the cross-reactivity of HQ to PPD.

  9. Hydroquinone induces oxidative and mitochondrial damage to human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1).

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Claudio; Pham, Khoa; Franco, Maria Fernanda Estragó; Chwa, Marilyn; Limb, Astrid; Kuppermann, Baruch D; Kenney, M Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Smoking is a risk factor in the development of a variety of neuroretinal diseases. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of hydroquinone (HQ), a toxicant that is present in high concentrations in cigarette smoke, on a human retinal Müller cell line (MIO-M1). MIO-M1 cells were treated for 24h with four different concentrations of HQ (200μM, 100μM, 50μM, and 25μM). Assays were used to measure cell viability, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity (WST assay), caspase-3/7 activity and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Western blot analyses with anti-LC3 and anti-GAPDH antibodies were performed on HQ-treated samples. Some cultures were treated with 4μM rapamycin, to induce autophagy, with and without the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine (3MA), and levels of ROS/RNS and LDH were measured. Our findings show that HQ reduced cell viability at four different concentrations tested (200, 100, 50 and 25μM); decreased mitochondrial function at concentrations of 200 and 100μM; increased ROS/RNS activity at all the concentrations tested and increased LDH levels at concentrations of 200, 100 and 50μM. Caspase-3/7 activities were not modified by HQ. However, treatment of these cells with this agent resulted in the appearance of the autophagy associated LC3-II band. Pre-treatment with 3MA reduced the ROS/RNS and LDH levels of the HQ-treated and rapamycin-treated cells. Our study suggests that HQ damages the MIO-M1 cells through oxidative, mitochondrial and autophagic pathways and not caspase-related apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of pH and oxalate on hydroquinone-derived hydroxyl radical formation during brown rot wood degradation.

    PubMed

    Varela, Elisa; Tien, Ming

    2003-10-01

    The redox cycle of 2,5-dimethoxybenzoquinone (2,5-DMBQ) is proposed as a source of reducing equivalent for the regeneration of Fe2+ and H2O2 in brown rot fungal decay of wood. Oxalate has also been proposed to be the physiological iron reductant. We characterized the effect of pH and oxalate on the 2,5-DMBQ-driven Fenton chemistry and on Fe3+ reduction and oxidation. Hydroxyl radical formation was assessed by lipid peroxidation. We found that hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ) is very stable in the absence of iron at pH 2 to 4, the pH of degraded wood. 2,5-DMHQ readily reduces Fe3+ at a rate constant of 4.5 x 10(3) M(-1)s(-1) at pH 4.0. Fe2+ is also very stable at a low pH. H2O2 generation results from the autoxidation of the semiquinone radical and was observed only when 2,5-DMHQ was incubated with Fe3+. Consistent with this conclusion, lipid peroxidation occurred only in incubation mixtures containing both 2,5-DMHQ and Fe3+. Catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers were effective inhibitors of lipid peroxidation, whereas superoxide dismutase caused no inhibition. At a low concentration of oxalate (50 micro M), ferric ion reduction and lipid peroxidation are enhanced. Thus, the enhancement of both ferric ion reduction and lipid peroxidation may be due to oxalate increasing the solubility of the ferric ion. Increasing the oxalate concentration such that the oxalate/ferric ion ratio favored formation of the 2:1 and 3:1 complexes resulted in inhibition of iron reduction and lipid peroxidation. Our results confirm that hydroxyl radical formation occurs via the 2,5-DMBQ redox cycle.

  11. Effect of timing of joint application of hydroquinone and dicyandiamide on nitrous oxide emission from irrigated lowland rice paddy field.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglan; Zhang, Guangbin; Xu, Hua; Cai, Zucong; Yagi, Kazuyuki

    2009-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of timing of joint application of urease inhibitor hydroquinone (HQ) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on N(2)O emission from irrigated lowland rice paddy field. Four treatments including Treatment CK (the control with urea alone), HQ/DCD-1 (application of HQ and DCD together with fertilizer before transplanting), HQ/DCD-2 (HQ and DCD with fertilizer at tillering stage) and HQ/DCD-3 (HQ and DCD with fertilizer at panicle initiation stage) were designed and implemented separately during rice growth period. Seasonal peaks of N(2)O flux occurred during midseason drainage and significant negative correlation between N(2)O flux and water layer depth was observed (r=-0.69 to -0.75, P<0.01). Mean N(2)O flux was the highest in the control with urea alone, while joint addition of HQ and DCD with urea lowered mean N(2)O flux considerably (P<0.05). Total N(2)O emission during rice growth season in Treatment CK, HQ/DCD-1, HQ/DCD-2 and HQ/DCD-3 was 3.90, 2.98, 1.73 and 3.23kgN(2)O-N ha(-1), respectively. Application of HQ and DCD together with basal fertilizer, tillering fertilizer and panicle initiation fertilizer decreased the total N(2)O emission by 24%, 56% and 17%, respectively, while increased grain yield by 10%, 18% and 6%, respectively. Effect of application of inhibitors on N(2)O emission during the continuous period from incorporation of HQ and DCD to rice harvest was also studied, where results indicating that the highest inhibiting efficiency of inhibitors on N(2)O emission was recorded when HQ and DCD applied with fertilizer at tillering stage.

  12. Effect of antioxidant tertiary butyl hydroquinone on the thermal and oxidative stability of sesame oil (sesamum indicum) by ultrasonic studies.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N; Siddaramaiah, Basavarajaiah; Banu, Mujeeda

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the efficiency of tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) as an antioxidant in sesame oil (sesamum indicum) by density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity. The effects of varying amounts of TBHQ on the oxidation stability of sesame oil have been investigated. The antioxidant incorporated sesame oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation and oxidation properties of the oils include ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and peroxide value. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were measured by gas chromatography. Adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time and acoustic impedance have been calculated from experimental data. Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity change in control oil is from 3.6553 × 10(-2) to 11.1729 × 10(-2) Nsm(-2), 912.59 to 940.31 kg/m(3) and 1,421 to 1,452 m/s respectively and in sesame oil with 200 ppm TBHQ is from 3.6793 × 10(-2) to 6.4842 × 10(-2) Nsm(-2), 913.78 to 922.45 kg/m(3) and 1,421 to 1,431 m/s respectively for 16 h of heat treated oil. The ultrasonic results obtained have shown reduction in thermal degradation and improvement in oxidation stability of antioxidant loaded oil in comparison to base oil. Hence, it can be recommended that sesame oil with 200 ppm TBHQ can be used for frying without adverse effect on physical properties. The ultrasonic velocity can be used for assessment of stability of frying oil.

  13. Differential regulation of redox responsive transcription factors by the nephrocarcinogen 2,3,5-Tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Weber, T J; Huang, Q; Monks, T J; Lau, S S

    2001-07-01

    2,3,5-Tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone [TGHQ] is a potent nephrotoxicant and nephrocarcinogen, and induces a spectrum of mutations in human and bacterial cells consistent with those attributed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Studies were conducted to determine whether the oxidative stress induced by TGHQ in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (LLC-PK(1)) modulates transcriptional activities widely implicated in transformation responses, namely 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) responsive element (TRE)- and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB)-binding activity. TGHQ increased TRE- and NF-kappaB-binding activity in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Catalase fully inhibited peak TGHQ-mediated TRE- and NF-kappaB-binding activity. In contrast, although deferoxamine fully inhibited TGHQ-mediated TRE-binding activity, it had only a marginal effect on NF-kappaB-binding activity. Collectively, these data indicate that TGHQ modulates TRE- and NF-kappaB-binding activity in an ROS-dependent fashion. Cycloheximide and actinomycin D fully inhibited TGHQ-mediated TRE-binding activity, but in the absence of TGHQ increased NF-kappaB-binding activity. Although protein kinase C (PKC) is widely implicated in stress response signaling, pretreatment of cells with PKC inhibitors (H-89, calphostin C) did not modulate TGHQ-mediated DNA-binding activities. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with (PD098059), a mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor, markedly reduced TGHQ-mediated TRE-binding activity, but enhanced TGHQ-mediated NF-kappaB-binding activity. We conclude that TGHQ-mediated TRE- and NF-kappaB-binding activities are ROS-dependent. Although there is a common requirement for hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the regulation of these DNA-binding activities, there appears to be divergent regulation after H(2)O(2) generation in renal epithelial cells.

  14. Hydroquinone-salicylic acid conjugates as novel anti-melasma actives show superior skin targeting compared to the parent drugs.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Chia-Lang; Chang, Shu-Hao; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-11-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) and salicylic acid (SA) are drugs for treating melasma through the mechanisms of tyrosinase inhibition and chemical peeling, respectively. Their high frequency of causing skin irritation has led to limited use of both drugs. We designed the new conjugates obtained by joining HQ and SA by the co-drug concept for evaluating cutaneous absorption capability. Monoester (4-hydroxyphenyl 2-hydroxybenzoate, HPH) and diester (1,4-phenylene bis(2-hydroxybenzoate), PBH) forms of the conjugates were synthesized and physicochemically characterized. The enzymatic hydrolysis to the parent drugs was examined. Both an equimolar dose and a saturated solubility were utilized as the applied dose for testing cutaneous absorption via pig and nude mouse skins. The conjugates had higher lipophilicity, less aqueous solubility, and a lower melting point/crystallinity than the parent drugs. Both conjugates showed a quick conversion into the parent drugs in esterases and skin homogenates, with PBH showing the greater hydrolysis. The hydrolysis level in skin after topical application was less as compared to that in esterases and homogenates. The tyrosinase inhibition (%) and molecular docking demonstrated that the conjugates possessed skin-lightening capability (3% for HPH and 7% for PBH) although this activity was lower than that of HQ (23%). The conjugates showed an increased skin deposition compared to the respective parent drugs. Total absorption of HPH and PBH led to a 13- and 19-fold enhancement in cutaneous retention compared to HQ alone. A similar increment of skin deposition was shown for the conjugates when compared to SA. Contrary to skin reservoir retention, transdermal transport across the skin was decreased by the conjugates, especially for PBH. This indicates the maximization of cutaneous targeting by the conjugates. Topically applied HPH and PBH can be the new candidates for treating melasma due to efficient skin absorption and acceptable skin tolerance

  15. Retinoic acid synergistically enhances the melanocytotoxic and depigmenting effects of monobenzylether of hydroquinone in black guinea pig skin.

    PubMed

    Kasraee, Behrooz; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Ardekani, Gholamreza Safaee; Ebrahimi, Saeed; Doroudchi, Gholamreza; Omrani, Gholamhossein R; Handjani, Farhad; Amini, Mitra; Tanideh, Nader; Haddadi, Marzieh; Nikbakhsh, Mohammad; Jahanbani, Saeedeh; Tran, Christian; Sorg, Olivier; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire

    2006-07-01

    Monobenzylether of hydroquinone (MBEH) has long been utilized for the depigmentation therapy of patients with extensive vitiligo. In this approach, the normally pigmented areas surrounding vitiligo lesions are depigmented to achieve a uniform skin tone. One of the important disadvantages of MBEH therapy, however, is the resistance of a considerable number of vitiligo patients against the depigmenting effect of this agent. We have previously proposed that the glutathione-dependent cytoprotection of melanocytes can be impaired through the inhibition of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase by retinoic acid (RA). The combination of RA with melanocytotoxic agents could thus lead to increased susceptibility of melanocytes to such compounds. In this study we have shown, for the first time, that the melanocytotoxic and depigmenting effects of MBEH are synergistically enhanced when it is combined with RA. The treatment of black guinea pig skin with RA (0.025%) alone induced no significant changes in the number of epidermal melanocytes and no skin depigmentation. On the other hand, MBEH (10%) produced mild to moderate skin depigmentation and reduced the average number of melanocytes from 76 (+/-5)/field (magnification: x 40) in control sites, to 42 (+/-6)/field in the depigmented skin. The RA (0.025%)-MBEH (10%) combination, however, produced a complete degree of depigmentation in the majority of treated sites after 10 days of application and reduced the average number of melanocytes to only 6 (+/-6)/field. RA-MBEH combination serves as a very potent skin depigmenting formula and now awaits future assessments of its potential use for the treatment of extensive vitiligo.

  16. Monoclonal antibody to a cancer-specific and drug-responsive hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase from the sera of cancer patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, NaMi; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Kim, Chinpal; Caldwell, Sara; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated in mice to a 34-kDa circulating form of a drug-responsive hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase with a protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity specific to the surface of cancer cells and the sera of cancer patients. Screening used Western blots with purified 34-kDa tNOX from HeLa cells and the sera of cancer patients. Epitopes were sought that inhibited the drug-responsive oxidation of NADH with the sera of cancer patients, but which had no effect on NADH oxidation with the sera of healthy volunteers. Two such antisera were generated. One, designated monoclonal antibody (mAb) 12.1, was characterized extensively. The NADH oxidase activity inhibited by mAb 12.1 also was inhibited by the quinone site inhibitor capsaicin (8-methyl- N-vanillyl-6-noneamide). The inhibition was competitive for the drug-responsive protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity assayed either by restoration of activity to scrambled RNase or by cleavage of a dithiodipyridine substrate, and was uncompetitive for NADH oxidation. Both the mAb 12.1 and the postimmune antisera immunoprecipitated drug-responsive NOX activity and identified the same 34-kDa tNOX protein in the sera of cancer patients that was absent from sera of healthy volunteers, and was utilized as immunogen. Preimmune sera from the same mouse as the postimmune antisera was without effect. Both mouse ascites containing mAb 12.1 and postimmune sera (but not preimmune sera) slowed the growth of human cancer cell lines in culture, but did not affect the growth of non-cancerous cell lines. Immunocytochemical and histochemical findings showed that mAb 12.1 reacted with the surface membranes of human carcinoma cells and tissues.

  17. Monoclonal antibody to a cancer-specific and drug-responsive hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase from the sera of cancer patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, NaMi; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Kim, Chinpal; Caldwell, Sara; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated in mice to a 34-kDa circulating form of a drug-responsive hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase with a protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity specific to the surface of cancer cells and the sera of cancer patients. Screening used Western blots with purified 34-kDa tNOX from HeLa cells and the sera of cancer patients. Epitopes were sought that inhibited the drug-responsive oxidation of NADH with the sera of cancer patients, but which had no effect on NADH oxidation with the sera of healthy volunteers. Two such antisera were generated. One, designated monoclonal antibody (mAb) 12.1, was characterized extensively. The NADH oxidase activity inhibited by mAb 12.1 also was inhibited by the quinone site inhibitor capsaicin (8-methyl- N-vanillyl-6-noneamide). The inhibition was competitive for the drug-responsive protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity assayed either by restoration of activity to scrambled RNase or by cleavage of a dithiodipyridine substrate, and was uncompetitive for NADH oxidation. Both the mAb 12.1 and the postimmune antisera immunoprecipitated drug-responsive NOX activity and identified the same 34-kDa tNOX protein in the sera of cancer patients that was absent from sera of healthy volunteers, and was utilized as immunogen. Preimmune sera from the same mouse as the postimmune antisera was without effect. Both mouse ascites containing mAb 12.1 and postimmune sera (but not preimmune sera) slowed the growth of human cancer cell lines in culture, but did not affect the growth of non-cancerous cell lines. Immunocytochemical and histochemical findings showed that mAb 12.1 reacted with the surface membranes of human carcinoma cells and tissues.

  18. Effect of pH and Oxalate on Hydroquinone-Derived Hydroxyl Radical Formation during Brown Rot Wood Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Elisa; Tien, Ming

    2003-01-01

    The redox cycle of 2,5-dimethoxybenzoquinone (2,5-DMBQ) is proposed as a source of reducing equivalent for the regeneration of Fe2+ and H2O2 in brown rot fungal decay of wood. Oxalate has also been proposed to be the physiological iron reductant. We characterized the effect of pH and oxalate on the 2,5-DMBQ-driven Fenton chemistry and on Fe3+ reduction and oxidation. Hydroxyl radical formation was assessed by lipid peroxidation. We found that hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ) is very stable in the absence of iron at pH 2 to 4, the pH of degraded wood. 2,5-DMHQ readily reduces Fe3+ at a rate constant of 4.5 × 103 M−1s−1 at pH 4.0. Fe2+ is also very stable at a low pH. H2O2 generation results from the autoxidation of the semiquinone radical and was observed only when 2,5-DMHQ was incubated with Fe3+. Consistent with this conclusion, lipid peroxidation occurred only in incubation mixtures containing both 2,5-DMHQ and Fe3+. Catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers were effective inhibitors of lipid peroxidation, whereas superoxide dismutase caused no inhibition. At a low concentration of oxalate (50 μM), ferric ion reduction and lipid peroxidation are enhanced. Thus, the enhancement of both ferric ion reduction and lipid peroxidation may be due to oxalate increasing the solubility of the ferric ion. Increasing the oxalate concentration such that the oxalate/ferric ion ratio favored formation of the 2:1 and 3:1 complexes resulted in inhibition of iron reduction and lipid peroxidation. Our results confirm that hydroxyl radical formation occurs via the 2,5-DMBQ redox cycle. PMID:14532058

  19. Optimization and Validation of a Fast UPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Hydroquinone, Kojic Acid, Octinoxate, Avobenzone, BHA, and BHT.

    PubMed

    Galimany-Rovira, Fanny; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro-Carmona, Montse; Ticó-Grau, Josep R; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

    2017-01-01

    A previously published HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of six major components (hydroquinone, kojic acid, octinoxate, avobenzone, butylated hydroxyanisole, and butylated hydroxytoluene) in a skin-whitening cream was transferred and optimized to an ultra-performance LC system. Separation was achieved in a ZORBAX SB-Phenyl Rapid-Resolution High Throughput column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm), using a mobile phase consisting of water with 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The column was maintained at 40°C, and detection was carried out at 230 nm using a diode-array detector. These chromatographic conditions allow the separation of the six compounds in 3 min instead of 14 min. The extraction procedure was optimized, reducing the time and demonstrating its suitability. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and linearity. Selectivity was found to be satisfactory. Linear regression analysis data for all compounds showed a good linear relationship, with r2 > 0.999 in the concentration range of 50-120% of the label claim for each compound. The RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2% for all compounds. Comparison of system performance with the previously published HPLC method was made with respect to analysis time, efficacy, and resolution. The proposed method is faster and consumes less solvent and was applied in the determination of six major compounds in batches of skin-whitening cream manufactured during the validation process.

  20. Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model.

    SciTech Connect

    Poet, Torka S.; Wu, Hong; English, J C.; Corley, Rick A.

    2004-11-15

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important industrial chemical that also occurs naturally in foods and in the leaves and bark of a number of plant species. Exposure of laboratory animals to HQ may result in a species-, sex-, and strain-specific nephrotoxicity. The sensitivity of male F344 vs. female F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats or B6C3F1 mice appears to be related to differences in the rates of formation and further metabolism of key nephrotoxic metabolites. Metabolic rate constants for the conversion of HQ through several metabolic steps to the mono-glutathione conjugate and subsequent detoxification via mercapturic acid were measured in suspension cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male F344 rats and humans. An in vitro mathematic kinetic model was used to analyze each metabolic step by simultaneously fitting the disappearance of each substrate and the appearance of subsequent metabolites. An iterative, nested approach was used whereby downstream metabolites were considered first and the model was constrained by the requirement that rate constants determined during analysis of individual metabolic steps must also satisfy the complete, integrated metabolism scheme, including competitive pathways. The results from this study indicated that the overall capacity for metabolism of HQ and its mono-glutathione conjugate is greater in hepatocytes from humans than those isolated from rats, suggesting a greater capacity for detoxification of the glutathione conjugates. Metabolic rate constants were applied to an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the model was used to predict total glutathione metabolites produced in the liver. The results showed that body burdens of these metabolites will be much higher in rats than humans.

  1. Synthesis of reduced carbon nitride at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamov, Alexey; Bondarenko, Marina; Kharlamova, Ganna; Fomenko, Veniamin

    2016-09-15

    For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene) is obtained. It is differed from usually synthesized carbon nitride by a significantly large (on 0.09 nm) interplanar distance is. At the same time, the chemical bonds between atoms in a heteroatomic plane of reduced carbon nitride correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The samples of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide were synthesized under the special reactionary conditions of a pyrolysis of melamine and urea. We believe that reduced carbon nitride consists of weakly connected carbon-nitrogen monosheets (azagraphene sheets) as well as reduced (from graphene oxide) graphene contains weakly connected graphene sheets. - Graphical abstract: XRD pattern and schematic atomic model of one layer of reduced carbon nitride, carbon nitride oxide and synthesized carbon nitride. For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of the water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4})O is obtained the reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene). Display Omitted - Highlights: • First the reduced carbon nitride (RCN) at the reduction of the carbon nitride oxide was obtained. • Water-soluble carbon nitride oxide was reduced by hydroquinone. • The chemical bonds in a heteroatomic plane of RCN correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Reduced carbon nitride consists of poorly connected heteroatomic azagraphene layers.

  2. Room-temperature phosphorescent discrimination of catechol from resorcinol and hydroquinone based on sodium tripolyphosphate capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, He-Fang; Wu, Ye-Yu; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2013-02-05

    A room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) strategy was developed for direct, additive-free discrimination of catechol from resorcinol and hydroquinone based on sodium tripolyphosphate capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (STPP-Mn-ZnS QDs). The RTP response of STPP-Mn-ZnS QDs to the three isomers was pH-dependent, and the greatest difference in the RTP response to the isomers was observed at pH 8.0: catechol enhanced the RTP intensity of the QDs, while resorcinol and hydroquinone had little effect on the RTP intensity of the QDs. The enhanced RTP intensity of 1 μM catechol was not affected by the coexistence of 30 μM resorcinol and 50 μM hydroquinone at pH 8.0. The detection limit of this RTP method was 53 nM catechol, and the precision was 3.2% (relative standard deviation) for five replicate detections of 1 μM catechol. The discrimination mechanism was ascribed to the weak bonded ligand of STPP-Mn-ZnS QDs and the different interaction between the three isomers and STPP-Mn-ZnS QDs. The strong binding of catechol to Zn resulted in the extraction of Zn from the surface of STPP-Mn-ZnS QDs and the generation of holes that were trapped by Mn(2+) to form Mn(3+). Catechol also promoted the reduction of Mn(3+) into Mn(2+) excited state, thus ultimately inducing the enhanced RTP response of STPP-Mn-ZnS QDs.

  3. A new synthesis of alpha-arbutin via Lewis acid catalyzed selective glycosylation of tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate with hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Xia; Shi, Xiao-Xin; Chen, Guo-Rong; Ren, Zhi-Hua; Luo, Lei; Yan, Jing

    2006-08-14

    alpha-Arbutin has huge application potentials in the cosmetic industry, as its inhibitory effect on human tyrosinase is stronger than that of its naturally occurring anomer arbutin (4-hydroxyphenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside). Enzymatic synthesis was preferred for alpha-arbutin previously, and now a new chemical synthesis is reported. The reaction of tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate, as glycosyl donor, with hydroquinone was initiated by catalytic amounts of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf), resulting in 4-hydroxyphenyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside with high stereoselectivity and yield, and then to alpha-arbutin quantitatively after deprotection.

  4. Molecular, spectroscopic and thermal studies on catechol, 4,5-dibromocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone and 4-4‧-dihydroxybiphenyl derivatives armed with benzothiazole moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshargabi, Arwa; Yeap, Guan-Yeow; Mahmood, Wan Ahmad Kamil; Samikannu, Rakesh

    2013-05-01

    A new series of catechol, 4,5-dibromocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone and 4-4'-dihydroxybiphenyl derivatives possessing two benzothiazole moieties at respective positions of 1,2, 1,3, 1,4 and/or 4,4' has successfully been synthesized. The molecular structures were fully elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, 13C NMR and two dimensional COSY, HMBC, HMQC, DEPT-135 and DEPT-90). The connectivity study between the cause of using different core systems in the target compounds and the anisotropic behavior as inferred from phase transition temperature and relevant morphology studies has led to some unique features arising from this series. Compounds with ortho substituent exhibit enantiotropic N and SmA phases. The analogues containing resorcinol and 4,4'-disubstituentbiphenyl show enanotiotropic nematic behavior while the hydroquinone derivative induces the formation of monotropic nematogen. An extensive study to further substantiate the relationship between the stability of the nematic phase and associated transition temperatures due to different core systems is also reported.

  5. A tyrosinase biosensor based on ordered mesoporous carbon-Au/L-lysine/Au nanoparticles for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lin; Zhou, Yaoyu; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yi; Chen, Guiqiu; Yang, Guide; Lei, Xiaoxia; Wu, Mengshi

    2013-06-21

    A novel biosensor was developed based on tyrosinase immobilization with ordered mesoporous carbon-Au (OMC-Au), L-lysine membrane and Au nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). It was applied for the simultaneous determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The tyrosinase/OMC-Au/L-lysine/Au film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectra. Under optimized conditions, the DPV study results for two isomers, hydroquinone (HQ, 1,4-dihydroxybenzene) and catechol (CC, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene) showed low peak potentials, and the peak-to-peak difference was about 135.85 mV, which ensured the anti-interference ability of the biosensor and made simultaneous detection of dihydroxybenzene isomers possible in real samples. DPV peak currents increased linearly with concentration over the range of 4.0 × 10(-7) to 8.0 × 10(-5) M, and the detection limits of hydroquinone and catechol were 5 × 10(-8) M and 2.5 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3), respectively. The tyrosinase biosensor exhibited good repeatability and stability. In addition, the response mechanism of enzyme catalysed redox on the OMC-Au/L-lysine/Au film modified electrode based on electrochemical study was discussed. The proposed method could be extended for the development of other enzyme-based biosensors.

  6. Clinical Evaluation of a 4% Hydroquinone + 1% Retinol Treatment Regimen for Improving Melasma and Photodamage in Fitzpatrick Skin Types III-VI.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta I; Barkovic, Sylvia

    2016-11-01

    The bene ts of monotherapy with hydroquinone for melasma and retinoids for photodamaged skin is well established. Here we report results of a hydroquinone skincare regimen designed for melasma treatment combined with a cosmetic retinol cream on subjects presenting with both melasma and facial photodamage in a 24-week study. Improvement in melasma and photodamage ef cacy pa- rameters of melasma pigmentation intensity and melasma area and severity index (MASI), as well as overall photodamage and mottled hyperpigmentation were found by week 4, the rst post-baseline time point. By week 8 signi cant improvements were also found in melasma disease severity assessment, tactile roughness, ne wrinkles, crepiness, actinic lentigines, and laxity. By week 18 signi cant reduction in coarse wrinkles was evident. Bene ts persisted through the study end on the panel of 31 subjects, with over 3⁄4 of par- ticipants demonstrating improvements in 10 of the 11 graded attributes. For the remaining attribute, coarse wrinkling, approximately 50% of the panel showed improvement. The regimen produced an average of "marked improvement" in melasma severity (51-75% improvement). Results of tolerance evaluations documented overall treatment mildness for a majority of the study participants. Subject questionnaires concur with high ratings of the study regimen for tolerability, ef cacy perception, product aesthetics and overall treat- ment satisfaction in subjects of Fitzpatrick Skin Type III-VI classi cation with melasma and photodamage in mild-to-moderate severity. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(11):1435-1441..

  7. The conversion of vitamin K epoxide to vitamin K quinone and vitamin K quinone to vitamin K hydroquinone uses the same active site cysteines.

    PubMed

    Jin, Da-Yun; Tie, Jian-Ke; Stafford, Darrel W

    2007-06-19

    Vitamin K epoxide (or oxido) reductase (VKOR) is the target of warfarin and provides vitamin K hydroquinone for the carboxylation of select glutamic acid residues of the vitamin K-dependent proteins which are important for coagulation, signaling, and bone metabolism. It has been known for at least 20 years that cysteines are required for VKOR function. To investigate their importance, we mutated each of the seven cysteines in VKOR. In addition, we made VKOR with both C43 and C51 mutated to alanine (C43A/C51A), as well as a VKOR with residues C43-C51 deleted. Each mutated enzyme was purified and characterized. We report here that C132 and C135 of the CXXC motif are essential for both the conversion of vitamin K epoxide to vitamin K and the conversion of vitamin K to vitamin K hydroquinone. Surprisingly, conserved cysteines, 43 and 51, appear not to be important for either reaction. For the in vitro reaction driven by dithiothreitol, the 43-51 deletion mutation retained 85% and C43A/C51A 112% of the wild-type activity. The facile purification of the nine different mutations reported here illustrates the ease and reproducibility of VKOR purification by the method reported in our recent publication [Chu, P.-H., Huang, T.-Y., Williams, J., and Stafford, D. W. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 103, 19308-19313].

  8. Quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids with antitubercular and cytotoxic activities produced by the sponge-derived fungus Gliomastix sp. ZSDS1-F7.

    PubMed

    He, Wei-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang; Qin, Xiao-Chu; Mai, Yong-Xin; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Tianyu; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Wang, Jun-Feng; Liu, Yonghong

    2017-03-01

    Fifteen compounds, including six quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids, purpurogemutantin (1), macrophorin A (2), 4'-oxomacrophorin (3), 7-deacetoxyyanuthone A (4), 2,3-hydro-deacetoxyyanuthone A (5), 22-deacetylyanuthone A (6), anicequol (7), three roquefortine derivatives, roquefortine C (8), (16S)-hydroxyroquefortine C (9), (16R)-hydroxyroquefortine C (10), dihydroresorcylide (11), nectriapyrone (12), together with three fatty acid derivatives, methyl linoleate (13), phospholipase A2 (14), methyl elaidate (15), were isolated from the sponge-derived fungus Gliomastix sp. ZSDS1-F7 isolated from the sponge Phakellia fusca Thiele collected in the Yongxing island of Xisha. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. Among these compounds, compounds 1-3 and 5-7 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against the K562, MCF-7, Hela, DU145, U937, H1975, SGC-7901, A549, MOLT-4 and HL60 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 0.19 to 35.4 μM. And compounds 2-4 exhibited antitubercular activity with IC50 values of 22.1, 2.44 and 17.5 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compound 7 had anti-enterovirus 71 activity with MIC value of 17.8 μM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to product two quinone/hydroquinone meroterpenoids skeletons (linear skeleton and drimane skeleton) from the same fungal strain.

  9. Estimated daily intakes of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) antioxidants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, H-J; Chung, M-S; Cho, Y-H; Kim, J-W; Kim, D-H; Han, K-W; Kim, C-J

    2005-12-01

    The study was conducted to establish the estimated daily intake (EDI) of antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) in Korea. The EDIs were obtained from two sources. One of the estimations was based on the analytical determination of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in 12 food categories (ten food categories for TBHQ) and on individual dietary intake data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 (n=11 525, age > 1 year). The other EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ were based on the maximum permitted levels specified in national food standards in Korea and on individual dietary intake data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1998 (n=11 525, age > 1 year). To establish the EDIs based on the analytical determination and on individual dietary intake data, 133 food samples in 12 food categories were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in the Korean diet. Selected samples were analysed by GC with FID. BHA was not detected in any of the samples analysed. BHT and TBHQ were detected in the samples, but the levels were significantly lower than their maximum limits. The EDIs1 of BHT, and TBHQ for average consumers were 0.0156(-3), and 0.0012(-3) mg kg(-1) body weight bw day(-1) and as a proportion of the ADI were 0.0052 and 0.0002%, respectively. For 95th percentile consumers, the EDIs of BHT and TBHQ were 0.0080 and 0.0006 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), and as a proportion of the ADI were 2.67 and 0.09%, respectively. EDIs for BHA, BHT and TBHQ based on the maximum permitted levels and on individual dietary intake data were 0.04, 0.04 and 0.04 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ for average consumers ranged from 6.00 to 14.42% of the ADI of each antioxidant. According to these results, the EDIs of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in Korea were significantly lower than ADI of these antioxidants established by the JECFA.

  10. Combinations of potent topical steroids, mercury and hydroquinone are common in internationally manufactured skin-lightening products: a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Maneli, M H; Wiesner, L; Tinguely, C; Davids, L M; Spengane, Z; Smith, P; van Wyk, J C; Jardine, A; Khumalo, N P

    2016-03-01

    The topical steroids betamethasone (BM) and clobetasol propionate (CP) are illegal in cosmetics. Hydroquinone (HQ) and mercury (Hg) are either illegal or allowed only in limited concentrations (2% and 1 ppm, respectively). To investigate active ingredients and countries of origin of popular skin-lightening products available in Cape Town, South Africa. In total, 29 products were examined; of these, 22 products were purchased from informal vendors, and 2 products (out of a total of 29) were purchased over the counter. HQ, Hg(2+) and steroids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Of the 29 products, 22 (75.9%), all imported and bought from informal vendors, contained illegal or banned ingredients: 13 (44.8%) contained steroids (9 CP, 4 BM), 12 (41.4%) contained Hg (30-2300 ppm), and 11 (37.9%) contained HQ. Sequentially, the products originated from Italy (27.3%, n = 6), India (22.7%, n = 5), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (22.7%, n = 5), Cote d'Ivoire (9.1%, n = 2), USA (9.1%, n = 2), UK (4.5%, n = 1) and France (4.5%, n = 1). Two products, one from India and one from the DRC, contained all four ingredients (HQ, Hg, BM, CP). Of the 12 products containing Hg, 10 also contained HQ and/or a steroid, yet none listed Hg as an ingredient. A significant proportion of the steroid-containing products (76.9%) also contained at least one other skin-lightening agent. Not all internationally available products were tested, which is a limitation of the study. In spite of a European Union ban on skin lighteners, a third of the products tested were from Europe. Combinations of Hg and ultrapotent steroids were prominent. International law enforcement and random testing is needed to encourage industry compliance and help protect consumers. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. In vivo hydroquinone exposure alters circulating neutrophil activities and impairs LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, André Luiz Teroso; Shimada, Ana Lúcia Borges; Hebeda, Cristina Bichels; de Oliveira, Tiago Franco; de Melo Loureiro, Ana Paula; Filho, Walter Dos Reis Pereira; Santos, Alcinéa Meigikos Dos Anjos; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

    2011-10-09

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is an environmental contaminant which causes immune toxicity. In this study, the effects of exposure to low doses of HQ on neutrophil mobilization into the LPS-inflamed lung were investigated. Male Swiss mice were exposed to aerosolized vehicle (control) or 12.5, 25 or 50ppm HQ (1h/day for 5 days). One hour later, oxidative burst, cell cycle, DNA fragmentation and adhesion molecules expressions in circulating neutrophils were determined by flow cytometry, and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by HPLC. Also, 1h later the last exposures, inflammation was induced by LPS inhalation (0.1mg/ml/10min) and 3h later, the numbers of leukocytes in peripheral blood and in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined using a Neubauer chamber and stained smears; adhesion molecules expressed on lung microvessel endothelial cells were quantified by immunohistochemistry; myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured in the lung tissue by colorimetric assay; and cytokines in the BALF were determined by ELISA. In vivo HQ exposure augmented plasma MDA levels and oxidative activity of neutrophils, but did not cause alterations in cell cycle and DNA fragmentation. Under these conditions, the number of circulating leukocytes was not altered, but HQ exposure reduced LPS-induced neutrophil migration into the alveolar space, as these cells remained in the lung tissue. The impaired neutrophil migration into BALF may not be dependent on reduced cytokines secretions in the BALF and lung endothelial adhesion molecules expressions. However, HQ exposure increased the expression of β(2) and β(3) integrins and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in neutrophils, which were not further enhanced by fMLP in vitro stimulation, indicating that HQ exposure activates circulating neutrophils, impairing further stimulatory responses. Therefore, it has been shown, for the first time, that neutrophils are target of lower levels of in vivo HQ

  12. The risk of hydroquinone and sunscreen over-absorption via photodamaged skin is not greater in senescent skin as compared to young skin: nude mouse as an animal model.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Wei-Yu; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Shih, Hui-Chi; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-08-25

    Intrinsic aging and photoaging modify skin structure and components, which subsequently change percutaneous absorption of topically applied permeants. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate drug/sunscreen permeation via young and senescent skin irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. Both young and senescent nude mice were subjected to UVA (10 J/cm(2)) and/or UVB radiation (175 mJ/cm(2)). Physiological parameters, immunohistology, and immunoblotting were employed to examine the aged skin. Hydroquinone and sunscreen permeation was determined by in vitro Franz cell. In vivo skin absorption was documented using a hydrophilic dye, rhodamine 123 (log P=-0.4), as a permeant. UVA exposure induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) upregulation. Epidermal tight junction (TJ) were degraded by UVA. UVB increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from 13 to 24 g/m(2)/h. Hyperplasia and inflammation, but not loss of TJ, were also observed in UVB-treated skin. UVA+UVB- and UVA-irradiated skin demonstrated similar changes in histology and biomarkers. UVA+UVB or UVA exposure increased hydroquinone flux five-fold. A negligible alteration of hydroquinone permeation was shown with UVB exposure. Hydroquinone exhibited a lower penetration through senescent skin than young skin. Both UVA and UVB produced enhancement of oxybenzone flux and skin uptake. However, the amount of increase was less than that of hydroquinone delivery. Photoaging did not augment skin absorption of sunscreens with higher lipophilicity, including avobenzone and ZnO. Exposure to UVA generally increased follicular entrance of these permeants, which showed two- to three-fold greater follicular uptake compared to the untreated group. Photoaging had less impact on drug/sunscreen absorption with more lipophilic permeants. Percutaneous absorption did not increase in skin subjected to both intrinsic and extrinsic aging.

  13. Quinone-hydroquinone complexes as model components of humic acids: Theoretical studies of their structure, stability and Visible-UV spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances present a geochemically and environmentally important, yet poorly characterized, component of dissolved organic matter. In the past they have generally been described as macromolecular polymers containing many different functional groups. Recently, it has been suggested, partly on the basis of new experimental data, that such materials are rather supramolecular in nature, consisting of smaller molecular units held together by noncovalent forces such as van der Waals forces and H-bonds. A perplexing difficulty in characterizing humic acids has always been that data expected to be informative, such as their Visible-UV spectra, were sadly lacking in structure. This has usually been explained using models in which ensembles of molecules are present characterized by either long-range charge-charge interactions or random short-range donor-acceptor interactions. Structural components resembling hydroquinone:quinone donor-acceptor complexes have been postulated to explain the near-IR and visible spectra of humic acids (Del Vecchio R., and Blough N.V. (2004) On the origin of the optical properties of humic substances. Environ. Sci. 38, 3885-3891). We have calculated structures, energetics and Visible-UV spectra for several different quinone and hydroquinone monomers and for donor-acceptor complexes formed between hydroquinone, H 2Q, the donor, and quinone, Q, the acceptor. Most of the Visible-UV spectral calculations are carried out using time-dependent density functional theory. For the monomers the calculated energies are in good agreement with experiment. We confirm that the absorption spectra of the D:A complexes have maxima at much lower energy than their monomeric components. These absorption energies are influenced by substituents on the aromatic rings, but are also sensitive functions of the distances between the aromatic rings. The importance of D:A complexes in generating a spectrum like that of natural humic acids is consistent with the model of

  14. [Skin lightening products are a part of everyday life in many parts of the world. Corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury are common ingredients].

    PubMed

    Wallander, Märit; Löfgren, Patrik; Rydén, Mikael

    2015-06-30

    During the past decade, attention has been drawn towards the globally increased usage of skin-lightening (bleaching) products which are manufactured and sold, particularly in Africa and Asia, but also via the internet and in local shops all over North America and Europe. The active ingredients include hydroquinone, mercury and potent corticosteroids which can have severe health effects.  After investigating a patient at our clinic where the symptoms and findings could be linked to the use of bleaching products, we started to search the literature for similar cases. We found a global epidemic of health disorders related to skin lightening products. With this article we want to increase the awareness among Swedish physicians of this growing and harmful cosmetic trend.

  15. The simultaneous electrochemical detection of catechol and hydroquinone with [Cu(Sal-β-Ala)(3,5-DMPz)2]/SWCNTs/GCE.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Lina Abdullah; Li, Xi; Luo, Hui; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Yan, Songling; Liu, Peng; Yang, Yuqin; Li, Quanhua

    2014-11-25

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a copper(II) complex [Cu(Sal-β-Ala) (3,5-DMPz)2] (Sal = salicylaldehyde, β-Ala = β-alanine, 3,5-DMPz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The modified electrode was used to detect catechol (CT) and hydroquinone (HQ) and exhibited good electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of CT and HQ. The peak currents were linear with the CT and HQ concentrations over the range of 5-215 μmol·L(-1) and 5-370 μmol·L(-1) with corresponding detection limits of 3.5 μmol·L(-1) and 1.46 μmol·L(-1) (S/N = 3) respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode exhibited good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility for the determination of CT and HQ, indicating the promising applications of the modified electrode in real sample analysis.

  16. The Simultaneous Electrochemical Detection of Catechol and Hydroquinone with [Cu(Sal-β-Ala)(3,5-DMPz)2]/SWCNTs/GCE

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Lina Abdullah; Li, Xi; Luo, Hui; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Yan, Songling; Liu, Peng; Yang, Yuqin; Li, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with a copper(II) complex [Cu(Sal-β-Ala) (3,5-DMPz)2] (Sal = salicylaldehyde, β-Ala = β-alanine, 3,5-DMPz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The modified electrode was used to detect catechol (CT) and hydroquinone (HQ) and exhibited good electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of CT and HQ. The peak currents were linear with the CT and HQ concentrations over the range of 5–215 μmol·L−1 and 5–370 μmol·L−1 with corresponding detection limits of 3.5 μmol·L−1 and 1.46 μmol·L−1 (S/N = 3) respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode exhibited good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility for the determination of CT and HQ, indicating the promising applications of the modified electrode in real sample analysis. PMID:25429411

  17. Synthesis of reduced carbon nitride at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C3N4)O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharlamov, Alexey; Bondarenko, Marina; Kharlamova, Ganna; Fomenko, Veniamin

    2016-09-01

    For the first time at the reduction by hydroquinone of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide (g-C3N4)O reduced carbon nitride (or reduced multi-layer azagraphene) is obtained. It is differed from usually synthesized carbon nitride by a significantly large (on 0.09 nm) interplanar distance is. At the same time, the chemical bonds between atoms in a heteroatomic plane of reduced carbon nitride correspond to the bonds in a synthesized g-C3N4. The samples of water-soluble carbon nitride oxide were synthesized under the special reactionary conditions of a pyrolysis of melamine and urea. We believe that reduced carbon nitride consists of weakly connected carbon-nitrogen monosheets (azagraphene sheets) as well as reduced (from graphene oxide) graphene contains weakly connected graphene sheets.

  18. Potential of Wood-Rotting Fungi to Attack Polystyrene Sulfonate and Its Depolymerisation by Gloeophyllum trabeum via Hydroquinone-Driven Fenton Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Martin C.; Hofmann, Ulrike; Moeder, Monika; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers often pose environmental hazards due to low biodegradation rates and resulting accumulation. In this study, a selection of wood-rotting fungi representing different lignocellulose decay types was screened for oxidative biodegradation of the polymer polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Brown-rot basidiomycetes showed PSS depolymerisation of up to 50 % reduction in number-average molecular mass (Mn) within 20 days. In-depth investigations with the most efficient depolymeriser, a Gloeophyllum trabeum strain, pointed at extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton chemistry responsible for depolymerisation. Detection of hydroxyl radicals present in the culture supernatants showed good compliance with depolymerisation over the time course of PSS degradation. 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ), which was detected in supernatants of active cultures via liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, was demonstrated to drive the Fenton processes in G. trabeum cultures. Up to 80% reduction in Mn of PSS where observed when fungal cultures were additionally supplemented with 2,5-dimethoxy benzoquinone, the oxidized from of 2,5-DMHQ. Furthermore, 2,5-DMHQ could initiate the Fenton's reagent-mediated PSS depolymerisation in cell-free systems. In contrast, white-rot fungi were unable to cause substantial depolymerising effects despite the expression of lignin-modifying exo-enzymes. Detailed investigations with laccase from Trametes versicolor revealed that only in presence of certain redox mediators limited PSS depolymerisation occurred. Our results indicate that brown-rot fungi might be suitable organisms for the biodegradation of recalcitrant synthetic polymeric pollutants. PMID:26147966

  19. Hydroquinone diphosphate as a phosphatase substrate in enzymatic amplification combined with electrochemical-chemical-chemical redox cycling for the detection of E. coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Akanda, Md Rajibul; Tamilavan, Vellaiappillai; Park, Seonhwa; Jo, Kyungmin; Hyun, Myung Ho; Yang, Haesik

    2013-02-05

    Signal amplification by enzyme labels in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) is not sufficient for detecting a low number of bacterial pathogens. It is useful to employ approaches that involve multiple signal amplification such as enzymatic amplification plus redox cycling. An advantageous combination of an enzyme product [for fast electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling that involves the product] and an enzyme substrate (for slow side reactions and ECC redox cycling that involve the substrate) has been developed to obtain a low detection limit for E. coli O157:H7 in an electrochemical ELISA that employs redox cycling. In our search for an alkaline phosphatase substrate/product couple that is better than the most common couple of 4-aminophenyl phosphate (APP)/4-aminophenol (AP), we compared five couples: APP/AP, hydroquinone diphosphate (HQDP)/hydroquinone (HQ), L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate/L-ascorbic acid, 4-amino-1-naphthyl phosphate/4-amino-1-naphthol, and 1-naphthyl phosphate/1-naphthol. In particular, we examined signal-to-background ratios in ECC redox cycling using Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+) and tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine as an oxidant and a reductant, respectively. The ECC redox cycling that involves HQ is faster than the cycling that involves AP, whereas the side reactions and ECC redox cycling that involve HQDP are negligible compared to the APP case. These results seem to be due to the fact that the formal potential of HQ is lower than that of AP and that the formal potential of HQDP is higher than that of APP. Enzymatic amplification plus ECC redox cycling based on a HQDP/HQ couple allows us to detect E. coli O157:H7 in a wide range of concentrations from 10(3) to 10(8) colony-forming units/mL.

  20. Open-Label Treatment of Moderate or Marked Melasma with a 4% Hydroquinone Skin Care System Plus 0.05% Tretinoin Cream

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Marta; Dibernardo, Barry; Bruce, Suzanne; Lucas-Anthony, Chere; Watson, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate treating epidermal melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin 0.05% cream. Design: Multicenter open-label study with all patients receiving above-mentioned treatment for up to 24 weeks. Setting: Private dermatology and plastic surgery clinics and clinical research facilities. Participants: Thirty-seven adult females with moderate or marked epidermal melasma, melasma pigmentation of mild-to-marked intensity and Fitzpatrick skin type III to VI. Measurements: Melasma severity melasma pigmentation intensity melasma improvement, patient satisfaction, quality-of-life measures, erythema, dryness, peeling, burning/stinging. Results: No patient discontinued due to lack of efficacy or treatment-related adverse events. Treatment was associated with a significant reduction from baseline in melasma severity and melasma pigmentation intensity from Week 4 onward (P≤0.001), and 100 percent of patients showed improvement from Week 8 onward. At Week 24, 100 percent of patients were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with the overall effectiveness of their treatment. Patients’ quality of life also improved (e.g., the proportion of patients feeling embarrassed or self-conscious about their skin “a lot” or “very much” declined from 78 percent at baseline to four percent at Week 24). Mean and median scores for erythema, dryness, peeling, and burning/stinging did not exceed trace levels. Conclusion: Treating moderate-to-severe melasma using the 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus 0.05% tretinoin can significantly reduce the severity of melasma and the intensity of melasma pigmentation within four weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated and associated with an improved quality of life and high levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:24307923

  1. Chemistry of Renieramycins. 17. A New Generation of Renieramycins: Hydroquinone 5-O-Monoester Analogues of Renieramycin M as Potential Cytotoxic Agents against Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chamni, Supakarn; Sirimangkalakitti, Natchanun; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Saito, Naoki; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2017-05-26

    A series of hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues of renieramycin M were semisynthesized via bishydroquinonerenieramycin M (5) prepared from renieramycin M (1), a major cytotoxic bistetrahydroisoquinolinequinone alkaloid isolated from the Thai blue sponge Xestospongia sp. All 20 hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues possessed cytotoxicity with IC50 values in nanomolar concentrations against the H292 and H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The improved cytotoxicity toward the NSCLC cell lines was observed from the 5-O-monoester analogues such as 5-O-acetyl ester 6a and 5-O-propanoyl ester 7e, which exhibited 8- and 10-fold increased cytotoxicity toward the H292 NSCLC cell line (IC50 3.0 and 2.3 nM, respectively), relative to 1 (IC50 24 nM). Thus, the hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues are a new generation of the renieramycins to be further developed as potential marine-derived drug candidates for lung cancer treatment.

  2. Assessing retinol stability in a hydroquinone 4%/retinol 0.3% cream in the presence of antioxidants and sunscreen under simulated-use conditions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Arash; Levitt, Jacob

    2008-03-01

    Retinol (ie,vitamin A) is commonly used in dermatology as an adjunct to treat rhytids, acne,and dyschromia. However, vitamin A and many of its derivatives have poor photostability and are unstable in the presence of oxygen. We aimed to assess the stability of retinol under simulated patient application conditions in a commercially available hydroquinone 4% cream containing retinol 0.3%, avobenzone (ultraviolet-A sunscreen), octinoxate (ultraviolet-B sunscreen), vitamins C and E (antioxidants), and moisturizers. One gram of the preparation was applied as a thin film to the inside base of 4 groups of four 100-mL wide-mouthed beakers, incubated in a 37+/-2 degrees C water bath. Each experimental group consisted of 4 beakers for assays at 0.5,1,2,and 4 hours. The samples were exposed to varying combinations of full spectrum light and headspace gas (air or inert nitrogen gas [N2 ]). Retinol content was assayed via high-pressure liquid chromatography using a 1:9 water:methanol solvent system. The control group (group 5) was not exposed to full-spectrum light or headspace gas but served for comparative purposes. On exposure to light and room air, retinol stability was 94.4% at 0.5 hour, 94.8% at 1 hour, 92.4% at 2 hours, and 91.5% at 4 hours. The retinol contained in the preparation was stable for >or=4 hours. Samples exposed to light and N 2 gas demonstrated 96.5% and 91.3% stability at 0.5 hour and 4 hours exposure times, respectively. Samples that were not exposed to light had a stability of 99.2% (group 3, exposed to air) and 96.9% (group 4, exposed to N(2)) of the initial retinol present after 4 hours. The retinol in the hydroquinone 4%/ retinol 0.3% cream with antioxidants and sunscreens underwent <10% degradation under simulated-use conditions, including exposure to UV light, oxygen, and body temperature.

  3. The co-drug of conjugated hydroquinone and azelaic acid to enhance topical skin targeting and decrease penetration through the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chen, Chun-Che; Fang, Jia-You

    2012-06-01

    A co-drug of hydroquinone (HQ) and azelaic acid (AA), bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)nonanedioate (BHN), was synthesized and investigated as a topical prodrug with the aim of improving the dermal delivery of the parent drugs. Physicochemical parameters were ascertained, and the enzymatic hydrolysis was examined. Skin permeation of HQ, AA, and BHN was studied by determining the skin deposition and flux across nude mouse skin under equivalent doses with the same thermodynamic activity. The partition coefficient (log P) of the co-drug increased by up to 5.0 with HQ and AA conjugation, which had respective log P values of 0.5 and 1.4. In the skin absorption experiment, BHN in ethanol/pH 7 buffer resulted in a 2-fold enhancement of skin deposition compared to both HQ and AA. With permeation using polyethylene glycol 400/pH 7 buffer as the vehicle, the co-drug, respectively, exhibited 8.1- and 1.4-fold enhancements of skin uptake compared to HQ and AA alone. The transdermal flux from BHN was negligible compared to those with HQ and AA treatments. The results of a preliminary safety evaluation showed no signs of stratum corneum disruption or erythema by BHN application within 24h. The co-drug approach provides a viable option for the treatment of skin hyperpigmentation of HQ and AA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a noncytotoxic, X-ray opaque polyurethane containing iodinated hydroquinone bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether as chain extender for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiran, S; Joseph, Roy

    2014-09-01

    An iodinated urethane polymer that does not require addition of X-ray attenuating additives to impart X-ray opacity was synthesized and characterized for biomedical applications. A new X-ray opaque diiodo compound, namely, 2,2'-(2,5-diiodobenzene-1,4-diyl)bis(oxy)diethanol (DBD), was synthesized by iodinating hydroquinone bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether and this compound was used as chain extender during polyurethane synthesis so that X-ray opacity could be imparted to the polymer formed. X-ray opaque polyurethane (XPU) was synthesized by reacting 1,6-diisocyanatohexane with poly(hexamethylene carbonate)diol and DBD. X-ray opacity of XPU was measured with a fluoroscopy machine using BaSO4 -filled polyurethane as controls. Radiographic images showed that XPU sample had X-ray opacity equivalent to 15 wt % BaSO4-filled polymer. In vivo imaging in a rabbit model showed that the material could be readily distinguishable from bones. XPU was found to be hemocompatible and noncytotoxic to L929 fibroblast cell lines. Optical transparency measurements using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer showed that XPU transmitted 85% of visible light.

  5. Synergistic action of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone on myelopoietic stimulating activity of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Colagiovanni, D. B.; Henry, V. A.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The effects of in vitro pretreatment with benzene metabolites on colony-forming response of murine bone marrow cells stimulated with recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) were examined. Pretreatment with hydroquinone (HQ) at concentrations ranging from picomolar to micromolar for 30 min resulted in a 1.5- to 4.6-fold enhancement in colonies formed in response to rGM-CSF that was due to an increase in granulocyte/macrophage colonies. The synergism equaled or exceeded that reported for the effects of interleukin 1, interleukin 3, or interleukin 6 with GM-CSF. Optimal enhancement was obtained with 1 microM HQ and was largely independent of the concentration of rGM-CSF. Pretreatment with other authentic benzene metabolites, phenol and catechol, and the putative metabolite trans, trans-muconaldehyde did not enhance growth factor response. Coadministration of phenol and HQ did not enhance the maximal rGM-CSF response obtained with HQ alone but shifted the optimal concentration to 100 pM. Synergism between HQ and rGM-CSF was observed with nonadherent bone marrow cells and lineage-depleted bone marrow cells, suggesting an intrinsic effect on recruitment of myeloid progenitor cells not normally responsive to rGM-CSF. Alterations in differentiation in a myeloid progenitor cell population may be of relevance in the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to drug or chemical exposure.

  6. Hydroquinone-induced malignant transformation of TK6 cells by facilitating SIRT1-mediated p53 degradation and up-regulating KRAS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuting; Chen, Jiajia; Yun, Lin; Xu, Longmei; Liu, Jiaxian; Xu, Yongchun; Yang, Hui; Liang, Hairong; Tang, Huanwen

    2016-09-30

    Hydroquinone (HQ), known as one of the metabolic products of benzene, causes a number of hematologic malignancies. The study evaluated the potential mechanism of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in HQ-induced TK6 cell malignant transformation. The data of our study show that short term exposure of TK6 cells to HQ led to a decrease expression of SIRT1. Knockdown of SIRT1 sensitized to the HQ-induced apoptosis in vitro and increased the expression of p53, p21 and γ-H2AX. Furthermore, chronic HQ-treated (20μM once a week for 19 weeks) caused carcinogenic transformation and was confirmed by abnormal cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) and subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice. SIRT1 increased KRAS expression, and decreased H3K9 and H3K18 acetylation, inhibited p53 signaling and the level of caspase-3 in HQ-induced transformation cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SIRT1 is involved in HQ-induced malignant transformation associated with suppressing p53 signaling and activation of KRAS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergistic action of the benzene metabolite hydroquinone on myelopoietic stimulating activity of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Colagiovanni, D. B.; Henry, V. A.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The effects of in vitro pretreatment with benzene metabolites on colony-forming response of murine bone marrow cells stimulated with recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) were examined. Pretreatment with hydroquinone (HQ) at concentrations ranging from picomolar to micromolar for 30 min resulted in a 1.5- to 4.6-fold enhancement in colonies formed in response to rGM-CSF that was due to an increase in granulocyte/macrophage colonies. The synergism equaled or exceeded that reported for the effects of interleukin 1, interleukin 3, or interleukin 6 with GM-CSF. Optimal enhancement was obtained with 1 microM HQ and was largely independent of the concentration of rGM-CSF. Pretreatment with other authentic benzene metabolites, phenol and catechol, and the putative metabolite trans, trans-muconaldehyde did not enhance growth factor response. Coadministration of phenol and HQ did not enhance the maximal rGM-CSF response obtained with HQ alone but shifted the optimal concentration to 100 pM. Synergism between HQ and rGM-CSF was observed with nonadherent bone marrow cells and lineage-depleted bone marrow cells, suggesting an intrinsic effect on recruitment of myeloid progenitor cells not normally responsive to rGM-CSF. Alterations in differentiation in a myeloid progenitor cell population may be of relevance in the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to drug or chemical exposure.

  8. The Cu-MOF-199/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol with extended linear ranges and lower detection limits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Xi; Yang, Linlin; Yan, Songlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Dan; Chen, Qi; Dong, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Cai, Weiquan; Zhang, Chaocan

    2015-10-29

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-MOF-199 [Cu-MOF-199 = Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylicacid)] and SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). The modification procedure was carried out through casting SWCNTs on the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and followed by the electrodeposition of Cu-MOF-199 on the SWCNTs modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to characterize the electrochemical performance and surface characteristics of the as-prepared sensor. The composite electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity with increased electrochemical signals towards the oxidation of HQ and CT, owing to the synergistic effect of SWCNTs and Cu-MOF-199. Under the optimized condition, the linear response range were from 0.1 to 1453 μmol L(-1) (RHQ = 0.9999) for HQ and 0.1-1150 μmol L(-1) (RCT = 0.9990) for CT. The detection limits for HQ and CT were as low as 0.08 and 0.1 μmol L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode presented the good reproducibility and the excellent anti-interference performance. The analytical performance of the developed sensor for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CT had been evaluated in practical samples with satisfying results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FT-IR, FT-Raman spectra, density functional computations of the vibrational spectra and molecular conformational analysis of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, N.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Dereli, Ö.; Türkkan, E.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of finding conformer among six different possible conformers of 2,5-di-tert-butyl-hydroquinone (DTBHQ), its equilibrium geometry and harmonic wavenumbers were calculated by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. The infrared and Raman spectra of DTBHQ were recorded in the region 400-4000 cm -1 and 50-3500 cm -1, respectively. In addition, the IR spectra in CCl 4 at various concentrations of DTBHQ are also recorded. The computed vibrational wavenumbers were compared with the IR and Raman experimental data. Computational calculations at B3LYP level with two different basis sets 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) are also employed in the study of the possible conformer of DTBHQ. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using VEDA 4 program. The general agreement between the observed and calculated frequencies was established.

  10. Effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures in emulsions on dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone, salicylic acid and octadecenedioic acid.

    PubMed

    Otto, A; Wiechers, J W; Kelly, C L; Dederen, J C; Hadgraft, J; du Plessis, J

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of emulsifiers and their liquid crystalline structures on the dermal and transdermal delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC). Emulsions containing liquid crystalline phases were compared with an emulsion without liquid crystals. Skin permeation experiments were performed using Franz-type diffusion cells and human abdominal skin dermatomed to a thickness of 400 mum. The results indicate that emulsifiers arranging in liquid crystalline structures in the water phase of the emulsion enhanced the skin penetration of the active ingredients with the exception of SA. SA showed a different pattern of percutaneous absorption, and no difference in dermal and transdermal delivery was observed between the emulsions with and without liquid crystalline phases. The increase in skin penetration of HQ and DIOIC could be attributed to an increased partitioning of the actives into the skin. It was hypothesized that the interaction between the different emulsifiers and active ingredients in the formulations varied and, therefore, the solubilization capacities of the various emulsifiers and their association structures.

  11. Electrochemical characterization of poly-beryllon II modified carbon paste electrode and its application to selective determination of pyrocatechol and hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanzhen; Tang, Weimin; Dang, Fangfang; Chai, Shouning; Zhang, Liang

    2014-06-01

    A poly-beryllon II film modified carbon paste electrode (PBL-II/CPE) has been constructed by electropolymerization method. Electrochemical characterization of the PBL-II/CPE was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of pyrocatechol (PC) and hydroquinone (HQ) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at the PBL-II/CPE in pH 7.0 phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The anodic peak currents were dramatically enhanced about threefold for PC at PBL-II/CPE. In addition, the modified electrode exhibits good selectivity toward selective determination of PC and HQ. By using DPV method, low detection limits of 0.8μM for PC and 1.0μM for HQ were obtained, respectively. Many outstanding advantages, such as wide linear ranges, low detection limits, excellent sensitivity, selectivity and stability confirmed that the PBL-II/CPE has promising analytical performance. Meanwhile, the electrode was successfully used for the determination of PC and HQ in local tap water sample and the results are satisfactory.

  12. A Comparative Study of Two Modalities, 4% Hydroquinone Versus 30% Salicylic Acid in Periorbital Hyperpigmentation and Assessment of Quality of Life Before and After Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Rashmi; Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Tanvi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH) is a common hyperpigmentary problem of the face, which can be psychologically distressing and it can influence an individual's quality of life. However, this condition has received less attention in literature. Aims and Objectives: To study the clinico-etiological features and the effect of two therapeutic modalities on the quality of life in patients of POH before and after treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients attending the outpatient clinic of Dermatology Department, with clinically evident POH were included. All patients were divided randomly into two groups of 25 each and one group was treated with 4% hydroquinone and another group with 30% salicylic acid for 12 weeks. Assessment with visual analog scale (VAS) was done at 4, 6, and 12 weeks, and outcome of the patients was analyzed statistically. Results: Majority of the cases, i.e. 26 (52%) were in the age group of 20–30 years. Females comprised 74% of the study population. On VAS, most of the patients showed mild improvement (10–30%) at 12 weeks of treatment in both the groups. Separately, both the treatments significantly improved the dermatological life quality index of the patients although there was no significant difference found between the two groups. Conclusion: POH is less responsive to standard treatments due to its multifactorial etiology and deposition of melanin in both dermis and epidermis. However, even the mild to moderate improvement in appearance can cause an improvement in the quality of life of the patients. PMID:27512187

  13. Study on electrochemical oxidation behaviors and the diffusion mechanism of hydroquinone at pre-anodized carbon paste electrode by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Linjin; Wang, Zhenhui; Li, Quanmin

    2012-01-21

    A functional pre-anodized carbon paste electrode (PACPE) was constructed by using successive cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of hydroquinone (HQ) were carefully investigated by various electrochemical techniques. The diffusion mechanism of HQ has been put forward for the first time. The driving force for the HQ transport towards anode not only related to the concentration diffusion but also depended on the transport of H(+) in the feed phase along a concentration gradient towards the cathode. The results indicated that the PACPE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of HQ. Compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, the oxidation and reduction peak separation (ΔE(p)) of HQ at the PACPE has been decreased from 578 to 83 mV. Under the optimum conditions, the oxidation peak current was linear with HQ concentration in the range of 4 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-4) M with the linear correlation coefficient of 0.9986. The detection limit was 1.05 × 10(-7) M. This method can be successfully applied to the determination of HQ in wastewater.

  14. Simple simultaneous determination of butylated hydroquinone (TBHQ) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) antioxidants in oil using high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuangjiao; Chen, Funan; Deng, Mao; Sui, Yanyan

    2014-12-01

    A highly sensitive and convenient high-performance liquid chromatography technique coupled with chemiluminescence detection for the simultaneous determination butylated hydroquinone (TBHQ) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in oil is established. The detection is based on the inhibitory effect on the CL reaction between luminol and potassium ferricyanide in an alkaline medium. Samples were separated through a reverse-phase C18 column using a mobile phase of methanol and water (80: 20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The effects of various parameters including mobile phase, flow rate and chemiluminescence regent were studied. Under optimum conditions, both TBHQ and BHA showed good linear relationships in the range 1 × 10(-7) -1 × 10(-5) g/mL with detection limits of 24 and 33 ng/mL, respectively. The proposed method is simple and sensitive, with low costs. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of TBHQ and BHA in sesame oil. The possible inhibition mechanism is also discussed briefly. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The quantification of hydroquinone, catechol, phenol, 3-methylcatechol, scopoletin, m+p-cresol and o-cresol in indoor air samples by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Risner, C.H. . Bowman Gray Technical Center)

    1993-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the quantification of the phenolic compounds hydroquinone, catechol, phenol, 3-methylcatechol, scopoletin, m+p-cresol and o-cresol in indoor air samples. Samples are collected on an 0.8 [mu]m pore size mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM) followed by a silica gel Sep-Pak. The MCEM is extracted and the SiOHSP is eluted with 1% acetic acid. The phenolic compounds were analyzed on a reverse-phase column with fluorescence detection at selected excitation and emission wavelengths specific to the compounds of interest. A mobile phase gradient of 1% HAc and 99% acetonitrile + 1% HAc is used. The method is reproducible with percent relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 9.2 for the seven phenolic compounds. Percent recoveries are acceptable with the exception of scopoletin and p-cresol. A comparison of tobacco versus wood smoke show that amounts of these seven phenolic compounds vary widely with their source. A relatively short sampling time is required and the procedure is capable of detecting <0.3 [mu]g m[sup [minus]3] for all compounds with the exception of 3-methylcatechol with a detection limit of < 4.0 [mu]g m[sup [minus]3].

  16. Interaction of chlorinated phenolics and quinones with the mitochondrial respiration: a comparison of the o- and p-chlorinated quinones and hydroquinones

    SciTech Connect

    Pritsos, C.A.; Pointon, M.; Pardini, R.S.

    1987-05-01

    Interest in the environmental toxicology of chlorinated catechols and their analogous quinones was prompted by their acute toxicity towards fish and other aquatic organisms. Chlorophenols, such as pentachlorophenol, as well as tetrachlorocatechol have been suggested to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation while chloranil and tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone have been shown to inhibit liver mitochondrial respiration, which may be related to their cytotoxicity. Another chlorinated quinone fungicide, 2,3 dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (CNQ) has been studied and shown to both uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and inhibit respiration in liver and heart mitochondria. CNQ was shown to undergo redox cycling with mitochondria, with a concomitant production of toxic oxygen species including superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. These reactive oxygen species were associated with the generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress, and were related to the toxic action of CNQ. Based upon these previous findings, the authors examined the interaction of both the ortho and para isomers of tetrachloro-benzoquinone and their corresponding hydroquinones with mitochondria in order to prove their mechanism of actions and compare the reactions of the various isomers.

  17. Tolerance and efficacy of a product containing ellagic and salicylic acids in reducing hyperpigmentation and dark spots in comparison with 4% hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is the benchmark prescription agent for skin lightening. However, HQ use is recently banned in Europe and in parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. This has resulted in development of alternative skin-lightening agents with comparable efficacy to HQ, but better safety profiles. This study examined the skin-lightening ability of a topical product containing 0.5% ellagic acid and 0.1% salicylic acid and compared its efficacy with that of a prescription generic 4% HQ product. Fifty-four multiethnic subjects were randomly assigned to use the topical test formulation or generic 4% HQ twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product tolerability and efficacy. Under the conditions of this double-blinded clinical study, the test product demonstrated comparable tolerance and efficacy to that of a benchmark product 4% HQ, as assessed by clinical grading, physical measurement of spot size using image analysis, and questionnaire response analysis. This study suggests that this new product provided comparable skin depigmentation benefit to the benchmark product. In addition, the product appears to have better esthetics (texture, pleasantness to use, skin feel) than the 4% HQ product.

  18. The putative benzene metabolite 2,3, 5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone depletes glutathione, stimulates sphingomyelin turnover, and induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Bratton, S B; Lau, S S; Monks, T J

    2000-07-01

    In this study, we show that 2,3,5-tris(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a putative metabolite of benzene, induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Prior to the onset of apoptosis, TGHQ depletes intracellular glutathione (GSH) in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent manner. Neutral, Mg(2+)-dependent sphingomyelinases, which are normally inhibited by GSH, are subsequently activated, as evidenced by increases in intracellular ceramide and depletion of sphingomyelin. As ceramide levels rise, effector caspase (DEVDase) activity steadily increases. Interestingly, while catalase has no effect on TGHQ-mediated depletion of GSH, this hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenger does inhibit DEVDase activity and apoptosis, provided the enzyme is added to HL-60 cells before an increase in ceramide can be observed. Since ceramide analogues inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain, these data imply that ceramide-mediated generation of H(2)O(2) is necessary for the activation of effector caspases-3 and/or -7, and apoptosis. In summary, these studies indicate that TGHQ, and perhaps many quinol-based toxicants and chemotherapeutics, may induce apoptosis in hematopoietic cells by depleting GSH and inducing the proapoptotic ceramide-signaling pathway.

  19. Facile one-pot synthesis and application of nitrogen and sulfur-doped activated graphene in simultaneous electrochemical determination of hydroquinone and catechol.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lili; Yin, Jiao; Li, Yingchun; Yuan, Qunhui; Shen, Hangjia; Hu, Guangzhi; Gan, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) co-doped activated graphene (N,S-AGR) was prepared by the one-pot pyrolysis of a mixture of graphene oxide (GO), thiourea, and potassium hydroxide (KOH), where thiourea acts as the source of N and S dopants and KOH is the activator for porosity. N,S-AGR with a dopant abundance of 2.8 at% N and 2.3 at% S was then used as a high-activity electrocatalyst in the fabrication of an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers, hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC), in aqueous solution. Compared with the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE), the electrodes modified with N,S-AGR showed enhanced electrochemical performance toward HQ and CC in both cyclic voltammetric (CV) and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) measurements because of their enlarged surface area, enhanced electron-transfer rate and increased active sites. Compared with some recently reported electrochemical sensors based on graphene composites, the N,S-AGR modified electrode exhibits higher sensitivity, a much lower detection limit and a comparable linear range for the simultaneous determination of HQ and CC. Moreover, the proposed sensor is promising in practical application for the satisfactory recoveries obtained in real water sample analyses.

  20. Reaction of para-hydroxybenzoic acid esters with singlet oxygen in the presence of glutathione produces glutathione conjugates of hydroquinone, potent inducers of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Chiho; Takeshita, Keizo; Ueda, Jun-Ichi; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Ozawa, Toshihiko

    2006-03-01

    The determination and toxicological characterization of products of the reaction between p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) are very important because of the frequent use of parabens in cosmetics and possible generation of (1)O(2) in the skin. We observed (1)O(2)-dependent production of mono-, di-, and tri-substituted glutathione (GSH) conjugates of hydroquinone (HQ) during visible light-irradiation of a mixture of methyl or ethyl paraben and GSH in the presence of rose bengal (RB). 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) and HQ were produced during the irradiation in the absence of GSH. While a mixture of BQ and GSH produced only mono-substituted conjugate, irradiation of the mixture with RB produced mono-, di-, and tri-substituted conjugates. These observations indicate that (1)O(2) is involved both in the production of BQ and HQ from parabens and in the formation of multi-substituted GSH conjugates from mono-substituted conjugate. Tri-substituted conjugate generated larger amounts of hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous solution than mono-substituted conjugates or HQ did. Detection of semiquinone radical suggests that the autoxidation of conjugates is related to the generation of hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained in this study indicate that parabens may induce oxidative stress in the skin after conversion to GSH conjugates of HQ by reacting with (1)O(2) and GSH.

  1. Does Koopmans' Paradigm for 1-Electron Oxidation Always Hold? Breakdown of IP/Eox Relationship for p-Hydroquinone Ethers and the Role of Methoxy Group Rotation.

    PubMed

    Talipov, Marat R; Boddeda, Anitha; Lindeman, Sergey V; Rathore, Rajendra

    2015-09-03

    Koopmans' paradigm states that electron loss occurs from HOMO, thus forming the basis for the observed linear relationships between HOMO/IP, HOMO/Eox, and IP/Eox. In cases where a molecule undergoes dramatic structural reorganization upon 1-electron oxidation, the IP/Eox relationship does not hold, and the origin of which is not understood. For example, X-ray crystallography of the neutral and cation radicals of bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-annulated p-hydroquinone ethers ((T)HE and (M)HE) showed that they undergo electron-transfer-induced conformational reorganization and show breakdown of the IP/Eox relationship. DFT calculations revealed that Koopmans' paradigm still holds true because the electron-transfer-induced subtle conformational reorganization, responsible for the breakdown of IP/Eox relationship, is also responsible for the reordering of HOMO and HOMO-1. Perceived failure of Koopmans' paradigm in cases of (T)HE and (M)HE assumes that both vertical and adiabatic electron detachments involve the same HOMO; however, this study demonstrates that the vertical ionization and adiabatic oxidation occur from different molecular orbitals due to reordering of HOMO/HOMO-1. The underpinnings of this finding will spur widespread interest in designing next-generation molecules beyond HQEs, whose electronic structures can be modulated by electron-transfer-induced conformation reorganization.

  2. Binding dynamics at the quinone reduction (Qi) site influence the equilibrium interactions of the iron sulfur protein and hydroquinone oxidation (Qo) site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Jason W; Ohnishi, Tomoko; Daldal, Fevzi

    2005-08-09

    Multiple instances of low-potential electron-transport pathway inhibitors that affect the structure of the cytochrome (cyt) bc(1) complex to varying degrees, ranging from changes in hydroquinone (QH(2)) oxidation and cyt c(1) reduction kinetics to proteolytic accessibility of the hinge region of the iron-sulfur-containing subunit (Fe/S protein), have been reported. However, no instance has been documented of any ensuing change on the environment(s) of the [2Fe-2S] cluster. In this work, this issue was addressed in detail by taking advantage of the increased spectral and spatial resolution obtainable with orientation-dependent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic analysis of ordered membrane preparations. For the first time, perturbation of the low-potential electron-transport pathway by Q(i)-site inhibitors or various mutations was shown to change the EPR spectra of both the cyt b hemes and the [2Fe-2S] cluster of the Fe/S protein. In particular, two interlinked effects of Q(i)-site modifications on the Fe/S subunit, one changing the local environment of its [2Fe-2S] cluster and a second affecting the mobility of this subunit, are revealed. Remarkably, different inhibitors and mutations at or near the Q(i) site induce these two effects differently, indicating that the events occurring at the Q(i) site affect the global structure of the cyt bc(1). Furthermore, occupancy of discrete Q(i)-site subdomains differently impede the location of the Fe/S protein at the Q(o) site. These findings led us to propose that antimycin A and HQNO mimic the presence of QH(2) and Q at the Q(i) site, respectively. Implications of these findings in respect to the Q(o)-Q(i) sites communications and to multiple turnovers of the cyt bc(1) are discussed.

  3. Relationship between Sublethal Injury and Microbial Inactivation by the Combination of High Hydrostatic Pressure and Citral or tert-Butyl Hydroquinone

    PubMed Central

    Somolinos, Maria; García, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Mackey, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to investigate (i) the occurrence of sublethal injury in Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment as a function of the treatment medium pH and composition and (ii) the relationship between the occurrence of sublethal injury and the inactivating effect of a combination of HHP and two antimicrobial compounds, tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and citral. The three microorganisms showed a high proportion of sublethally injured cells (up to 99.99% of the surviving population) after HHP. In E. coli and L. monocytogenes, the extent of inactivation and sublethal injury depended on the pH and the composition of the treatment medium, whereas in S. cerevisiae, inactivation and sublethal injury were independent of medium pH or composition under the conditions tested. TBHQ alone was not lethal to E. coli or L. monocytogenes but acted synergistically with HHP and 24-h refrigeration, resulting in a viability decrease of >5 log10 cycles of both organisms. The antimicrobial effect of citral depended on the microorganism and the treatment medium pH. Acting alone for 24 h under refrigeration, 1,000 ppm of citral caused a reduction of 5 log10 cycles of E. coli at pH 7.0 and almost 3 log10 cycles of L. monocytogenes at pH 4.0. The combination of citral and HHP also showed a synergistic effect. Our results have confirmed that the detection of sublethal injury after HHP may contribute to the identification of those treatment conditions under which HHP may act synergistically with other preserving processes. PMID:18952869

  4. Induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in CHO-K1 cells exposed to phenyl-hydroquinone, a metabolite of ortho-phenylphenol.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Y; Tayama, S

    1996-03-29

    The induction of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an index of oxidative DNA modification, was investigated in CHO-K1 cells exposed to phenyl-hydroquinone (PHQ), a major metabolite of ortho-phenylphenol (OPP), an antimicrobial. Addition of PHQ at a concentration of 50 microM to CHO cell suspensions (10(6) cells/ml) induced slight elevation of intracellular 8-OHdG levels. Pretreatment of CHO cells with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT, 20 mM) enhanced PHQ-induced 8-OHdG formation which was accompanied by cell death. Pretreatment of CHO-K1 cells with AT (20 mM) and deferoxamine (DeFe, 20 mM) inhibited the formation of 8-OHdG as well as cell death caused by PHQ. Neither AT nor DeFe affected cell viability or the formation of 8-OHdG in untreated CHO cells during the incubation period. The loss of cellular glutathione induced by the addition of PHQ alone was enhanced by the pretreatment of CHO cells with AT or AT plus DeFe. When PHQ was added to AT-pretreated cell suspensions, the concentration of PHQ decreased with time. This decrease was accompanied by the formation of phenyl-benzoquinone (PBQ). These results suggest that the reactive oxygen species derived from autoxidation of PHQ which converts to PBQ via phenyl-semiquinone elicit DNA damage in CHO cells, especially when the activity of cellular catalase is inhibited.

  5. Brønsted analysis reveals Lys218 as the carboxylase active site base that deprotonates vitamin K hydroquinone to initiate vitamin K-dependent protein carboxylation.

    PubMed

    Rishavy, Mark A; Hallgren, Kevin W; Yakubenko, Anna V; Shtofman, Rebecca L; Runge, Kurt W; Berkner, Kathleen L

    2006-11-07

    The vitamin K-dependent (VKD) carboxylase converts Glu's to carboxylated Glu's in VKD proteins to render them functional in a broad range of physiologies. The carboxylase uses vitamin K hydroquinone (KH(2)) epoxidation to drive Glu carboxylation, and one of its critical roles is to provide a catalytic base that deprotonates KH(2) to allow epoxidation. A long-standing model invoked Cys as the catalytic base but was ruled out by activity retention in a mutant where every Cys is substituted by Ala. Inhibitor analysis of the cysteine-less mutant suggested that the base is an activated amine [Rishavy et al. (2004) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 13732-13737], and in the present study, we used an evolutionary approach to identify candidate amines, which revealed His160, His287, His381, and Lys218. When mutational analysis was performed using an expression system lacking endogenous carboxylase, the His to Ala mutants all showed full epoxidase activity but K218A activity was not detectable. The addition of exogenous amines restored K218A activity while having little effect on wild type carboxylase, and pH studies indicated that rescue was dependent upon the basic form of the amine. Importantly, Brønsted analysis that measured the effect of amines with different pK(a) values showed that K218A activity rescue depended upon the basicity of the amine. The combined results provide strong evidence that Lys218 is the essential base that deprotonates KH(2) to initiate the reaction. The identification of this base is an important advance in defining the carboxylase active site and has implications regarding carboxylase membrane topology and the feedback mechanism by which the Glu substrate regulates KH(2) oxygenation.

  6. The possible role of liver kinase B1 in hydroquinone-induced toxicity of murine fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Chunhong; Zhu, Jie; Bai, YuE; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Yanfeng; Zhang, Shaozun; Liu, Xiangxiang; Zhou, Sheng; Huang, Wenting; Bi, Yongyi; Wang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that the increasing incidence of childhood leukemia may be due to maternal exposure to benzene, which is a known human carcinogen; however, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1) acts as a regulator of cellular energy metabolism and functions to regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis. We hypothesize that LKB1 contributes to the deregulation of fetal or bone hematopoiesis caused by the benzene metabolite hydroquinone (HQ). To evaluate this hypothesis, we compared the effects of HQ on murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells (FL-HSCs) and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BM-HSCs). FL-HSCs and BM-HSCs were isolated and enriched by a magnetic cell sorting system and exposed to various concentrations of HQ (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 μM) for 24 h. We found that the inhibition of differentiation and growth, as well as the apoptosis rate of FL-HSCs, induced by HQ were consistent with the changes in BM-HSCs. Furthermore, G1 cell cycle arrest was observed in BM-HSCs and FL-HSCs in response to HQ. Importantly, FL-HSCs were more sensitive than BM-HSCs after exposure to HQ. The highest induction of LKB1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was observed with a much lower concentration of HQ in FL-HSCs than in BM-HSCs. LKB1 may play a critical role in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of HQ-treated HSCs. This research has developed innovative ideas concerning benzene-induced hematopoietic toxicity or embryotoxicity, which can provide a new experimental evidence for preventing childhood leukemia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 830-841, 2016.

  7. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation enhances H-RAS protein stability and causes abnormal cell cycle progression in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells treated with hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linhua; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Tang, Huanwen; Chen, Jialong; Wen, Qiaosheng; Zou, Fei

    2015-08-05

    Hydroquinone (HQ), one of the most important benzene-derived metabolites, can induce aberrant cell cycle progression; however, the mechanism of this induction remains unclear. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), which is catalysed primarily by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), participates in various biological processes, including cell cycle control. The results of the present study show an accumulation in G1 phase versus S phase of TK6 human lymphoblast cells treated with HQ for 48h compared with PBS-treated cells; after 72h of HQ treatment, the cells transitioned from G1 arrest to S phase arrest. We examined the expression of six genes related to the cell cycle or leukaemia to further explore the reason for this phenomenon. Among these genes, H-RAS was found to be associated with this phenomenon because its mRNA and protein expression decreased at 48h and increased at 72h. Experiments for PARP activity induction and inhibition revealed that the observed PARylation was positively associated with H-RAS expression. Moreover, in cells treated with HQ in conjunction with PARP-1 knockdown, expression of the H-RAS protein decreased and the number of cells in G1 phase increased. The degree of poly(ADP-ribosyl) modification of the H-RAS protein increased in cells treated with HQ for 72h, further supporting that changes in PARylation contributed to the rapid alteration of H-RAS protein expression, followed by abnormal progression of the cell cycle. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were employed to determine whether protein complexes were formed by PARP-1 and H-RAS proteins, and the direct interaction between these proteins indicated that PARylation regulated H-RAS expression. As detected by confocal microscopy, the H-RAS protein was found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal that H-RAS protein can be modified by PARylation.

  8. Metabolism of benzoquinone by yeast cells and oxidative characteristics of corresponding hydroquinone: application to highly sensitive measurement of yeast cell density by using benzoquinone and a chemiluminescent probe.

    PubMed

    Tsukatani, Tadayuki; Ide, Seiji; Ukeda, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2004-07-01

    The metabolic efficiency of seven derivatives of 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ) by yeast cells and the oxidative characteristics of the corresponding hydroquinones (HQs) were studied by electrochemical, spectrophotometric and chemiluminescent methods. The spectrophotometric method was based on the reduction of a tetrazolium salt to formazan dye during the autoxidation of HQs generated by yeast cells under alkaline conditions. The amounts of HQs detected directly by the electrochemical method did not agree with those calculated from the formazan dye obtained by the spectrophotometric method. A tetrazolium salt was reduced to a formazan dye by both the superoxide anion radical (O2-*) generated during the autoxidation of 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-HQ and by HQ itself. Little formazan dye was formed, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was then finally produced during the autoxidation of 1,4-HQ or 2-methyl-1,4-HQ. Formazan dye and H2O2 were generated at a certain ratio during the autoxidation of derivatives of dimethyl-1,4-HQ or 2,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-HQ. The analytical method based on chemiluminescence with lucigenin and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-BQ was applied to highly sensitive measurement of the yeast cell density. A linear relationship between the chemiluminescence intensity and viable cell density was obtained in the range of 1.2 x 10(3) - 4.8 x 10(4) cells/ml. The detection limit was 4.8 x 10(2) cells/ml.

  9. Rb silencing mediated by the down-regulation of MeCP2 is involved in cell transformation induced by long-term exposure to hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linhua; Ling, Xiaoxuan; Wu, Minhua; Chen, Jialong; Chen, Shaoqiao; Tan, Qiang; Chen, Jiansong; Liu, Jiaxian; Zou, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ), a metabolite of benzene, is a well-known human carcinogen; however, its molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. MeCP2 has been traditionally described as a transcriptional repressor, though growing evidence indicates that it also activates gene expression. Here, we investigated whether some epigenetic machinery genes are aberrantly expressed as target tumor suppressor genes in HQ-transformed TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Our results showed that treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine or trichostatin A enhanced the expression of Rb, resulting in cell arrest in G1-phase, and subsequently, an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in cell growth. Moreover, we hypothesised that Rb was silenced by the down-regulation of MeCP2 in HQ-transformed cells, resulting in the dynamic expression of Rb and epigenetic machinery proteins in HQ-transformed cells at different time points. The expression of Rb and MeCP2 in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) showed that positive staining for MeCP2 or Rb was significantly lower in B-NHL tumor tissues, and these changes were significantly and negatively correlated with the grade of B-NHL. The restoration of MeCP2 in HQ-transformed cells enhanced the expression of Rb, promoted cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell growth. The changes in the expression patterns of MeCP2 and Rb were inversely correlated with the degree of DNA methylation. A ChiP assay revealed that MeCP2 proteins were recruited to the Rb promoter with lower 5'-methylcytosine levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the down-regulation of MeCP2 silences Rb, a process involved in cell transformation resulting from long-term exposure to HQ. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relationship between sublethal injury and microbial inactivation by the combination of high hydrostatic pressure and citral or tert-butyl hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Somolinos, Maria; García, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Mackey, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    The aim was to investigate (i) the occurrence of sublethal injury in Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment as a function of the treatment medium pH and composition and (ii) the relationship between the occurrence of sublethal injury and the inactivating effect of a combination of HHP and two antimicrobial compounds, tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and citral. The three microorganisms showed a high proportion of sublethally injured cells (up to 99.99% of the surviving population) after HHP. In E. coli and L. monocytogenes, the extent of inactivation and sublethal injury depended on the pH and the composition of the treatment medium, whereas in S. cerevisiae, inactivation and sublethal injury were independent of medium pH or composition under the conditions tested. TBHQ alone was not lethal to E. coli or L. monocytogenes but acted synergistically with HHP and 24-h refrigeration, resulting in a viability decrease of >5 log(10) cycles of both organisms. The antimicrobial effect of citral depended on the microorganism and the treatment medium pH. Acting alone for 24 h under refrigeration, 1,000 ppm of citral caused a reduction of 5 log(10) cycles of E. coli at pH 7.0 and almost 3 log(10) cycles of L. monocytogenes at pH 4.0. The combination of citral and HHP also showed a synergistic effect. Our results have confirmed that the detection of sublethal injury after HHP may contribute to the identification of those treatment conditions under which HHP may act synergistically with other preserving processes.

  11. Micronucleus induction in cells co-exposed in vitro to 50 Hz magnetic field and benzene, 1,4-benzenediol (hydroquinone) or 1,2,4-benzenetriol.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Villarini, M; Scassellati Sforzolini, G; Fatigoni, C; Moretti, M

    2003-01-01

    The generation, transmission (e.g. power lines, transformers, service wires, and electrical panels), and use (e.g. home appliances, such as electric blankets, shavers, and televisions) of electrical energy is associated with the production of weak electric and magnetic fields (EMF) which oscillate 50 (Europe) or 60 (USA) times per second (power-line frequency), falling in the extremely-low frequency (ELF) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Epidemiological reports suggest a possible association between exposure to ELF-EMF and an increased risk of cancer (e.g. childhood acute leukaemia). Benzene is an established human leukomogen. This xenobiotic, which is unlikely to be the ultimate carcinogen, is metabolized in the liver to its primary metabolite phenol, which is hydroxylated to hydroquinone (1,4-benzenediol) and 1,2,4-benzenetriol. In this in vitro approach, to test the genotoxic and / or co-genotoxic potency of ELF-EMF, the cytokinesis block micronucleus (MN) method with Jurkat cells has been used. A 50 Hz magnetic field (MF) of 5 mT field strength was applied for different length of time (from 1 to 24 h), either alone or with benzene, 1,4-benzenediol, or 1,2,4-benzenetriol. Our preliminary results show that, after 24 h exposure, the frequency of micronucleated cells in MF-exposed cultures is 1.9 fold higher than in sham-exposed (control) cultures. Benzene exposure does not show any cytogenetic activity, whereas 1,4-benzenediol or 1,2,4-benzenetriol alone significantly affect the number of MN in Jurkat cells, as compared to untreated cultures. Moreover, co-exposure to ELF-MF does not seem to affect the frequency of micronuclei induced by benzene, 1,4-benzenediol, or 1,2,4-benzenetriol.

  12. Tumor-promoting activities of hydroquinone and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine after initiation of newborn mice with 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Shibutani, M; Toyoda, K; Shoda, T; Takada, K; Uneyama, C; Takahashi, M; Hirose, M

    1999-08-23

    To clarify the suitability of a newborn-mouse carcinogenesis assay to detect tumor-promoting activities of carcinogens, the non-genotoxic hydroquinone (HQ) and genotoxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) were administered to mice during the promotion stage after treatment with 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg body wt, single intraperitoneal injection) at day 9 after birth. Initiated males and females thus received either HQ at 0.8% in basal diet, or UDMH, at 20 mg/kg body wt once weekly by subcutaneous injection, from day 14 until the end of the experiment at 30 weeks of age. Uninitiated newborn mice, given an injection of the vehicle (0.01 M citrate buffer (pH 5.5), 20 mg/kg body wt), also received HQ or UDMH in the same way. Histopathologically, focal proliferative lesions were found in the livers of male mice and in the lungs of both male and female mice in the MNU-treated groups. HQ significantly increased the incidence and multiplicity of altered hepatocellular foci, the combined incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in males and the incidence and multiplicity of lung adenomas and the combined incidence of lung adenomas and carcinomas in female mice. In addition, four out of eleven MNU + HQ-treated male mice developed lung carcinomas, showing a significant elevation in multiplicity. UDMH also exhibited a tendency to increase the incidence and multiplicity of lung adenomas in female mice. Thus tumor-promoting effects of HQ or UDMH were apparently exerted in the target organs and the MNU-initiated two-stage newborn-mouse carcinogenesis assay may be useful for detection of genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogenicity.

  13. Determination of carbonyl compounds generated from the E-cigarette using coupled silica cartridges impregnated with hydroquinone and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Carbonyl compounds in E-cigarette smoke mist were measured using coupled silica cartridges impregnated with hydroquinone and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. A total of 363 E-cigarettes (13 brands) were examined. Four of the 13 E-cigarette brands did not generate any carbonyl compounds, while the other nine E-cigarette brands generated various carbonyl compounds. However, the carbonyl concentrations of the E-cigarette products did not show typical distributions, and the mean values were largely different from the median values. It was elucidated that E-cigarettes incidentally generate high concentrations of carbonyl compounds.

  14. Simultaneous determination of hydroquinone, resorcinol, phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol in untreated air samples using spectrofluorimetry and a custom multiple linear regression-successive projection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E; Lista, Adriana G; Fragoso, Wallace D; Pontes, Márcio J C; Araújo, Mário C U; Band, Beatriz S Fernández

    2010-12-15

    In this study, a novel, simple, and efficient spectrofluorimetric method to determine directly and simultaneously five phenolic compounds (hydroquinone, resorcinol, phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol) in air samples is presented. For this purpose, variable selection by the successive projections algorithm (SPA) is used in order to obtain simple multiple linear regression (MLR) models based on a small subset of wavelengths. For comparison, partial least square (PLS) regression is also employed in full-spectrum. The concentrations of the calibration matrix ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 mg L(-1) for hydroquinone, from 0.05 to 0.6 mg L(-1) for resorcinol, and from 0.05 to 0.4 mg L(-1) for phenol, m-cresol and p-cresol; incidentally, such ranges are in accordance with the Argentinean environmental legislation. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method a recovery study on real air samples of smoking environment was carried out with satisfactory results (94-104%). The advantage of the proposed method is that it requires only spectrofluorimetric measurements of samples and chemometric modeling for simultaneous determination of five phenols. With it, air is simply sampled and no pre-treatment sample is needed (i.e., separation steps and derivatization reagents are avoided) that means a great saving of time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigator-Blinded, Single-Center Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of a 4% Hydroquinone Skin Care System Plus 0.02% Tretinoin Cream in Mild-to-Moderate Melasma and Photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Marta; Dryer, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment of mild-to-moderate epidermal melasma and photodamage using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin 0.02% cream. Single-center, investigator-blinded study in 39 adult females with mild-to-moderate epidermal melasma, mild-to-marked pigmentation intensity, and Fitzpatrick skin type III to VI treated for 24 weeks. Improvements in melasma severity, pigmentation intensity, photodamage, and patient satisfaction were assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24. Cutaneous tolerability was assessed by investigator (erythema, dryness, peeling) and patients (burning and stinging). Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout. Melasma severity, pigmentation intensity, and melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores relative to baseline were all significantly reduced from week 4 onward (P<.001). In addition, signs of facial photodamage were significantly improved. At week 24, 87.9% of patients were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with the overall treatment effectiveness and Quality of Life (QoL) was much improved. No patient discontinued due to lack of efficacy or treatment-related AEs. One patient (2.8%) reported severe cutaneous intolerability (erythema at week 4). Treating mild-to-moderate melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus 0.02% tretinoin cream can significantly reduce the severity and intensity of melasma and associated pigmentation, and improve signs of photodamage within four weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated and associated with high levels of patient satisfaction.

  16. Antioxidant protection of NO-induced relaxations of the mouse anococcygeus against inhibition by superoxide anions, hydroquinone and carboxy-PTIO.

    PubMed

    Lilley, E; Gibson, A

    1996-09-01

    1. The potential protective effect of several antioxidants [Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), ascorbate, reduced glutathione (GSH), and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOC)] on relaxations of the mouse anococcygeus muscle to nitric oxide (NO; 15 microM) and, where appropriate, nitrergic field stimulation (10 Hz; 10 s trains) was investigated. 2. The superoxide anion generating drug duroquinone (100 microM) reduced relaxations to exogenous NO by 54 +/- 6%; this inhibition was partially reversed by Cu/Zn SOD (250 u ml-1), and by ascorbate (500 microM). Following inhibition of endogenous Cu/Zn SOD activity with diethyldithiocarbamate (DETCA), duroquinone (50 microM) also reduced relaxations to nitrergic field stimulation (by 53 +/- 6%) and this effect was again reversed by Cu/Zn SOD and by ascorbate. Neither GSH (500 microM) nor alpha-TOC (400 microM) afforded any protection against duroquinone. 3. Xanthine (20 mu ml-1); xanthine oxidase (100 microM) inhibited NO-induced relaxations by 73 +/- 14%, but had no effect on those to nitrergic field stimulation, even after DETCA treatment. The inhibition of exogenous NO was reduced by Cu/Zn SOD (250 u ml-1) and ascorbate (400 microM), but was unaffected by GSH or alpha-TOC (both 400 microM). 4. Hydroquinone (100 microM) also inhibited relaxations to NO (by 52 +/- 10%), but not nitrergic stimulation. In this case, however, the inhibition was reversed by GSH (5-100 microM) and ascorbate (100-400 microM), although Cu/Zn SOD and alpha-TOC were ineffective. 5. 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO, 50 microM) inhibited NO-induced relaxations by 50 +/- 4%, but had no effect on nitrergic responses; the inhibition was reduced by ascorbate (2-200 microM) and alpha-TOC (10-200 microM), but not by Cu/Zn SOD or GSH. 6. Hydroxocobalamin (5-100 microM) inhibited, equally, relaxations to both NO (-logIC40 3.14 +/- 0.33) and nitrergic stimulation (-logIC40 3.17 +/- 0.22). 7. Thus, a number of

  17. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped activated graphene aerogel/gold nanoparticles and its application for electrochemical detection of hydroquinone and o-dihydroxybenzene.

    PubMed

    Juanjuan, Zhang; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2014-05-21

    Graphene aerogel materials have attracted increasing attention owing to their large specific surface area, high conductivity and electronic interactions. Here, we report for the first time a novel strategy for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped activated graphene aerogel/gold nanoparticles (N-doped AGA/GNs). First, the mixture of graphite oxide, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, urea and potassium hydroxide was dispersed in water and subsequently heated to form a graphene oxide hydrogel. Then, the hydrogel was dried by freeze-drying and reduced by thermal annealing in an Ar/H2 environment in sequence. Finally, GNs were adsorbed on the surface of the N-doped AGA. The resulting N-doped AGA/GNs offers excellent electronic conductivity (2.8 × 10(3) S m(-1)), specific surface area (1258 m(2) g(-1)), well-defined 3D hierarchical porous structure and apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (40.78 ± 0.15 cm s(-1)), which are notably better than that of previous graphene aerogel materials. Moreover, the N-doped AGA/GNs was used as a new sensing material for the electrochemical detection of hydroquinone (HQ) and o-dihydroxybenzene (DHB). Owing to the greatly enhanced electron transfer and mass transport, the sensor displays ultrasensitive electrochemical response to HQ and DHB. Its differential pulse voltammetric peak current linearly increases with the increase of HQ and DHB in the range of 5.0 × 10(-8) to 1.8 × 10(-4) M for HQ and 1 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-4) M for DHB. The detection limit is 1.5 × 10(-8) M for HQ and 3.3 × 10(-9) M for DHB (S/N = 3). This method provides the advantage of sensitivity, repeatability and stability compared with other HQ and DHB sensors. The sensor has been successfully applied to detection of HQ and DHB in real water samples with the spiked recovery in the range of 96.8-103.2%. The study also provides a promising approach for the fabrication of various graphene aerogel materials with improved electrochemical performances, which

  18. A fast and direct spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of methyl paraben and hydroquinone in cosmetic products using successive projections algorithm.

    PubMed

    Esteki, M; Nouroozi, S; Shahsavari, Z

    2016-02-01

    To develop a simple and efficient spectrophotometric technique combined with chemometrics for the simultaneous determination of methyl paraben (MP) and hydroquinone (HQ) in cosmetic products, and specifically, to: (i) evaluate the potential use of successive projections algorithm (SPA) to derivative spectrophotometric data in order to provide sufficient accuracy and model robustness and (ii) determine MP and HQ concentration in cosmetics without tedious pre-treatments such as derivatization or extraction techniques which are time-consuming and require hazardous solvents. The absorption spectra were measured in the wavelength range of 200-350 nm. Prior to performing chemometric models, the original and first-derivative absorption spectra of binary mixtures were used as calibration matrices. Variable selected by successive projections algorithm was used to obtain multiple linear regression (MLR) models based on a small subset of wavelengths. The number of wavelengths and the starting vector were optimized, and the comparison of the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and cross-validation (RMSECV) was applied to select effective wavelengths with the least collinearity and redundancy. Principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) were also developed for comparison. The concentrations of the calibration matrix ranged from 0.1 to 20 μg mL(-1) for MP, and from 0.1 to 25 μg mL(-1) for HQ. The constructed models were tested on an external validation data set and finally cosmetic samples. The results indicated that successive projections algorithm-multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), applied on the first-derivative spectra, achieved the optimal performance for two compounds when compared with the full-spectrum PCR and PLS. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.083, 0.314 for MP and HQ, respectively. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, a recovery study on real cosmetic samples was carried out with satisfactory

  19. Correlation of electronic transitions and redox potentials measured for pyrocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, pyrogallol, and gallic acid with results of semi-empirical molecular orbital computations A useful interpretation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Melvin Keith

    2007-04-01

    Cyclic voltammogram (CV) electrochemical measurements for pyrocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, pyrogallol, and gallic acid in strong alkaline solution produced observable oxidation-reduction potentials for each hydroxy group present except for resorcinol. UV absorption spectra were also observed for the diluted solutions. Semi-empirical molecular orbital computations were conducted for these molecules of C2 v point group symmetry to determine the character and energies to aid interpretation of the experimental results. CV oxidation removed a π-electron by a radiationless π-π* transition followed by an electron shift from a negative oxygen to the positive aromatic π-system indicated by an observable σ-π* transition. Simple semi-empirical computations correlated with measured excited electronic states during electron transfer.

  20. Induction of ERK1/2 and histone H3 phosphorylation within the outer stripe of the outer medulla of the Eker rat by 2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J

    2004-08-01

    2,3,5-tris-(glutathion-S-yl)-hydroquinone (TGHQ), a metabolite of hydroquinone (HQ), generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured renal epithelial cells and binds to tissue macromolecules within the rat kidney. The potential mechanisms by which TGHQ induces nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenesis have been examined in cell culture models, but less is known concerning the molecular mechanisms of TGHQ-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo. In LLC-PK1 cells, TGHQ induces phosphorylation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and histone H3, which likely promotes inappropriate chromatin condensation and mitotic catastrophe. Using the Eker (Tsc-2 mutant) rat as a model, we show by immunohistochemistry that TGHQ (7.5 micromol/kg) selectively induces ERK1/2 phosphorylation within the outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) of the kidney. ERK1/2 phosphorylation is time-dependant, occurring as early as 1 h following treatment, and reaching maximal levels by 4 h. Subsequently, ERK1/2 phosphorylation returns to baseline levels by 24 h post treatment. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was confirmed by western blot analysis of OSOM tissue. Increases in histone H3 phosphorylation occurred subsequent to ERK1/2 phosphorylation (8 h), and reached a peak by 24 h, coincident with histological evidence of tissue necrosis. In contrast to studies in cell culture, neither JNK/SAPK nor p38 MAPK phosphorylation were significantly altered after TGHQ administration in vivo, as evidenced by western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. These data indicate that activation of the ERK1/2 pathway precedes overt cytotoxicity and that the signaling pathways activated by TGHQ in vivo and in vitro differ.

  1. Quantitative Determination of α-Arbutin, β-Arbutin, Kojic Acid, Nicotinamide, Hydroquinone, Resorcinol, 4-Methoxyphenol, 4-Ethoxyphenol, and Ascorbic Acid from Skin Whitening Products by HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Mei; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nine skin whitening agents in a single injection. These compounds are α-arbutin, β-arbutin, kojic acid, nicotinamide, resorcinol, ascorbic acid, hydroquinone, 4-methoxyphenol, and 4-ethoxyphenol. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column within 30 min. The mobile phase was composed of water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v). The stability of the analytes was evaluated at different pH values between 2.3 and 7.6, and the extraction procedure was validated for different types of skin whitening product matrixes, which included two creams, a soap bar, and a capsule. The best solvent system for sample preparation was 20 mM NaH2PO4 containing 10% methanol at pH 2.3. The analytical method was validated for accuracy, precision, LOD, and LOQ. The developed HPLC-UV method was applied for the quantitation of the nine analytes in 59 skin whitening products including creams, lotions, sera, foams, gels, mask sheets, soap bars, tablets, and capsules.

  2. 2,3-Dichloro-1,4-hydro-quinone 2,3-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone monohydrate: a quinhydrone-type 1:1 donor-acceptor [D-A] charge-transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Guégano, Xavier; Hauser, Jürg; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio

    2011-11-01

    IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TITLE COMPOUND (SYSTEMATIC NAME: 2,3-dichloro-benzene-1,4-diol 2,3-dichloro-cyclo-hexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione monohydrate), C(6)H(4)Cl(2)O(2)·C(6)H(2)Cl(2)O(2)·H(2)O, the 2,3-dichloro-1,4-hydro-quinone donor (D) and the 2,3-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone acceptor (A) mol-ecules form alternating stacks along [100]. Their mol-ecular planes [maximum deviations for non-H atoms: 0.0133 (14) (D) and 0.0763 (14) Å (A)] are inclined to one another by 1.45 (3)° and are thus almost parallel. There are π-π inter-actions involving the D and A mol-ecules, with centroid-centroid distances of 3.5043 (9) and 3.9548 (9) Å. Inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecule and the hy-droxy and ketone groups lead to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to (001). These networks are linked by C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a tumor-associated, growth-related, and time-keeping hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase (tNOX) of the HeLa cell surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chueh, Pin-Ju; Kim, Chinpal; Cho, NaMi; Morre, Dorothy M.; Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    NOX proteins are growth-related cell surface proteins that catalyze both hydroquinone or NADH oxidation and protein disulfide interchange and exhibit prion-like properties. The two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. Here we report the expression, cloning, and characterization of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX). The cDNA sequence of 1830 bp is located on gene Xq25-26 with an open reading frame encoding 610 amino acids. The activities of the bacterially expressed tNOX oscillate with a period length of 22 min as is characteristic of tNOX activities in situ. The activities are inhibited completely by capsaicin, which represents a defining characteristic of tNOX activity. Functional motifs identified by site-directed mutagenesis within the C-terminal portion of the tNOX protein corresponding to the processed plasma membrane-associated form include quinone (capsaicin), copper and adenine nucleotide binding domains, and two cysteines essential for catalytic activity. Four of the six cysteine to alanine replacements retained enzymatic activity, but the period lengths of the oscillations were increased. A single protein with two alternating enzymatic activities indicative of a time-keeping function is unprecedented in the biochemical literature.

  4. Cigarette Smoke-Related Hydroquinone Induces Filamentous Actin Reorganization and Heat Shock Protein 27 Phosphorylation through p38 and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marianne; Cousins, Scott W.; Csaky, Karl G.; Striker, Gary; Marin-Castaño, Maria E.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-derived membranous debris named blebs, may accumulate and contribute to sub-RPE deposit formation, which is the earliest sign of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Oxidative injury to the RPE might play a significant role in AMD. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We previously reported that hydroquinone (HQ), a major pro-oxidant in cigarette smoke, foodstuff, and atmospheric pollutants, induces actin rearrangement and membrane blebbing in RPE cells as well as sub-RPE deposits in mice. Here, we show for the first time that phosphorylated Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), a key regulator of actin filaments dynamics, is up-regulated in RPE from patients with AMD. Also, HQ-induced nonlethal oxidative injury led to Hsp27mRNA up-regulation, dimer formation, and Hsp27 phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, we found that a cross talk between p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mediates HQ-induced Hsp27 phosphorylation and actin aggregate formation, revealing ERK as a novel upstream mediator of Hsp27 phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrated that Hsp25, p38, and ERK phosphorylation are increased in aging C57BL/6 mice chronically exposed to HQ, whereas Hsp25 expression is decreased. Our data suggest that phosphorylated Hsp27 might be a key mediator in AMD and HQ-induced oxidative injury to the RPE, which may provide helpful insights into the early cellular events associated with actin reorganization and bleb formation involved in sub-RPE deposits formation relevant to the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:20651235

  5. 2,3,5-tris(Glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ)-mediated apoptosis of human promyelocytic leukemia cells is preceded by mitochondrial cytochrome c release in the absence of a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mi Young; Lau, Serrine S; Monks, Terrence J

    2005-07-01

    2,3,5-tris(Glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone (TGHQ), a metabolite of benzene, induces apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. However, the mechanisms by which TGHQ induces apoptosis are unclear, and they were the focus of the present investigation. TGHQ stimulated the rapid formation (30 min) of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HL-60 cells, and co-treatment with catalase or the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) completely blocked TGHQ-induced apoptosis, implicating a causative role for ROS in HL-60 cell death. Western blot analysis revealed the complete disappearance of pro-caspase 9 between 1 and 2 hours after exposure of HL-60 cells to TGHQ, concomitant with the appearance of cleaved caspase 9 and increases in caspase 9 activity. The appearance of two cleaved forms of caspase 3 occurred subsequent to increases in caspase 9 activity. Levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein remained constant during TGHQ-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, but Bcl-2 S70 phosphorylation decreased. In contrast, changes in the subcellular localization of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax were observed, with a rapid (15-60 min) increase in the ratio of cytosolic to mitochondrial Bax. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol occurred after Bax translocation and the dephosphorylation of pS70 Bcl-2. However the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)) was maintained, even after cytochrome c was released from the mitochondria. Cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (PTP), did not completely rescue HL-60 cells from apoptosis. Taken together, we conclude that TGHQ facilitates ROS production, alters the post-translational modification of Bcl-2 and subcellular localization of Bax, culminating in the release of cytochrome c and caspase activation.

  6. The Nrf1 CNC/bZIP protein is a nuclear envelope-bound transcription factor that is activated by t-butyl hydroquinone but not by endoplasmic reticulum stressors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiguo; Lucocq, John M; Hayes, John D

    2009-03-01

    In rat liver RL-34 cells, endogenous Nrf1 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 1) is localized in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) where it exists as a glycosylated protein. Electron microscopy has demonstrated that ectopic Nrf1 in COS-1 cells is located in the ER and the NE (nuclear envelope). Subcellular fractionation, together with a membrane proteinase protection assay, revealed that Nrf1 is an integral membrane protein with both luminal and cytoplasmic domains. The N-terminal 65 residues of Nrf1 direct its integration into the ER and NE membranes and tether it to a Triton X-100-resistant membrane microdomain that is associated with lipid rafts. The activity of Nrf1 was increased by the electrophile tBHQ (t-butyl hydroquinone) probably through an N-terminal domain-dependent process. We found that the NST (Asn/Ser/Thr-rich) domain, along with AD1 (acidic domain 1), contributes positively to the transactivation activity of full-length Nrf1. Furthermore, the NST domain contains seven putative -Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr- glycosylation sites and, when glycosylation was prevented by replacing all of the seven asparagine residues with either glutamine (Nrf1(1-7xN/Q)) or aspartic acid (Nrf1(1-7xN/D)), the former multiple point mutant possessed less activity than the wild-type factor, whereas the latter mutant exhibited substantially greater activity. Lastly, the ER stressors tunicamycin, thapsigargin and Brefeldin A were found to inhibit basal Nrf1 activity by approximately 25%, and almost completely prevented induction of Nrf1-mediated transactivation by tBHQ. Collectively, these results suggest that the activity of Nrf1 critically depends on its topology within the ER, and that this is modulated by redox stressors, as well as by its glycosylation status.

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy and safety of 3% Rumex occidentalis cream versus 4% hydroquinone cream in the treatment of melasma among Filipinos.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Clarisse G; Singzon, Ivan A; Handog, Evangeline B

    2014-11-01

    Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation symmetrically distributed on the face, neck, and arms. The skin-lightening properties of Rumex occidentalis make it a therapeutic alternative to the reference standard treatment of hydroquinone (HQ). This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 3% R. occidentalis cream versus 4% HQ cream in the management of epidermal and mixed melasma. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-five subjects with epidermal and mixed melasma were recruited to compare 3% R. occidentalis cream, 4% HQ cream, and placebo cream applied twice daily for eight weeks. Changes in pigmentation were measured every two weeks using the Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) and a mexameter. Adverse events were noted on every visit. Patient and investigator global evaluations were performed at the end of the study. Overall mean MASI and mexameter readings in the three groups decreased from baseline to week 8. The greatest decline in score from weeks 2 to 6 was achieved by the HQ group, followed by the R. occidentalis group. By week 8, the R. occidentalis group showed a greater mean ± standard deviation decline in MASI and mexameter readings from baseline (MASI: 0.60 ± 0.86; mexameter: 50.56 ± 25.63) than the HQ group (MASI: 0.55 ± 0.62; mexameter: 45.89 ± 47.83). The efficacy of R. occidentalis cream and HQ cream were assessed as similarly favorable by both study subjects and investigators. Rumex occidentalis 3% cream is a safe and effective skin-lightening agent for melasma and is comparable in efficacy with 4% HQ cream. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Photoelectrochemistry on Ru(II)-2,2'-bipyridine-phosphonate-derivatized TiO2 with the I3-/I- and quinone/hydroquinone relays. Design of photoelectrochemical synthesis cells.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Laurie A; Serron, Scafford A; Wen, Xingu; Hornstein, Brooks J; Dattelbaum, D M; Schoonover, J R; Meyer, Thomas J

    2005-03-21

    Photocurrent measurements have been made on nanocrystalline TiO2 surfaces derivatized by adsorption of a catalyst precursor, [Ru(tpy)(bpy(PO3H2)2)(OH2)]2+, or chromophore, [Ru(bpy)2 (bpy(PO3H2)2)]2+ (tpy is 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and bpy(PO3H2)2 is 2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-diphosphonic acid), and on surfaces containing both complexes. This is an extension of earlier work on an adsorbed assembly containing both catalyst and chromophore. The experiments were carried out with the I3-/I- or quinone/hydroquinone (Q/H2Q) relays in propylene carbonate, propylene carbonate-water mixtures, and acetonitrile-water mixtures. Electrochemical measurements show that oxidation of surface-bound Ru(III)-OH2(3+) to Ru(IV)=O(2+) is catalyzed by the bpy complex. Addition of aqueous 0.1 M HClO4 greatly decreases photocurrent efficiencies for adsorbed [Ru(tpy)(bpy(PO3H2)2)(OH2)]2+ with the I3-/I- relay, but efficiencies are enhanced for the Q/H2Q relay in both propylene carbonate-HClO4 and acetonitrile-HClO4 mixtures. The dependence of the incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) on added H2Q in 95% propylene carbonate and 5% 0.1 M HClO4 is complex and can be interpreted as changing from rate-limiting diffusion to the film at low H2Q to rate-limiting diffusion within the film at high H2Q. There is no evidence for photoelectrochemical cooperativity on mixed surfaces containing both complexes with the IPCE response reflecting the relative surface compositions of the two complexes. These results provide insight into the possible design of photoelectrochemical synthesis cells for the oxidation of organic substrates.

  9. Efficacy and safety of a novel picosecond laser using combination of 1 064 and 595 nm on patients with melasma: A prospective, randomized, multicenter, split-face, 2% hydroquinone cream-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Jun; Nam, Jae-Hui; Kim, Jung Yup; Min, Joon Hong; Park, Kui Young; Ko, Eun Jung; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Won-Serk

    2017-09-14

    Melasma is a common acquired, chronic hypermelanosis and still remains a therapeutic challenge. The low-fluence 1 064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is the most widely used for the treatment of moderate to severe melasma in Asia. Recently, the picosecond laser has been introduced for various pigmentary disorders such as melasma. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a picosecond laser with dual-wavelengths (1 064 and 595 nm) and topical 2% hydroquinone (HQ) combination therapy on patients with melasma, and compared results with those obtained with 2% HQ alone. This was a prospective, randomized, split-face, controlled trial comparing two treatments with combined 7 week 2% HQ (daily) and 5 week picosecond laser (weekly) versus 7 week 2% HQ. The primary efficacy variable was the change rate of the relative lightness values (RL*I) at week 7 from baseline. RL*I at a follow-up visit, modified melasma severity score (mMASI), and satisfaction were assessed. Picosecond laser and 2% HQ had superior efficacy to 2% HQ alone: 30/39 (76.92%) subjects on combination treatment achieved ≥51% improvement of RL*I versus 1/39 (2.56%) subjects on 2% HQ. The mMASI, RL*I, and satisfaction on the laser-treated side at week 7 supported these results. Aside from RL*I, no difference between the laser-treated versus control side was found after follow-up. No serious adverse events were reported. A 750 picosecond laser using 1 064 and 595 nm was effective and safe for the treatment of Korean melasma patients. The picosecond laser with dual-wavelength used in this study can reduce the photothermal effect generated during the removal of pigment and total duration of the procedure, and can be expected to reduce the occurrence of adverse events. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Antioxidant farnesylated hydroquinones from Ganoderma capense.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingrong; Li, Lei; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Guolei; Li, Zhongrong; Qiu, Minghua

    2016-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma capense led to isolation of eight aromatic meroterpenoids (1-8). Ganocapensins A and B (1, 2) possessed a thirteen-membered and a fourteen-membered ether rings, respectively. The structures of new isolates including absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic technologies and Mosher's method. All isolated compounds showed significant antioxidant effects with IC50 values ranging from 6.00±0.11 to 8.20±0.30μg/ml in the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The study of DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2‧deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite ter-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) through in vitro reaction with Calf Thymus DNA and 2‧deoxyguanosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiawan; Purwaningsih, S. S.; Cahaya, D. I.

    2017-04-01

    Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite Tert-Butyl Hydroquinone (TBHQ) are synthetic antioxidants, commonly used as food and beverage preservatives. Although WHO declared their safety, the use of these preservatives are still controversial because some studies showed that BHA induced proliferative effects in animal testing and TBHQ is considered as carcinogenic and causes DNA cleavage. This study is aimed to analyze the interaction between Calf Thymus DNA with BHA and TBHQ which are mediated with Copper (II) Chloride. The result of the study in spectrophotometric showed there was bathochromic shift as much as 2-3 nm in DNA treated with TBHQ. The next analysis used HPLC method in stationary phase of ODS, mobile phase of 10mM Natrium Hydrogen Phosphate Buffer and Methanol (85 : 15) for DNA adduct formation, 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) as biomarker of risk cancer. The resultof the study showed the formation of DNA adduct 8-OHDG in the interaction between DNA and 20-500 ppm of TBHQ. The 8-OHdG formation was greatly increased by the higher concentration of TBHQ. The relative amount of 8 OHDG which formed was reached 946/105 deoxyguanosine in DNA bases. Confirmation test by LCMS/MS was characterized with the detection of mother ion peak (m/z 284); fragment ion peaks at m/z 167.9, and 139.9; at retention time 3.52 min. Meanwhile the interaction between DNA and 50-250 ppm BHA did not induce 8-OHDG.

  12. Combined use of two formulations containing diacetyl boldine, TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 with other hypopigmenting/exfoliating agents and sunscreen provides effective and convenient treatment for facial melasma. Either is equal to or is better than 4% hydroquinone on normal skin.

    PubMed

    Pratchyapurit, Walai-Orn

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of melasma remains a challenge and involves multistep approach. Diacetyl boldine (DAB) stabilizes tyrosinase in its inactive form while TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 inhibits tyrosinase activity. (1) to study the efficacy and safety of the combination use of two formulae containing two principal ingredients: DAB and TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68 on facial melasma, and (2) to compare their efficacy with 2% and 4% hydroquinone cream (HQ) on sun-protected normal skin. A randomized, double-blind, 12-week comparative study of pre-/post-treatment was conducted in 40 females. Melasma was evaluated by manual MASI score and MASI score with instrumentally graded darkness at baseline, 6th week, and 12th week. The author also compared their effect with HQ on the arms, assessed their safety profile throughout the study. Thirty-eight subjects have completed the study. Their melasma showed improvement at the 6th week and 12th week as compared with baseline (P < 0.05). None developed severe reaction. Most subjects had temporary, mild skin reaction. About 2.6% of subjects graded themselves markedly improved, 76.3% moderately improved, and 21.1% slightly improved. Each formula showed either more efficacy or exerted faster action on pigment reduction than HQ. Combination of DAB serum at night and DAB/TGF-β1 biomimetic oligopeptide-68/sunscreen cream in the morning and at noon was effective and safe for facial melasma. They were superior to HQ in pigment reduction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Enhancement of the carbon electrode capacitance by brominated hydroquinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastol, Dominika; Walkowiak, Jedrzej; Fic, Krzysztof; Frackowiak, Elzbieta

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents supercapacitors utilizing new redox-active electrolytes with bromine species. Two sources of Br specimen were investigated, i.e. dibromodihydroxybenzene dissolved in KOH and potassium bromide dissolved in KOH with hydroxybenzene additive. KOH-activated carbon, exhibiting a well-developed porosity, was incorporated as an electrode material. The tested systems revealed a capacitance enhancement explained by Br- and partial BrO3- redox activity. The optimisation of the electrolyte concentration resulted in a capacitance value of 314 F g-1 achieved at 1.1 V voltage range. Good cyclability performance (11% capacitance loss) combined with a high capacitance value (244 F g-1) were obtained for the system operating in 0.2 mol L- 1 C6H4Br2O2 in 2 mol L-1 KOH electrolytic solution.

  14. 40 CFR 721.4390 - Trisubstituted hydroquinone diester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program. Requirements as specified in § 721.72 (a), (b), (c), (d), (f), (g)(3)(i), (g)(3)(ii), (g)(4)(i), and (g)(5). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4) (where N = 30 ppb). (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of subpart A of this part apply to this section...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4390 - Trisubstituted hydroquinone diester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diester (PMN No. P-92-329) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...), and (g)(5). (ii) Release to water. Requirements as specified in § 721.90 (a)(4), (b)(4) (where N = 30....125 (a), (b), (c), (f), (g), (h), (j), and (k) are applicable to manufacturers, importers, and...

  16. Effect of metronidazole supplemented with hydroquinone on the adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus in ovine vaginal cells.

    PubMed

    Coletti Zabala, Tamara L; Zerbatto, María E; Perotti, Elda B R; Smacchia, Ana M; Ombrella, Adriana; Pidello, Alejandro R

    This work demonstrates that the addition of metronidazole together with a ubiquitous quinone compound reduces adherence of Lactobacillus acidophilus to ovine vaginal cells. Spectrophotometric and voltammetric studies have shown that neoformed compounds were observed in these systems; there were also changes in their electroactive composition, and the oxidant status had a significantly higher value compared to the control (p<0.05). Based on reduction potential (E; mV), the distribution of electroactive compound concentrations suggests that the compounds with low reduction potential induce this behavior, which would indicate that the addition of metronidazole with a ubiquitous quinone compound to the vaginal system might increase the reductive capacity of these systems. This work shows that the study of behavior and fluctuations of the redox compounds that compose the vaginal environment, in terms of concentration and species of redox molecules, must be hierarchized in order to better understand the early stages of colonization by microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROQUINONE AND CATECHOL FORMATION USING HEPATIC MICROSOMES FROM THREE SPECIES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in vitro metabolism of phenol at 11 degrees C has been studied using juvenile and immature adult rainbow (Orcorhynchus mykiss), immature adult brook (Salvelinus fontinalis), and immature adult lake trout (Salvelinus namacush) hepatic microsomal preparations.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROQUINONE AND CATECHOL FORMATION USING HEPATIC MICROSOMES FROM THREE SPECIES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in vitro metabolism of phenol at 11 degrees C has been studied using juvenile and immature adult rainbow (Orcorhynchus mykiss), immature adult brook (Salvelinus fontinalis), and immature adult lake trout (Salvelinus namacush) hepatic microsomal preparations.

  19. Configurational assignments of conformationally restricted bis-monoterpene hydroquinones: Utility in exploration of endangered plants

    Treesearch

    Joonseok Oh; John J. Bowling; Amar G. Chittiboyina; Robert J. Doerksen; Daneel Ferreira; Theodor D. Leininger; Mark T. Hamann

    2013-01-01

    Endangered plant species are an important resource for new chemistry. Lindera melissifolia is native to the Southeastern U.S. and scarcely populates the edges of lakes and ponds. Quantum mechanics (QM) used in combination with NMR/ECD is a powerful tool for the assignment of absolute configuration in lieu of X-ray crystallography. Methods: The EtOAc extract of L....

  20. Kinetic studies on the oxidation of semiquinone and hydroquinone forms of Arabidopsis cryptochrome by molecular oxygen

    PubMed Central

    van Wilderen, Luuk J.G.W.; Silkstone, Gary; Mason, Maria; van Thor, Jasper J.; Wilson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptochromes (crys) are flavoprotein photoreceptors present throughout the biological kingdom that play important roles in plant development and entrainment of the circadian clock in several organisms. Crys non-covalently bind flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) which undergoes photoreduction from the oxidised state to a radical form suggested to be active in signalling in vivo. Although the photoreduction reactions have been well characterised by a number of approaches, little is known of the oxidation reactions of crys and their mechanisms. In this work, a stopped-flow kinetics approach is used to investigate the mechanism of cry oxidation in the presence and absence of an external electron donor. This in vitro study extends earlier investigations of the oxidation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome1 by molecular oxygen and demonstrates that, under some conditions, a more complex model for oxidation of the flavin than was previously proposed is required to accommodate the spectral evidence (see P. Müller and M. Ahmad (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 21033–21040 [1]). In the absence of an electron donor, photoreduction leads predominantly to the formation of the radical FADH•. Dark recovery most likely forms flavin hydroperoxide (FADHOOH) requiring superoxide. In the presence of reductant (DTT), illumination yields the fully reduced flavin species (FADH−). Reaction of this with dioxygen leads to transient radical (FADH•) and simultaneous accumulation of oxidised species (FAD), possibly governed by interplay between different cryptochrome molecules or cooperativity effects within the cry homodimer. PMID:26649273

  1. Preparation of zwitterionic hydroquinone-fused [1,4]oxazinium derivatives via a photoinduced intramolecular dehydrogenative-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenyi; Liu, Shi-Xia; Neels, Antonia; Renaud, Philippe; Decurtins, Silvio

    2009-12-03

    A simple and efficient photochemical reaction can be performed to construct functionalized [1,4]oxazinium derivatives via a direct dehydrogenative coupling between sp(3)- and sp(2)-hybridized C-atoms, starting from easily accessible stable semiquinone radicals.

  2. Coffee component hydroxyl hydroquinone (HHQ) as a putative ligand for PPAR gamma and implications in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Coffee contains several compounds that have the potential to influence breast cancer risk and survival. However, epidemiologic data on the relation between coffee compounds and breast cancer survival are sparse and inconsistent. Results We show that coffee component HHQ has significant apoptotic effect on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in vitro, and that ROS generation, change in mitochondrial membrane permeability, upregulation of Bax and Caspase-8 as well as down regulation of PGK1 and PKM2 expression may be important apoptosis-inducing mechanisms. The results suggest that PPARγ ligands may serve as potential therapeutic agents for breast cancer therapy. HHQ was also validated as a ligand for PPARγ by docking procedure. Conclusion This is the first report on the anti-breast cancer (in vitro) activity of HHQ. PMID:24564733

  3. Coffee component hydroxyl hydroquinone (HHQ) as a putative ligand for PPAR gamma and implications in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shashni, Babita; Sharma, Karun; Singh, Rumani; Sakharkar, Kishore R; Dhillon, Sarinder K; Nagasaki, Yukio; Sakharkar, Meena K

    2013-01-01

    Coffee contains several compounds that have the potential to influence breast cancer risk and survival. However, epidemiologic data on the relation between coffee compounds and breast cancer survival are sparse and inconsistent. We show that coffee component HHQ has significant apoptotic effect on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in vitro, and that ROS generation, change in mitochondrial membrane permeability, upregulation of Bax and Caspase-8 as well as down regulation of PGK1 and PKM2 expression may be important apoptosis-inducing mechanisms. The results suggest that PPARγ ligands may serve as potential therapeutic agents for breast cancer therapy. HHQ was also validated as a ligand for PPARγ by docking procedure. This is the first report on the anti-breast cancer (in vitro) activity of HHQ.

  4. Experimental studies on the toxicity of lithographic developer solution.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Takeichi, S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the toxicity of a lithographic developer solution which contains hydroquinone is caused by hydroquinone or the alkaline lithographic developer solution. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups. In four groups, rats were dosed orally with 3% hydroquinone or 3% hydroquinone in 3% lithographic developer solution. Hydroquinone levels were measured after one and 24 hours. In two groups, rats were dosed orally with 6% hydroquinone or 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution. In the seventh group, rats received the alkaline solution only. Hydroquinone measurement was made using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Hydroquinone was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and subsequently distributed throughout the body. Nearly all hydroquinone was excreted in the urine as either a glucuronide or a sulfate (78-82%) within 24 hours. All rats administered 6% hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle died, but the mortality rate of rats administered 6% hydroquinone in lithographic developer solution was 60%. Tissue hydroquinone was lower at one hour and 24 hours after administration in lithographic developer solution than in equal dose of hydroquinone in non-alkaline vehicle suggesting decreased absorption in an alkaline pH. Hydroquinone was not associated with gross pathologic changes of the intestine but all animals treated with lithographic developer solution or alkaline solution had congestion, hemorrhagic petechiae and purple-brown discoloration throughout the small intestine. The combination of alkaline/formaldehyde diluent with hydroquinone may delay hydroquinone absorption but increase the risk of intestinal necrosis.

  5. In Vitro Evaluation of the Biocompatibility of Newly Synthesized Bis-Quaternary Ammonium Compounds with Spacer Structures Derived from Pentaerythritol or Hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Takami, Takashi; Matsumura, Reiko; Dorofeev, Alexander; Hirata, Yoshihiko; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

     With the object of developing new biocides milder for human use than the current antiseptics, we synthesized a series of bis-quaternary ammonium compounds (bis-QACs). The antimicrobial activity of the newly synthesized bis-QACs and common biocides used as antiseptics was compared by examining minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). Moreover, the cytotoxicity of these compounds against human cells was determined to calculate the biocompatibility index (BI) of these compounds. BI was the ratio of the concentration of a biocide giving a 50% lethal effect on normal human epidermal keratinocytes to its MBC against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The commonly used antiseptics tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAC), octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). In comparison with these antiseptics, it was shown that some of new bis-QACs exhibited a wider and more potent antimicrobial spectrum than OCT. The cytotoxicity of these bis-QACs was equal or lower compared to that of the quaternary ammonium compounds (BAC and OCT), although these bis-QACs showed higher toxicity than the biguanide-based compounds (CHG and PHMB). Finally, the comparison of BIs revealed that new bis-QACs such as N-dodecyl {4,4'-(2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]undecan-3,9-diyl) }dipyridinium dibromide (4TOSU-12), 3,3'-[1,4-Phenylenebis (oxy)]bis (1-dodecylpyridinium) dibromide (3PHBO-12) and 3-(3-Hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2-{[(1-dodecylpyridinium-3-yl) oxy]methyl}propoxy)-1-dodecylpyridinium dibromide (3HHDMP-12) had equal or greater biocompatibility than the commonly used biocides tested. Thus, these results strongly suggested that 4TOSU-12, 3PHBO-12 and 3HHDMP-12 could be useful as antiseptics for topical application to the skin.

  6. A new sensitive sensor for simultaneous differential pulse voltammetric determination of codeine and acetaminophen using a hydroquinone derivative and multiwall carbon nanotubes carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Garazhian, Elahe; Shishehbore, M Reza

    2015-01-01

    A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for simultaneous determination of codeine and acetaminophen based on 4-hydroxy-2-(triphenylphosphonio)phenolate (HTP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode at trace levels. The sensitivity of codeine determination was deeply affected by spiking multiwall carbon nanotubes and a modifier in carbon paste. Electron transfer coefficient, α, catalytic electron rate constant, k, and the exchange current density, j 0, for oxidation of codeine at the HTP-MWCNT-CPE were calculated using cyclic voltammetry. The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.2-844.7 μM with two linear segments, and the detection limit of 0.063 μM of codeine was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was separated codeine and acetaminophen signals by differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of codeine and acetaminophen in biological and pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Fabrication of Chromatographic Devices for Screening Cosmetics for Hydroquinone and Retinoic Acid as a Chemistry Project to Connect with the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Waewsa-nga, Kwanrutai; Muangchang, Thanawit; Ratanakreethakul, Pudinan; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Winotapun, Weerapath; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates how a student research project could connect classroom and community. Using local citizens' concerns about the adulteration of cosmetics by prohibited substances as a research problem, fifth-year pharmaceutical chemistry students were challenged to use their knowledge to create cost-effective and environmentally friendly…

  8. Fabrication of Chromatographic Devices for Screening Cosmetics for Hydroquinone and Retinoic Acid as a Chemistry Project to Connect with the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Waewsa-nga, Kwanrutai; Muangchang, Thanawit; Ratanakreethakul, Pudinan; Plianwong, Samarwadee; Winotapun, Weerapath; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates how a student research project could connect classroom and community. Using local citizens' concerns about the adulteration of cosmetics by prohibited substances as a research problem, fifth-year pharmaceutical chemistry students were challenged to use their knowledge to create cost-effective and environmentally friendly…

  9. The Effect of Topical Use of Petroselinum Crispum (Parsley) Versus That of Hydroquinone Cream on Reduction of Epidermal Melasma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Khosravan, Shahla; Alami, Ali; Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Ramezani, Vahide

    Melasma disfigures the skin and thus influences people's self-image and self-concept. Therefore, melasma influences emotional and psychosocial health in addition to physical health. This clinical trial was performed to assess the effect of the topical use of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) on reduction of the severity of epidermal melasma.

  10. Raman spectroscopy analysis of the skin of patients with melasma before standard treatment with topical corticosteroids, retinoic acid, and hydroquinone mixture.

    PubMed

    Moncada, B; Castillo-Martínez, C; Arenas, E; León-Bejarano, F; Ramírez-Elías, M G; González, F J

    2016-05-01

    Melasma is an abnormal acquired hyperpigmentation of the face of unknown origin, it is considered a single disease and very little has been found regarding its pathogenesis. It is usually assumed that melasma is due to excessive melanin production, but previous work using Raman spectroscopy showed degraded molecules of melanin in some melasma subjects, which may help to explain the success or failure of the standard therapy. We perform Raman spectroscopy measurements on in vivo skin from melasma patients before treatment to identify the molecular structure of melanin within every melasma lesion. The Raman spectra were grouped according to the treatment response from patient, and the Raman spectra were analyzed. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a different molecular structure of the patients who did not respond to treatment, those patients shows atypical Raman skin spectrum with peaks associated with melanin not well defined, which is consistent with molecular degradation and protein breakdown. Our results are consistent with our previous work in the sense that melasma patients who do not respond to treatment have an abnormal melanin. We believe it will eventually help to decide the treatment of melasma in clinical dermatology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A New Sensitive Sensor for Simultaneous Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Codeine and Acetaminophen Using a Hydroquinone Derivative and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Carbon Paste Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Garazhian, Elahe; Shishehbore, M. Reza

    2015-01-01

    A new sensitive sensor was fabricated for simultaneous determination of codeine and acetaminophen based on 4-hydroxy-2-(triphenylphosphonio)phenolate (HTP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode at trace levels. The sensitivity of codeine determination was deeply affected by spiking multiwall carbon nanotubes and a modifier in carbon paste. Electron transfer coefficient, α, catalytic electron rate constant, k, and the exchange current density, j 0, for oxidation of codeine at the HTP-MWCNT-CPE were calculated using cyclic voltammetry. The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.2–844.7 μM with two linear segments, and the detection limit of 0.063 μM of codeine was obtained using differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was separated codeine and acetaminophen signals by differential pulse voltammetry. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of codeine and acetaminophen in biological and pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25945094

  12. A Rationale for Evaluation and Selection of Antioxidants for Protection of Ration Items of Different Types.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    OOS AU at 210-F 8toraga 10 F Wt % in Safflower Oil ) Hours-De. None (Control) 9 21 Hydroquinone 39 191 Nethylhydroquinone 69 330 Pentylhydroquinome 50...hydroquinone series, Table 3 (26) shows the relative effectiveness in AOM tests on safflower oil . Strictly speaking, hydroquinone itself is not a homologue

  13. Quantitative determination of a-Arbutin, ß-Arbutin, Kojic acid, nicotinamide, hydroquinone, resorcinol, 4-methoxyphenol, 4-ethoxyphenol and ascorbic acid from skin whitening Products by HPLC-UV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multifarious skin whitening agents will provide an efficient tool to analyze skin whitening cosmetics. An HPLC-UV method was developed for quantitative analysis of six commonly used whitening agents, a-arbutin, ß-arbutin, koji...

  14. THE USE OF AN ELECTRON CARRIER SYSTEM OF NH4Cl-CusO4 AS A BIOCHEMICAL REACTION CELL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    hydroquinone redox system, whose catalytic properties are similar to laccase , was treated as the cathode portion of a fuel cell. The ammonium chloride...copper sulphate system was found to be as effective as laccase in the oxidation of hydroquinone by aeration. The cathode potential of the combined p...electron carrier system consisting of ammonium chloride-copper sulphate and p-benzoquinone-hydroquinone showed the same effects as the laccase and p

  15. Noncovalent Derivatization: A Laboratory Experiment for Understanding the Principles of Molecular Recognition and Self-Assembly through Phase Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Amy S.; Warner, John C.; Koraym, Smaa A.; Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment focusing on the creation of phase diagrams involving nonconvalent derivatives of hydroquinone and bis[N,N-diethyl]terephthalamide (HQ-DETPA) is presented. A phase diagram was assembled by taking samples of different compositions (i.e., 40% hydroquinone and 60% bis[N,N-diethyl]terephthalamide, 70%/30%, etc.) and determining the…

  16. Comparative studies on the chemical and enzymatic stability of alpa-and beta-arbutin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpha and beta arbutin are glycoside derivatives used as skin whitening agents. Both compounds interfere with tyrosinases activity in a fashion similar to their aglycone hydroquinone. Hydroquinone has been associated with ochronosis and possible carcinogenic effect. Due to their structural similarit...

  17. Ranking mechanical pulps for their potential to photoyellow

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2000-01-01

    Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of mechanical-...

  18. Noncovalent Derivatization: A Laboratory Experiment for Understanding the Principles of Molecular Recognition and Self-Assembly through Phase Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Amy S.; Warner, John C.; Koraym, Smaa A.; Marteel-Parrish, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment focusing on the creation of phase diagrams involving nonconvalent derivatives of hydroquinone and bis[N,N-diethyl]terephthalamide (HQ-DETPA) is presented. A phase diagram was assembled by taking samples of different compositions (i.e., 40% hydroquinone and 60% bis[N,N-diethyl]terephthalamide, 70%/30%, etc.) and determining the…

  19. Transient complex oscillations in a closed chemical system with coupled autocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jinpei; Chen, Yu; Wang, Jichang

    2005-03-01

    In this study, hydroquinone was introduced to the classic Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction to build up coupled autocatalytic feedbacks. Various complex dynamical behaviors including successive period-adding bifurcations, irregular oscillations, and frequency modulations were observed in the coupled reaction system. Not only the complexity of oscillations but also the time period during which complex oscillations persist were found to depend greatly on the initial concentration of hydroquinone, which was expected to manifest the coupling strength in the studied system. Dependence of the observed transient complex oscillations on concentrations of ferroin, sulfuric acid, bromate, and malonic acid was also characterized systematically. Numerical simulations with a modified BZ model via incorporating reactions involving hydroquinone and products of hydroquinone qualitatively reproduced the influence of hydroquinone seen in experiments.

  20. Method for producing redox shuttles

    SciTech Connect

    Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Dzwiniel, Trevor L.; Krumdick, Gregory K.

    2015-03-03

    A single step method for producing a redox shuttle having the formula 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate) is provided, the method comprising phosphorylating tert butyl hydroquinone with a phosphate-containing reagent. Also provided is method for producing 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-phenylene tetraethyl bis(phosphate), the method comprising solubilizing tert-butyl hydroquinone and tetrabutylammonium bromide with methyltetrahydrofuran to create a mixture; heating the mixture while adding base to the mixture in an amount to turn the mixture orange; and adding diethyl chlorophosphate to the orange mixture in an amount to phosphorylate the hydroquinone.

  1. 40 CFR 61.341 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Waste Operations § 61.341 Definitions. Benzene concentration means the fraction by weight of benzene in a waste as...: benzenesulfonic acid, benzene, chlorobenzene, cumene, cyclohexane, ethylene, ethylbenzene, hydroquinone,...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1890 - α-Tocopherols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., nearly odorless, viscous oil. It is obtained by vacuum steam distillation of edible vegetable oil... isophytol with trimethyl hydroquinone. It is a pale yellow viscous oil at room temperature. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydroquinone Dimethylpolysiloxane Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium salt 4-Ethyl-4-hexadecyl morpholinium... glycol (molecular weight 400-3,000) Potassium hydroxide Propylene glycol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid.... Polyethylene, oxidized (air blown) Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Potassium soap of a saponified sulfated...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydroquinone Dimethylpolysiloxane Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium salt 4-Ethyl-4-hexadecyl morpholinium... glycol (molecular weight 400-3,000) Potassium hydroxide Propylene glycol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid.... Polyethylene, oxidized (air blown) Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Potassium soap of a saponified sulfated...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydroquinone Dimethylpolysiloxane Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium salt 4-Ethyl-4-hexadecyl morpholinium... glycol (molecular weight 400-3,000) Potassium hydroxide Propylene glycol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid.... Polyethylene, oxidized (air blown) Polyvinyl acetate Polyvinyl alcohol Potassium soap of a saponified sulfated...

  6. Some new applications of ferroin as redox indicator in titrations with dichromate.

    PubMed

    Sriramam, K

    1972-11-01

    Working conditions for the titration of arsenic(III), hydroquinone, ferrocyanide, uranium(IV) and molybdenum(V) with dichromate in sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid media have been established, with ferroin as the redox indicator.

  7. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)--Opinion on the safety of the use of β-arbutin in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Degen, Gisela H

    2015-12-01

    The SCCS considers the use of β-arbutin to be safe for consumers in cosmetic products in a concentration up to 7% in face creams provided that the contamination of hydroquinone in the cosmetic formulations remain below 1 ppm. A potential combined use of β-arbutin and other hydroquinone releasing substances in cosmetic products has not been evaluated in this Opinion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Thermally conductive polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, N. R.; Jenkins, R. K.; Lister, J. L. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A thermally conductive polymer is provided having physical and chemical properties suited to use as a medium for potting electrical components. The polymer is prepared from hydroquinone, phenol, and formaldehyde, by conventional procedures employed for the preparation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. While the proportions of the monomers can be varied, a preferred polymer is formed from the monomers in a 1:1:2.4 molar or ratio of hydroquinone:phenol:formaldehyde.

  9. Pathway for biodegradation of p-nitrophenol in a Moraxella sp

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, J.C. ); Gibson, D.T. )

    1991-03-01

    A Moraxella strain grew on p-nitrophenol with stoichiometric release of nitrite. During induction of the enzymes for growth on p-nitrophenol, traces of hydroquinone accumulated in the medium. In the presence of 2,2{prime}-dipyidyl, p-nitrophenol, was converted stoichiometrically to hydroquinone. Particulate enzymes catalyzed the conversion of p-nitrophenol to hydroquinone in the presence of NADPH and oxygen. Soluble enzymes catalyzed the conversion of hydroquinone to {gamma}-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectroscopy. Upon addition of catalytic amounts of NAD{sup +}, {gamma}-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was converted to {beta}-ketoadipic acid. In the presence of pyruvate and lactic dehydrogenase, substrate amounts of NAD were required and {gamma}-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde was converted to maleylacetic acid, which was identified by HPLC-mass spectroscopy. Similar results were obtained when the reaction was carried out in the presence of potassium ferricyanide. Extracts prepared from p-nitrophenol-grown cells also contained an enzyme that catalyzed the oxidation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol to maleylacetic acid. The enzyme responsible for the oxidation of 1,2,4-benzenetriol was separated from the enzyme responsible for hydroquinone oxidation by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The results indicate that the pathway for biodegradation of p-nitrophenol involves the initial removal of the nitro group as nitrite and formation of hydroquinone.

  10. Mutagenicity of arbutin in mammalian cells after activation by human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Blaut, Michael; Braune, Annett; Wunderlich, Sandra; Sauer, Patrick; Schneider, Heiko; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2006-11-01

    Arbutin (hydroquinone-beta-D-glucopyranoside) is present in various food plants. Its aglycone, hydroquinone, is mutagenic and carcinogenic. We investigated whether hydroquinone may be released under conditions encountered in the human gastrointestinal tract. Arbutin was stable in artificial gastric juice. Fecal slurries from nine human subjects completely converted arbutin (2 mM) into hydroquinone. Four of nine representative human intestinal species investigated, namely Eubacterium ramulus, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Bacteroides distasonis, and Bifidobacterium adolescentis, deglycosylated arbutin at rates of 21.08, 16.62, 8.43 and 3.59 nmol x min(-1) x (mg protein)(-1), respectively. In contrast, homogenates from small intestinal mucosa and cytosolic fractions from colon mucosa deglycosylated arbutin at substantially lower rates: 0.50 and 0.09 nmol x min(-1) x (mg protein)(-1), respectively. Arbutin, unlike hydroquinone, did not induce gene mutations in Chinese hamster V79 cells in the absence of an activating system. However, in the presence of cytosolic fractions from E. ramulus or B. distasonis, arbutin was strongly mutagenic. Cytosolic fraction from Escherichia coli, showing no arbutin glycosidase activity, was not able to activate arbutin in this model system. The release of the proximate mutagen hydroquinone from arbutin by intestinal bacteria in the immediate vicinity of the colon mucosa may pose a potential risk.

  11. Synthesis of gold nanorods with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak of around 1250 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Nhat Hang; Le Trinh Nguyen, Thi; Thanh Tuyen Luong, Thi; Thang Nguyen, Canh Minh; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Phong

    2016-03-01

    We prepared gold nanorods and joined them to chemicals such as tetrachloauric (III) acid trihydrate, silver nitrate, hydroquinone, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, sodium hydroxide and sodium borohydride using the seed-mediated method. The combination of hydroquinone, with or without salicylic acid, influences the size of the gold nanorods, and this is demonstrated by the results of TEM images, UV-vis spectra and the value of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak with respect to the UV-vis spectra. By changing the Ag+ ion and hydroquinone concentration and the combination of hydroquinone and salicylic acid, the size of the gold nanorods can be controlled and this is manifested by longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peaks forming between 875 and 1278 nm. In particular, sample E2 achieved a longitudinal surface plasmon peak at 1273 nm and an aspect ratio of more than 10 by modifying the hydroquinone to 2.5 mM and salicylic acid to 0.5 mM concentration in the growth solution.

  12. Mitigating nitrous oxide and methane emissions from soil in rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic plain with nitrification and urease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Malla, G; Bhatia, Arti; Pathak, H; Prasad, S; Jain, Niveta; Singh, J

    2005-01-01

    Mitigation of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is important to reduce the global warming. Efficacy of five nitrification inhibitors, i.e. neem (Azadirachta melia) cake, thiosulphate, coated calcium carbide, neem oil coated urea and dicyandiamide (DCD) and one urease inhibitor, hydroquinone, in mitigating N2O and CH4 emissions from fertilized soil was tested in rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic plains. The closed chamber technique was used for the collection of gas samples, which were analyzed using gas chromatography. Reduction in N2O emission on the application of nitrification/urease inhibitors along with urea ranged from 5% with hydroquinone to 31% with thiosulphate in rice and 7% with hydroquinone to 29% with DCD in wheat crop. The inhibitors also influenced the emission of CH4. While application of neem coated urea, coated calcium carbide, neem oil and DCD reduced the emission of CH4; hydroquinone and thiosulphate increased the emission when compared to urea alone. However, the global warming potential was lower with the inhibitors (except hydroquinone) as compared to urea alone, suggesting that these substances could be used for mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the rice-wheat systems.

  13. Bioluminescent reporter bacterium for toxicity monitoring in biological wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, C.J.; Lajoie, C.A.; Layton, A.C.; Sayler, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic shock due to certain chemical loads in biological wastewater treatment systems can result in death of microorganisms and loss of floc structure. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to toxicity monitoring, genes encoding enzymes for light production were inserted to a bacterium (Shk 1) isolated from activated sludge. The Shk 1 bioreporter indicated a toxic response to concentrations of cadmium, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and hydroquinone by reductions in initial levels of bioluminescence on exposure to the toxicant. The decrease in bioluminescence was more severe with increasing toxicant concentration. Bioluminescence did not decrease in response to ethanol concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L or to pH conditions between 6.1 and 7.9. A continuous toxicity monitoring system using this bioreporter was developed for influent wastewater and tested with hydroquinone. The reporter exhibited a rapid and proportional decrease in bioluminescence in response to increasing hydroquinone concentrations.

  14. Increase of sister chromatid exchanges and perturbations of cell division kinetics in human lymphocytes by benzene metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Morimoto, K.; Wolff, S.

    1980-04-01

    Benzene, which has been associated with human cancers, is metabolized to produce several major metabolites that could be responsible for the biological effects. Tests have now been carried out on human lymphocytes in culture to determine if benzene or its metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone, induce cytogenetic changes and affect the cell cycle. The results indicate that benzene itself does not induce sister chromatid exchanges or affect cell cycle kinetics over a wide range of doses. Catechol is a potent compound that induces sister chromatid exchanges and delays cell division very readily. Hydroquinone is also potent, but less so than catechol. Thus, the formation of catechol and hydroquinone is the most likely cause of benzene toxicity.

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for the reaction of semiquinone radicals to form superoxide and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Buettner, Garry R

    2010-09-15

    The quinone/semiquinone/hydroquinone triad (Q/SQ(*-)/H(2)Q) represents a class of compounds that has great importance in a wide range of biological processes. The half-cell reduction potentials of these redox couples in aqueous solutions at neutral pH, E degrees ', provide a window to understanding the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of this triad and their associated chemistry and biochemistry in vivo. Substituents on the quinone ring can significantly influence the electron density "on the ring" and thus modify E degrees' dramatically. E degrees' of the quinone governs the reaction of semiquinone with dioxygen to form superoxide. At near-neutral pH the pK(a)'s of the hydroquinone are outstanding indicators of the electron density in the aromatic ring of the members of these triads (electrophilicity) and thus are excellent tools to predict half-cell reduction potentials for both the one-electron and two-electron couples, which in turn allow estimates of rate constants for the reactions of these triads. For example, the higher the pK(a)'s of H(2)Q, the lower the reduction potentials and the higher the rate constants for the reaction of SQ(*-) with dioxygen to form superoxide. However, hydroquinone autoxidation is controlled by the concentration of di-ionized hydroquinone; thus, the lower the pK(a)'s the less stable H(2)Q to autoxidation. Catalysts, e.g., metals and quinone, can accelerate oxidation processes; by removing superoxide and increasing the rate of formation of quinone, superoxide dismutase can accelerate oxidation of hydroquinones and thereby increase the flux of hydrogen peroxide. The principal reactions of quinones are with nucleophiles via Michael addition, for example, with thiols and amines. The rate constants for these addition reactions are also related to E degrees'. Thus, pK(a)'s of a hydroquinone and E degrees ' are central to the chemistry of these triads. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study on the photostability of arbutin and deoxy arbutin: sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation and enhanced photostability by the water-soluble sunscreen, benzophenone-4.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Nai-Fang; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lee, Shu-Mei; Lin, Pei-Jin; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Arbutin and deoxy arbutin may release hydroquinone under some conditions. We therefore investigated the photostability of arbutin and deoxy arbutin in an aqueous solution. The results revealed arbutin and deoxy arbutin to be photolabile in an aqueous solution. Deoxy arbutin was less stable than arbutin when exposed to UV radiation. The hydroquinone concentration was also increased during the radiation period in both solutions. Benzophenone-4 could clearly improve the photostability of arbutin during the period of UV radiation, but only slightly enhance the photostability of deoxy arbutin.

  17. Insecticidal Activity of Thymoquinone and Related Compounds Against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Scott, Mariah L; Adams, Mary F; Karchesy, Joseph J; McAllister, Janet C

    2016-12-28

    Insecticides based on botanical sources have taken on increased attention due to differing modes of action from current insecticides in use and the view that they may be environmentally friendly. Thymoquinone, a component in the essential oil of incense cedar heartwood, has been shown to have insecticidal action against adult mosquitoes. This study evaluated relative toxicities of thymoquinone, selected derivatives of thymoquinone, hydroquinone, and arbutin to determine if any had similar or better activity. The intrinsic toxicities of hydroquinone and thymohydroquinone were not significantly different from thymoquinone, while libocedrol and arbutin were significantly less toxic.

  18. Preparation of New Reducing Agent for the Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivel, P.; Sivashanmugan, K.; Viswanathan, C.; Mangalaraj, D.

    2011-07-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetrakis-(morpholinomethyl)hydroquinone (TMMH) is used first time to prepare spherical silver nanoparticles by the reduction of Silver nitrate (AgNO3) in water-ethanol medium without using any stabilizing and capping agent. The compound (TMMH) was isolated by aminomethylation of hydroquinone with morpholine. The resultant compound characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FT-IR Spectra for conformation studies. The ratio of AgNO3 and compound (TMMH) played role in controlling the particle size and shape of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the silver nanoparticles was observed in UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  19. Identification of serum component involved in generation of neo-lectin with agglutinating and phenoloxidase activities in human serum.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Beulaja; Ramar, Manikandan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) was identified as the component involved in generation of neo-lectin molecules with both lectin and phenoloxidase activities. Pronase treated HSA was able to agglutinate hen RBC and oxidize hydroquinone. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) treated HSA agglutinated both hen and sheep RBC as well as oxidized dopamine. The hemagglutinating activities of pronase/SDS treated HSA observed against hen RBC were dosimetric. The oxidation of pronase/SDS treated HSA with hydroquinone/dopamine, respectively, was inhibitable by inhibitors of phenoloxidase, namely, phenylthiourea and tropolone. Very low concentrations of HSA could generate these humoral neo-lectin molecules.

  20. Observation of the post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation of the face laser resurfacing in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Hui-Zhen

    1998-11-01

    There were one hundred Chinese cases treated with face laser resurfacing. Observed the result, the post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation was found in all case. It is not any use that the cases used the 3 percent hydroquinone before the operation. Eighty-five cases were going down between two and six months after the operation. Fifteen cases continued to nine months. Five cases continued to a year. Cosmetics are possible to affect the course of inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation disappeared more quickly while using 3 percent hydroquinone cream or KA cream after the operation. And intravenous injections with vitamin C is helpful.

  1. Suitability of different silver enhancement methods applied to 1 nm colloidal gold particles: an immunoelectron microscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Stierhof, Y.D.; Humbel, B.M.; Schwarz, H. )

    1991-03-01

    In order to exploit the recently introduced 1 nm gold colloids in routine electron microscopic labeling experiments, an efficient enhancement step for a better visualization of this small marker is a prerequisite. Efficiency and reproducibility of enhancement as well as growth homogeneity of gold particles were evaluated for three different silver intensifying solutions: silver lactate/hydroquinone/gum arabic, and the commercially available IntenSE M silver enhancement kit. The best results were obtained by using the silver lactate/hydroquinone/gum arabic mixture. The quality of enhancement of the IntenSE M kit was considerably increased by the addition of the protective colloid gum arabic.

  2. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer safety (SCCS)--Opinion on the safety of the use of α-arbutin in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Sccs; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-02-01

    The SCCS considers the use of α-Arbutin safe for consumers in cosmetic products in a concentration up to 2% in face creams and up to 0.5% in body lotions. A potential combined use of α-Arbutin and other hydroquinone releasing substances in cosmetic products has not been evaluated in this Opinion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effect of carbohydrates on growth of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J A; Howard, L A

    1987-01-01

    We examined the effect of 31 carbohydrates on the growth of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. Arbutin and its breakdown product, hydroquinone, inhibited growth of both species; the other substrates did not alter the extent of growth. Volatile and nonvolatile end products of carbohydrate metabolism were not detected by gas chromatography. PMID:3793871

  4. Urinary excretion of arbutin metabolites after oral administration of bearberry leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Quintus, Joachim; Kovar, Karl-Artur; Link, Peter; Hamacher, Harald

    2005-02-01

    An HPLC assay with fluorimetric detection of the arbutin metabolites hydroquinone glucuronide (2) and hydroquinone sulphate (6) in urine was developed and validated. Methylarbutin (4) and 6 were synthesised as reference substances. Compound 2 was prepared enzymatically from hydroquinone and uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid using the glucosyltransferase system of rat liver microsomes and enriched by two liquid-liquid and an additional solid phase extraction. Compound 2 as the main component of this purified product was identified by UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, by HPLC-MS, and by enzymatic hydrolysis to hydroquinone (5). The assay yields precise and accurate urine levels of 2, 5 and 6 in the concentration range expected after oral administration of recommended therapeutic doses of bearberry leaf extract. In a preliminary pharmacokinetic study on 3 volunteers the time-dependent renal excretion of arbutin metabolites 2, 5 and 6 was investigated after ingestion of an aqueous bearberry leaf extract containing an arbutin dose recommended by the German Kommission E. More than half of the administered dose of arbutin was excreted within 4 hours mainly in form of the metabolites 2 and 6 and more than 75 % of the total applied arbutin was excreted within 24 h. The elimination of 5 was negligible in 2 out of 3 volunteers. The excretion of this metabolite in the third test person reached 5.6 % of the total administered arbutin dose. The preliminary pharmacokinetic results confirm that renal elimination of toxicologically critical concentrations of the metabolite 5 will not be expected.

  5. Reassessment of antioxidant activity of arbutin: multifaceted evaluation using five antioxidant assay systems.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Ishii, Rie; Chen, Jianbin; Matsumoto, Teruki; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Tai, Akihiro

    2010-04-01

    Arbutin, a practically used skin-lightening agent, has been reported to possess a weak antioxidant activity compared to that of its precursor, hydroquinone. However, its antioxidant activity has not been systematically evaluated. Hence, this study reassessed its activity using five assay systems. Assays were first performed using model radicals, DPPH radical and ABTS(*+). Arbutin showed weak DPPH radical-scavenging activity compared to that of hydroquinone, but showed strong ABTS(*+)-scavenging activity. Its activity by ORAC assay was then evaluated using a physiologically relevant peroxyl radical. Arbutin exerted weak but long-lasting radical-scavenging activity and showed totally the same antioxidant activity as that of hydroquinone. Finally, it was shown that, in two cell-based antioxidant assays using erythrocytes and skin fibroblasts, arbutin exerted strong antioxidant activity comparable or even superior to that of hydroquinone. These findings indicate that the antioxidant activity of arbutin may have been under-estimated and suggest that it acts as a potent antioxidant in the skin.

  6. Polyphenolic reductants in cane sugar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited information is available to understand the chemical structure of cane sugar extracts responsible for the redox reactivity. This study employed Fremy’s salt to test the hypothesis that hydroquinone/catechol-semiquinone-quinone redox cycle is responsible for the antioxidant activity of sugarc...

  7. PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM DEVELOPER

    DOEpatents

    Berry, F.G.

    1958-06-24

    S>An improved photographic developer is presented having very high energy development fine grain characteristics and a long shelf life. These characteristics are obtained by the use of aminoacetic acid in the developer, the other constituents of which are: sodium sulfite, hydroquinone, sodiunn borate, boric acid and potassium bromide, 1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidone.

  8. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of hydroquinone and 4,4′-difluorobenzophenone, and have a minimum weight-average molecular weight of... milligrams per square inch of food contact surface: Distilled water, 50 percent (by volume) ethanol in distilled water, 3 percent acetic acid in distilled water, and n-heptane. In testing the final food...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1890 - α-Tocopherols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... concentrate and is a red, nearly odorless, viscous oil. It is obtained by vacuum steam distillation of edible vegetable oil products. (2) dl-α-Tocopherol (CAS Reg. No. 10191-41-0) is a mixture of stereoisomers of 2,5,7... condensing racemic isophytol with trimethyl hydroquinone. It is a pale yellow viscous oil at room...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1890 - α-Tocopherols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... concentrate and is a red, nearly odorless, viscous oil. It is obtained by vacuum steam distillation of edible vegetable oil products. (2) dl-α-Tocopherol (CAS Reg. No. 10191-41-0) is a mixture of stereoisomers of 2,5,7... condensing racemic isophytol with trimethyl hydroquinone. It is a pale yellow viscous oil at room...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1890 - α-Tocopherols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... concentrate and is a red, nearly odorless, viscous oil. It is obtained by vacuum steam distillation of edible vegetable oil products. (2) dl-α-Tocopherol (CAS Reg. No. 10191-41-0) is a mixture of stereoisomers of 2,5,7... condensing racemic isophytol with trimethyl hydroquinone. It is a pale yellow viscous oil at room...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1890 - α-Tocopherols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concentrate and is a red, nearly odorless, viscous oil. It is obtained by vacuum steam distillation of edible vegetable oil products. (2) dl-α-Tocopherol (CAS Reg. No. 10191-41-0) is a mixture of stereoisomers of 2,5,7... condensing racemic isophytol with trimethyl hydroquinone. It is a pale yellow viscous oil at room...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2800 - Textiles and textile fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter. Di-tert-butyl hydroquinone Dimethylpolysiloxane Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium... glycol Sodium hydroxide Sulfuric acid Formaldehyde For use as preservative only. Glyceryl mono-12... prescribed under 21 CFR 178.3740(b) of this chapter. Polyethylene, oxidized (air blown) Polyvinyl acetate...

  14. Medical Surveillance Procedures Manual and Medical Matrix (Edition 4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    99 Hydroquinone (Dihydroxy Benzene)............................... 4-101 Isocyanates . .............................................. 4-103 Lead...7-5 Department of Transportation ( DOT ) Vehicle Operators............................................... 7-7 Diver/Hyperbaric Worker...7-21 Health Care Worker........................................... 7-23 Motor Vehicle Operator (Other than DOT

  15. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on the in vivo and in vitro dechlorination of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Ahlborg, U G; Thunberg, T

    1978-02-21

    The metabolism of pentachlorophenol has been studied in the rat after pretreatments with phenobarbital, 3-methyl cholanthrene or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In addition to the previously identified metabolite, tetrachloro-p-hydroquinone, trichloro-p-hydroquinone has been identified in urine as a metabolite. The formation of the latter represents a type dechlorination different from that of the formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone. The inducing agents, 3-methylcholanthrene and TCDD have similar effects on the dechlorination and increase the formation of tetrachloro-p-hydroquinone more pronounced than does phenobarbital. In contrast to phenobarbital they also increase the formation of trichloro-p-hydroquinone and the total elimination of pentachlorophenol and its metabolites. The in vivo findings are supported by in vitro studies with microsomes from rats pretreated with phenobarbital or TCDD. Use of the inhibitor beta-diethylaminoethyl-diphenyl propylacetate (SKF 525-A) in vitro showed a more pronounced inhibition on microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats than on microsomes from untreated or TCDD-treated rats. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry have been used for the identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol and its metabolites.

  16. Laccase and its role in production of extracellular reactive oxygen species during wood decay by the brown rot basidiomycete Postia placenta

    Treesearch

    Dongsheng Wei; Carl J. Houtman; Alexander N. Kapich; Christopher G. Hunt; Daniel Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2010-01-01

    Brown rot basidiomycetes initiate wood decay by producing extracellular reactive oxygen species that depolymerize the structural polysaccharides of lignocellulose. Secreted fungal hydroquinones are considered one contributor because they have been shown to reduce Fe3+, thus generating perhydroxyl radicals and Fe2+, which...

  17. Degradation of 4-fluorophenol by Arthrobacter sp. strain IF1

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Maria Isabel M.; Marchesi, Julian R.

    2008-01-01

    A Gram-positive bacterial strain capable of aerobic biodegradation of 4-fluorophenol (4-FP) as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by selective enrichment from soil samples collected near an industrial site. The organism, designated strain IF1, was identified as a member of the genus Arthrobacter on the basis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis. Arthrobacter strain IF1 was able to mineralize 4-FP up to concentrations of 5 mM in batch culture. Stoichiometric release of fluoride ions was observed, suggesting that there is no formation of halogenated dead-end products during 4-FP metabolism. The degradative pathway of 4-FP was investigated using enzyme assays and identification of intermediates by gas chromatography (GC), GC–mass spectrometry (MS), high-performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography–MS. Cell-free extracts of 4-FP-grown cells contained no activity for catechol 1,2-dioxygenase or catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, which indicates that the pathway does not proceed through a catechol intermediate. Cells grown on 4-FP oxidized 4-FP, hydroquinone, and hydroxyquinol but not 4-fluorocatechol. During 4-FP metabolism, hydroquinone accumulated as a product. Hydroquinone could be converted to hydroxyquinol, which was further transformed into maleylacetic acid and β-ketoadipic acid. These results indicate that the biodegradation of 4-FP starts with a 4-FP monooxygenase reaction that yields benzoquinone, which is reduced to hydroquinone and further metabolized via the β-ketoadipic acid pathway. PMID:18228015

  18. Molecular field effect passivation: Quinhydrone/methanol treatment of n-Si(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Har-Lavan, Rotem; Schreiber, Roy; Yaffe, Omer; Cahen, David

    2013-02-01

    The quinhydrone/methanol treatment has been reported to yield outstanding passivation of the H-terminated Si(100) surface. Here, we report on the mechanism of this process by comparing the resulting surface to that of freshly etched H-terminated Si, of Si with chemically grown oxide, and of Si treated with hydroquinone/methanol solution of the same concentration. We find that the benzoquinone moieties of the quinhydrone react with the surface to yield a Si-hydroquinone surface termination, while the methanol molecules bind as well to form methoxy-terminated Si. The slightly negative-charged benzene ring of the hydroquinone acts to repel majority carrier electrons from the surface and inhabits the surface recombination. The higher the ratio of surface-bound hydroquinone to surface-bound methoxy species, the larger the minority carrier life-time measured by microwave photoconductivity. Thus, our results lead us to conclude that this treatment results in field effect passivation; remarkably, this effect is caused by a molecular monolayer alone.

  19. Study of the cerium(IV)-picrate system in acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Kratochvil, B; Tipler, M; McKay, B

    1966-07-01

    A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study has been made of the reaction between hexanitratocerate and picrate in dry acetonitrile. Several cerium(IV)-picrate complexes are formed; the formation constant for the first is estimated to be 4 from spectrophotometric measurements. The catalytic effect of picrate on hydroquinone oxidation by nitratocerate is postulated to be due to more rapid electron transfer by cerium picrate complexes.

  20. Is topical zinc effective in the treatment of melasma? A double-blind randomized comparative study.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Alireza; Khani Khoozani, Zahra; Zakerzadeh Forooshani, Saeed; Omrani, Nooshin; Moini, Amir Mansoor; Eskandari, Yasaman

    2014-01-01

    Zinc plays a role in skin health, and preliminary data have shown its beneficial effects for melasma. We compared the effect of topical zinc with that of hydroquinone as the standard treatment on severity of melasma. Ninety-three women with melasma were randomized to receive zinc sulfate 10% or hydroquinone 4% solutions once daily for 2 months. They were followed for an additional 3 months while using sunscreen. The severity of melasma was assessed at baseline and at 2 and 5 months using the Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI). Eighty-two patients completed the study. The MASI score fell significantly in both groups, but a greater decrease was seen in those who received hydroquinone (43.5 ± 15.5% vs 18.6 ± 20.8%, p < .001). Postinflammatory pigmentation occurred in 5.2% of the zinc group and irritation in 30.9% of the hydroquinone group. Topical zinc therapy is not highly effective in reducing the severity of melasma, but further trials are needed to determine whether adding zinc to current topical treatments could improve treatment response. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Efficacy of combination of glycolic acid peeling with topical regimen in treatment of melasma.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Savita; Dayal, Surabhi

    2013-10-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder. To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients. Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin). There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value < 0.05). The group receiving the glycolic acid peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only. This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

  2. 3-Fluoro-4-(4-hy-droxy-phen-oxy)benzonitrile.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mei; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jixu; Luo, Shuping

    2010-06-30

    The title compound, C(13)H(8)FNO(2), was synthesized from 3,4-difluoro-benzonitrile and hydro-quinone. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 70.9 (2)°. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains.

  3. A copper-induced quinone degradation pathway provides protection against combined copper/quinone stress in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Stefano; Abicht, Helge K; Gonskikh, Yulia; Solioz, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Quinones are ubiquitous in the environment. They occur naturally but are also in widespread use in human and industrial activities. Quinones alone are relatively benign to bacteria, but in combination with copper, they become toxic by a mechanism that leads to intracellular thiol depletion. Here, it was shown that the yahCD-yaiAB operon of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 provides resistance to combined copper/quinone stress. The operon is under the control of CopR, which also regulates expression of the copRZA copper resistance operon as well as other L. lactis genes. Expression of the yahCD-yaiAB operon is induced by copper but not by quinones. Two of the proteins encoded by the operon appear to play key roles in alleviating quinone/copper stress: YaiB is a flavoprotein that converts p-benzoquinones to less toxic hydroquinones, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as reductant; YaiA is a hydroquinone dioxygenase that converts hydroquinone putatively to 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in an oxygen-consuming reaction. Hydroquinone and methylhydroquinone are both substrates of YaiA. Deletion of yaiB causes increased sensitivity of L. lactis to quinones and complete growth arrest under combined quinone and copper stress. Copper induction of the yahCD-yaiAB operon offers protection to copper/quinone toxicity and could provide a growth advantage to L. lactis in some environments.

  4. Developmental Neurotoxic Effects of Percutaneous Drug Delivery: Behavior and Neurochemical Studies in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wenting; Huang, Qiaoling; Fu, Mengsi; Cai, Minxuan; He, Qiangqiang

    2016-01-01

    Dermatosis often as a chronic disease requires effective long-term treatment; a comprehensive evaluation of mental health of dermatology drug does not receive enough attention. An interaction between dermatology and psychiatry has been increasingly described. Substantial evidence has accumulated that psychological stress can be associated with pigmentation, endocrine and immune systems in skin to create the optimal responses against pathogens and other physicochemical stressors to maintain or restore internal homeostasis. Additionally, given the common ectodermal origin shared by the brain and skin, we are interested in assessing how disruption of skin systems (pigmentary, endocrine and immune systems) may play a key role in brain functions. Thus, we selected three drugs (hydroquinone, isotretinoin, tacrolimus) with percutaneous excessive delivery to respectively intervene in these systems and then evaluate the potential neurotoxic effects. Firstly, C57BL/6 mice were administrated a dermal dose of hydroquinone cream, isotretinoin gel or tacrolimus ointment (2%, 0.05%, 0.1%, respectively, 5 times of the clinical dose). Behavioral testing was performed and levels of proteins were measured in the hippocampus. It was found that mice treated with isotretinoin or tacrolimus, presented a lower activity in open-field test and obvious depressive-like behavior in tail suspension test. Besides, they damaged cytoarchitecture, reduced the level of 5-HT-5-HT1A/1B system and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus. To enable sensitive monitoring the dose-response characteristics of the consecutive neurobehavioral disorders, mice received gradient concentrations of hydroquinone (2%, 4%, 6%). Subsequently, hydroquinone induced behavioral disorders and hippocampal dysfunction in a dose-dependent response. When doses were high as 6% which was 3 times higher than 2% dose, then 100% of mice exhibited depressive-like behavior. Certainly, 6% hydroquinone

  5. The potent antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in microsomal lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, L M; Ronden, J E; Thijssen, H H

    1997-10-15

    In the vitamin K cycle, vitamin K-hydroquinone, the active cofactor for gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, is continuously regenerated. The successive pathways contain oxidation of the hydroquinone to the epoxide, followed by reduction to the quinone and reduction to the hydroquinone. Vitamin K-hydroquinone is a potent radical scavenging species (Mukai et al., J Biol Chem 267: 22277-22281, 1992). We tested the potential antioxidant activity of the vitamin K cycle in lipid peroxidation reactions (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) in rat liver microsomes. As prooxidant we used Fe2+/ascorbate, NADPH-Fe3+/ATP, and NADPH/CCl4. Vitamin K (< or = 50 microM) on its own did not influence the formation of TBARS. In combination with 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), the reductive cofactor for the microsomal enzyme vitamin K epoxide reductase, vitamin K suppressed lipid peroxidation with a concentration that blocked the maximal response by 50% (IC50) of ca. 0.2 microM. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4) were equally active. Warfarin (5 microM) and chloro-vitamin K (50 microM), inhibitors of vitamin K epoxide reductase and gamma-glutamylcarboxylase, respectively, were able to completely abolish the antioxidant effect. Lipid peroxidation was inversely related to the amount of vitamin K hydroquinone in the reaction. Vitamin K epoxide reductase seemed sensitive to lipid peroxidation, with half of the activity being lost within 10 min during oxidation with NADPH/CCl4. The inactivation could be attenuated by antioxidants such as vitamin E, reduced glutathione, and menadione and also by a K vitamin in combination with DTT, but not by superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results show that the vitamin K cycle could act as a potent antioxidant, that the active species in all probability is vitamin K-hydroquinone, and that the primary reaction product is the semiquinone. The results also show that the reaction product is processed in the vitamin K cycle to

  6. In vitro conjugation of benzene metabolites by human liver: potential influence of interindividual variability on benzene toxicity.

    PubMed

    Seaton, M J; Schlosser, P; Medinsky, M A

    1995-07-01

    In addition to industrial sources, benzene is present in the environment as a component of cigarette smoke and automobile emissions. Toxicity of benzene most likely results from oxidative metabolism of benzene to reactive products. However, susceptibility to these toxic effects may be related to a balance between activation (phase I) and detoxication (phase II) reactions. In the present study, we have estimated kinetic parameters of the two major detoxication reactions for benzene metabolites--phenol sulfation and hydroquinone glucuronidation--in liver subcellular fractions from 10 humans, and single samples from mice and rats. The extent of oxidative metabolism of benzene by these liver samples has been reported previously. Here, initial rates of phenol sulfation varied 3-fold (range 0.309-0.919 nmol/mg protein/min) among human samples. Measured rates were faster in rats (1.195 nmol/mg protein/min) than in mice (0.458 nmol/mg protein/min). Initial rates of hydroquinone glucuronidation by human samples also varied 3-fold (range 0.101-0.281 nmol/mg protein/min). Hydroquinone glucuronidation was more rapid by mouse microsomes (0.218 nmol/mg protein/min) than by rat microsomes (0.077 nmol/mg protein/min). To integrate interindividual differences in various enzyme activities, a physiological compartmental model was developed that incorporates rates of both conjugation reactions and oxidation reactions. Model equations were solved for steady-state concentrations of phenol and hydroquinone attained in human, mouse and rat blood during continuous exposure to benzene (0.01 microM in blood). Among the 10 human subjects, steady-state concentrations of phenol varied 6-fold (range 0.38-2.17 nM) and steady-state concentrations of hydroquinone varied 5-fold (range 6.66-31.44 nM). Predicted steady-state concentrations of phenol were higher in mice compared with rats (2.28 and 0.83 nM respectively). Likewise, higher steady-state concentrations of hydroquinone were predicted in

  7. Oxidative Ionization Under Certain Negative-Ion Mass Spectrometric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Isra; Pavlov, Julius; Errabelli, Ramu; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2017-02-01

    1,4-Hydroquinone and several other phenolic compounds generate (M - 2) -• radical-anions, rather than deprotonated molecules, under certain negative-ion mass spectrometric conditions. In fact, spectra generated under helium-plasma ionization (HePI) conditions from 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone (by electron capture) were practically indistinguishable. Because this process involves a net loss of H• and H+, it can be termed oxidative ionization. The superoxide radical-anion (O2 -•), known to be present in many atmospheric-pressure plasma ion sources operated in the negative mode, plays a critical role in the oxidative ionization process. The presence of a small peak at m/z 142 in the spectrum of 1,4-hydroquinone, but not in that of 1,4-benzoquinone, indicated that the initial step in the oxidative ionization process is the formation of an O2 -• adduct. On the other hand, under bona fide electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, 1,4-hydroquinone generates predominantly an (M - 1) - ion. It is known that at sufficiently high capillary voltages, corona discharges begin to occur even in an ESI source. At lower ESI capillary voltages, deprotonation predominates; as the capillary voltage is raised, the abundance of O2 -• present in the plasma increases, and the source in turn increasingly behaves as a composite ESI/APCI source. While maintaining post-ionization ion activation to a minimum (to prevent fragmentation), and monitoring the relative intensities of the m/z 109 (due to deprotonation) and 108 (oxidative ionization) peaks recorded from 1,4-hydroquinone, a semiquantitative estimation of the APCI contribution to the overall ion-generation process can be obtained.

  8. Human CYP2E1-dependent and human sulfotransferase 1A1-modulated induction of micronuclei by benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites in Chinese hamster V79-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yanmei; Hu, Keqi; Wei, Qinzhi; Liu, Yungang

    2014-12-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and a confirmed human carcinogen, which requires metabolic activation, primarily by CYP2E1, for most of its biological actions. Chromosome damages in benzene-exposed workers and rodents have been observed, and in their urine sulfo- and glucuronide-conjugates of phenol and hydroquinone were present. Yet, direct evidence for human CYP2E1-activated mutagenicity of benzene and the exact significance of phase II metabolism for inactivating benzene metabolites are still missing. In the present study, benzene and its oxidized metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene and 1,4-benzoquinone) were investigated for induction of micronuclei in a V79-derived cell line genetically engineered for expression of both human CYP2E1 and human sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1 (indicated by active micronuclei induction by 1-hydroxymethylpyrene). The results demonstrated concentration-dependent induction of micronuclei by benzene and phenol, though with lower potency or efficacy than the other metabolites. Inhibition of CYP2E1 by 1-aminobenzotriazole did not change the effect of benzoquinone, but completely abolished that of benzene and phenol, and attenuated that of the other compounds. Moreover, inhibition of SULT1A1 by pentachlorophenol potentiated the effects of benzene, hydroquinone, catechol and trihydroxybenzene. Ascorbic acid, a reducing and free radical-scavenging agent, significantly lowered the effects of hydroquinone, catechol, trihydroxybenzene as well as N-nitrosodimethylamine (a known CYP2E1-dependent promutagen), with that of benzoquinone unaffected. These results suggest that in addition to activating benzene and phenol, human CYP2E1 may further convert hydroquinone, catechol and trihydroxybenzene to more genotoxic metabolites, and sulfo-conjugation of the multi-hydroxylated metabolites of benzene by human SULT1A1 may represent an important detoxifying pathway.

  9. Development of an immunoassay to detect benzene adducts in hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Grassman, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an immunoassay to detect the adducts formed in hemoglobin after exposure to benzene, which is known to cause bone marrow degeneration and acute myelogenous leukemia. The use of benzene-adduct detection as a biological monitoring method would permit measurement of low exposures and exposures sustained weeks earlier. The reactivity of hydroquinone, an important benzene metabolite, with blood proteins and amino acids was investigated in order to decide which antigens and analytes were likely to be suitable for immunoassay development. The second section determined the combination of benzene-metabolite and antigen need to produce an immunoassay with the requisite low detection limit and specificity. The immunoassays with the best performance were tested on hemoglobin from benzene-exposed mice. In vitro studies showed that hydroquinone efficiently formed adducts with erythrocyte membranes and hemoglobin but not with albumin. Adduction efficiency was greater in incubations using purified hemoglobin than whole blood. Cysteine accounted for 15 to 27% of the adducts formed by hydroquinone. The site of the other adducts were not identified although there was evidence that the hemoglobin heme was adducted. Adducts were found on only 1 of the 2 globin chains. Tryptic digestion of the globin failed to associate the adducts with a specific peptide. Antigens made from hydroquinone-adducted hemoglobin but not hydroquinone-adducted cysteines coupled to carrier proteins effectively elicited adduct-specific antibodies. Interference due to reactivity to hemoglobin was controlled by using uniform quantities of hemoglobin in all wells. The mid-range of the best assays were approximately 12 pmoles HQ per well. Antibodies directed toward hemoglobin adducted with the benzene metabolites phenol, catechol and 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were also made. The performance of the anti-1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene were suitable for quantitative immunoassays.

  10. Oxidative Ionization Under Certain Negative-Ion Mass Spectrometric Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Isra; Pavlov, Julius; Errabelli, Ramu; Attygalle, Athula B

    2017-02-01

    1,4-Hydroquinone and several other phenolic compounds generate (M - 2) (-•) radical-anions, rather than deprotonated molecules, under certain negative-ion mass spectrometric conditions. In fact, spectra generated under helium-plasma ionization (HePI) conditions from 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone (by electron capture) were practically indistinguishable. Because this process involves a net loss of H(•) and H(+), it can be termed oxidative ionization. The superoxide radical-anion (O2(-•)), known to be present in many atmospheric-pressure plasma ion sources operated in the negative mode, plays a critical role in the oxidative ionization process. The presence of a small peak at m/z 142 in the spectrum of 1,4-hydroquinone, but not in that of 1,4-benzoquinone, indicated that the initial step in the oxidative ionization process is the formation of an O2(-•) adduct. On the other hand, under bona fide electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions, 1,4-hydroquinone generates predominantly an (M - 1) (-) ion. It is known that at sufficiently high capillary voltages, corona discharges begin to occur even in an ESI source. At lower ESI capillary voltages, deprotonation predominates; as the capillary voltage is raised, the abundance of O2(-•) present in the plasma increases, and the source in turn increasingly behaves as a composite ESI/APCI source. While maintaining post-ionization ion activation to a minimum (to prevent fragmentation), and monitoring the relative intensities of the m/z 109 (due to deprotonation) and 108 (oxidative ionization) peaks recorded from 1,4-hydroquinone, a semiquantitative estimation of the APCI contribution to the overall ion-generation process can be obtained. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Role of Metabolism by Intestinal Bacteria in Arbutin-Induced Suppression of Lymphoproliferative Response in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mi Jeong; Ha, Hyun Woo; Kim, Ghee Hwan; Lee, Sang Kyu; Ahn, Young Tae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon

    2012-01-01

    Role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in arbutin-induced immunotoxicity was investigated in splenocyte cultures. Following an incubation of arbutin with 5 different intestinal bacteria for 24 hr, its aglycone hydroquinone could be produced and detected in the bacterial culture media with different amounts. Toxic effects of activated arbutin by intestinal bacteria on lymphoproliferative response were tested in splenocyte cultures from normal mice. Lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A were used as mitogens for B- and T-cells, respectively. When bacteria cultured medium with arbutin was treated into the splenocytes for 3 days, the medium cultured with bacteria producing large amounts of hydroquinone induced suppression of lymphoproliferative responses, indicating that metabolic activation by intestinal bacteria might be required in arbutin-induced toxicity. The results indicated that the present testing system might be applied for determining the possible role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in certain chemical-induced immunotoxicity in animal cell cultures. PMID:24116295

  12. The surface characterization of a series of hydroxybenzenes on Ag(111): An EELS and TDS study

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, B.S.

    1993-01-27

    Interaction of a series of hydroxybenzenes with Ag(111) is investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Studied were the mono-hydroxybenzene, phenol, the o-, m- and p-dihydroxybenzenes, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, respectively, and the 1,2.3-trihydroxybenzene, pyrogallol. Dehydrogenation of the hydroxyl groups upon adsorption is not directly observed in the TDS studies: however, the EELS results suggest possible dehydrogenation. The apparent O-H bond scission is attributed to hydrogen bonding between the surface molecules or to the orientation of the O-H bond aids with respect to the metal surface. Orientations of the mono- and dihydroxybenzene molecules are temperature dependent, whereas that of the trihydroxybenzene may be attributed to the number and position of the hydroxyl substitutents. Phenol and catechol both undergo an inclined-to-perpendicular orientational change. Resorcinol and hydroquinone undergo a perpendicular-to-inclined transformation. Finally, pyrogallol remains inclined at all temperatures until decomposition.

  13. Melanosis in Penaeus monodon: Involvement of the Laccase-like Activity of Hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Bris, Cédric Le; Cudennec, Benoit; Dhulster, Pascal; Drider, Djamel; Duflos, Guillaume; Grard, Thierry

    2016-01-27

    In shrimp, the development of postmortem melanosis resulting from phenoloxidase activities leads to important economic losses. Phenoloxidase enzymes include catechol oxidases, laccases, and tyrosinases, but hemocyanin is also capable of phenoloxidase activities. These activities have been explored in Penaeus monodon, using different substrates. Results highlighted that tyrosinase-specific substrates were little oxidized, whereas hydroquinone (laccase-specific substrate) was more highly oxidized than l-DOPA (nonspecific substrate) in the pereopods and pleopods. Global phenoloxidase activity, assayed with l-DOPA, did not appear thermally stable over time and probably resulted from phenoloxidase enzymes. Conversely, the laccase-like activity assayed with hydroquinone was thermally stable over time, reflecting the thermal stability of hemocyanin. Independently of the anatomical compartment, the temperature, or the substrate, the highest activities were assayed in the cuticular compartments. This study demonstrates the complexity of phenoloxidase activities in P. monodon, and the importance of considering all the activities, including laccase-like activities such as that of hemocyanin.

  14. Degradation and induction specificity in actinomycetes that degrade p-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Hanne, L.F.; Kirk, L.L.; Appel, S.M.; Narayan, A.D.; Bains, K.K. )

    1993-10-01

    We have isolated two soil bacteria (identified as Arthrobacter aurescens TW17 and Nocardia sp. strain TW2) capable of degrading p-nitrophenol (PNP) and numerous other phenolic compounds. A. aurescens TW17 contains a large plasmid which correlated with the PNP degradation phenotype. Degradation of PNP by A. aurescens TW 17 was induced by preexposure to PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, or m-nitrophenol, whereas PNP degradation by Nocardia sp. strain TW2 was induced by PNP, 4-nitrocatechol, phenol, p-cresol, or m-nitrophenol. A. aurescens TW17 initially degraded PNP to hydroquinone and nitrite. Nocardia sp. strain TW2 initially converted PNP to hydroquinone or 4-nitrocatechol, depending upon the inducing compound.

  15. Oxidation of humic substances supports denitrification reactions in agricultural soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Trump, J. I.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Humic substances (HS) are a ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and diverse class of compounds arising from degradation and condensation of plant and microbial biopolymers. Many bacteria oxidize hydroquinones within humic substances to their quinone analogs, providing electrons for respiratory processes such as nitrate reduction. Microbial hydroquinone oxidation contributes to the redox state of HS and supports denitrification, which may be of import to agricultural soils where nitrate retention is critical and HS are prevalent. Most probable number counts were performed on soils collected from a Nebraska farm, with the model humic hydroquinone 2,6- anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHDS) serving as an electron donor and nitrate as the electron acceptor. Results indicated that AHDS oxidizing, nitrate reducing bacteria were present in soils from bluegrass fields (104 cells/g) and aspen groves (106 cells/g), as well as in plots of corn (106 cells/g), and soybean treated (106 cells/g) and un-treated (105 cells/g) with pig slurry. These results demonstrate that microorganisms participating in the proposed metabolism are prevalent within agricultural soils. Upflow glass columns were constructed, containing a support matrix of glass beads amended with 10% w/w soil from the corn plot previously mentioned. All columns were subjected to a continual flow of phosphate-buffered water amended with sodium nitrate. Above the point source for nitrate injection, phosphate-buffered water containing electron donor treatments were continually injected. The impacts of electron donor treatments (no donor, oxidized HS, reduced HS, and acetate) on denitrification and other geochemical parameters were observed. Column studies were able to resolve effects of electron donor treatment both spatially as a function of distance from the injection point source, and temporally, as a function of time of donor treatment. Four sample ports in each column were routinely analyzed for concentrations of nitrate

  16. An electrochemical ELISA-like immunosensor for miRNAs detection based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tran, H V; Piro, B; Reisberg, S; Huy Nguyen, L; Dung Nguyen, T; Duc, H T; Pham, M C

    2014-12-15

    We design an electrochemical immunosensor for miRNA detection, based on screen-printed gold electrodes modified with reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. An original immunological approach is followed, using antibodies directed to DNA.RNA hybrids. An electrochemical ELISA-like amplification strategy was set up using a secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Hydroquinone is oxidized into benzoquinone by the HRP/H2O2 catalytic system. In turn, benzoquinone is electroreduced into hydroquinone at the electrode. The catalytic reduction current is related to HRP amount immobilized on the surface, which itself is related to miRNA.DNA surface density on the electrode. This architecture, compared to classical optical detection, lowers the detection limit down to 10 fM. Two miRNAs were studied: miR-141 (a prostate biomarker) and miR-29b-1 (a lung cancer biomarker). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of Sophora angustifolia and other natural plant extracts on melanogenesis and melanin transfer in human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suman K; Baker, Richard; Wibawa, Judata I D; Bell, Mike; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-01-01

    Skin pigmentation is a multistep process of melanin synthesis by melanocytes, its transfer to recipient keratinocytes and its degradation. As dyspigmentation is a prominent marker of skin ageing, novel effective agents that modulate pigmentation safely are being sought for both clinical and cosmetic use. Here, a number of plant extracts were examined for their effect on melanogenesis (by melanin assay and Western blotting) and melanin transfer (by confocal immunomicroscopy of gp100-positive melanin granules in cocultures and by SEM analysis of filopodia), in human melanocytes and in cocultures with phototype-matched normal adult epidermal keratinocytes. Mulberry, Kiwi and Sophora extracts were assessed against isobutylmethylxanthine, hydroquinone, vitamin C and niacinamide. Compared with unstimulated control, all extracts significantly reduced melanogenesis in human melanoma cells and normal adult epidermal melanocytes. These extracts also reduced melanin transfer and reduced filopodia expression on melanocytes, similar to hydroquinone and niacinamide, indicating their effectiveness as multimode pigmentation actives. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Large cavities with nanosized channels in a three-dimensional neutral framework: structure and properties of a novel oxovanadium arsenate: As 2V IVV VO 26(OH)]·8H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongnan; Li, Yafeng; Liu, Qingsheng; Chen, Xiangming; Wang, Yong; Li, Xiuhong; Li, Ming; Mai, Zhenhong

    2002-12-01

    A novel open-framework oxovanadium arsenate has been hydrothermally synthesized. It crystallizes in space group I 4¯3 m with cell parameters of a=16.708(2) Å, V=4664.4(9) Å 3 and Z=4. Its structure is composed of a new type of decavandium cluster, which is constructed by two pentamers. Linking this decavanadate by AsO 4 tetrahedral, a three-dimensional open-framework structure forms, which possesses large cavities. These high symmetric cavities interconnected through 12-membered ring windows forming a three-dimensional channel system. Catalytic measurements indicate that this compound is active for phenol hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. Catechol, hydroquinone and benzoquinone are the main products with 15.8% conversion of phenol (taking no account of the secondary product of tar) and 59.6% selectivity for hydroquinone, when the reaction was performed in water at 60°C for 6 h.

  19. Complex kinetics and significant influences of bromine removal in ferroin-bromate-metol reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Jichang

    2011-09-14

    This study presents a new bromate-based chemical oscillator that employs metol as the organic substrate. Complex reaction behaviors were observed when the system was subjected to bromine removal and oxygen exposure. Transitions from simple to sequential oscillations took place as a function of the age of the metol stock solution. MS spectroscopy measurements and parallel kinetic experiments with a mixture of metol and hydroquinone suggest that the decomposition of metol to hydroquinone was responsible for the observed influence of oxygen and the age of the metol solution. GS/MS and NMR measurements revealed that 1,4-benzoquinone and bromobenzoquinones were the major final products, regardless of the presence of oxygen and bromine removal. Preliminary exploration in a capillary tube showed some interesting propagating pulse behavior. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  20. Rationale of using hypopigmenting drugs and their clinical application in melasma.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Kabir; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Among the pigmentary disorders, melasma is the prototype disorder characterized by hyperpigmentation. Although, conventionally, triple combination creams are used, there is a need for alternatives to hydroquinone as the drug has restrictions on its widespread use. This needs an understanding of the steps involved in the melanogenesis and the drugs that inhibit the key steps. The data on in vitro inhibition need to be then translated into clinical in vivo results, before a rationale compounded fixed drug preparation is marketed that inhibits the major steps in the pigmentation pathway. There is also a need to look for drugs that are superior to hydroquinone, as only then will they have a meaningful clinical utility. For now, a few drugs like deoxyarbutin, ellagic acid, dioic acid, n-butylresorcinol and azelaic acid have such properties in clinical trials, while metformin is a recent addition.

  1. Separation and evaluation of free radical-scavenging activity of phenol components of green, brown, and black leaves of Bergenia crassifolia by using HPTLC-DPPH* method.

    PubMed

    Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Ivanova, Svetlana A; Shikov, Alexander N; Makarov, Valery G; Galambosi, Bertalan

    2007-10-01

    A new procedure has been developed to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds from green, brown, and black leaves of Bergenia crassifolia based on the combination of high performance TLC (HPTLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) and postchromatographic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) derivatization. Free gallic and ellagic acids, arbutin, hydroquinone, and bergenin in the B. crassifolia leaves' extracts were separated by HPTLC and identified. All compounds of the extract excluding bergenin were capable of scavenging DPPH * radicals. From the estimated ID(50) values, it can be seen that the increasing order of activity was gallic acid > arbutin > ellagic acid > hydroquinone > ascorbic acid. The antiradical activity of leaves of B. crassifolia is probably associated to the presence of phenol.

  2. Effect of additives on the performance and morphology of sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) composite nanofiltration membranes☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Shouhai; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Guozhen; Jian, Xigao

    2014-03-01

    Sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (SPPBES) composite nanofiltration membranes were fabricated by adding low molecular weight additives into SPPBES coating solutions during a dip coating process. Three selected additives: glycol, glycerol and hydroquinone were used in this work. The effect of additives on the membrane performance was studied and discussed in terms of rejection and permeation flux. Among all the composite membranes, the membrane prepared with glycol as an additive achieved the highest Na2SO4 rejection, and the membrane fabricated with glycerol as an additive exhibited the highest flux. The salts rejection of SPPBES composite membranes increased in the following order MgCl2 < NaCl ≤ MgSO4 < Na2SO4. The morphologies of the SPPBES composite membranes were characterized by SEM, it was found that the membrane prepared with hydroquinone showed a rough membrane surface. Composite membrane fabricated with glycol or glycerol as the additive showed very good chemical stability.

  3. Coulometric titration of bases in acetic acid and acetonitrile media.

    PubMed

    Vajgand, V J; Mihajlović, R

    1969-09-01

    The working conditions and the results for coulometric titration of milligram amounts of some bases in 0.1M sodium perchlorate in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride (1:6), are given. Determinations were made both by coulometric back-titration or direct titration at the platinum anode. Back-titration was done in the catholyte, by coulometric titration of the excess of added perchloric acid. The titration end-point was detected photometrically with Crystal Violet as indicator. The direct titration of bases was done at the platinum anode, in the same electrolyte, to which hydroquinone was added as anode depolarizer and as the source of hydrogen ions, Malachite Green being used as indicator. Similarly, bases can be determined in acetonitrile if sodium perchlorate, hydroquinone and Malachite Green are added to the solvent. Errors are below 1 %, and the precision is satisfactory.

  4. Intensification of chemiluminescence in the inhibited oxidation of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolayevskii, A.N.; Filippenko, T.A.; Sergovskaya, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    Chemiluminescence is intensified upon the addition of inhibitors (phloroglucinol, p-phenylenediamine, hydroquinone) to oxidized sunflower oil. The formation of a further source of chemiluminescence is explained by reactions of the oxidized oil and the inhibitors. Oxidation initiated by azoisobutyronitrile of sunflower oil using atmospheric oxygen was performed at 70/sup 0/C in chlorobenzene solution; 9,10-dibromoanthracene was the luminescence activator. 4 figures.

  5. Benzene's metabolites alter c-MYB activity via reactive oxygen species in HD3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M. . E-mail: winnl@queensu.ca

    2007-07-15

    Benzene is a known leukemogen that is metabolized to form reactive intermediates and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The c-Myb oncoprotein is a transcription factor that has a critical role in hematopoiesis. c-Myb transcript and protein have been overexpressed in a number of leukemias and cancers. Given c-Myb's role in hematopoiesis and leukemias, it is hypothesized that benzene interferes with the c-Myb signaling pathway and that this involves ROS. To investigate our hypothesis, we evaluated whether benzene, 1,4-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, phenol, and catechol generated ROS in chicken erythroblast HD3 cells, as measured by 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) and dihydrorhodamine-123 (DHR-123), and whether the addition of 100 U/ml of the antioxidating enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) could prevent ROS generation. Reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH:GSSG) were also assessed as well as hydroquinone and benzoquinone's effects on c-Myb protein levels and activation of a transiently transfected reporter construct. Finally we attempted to abrogate benzene metabolite mediated increases in c-Myb activity with the use of SOD. We found that benzoquinone, hydroquinone, and catechol increased DCFDA fluorescence, increased DHR-123 fluorescence, decreased GSH:GSSG ratios, and increased reporter construct expression after 24 h of exposure. SOD was able to prevent DCFDA fluorescence and c-Myb activity caused by benzoquinone and hydroquinone only. These results are consistent with other studies, which suggest metabolite differences in benzene-mediated toxicity. More importantly, this study supports the hypothesis that benzene may mediate its toxicity through ROS-mediated alterations in the c-Myb signaling pathway.

  6. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development

    SciTech Connect

    Medinsky, M.A.; Kenyon, E.M.; Seaton, M.J.; Schlosser, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Because benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol, and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. Zonal localization of phase I and phase 11 enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus also impacts this competition. Biologically based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 355 - The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 10 100 7647-01-0 Hydrogen Chloride (gas only) f 5,000 500 7664-39-3 Hydrogen Fluoride 100 100 7722-84-1 Hydrogen Peroxide (Conc > 52%) f 1,000 1,000 7783-07-5 Hydrogen Selenide 10 10 7783-06-4 Hydrogen Sulfide f 100 500 123-31-9 Hydroquinone f 100 500/10,000 13463-40-6 Iron, Pentacarbonyl- 100 100...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 355 - The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,000 7719-12-2 Phosphorus Trichloride 1,000 1,000 7722-84-1 Hydrogen Peroxide (Conc >52%) f 1,000 1,000... Dimethylcarbamate 100 500 123-31-9 Hydroquinone f 100 500/10,000 123-73-9 Crotonaldehyde, (E)- 100 1,000 124-65-2... Boron Trifluoride 500 500 7647-01-0 Hydrogen Chloride (gas only) f 5,000 500 7664-39-3 Hydrogen...

  9. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-08-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming "external" process to an analyte regenerating "internal" process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity.

  10. Cell-specific activation and detoxification of benzene metabolites in mouse and human bone marrow: Identification of target cells and a potential role for modulation of apoptosis in benzene toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, D.; Siegel, D.; Schattenberg, D.G.

    1996-12-01

    The role of cell-specific metabolism in benzene toxicity was examined in both murine and human bone marrow. Hemopoietic progenitor cells and stromal cells are important control points for regulation of hemopoiesis. We show that the selective toxicity of hydroquinone at the level of the macrophage in murine bone marrow stroma may be explained by a high peroxidase/nicotanimicle adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced [NAD(P)H]:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) ratio. Peroxidases metabolize hydroquinone to the reactive 1,4-benzoquinone, whereas NQO1 reduces the quinones formed, resulting in detoxification. Peroxidase and NQO1 activity in human stromal cultures vary as a function of time in culture, with peroxidase activity decreasing and NQO1 activity increasing with time. Peroxidase activity and, more specifically, myeloperoxidase, which had previously been considered to be expressed at the promyelocyte level, was detected in murine lineage-negative and human CD34{sup +} progenitor cells. This provides a metabolic mechanism whereby phenolic metabolites of benzene can be bioactivated in progenitor cells, which are considered initial target cells for the development of leukemias. Consequences of a high peroxidase/NQO1 ratio in HL-60 cells were shown to include hydroquinone-induced apoptosis. Hydroquinone can also inhibit proteases known to play a role in induction of apoptosis, suggesting that it may be able to inhibit apoptosis induced by other stimuli. Modulation of apoptosis may lead to aberrant hemopoiesis and neoplastic progression. This enzyme-directed approach has identified target cells of the phenolic metabolites of benzene in bone marrow and provided a metabolic basis for benzene-induced toxicity at the level of the progenitor cell in both murine and human bone marrow. 60 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Development of Repair Materials for Avulsive Combat-Type Maxillofacial Injuries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    as Tenox ( TBHQ ). The results obtained with this composition to date suggest that this material is ready for in vivo evaluation in a suitable animal...life is a food grade anti- oxidant such as Tenox ( TBHQ ). The results obtained with this composition to date suggest that this material is ready for in...tion. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (Tenox TBHQ ) used as -an antioxidant was obtained from Eastman Chemicals. 3.2 Methods Low molecular weight poly

  12. Lithium Aryloxide Thin Films with Guest-Induced Structural Transformation by ALD/MLD.

    PubMed

    Nisula, Mikko; Linnera, Jarno; Karttunen, Antti J; Karppinen, Maarit

    2017-03-02

    Crystalline Li-organic thin films are grown with the atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique from lithium hexamethyldisilazide and hydroquinone. The as-deposited films are found to undergo a reversible structural transformation upon exposure to ambient humid air. According to density functional theory calculations, the guest-induced transformation may be related to an unsaturated Li site in the crystal structure.

  13. Mechanisms of PCBS-Induced Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    breast (milk) enzymes to oxygenated species that are electrophilic and bind to DNA. Of particular interest were the quinone metabolites. Our data showed...NBT ASSAY The spontaneous or enzymatic oxidation of hydroquinone and catechol metabolites of PCBs is expected to result in the production of superoxide...the PCB- metabolite to a final concentration of 100 pM. The increase of absorption at 540 nm was followed for 10 minutes. To test superoxide production

  14. Chemoselective ligand patterning of electroactive surfaces using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Nathan P; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2009-10-01

    To generate model substrates for cell adhesion, we have developed two different biocompatible strategies based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold terminated with latent ketones and aldehydes. Under spatial control, the hydroquinone and alcohol-terminated SAMs can be oxidized to allow for oxyamine ligand patterning on the surface with microfluidic cassettes. These immobilization strategies were characterized by electrochemistry, fluorescence, and utilizing a cell adhesive peptide, cell patterns were generated.

  15. Evaluation of Toxic Air Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    Number Fuel Types Used a. b. c. d. f . 9. h. Boilers Compressors Generators Cranes Cogeneration Furnaces/Ovens Cooling Towers Crucibles Process Not Listed...3 10-100 MMBtu natural gas combustion 4 Silver electroplating I 5 Copper electroplating 6 Cadmium electroplating 7 Gasoline storage/dispensing I 8 I...Hydrogen fluoride (Hydrofluoric acid) Hydroquinone Appendix E: Page 4 of 8 CAS number Chemical name 78591 58899 108316 67561 72435 74839 74873 71556 78933

  16. Exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient: use of dermoscopy aids early diagnosis and selection of biopsy site.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen Chun; Tey, Hong Liang; Lee, Joyce Siong See; Goh, Boon Kee

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of exogenous ochronosis is often challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. Herein, we report a case of exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient. The condition was caused by the use of bleaching agents, including creams containing hydroquinone. We demonstrate the use of dermoscopy as an invaluable tool for the early recognition of the condition, as well as in the selection of an appropriate site for a skin biopsy.

  17. Exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient: use of dermoscopy aids early diagnosis and selection of biopsy site

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Chun; Tey, Hong Liang; Lee, Joyce Siong See; Goh, Boon Kee

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of exogenous ochronosis is often challenging and requires a high index of suspicion. Herein, we report a case of exogenous ochronosis in a Chinese patient. The condition was caused by the use of bleaching agents, including creams containing hydroquinone. We demonstrate the use of dermoscopy as an invaluable tool for the early recognition of the condition, as well as in the selection of an appropriate site for a skin biopsy. PMID:24452981

  18. Tests of alternative reductants in the second uranium purification cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.C.

    1980-05-01

    Miniature mixer-settler tests of the second uranium purification cycle show that plutonium cannot be removed by hydroxylamine-hydrazine (NH/sub 2/OH-N/sub 2/H/sub 4/) because the acidity is too high, or by 2,5-di-t-pentylhydroquinone because HNO/sub 3/ oxidizes the hydroquinone. Plutonium can be removed satisfactorily when U(IV)-hydrazine is used as the reductant.

  19. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development.

    PubMed Central

    Medinsky, M A; Kenyon, E M; Seaton, M J; Schlosser, P M

    1996-01-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Because benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol, and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. Zonal localization of phase I and phase II enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus also impacts this competition. Biologically based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans. PMID:9118926

  20. Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis of phenolic compounds using the NCS-luminol system.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Behzad; Dadashvand, Reza

    2006-03-01

    A flow injection system coupled with two simple and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) methods is described for the determination of some phenolic compounds. The methods are based on the inhibition effects of the investigated phenols on the CL signal intensities of N-chlorosuccinimide-KI-luminol (NCS-KI-luminol) and NCS-luminol systems. The influences of the chemical and hydrodynamic parameters on the decrease in CL signal intensities of NCS-KI-luminol and NCS-luminol systems for hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol, serving as the model compounds of analyte, were studied in the flow injection mode of analysis. Under the selected conditions, the proposed CL systems were used for the determination of some phenolic compound and analytical characteristics of the systems including calibration equation, correlation coefficient, linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and sample throughput. The limits of detection for hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol were 0.002, 0.01, and 0.3 microM using the NCS-KI-luminol system; for the NCS-luminol system these were 0.01, 0.17, and 1.6 microM, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 repeated measurements of 0.04, 0.06, and 1 microM of hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol were 1.9, 1.4, and 2.0%, respectively, with the NCS-KI-luminol system; for 0.2, 0.5, and 4 microM of hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol these were 2.6, 2.2, and 3.7%, respectively, using the NCS-luminol system. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in known environmental water samples with a relative error of less than 6%. A possible reaction mechanism of the proposed CL system is discussed briefly.

  1. [Analysis of the applicability of model systems to measuring the activity of lipid-soluble antioxidants by the electrochemiluminescent method].

    PubMed

    Lukin, Iu L

    1976-11-01

    A comparative study of two most common model systems (methanol-sodium citrate and chloroform-aceton-maleic acid (10(-3) M)) was carried out to measure lipid-soluble antioxidants by the method of electrochemiluminescence. alpha-naftole, pyrogalole, phenole, hydroquinone, acrylamide, cholesterine and alkohol lipid extract from rat liver were used as inhibitors. The analysis has shown that it is worthwhile to apply only the system chloroform-aceton-maleic acid as a model of electroluminescent studies.

  2. US-Korea Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, and Information Technology (NBIT) Symbiosys Program - Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    silicon nitride DPN probes. A line was fitted using a four parameter equation with the constraint of passing through the origin of the plot. (B) MHA...Scheme 1. The generation of hydroquinone-functionalized silicon oxide surfaces, followed by the generation benzoquinone features by the DPN...AAO templates were attached to silicon wafer as a supporter. Removing the block of Al metal in super-saturated HgCl2 (Aldrich) solutions makes the AAO

  3. Direct Nanoscale Conversion of Biomolecular Signals into Electronic Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-22

    Dwight S. Seferos, Martin Moore, Daniel A. Lowy, Guillermo C. Bazan , James G. Kushmerick, and Nikolai Lebedev: Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer...Dwight S. Seferos, Martin Moore, Daniel A. Lowy, Guillermo C. Bazan , James G. Kushmerick, and Nikolai Lebedev: Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer...Guillermo C. Bazan , and Nikolai Lebedev: Heterogeneous electron transfer of quinone-hydroquinone in alkaline solutions at gold electrode surfaces

  4. Influence Of Zwitterions on Properties and Morphology of Ionomers: Implications for Electro-Active Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    acrylate and n-butyl acrylate ( nBA ) based sulfobetaine-containing polymers.13,14 They demonstrated that the incorporation of zwitterionic functionalities...propanesulfonate (SBMA). Through copolymerizing the two charge-containing monomers with nBA , a series of zwitterionomers and their corresponding...graciously provided by Raschig GmbH. n-Butyl acrylate ( nBA ), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 99.9+%) and hydroquinone (99%) were purchased from Alfa Aesar. 2

  5. Selective Detoxification of Phenols by Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana Heterologously Expressing the PtUGT72B1 from Populus trichocarpa

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Phenols are present in the environment and commonly in contact with humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In a previous study, we reported that uridine diphosphate-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase PtUGT72B1 from Populus trichocarpa has high activity in detoxifying trichlorophenol by conjugating glucose. In this study, more experiments were performed to determine the substrate specificity of PtUGT72B1 towards phenolic compounds. Among seven phenols tested, three were glucosylated by PtUGT72B1 including phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the enzyme PtUGT72B1 showed higher resistance to hydroquinone and catechol but more sensitivity to phenol than wild type plants. Transgenic Pichia pastoris expressing PtUGT72B1 showed enhanced resistance to all three phenols. Compared with wild type Arabidopsis plants, transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher removal efficiencies and exported more glucosides of phenol, phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside, to the medium after cultured with the three phenols. Protein extracts from transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced conjugating activity towards phenol, hydroquinone and catechol. PtUGT72B1 showed much higher expression level in Pichia pastoris than in Arabidopsis plants. Kinetic analysis of the PtUGT72B1 was also performed. PMID:23840543

  6. [Arbutin, salicin: the possibilities of their biotechnological production].

    PubMed

    Dusková, J; Dusek, J'; Jahodár, L; Poustka, F

    2005-03-01

    The paper aimed to transform exogenous precursors with in vitro cultures of Datura meteloides, Coronilla varia, Leuzea carthamoides and Schisandra chinensis. These cultures were added the precursors of arbutin and salicin (phenylalanine, cinnamic, p-coumaric, p-anisoic, o-coumaric, salicylic acids, salicylaldehyde, helicin), not yet tested by the present authors. The culture of Schisandra chinensis was also added, besides the above-mentioned precursors, hydroquinone, because this culture had not been employed for biotransformation purposes yet. The precursors tested were used in a concentration of 100 mg x l(-1) and the period of their action was 6; 12; 24; 48, and 168 hours. Positive results (both TLC and HPLC) in arbutin production were obtained in the culture of Schisandra chinensis after an addition of hydroquinone. The largest amount of arbutin in callus cultures was measured after a week's cultivation with hydroquinone (5.08 %). In this experimental variant, arbutin was released also to the culture medium. Our results revealed salicylaldehyde to be the optimal precursor of salicin. It was transformed by the culture of Datura meteloides after 6; 24, and 168 hours and by the culture of Coronilla varia after 6 hours. In comparison with arbutin, its amount was smaller.

  7. Study on the Stability of DeoxyArbutin in an Anhydrous Emulsion System

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Chien; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Nai-Fang; Wu, Pey-Shiuan; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Chiu-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. Therefore, to enhance the stability of deoxyArbutin in formulations, we chose the polyol-in-silicone, anhydrous emulsion system as the basic formulation for investigation. The quantity of deoxyArbutin and the accumulation of hydroquinone in both hydrous and anhydrous emulsions at various temperatures were analyzed through an established high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results indicated that water increased the decomposition of deoxyArbutin in the formulations and that the polyol-in-silicone, oil-based, anhydrous emulsion system provided a relatively stable surrounding for the deoxyArbutin that delayed its degradation at 25 °C and 45 °C. Moreover, the composition of the inner hydrophilic phase, containing different amounts of glycerin and propylene glycol, affected the stability of deoxyArbutin. Thus, these results will be beneficial when using deoxyArbutin in cosmetics and medicines in the future. PMID:22016637

  8. [Properties of sucrose phosphorylase from recombinant Escherichia coli and enzymatic synthesis of alpha-arbutin].

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuejia; Ma, Jiangfeng; Xu, Rong; He, Aiyong; Jiang, Min; Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Yin

    2012-12-01

    Sucrose phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.7, Sucrose phosphorylase, SPase) can be produced by recombinant strain Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)/Pet-SPase. Crude enzyme was obtained from the cells by the high pressure disruption and centrifugation. Sucrose phosphorylase was purified by Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography and desalted by ultrafiltration. The specific enzyme activity was 1.1-fold higher than that of the crude enzyme, and recovery rate was 82.7%. The purified recombinant SPase had a band of 59 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Thermostability of the enzyme was shown at temperatures up to 37 degrees C, and pH stability between pH 6.0 and 6.7. The optimum temperature and pH were 37 degrees C and 6.7, respectively. The K(m) of SPase for sucrose was 7.3 mmol/L, and Vmax was 0.2 micromol/(min x mg). Besides, alpha-arbutin was synthesized from sucrose and hydroquinone by transglucosylation with recombinant SPase. The optimal conditions for synthesis of alpha-arbutin were 200 U/mL of recombinant SPase, 20% of sucrose, and 1.6% hydroquinone at pH 6-6.5 and 25 degrees C for 21 h. Under these conditions, alpha-arbutin was obtained with a 78.3% molar yield with respect to hydroquinone, and the concentration of alpha-arbutin was about 31 g/L.

  9. In utero and in vitro effects of benzene and its metabolites on erythroid differentiation and the role of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Badham, Helen J.; Winn, Louise M.

    2010-05-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous occupational and environmental toxicant. Exposures to benzene both prenatally and during adulthood are associated with the development of disorders such as aplastic anemia and leukemia. Mechanisms of benzene toxicity are unknown; however, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by benzene metabolites may play a role. Little is known regarding the effects of benzene metabolites on erythropoiesis. Therefore, to determine the effects of in utero exposure to benzene on the growth and differentiation of fetal erythroid progenitor cells (CFU-E), pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to benzene and CFU-E numbers were assessed in fetal liver (hematopoietic) tissue. In addition, to determine the effect of benzene metabolite-induced ROS generation on erythropoiesis, HD3 chicken erythroblast cells were exposed to benzene, phenol, or hydroquinone followed by stimulation of erythrocyte differentiation. Our results show that in utero exposure to benzene caused significant alterations in female offspring CFU-E numbers. In addition, exposure to hydroquinone, but not benzene or phenol, significantly reduced the percentage of differentiated HD3 cells, which was associated with an increase in ROS. Pretreatment of HD3 cells with polyethylene glycol-conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD) prevented hydroquinone-induced inhibition of erythropoiesis, supporting the hypothesis that ROS generation is involved in the development of benzene erythrotoxicity. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that ROS generated as a result of benzene metabolism may significantly alter erythroid differentiation, potentially leading to the development of Blood Disorders.

  10. Optical properties of humic substances and CDOM: effects of borohydride reduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiahai; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Golanoski, Kelli S; Boyle, Erin S; Blough, Neil V

    2010-07-15

    Treatment of Suwanee River humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids, a commercial lignin (LAC), and a series of solid phase extracts (C18) from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB extracts) with sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)), a selective reductant of carbonyl-containing compounds including quinones and aromatic ketones, produces a preferential loss of visible absorption (> or = 50% for SRFA) and substantially enhanced, blue-shifted fluorescence emission (2- to 3-fold increase). Comparison of the results with those obtained from a series of model quinones and hydroquinones demonstrates that these spectral changes cannot be assigned directly to the absorption and emission of visible light by quinones/hydroquinones. Instead, these results are consistent with a charge transfer model in which the visible absorption is due primarily to charge transfer transitions arising among hydroxy- (methoxy-) aromatic donors and carbonyl-containing acceptors. Unlike most of the model hydroquinones, the changes in optical properties of the natural samples following NaBH(4) reduction were largely irreversible in the presence of air and following addition of a Cu(2+) catalyst, providing tentative evidence that aromatic ketones (or other similar carbonyl-containing structures) may play a more important role than quinones in the optical properties of these materials.

  11. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  12. Pulse electroanalysis at gold-gold micro-trench electrodes: chemical signal filtering.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sara E C; Marken, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Bipotentiostatic control of micro- and nano-trench sensor systems provides new opportunities for enhancing signals (employing feedback currents) and for improved selectivity (by "chemical filtering"). In this study both phenomena are exploited with a gold-gold micro-trench electrode with ca. 70 microm width and ca. 800 microm trench depth. In "generator-collector mode", feedback current enhancement is demonstrated for the hydroquinone/ benzoquinone redox system. Next, a "modulator-sensor mode" experiment is developed in which one electrode potential is stepped into the negative potential region (employing the normal pulse voltammetry method) to induce an oscillating pH change locally in the micro-trench. The resulting shift in the hydroquinone/benzoquinone reversible potential causes a Faradaic sensor signal (employing chronoamperometry). This method provides a "chemical filter" by selecting pH-sensitive redox processes only, and by showing enhanced sensitivity in the region of low buffer capacity. The results for the chemically reversible hydroquinone/benzoquinone system are contrasted to the detection of the chemically irreversible ammonia oxidation.

  13. Transcriptional profiling of Gram-positive Arthrobacter in the phyllosphere: induction of pollutant degradation genes by natural plant phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Scheublin, Tanja R; Deusch, Simon; Moreno-Forero, Silvia K; Müller, Jochen A; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Leveau, Johan H J

    2014-07-01

    Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 is a Gram-positive, 4-chlorophenol-degrading soil bacterium that was recently shown to be an effective colonizer of plant leaf surfaces. The genetic basis for this phyllosphere competency is unknown. In this paper, we describe the genome-wide expression profile of A.chlorophenolicus on leaves of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) compared with growth on agar surfaces. In phyllosphere-grown cells, we found elevated expression of several genes known to contribute to epiphytic fitness, for example those involved in nutrient acquisition, attachment, stress response and horizontal gene transfer. A surprising result was the leaf-induced expression of a subset of the so-called cph genes for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol. This subset encodes the conversion of the phenolic compound hydroquinone to 3-oxoadipate, and was shown to be induced not only by 4-chlorophenol but also hydroquinone, its glycosylated derivative arbutin, and phenol. Small amounts of hydroquinone, but not arbutin or phenol, were detected in leaf surface washes of P.vulgaris by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our findings illustrate the utility of genomics approaches for exploration and improved understanding of a microbial habitat. Also, they highlight the potential for phyllosphere-based priming of bacteria to stimulate pollutant degradation, which holds promise for the application of phylloremediation.

  14. Efficient degradation of phenol using iron-montmorillonite as a Fenton catalyst: Importance of visible light irradiation and intermediates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xipeng; Wu, Honghai; He, Guangping; Guan, Yufeng

    2017-01-05

    Iron-montmorillonite (Fe-Mt) with delaminated structures was synthesized via the introduction of iron oxides into Na-montmorillonite. Fe-Mt showed significant increases in the available iron content, surface area and pore volume, along with a slight increase in the basal spacing from d001=1.26 (Na-Mt) to 1.53nm (Fe-Mt). The Fenton process was efficient for phenol removal using Fe-Mt as a catalyst under visible light irradiation, and the process had two-stage pseudo-first order kinetics. The overall reaction had a higher degradation rate even when it was only irradiated with visible light for the first 40min period. Further investigation confirmed that the irradiation increased the presence of certain intermediates. Among them, 1,4-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, and catechol all enhanced the Fenton reaction rates. Either catechol or hydroquinone was added to the Fenton system with Fe-Mt/H2O2 with or without visible light irradiation, and they both accelerated phenol degradation because catechol and hydroquinone are capable of reductively and effectively transforming Fe(III) into Fe(II). The concentrations of dissolved total Fe increased with the increase in the oxalic acid concentration, which can strongly chelate Fe(III). Hence, iron was released from Fe-Mt, and reductive transformation played an important role in promoting the Fenton reaction process for phenol removal.

  15. Highly sensitive and reusable Pt-black microfluidic electrodes for long-term electrochemical sensing

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Liangliang; Vaddiraju, Santhisagar; Rusling, James F.; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2010-01-01

    Highly sensitive, long-term stable and reusable microfluidics electrodes have been fabricated and evaluated using H2O2 and hydroquinone as model analytes. These electrodes composed of a 300 nm Pt-black layer situated on a 5 μm thick electrodeposited Au layer, provide effective protection against electrooxidation of an underlying chromium adhesion layer. Using repeated cyclic voltammetric (CV) sweeps in flowing buffer solution, highly sensitive Pt-black working electrodes were realized with five- (four-) decade linear dynamic range for H2O2 (hydroquinone) and low detection limit of 10 nM for H2O2 and 100 nM for hydroquinone. Moreover, high sensitivity for H2O2 was demonstrated at low (0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl) oxidation potentials, together with long-term stability and reusability for at least 30 days. Microfluidic flow was employed for desorption and reactivation of the nominally planar Pt-black electrodes. Such electrocatalytic surface architecture should be appropriate for long-term electrochemical detection of various molecules and biomolecules as well as in reusable immunoassay configurations. PMID:20655730

  16. Evolution of toxicity upon wet catalytic oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Yustos, P; Quintanilla, A; García-Ochoa, F; Casas, J A; Rodríguez, J J

    2004-01-01

    This work reports on the evolution of the toxicity of phenol-containing simulated wastewater upon catalytic wet oxidation with a commercial copper-based catalyst (Engelhard Cu-0203T). The results of the study show that this catalyst enhances detoxification, in addition to its effect on the oxidation rate. The EC50 values of the intermediates identified throughout the oxidation route of phenol have been determined and used to predict the evolution of toxicity upon oxidation. The predicted values have been compared with the ones measured directly from the aqueous solution during the oxidation process. To learn about the evolution of toxicity through out the routes of phenol oxidation, experiments have been performed with simulated wastewaters containing separately phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone as original pollutants. The significant increase of toxicity observed during the early stages of phenol oxidation is not directly related to the development of the brown color that derives mainly from catechol oxidation. This increase of toxicity is caused by the formation of hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone as intermediates, the former showing the highest toxicity. Furthermore, synergistic effects, giving rise to a significant increase of toxicity, have been observed. These effects derive from the interactions among copper leached from the catalyst and catechol, hydroquinone, and p-benzoquinone and demand that close attention be paid to this potential problem in catalytic wet oxidation.

  17. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  18. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, R F

    1996-01-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of the benzene to hydroquinone metabolites than do rats or chimpanzees, especially at low doses. Nonhuman primates metabolize less of the benzene to muconic acid than do rodents or humans. In all species studied, a greater proportion of benzene is converted to hydroquinone and ring-breakage metabolites at low doses than at high doses. This finding should be considered in attempting to extrapolate the toxicity of benzene observed at high doses to predicted toxicity at low doses. Because ring-breakage metabolites and hydroquinone have both been implicated in the toxicity of benzene, the higher formation of those metabolites in the mouse may partially explain why mice are more sensitive to benzene than are rats. Metabolism of benzene in humans, the species of interest, does not exactly mimic that of any animal species studied. More information on the urinary and blood metabolites of occupationally exposed people is required to determine the fractional conversion of benzene to putative toxic metabolites and the degree of variability present in human subjects. PMID:9118889

  19. Novel skin brightener used as monotherapy for moderate melasma in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Pearl E

    2014-03-01

    Melasma is a chronic, relapsing disorder that can be disfiguring and can have adverse effects on quality of life. Recently, a unique hydroquinone-free topical product addressing multiple pathways involved in pigmentation was shown to have similar efficacy and equally well tolerated as 4% hydroquinone in females with facial hyperpigmentation. The goal herein was to further assess the efficacy and tolerability of this new multimodality product for the control of moderate melasma in skin of color. Six female subjects with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-V in good general health between the ages of 46 and 63 years with moderate epidermal facial melasma are presented herein. Subjects applied the skin brightener twice daily, morning and evening, and returned to the clinic at weeks 4, 8, and 12. By week 12, Investigator Overall Hyperpigmentation scores and MASI scores improved by an average of 22% and 38% from baseline, respectively. Additionally, 100% of subjects showed at least a 25% increase in Global Improvement at week 12. The skin brightener was well tolerated with no reports of erythema, edema, scaling, burning/stinging, or itching. Results from these case studies suggest that this multimodality skin brightener may provide an alternative treatment to hydroquinone for moderate melasma in skin of color. However additional clinical studies would be needed.

  20. Glycosylation of Phenolic Compounds by the Site-Mutated β-Galactosidase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lili; Xu, Lijuan; Guo, Yuchuan; Zhang, Dayu; Qi, Tingting; Jin, Lan; Gu, Guofeng; Xu, Li; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    β-Galactosidases can transfer the galactosyl from lactose or galactoside donors to various acceptors and thus are especially useful for the synthesis of important glycosides. However, these enzymes have limitations in the glycosylation of phenolic compounds that have many physiological functions. In this work, the β-galactosidase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus L3 was subjected to site-saturation mutagenesis at the W980 residue. The recombinant pET-21b plasmid carrying the enzyme gene was used as the template for mutation. The mutant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli cells for screening. One recombinant mutant, W980F, exhibited increased yield of glycoside when using hydroquinone as the screening acceptor. The enzyme was purified and the effects of the mutation on enzyme properties were determined in detail. It showed improved transglycosylation activity on novel phenolic acceptors besides hydroquinone. The yields of the glycosides produced from phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol were increased by 7.6% to 53.1%. Moreover, it generated 32.3% glycosides from the pyrogallol that could not be glycosylated by the wild-type enzyme. Chemical structures of these glycoside products were further determined by MS and NMR analysis. Thus, a series of novel phenolic galactosides were achieved by β-galactosidase for the first time. This was a breakthrough in the enzymatic galactosylation of the challenging phenolic compounds of great values. PMID:25803778

  1. Reactive Secondary Sequence Oxidative Pathology Polymer Model and Antioxidant Tests

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To provide common Organic Chemistry/Polymer Science thermoset free-radical crosslinking Sciences for Medical understanding and also present research findings for several common vitamins/antioxidants with a new class of drugs known as free-radical inhibitors. Study Design Peroxide/Fenton transition-metal redox couples that generate free radicals were combined with unsaturated lipid oils to demonstrate thermoset-polymer chain growth by crosslinking with the α-β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein into rubbery/adhesive solids. Further, Vitamin A and beta carotene were similarly studied for crosslink pathological potential. Also, free-radical inhibitor hydroquinone was compared for antioxidant capability with Vitamin E. Place and Duration of Study Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Biomaterials, University of Alabama at Birmingham, between June 2005 and August 2012. Methodology Observations were recorded for Fenton free-radical crosslinking of unsaturated lipids and vitamin A/beta carotene by photography further with weight measurements and percent-shrinkage testing directly related to covalent crosslinking of unsaturated lipids recorded over time with different concentrations of acrolein. Also, hydroquinone and vitamin E were compared at concentrations from 0.0–7.3wt% as antioxidants for reductions in percent-shrinkage measurements, n = 5. Results Unsaturated lipid oils responded to Fenton thermoset-polymer reactive secondary sequence reactions only by acrolein with crosslinking into rubbery-type solids and different non-solid gluey products. Further, molecular oxygen crosslinking was demonstrated with lipid peroxidation and acrolein at specially identified margins. By peroxide/Fenton free-radical testing, both vitamin A and beta-carotene demonstrated possible pathology chemistry for chain-growth crosslinking. During lipid/acrolein testing over a 50 hour time period at 7.3wt% antioxidants, hydroquinone significantly reduced percent

  2. Nitrogen-rich higher-molecular soil organic compounds patterned by lignin degradation products: Considerations on the nature of soil organic nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebner, Falk; Bertoli, Luca; Pour, Georg; Klinger, Karl; Ragab, Tamer; Rosenau, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The pathways leading to accumulation of covalently bonded nitrogen in higher-molecular soil organic matter (SOM) are still a controversial issue in soil science and geochemistry. Similarly, structural elucidation of the variety of the types of nitrogenous moieties present in SOM is still in its infancy even though recent NMR studies suggest amide-type nitrogen to form the majority of organically bonded nitrogen which is, however, frequently not in accordance with the results of wet-chemical analyses. Following the modified polyphenol theory of Flaig and Kononova but fully aware of the imperfection of a semi-abiotic simulation approach, this work communicates the results of a study that investigated some potential nitrogen accumulation pathways occurring in the re-condensation branch of the theory following the reactions between well-known low-molecular lignin and carbohydrate degradation products with nitrogenous nucleophiles occurring in soils under aerobic conditions. Different low-molecular degradation products of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, such as hydroquinone, methoxyhydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, 2,5-dihydroxy-[1,4]benzoquinone, glucose, xylose, and the respective polysaccharides, i.e. cellulose, xylan as well as various types of lignin were subjected to a joint treatment with oxygen and low-molecular N-nucleophiles, such as ammonia, amines, and amino acids in aqueous conditions, partly using respective 15N labeled compounds for further 15N CPMAS NMR studies. Product mixtures derived from mono- and polysaccharides have been comprehensively fractionated and analyzed by GC/MS after derivatization. Some of ammoxidized polyphenols and quinones have been analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Some products, such as those obtained from ammoxidation of methoxy hydroquinone using 15N labeled ammonia were fractionated following the IHSS protocol. Individual humin (H), humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) fractions were subjected to elemental analyses

  3. Bioactivation of myelotoxic xenobiotics by human neutrophil myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Many environmental pollutants and drugs are toxic to the bone marrow. Some of these xenobiotics may initiate toxicity after undergoing bioactivation to free radicals and/or other reactive electrophiles. Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the one-electron oxidative bioactivation of a variety of xenobiotics in vitro. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidative enzyme found in very high concentration in the neutrophils of human bone marrow. In this study, human MPO was evaluated to determine its ability to catalyze the in vitro bioactivation of known bone marrow toxicants that contain the aromatic hydroxyl (Ar-OH), aromatic amine (Ar-N-R{sub 2}), or heterocyclic tertiary amine ({double bond}N-R) moieties. The formation of free radical metabolites during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of hydroquinone and catechol (benzene metabolites), mitoxantrone and ametantrone (antitumor drugs), and chlorpromazine and promazine (antipsychotic drugs) was demonstrated by EPR spectroscopy. The reactivity of the products formed during the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of ({sup 14}C)hydroquinone and ({sup 14}C)catechol was shown by their covalent binding to protein and DNA in vitro. The covalently binding metabolite in each case is postulated to be the quinone form of the xenobiotic. In addition, both GSH and NADH were oxidized by the reactive intermediate(s) formed during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of many of the bone marrow toxicants tested. It was also shown that p,p-biphenol stimulated the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of both hydroquinone and catechol, while p-cresol stimulated the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of catechol.

  4. Reduction of Flavodoxin by Electron Bifurcation and Sodium Ion-dependent Reoxidation by NAD+ Catalyzed by Ferredoxin-NAD+ Reductase (Rnf).

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Nilanjan Pal; Klomann, Katharina; Seubert, Andreas; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2016-06-03

    Electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Bcd) from Acidaminococcus fermentans catalyze the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin by NADH, which is also driven by the concomitant reduction of crotonyl-CoA by NADH, a process called electron bifurcation. Here we show that recombinant flavodoxin from A. fermentans produced in Escherichia coli can replace ferredoxin with almost equal efficiency. After complete reduction of the yellow quinone to the blue semiquinone, a second 1.4 times faster electron transfer affords the colorless hydroquinone. Mediated by a hydrogenase, protons reoxidize the fully reduced flavodoxin or ferredoxin to the semi-reduced species. In this hydrogen-generating system, both electron carriers act catalytically with apparent Km = 0.26 μm ferredoxin or 0.42 μm flavodoxin. Membrane preparations of A. fermentans contain a highly active ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NAD(+) reductase (Rnf) that catalyzes the irreversible reduction of flavodoxin by NADH to the blue semiquinone. Using flavodoxin hydroquinone or reduced ferredoxin obtained by electron bifurcation, Rnf can be measured in the forward direction, whereby one NADH is recycled, resulting in the simple equation: crotonyl-CoA + NADH + H(+) = butyryl-CoA + NAD(+) with Km = 1.4 μm ferredoxin or 2.0 μm flavodoxin. This reaction requires Na(+) (Km = 0.12 mm) or Li(+) (Km = 0.25 mm) for activity, indicating that Rnf acts as a Na(+) pump. The redox potential of the quinone/semiquinone couple of flavodoxin (Fld) is much higher than that of the semiquinone/hydroquinone couple. With free riboflavin, the opposite is the case. Based on this behavior, we refine our previous mechanism of electron bifurcation.

  5. Biosynthesis of Firefly Luciferin in Adult Lantern: Decarboxylation of ʟ-Cysteine is a Key Step for Benzothiazole Ring Formation in Firefly Luciferin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Yuichi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kanie, Shusei; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioluminescence in fireflies and click beetles is produced by a luciferase-luciferin reaction. The luminescence property and protein structure of firefly luciferase have been investigated, and its cDNA has been used for various assay systems. The chemical structure of firefly luciferin was identified as the ᴅ-form in 1963 and studies on the biosynthesis of firefly luciferin began early in the 1970’s. Incorporation experiments using 14C-labeled compounds were performed, and cysteine and benzoquinone/hydroquinone were proposed to be biosynthetic component for firefly luciferin. However, there have been no clear conclusions regarding the biosynthetic components of firefly luciferin over 30 years. Methodology/Principal Findings Incorporation studies were performed by injecting stable isotope-labeled compounds, including ʟ-[U-13C3]-cysteine, ʟ-[1-13C]-cysteine, ʟ-[3-13C]-cysteine, 1,4-[D6]-hydroquinone, and p-[2,3,5,6-D]-benzoquinone, into the adult lantern of the living Japanese firefly Luciola lateralis. After extracting firefly luciferin from the lantern, the incorporation of stable isotope-labeled compounds into firefly luciferin was identified by LC/ESI-TOF-MS. The positions of the stable isotope atoms in firefly luciferin were determined by the mass fragmentation of firefly luciferin. Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that ᴅ- and ʟ-firefly luciferins are biosynthesized in the lantern of the adult firefly from two ʟ-cysteine molecules with p-benzoquinone/1,4-hydroquinone, accompanied by the decarboxylation of ʟ-cysteine. PMID:24391868

  6. Oxidative Conversion Mediates Antiproliferative Effects of tert-Butylhydroquinone: Structure and Activity Relationship Study.

    PubMed

    Sanidad, Katherine Z; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Wang, Weicang; Du, Zheyuan; Florio, Ellie; He, Lili; Xiao, Hang; Decker, Eric A; Zhang, Guodong

    2016-05-18

    Previous studies have shown that tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), a widely used food antioxidant, has cytotoxic effects at high doses; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we found that the effects of TBHQ on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis are mainly mediated by its oxidative conversion to a quinone metabolite tert-butylquinone (TBQ). Co-addition of cupric ion (Cu(2+)) caused accelerated oxidative conversion of TBHQ to TBQ and enhanced the biological activities of TBHQ on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in MC38 colon cancer cells. In contrast, co-addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) suppressed TBHQ oxidation and inhibited the biological activities of TBHQ in MC38 cells. For example, after 24 h of treatment in basal medium, low-dose TBHQ (1.88-7.5 μM) had little effect on MC38 cell proliferation, while co-addition of 50 μM Cu(2+) caused 30-70% inhibition of cell proliferation; in contrast, treatment with high-dose TBHQ (15 μM) inhibited 50 ± 4% MC38 proliferation, which was abolished by co-addition of 50 μM EDTA. We further showed that TBQ had more potent actions on cell proliferation and associated cellular responses than TBHQ, supporting a critical role of TBQ formation in the biological activities of TBHQ. Finally, a structure and activity relationship study showed that the fast-oxidized para-hydroquinones had potent antiproliferative effects in MC38 cells, while the slow-oxidized para-hydroquinones had weak or little biological activities. Together, these results suggest that the biological activities of TBHQ and other para-hydroquinones are mainly mediated by their oxidative metabolism to generate more biologically active quinone metabolites.

  7. Mineralization of paracetamol in aqueous solution with advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Torun, Murat; Gültekin, Özge; Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol is a common analgesic drug widely used in all regions of the world more than hundred tonnes per year and it poses a great problem for the aquatic environment. Its phenolic intermediates are classified as persistent organic pollutants and toxic for the environment as well as human beings. In the present study, the irradiation of aqueous solutions of paracetamol with 60Co gamma-rays was examined on a laboratory scale and its degradation path was suggested with detected radiolysis products. The synergic effect of ozone on gamma-irradiation was investigated by preliminary ozonation before irradiation which reduced the irradiation dose from 5 to 3 kGy to completely remove paracetamol and its toxic intermediate hydroquinone from 6 to 4 kGy as well as increasing the radiation chemical yield (Gi values 1.36 and 1.66 in the absence and presence of ozone, respectively). The observed amount of formed hydroquinone was also decreased in the presence of ozone. There is a decrease in pH from 6.4 to 5.2 and dissolved oxygen consumed, which is up to 0.8 mg l(-1), to form some peroxyl radicals used for oxidation. Analytical measurements were carried out with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and ion chromatography (IC) both qualitatively and quantitatively. Amounts of paracetamol and hydroquinone were measured with gas chromatography after trimethylsilane derivatization. Small aliphatic acids, such as acetic acid, formic acid and oxalic acid, were measured quantitatively with IC as well as inorganic ions (nitrite and nitrate) in which their yields increase with irradiation.

  8. A kinetic spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of phenol and its three derivatives with the aid of artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yongnian; Xia, Zhenzhen; Kokot, Serge

    2011-08-30

    A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of pyrocatechol, resorcin, hydroquinone and phenol based on their inhibitory effect on the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in acid medium at pH=3.0. A linear relationship was observed between the inhibitory effect and the concentrations of the compounds. The absorbance associated with the kinetic reactions was monitored at the maximum wavelength of 557nm. The effects of different parameters such as pH, concentration of RhB and KBrO(3), and temperature of the reaction were investigated and optimum conditions were established. The linear ranges were 0.22-3.30, 0.108-0.828, 0.36-3.96 and 1.52-19.76μg mL(-1) for pyrocatechol, resorcin, hydroquinone and phenol, respectively, and their corresponding detection limits were 0.15, 0.044, 0.16 and 0.60μg mL(-1). The measured data were processed by several chemometrics methods, such as principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural network (ANN), and a set of synthetic mixtures of these compounds was used to verify the established models. It was found that the prediction ability of PLS, PCR and RBF-ANN was similar, however, the RBF-ANN model did perform somewhat better than the other methods. The proposed method was also applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous determination of pyrocatechol, resorcin, hydroquinone and phenol in real water samples.

  9. Mutants of Cytochrome P450 Reductase Lacking Either Gly-141 or Gly-143 Destabilize Its FMN Semiquinone.

    PubMed

    Rwere, Freeborn; Xia, Chuanwu; Im, Sangchoul; Haque, Mohammad M; Stuehr, Dennis J; Waskell, Lucy; Kim, Jung-Ja P

    2016-07-08

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase transfers electrons from NADPH to cytochromes P450 via its FAD and FMN. To understand the biochemical and structural basis of electron transfer from FMN-hydroquinone to its partners, three deletion mutants in a conserved loop near the FMN were characterized. Comparison of oxidized and reduced wild type and mutant structures reveals that the basis for the air stability of the neutral blue semiquinone is protonation of the flavin N5 and strong H-bond formation with the Gly-141 carbonyl. The ΔGly-143 protein had moderately decreased activity with cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c It formed a flexible loop, which transiently interacts with the flavin N5, resulting in the generation of both an unstable neutral blue semiquinone and hydroquinone. The ΔGly-141 and ΔG141/E142N mutants were inactive with cytochrome P450 but fully active in reducing cytochrome c In the ΔGly-141 mutants, the backbone amide of Glu/Asn-142 forms an H-bond to the N5 of the oxidized flavin, which leads to formation of an unstable red anionic semiquinone with a more negative potential than the hydroquinone. The semiquinone of ΔG141/E142N was slightly more stable than that of ΔGly-141, consistent with its crystallographically demonstrated more rigid loop. Nonetheless, both ΔGly-141 red semiquinones were less stable than those of the corresponding loop in cytochrome P450 BM3 and the neuronal NOS mutant (ΔGly-810). Our results indicate that the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase is a function of the length, sequence, and flexibility of the 140s loop and illustrate the sophisticated variety of biochemical mechanisms employed in fine-tuning its redox properties and function. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Mutants of Cytochrome P450 Reductase Lacking Either Gly-141 or Gly-143 Destabilize Its FMN Semiquinone*

    PubMed Central

    Rwere, Freeborn; Xia, Chuanwu; Im, Sangchoul; Haque, Mohammad M.; Stuehr, Dennis J.; Waskell, Lucy; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

    2016-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase transfers electrons from NADPH to cytochromes P450 via its FAD and FMN. To understand the biochemical and structural basis of electron transfer from FMN-hydroquinone to its partners, three deletion mutants in a conserved loop near the FMN were characterized. Comparison of oxidized and reduced wild type and mutant structures reveals that the basis for the air stability of the neutral blue semiquinone is protonation of the flavin N5 and strong H-bond formation with the Gly-141 carbonyl. The ΔGly-143 protein had moderately decreased activity with cytochrome P450 and cytochrome c. It formed a flexible loop, which transiently interacts with the flavin N5, resulting in the generation of both an unstable neutral blue semiquinone and hydroquinone. The ΔGly-141 and ΔG141/E142N mutants were inactive with cytochrome P450 but fully active in reducing cytochrome c. In the ΔGly-141 mutants, the backbone amide of Glu/Asn-142 forms an H-bond to the N5 of the oxidized flavin, which leads to formation of an unstable red anionic semiquinone with a more negative potential than the hydroquinone. The semiquinone of ΔG141/E142N was slightly more stable than that of ΔGly-141, consistent with its crystallographically demonstrated more rigid loop. Nonetheless, both ΔGly-141 red semiquinones were less stable than those of the corresponding loop in cytochrome P450 BM3 and the neuronal NOS mutant (ΔGly-810). Our results indicate that the catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase is a function of the length, sequence, and flexibility of the 140s loop and illustrate the sophisticated variety of biochemical mechanisms employed in fine-tuning its redox properties and function. PMID:27189945

  11. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Valli, K; Gold, M H

    1991-01-01

    Under secondary metabolic conditions the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralizes 2,4-dichlorophenol (I). The pathway for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (I) was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and of oxidation products generated by purified lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. The multistep pathway involves the oxidative dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (I) to yield 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (VIII). The intermediate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (VIII) is ring cleaved to produce, after subsequent oxidation, malonic acid. In the first step of the pathway, 2,4-dichlorophenol (I) is oxidized to 2-chloro-1,4-benzoquinone (II) by either manganese peroxidase or lignin peroxidase. 2-Chloro-1,4-benzoquinone (II) is then reduced to 2-chloro-1,4-hydroquinone (III), and the latter is methylated to form the lignin peroxidase substrate 2-chloro-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (IV). 2-Chloro-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (IV) is oxidized by lignin peroxidase to generate 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (V), which is reduced to 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (VI). 2,5-Dimethoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (VI) is oxidized by either peroxidase to generate 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone (VII) which is reduced to form the tetrahydroxy intermediate 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (VIII). In this pathway, the substrate is oxidatively dechlorinated by lignin peroxidase or manganese peroxidase in a reaction which produces a p-quinone. The p-quinone intermediate is then recycled by reduction and methylation reactions to regenerate an intermediate which is again a substrate for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative dechlorination. This unique pathway apparently results in the removal of both chlorine atoms before ring cleavage occurs. PMID:1987125

  12. Degradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Valli, K; Brock, B J; Joshi, D K; Gold, M H

    1992-01-01

    Under ligninolytic conditions, the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralizes 2,4-dinitrotoluene (I). The pathway for the degradation of I was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and crude intracellular cell extracts. The multistep pathway involves the initial reduction of I to yield 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (II). II is oxidized by MnP to yield 4-nitro-1,2-benzoquinone (XII) and methanol. XII is then reduced to 4-nitro-1,2-hydroquinone (V), and the latter is methylated to 1,2-dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene (X). 4-Nitro-1,2-hydroquinone (V) is also oxidized by MnP to yield nitrite and 2-hydroxybenzoquinone, which is reduced to form 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (VII). 1,2-Dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene (X) is oxidized by LiP to yield nitrite, methanol, and 2-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (VI), which is reduced to form 2-methoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (IX). The latter is oxidized by LiP and MnP to 4-hydroxy-1,2-benzoquinone, which is reduced to 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (VII). The key intermediate 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene is ring cleaved by intracellular cell extracts to produce, after reduction, beta-ketoadipic acid. In this pathway, initial reduction of a nitroaromatic group generates the peroxidase substrate II. Oxidation of II releases methanol and generates 4-nitro-1,2-benzoquinone (XII), which is recycled by reduction and methylation reactions to regenerate intermediates which are in turn substrates for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation leading to removal of the second nitro group. Thus, this unique pathway apparently results in the removal of both aromatic nitro groups before ring cleavage takes place. PMID:1539977

  13. Degradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Valli, K.; Brock, B.J.; Joshi, D.K.; Gold, M.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Under ligninolytic conditions, the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralizes 2,4-dinitrotoluene (I). The pathway for the degradation of I was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and crude intracellular cell extracts. The multistep pathway involves the initial reduction of I to yield 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (II). II is oxidized by MnP to yield 4-nitro-1,2-benzoquinone (XII) and methanol. XII is then reduced to 4-nitro-1,2-hydroquinone (V), and the latter is methylated to 1,2-dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene (X). 4-Nitro-1,2-hydroquinone (V) is also oxidized by MnP to yield nitrite and 2-hydroxybenzoquinone, which is reduced to form 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (VII). 1,2-Dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene (X) is oxidized by LiP to yield nitrite, methanol, and 2-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (VI), which is reduced to form 2-methoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (IX). The latter is oxidized by LiP and MnP to 4-hydroxy-1,2-benzoquinone, which is reduce to 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (VII). The key intermediate 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene is ring cleaved by intracellular cell extracts to produce, after reduction, {beta}-ketoadipic acid. In this pathway, initial reduction of a nitroaromatic group generates the peroxidase substrate II. Oxidation of II releases methanol and generates 4-nitro-1, 2-benzoquinone (XII), which is recycled by reduction and methylation reactions to regenerate intermediates which are in turn substrates for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation leading to removal of the second nitro group. Thus, this unique pathway apparently results in the removal of both aromatic nitro groups before ring cleavage takes place.

  14. Degradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Valli, K; Brock, B J; Joshi, D K; Gold, M H

    1992-01-01

    Under ligninolytic conditions, the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium mineralizes 2,4-dinitrotoluene (I). The pathway for the degradation of I was elucidated by the characterization of fungal metabolites and oxidation products generated by lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and crude intracellular cell extracts. The multistep pathway involves the initial reduction of I to yield 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (II). II is oxidized by MnP to yield 4-nitro-1,2-benzoquinone (XII) and methanol. XII is then reduced to 4-nitro-1,2-hydroquinone (V), and the latter is methylated to 1,2-dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene (X). 4-Nitro-1,2-hydroquinone (V) is also oxidized by MnP to yield nitrite and 2-hydroxybenzoquinone, which is reduced to form 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (VII). 1,2-Dimethoxy-4-nitrobenzene (X) is oxidized by LiP to yield nitrite, methanol, and 2-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (VI), which is reduced to form 2-methoxy-1,4-hydroquinone (IX). The latter is oxidized by LiP and MnP to 4-hydroxy-1,2-benzoquinone, which is reduced to 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (VII). The key intermediate 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene is ring cleaved by intracellular cell extracts to produce, after reduction, beta-ketoadipic acid. In this pathway, initial reduction of a nitroaromatic group generates the peroxidase substrate II. Oxidation of II releases methanol and generates 4-nitro-1,2-benzoquinone (XII), which is recycled by reduction and methylation reactions to regenerate intermediates which are in turn substrates for peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation leading to removal of the second nitro group. Thus, this unique pathway apparently results in the removal of both aromatic nitro groups before ring cleavage takes place.

  15. Elucidation of the ipso-Substitution Mechanism for Side-Chain Cleavage of α-Quaternary 4-Nonylphenols and 4-t-Butoxyphenol in Sphingobium xenophagum Bayram▿

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Frédéric L. P.; Cyris, Maike; Jonkers, Niels; Giger, Walter; Guenther, Klaus; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.

    2007-01-01

    Recently we showed that degradation of several nonylphenol isomers with α-quaternary carbon atoms is initiated by ipso-hydroxylation in Sphingobium xenophagum Bayram (F. L. P. Gabriel, A. Heidlberger, D. Rentsch, W. Giger, K. Guenther, and H.-P. E. Kohler, J. Biol. Chem. 280:15526-15533, 2005). Here, we demonstrate with 18O-labeling experiments that the ipso-hydroxy group was derived from molecular oxygen and that, in the major pathway for cleavage of the alkyl moiety, the resulting nonanol metabolite contained an oxygen atom originating from water and not from the ipso-hydroxy group, as was previously assumed. Our results clearly show that the alkyl cation derived from the α-quaternary nonylphenol 4-(1-ethyl-1,4-dimethyl-pentyl)-phenol through ipso-hydroxylation and subsequent dissociation of the 4-alkyl-4-hydroxy-cyclohexadienone intermediate preferentially combines with a molecule of water to yield the corresponding alcohol and hydroquinone. However, the metabolism of certain α,α-dimethyl-substituted nonylphenols appears to also involve a reaction of the cation with the ipso-hydroxy group to form the corresponding 4-alkoxyphenols. Growth, oxygen uptake, and 18O-labeling experiments clearly indicate that strain Bayram metabolized 4-t-butoxyphenol by ipso-hydroxylation to a hemiketal followed by spontaneous dissociation to the corresponding alcohol and p-quinone. Hydroquinone effected high oxygen uptake in assays with induced resting cells as well as in assays with cell extracts. This further corroborates the role of hydroquinone as the ring cleavage intermediate during degradation of 4-nonylphenols and 4-alkoxyphenols. PMID:17369338

  16. Redox and complexation interactions of neptunium(V) with quinonoid-enriched humic derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Shcherbina, Natalia S.; Perminova, Irina V.; Kalmykov, Stephan N.; Kovalenko, Anton N.; Novikov, Alexander P.; Haire, Richard {Dick} G

    2007-01-01

    Actinides in their higher valence states (e.g., MO{sub 2}{sup +} and MO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, where M can be Np, Pu, etc) possess a higher potential for migration and in turn pose a substantial environmental threat. To minimize this potential for migration, reducing them to lower oxidation states (e.g., their tetravalent state) can be an attractive and efficient remedial process. These lower oxidation states are often much less soluble in natural aqueous media and are, therefore, less mobile in the environment. The research presented here focuses on assessing the performance of quinonoid-enriched humic derivatives with regards to complexing and/or reducing Np(V) present in solution. These 'designer' humics are essentially derived reducing agents that can serve as reactive components of a novel humic-based remediation technology. The derivatives are obtained by incorporating different quinonoid-moieties into leonardite humic acids. Five quinonoid-derivatives are tested in this work and all five prove more effective as reducing agents for selected actinides than the parent leonardite humic acid, and the hydroquinone derivatives are better than the catechol derivatives. The reduction kinetics and the Np(V) species formed with the different derivatives are studied via a batch mode using near-infrared (NIR)-spectroscopy. Np(V) reduction by the humic derivatives under anoxic conditions at 293 K and at pH 4.7 obeys first-order kinetics. Rate constants range from 1.70 x 10{sup -6} (parent humic acid) to 1.06 x 10{sup -5} sec{sup -1} (derivative with maximum hydroquinone content). Stability constants for Np(V)-humic complexes calculated from spectroscopic data produce corresponding Log{beta} values of 2.3 for parent humic acid and values ranging from 2.5 to 3.2 at pH 4.7 and from 3.3 to 3.7 at pH 7.4 for humic derivatives. Maximum constants are observed for hydroquinone-enriched derivatives. It is concluded that among the humic derivatives tested, the hydroquinone-enriched ones

  17. A characterization of the two-step reaction mechanism of phenol decomposition by a Fenton reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, Cristian; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Osorio, Edison; Villaseñor, Jorge; Navarro-Retamal, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Phenol is one of the worst contaminants at date, and its degradation has been a crucial task over years. Here, the decomposition process of phenol, in a Fenton reaction, is described. Using scavengers, it was observed that decomposition of phenol was mainly influenced by production of hydroxyl radicals. Experimental and theoretical activation energies (Ea) for phenol oxidation intermediates were calculated. According to these Ea, phenol decomposition is a two-step reaction mechanism mediated predominantly by hydroxyl radicals, producing a decomposition yield order given as hydroquinone > catechol > resorcinol. Furthermore, traces of reaction derived acids were detected by HPLC and GS-MS.

  18. Simultaneous voltammetry determination of dihydroxybenzene isomers by poly-bromophenol blue/carbon nanotubes composite modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pinghua; Wei, Wanzhi; Tao, Chunyuan; Zeng, Jinxiang

    2007-07-01

    A novel modified electrode was constructed by electropolymerization of bromophenol blue at a multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode. The electrode developed was used for the simultaneous determination of the isomers of dihydroxybenzene in environmental samples using a voltammetry method. There was a linear relationship over the range 10(-6)-10(-4 )mol L(-1) of hydroquinone, catechol and resorcinol; the detection limits was 3 x 10(-7) mol L(-1). The constructed electrode showed excellent reproducibility and stability. Actual water samples were analyzed and satisfactory result was obtained.

  19. [Study on chemical constituents of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine (II)].

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Xiao-Lei; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Dai, Hang; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2013-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate fraction of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine. Compounds were isolated and purified by polyamide column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and sephadex gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Ten compounds were isolated from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine and elucidated as: pentadecanoic acid (1), monopentadecanoin (2), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl nonadecoate (3), lignoceric acid-2, 3-dihydroxy-propanenyl ester (4), lancerebroside 5 (5), salicylic acid (6), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), hydroquinone (8), succinic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Compounds 1 - 10 are obtained from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine for the first time.

  20. Preparation of polymer-modified electrodes: A literature and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Jayanta, P.S.; Ishida, Takanobu

    1991-05-01

    A literature review is presented on the field of polymer modified electrodes which can be electrochemically generated. It is suggested that a possible application of these polymer modified electrodes is as a regeneratable catalysis packing material for use in couter-current exchange columns. Secondly, there is a presentation of experimental results dealing with possible electrode modification using difluoro- and dimethyl- phenols and fluorinated derivatives of styrene, benzoquinone and hydroquinone. It appears that dimethylphenol shows the most potential of the monomers experimentally tested in providing a stable polymer modified electrode surface. 170 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Redox and complexation interactions of neptunium(V) with quinonoid-enriched humic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shcherbina, Natalia S; Perminova, Irina V; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Kovalenko, Anton N; Haire, Richard G; Novikov, Alexander P

    2007-10-15

    Actinides in their higher valence states (e.g., MO2+ and MO2(2+), where M can be Np, Pu, etc) possess a higher potential for migration and in turn pose a substantial environmental threat. To minimize this potential for migration, reducing them to lower oxidation states (e.g., their tetravalent state) can be an attractive and efficient remedial process. These lower oxidation states are often much less soluble in natural aqueous media and are, therefore, less mobile in the environment. The research presented here focuses on assessing the performance of quinonoid-enriched humic derivatives with regardsto complexing and/ or reducing Np(V) present in solution. These "designer" humics are essentially derived reducing agents that can serve as reactive components of a novel humic-based remediation technology. The derivatives are obtained by incorporating different quinonoid-moieties into leonardite humic acids. Five quinonoid-derivatives are tested in this work and all five prove more effective as reducing agents for selected actinides than the parent leonardite humic acid, and the hydroquinone derivatives are better than the catechol derivatives. The reduction kinetics and the Np(V) species formed with the different derivatives are studied via a batch mode using near-infrared (NIR)-spectroscopy. Np(V) reduction by the humic derivatives under anoxic conditions at 293 K and at pH 4.7 obeys first-order kinetics. Rate constants range from 1.70 x 10(-6) (parent humic acid) to 1.06 x 10(-5) sec(-1) (derivative with maximum hydroquinone content). Stability constants for Np(V)-humic complexes calculated from spectroscopic data produce corresponding Logbeta values of 2.3 for parent humic acid and values ranging from 2.5 to 3.2 at pH 4.7 and from 3.3 to 3.7 at pH 7.4 for humic derivatives. Maximum constants are observed for hydroquinone-enriched derivatives. It is concluded that among the humic derivatives tested, the hydroquinone-enriched ones are the most useful for addressing

  2. 40 CFR 372.65 - Chemicals and chemical categories to which this part applies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../95 Benomyl 17804-35-2 1/1/95 Benzal chloride 98-87-3 1/1/87 Benzamide 55-21-0 1/1/87 Benzene 71-43-2... Butyraldehyde 123-72-8 1/1/87 C.I. Acid Green 3 4680-78-8 1/1/87 C.I. Basic Green 4 569-64-2 1/1/87 C.I. Acid.../87 Hydrogen fluoride 7664-39-3 1/1/87 Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 1/1/94 Hydroquinone 123-31-9...

  3. Ecofriendly syntheses of phenothiazones and related structures facilitated by laccase – A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-06

    The biocatalytic synthesis of phenothiazones and related compounds has been achieved in an aqueous system under mild conditions facilitated by laccase oxidation. It was found that by coupling 2-aminothiophenol directly with 1,4-quinones, the product yields could be significantly increased compared to generating the 1,4-quinones in situ from the corresponding hydroquinones via laccase oxidation. However, laccase still proved to be pivotal for achieving highest product yields by catalyzing the final oxidation step. Furthermore, a difference in reactivity of aromatic and aliphatic amines toward 1,4-naphthoquinone is observed. Furthermore, this study provides a sustainable approach to the synthesis of a biologically important class of compounds.

  4. Ecofriendly syntheses of phenothiazones and related structures facilitated by laccase – A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Cannatelli, Mark D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-07-06

    The biocatalytic synthesis of phenothiazones and related compounds has been achieved in an aqueous system under mild conditions facilitated by laccase oxidation. It was found that by coupling 2-aminothiophenol directly with 1,4-quinones, the product yields could be significantly increased compared to generating the 1,4-quinones in situ from the corresponding hydroquinones via laccase oxidation. However, laccase still proved to be pivotal for achieving highest product yields by catalyzing the final oxidation step. Furthermore, a difference in reactivity of aromatic and aliphatic amines toward 1,4-naphthoquinone is observed. Furthermore, this study provides a sustainable approach to the synthesis of a biologically important class of compounds.

  5. Preparation of silver nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kun; Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo; Tong, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo

    2014-02-03

    In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene nanosheets have been prepared based on the reduction of Ag ions by hydroquinone, and their catalytic performance towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol is investigated. The synthesis of the nano-composite is confirmed by transmission electron microscope measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. Excellent electrocatalytic performance of the material is demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms. This material also contributes to the low peak potential of methanol oxidation compared with most of the other materials.

  6. Kinetic parameters of the reaction of phenols with epichlorohydrin

    SciTech Connect

    Ragimov, A.V.; Ismailova, C.O.; Mamedov, B.A.; Seiidov, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    The reaction of phenol, ..cap alpha..-naphthol, and hydroquinone with epichlorohydrin in the presence of catalytic amounts of (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 3/N. C/sub 4/H/sub 9/OH in excess epichlorohydrin were investigated. It was established that under these conditions 3-chloro-2-oxypropyl esters of the phenols studied are formed. It was found that the reaction is first order with respect to the catalyst and with respect to the phenol component. The rate constants and activation energies of the reactions were determined.

  7. Three in one: prototropy-free highly stable AADD-type self-complementary quadruple hydrogen-bonded molecular duplexes with a built-in fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Kheria, Sanjeev; Rayavarapu, Suresh; Kotmale, Amol S; Sanjayan, Gangadhar J

    2017-02-15

    This communication reports an effective approach for addressing the prototropy-related problems in heterocycle-based AADD-type self-assembling systems by freezing their hydrogen-bonding codes, by utilizing intramolecular bifurcated hydrogen bonding interactions. Using this strategy, we have also developed a hydroquinone-conjugated AADD-type self-assembling system adorned with three valuable features such as prototropy-free dimerization yielding single duplexes, high duplex stability and a built-in fluorophore, which would augment its application potential. The rational approach used herein to arrest prototropic shift may also find application elsewhere, wherein proton shift-mediated structural changes become a detrimental factor.

  8. Fast-Acting Rubber-To-Coated-Aluminum Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, Dawn A.; Novak, Howard; Vazquez, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Cyanoacrylate adhesive used to join rubber to coated aluminum easier to apply and more effective. One-part material applied in single coat to aluminum treated previously with epoxy primer and top coat. Parts mated as soon as adhesive applied; no drying necessary. Sets in 5 minutes. Optionally, accelerator brushed onto aluminum to reduce setting time to 30 seconds. Clamping parts together unnecessary. Adhesive comes in four formulations, all based on ethyl cyanoacrylate with various amounts of ethylene copolymer rubber, poly(methyl methacrylate), silicon dioxide, hydroquinone, and phthalic anhydride.

  9. Polyaryl ethers and related polysiloxane copolymer molecular coatings preparation and radiation degrdation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.; Hedrick, J. L.; Webster, D. C.; Johnson, B. C.; Mohanty, D. K.; Yilgor, I.

    1983-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether sulfones) comprise a class of materials known as engineering thermoplastics which have a variety of important applications. These polymers are tough, rigid materials with good mechanical properties over a wide temperature range, and they are processed by conventional methods into products typically having excellent hydrolytic, thermal, oxidative and dimensional stability. Wholly aromatic random copolymers of hydroquinone and biphenol with 4.4 prime dichlorodiphenyl sulfone were synthesized via mechanical nucleophilic displacement. Their structures were characterized and mechanical behavior studied. These tough, ductile copolymers show excellent radiation resistance to electron beam treatment and retain much of the mechanical properties up to at least 700 Mrads under argon.

  10. Proton-coupled electron transfer and multielectron oxidations in complexes of ruthenium and osmium

    SciTech Connect

    Dovletoglou, A.

    1992-01-01

    This doctoral research concerns the mechanism of proton-coupled electron transfer over an extended pH range. These processes between ruthenium and osmium complexes and hydroquinones have been studied using spectrophotometric methods and cyclic voltammetry. Elucidation of the mechanistic details has been attempted by using isotopic labelling, kinetic analysis, and numerical simulation of complex kinetic schemes. The coordination and redox chemistry of polypyridyl-acetylacetonato and -oxalato complexes of ruthenium and the role of ancillary ligands in defining the properties of Ru[sup IV]O complexes were explored. These studies represent the first attempt to probe possible 2e[sup [minus

  11. High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, Ko; Wolf, Florian K.; Perelaer, Jolke; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dirk J.

    2007-10-01

    Photoembossing is a convenient and economical process to form complex surface relief structures in polymer thin films. We have improved the aspect ratio of photoembossed microstructures by adding t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) to the polymerization mixture. The mechanism that is proposed is based on the radical transfer principle, where TBHQ converts acrylate radicals into stable phenol radicals that at elevated temperatures act as latent initiators, thereby controlling the kinetics without changing the number of polymerization active sites. As a result, the aspect ratio can be improved with a factor of 5-7 in comparison with previously proposed similar processes.

  12. High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing

    SciTech Connect

    Hermans, Ko; Wolf, Florian K.; Perelaer, Jolke; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dirk J.

    2007-10-22

    Photoembossing is a convenient and economical process to form complex surface relief structures in polymer thin films. We have improved the aspect ratio of photoembossed microstructures by adding t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) to the polymerization mixture. The mechanism that is proposed is based on the radical transfer principle, where TBHQ converts acrylate radicals into stable phenol radicals that at elevated temperatures act as latent initiators, thereby controlling the kinetics without changing the number of polymerization active sites. As a result, the aspect ratio can be improved with a factor of 5-7 in comparison with previously proposed similar processes.

  13. Fire-assay collection of gold and silver by copper.

    PubMed

    Diamantatos, A

    1987-08-01

    Gold and silver are very effectively collected in copper after fire-assay fusion at 1200 degrees . The resultant copper button is dissolved in perchloric acid and the parting solution is diluted with an equal volume of water. Both gold and silver are precipitated in the copper perchlorate medium by reduction with formic acid or hydroquinone. The two noble metals are collected, dissolved in acids, and determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry. The proposed procedure is simple, relatively rapid, and has been successfully applied to ores, concentrates, furnace products, and copper alloys. Recoveries compare favourably with those obtained by the classical lead cupellation method.

  14. Revealing the halide effect on the kinetics of the aerobic oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Yi; Zhang, Guanghui; Qi, Xiaotian; Liu, Chao; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Kropf, A. Jeremy; Bunel, Emilio E.; Lan, Yu; Lei, Aiwen

    2015-01-01

    In situ infrared (IR) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic investigations reveal that different halide ligands have distinct effects on the aerobic oxidation of Cu(I) to Cu(II) in the presence of TMEDA (tetramethylethylenediamine). The iodide ligand gives the lowest rate and thus leads to the lowest catalytic reaction rate of aerobic oxidation of hydroquinone to benzoquinone. Further DFT calculations suggest that oxidation of CuI–TMEDA involves a side-on transition state, while oxidation of CuCl–TMEDA involves an end-on transition state which has a lower activation energy.

  15. Preparation and Evaluation of Novel High Temperature Resistance Water Shutoff Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Cuiqin; Wang, Wei; Ye, Yang

    A kind of novel high temperature resistance water shutoff agent with high viscosity was synthesized using sulfonated tannin extract as main agent, paraformaldehyde as crosslinking agent, polyhydric phenol as stabilizer, urea as tackifier. Then the effects of amout of the components, pH and salinity on the gel performance of water shutoff agent were determined. The results have show that the gelling time and strength of resulting products are 48 h and 78 KPa under the conditions of sulfonated tannin extract 10 g, hydroquinone 3 g, paraformaldehyde 1.2 g, urea 1.4 g, pH = 7, salinity of 3000 mg/L, according with the demand of fieldwork.

  16. Elucidation of the factors affecting the oxidative activity of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase by an electrochemical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Kenichi; Nakamura, Nobuhumi Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-07

    Steady-state kinetics of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase toward p-hydroquinone derivatives have been examined by using an electrochemical analysis based on the theory of steady-state bioelectrocatalysis. The electrochemical technique has enabled one to examine the influence of electronic and chemical properties of substrates on the activity. It was proven that the oxidative activity of ascorbate oxidase was dominated by the highly selective substrate-binding affinity based on electrostatic interaction beyond the one-electron redox potential difference between ascorbate oxidase's type 1 copper site and substrate.

  17. [Cosmetic use of skin depigmentation products in Africa].

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, P; Raynaud, E; Mahé, A

    2003-01-01

    The use of skin lightening products represents a real social phenomenon in many Sub-Saharan African countries. A few studies have been published on this subjects. An important proportion of the adult female population, estimated between 25 and 67% uses regularly and daily these creams. Today the products used are mainly dermocorticosteroids and hydroquinone. Their use over a long period of time is responsible for many cutaneous side effects mainly acne, pigmentary disorders, stretch marks and cutaneous infections. Systemic side effects have recently been reported, mainly related to the use of corticosteroids. The necessary control of the products by the local health authorities remains difficult.

  18. Elucidation of the factors affecting the oxidative activity of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase by an electrochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kenichi; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-07

    Steady-state kinetics of Acremonium sp. HI-25 ascorbate oxidase toward p-hydroquinone derivatives have been examined by using an electrochemical analysis based on the theory of steady-state bioelectrocatalysis. The electrochemical technique has enabled one to examine the influence of electronic and chemical properties of substrates on the activity. It was proven that the oxidative activity of ascorbate oxidase was dominated by the highly selective substrate-binding affinity based on electrostatic interaction beyond the one-electron redox potential difference between ascorbate oxidase's type 1 copper site and substrate.

  19. Exogenous Ochronosis.

    PubMed

    Bhattar, Prachi A; Zawar, Vijay P; Godse, Kiran V; Patil, Sharmila P; Nadkarni, Nitin J; Gautam, Manjyot M

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous ochronosis (EO) is a cutaneous disorder characterized by blue-black pigmentation resulting as a complication of long-term application of skin-lightening creams containing hydroquinone but may also occur due to topical contact with phenol or resorcinol in dark-skinned individuals. It can also occur following the use of systemic antimalarials such as quinine. EO is clinically and histologically similar to its endogenous counterpart viz., alkaptonuria, which, however, exhibits systemic effects and is an inherited disorder. Dermoscopy and in vivo skin reflectance confocal microscopy are noninvasive in vivo diagnostic tools. It is very difficult to treat EO, a cosmetically disfiguring and troubling disorder with disappointing treatment options.

  20. Methanol and ethanol conversion into hydrocarbons over H-ZSM-5 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamieh, S.; Canaff, C.; Tayeb, K. Ben; Tarighi, M.; Maury, S.; Vezin, H.; Pouilloux, Y.; Pinard, L.

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol and methanol are converted using H-ZSM-5 zeolite at 623 K and 3.0 MPa into identical hydrocarbons (paraffins, olefins and aromatics) and moreover with identical selectivities. The distribution of olefins as paraffins follows the Flory distribution with a growth probability of 0.53. Regardless of the alcohol, the catalyst lifetime and selectivity into hydrocarbons C3+ are high in spite of an important coke content. The coke that poisons the Brønsted acid sites without blocking their access is composed in part of radical polyalkylaromatics. The addition of hydroquinone, an inhibitor of radicals, to the feed, provokes an immediate catalyst deactivation.

  1. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming “external” process to an analyte regenerating “internal” process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:25735831

  2. Direct electroplating of copper on tantalum from ionic liquids in high vacuum: origin of the tantalum oxide layer.

    PubMed

    Schaltin, Stijn; D'Urzo, Lucia; Zhao, Qiang; Vantomme, André; Plank, Harald; Kothleitner, Gerald; Gspan, Christian; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2012-10-21

    In this paper, it is shown that high vacuum conditions are not sufficient to completely remove water and oxygen from the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Complete removal of water demands heating above 150 °C under reduced pressure, as proven by Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). Dissolved oxygen gas can only be removed by the use of an oxygen scavenger such as hydroquinone, despite the fact that calculations show that oxygen should be removed completely by the applied vacuum conditions. After applying a strict drying procedure and scavenging of molecular oxygen, it was possible to deposit copper directly on tantalum without the presence of an intervening oxide layer.

  3. A silver impregnation method for nervous tissue suitable for routine use with mounted sections.

    PubMed

    Loots, J M; Loots, G P; Joubert, W S

    1977-03-01

    A simple, reliable silver impregnation method for nervous tissue is described for tissues fixed in various fixatives including formalin, Bouin, and Susa. Sections are impregnated in a solution containing 1 g Protargol, 2 ml of a 1% Cu(NO3)2 solution, 2 ml of a 1% AgNO3 solution, and 2-4 drops 30% H2O2 in 100 ml distilled water. Sections are impregnated 2-5 days at 37 C and thereafter reduced in a hydroquinone-formalin solution. This is followed by gold toning and subsequent reduction, dehydration and mounting. This method has been found to be very reliable and selective.

  4. Antifungal and larvicidal compounds from the root bark of Cordia alliodora.

    PubMed

    Ioset, J R; Marston, A; Gupta, M P; Hostettmann, K

    2000-03-01

    Two new natural products, a phenylpropanoid derivative characterized as 1-(3'-methoxypropanoyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1) and a prenylated hydroquinone, 2-(2Z)-(3-hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta-2, 6-dienyl)-1,4-benzenediol (2), have been isolated from the root bark of Cordia alliodora. Both compounds exhibited antifungal properties against the phytopathogenic mold Cladosporium cucumerinum. The phenylpropanoid derivative (1), whose structure is closely related to beta-asarone, also demonstrated a marked activity against larvae of the yellow-fever-transmitting mosquito Aedes aegypti.

  5. Encapsulation of flavodoxin in reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Andrade, S; Kamenskaya, E O; Levashov, A V; Moura, J J

    1997-05-29

    The regulation of the properties of Desulfovibrio gigas flavodoxin in AOT/water/iso-octane micellar system was studied. UV-visible spectroscopic studies have shown that photoreduction of flavodoxin in the presence of EDTA leads to hydroquinone formation through the intermediate semiquinone. The [free FMN] - [bound to flavodoxin FMN] equilibrium (and hence, the amount of apoprotein) depends on redox state of FMN and on hydration degree which controls the micellar size. Thus, a new method of reversible cofactor removing under mild conditions (at low hydration degree of micelles) is suggested, accompained by isolation of apo-form of the protein.

  6. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    naphthylene-1,4-diones, 1,4- benzoquinones, 1,4-hydroquinones, benzo[d]isoxazole-4,7-diones and 1H- indazole -4,7-diones. In addition, numerous precursors...chemistry efforts and data collected thus far, the 1H- indazole -4,7-dione scaffold appears to be a flexible template for further optimization. Figure 1...variety of substituents are accommodated in Regions A and B of the 1H- indazole -4,7-diones scaffold. These regions are depicted in Figure 2. The

  7. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    1,4-hydroquinones, benzo[ d]isoxazole-4,7-diones and 1 H- indazole -4,7-diones. In additio n, numerous precursors, numbering in the hundreds have also...thus far, the 1 H- indazole -4,7-dione scaffold appears to be a flexible tem plate for further optim ization. Figure 1 summ arizes several compounds...substituents are accommodated in Regions A and B of the 1H- indazole -4,7-diones scaffold. These regions are depicted in Figure 2. The further optim ization

  8. Hyperpigmented burn scar improved with a fractionated 1550 nm non-ablative laser.

    PubMed

    Bach, Daniel Q; Garcia, Miki S; Eisen, Daniel B

    2012-07-15

    Scars sustained following injury in patients with darker skin types can present a treatment challenge. These scars often hyperpigment and may remain refractory to first line treatments such as topical retinoids and hydroquinone. Additionally, more aggressive treatment interventions such as ablative resurfacing, chemical peels, and Q-switched laser therapy may actually worsen the pigmentation. We describe a 22-year female with a hyperpigmented scar and Fitzpatrick type IV skin that improved markedly following treatment with a fractionated erbium doped fiber laser. The improvement was maintained at least 1 year following the last procedure.

  9. The prevention and management of postdermabrasion complications.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    1991-05-01

    The complications of keloids, pigment changes, loss of skin texture, and enlarged facial pores remain a problem with dermabrasion patients. Their occurrence can be reduced by proper patient selection, proper dermabrasion technique, proper wound management, and prompt treatment. Keloids are rapidly resolved with the use of flurandrenolide tape covered with positive-pressure chin-strap dressings. Streaks of hyperpigmentation are lightened with a combination of sunscreen, opaque makeup, tretinoin, and hydroquinone lotions. The loss of skin texture can be prevented by not abrading too deeply and avoiding subsequent bacterial contamination during wound healing. However, enlarged skin pores in the central portion of the face and hypopigmentation can be permanent complications.

  10. Identification of benzenoid and quinonoid structures by through-space NMR shieldings (TSNMRS).

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Erich; Koch, Andreas

    2010-05-13

    The spatial magnetic properties (through-space NMR shieldings (TSNMRS)) of benzenoid and quinonoid structures (hydroquinone/p-benzoquinone, p-phenylendiamine/p-phenylendiimine, pentacene, and N-containing heteropentacenes) have been calculated by the GIAO perturbation method employing the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) concept of Paul von Rague Schleyer and visualized as isochemical shielding surfaces (ICSS) of various size and direction. The TSNMRS values, thus obtained, can be successfully employed to quantify and visualize the (anti)aromaticity of the compounds studied and to identify readily the existence of benzenoid and quinonoid structures, respectively. As an alternative, computed (as compared with experimental) (1)H chemical shifts can be employed.

  11. Theoretical Study on Reaction Pathways Leading to CO and CO2 in the Pyrolysis of Resorcinol.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Yuki; Kudo, Shinji; Hayashi, Jun-Ichiro; Norinaga, Koyo

    2017-01-26

    Possible pathways for the pyrolysis of resorcinol with the formation of CO and CO2 as final products were proposed and evaluated using ab initio calculations. Our experimental study revealed that large quantities of CO2 are generated in the pyrolysis of 1,3-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol), while the pyrolysis of the dihydroxybenzene isomers 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (catechol) and 1,4-dihydroxybenzene (hydroquinone) produces little CO2. The fate of oxygen atoms in catechol and hydroquinone was essentially the formation of CO. In the proposed pathways, the triplet ground state m-benzoquinone was generated initially from simultaneous cleavage of the two O-H bonds in resorcinol. Subsequently, the direct cleavage of a C-C bond of the m-benzoquinone diradical yields 2-oxidanylcyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-yl-methanone, which can be converted via two channels: release of CO from the aldehyde radical group and combination of the ketone radical and carbon atom in the aldehyde radical group to form the 6-oxabicyclo[3.2.0]hepta-2,4-dien-7-one, resulting in the release of CO2. Potential energy surfaces along the proposed reaction pathways were calculated employing the CBS-QB3 method, and the rate constants at the high-pressure limit were also evaluated based on transition-state theory to assess the feasibility of the proposed reaction pathways.

  12. Transport Phenomena and Electrode Reactions Generated by an Electric Field in Colloidal Silica.

    PubMed

    Janca; Checot; Gospodinova; Touzain; Spírková

    2000-09-15

    The kinetics of transport phenomena generated by an electric field and leading to the formation of density gradients in suspensions of charged colloidal silica were studied by using various electrodes. The rate of approach to a steady-state density gradient was found to be much higher when using metallic electrodes (Cu, Fe, and Pt) in comparison with graphite (C) electrodes. Nevertheless, the initial rate with C electrodes was substantially increased by the addition of hydroquinone-quinone because the redox reactions, necessary for electrode-electrolyte current transfer, occur at lower potential compared with the electrolysis of water. On the other hand, the products of oxidation of hydroquinone which accumulate in the system bring about an important decrease of the zeta potential of silica particles and progressive deceleration of their electrophoretic mobility. A detailed study was carried out, by using thin-layer isoperichoric focusing, UV-vis spectrophotometry, and voltamperometry, to explain the observed phenomena which can interfere in electric polarization or focusing field-flow fractionation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Fermentation scale up for α-arbutin production by Xanthomonas BT-112.

    PubMed

    Wei, Meng; Ren, Yi; Liu, Changxia; Liu, Ruican; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Chunqiao

    2016-09-10

    α-Arbutin is a glycosylated hydroquinone that has an inhibitory function against tyrosinase. The aim of the present study is to develop an efficient and inexpensive method for large-scale production of α-arbutin by using Xanthomonas BT-112 as biocatalyst. To accomplish this goal, various surfactants were tested to enhance the α-arbutin production, and the optimal operational conditions for 30L jar fermenter were scaled up for a production level of 3000L with using a constant volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and the volumetric aeration rate per volume unit (Q/V) as scale-up criteria. Under the optimized conditions, the α-arbutin produced in the presence of 0.4% (w/v) Tween-80 was 124.8% higher than that of the control, and the yield of α-arbutin in 3000L fermenter was 38.2g/L with a molar conversion ratio of 93.7% based on the amount of hydroquinone supplied. This result is comparable to the results from laboratory-scale fermenter. Hence, 100-fold scale-up was successfully achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Secondary Metabolites from the Fungus Septofusidium berolinense on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Topoisomerase IIα

    PubMed Central

    Vann, Kendra R.; Ekiz, Güner; Zencir, Sevil; Bedir, Erdal; Topcu, Zeki; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Two metabolites from the ascomycete fungus Septofusidium berolinense were recently identified as having antineoplastic activity [Ekiz, et al. (2015) J. Antibiot. (Tokyo)]. However, the basis for this activity is not known. One of the compounds [3,6-dihydroxy-2-propylbenzaldehyde (GE-1)] is a hydroquinone and the other [2-hydroxymethyl-3-propylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (GE-2)] is a quinone. Because some hydroquinones and quinones act as topoisomerase II poisons, the effects of GE-1 and GE-2 on DNA cleavage mediated by human topoisomerase IIα were assessed. GE-2 enhanced DNA cleavage ~4–fold and induced scission with a site specificity similar to that of the anticancer drug etoposide. Similar to other quinone-based topoisomerase II poisons, GE-2 displayed several hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons, including: 1) the inability to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacks the N-terminal domain; 2) the inhibition of DNA cleavage when the compound was incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of plasmid, and 3) the loss of poisoning activity in the presence of a reducing agent. In contrast to GE-2, GE-1 did not enhance DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα except at very high concentrations. However, the activity and potency of the metabolite were dramatically enhanced under oxidizing conditions. Results suggest that topoisomerase IIα may play a role in mediating the cytotoxic effects of these fungal metabolites. PMID:26894873

  15. Kinetics of successive seeding of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. I - Initiation via potassium persulfate. II - Azo initiators with and without inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudol, E. D.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Vanderhoff, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The polymerization kinetics of monodisperse polystyrene latexes with diameters of 1 micron are studied. The monodisperse latexes were prepared by the successive seeding method using 1 mM K2S2O8 with an 8 percent emulsifier surface coverage and 0.5 mM K2S2O8 with a 4 percent emulsifier surface coverage, and the kinetics were measured in a piston/cylinder dialometer. The data reveal that the polymerization rate decreases with increasing particle size; and the surface charge decreases with increasing particle size. The effects of initiators (AIBN and AMBN) and inhibitors (NH24SCN, NaNO2, and hydroquinone) on the product monodispersity and polymerization kinetics of latexes with diameters greater than 1 micron are investigated in a second experiment. It is observed that hydroquinone combined with AMBN are most effective in reducing nucleation without causing flocculation. It is noted that the kinetic transition from emulsion to bulk is complete for a particle size exceeding 1 micron in which the polymerization rate is independent of the particle size.

  16. Oxidation kinetics of pentachlorophenol by manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ling; Yu, Zhiqiang; Peng, Pingán; Huang, Weilin; Feng, Shunqing; Zhou, Haiyan

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the abiotic transformation kinetics of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by manganese dioxide (MnO2) at different solution chemistry and initial concentrations of PCP and MnO2. The measured PCP transformation rates were found to be on the order of 1.07 with respect to [PCP] and 0.91 and 0.87 with respect to [MnO2] and [H+], respectively. Dissolved Mn2+ and Ca2+ as background electrolytes considerably decreased the reaction rate because of their adsorption and hence blocking of active sites on MnO2 surfaces. The dechlorination number, 0.59 chloride ions per transformed PCP after a 1-h reaction, suggests that a fraction of the transformed PCP was not dechlorinated and may be coupled directly to dimeric products. Gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify two isomeric nonachlorohydroxybiphenylethers as major products and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-hydroquinone and tetrachlorocatechol as minor products. Product identification suggested that the reaction may include two parallel reactions to form either dimers or 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-hydroquinone and tetrachlorocatechol via simultaneous dehydrochlorination and hydroxylation.

  17. Reductive dissolution of goethite by phenolic reductants

    SciTech Connect

    LaKind, J.S.; Stone, A.T. )

    1989-05-01

    The reductive dissolution of goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) by phenolic reductants has been examined in order to improve the understanding of iron transformations in soils, sediments and aquifers. Rates of goethite reductive dissolution by hydroquinone increased as the pH was increased from pH 1.8 to 4.65, and the following reaction stoichiometry was obeyed: 2{alpha}-FeOOH + QH{sub 2} = 2Fe{sup 2+} + Q + 4OH{sup {minus}}. As the pH was increased from pH 4.5 to 6.0, the reductive dissolution rate decreased to below the detection limit. At pH 3.4, the reductive dissolution of hematite was two orders of magnitude slower than goethite. The relationship between structure and reactivity was examined for a series of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxybenzene reductants. Rates of reductive dissolution decreased in the following order: catechol {approx equal} hydroquinone > 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid > resorcinol-phenol-4-hydroxybenzoic acid.

  18. Arbutin, an intracellular hydroxyl radical scavenger, protects radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphoma U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Hua; Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Piao, Jin-Lan; Jiao, Yu-Fei; Kadowaki, Makoto; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS have the potential to damage cellular macromolecules including DNA, proteins, and lipids and eventually lead to cell death. In this study, we evaluated the potential of arbutin, a drug chosen from a series of traditional herbal medicine by measuring intracellular hydroxyl radical scavenging ability in X-irradiated U937 cells. Arbutin (hydroquinone-β-D-glucopyranoside), a naturally occurring glucoside of hydroquinone, has been traditionally used to treat pigmentary disorders. However, there are no reports describing the effect of arbutin on IR-induced apoptosis. We confirmed that arbutin can protect cells from apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. The combination of arbutin and X-irradiation could reduce intracellular hydroxyl radical production and prevent mitochondrial membrane potential loss. It also could down-regulate the expression of phospho-JNK, phospho-p38 in whole cell lysate and activate Bax in mitochondria. Arbutin also inhibits cytochrome C release from mitochondria to cytosol. To verify the role of JNK in X-irradiation-induced apoptosis, the cells were pretreated with a JNK inhibitor, and found that JNK inhibitor could reduce apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. Taken together, our data indicate that arbutin plays an anti-apoptotic role via decreasing intracellular hydroxyl radical production, inhibition of Bax-mitochondria pathway and activation of the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway.

  19. High-Yield Synthesis and Applications of Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigderman, Leonid

    This work will describe research directed towards the synthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles as well as their functionalization and biological applications. The thesis will begin by describing a new technique for the high-yield synthesis of gold nanorods using hydroquinone as a reducing agent. This addresses important limitations of the traditional nanorod synthesis including low yield of gold ions conversion to metallic form and inability to produce rods with longitudinal surface plasmon peak above 850 nm. The use of hydroquinone was also found to improve the synthesis of gold nanowires via the nanorod-seed mediated procedure developed in our lab. The thesis will next present the synthesis of novel starfruitshaped nanorods, mesorods, and nanowires using a modified nanorod-seed mediated procedure. The starfruit particles displayed increased activity as surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates as compared to smooth structures. Next, a method for the functionalization of gold nanorods using a cationic thiol, 16-mercaptohexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB), will be described. By using this thiol, we were able to demonstrate the complete removal of toxic surfactant from the nanorods and were also able to precisely quantify the grafting density of thiol molecules on the nanorod surface through a combination of several analytical techniques. Finally, this thesis will show that MTABfunctionalized nanorods are nontoxic and can be taken up in extremely high numbers into cancer cells. The thesis will conclude by describing the surprising uptake of larger mesorods and nanowires functionalized with MTAB into cells in high quantities.

  20. Performance robustness of the UASB reactors treating saline phenolic wastewater and analysis of microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Benteng; Pan, Shanglei; Yang, Kai; Hu, Zhenhu; Yuan, Shoujun

    2017-06-05

    Anaerobic digestion was an important way to remove phenols from saline wastewater; however the anaerobic microorganisms were adversely affected by high concentration of salts. In order to clarify the performance robustness and microbial community structure for anaerobic digestion of saline phenolic wastewater, the UASB reactors were compared to treat phenolic wastewater under saline and non-saline conditions. The saline reactors were operated stably with phenols concentration increasing from 100 to 500mgL(-1) at 10g Na(+) L(-1). The robustness of the saline reactors was weakened at 1000mg phenols L(-1) and 10g Na(+) L(-1). However, the substrate utilization rates (SURs) for phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, and the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of sludge were decreased by 95%, 85%, 97%, 78%, and 68%, respectively with phenols concentration enhancing from 1000 to 2000mgL(-1). Moreover, the SURs for phenol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, and the SMA of sludge were reduced by 32%, 65%, 74%, 45%, and 59%, respectively with Na(+) concentration increasing from 10 to 20gL(-1), in comparison with the values obtained at 10g Na(+) L(-1) and 1000mg phenols L(-1). Finally, the analysis of microbial community structure demonstrated that phenols degraders were less tolerant to high concentrations of Na(+) and phenols than methanogens.

  1. New insights into the primary phototransformation of acetaminophen by UV/H2O2: photo-Fries rearrangement versus hydroxyl radical induced hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shixiang; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Yanxiang

    2015-12-01

    The phototransformation of acetaminophen (APAP) by UV/H2O2 in deionized water and sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents was studied systematically by a combination of analysis of the reaction intermediates and kinetic study. 1-(2-amino-5-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone (P1) and the reported N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetamide (P2) were identified as the main transformation intermediates during the transformation of APAP by UV/H2O2. There was no influence of OH on the formation kinetics of P1, while its decay was promoted. The formation and decay kinetics of P2 were accelerated by increases in the concentration of OH. The second-order rate constants for the reaction of OH with APAP, P1, and P2 were 3.9 × 10(9), 8.1 × 10(9), and 4.7 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The kinetic study indicated that the main transformation of APAP also included transformation to 1,4-hydroquinone, although the accumulated concentration of 1,4-hydroquinone was quite low. The presence of anions (Cl(-), HCO3(-)/CO3(2-) NO2(-)/NO3(-)), humic acid, commercial drug components or adjuvants, and dissolved organic matters in STP effluents not only changed the transformation kinetics of APAP, but also altered the distribution of the intermediates. The kinetics and pathway of APAP transformation in STP effluent were markedly different from those in deionized water.

  2. Advance concepts for conversion of syngas to liquids. Quarterly progress report No. 4, July 30, 1995--October 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pei-Shing Eugene Dai; Petty, R.H.; Ingram, C.; Szostak, R.

    1996-02-01

    Substitution of transition metals for either aluminum and/or phosphorus in the AlPO{sub 4}-11 framework is found to afford novel heterogeneous catalysts for liquid phase hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide. AlPO{sub 4}-11 is more active than SAPO-11 and MgAPO-11 for phenol conversion to hydroquinone. The Bronsted acid sites of SAPO-11 and MgAPO-11 may promote the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, thus leading to lower phenol conversions. Substitution of divalent and trivalent metal cations, such as Fe, Co and Mn appears to significantly improve the conversion of phenol. The activity follows the order of FeAPO-11>FeMnAPO-11>CoAPO-11>MnAPO-11{much_gt}ALPO{sub 4}-11. FeAPO-11, FeMnAPO-11 and AlPO{sub 4}-11 give similar product selectivities of about 1:1 hydroquitione (HQ) to catechol (CT). MnAPO-11 and CoAPO-11 favor the production of catechol, particularly at low conversions. FeAPO-11 and TS-1 (titanium silicate with MFI topology) are comparable for the phenol conversions with TS-1 giving higher selectivities toward hydroquinone. The external surfaces of the catalysts plays a significant role in these oxidation reactions. MeAPO molecular sieves may be complementary to the metal silicalite catalysts for the catalytic oxidations in the manufacture of fine chemicals.

  3. A Laccase with Antiproliferative and HIV-I Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activities from the Mycorrhizal Fungus Agaricus placomyces

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Chen, Qing-Jun; Cao, Qing-Qin; Wu, Ying-Ying; Xu, Li-Jing; Zhu, Meng-Juan; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Wang, He-Xiang; Zhang, Guo-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A novel 68 kDa laccase was purified from the mycorrhizal fungus Agaricus placomyces by utilizing a procedure that comprised three successive steps of ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration as the final step. The monomeric enzyme exhibited the N-terminal amino acid sequence of DVIGPQAQVTLANQD, which showed only a low extent of homology to sequences of other fungal laccases. The optimal temperature for A. placomyces laccase was 30°C, and optimal pH values for laccase activity towards the substrates 2,7′-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazolone-6-sulfonic acid] diammonium salt (ABTS) and hydroquinone were 5.2 and 6.8, respectively. The laccase displayed, at 30°C and pH 5.2, Km values of 0.392 mM towards hydroquinone and 0.775 mM towards ABTS. It potently suppressed proliferation of MCF 7 human breast cancer cells and Hep G2 hepatoma cells and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) activity with an IC50 of 1.8 μM, 1.7 μM, and 1.25 μM, respectively, signifying that it is an antipathogenic protein. PMID:23093860

  4. Biodegradation of methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol: evidence for the presence of a p-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylase in a Gram-negative Serratia sp. strain DS001.

    PubMed

    Pakala, Suresh B; Gorla, Purushotham; Pinjari, Aleem Basha; Krovidi, Ravi Kumar; Baru, Rajasekhar; Yanamandra, Mahesh; Merrick, Mike; Siddavattam, Dayananda

    2007-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of utilizing methyl parathion as sole carbon and energy source was isolated by selective enrichment on minimal medium containing methyl parathion. The strain was identified as belonging to the genus Serratia based on a phylogram constructed using the complete sequence of the 16S rRNA. Serratia sp. strain DS001 utilized methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol, 4-nitrocatechol, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol as sole carbon and energy sources but could not grow using hydroquinone as a source of carbon. p-Nitrophenol and dimethylthiophosphoric acid were found to be the major degradation products of methyl parathion. Growth on p-nitrophenol led to release of stoichiometric amounts of nitrite and to the formation of 4-nitrocatechol and benzenetriol. When these catabolic intermediates of p-nitrophenol were added to resting cells of Serratia sp. strain DS001 oxygen consumption was detected whereas no oxygen consumption was apparent when hydroquinone was added to the resting cells suggesting that it is not part of the p-nitrophenol degradation pathway. Key enzymes involved in degradation of methyl parathion and in conversion of p-nitrophenol to 4-nitrocatechol, namely parathion hydrolase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase component "A" were detected in the proteomes of the methyl parathion and p-nitrophenol grown cultures, respectively. These studies report for the first time the existence of a p-nitrophenol hydroxylase component "A", typically found in Gram-positive bacteria, in a Gram-negative strain of the genus Serratia.

  5. Lignin Modification for Biopolymer/Conjugated Polymer Hybrids as Renewable Energy Storage Materials.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ting Yang; Wagner, Michal; Inganäs, Olle

    2015-12-07

    Lignin derivatives, which arise as waste products from the pulp and paper industry and are mainly used for heating, can be used as charge storage materials. The charge storage function is a result of the quinone groups formed in the lignin derivative. Herein, we modified lignins to enhance the density of such quinone groups by covalently linking monolignols and quinones through phenolation. The extra guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroquinone groups introduced by phenolation of kraft lignin derivatives were monitored by (31) P nuclear magnetic resonance and size exclusion chromatography. Electropolymerization in ethylene glycol/tetraethylammonium tosylate electrolyte was used to synthesize the kraft lignin/polypyrrole hybrid films. These modifications changed the phenolic content of the kraft lignin with attachment of hydroquinone units yielding the highest specific capacity (around 70 mA h g(-1) ). The modification of softwood and hardwood lignin derivatives yielded 50 % and 23 % higher charge capacity than the original lignin, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Critical issues in benzene toxicity and metabolism: The effect of interactions with other organic chemicals on risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Medinsky, M.A.; Schlosser, P.M.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene are well documented and include aplastic anemia and pancytopenia. Some individuals exposed repeatedly to cytotoxic concentrations of benzene develop acute myeloblastic anemia. It has been hypothesized that metabolism of benzene is required for its toxicity, although administration of no single benzene metabolite duplicates the toxicity of benzene. Several investigators have demonstrated that a combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) is necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene. Enzymes implicated in the metabolic activation of benzene and its metabolites include the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and myeloperoxidase. Since benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. Other organic molecules that are substrates for cytochrome P450 can inhibit the metabolism of benzene. For example, toluene has been shown to inhibit the oxidation of benzene in a noncompetitive manner. Enzyme inducers, such as ethanol, can alter the target tissue dosimetry of benzene metabolites by inducing enzymes responsible for oxidation reactions involved in benzene metabolism. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Quinones as toxic metabolites of benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Occupational exposure to benzene has long been associated with toxicity to the blood and bone marrow, including lymphocytopenia, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and possible lymphoma. A variety of studies have established that benzene itself is not the toxic species but requires metabolism to reactive intermediates. The bioactivation of benzene is complex. Both primary and secondary oxidation of benzene and its metabolites are mediated via cytochrome P-450 in the liver, although the role of secondary metabolism in the bone marrow is not clear. Toxicity is associated with the dihydroxy metabolites, hydroquinone and catechol, which concentrate in bone marrow. Hydroquinone and its terminal oxidation product, p-benzoquinone, have been demonstrated to be potent suppressors of cell growth in culture. Suppression of lymphocyte blastogenesis by these compounds is a sulfhydryl-dependent process and occurs at concentrations that do not result in cell death, or in detectable alterations in energy metabolism, intracellular glutathione concentration, or protein synthesis. Recent studies suggest that these compounds and other membrane-penetrating sulfyhdryl alkylating agents, such as N-ethylmaleimide and cytochalasin A, and endogenous regulatory molecules, such as soluble immune response suppressor (SIRS), interfere with microtubule assembly in vitro and selectively interfere with microtubule-dependent cell functions at identical concentrations. These agents appear to react with nucleophilic sulfhydryl groups essential for guanosine triphosphate binding to tubulin that are particularly sensitive to sulfhydryl-alkylating agents.

  8. GSTT1 Deletion Is Related to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-Induced DNA Damage and Lymphoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiao-E; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jun-Min; Chen, Sai-Juan; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between genetic susceptibility and carcinogenic exposure is important in cancer development. Polymorphisms in detoxification enzymes of the glutathione-S-transferases (GST) family are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Here we investigated the molecular connection of the genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 to the response of lymphocytes to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In neoplastic situation, GSTT1 deletions were more frequently observed in lymphoma patients (54.9%) than in normal controls (42.0%, P = 0.009), resulting in an increased risk for lymphoma in individuals with GSTT1-null genotype (Odds ratio = 1.698, 95% confidence interval = 1.145–2.518). GSTT1 gene and protein expression were accordingly decreased in GSTT1-deleting patients, consistent with activated profile of cell cycle regulation genes. Mimicking environmental exposure using long-term repeat culture with low-dose PAH metabolite Hydroquinone, malignant B- and T-lymphocytes presented increased DNA damage, pCHK1/MYC expression and cell proliferation, which were counteracted by ectopic expression of GSTT1. Moreover, GSTT1 expression retarded xenograft tumor formation of Hydroquinone-treated lymphoma cells in nude mice. In non-neoplastic situation, when zebrafish was exposed to PAH Benzo(a)pyrene, molecular silencing of gstt1 enhanced the proliferation of normal lymphocytes and upregulated myca expression. Collectively, these findings suggested that GSTT1 deletion is related to genetic predisposition to lymphoma, particularly interacting with environmental pollutants containing PAH. PMID:24586676

  9. GSTT1 deletion is related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induced DNA damage and lymphoma progression.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Xiong, Jie; Jia, Xiao-E; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Shi, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jun-Min; Chen, Sai-Juan; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between genetic susceptibility and carcinogenic exposure is important in cancer development. Polymorphisms in detoxification enzymes of the glutathione-S-transferases (GST) family are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. Here we investigated the molecular connection of the genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 to the response of lymphocytes to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In neoplastic situation, GSTT1 deletions were more frequently observed in lymphoma patients (54.9%) than in normal controls (42.0%, P = 0.009), resulting in an increased risk for lymphoma in individuals with GSTT1-null genotype (Odds ratio = 1.698, 95% confidence interval = 1.145-2.518). GSTT1 gene and protein expression were accordingly decreased in GSTT1-deleting patients, consistent with activated profile of cell cycle regulation genes. Mimicking environmental exposure using long-term repeat culture with low-dose PAH metabolite Hydroquinone, malignant B- and T-lymphocytes presented increased DNA damage, pCHK1/MYC expression and cell proliferation, which were counteracted by ectopic expression of GSTT1. Moreover, GSTT1 expression retarded xenograft tumor formation of Hydroquinone-treated lymphoma cells in nude mice. In non-neoplastic situation, when zebrafish was exposed to PAH Benzo(a)pyrene, molecular silencing of gstt1 enhanced the proliferation of normal lymphocytes and upregulated myca expression. Collectively, these findings suggested that GSTT1 deletion is related to genetic predisposition to lymphoma, particularly interacting with environmental pollutants containing PAH.

  10. Synthesis of Au-Pd Nanoflowers Through Nanocluster Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianguang; Howe, Jane Y; Chi, Miaofang; Wilson, Adria; Rathmall, Aaron; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of Pd ions by hydroquinone in the presence of gold nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in the formation of nanoflowers with a Au core and Pd petals. Addition of HCl to the synthesis halted the reduction by hydroquinone and enabled the acquisition of snapshots of the nanoflowers at different stages of growth. TEM images of the reaction after 10 s show that the nanoflower morphology resulted from the homogeneous nucleation of Pd clusters in solution and their subsequent attachment to gold seeds coated with a thin (0.8 {+-} 0.1 nm) shell of Pd. UV-visible spectra also indicate Pd clusters formed in the early stages of the reaction and disappeared as the nanoflowers grew. The speed at which this reaction can be halted is useful not only for producing a variety of bimetallic nanostructures with precisely controlled dimensions and morphologies but also for understanding the growth mechanism of these structures. The ability of the AuPd core-shell structure to catalyze the Suzuki coupling reaction of iodobenzene to phenylboronic acid was probed and compared against the activity of Pd nanocubes and thin-shelled AuPd core-shell nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that Suzuki coupling was not affected by the surface structure or subsurface composition of the nanoparticles, but instead was primarily catalyzed by molecular Pd species that leached from the nanostructures.

  11. Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of Au Pd Nanoflowers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jianguang; Wilson, Adria; Howe, Jane Y; Chi, Miaofang; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of Pd ions by hydroquinone in the presence of gold nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in the formation of nanoflowers with a Au core and Pd petals. Addition of HCl to the synthesis halted the reduction by hydroquinone and enabled the acquisition of snapshots of the nanoflowers at different stages of growth. TEM images of the reaction after 10 s show that the nanoflower morphology resulted from the homogeneous nucleation of Pd clusters in solution and their subsequent attachment to gold seeds coated with a thin (0.8 0.1 nm) shell of Pd. UV visible spectra also indicate Pd clusters formed in the early stages of the reaction and disappeared as the nanoflowers grew. The speed at which this reaction can be halted is useful not only for producing a variety of bimetallic nanostructures with precisely controlled dimensions and morphologies but also for understanding the growth mechanism of these structures. The ability of the AuPd core shell structure to catalyze the Suzuki coupling reaction of iodobenzene to phenylboronic acid was probed and compared against the activity of Pd nanocubes and thin-shelled AuPd core shell nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that Suzuki coupling was not affected by the surface structure or subsurface composition of the nanoparticles, but instead was primarily catalyzed by molecular Pd species that leached from the nanostructures.

  12. Synthesis and catalytic properties of Au-Pd nanoflowers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianguang; Wilson, Adria R; Rathmell, Aaron R; Howe, Jane; Chi, Miaofang; Wiley, Benjamin J

    2011-08-23

    Reduction of Pd ions by hydroquinone in the presence of gold nanoparticles and polyvinylpyrrolidone resulted in the formation of nanoflowers with a Au core and Pd petals. Addition of HCl to the synthesis halted the reduction by hydroquinone and enabled the acquisition of snapshots of the nanoflowers at different stages of growth. TEM images of the reaction after 10 s show that the nanoflower morphology resulted from the homogeneous nucleation of Pd clusters in solution and their subsequent attachment to gold seeds coated with a thin (0.8 ± 0.1 nm) shell of Pd. UV-visible spectra also indicate Pd clusters formed in the early stages of the reaction and disappeared as the nanoflowers grew. The speed at which this reaction can be halted is useful not only for producing a variety of bimetallic nanostructures with precisely controlled dimensions and morphologies but also for understanding the growth mechanism of these structures. The ability of the AuPd core-shell structure to catalyze the Suzuki coupling reaction of iodobenzene to phenylboronic acid was probed and compared against the activity of Pd nanocubes and thin-shelled AuPd core-shell nanoparticles. The results of this study suggest that Suzuki coupling was not affected by the surface structure or subsurface composition of the nanoparticles, but instead was primarily catalyzed by molecular Pd species that leached from the nanostructures.

  13. Bioremediation of p-Nitrophenol by Pseudomonas putida 1274 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background p-Nitrophenol (PNP) occurs as contaminants of industrial effluents and it is the most important environmental pollutant and causes significant health and environmental risks, because it is toxic to many living organisms. Nevertheless, the information regarding PNP degradation pathways and their enzymes remain limited. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of the Pseudomonas Putida 1274 for removal of PNP. Methods P. putida MTCC 1274 was obtained from MTCC Chandigarh, India and cultured in the minimal medium in the presence of PNP. PNP degradation efficiency was compared under different pH and temperature ranges. The degraded product was isolated and analyzed with different chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. Results P. putida 1274 shows good growth and PNP degradation at 37°C in neutral pH. Acidic and alkali pH retarded the growth of P. putida as well as the PNP degradation. On the basis of specialized techniques, hydroquinone was identified as major degraded product. The pathway was identified for the biodegradation of PNP. It involved initial removal of the nitrate group and formation of hydroquinone as one of the intermediates. Conclusion Our results suggested that P. putida 1274 strain would be a suitable aspirant for bioremediation of nitro-aromatic compounds contaminated sites in the environment. PMID:24581307

  14. NiCu Alloy Nanoparticle-Loaded Carbon Nanofibers for Phenolic Biosensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Lv, Pengfei; Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wei, Qufu

    2015-11-20

    NiCu alloy nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCuCNFs) were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and carbonization methods. A series of characterizations, including SEM, TEM and XRD, were employed to study the NiCuCNFs. The as-prepared NiCuCNFs were then mixed with laccase (Lac) and Nafion to form a novel biosensor. NiCuCNFs successfully achieved the direct electron transfer of Lac. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were used to study the electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The finally prepared biosensor showed favorable electrocatalytic effects toward hydroquinone. The detection limit was 90 nM (S/N = 3), the sensitivity was 1.5 µA µM(-1), the detection linear range was 4 × 10(-7)-2.37 × 10(-6) M. In addition, this biosensor exhibited satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference properties and stability. Besides, the sensor achieved the detection of hydroquinone in lake water.

  15. Screening of Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A and Products of Its Degradation: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Test and Molecular Docking.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Katerina; Siudem, Pawel; Zawada, Katarzyna; Kurkowiak, Justyna

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an endocrine-disrupting compound even at a low concentration. Degradation of BPA could lead to the formation of toxic products. In this study, we compare the toxicity of BPA and seven intermediate products of its degradation. The accuracy of three molecular docking programs (Surflex, Autodock, and Autodock Vina) in predicting the binding affinities of selected compounds to human (ERα, ERβ, and ERRγ) and zebrafish (ERα, ERRγA, and ERRγB) estrogen and estrogen-related receptors was evaluated. The docking experiments showed that 4-isopropylphenol could have similar toxicity to that of BPA due to its high affinity to ERRγ and ERRγB and high octanol-water partitioning coefficient. The least toxic compounds were hydroquinone and phenol. Those compounds as well as BPA were screened in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test. 4-isopropylphenol had the strongest toxic effect on zebrafish embryos and caused 100% lethality shortly after exposure. BPA caused the delay in development, multiple deformations, and low heartbeats (30 bps), whereas hydroquinone had no impact on the development of the zebrafish embryo. Thus, the results of zebrafish screening are in good agreement with our docking experiment. The molecular docking could be used to screen the toxicity of other xenoestrogens and their products of degradation.

  16. Spectrophotometric analysis of phenols, which involves a hemin-graphene hybrid nanoparticles with peroxidase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruiling; Wang, Yong; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2014-02-15

    Phenols are well known noxious compounds, which are often found in various water sources. A novel analytical method has been researched and developed based on the properties of hemin-graphene hybrid nanosheets (H-GNs). These nanosheets were synthesized using a wet-chemical method, and they have peroxidase-like activity. Also, in the presence of H2O2, the nanosheets are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of the substrate, 4-aminoantipine (4-AP), and the phenols. The products of such an oxidation reaction are the colored quinone-imines (benzodiazepines). Importantly, these products enabled the differentiation of the three common phenols - pyrocatechol, resorcin and hydroquinone, with the use of a novel, spectroscopic method, which was developed for the simultaneous determination of the above three analytes. This spectroscopic method produced linear calibrations for the pyrocatechol (0.4-4.0 mg L(-1)), resorcin (0.2-2.0 mg L(-1)) and hydroquinone (0.8-8.0 mg L(-1)) analytes. In addition, kinetic and spectral data, obtained from the formation of the colored benzodiazepines, were used to establish multi-variate calibrations for the prediction of the three phenol analytes found in various kinds of water; partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models were used and the PLS model performed best.

  17. Structure-based identification of an inducer of the low-pH conformational change in the influenza virus hemagglutinin: irreversible inhibition of infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, L R; Kuntz, I D; White, J M

    1997-01-01

    Past efforts to employ a structure-based approach to design an inhibitor of the fusion-inducing conformational change in the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) yielded a family of small benzoquinones and hydroquinones. The most potent of these, tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), inhibits both the conformational change in HA from strain X:31 influenza virus and viral infectivity in tissue culture cells with 50% inhibitory concentrations in the micromolar range (D. L. Bodian, R. B. Yamasaki, R. L. Buswell, J. F. Stearns, J. M. White, and I. D. Kuntz, Biochemistry 32:2967-2978, 1993). A new structure-based inhibitor design search was begun which involved (i) the recently refined crystal structure (2.1-A resolution) of the HA ectodomain, (ii) new insights into the conformational change, and (iii) improvements in the molecular docking program, DOCK. As a result, we identified new inhibitors of HA-mediated membrane fusion. Like TBHQ, most of these molecules inhibit the conformational change. One of the new compounds, however, facilitates rather than inhibits the HA conformational change. Nonetheless, the facilitator, diiodofluorescein, inhibits HA-mediated membrane fusion and, irreversibly, infectivity. We further characterized the effects of inhibitors from both searches on the conformational change and membrane fusion activity of HA as well as on viral infectivity. We also isolated and characterized several mutants resistant to each class of inhibitor. The implications of our results for HA-mediated membrane fusion, anti-influenza virus therapy, and structure-based inhibitor design are discussed. PMID:9343241

  18. NiCu Alloy Nanoparticle-Loaded Carbon Nanofibers for Phenolic Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dawei; Lv, Pengfei; Zhu, Jiadeng; Lu, Yao; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiangwu; Wei, Qufu

    2015-01-01

    NiCu alloy nanoparticle-loaded carbon nanofibers (NiCuCNFs) were fabricated by a combination of electrospinning and carbonization methods. A series of characterizations, including SEM, TEM and XRD, were employed to study the NiCuCNFs. The as-prepared NiCuCNFs were then mixed with laccase (Lac) and Nafion to form a novel biosensor. NiCuCNFs successfully achieved the direct electron transfer of Lac. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were used to study the electrochemical properties of the biosensor. The finally prepared biosensor showed favorable electrocatalytic effects toward hydroquinone. The detection limit was 90 nM (S/N = 3), the sensitivity was 1.5 µA µM−1, the detection linear range was 4 × 10−7–2.37 × 10−6 M. In addition, this biosensor exhibited satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility, anti-interference properties and stability. Besides, the sensor achieved the detection of hydroquinone in lake water. PMID:26610505

  19. Close Correlation between Heat Shock Response and Cytotoxicity in Neurospora crassa Treated with Aliphatic Alcohols and Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, U.; Schweim, P.; Fracella, F.; Rensing, L.

    1995-01-01

    In Neurospora crassa the aliphatic alcohols methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and allyl alcohol and the phenolic compounds phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, sodium salicylate, and acetylsalicylic acid were analyzed with respect to their capacities to induce heat shock proteins (HSP) and to inhibit protein synthesis. Both the alcohols and phenols showed the greatest levels of HSP induction at concentrations which inhibited the overall protein synthesis by about 50%. The abilities of the different alcohols to induce the heat shock response are proportional to their lipophilicities: the lipophilic alcohol isobutanol is maximally inductive at about 0.6 M, whereas the least lipophilic alcohol, methanol, causes maximal induction at 5.7 M. The phenols, in general, show a higher capability to induce the heat shock response. The concentrations for maximal induction range between 25 mM (sodium salicylate) and 100 mM (resorcinol). Glycerol (4.1 M) shifted the concentration necessary for maximal HSP induction by hydroquinone from 50 to 200 mM. The results reveal that the induction of HSP occurs under conditions which considerably constrain cell metabolism. The heat shock response, therefore, does not represent a sensitive marker for toxicity tests but provides a good estimate for the extent of cell damage. PMID:16534981

  20. Benzene toxicity: emphasis on cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcsak, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Blood dyscrasias such as leukopenia and anemia have been clearly identified as consequences of chronic benzene exposure. The metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone produced inhibition of /sup 59/Fe uptake in mice which followed the same time course as that produced by benzene. The inhibitor of benzene oxidation, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, mitigated the inhibitory effects of benzene and phenol only. These data support the contention that benzene toxicity is mediated by a metabolite and suggest that the toxicity of phenol is a consequence of its metabolism to hydroquinone and that the route of metabolism to catechol may also contribute to the production of toxic metabolite(s). The properties of mouse liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases were examined. These enzymes catalyze the NADP/sup +/-dependent oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (BDD) to catechol, a possible toxic metabolite of benzene produced via this metabolic route. Four distinct dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1, DD2, DD3, and DD4) were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. DD1 appeared to be identical to the major ketone reductase and 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the liver. DD2 exhibited aldehyde reductase activity. DD3 and DD4 oxidized 17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, but no carbonyl reductase activity was detected. These relationships between BDD dehydrogenases and carbonyl reductase and/or 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were supported by several lines of evidence.

  1. Non-toxic melanin production inhibitors from Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Dulcie A; Mwangi, Elizabeth M; Dlova, Ncoza C; Plant, Nick; Crouch, Neil R; Coombes, Phillip H

    2013-09-16

    The stem bark of Garcinia livingstonei is used traditionally as a skin lightening agent. To isolate and identify compounds responsible for the observed skin lightening activity of Garcinia livingstonei and to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Constituents of the stem bark and fruits of Garcinia livingstonei were isolated using chromatographic techniques and structures were determined using 1D and 2D NMR and MS analysis. MeWo cells were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and impact on melanin levels of extracts and compounds isolated, in vitro. Twelve known compounds, morelloflavone (1), morelloflavone-7″-sulphate (2), guttiferone A (3), sargaol (4), isojacareubin (5), 6-deoxyisojacareubin (6) and in addition to the common triterpenoids, betulin, betulin aldehyde, lupeol, lupenone, euphol and stigmasterol were isolated in this investigation. Morelloflavone, morelloflavone-7″-sulphate and sargaol, were found to be considerably less cytotoxic and more effective as skin lightening agents than hydroquinone. A range of compounds was isolated from the stem bark and fruit of Garcinia livingstonei. Although the bark extract contained the cytotoxic guttiferone A, it was found to be less toxic than hydroquinone, and morelloflavone, the 7″-sulphate derivative and sargaol show potential for development as depigmentation/skin lightening agents. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens.

  3. Biochemical effects of the flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract on the melanin biosynthesis and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kazuya; Okura, Masae; Sumikawa, Yasuyuki; Hida, Tokimasa; Kuno, Atsushi; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Toshiharu

    2016-10-01

    An ingredient of fruit polyphenol, resveratrol, is known to have an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis. In order to examine the functional differences between resveratrol and other fruit polyphenols, we compared biochemical effects of a resveratrol-free polyphenol, flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE), with other phenolic compounds including resveratrol. FRLFE as well as hydroquinone and resveratrol suppressed growth of B16F1 melanoma cells more significantly than rhododendrol or arbutin. Resveratrol suppressed mushroom tyrosinase at the lowest concentration (23.0 μmol/L) among the compounds tested. FRLFE and hydroquinone suppressed tyrosinase at almost the same concentration (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50 ], 83.5 and 94.6 μmol/L, respectively), which was higher than rhododendrol, ascorbic acid and arbutin (IC50 , 245, 345 and 421 μmol/L, respectively). Western blot analysis revealed that although resveratrol decreased expressions of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1, FRLFE did not affect their expressions. Both FRLFE and resveratrol suppressed antimycin A-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanocytic cells. Resveratrol-mediated ROS suppression was inhibited by nicotinamide, a SIRT1 inhibitor. However, FRLFE-mediated suppression was not affected by nicotinamide. Moreover, FRLFE directly decreased superoxide in vitro, as detected by superoxide dismutase-like scavenging activity assay. These results suggest that FRLFE can protect melanocytes from cytotoxicity caused by an excess amount of melanin and ROS in a different manner from resveratrol.

  4. Kinetics of successive seeding of monodisperse polystyrene latexes. I - Initiation via potassium persulfate. II - Azo initiators with and without inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudol, E. D.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Vanderhoff, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The polymerization kinetics of monodisperse polystyrene latexes with diameters of 1 micron are studied. The monodisperse latexes were prepared by the successive seeding method using 1 mM K2S2O8 with an 8 percent emulsifier surface coverage and 0.5 mM K2S2O8 with a 4 percent emulsifier surface coverage, and the kinetics were measured in a piston/cylinder dialometer. The data reveal that the polymerization rate decreases with increasing particle size; and the surface charge decreases with increasing particle size. The effects of initiators (AIBN and AMBN) and inhibitors (NH24SCN, NaNO2, and hydroquinone) on the product monodispersity and polymerization kinetics of latexes with diameters greater than 1 micron are investigated in a second experiment. It is observed that hydroquinone combined with AMBN are most effective in reducing nucleation without causing flocculation. It is noted that the kinetic transition from emulsion to bulk is complete for a particle size exceeding 1 micron in which the polymerization rate is independent of the particle size.

  5. VKORC1 deficiency in mice causes early postnatal lethality due to severe bleeding.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Gabriele; Kleinridders, Andre; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Watzka, Matthias; Zaucke, Frank; Blumbach, Katrin; Geisen, Christof; Seifried, Erhard; Müller, Clemens; Paulsson, Mats; Brüning, Jens C; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Vitamin K hydroquinone is oxidised to the epoxide form (K>O) during vitamin K-dependent posttranslational gamma-glutamyl carboxylation resulting in biological active so called vitamin K-dependent proteins. In turn, K>O is reduced by the enzyme VKORC1 (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex component 1) to complete the vitamin K cycle. To investigate the biological role of VKORC1 in vivo, we generated VKORC1 knockout mice. Homozygous VKORC1-deficient mice developed normally until birth. Within 2-20 days after birth, the knockout mice died due to extensive, predominantly intracerebral haemorrhage. Bleeding resulted from a severe deficiency of gamma-carboxylated clotting factors. This lethal phenotype could be rescued by oral administration of vitamin K. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the limbs in VKORC1-deficient animals revealed reduced length of bone calcification relative to wild-type control mice. The observed phenotype of VKORC1 knockout mice excludes the existence of other enzymes with VKOR activity that can substitute to supply vitamin K hydroquinone required for maturation of blood clotting factors. Thus, our study underscores the essential role of VKORC1 in vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylation.

  6. Natural paniceins from mediterranean sponge inhibit the multidrug resistance activity of Patched and increase chemotherapy efficiency on melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiorini, Laura; Tribalat, Marie-Aude; Sauvard, Lucy; Cazareth, Julie; Lalli, Enzo; Broutin, Isabelle; Thomas, Olivier P.; Mus-Veteau, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance has appeared to mitigate the efficiency of anticancer drugs and the possibility of successful cancer chemotherapy. The Hedgehog receptor Patched is a multidrug transporter expressed in several cancers and as such it represents a new target to circumvent chemotherapy resistance. We report herein that paniceins and especially panicein A hydroquinone, natural meroterpenoids produced by the Mediterranean sponge Haliclona (Soestella) mucosa, inhibit the doxorubicin efflux activity of Patched and enhance the cytotoxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on melanoma cells in vitro. These results are supported by the molecular docking performed on the structure of the bacterial drug efflux pump AcrB and on the Patched model built from AcrB structure. Docking calculations show that panicein A hydroquinone interacts with AcrB and Patched model close to the doxorubicin binding site. This compound thus appears as the first antagonist of the doxorubicin efflux activity of Patched. The use of inhibitors of Patched drug efflux activity in combination with classical chemotherapy could represent a novel approach to reduce tumor drug resistance, recurrence and metastasis. PMID:26068979

  7. Oxidative stress response of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease in banana plants, to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Manzo-Sanchez, Gilberto; Guzmán-González, Salvador; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Avila-Miranda, Martin; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2009-07-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease in banana and plantain. This fungus is usually attacked by reactive oxygen species secreted by the plant or during exposure to fungicide, however, little is known about the antioxidant response of the fungus. In this study, mycelia were observed to totally decompose 30 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) within 120 min, liberating oxygen bubbles, and also to survive in concentrations as high as 100 mmol/L H2O2. The oxidative stress responses to H2O2, paraquat, and hydroquinone were characterized in terms of the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Two active catalase bands were seen in native PAGE induced by H2O2. Band I had monofunctional activity and band II had bifunctional catalase-peroxidase activity. Two isozymes of SOD, distinguishable by their cyanide sensitivity, were found; CuZnSOD was the main one. The combination of H2O2 and 3-aminotriazole reduced the accumulation of biomass up to 40% compared with exposure to H2O2 alone, suggesting that catalase is important for the rapid decomposition of H2O2 and has a direct bearing on cell viability. The results also suggest that the superoxide anion formed through the redox of paraquat and hydroquinone has a greater effect than H2O2 on the cellular viability of M. fijiensis.

  8. Monodisperse silica nanoparticles coated with gold nanoparticles as a sorbent for the extraction of phenol and dihydroxybenzenes from water samples based on dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction: Response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali

    2015-08-01

    A selective and sensitive method was developed based on dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction for the extraction of hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol and phenol from water samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. SiO2 , SiO2 @MPTES, and SiO2 @MPTES@Au nanoparticles (MPTES = 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane) were synthesized and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermogravimetric analysis, and infrared spectroscopy. Variables such as the amount of sorbent (mg), pH and ionic strength of sample the solution, the volume of eluent solvent (μL), vortex and ultrasonic times (min) were investigated by Plackett-Burman design. The significant variables optimized by a Box-Behnken design were combined by a desirability function. Under optimized conditions, the calibration graphs of phenol and dihydroxybenzenes were linear in a concentration range of 1-500 μg/L, and with correlation coefficients more than 0.995. The limits of detection for hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, and phenol were 0.54, 0.58, 0.46, and 1.24 μg/L, and the limits of quantification were 1.81, 1.93, 1.54, and 4.23 μg/L, respectively. This procedure was successfully employed to determine target analytes in spiked water samples; the relative mean recoveries ranged from 93.5 to 98.9%.

  9. Biogenetic Relationships of Bioactive Sponge Merotriterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas E

    2017-09-10

    Hydroquinone meroterpenoids, especially those derived from marine sponges, display a wide range of biological activities. However, use of these compounds is limited by their inaccessibility; there is no sustainable supply of these compounds. Furthermore, our knowledge of their metabolic origin remains completely unstudied. In this review, an in depth structural analysis of sponge merotriterpenoids, including the adociasulfate family of kinesin motor protein inhibitors, provides insight into their biosynthesis. Several key structural features provide clues to the relationships between compounds. All adociasulfates appear to be derived from only four different hydroquinone hexaprenyl diphosphate precursors, each varying in the number and position of epoxidations. Proton-initiated cyclization of these precursors can lead to all carbon skeletons observed amongst sponge merotriterpenoids. Consideration of the enzymes involved in the proposed biosynthetic route suggests a bacterial source, and a hypothetical gene cluster was constructed that may facilitate discovery of the authentic pathway from the sponge metagenome. A similar rationale can be extended to other sponge meroterpenoids, for which no biosynthetic pathways have yet been identified.

  10. Characterization of a para-nitrophenol catabolic cluster in Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 and construction of an engineered strain capable of simultaneously mineralizing both para- and ortho-nitrophenols.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Wang, Song-He; Xiao, Yi; Zhou, Ning-Yi

    2010-07-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain NyZ402 was isolated for its ability to grow on para-nitrophenol (PNP) as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy, and was shown to degrade PNP via an oxidization pathway. This strain was also capable of growing on hydroquinone or catechol. A 15, 818 bp DNA fragment extending from a 800-bp DNA fragment of hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase gene (pnpG) was obtained by genome walking. Sequence analysis indicated that the PNP catabolic gene cluster (pnpABCDEFG) in this fragment shared significant similarities with a recently reported gene cluster responsible for PNP degradation from Pseudomonas sp. strain WBC-3. PnpA is PNP 4-monooxygenase converting PNP to hydroquinone via benzoquinone in the presence of NADPH, and genetic analysis indicated that pnpA plays a key role in PNP degradation. pnpA1 present in the upstream of the cluster (absent in the cluster from strain WBC-3) encodes a protein sharing as high as 55% identity with PnpA, but was not involved in PNP degradation by either in vitro or in vivo analyses. Furthermore, an engineered strain capable of growing on PNP and ortho-nitrophenol (ONP) was constructed by introducing onpAB (encoding ONP monooxygenase and ortho-benzoquinone reductase which catalyzed the transformation of ONP to catechol) from Alcaligenes sp. strain NyZ215 into strain NyZ402.

  11. Comparison of various organic compounds destruction on rare earths doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-Hong; Feng, Yu-Jie; Liu, Junfeng; Ren, Nanqi

    2012-11-15

    Ti/Sb-SnO2 and three kinds of rare earths (REs), namely Ce, Gd, and Eu doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes were prepared and tested for their capacity on electrocatalytic degradation of three kinds of basal aromatic compounds (benzoquinone, hydroquinone and catechol) and six kinds of aliphatic acids (maleic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and acetic acid). The elimination of selected organics as well as their TOC removal with different doped Ti/Sb-SnO2 electrodes was described by first-order kinetics. Compared with Ti/Sb-SnO2, the Gd and Eu doped electrodes show better performance on the degradation of most of the selected organics, while Ce doped electrode shows either closely or lower efficiency on the degradation of these selected organics. Besides electrode material, the molecular structure of organic compound has obvious effect on its degradation in the electrocatalytic process. Catechol is more resistant to the electrophilic attack by hydroxyl radicals than benzoquinone and hydroquinone. The compound with more complicate molecular structure or longer carbon chain is more difficult to be mineralized. The aliphatic acid with higher oxygen content or more double bonds is more readily to be oxidized in the electrocatalytic process.

  12. Electro-microchip DNA-biosensor for bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia Hsien; Chang, Yu Huai; Chang, Tsung Chain; Lin, Hong Ping; Lin, Yu Cheng

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a bacteria biosensor based on DNA hybridization detection with an electro-microchip transducer. Acinetobacter baumannii was chosen as DNA sample source, because the occurrence of bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is high in hospitals worldwide. Our strategy is based on DNA hybridization of PCR amplified bacteria DNA with biotin labelled primers and detection enhancement using gold-streptavidin nanoparticles and Ag(+)-hydroquinone solution. Gold nanoparticles catalyze silver ions reduction by hydroquinone. The gradually precipitated silver metal between the two electrodes of the electro-microchip allows electrons to pass. The detection limit for Acinetobacter baumannii genomic DNA sample is 0.825 ng mL(-1) (1.2 fM). Probe specificity was investigated by screening various species of bacteria, various strains of a single species and various species of a single genus. The proposed DNA hybridization method is easy, convenient, and rapid. Moreover, it has potential applications in detection of bacteria causing infections and clinical diagnosis.

  13. Suitable chemical methods for preparation of graphene oxide, graphene and surface functionalized graphene nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Sheshmani, Shabnam; Fashapoyeh, Marzieh Arab

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the suitable chemical method for preparation of graphene oxide nanosheets. In order to examine the effects of HNO3/H2SO4 ratio on interlayer spacing and its comparison, the oxidation of graphite with HNO3 and H2SO4 in 1:2 and 1:3 volume ratios was done. Based on the reaction time and interlayer spacing, it was found that the optimum results were obtained when reaction was carried out with HNO3/H2SO4 in 1:3 volume ratio (using modified Staudenmaier method) for 4 days. Results showed that the modified Staudenmaier method improved efficiency exfoliation in oxidation process. Also, the chemical reduction of graphene oxide, which obtained using the modified Staudenmaier method, with hydroquinone and hydrazine hydrate was studied. The results indicate that use of hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent was more beneficial than the hydroquinone. In continue, we describe the preparation of surface functionalized graphene nanosheets with octadecylamine. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  14. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineered nanomaterial transformation under oxidative environmental conditions: Development of an in vitro biomimetic assay

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Kevin M.; Mangham, Andrew N.; Bierman, Matthew J.; Jin, Song; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2013-01-01

    Once released into the environment, engineered nanomaterials may be transformed by microbially mediated redox processes altering their toxicity and fate. Little information currently exists on engineered nanomaterial transformation under environmentally relevant conditions. Here, we report the development of an in vitro biomimetic assay for investigation of nanomaterial transformation under simulated oxidative environmental conditions. The assay is based on the extracellular hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction used by lignolytic fungi. We demonstrate the utility of the assay using CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol). QD transformation was assessed by UV-Visible spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). QDs were readily degraded under simulated oxidative environmental conditions: the ZnS shell eroded and cadmium was released from the QD core. TEM, electron diffraction analysis and EDX of transformed QDs revealed formation of amorphous Se aggregates. The biomimetic hydroquinone-driven Fenton’s reaction degraded QDs to a larger extent than did H2O2 and classical Fenton’s reagent (H2O2 + Fe2+). This assay provides a new method to characterize transformations of nanoscale materials expected to occur under oxidative environmental conditions. PMID:19350941

  16. Selectivity of guest-host interactions in self-assembled hydrogen-bonded nanostructures observed by NMR.

    PubMed

    Brunklaus, Gunther; Koch, Achim; Sebastiani, Daniel; Spiess, Hans Wolfgang

    2007-08-28

    We studied the incorporation of various small guest molecules into calix[4]hydroquinone nanotubes and nanoclusters using solid-state proton NMR spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations. While the molecules exhibit different types of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions, they show different affinities to the nanotube host structures. As the guest molecules are located inside the complexes, they experience a shift in the NMR resonance line caused by screening effects from the aromatic electrons of the host superstructure. The abilities to fill the otherwise empty space within the tubes can hence be measured indirectly by the displacement of the NMR lines relative to the free molecules. In this way, we can probe which guest molecules are recognized by the calix[4]hydroquinones as suitable for filling their nanoporous superstructures. Selective guest-host interactions have been successfully achieved for the three component mixture of water and acetone with either 2-methyl-2-propanol or 2-propanol. In both cases, the alcohols were superior to acetone in filling the CHQ tubes.

  17. Metal substrate effects on pH response of tetracyanoquinodimenthane modified electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Inzelt, G.; Chambers, J.Q.; Kinstle, J.F.; Day, R.W.; Lange, M.A.

    1984-02-01

    In recent work the voltammetric and spectral response of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) modified electrodes have been described. The effect of pH of the cyclic voltammetry of these modified electrodes can be understood on the basis of the classical 3 x 3 nine-membered square scheme characteristic of quinone-hydroquinone couples. As for other compounds with quinoid structures, TCNQ exhibits quasi-reversible behavior in protic solvents with an apparent direct 2e/sup -/, 2H/sup +/ exchange in acidic pH region. This scheme is complicated further by dimer formation, disproportionation of the anion radical in strongly acidic solutions, and the apparent reduction of neutral TCNQ by hydroxide ions in very basic media (pH > 12). In basic solution the formation of TCNQ/sup -/ is clearly signaled by its electron spin resonance and visible absorption spectra. While quinone-hydroquinone couples do exhibit subtle electrochemical behavior, they are the basis for a widely used and reliable redox pH electrode. Thus an attempt to utilize TCNQ modified electrodes as a pH sensor seemed to be a logical step based on the kinship between TCNQ and benzoquinone. However, the results support the idea that the electrode substrate plays an important role in determining the response to the pH of the bulk solution. 20 references, 1 figure.

  18. Amperometric microbial biosensor for p-nitrophenol using Moraxella sp.-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Mulchandani, Priti; Hangarter, Carlos M; Lei, Yu; Chen, Wilfred; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2005-09-15

    An amperometric microbial biosensor for highly specific, sensitive and rapid quantitative determination of p-nitrophenol was developed. The biosensor takes advantage of the ability of Moraxella sp. to specifically degrade p-nitrophenol to hydroquinone, a more electroactive compound than p-nitrophenol. The electrochemical oxidation current of hydroquinone formed in biodegradation of p-nitrophenol was measured at Moraxella sp.-modified carbon paste electrode and correlated to p-phenol concentrations. The optimum response was realized by electrode constructed using 15 mg of dry cell weight per 1 g of carbon paste and operating at 0.3 V (versus Ag/AgCl reference) in pH 7.5, 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer. Operating at these optimum conditions the biosensor had excellent selectivity against phenol derivatives and was able to measure as low as 20 nM (2.78 ppb) p-nitrophenol with very good accuracy and reproducibility. The biosensor was stable for approximately 3 weeks when stored at 4 degrees C. The applicability of the biosensor to measure p-nitrophenol in lake water was demonstrated.

  19. Development and validation of a fast chromatographic method for screening and quantification of legal and illegal skin whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2013-09-01

    During the last years, the EU market is flooded by illegal cosmetics via the Internet and a so-called "black market". Among these, skin-bleaching products represent an important group. They contain, according to the current European cosmetic legislation (Directive 76/768/EEC), a number of illegal active substances including hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. These may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. To control this market there is a need for a fast screening method capable of detecting illegal ingredients in the wide variety of existing bleaching cosmetic formulations. In this paper the development and validation of an ultra high pressure liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method is described. The proposed method makes use of a Waters Acquity BEH shield RP18 column with a gradient using 25 mM ammonium borate buffer (pH 10) and acetonitrile. This method is not only able to detect the major illegal (hydroquinone, tretinoin and six dermatologic active corticosteroids) and legal whitening agents, the latter having restrictions with respect to concentration and application (kojic acid, arbutin, nicotinamide and salicylic acid), but can also quantify these in a run time of 12 min. The method was successfully validated using the "total error" approach in accordance with the validation requirements of ISO-17025. During the validation a variety of cosmetic matrices including creams, lotions and soaps were taken into consideration.

  20. Lowering effect of phenolic glycosides on the rise in postprandial glucose in mice.

    PubMed

    Takii, H; Matsumoto, K; Kometani, T; Okada, S; Fushiki, T

    1997-09-01

    Glycosides were screened for their lowering effect on the postprandial blood glucose rise in vivo. The effect of phlorizin and other phenolic glycosides on the postprandial blood glucose response to glucose ingestion was evaluated in Std ddY mice. When phlorizin was simultaneously added, the peak blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 51% (p < 0.01) compared to vehicles following glucose ingestion by mice, while the blood insulin responses were generally similar. Screening experiments were conducted with different classes of phenolic glycosides added to a glucose solution. Reductions of 40-52% (p < 0.05) were observed in vehicles containing arbutin, 4-hydroxyphenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (hydroquinone-alpha-glucoside) or glycyrrhizin, and of only 15-31% (not significant) in vehicles containing neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide, or 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. No lowering effect was observed in vehicles containing salicin. Since glycyrrhizin, arbutin, and hydroquinone-alpha-glucoside blunted to varying degrees the postprandial blood glucose rise following glucose ingestion, they may be useful adjuvants for the treatment of diabetic subjects.