Science.gov

Sample records for hydrostatic mooring system

  1. Hydrostatic Mooring System. Final Technical Report: Main Report plus Appendices A, B, and C - Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jens Korsgaard

    2000-08-08

    The main conclusions from the work carried out under this contract are: An ordinary seafarer can learn by training on a simulator, to moor large tanker vessels to the Hydrostatic Mooring, safely and quickly, in all weather conditions up to storms generating waves with a significant wave height of 8 m. Complete conceptual design of the Hydrostatic Mooring buoy was carried out which proved that the buoy could be constructed entirely from commercially available standard components and materials. The design is robust, and damage resistant. The mooring tests had a 100% success rate from the point of view of the buoy being securely attached and moored to the vessel following every mooring attempt. The tests had an 80% success rate from the point of view of the buoy being adequately centered such that petroleum transfer equipment on the vessel could be attached to the corresponding equipment on the buoy. The results given in Table 3-2 of the mooring tests show a consistently improving performance from test to test by the Captain that performed the mooring operations. This is not surprising, in view of the fact that the Captain had only three days of training on the simulator prior to conducting the tests, that the maneuvering required is non-standard, and the test program itself lasted four days. One conclusion of the test performance is that the Captain was not fully trained at the initiation of the test. It may therefore be concluded that a thoroughly trained navigator would probably be able to make the mooring such that the fluid transfer equipment can be connected with reliability in excess of 90%. Considering that the typical standard buoy has enough power aboard to make eight mooring attempts, this implies that the probability that the mooring attempt should fail because of the inability to connect the fluid transfer equipment is of the order of 10{sup {minus}8}. It may therefore be concluded that the mooring operation between a Hydrostatic Mooring and a large

  2. The Hydrostatic Mooring System. Quarterly Report for the Period April-June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Korsgaard, Jens

    2000-07-15

    The following topics are summarized for the 2nd quarter of 2000: (1) We amended the structural design of the buoy, moving the horizontal bulkhead from the bottom to the top of the buoy. (2) We designed the main bearing using Hilman Rollers. We discarded a parallel design using Lubron slide bearings due to concerns about keeping dirt out of the sliding surfaces. (3) We performed a preliminary failure tree risk analysis for the system as required by ABS. (4) We made various drawings of the system and sub-components.

  3. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications, including the treatment of medical conditions. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system that will provide controlled pressurization of the system, and provide adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the

  4. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  5. The design and analysis of mooring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yixuan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the force status and a design method of single chain mooring system for shallow sea observation network are studied. With treating the link of a chain, steel drum and steel pipe as a rigid body, the recurrence model is established by using Newton's first law and the law of Moment equilibrium theorem. Via the simplified calculation of dichotomy searching, we determine the design parameters of mooring system, such as anchor model, anchor chain length, heavy ball quality under different water flow and wind conditions. We apply MATLAB to simulate the internal steady state of the system in the fixed scheme, water depth of buoy and swimming area to meet the decision-making needs, providing an idea for the actual scheme design of mooring system.

  6. OTEC mooring system development: recent accomplishments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.M.; Wood, W.A.

    1981-10-01

    The mooring system for a floating OTEC platform consists of a seafloor foundation, a platform foundation, and a connecting line. This paper introduces the OTEC mooring system with a brief historical overview, reviews developmental work accomplished during the past year, and then presents a new look at life cycle costs for an example mooring system. Since June 1980, a significant effort within the OTEC Program has been directed toward the further development of mooring systems. The effort has included work leading to a better understanding of anchoring capabilities and problems, refinement of an existing mooring analytical model, a review of OTEC past mooring designs, and the production of a mooring system technology development plan. A major finding of the past year was a new upward estimate of mooring system lifetime costs as a result of downward-revised estimates of wire rope service life.

  7. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-03-31

    Recent modifications have been performed on the T-Plant Railcar Waste Transfer System, This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that identified piping welds and mechanical connections incorporated during the modification are of high integrity and are acceptable for service. This will be achieved by implementation of a hydrostatic leak test.

  8. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-04-03

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents for record purposes the field results, acceptance, and approvals of the completed acceptance test per HNF-SD-W417-ATP-001, ''Rail car Waste Transfer System Hydrostatic Test''. The test was completed and approved without any problems or exceptions.

  9. Predicting mooring system fatigue life by probabilistic methods

    SciTech Connect

    Saders, D.R.; Dominguez, R.F.; Ho, K.C.; Lai, N.W.

    1983-05-01

    Failure of moored structures from accumulated fatigue damage in shackles, connecting links, chain and wire rope components is common. When systems will be deployed for long periods, it is especially important to determine at the design, inspection and maintenance stages the fatigue damage. Since slack moored structures behave in a highly nonlinear manner, commonly used fatigue analysis procedures are normally inadequate. This paper reviews present probablistic fatigue analysis methods, and provides a means for incorporating nonlinear mooring behavior into analysis and design to predict accumulated damage and remaining service life. The procedures presented are general, and they are also applicable to ship and buoy moorings, offshore terminals, and guyed and tension leg platforms.

  10. Hydrostatic shoe bearing system for the TIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Schneider, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Quiros-Pacheco, Fernando; Godoy, Javier; Farah Simon, Alejandro; Quintanilla, R.; Soto, P.; Salas, Luis; Cruz-Gonzales, Irene

    2000-08-01

    We present an active, low cost hydrostatic shoe bearing system for the Mexican Infrared Telescope which solves the suspension and motion of a 100 ton, 7.8 m telescope. Different geometries are analyzed to optimize the shoe's pressure print. These designs offer a self-adjusting action between the shoe's sliding path and the girth track. Different parameters such as pressure, temperature and proximity are measured and implemented into a control system in order to stabilize the bearing from the fluid's thermal viscosity effects. A simple method for fluid injection is discussed.

  11. Features of a taut leg mooring system for deep water

    SciTech Connect

    Loevstad, T.; Namork, J.; Nilsen, A.U.

    1995-12-31

    As oil exploration and production is moving into greater water depths there is a need for cost effective stationkeeping systems. To date all floating production units have used conventional catenary mooring systems consisting of chain or a chain/wire combination. For greater water depths the use of a catenary mooring system (CMS) will result in very long lines and a large additional vertical load on the platform. The objective of the present work has been to develop cost effective stationkeeping systems for floating production units in 500--1,500 m water depth. The work is based on a case study of a large steel floater (semi). A conceptual design of a taut mooring system (TMS) has been developed. This investigation has focused on the dynamic behavior of the TMS in order to document acceptable dynamic performance. A taut mooring system based on a polyester fiber rope offers an alternative. For a water depth of 1,200 m the line length is reduced from 3,100 m to 2,030 m and the footprint is reduced from 2,800 m to 1,700 m by using a taut mooring system instead of a catenary system. In addition, a taut mooring system using polyester ropes is significantly more cost effective than a conventional catenary mooring system at large water depths. As an overall conclusion the investigation has confirmed satisfactory behavior of the proposed TMS concept.

  12. Effect of mooring line arrangement on the dynamics of spread mooring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bernitsas, M.M.; Garza-Rios, L.O.

    1995-12-31

    A design methodology is formulated to reveal the dependence of nonlinear slow motion dynamics of Spread Mooring Systems (SMS) on mooring line arrangement. For a given SMS configuration, catastrophe sets are developed in the parametric design space showing the dependence of stability boundaries and singularities of bifurcations on design variables. This approach eliminates the need for nonlinear simulations. For general SMS design, however, the designer relies on experience rather than scientific understanding of SMS nonlinear dynamics, due to the high number of design variables. Several numerical applications are used to demonstrate counter intuitive ways of improving SMS dynamics. The SMS design methodology formulated in this paper aims at providing fundamental understanding of the effects of mooring line arrangement and pretension on SMS horizontal plane dynamics. Thus, the first guidelines are developed to reduce trial and error in SMS design. The methodology is illustrated by comparing catastrophe sets for various SMS configurations with up to three mooring lines. Numerous examples for a barge and a tanker SMS which exhibit qualitatively different nonlinear dynamic behavior are provided.

  13. Gravity, the hydrostatic indifference concept and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut

    2011-02-01

    Gravity, like any acceleration, causes a hydrostatic pressure gradient in fluid-filled bodily compartments. At a force of 1G, this pressure gradient amounts to 10 kPa/m. Postural changes alter the distribution of hydrostatic pressure patterns according to the body's alignment to the acceleration field. At a certain location--referred to as hydrostatically indifferent--within any given fluid compartment, pressure remains constant during a given change of position relative to the acceleration force acting upon the body. At this specific location, there is probably little change in vessel volume, wall tension, and the balance of Starling forces after a positional manoeuvre. In terms of cardiac function, this is important because arterial and venous hydrostatic indifference locations determine postural cardiac preload and afterload changes. Baroreceptors pick up pressure signals that depend on their respective distance to hydrostatic indifference locations with any change of body position. Vascular shape, filling volume, and compliance, as well as temperature, nervous and endocrine factors, drugs, and time all influence hydrostatic indifference locations. This paper reviews the physiology of pressure gradients in the cardiovascular system that are operational in a gravitational/acceleration field, offers a broadened hydrostatic indifference concept, and discusses implications that are relevant in physiological and clinical terms.

  14. Efficient reliability-based design of mooring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, K.

    1996-12-31

    Uncertainties both in the environmentally induced load effects and in the strength of mooring line components make a rational design of mooring systems a complex task. The methods of structural reliability, taking these uncertainties into account, have been applied in an efficient probabilistic analysis procedure for the tension overload limit state for mooring lines. This paper outlines the philosophy and methodology for this procedure, followed by numerical examples of a turret moored ship. Both base case annual failure probabilities and results from a number of sensitivity analyses are presented. It is demonstrated that the reliability-based design procedure can be effectively utilized to quantify the safety against failure due to tension overload of moorings. The results of the case studies indicate that the largest uncertainties are associated with the distribution parameters of the chain link and steel wire rope segment tension capacity, and the modelling of the environment. The modelling of spreading angles between waves, wind and current vs. colinearity, and double-peaked vs. single-peaked wave spectrum models are key parameters in the reliability assessment.

  15. Hydrostatic levelling systems: Measuring at the system limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Edi; Geiger, Alain; Ingensand, Hilmar; Licht, Hans; Limpach, Philippe; Steiger, Andreas; Zwyssig, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Three hydrostatic displacement monitoring system applications in Switzerland are discussed; the first concerns experience gained monitoring the foundation of the Albigna dam, the second relating to the underground stability of the Swiss Light Source synchrotron and the third concerning the deformation of a bridge near the city of Lucerne. Two different principles were applied, the Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) using the “half-filled pipe principle” developed by the Paul Scherrer Institute and the Large Area Settlement System (LAS) using the “differential pressure principle”. With both systems ground deformations induced by tidal forces can be seen. However, high accuracy of single sensors is not sufficient. A well-designed configuration of the complete system is equally important. On the other hand there are also limits imposed by installation logistics and by the environmental conditions. An example is the bridge monitoring application, where the acceleration along the bridge due to the passage of heavy trucks limits the feasibility of using hydrostatic levelling measurements.

  16. Study on ship automatic berthing system with mooring lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, K. U.; Hur, J. G.; Choi, M. S.; Yeo, D. J.; Byun, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    This study describes an automatic berthing system with mooring lines. It is designed to be berthed by using mooring device on the upper deck of a ship. It is to berth once maintaining parallel with the quay by controlling both forward and aft breast lines. Berthing method is used through length adjustment of mooring lines connected between ship and quay by controlling the angular velocity and the torque of hydraulic motor in mooring device. The study is conducted under three changing conditions of draft, such as even-keel, rise of the gravity center and trim to stern. Variables affecting berthing stability are determined based on the control performance of each condition. Bond graphs method is used to model the system. Controller is designed as PID control method of reference-model algorithm. The control program is composed of synchronous control system based on the equations derived with the numerical analysis. The tank test is conducted to verify the usefulness of the control program.

  17. Computing the Moore-Penrose Inverse of a Matrix with a Computer Algebra System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    In this paper "Derive" functions are provided for the computation of the Moore-Penrose inverse of a matrix, as well as for solving systems of linear equations by means of the Moore-Penrose inverse. Making it possible to compute the Moore-Penrose inverse easily with one of the most commonly used Computer Algebra Systems--and to have the blueprint…

  18. Computing the Moore-Penrose Inverse of a Matrix with a Computer Algebra System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    In this paper "Derive" functions are provided for the computation of the Moore-Penrose inverse of a matrix, as well as for solving systems of linear equations by means of the Moore-Penrose inverse. Making it possible to compute the Moore-Penrose inverse easily with one of the most commonly used Computer Algebra Systems--and to have the blueprint…

  19. On tethered sample and mooring systems near irregular asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Shan, Jinjun

    2014-10-01

    A tethered asteroid sample and mooring system is investigated in this paper. In this system the spacecraft is moored to the surface of an irregular asteroid such as 216 Kleopatra by using a rocket-propelled anchor with a cable. The rocket-propelled anchor is a kind of space penetrator, which can inject into asteroids at high speeds generated by its own rocket engine. It can be used to explore the interior structure of asteroids, and it can also be used as a sample collector. When the sampling mission is done, the sample can be pulled back to the spacecraft with the anchor. Using this method, the spacecraft can be kept in a safe region in which it cannot be trapped by the gravitational field of the asteroid. This work is concerned with the dynamics of the tethered system near irregular asteroids. First, a shape model and gravitational field model of irregular asteroids are built. Then, the configuration and the stability of the tethered system are investigated, and the quasi-periodic motion near the equilibrium point of the tethered system is analyzed. Finally, the non-uniform density distribution of the asteroids is considered. The deployment process and the oscillation of the tethered system in the uncertain asteroid gravity field are simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The feasibility of the tethered asteroid sample and mooring system is proved.

  20. Design and validation of an automated hydrostatic weighing system.

    PubMed

    McClenaghan, B A; Rocchio, L

    1986-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the validity of an automated technique to assess body density using a computerized hydrostatic weighing system. An existing hydrostatic tank was modified and interfaced with a microcomputer equipped with an analog-to-digital converter. Software was designed to input variables, control the collection of data, calculate selected measurements, and provide a summary of the results of each session. Validity of the data obtained utilizing the automated hydrostatic weighing system was estimated by: evaluating the reliability of the transducer/computer interface to measure objects of known underwater weight; comparing the data against a criterion measure; and determining inter-session subject reliability. Values obtained from the automated system were found to be highly correlated with known underwater weights (r = 0.99, SEE = 0.0060 kg). Data concurrently obtained utilizing the automated system and a manual chart recorder were also found to be highly correlated (r = 0.99, SEE = 0.0606 kg). Inter-session subject reliability was determined utilizing data collected on subjects (N = 16) tested on two occasions approximately 24 h apart. Correlations revealed high relationships between measures of underwater weight (r = 0.99, SEE = 0.1399 kg) and body density (r = 0.98, SEE = 0.00244 g X cm-1). Results indicate that a computerized hydrostatic weighing system is a valid and reliable method for determining underwater weight.

  1. Hydrostatic Water Level Systems At Homestake DUSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetler, L. D.; Volk, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    Two arrays of Fermilab-style hydrostatic water level sensors have been installed in the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, SD, the site of the new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Sensors were constructed at Fermilab from 8.5 cm diameter PVC pipe (housing) that was sealed on the ends and fit with a proximity sensor. The instrument have a height of 10 cm. Two ports in each sensor housing provide for connectivity, the upper port for air and the bottom port for water. Multiple instruments connected in series provide a precise water level and differences in readings between successive sensors provide for ground tilt to be resolved. Sensor resolution is 5 μm per count and has a range of approximately 1.25 cm. Data output from each sensor is relayed to a Fermilab-constructed readout card that also has temperature/relative humidity and barometric pressure sensors connected. All data are relayed out of the mine by fiber optic cable and can be recorded by Ethernet at remote locations. The current arrays have been installed on the 2000-ft level (610 m) and consist of six instruments in each array. Three sensors were placed in a N-S oriented drift and three in an E-W oriented drift. Using this orientation, it is anticipated that tilt direction may be resolved in addition to overall tilt magnitude. To date the data show passage of earth tides and frequency analysis has revealed five components to this signal, three associated with the semi-diurnal (~12.4 hr) and two with the diurnal (~24.9 hr) tides. Currently, installation methods are being analyzed between concrete pillar and rib-mounting using the existing setup on the 2000-ft level. Using these results, two additional arrays of Fermilab instruments will be installed on the 4550-ft and 4850-ft levels (1387 and 1478 m, respectively). In addition to Fermilab instruments, several high resolution Budker tiltmeters (1 μm resolution) will be installed in the mine workings in the near future, some

  2. Engineer Design of a Mono-Mooring System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-01-01

    PREPARATION OF CARGO PRODUCT PIPINGVI. OPERATIONAL TEST PROCEDURES ,4?JL) J 6.0 INTRODUCTION 6.1 TESTS AND TRIALS 1 6.2 MACHINERY 1 6.3 ELECTRICAL6.4 PIPING ...design 1 2. Preliminary piping design 3. Preliminary mooring system design 4. Preliminary swivel design I 5. Anchor system component selection 6...outboar d flan ge of buoy pro duct piping to tanker mani fold durin g cargo transfer. Floats Cylindrically-shaped floats which provide necessary buoy- ancy

  3. MOORE: A prototype expert system for diagnosing spacecraft problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlin, Katherine; Weissert, Jerry; Krantz, Kerry

    1988-01-01

    MOORE is a rule-based, prototype expert system that assists in diagnosing operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) problems. It is intended to assist spacecraft engineers at the TDRS ground terminal in trouble shooting problems that are not readily solved with routine procedures, and without expert counsel. An additional goal of the prototype system is to develop in-house expert system and knowledge engineering skills. The prototype system diagnoses antenna pointing and earth pointing problems that may occur within the TDRS Attitude Control System (ACS). Plans include expansion to fault isolation of problems in the most critical subsystems of the TDRS spacecraft. Long term benefits are anticipated with use of an expert system during future TDRS programs with increased mission support time, reduced problem solving time, and retained expert knowledge and experience. Phase 2 of the project is intended to provide NASA the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite. Phase 2 also envisions addressing two unexplored applications for expert systems, spacecraft integration and tests (I and T) and support to launch activities. The concept, goals, domain, tools, knowledge acquisition, developmental approach, and design of the expert system. It will explain how NASA obtained the knowledge and capability to develop the system in-house without assistance from outside consultants. Future plans will also be presented.

  4. MOORE: A prototype expert system for diagnosing spacecraft problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlin, Katherine; Weissert, Jerry; Krantz, Kerry

    1988-01-01

    MOORE is a rule-based, prototype expert system that assists in diagnosing operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) problems. It is intended to assist spacecraft engineers at the TDRS ground terminal in trouble shooting problems that are not readily solved with routine procedures, and without expert counsel. An additional goal of the prototype system is to develop in-house expert system and knowledge engineering skills. The prototype system diagnoses antenna pointing and earth pointing problems that may occur within the TDRS Attitude Control System (ACS). Plans include expansion to fault isolation of problems in the most critical subsystems of the TDRS spacecraft. Long term benefits are anticipated with use of an expert system during future TDRS programs with increased mission support time, reduced problem solving time, and retained expert knowledge and experience. Phase 2 of the project is intended to provide NASA the necessary expertise and capability to define requirements, evaluate proposals, and monitor the development progress of a highly competent expert system for NASA's Tracking Data Relay Satellite. Phase 2 also envisions addressing two unexplored applications for expert systems, spacecraft integration and tests (I and T) and support to launch activities. The concept, goals, domain, tools, knowledge acquisition, developmental approach, and design of the expert system. It will explain how NASA obtained the knowledge and capability to develop the system in-house without assistance from outside consultants. Future plans will also be presented.

  5. Design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Wei; Song, Dalei; Xu, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun

    2013-09-23

    Mooring systems are the most effective method for making sustained time series observations in the oceans. Generally there are two types of ocean mooring systems: surface and subsurface. Subsurface mooring system is less likely to be damaged after deployment than surface system. However, subsurface system usually needs to be retrieved from the ocean for data recovery. This paper describes the design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery: Timed Communication Buoy System (TCBS). TCBS is usually integrated in the main float and the designated data is downloaded from the control system. After data retrieval, TCBS will separate from main float, rise up to the sea surface, and transmit data by satellite communication.

  6. Mooring system of ocean turbulence observation based on submerged buoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Da-lei; Sun, Jing-jing; Xue, Bing; Jiang, Qian-li; Wu, Bing-wei

    2013-06-01

    A comparison experiment has been taken in the Kiaochow Bay between a newly designed mooring turbulence observation instrument (MTOI) and microstructure profiler MSS60 made by Sea & Sun. The whole observing system is based on a submerged buoy, in which the turbulence observation instrument is embedded, with a streamline-shape floating body, which is made of buoyancy material of glass microsphere. For the movement of seawater and the cable shaking strongly anytime influence the behaviors of the floating body, the accelerate sensors are used for the vibration measurement in the instrument together with the shear probe sensor. Both the vibration data and the shear data are acquired by the instrument at the same time. During data processing, the vibration signals can be removed and leave the shear data which we really need. In order to prove the reliability of the new turbulence instrument MTOI, a comparison experiment was designed. The measuring conditions are the same both in time and space. By this way, the two groups of data are comparable. In this paper, the conclusion gives a good similarity of 0.93 for the two groups of shear data in dissipation rate. The processing of the data acquired by MTOI is based on the cross-spectrum analysis, and the dissipation rate of it matches the Nasmyth spectrum well.

  7. Architecture of an Expert System for Oceanographic Mooring Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    force of ac -ichor N p= coefficient of friction W = weight of anchor- in water N = normal force opposing the weight of the anchor T= vertical force by...Balls i Dual Acoustic Releases with tension Bars Dual Acoustic Releases 5- m Chain - * DATE Un IverSIt of m PsmAS ocean Fnqineerinq Dent. DRAFTp CHECPI...Mooring Assembly 500m 10m_ ln Wire Rope w/Fairings 3/16" -. VACM w/Jacket 495m 3/lb WR w/Jacket w/Fairings 1000w AC 494m 3/16" WR w/Jacket 1500m - VACM

  8. Mississippi River Navigation System. Environmental Evaluations of Proposed Mooring Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    In the eastern half of the basin the stream gradients are steep; there are flash floods during the rainy season , and low flows during the dry seasons ...important fur bearing animals, with oppossum, raccoon and fox also being trapped in signficant numbers . 2.6.3 Cultural Features The population of the basin...ndesear and Idefy~f 61P 6(ek number ) 2L. AWRACr (C101w m revere o N mewem MA ideUt& by Week nmbod 2As Part of the Mississippi River Mooring Study, an

  9. Impact analysis of air gap motion with respect to parameters of mooring system for floating platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhong-xiang; Huo, Fa-li; Nie, Yan; Liu, Yin-dong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the impact analysis of air gap concerning the parameters of mooring system for the semi-submersible platform is conducted. It is challenging to simulate the wave, current and wind loads of a platform based on a model test simultaneously. Furthermore, the dynamic equivalence between the truncated and full-depth mooring system is still a tuff work. However, the wind and current loads can be tested accurately in wind tunnel model. Furthermore, the wave can be simulated accurately in wave tank test. The full-scale mooring system and the all environment loads can be simulated accurately by using the numerical model based on the model tests simultaneously. In this paper, the air gap response of a floating platform is calculated based on the results of tunnel test and wave tank. Meanwhile, full-scale mooring system, the wind, wave and current load can be considered simultaneously. In addition, a numerical model of the platform is tuned and validated by ANSYS AQWA according to the model test results. With the support of the tuned numerical model, seventeen simulation cases about the presented platform are considered to study the wave, wind, and current loads simultaneously. Then, the impact analysis studies of air gap motion regarding the length, elasticity, and type of the mooring line are performed in the time domain under the beam wave, head wave, and oblique wave conditions.

  10. The development of the Garden Banks block 388 FPF mooring system

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, P.G.S.; Librino, F.; Scovell, D.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses work conducted during the design, procurement and installation of Enserch Exploration, Inc.`s Garden Banks 388 FPF mooring system. The design began with the execution of a trade-off study evaluating and comparing previously installed floating production moorings in the Gulf of Mexico, coupled with evaluation of new concepts and emphasis on cost effective solutions. The design effort involved dynamic analysis and wind tunnel and model tank testing, all in accordance with the newly completed API document RP 2FP1. Inspection of various components from the Placid GC-29 FPS moorings (installed in 1987 and recovered in 1990) determined that sections of chain, jacketed spiral strand wire rope, submersible buoys and connectors could be reused with suitable refurbishment. The excellent condition of the rig`s onboard winching system also resulted in the reuse of the windlasses, with specified upgrades. Because a sufficient amount of used wire was not available, a bare spiral strand wire rope construction was adopted, including zinc anodes in the new sections, rather than jacketed strand. The lack of cost effective installation vessels in the Gulf of Mexico at the time of the installation bid posed challenges to Enserch. However, an innovative preset mooring installation scheme involving Heeremac`s SSCV Balder on its own moorings was adopted. Since the vessel was already in the Gulf of Mexico on contract for other projects, a cost effective contract was negotiated. The results of this effort led to considerable cost savings for Enserch, compared to conventional FPF mooring systems previously installed in the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Steady State Performance Analysis of Hydrostatic Transmission System using Two Motor Summation Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, K.; Kumar, N.; Kumar, R.

    2013-10-01

    Hydrostatic transmission (HST) system used in heavy earth moving machineries (HEMMs) has high power density, wide range of speed control and good overall efficiency. Hydrostatically coupled two motor summation drive is an alternative power transmission system, compared to existing closed-loop HST system with low speed high torque motor, used in HEMM. Such drive arrangement has made the possibility to design the transmission system, used in heavy vehicles, in an efficient way to cover wide range of torque-speed demand. This article studies the concept of two motor summation drive and its steady state performance. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the performance of such system. The characteristics of single and two motor drive systems are compared at different load-torque and speed levels. It is concluded that two motor hydrostatic drive systems is more effective at high load-torque and low speed compared to single motor drive system.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Compliant-Moored System Dynamics with Applications to Marine Energy Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Tyler

    The development of a numerical model simulating the dynamic response of compliant-moored submerged systems to non-uniform fluid flow is presented. The model is meant to serve as a computational tool with applications to compliant-moored marine energy converters by time-domain representation of the mooring dynamics. The scope of the initial code is restricted to full-submerged moored tidal turbines, though the model can be readily expanded to analyze wave energy converters as well. The system is modeled in a Lagrangian frame treating tidal turbines and structural elements as rigid bodies. Mooring lines are modeled as a series of discrete elastic segments, with parameters and force contributions lumped to point-mass nodes joining each segment. Full-range of motion is achieved using the alpha-beta-gamma Euler Angle method. The governing equations of motion of the system are derived computationally through implementation of Lagrange's Equation of Motion. The techniques employed to develop the symbolic expressions for the total kinetic, potential, and damping energies of the system and the forces acting on each element of the system are discussed. The system of differential equations obtained from evaluation of Lagrange's Equation with the developed symbolic expressions is solved numerically using a built-in MATLAB ordinary differential equation solver called ODE15i.m with the user defined initial condition of the system. Several validation tests are presented and their results discussed. Finally, an explanation of future plans for development of the model and application to existing tidal energy systems are presented.

  13. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  14. OTEC mooring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, D.R.; Wendt, R.L.; Johnson, B.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes existing technology for mooring components which may be suitable for OTEC use. Due to the platform size, depth of water, and length of design life required for an operational OTEC plant, only large and high capacity mooring components were investigated. The report contains engineering, test, and manufacturer's data on wire rope, synthetic rope (nylon, polyester and Kevlar), anchors, deck fittings and machinery, and design concepts for tension leg platform mooring systems. A significant portion of the effort was directed to the assessment of synthetic rope technology and its application to moorings.

  15. Probabilistic analysis and fatigue damage assessment of offshore mooring system due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Anteng; Li, Huajun; Wang, Shuqing; Du, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Both wave-frequency (WF) and low-frequency (LF) components of mooring tension are in principle non-Gaussian due to nonlinearities in the dynamic system. This paper conducts a comprehensive investigation of applicable probability density functions (PDFs) of mooring tension amplitudes used to assess mooring-line fatigue damage via the spectral method. Short-term statistical characteristics of mooring-line tension responses are firstly investigated, in which the discrepancy arising from Gaussian approximation is revealed by comparing kurtosis and skewness coefficients. Several distribution functions based on present analytical spectral methods are selected to express the statistical distribution of the mooring-line tension amplitudes. Results indicate that the Gamma-type distribution and a linear combination of Dirlik and Tovo-Benasciutti formulas are suitable for separate WF and LF mooring tension components. A novel parametric method based on nonlinear transformations and stochastic optimization is then proposed to increase the effectiveness of mooring-line fatigue assessment due to non-Gaussian bimodal tension responses. Using time domain simulation as a benchmark, its accuracy is further validated using a numerical case study of a moored semi-submersible platform.

  16. A Hydrostatic Bearing Test System for Measuring Bearing Load Using Magnetic-Fluid Lubricants.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huei Chu; Chen, Lu-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This paper conducts a study on the design of a hydrostatic bearing test system. It involves the determination of viscous properties of magnetic-fluid lubricants. The load of a hydrostatic thrust bearing using a water-based magnetite nanofluid of varying volume flow rate is measured under an applied external induction field via the test system. Results reveal that the presence of nanoparticles in a carrier liquid would cause an enhanced bearing load. Such an effect could be further magnified by increasing the lubricant volume flow rate or the external induction field strength.

  17. Mooring Mechanics. A Comprehensive Computer Study. Volume II. Three Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of Moored and Drifting Buoy Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    measured in water-filled quarry tests ( Vachon , 1975). The elemeptal strips of the drogue are assumed subject to tangential viscous drag calculated using the...area of the strip and a tangential drag coefficient measured during drop tests in the ocean ( Vachon , 1975). Gravitational, hydrostatic pressure, and...1499. RUDNICK, P. (1967) Motion of a Large Spar Buoy in Sea Waves, Journal of Ship Research, December 1967, 257-267. VACHON , W. A. (1973) Scale Model

  18. The transition from hydrostatic to greater than hydrostatic fluid pressure in presently active continental hydrothermal systems in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Fluid flow at hydrostatic pressure (P{sub h}) is relatively common through fractures in silicic and in mafic crystalline rocks where temperatures are less than about 350-370C. In contrast, pore-fluid pressure (P{sub f}) > P{sub h} has been encountered at the bottom of 3 geothermal exploration wells that attained temperatures >370C (at Larderello, Italy, at Nesjavellir, Iceland, and at The Geysers, California). Chemical sealing by deposition of minerals in veins appears to have allowed the development of the high P{sub f} encountered in the above wells. The upper limit for the magnitude of P{sub f} that can be attained is controlled by either the onset of shear fracturing (where differential stress is relatively high) that reopens clogged veins, or the hydraulic opening of new or old fractures (at relatively low values of differential stress). The brittle-plastic transition for silicic rocks can occur at temperatures as high as 370-400C in tectonically active regions. In regions where high-temperature geothermal systems develop and persist, it appears that either strain rates commonly are in the range 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}13}, or that silicic rocks in the shallow crust generally behave rheologically more like wet quartz diorite than wet Westerly granite.

  19. State feedback control of surge oscillations of two-point mooring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, R. K.; Banik, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.

    2017-01-01

    Stability analysis of surge oscillations of two-point mooring system under state feedback control with time-delay is investigated. The two-point mooring system is harmonically excited and essentially represents a strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillator. In this paper, a frequency domain based method viz. incremental harmonic balance method along with arc-length continuation technique (IHBC) is first employed to identify the primary and higher order subharmonic responses which may be present in such system. The IHBC is then reformulated in a manner to treat two-point mooring system under state feedback control with time-delay and is applied to obtain control of responses in an efficient and systematic way. The stability of uncontrolled responses for primary and higher order subharmonic oscillations is obtained by Floquet's theory using Hsu' scheme; whereas the stability of controlled responses is obtained by applying semi-discretization method for delay differential equation. The study focussed on the controlling primary, higher order subharmonics and chaotic responses by considering appropriate feedback gains and delay by way of (i) appreciable reduction of primary, subharmonic responses, (ii) exclusion of all higher order subharmonics 2T, 3T, 5T and 9T (1/n subharmonics or period-n solutions), and (iii) reduction of the extent of domain of all instability phenomena represented by various type of bifurcation of solutions, jump phenomena, chaotic responses etc. In the study, negative velocity feedback is observed to be much effective than state feedback for better controlling of surge oscillation of two-point mooring system. Also, the effect of larger gain values is investigated by an extensive parametric study for vibration control with different delay values.

  20. Evaluation of a low-cost and accurate ocean temperature logger on subsurface mooring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Ming

    2014-06-23

    Monitoring seawater temperature is important to understanding evolving ocean processes. To monitor internal waves or ocean mixing, a large number of temperature loggers are typically mounted on subsurface mooring systems to obtain high-resolution temperature data at different water depths. In this study, we redesigned and evaluated a compact, low-cost, self-contained, high-resolution and high-accuracy ocean temperature logger, TC-1121. The newly designed TC-1121 loggers are smaller, more robust, and their sampling intervals can be automatically changed by indicated events. They have been widely used in many mooring systems to study internal wave and ocean mixing. The logger’s fundamental design, noise analysis, calibration, drift test, and a long-term sea trial are discussed in this paper.

  1. LONG TERM STABILITY STUDY AT FNAL AND SLAC USING BINP DEVELOPED HYDROSTATIC LEVEL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, Andrei

    2003-05-28

    Long term ground stability is essential for achieving the performance goals of the Next Linear Collider. To characterize ground motion on relevant time scales, measurements have been performed at three geologically different locations using a hydrostatic level system developed specifically for these studies. Comparative results from the different sites are presented in this paper.

  2. Surge and pitch coupled nonlinear responses of a single point mooring system

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, R.; Li, G.

    1996-12-31

    The nonlinear dynamic analysis of the single point mooring systems under the action of random sea waves was carried out by means of nonlinear spectral analysis. The study indicates that it is possible to solve nonlinear vibration problems by using spectral analysis directly. It is not necessary to linearize the nonlinear terms in this method so that the errors introduced by linearization can be eliminated. Therefore, this method will provide a convenient and accurate tool for solving nonlinear random vibrations.

  3. Oscillation Responses to an Extreme Weather Event from a Deep Moored Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Zhang, X.; Ingle, S.

    2011-12-01

    In June 2007 tropical Cyclone Gonu passed directly over an ocean observing system consisting of four, deep autonomous mooring stations along the 3000 m isobath in the northern Arabian Sea. Gonu was the largest cyclone known to have occurred in the Arabian Sea or to strike the Arabian Peninsula. The mooring system was designed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. and installed in cooperation with the Oman Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth. The instruments on the moorings continuously recorded water velocities, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity at multiple depths and at hourly intervals during the storm. Near-inertial oscillations at all moorings from thermocline to seafloor are coincident with the arrival of Gonu. Sub-inertial oscillations with periods of 2-10 days are recorded at the post-storm relaxation stage of Gonu, primarily in the thermocline. These oscillations consist of warm, saline water masses, likely originating from the Persian Gulf. Prominent 12.7-day sub-inertial waves, measured at a station ~300 km offshore, are bottom-intensified and have characteristics of baroclinic, topographically-trapped waves. Theoretical results from a topographically-trapped wave model are in a good agreement with the observed 12.7-day waves. The wavelength of the 12.7-day waves is about 590 km calculated from the dispersion relationship. Further analysis suggests that a resonant standing wave is responsible for trapping the 12.7-day wave energy inside the Sea of Oman basin. The observational results reported here are the first measurements of deepwater responses to a tropical cyclone in the Sea of Oman/Arabian Sea. Our study demonstrates the utility of sustained monitoring for studying the impact of extreme weather events on the ocean.

  4. Deep water installation -- Heavy mooring and riser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvheim, N.

    1995-12-31

    While the move into deep water has provided exciting challenges often resulting in ingenious and novel equipment it is usually the equipment or the solution itself that is remembered and discussed. Too often one overlooks just how that novel equipment was actually installed. Perhaps one of the most exciting and ingenious equipment designs of recent times is the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. To date the authors have had the privilege of installing each of the 3 systems so far produced. Their work is well on course for installing the fourth during the coming summer. This paper addresses the installation of two of these systems in the summer of 94 in 350m of the hostile Halten Bank waters as part of the Conoco Heidrun development. Because the Norwegian oil industry has always been at the cutting edge of technology each new development results in the usual plethora of statistics which when presented in papers Re this are accompanied with a long list of superlatives like tallest, heaviest, deepest, quickest etc. etc. Installation work at Heidrun has a similar list. Because the 2 STL systems at Heidrun (called Direct Shuttle Loading DSL) were to be installed in such deep water the sheer size of the system components are worthy of review.

  5. A Moored Airborne Video System with Nearshore Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Lippmann, T.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past two decades researchers have developed video-based remote sensing techniques to measure relevant nearshore variables. Measurements made include spatial patterns in sand bar morphology, run-up oscillations, wave breaking distributions, phase speed and wave angle, and most recently, surface currents within the surf zone and swash. In general, vertical (i.e., downward oriented) photography or videography is preferred to high-oblique land-based systems. However, although aircraft-mounted video systems have been under development for several years, the relatively high cost and short dwell time has limited its widespread application. Thus, most video measurements for research applications are obtained through methods whereby arrays of video cameras are fixed on land and oriented obliquely to the surf zone region of interest. The typically high-oblique imagery is limited in spatial ground coverage by rapidly degrading resolution in the far field, as well as lay-over problems associated with a fluctuating sea surface and high incidence look-angle. In order to alleviate these problems, researchers have attempted mounting video (or photographic) sensors on tethered balloons where long time series can be obtained over large regions of the surf zone without limiting resolution in the far field. In our research we have developed a technique for mounting a video system onboard a tethered helikite, a combination kite and helium-filled blimp (Allsopp Helikites, Ltd.). The video system consists of a downward-looking video camera in a custom weather-proof housing mounted on the keel of the helikite. Also included are a differential GPS receiver, tilt and heading sensor for accurate geometrical transformation, micro-processor, onboard power supply, and wireless data link. In this presentation, we will discuss the system in more detail, the image resolution and accuracies, and the expected applications to nearshore processes research. This work is sponsored by the Office

  6. A comparison of the impact of 'seagrass-friendly' boat mooring systems on Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Demers, Marie-Claire A; Davis, Andrew R; Knott, Nathan A

    2013-02-01

    Permanent boat moorings have contributed to the decline of seagrasses worldwide, prompting the development of 'seagrass-friendly' moorings. We contrasted seagrass cover and density (predominantly Posidonia australis) in the vicinity of three mooring types and nearby reference areas lacking moorings in Jervis Bay, Australia. We examined two types of 'seagrass-friendly' mooring and a conventional 'swing' mooring. 'Swing' moorings produced significant seagrass scour, denuding patches of ~9 m radius. Seagrass-friendly 'cyclone' moorings produced extensive denuded patches (average radius of ~18 m). Seagrass-friendly 'screw' moorings, conversely, had similar seagrass cover to nearby reference areas. Our findings reinforce previous work highlighting the negative effects of 'swing' and 'cyclone' moorings. In contrast, the previously unstudied 'screw' moorings were highly effective. We conclude that regular maintenance of moorings and the monitoring of surrounding seagrass are required to ensure that 'seagrass-friendly' moorings are operating effectively. This is important, as following damage Posidonia will take many decades to recover. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impacts of PIRATA Mooring Observations in the MERCATOR Operational Ocean System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F.; Du Penhoat, Y.; Cousin, R.; Greiner, E.; Benkiran, M.

    2004-05-01

    Since January 2003, PIRATA mooring data in the tropical Atlantic are assimilated routinely in the Mercator operational ocean model. A series of 4 experiments have been carried out to test the impact on PIRATA data on the MERCATOR system (http://www.mercator-ocean.fr/). The control run is basically the operational system, assimilating in a multivariate scheme the temperature and salinity profiles (XBT, ARGO floats and at PIRATA moorings), and altimeter data. A second experiment is run assimilating in-situ data only outside the tropics (20oN-20oS). In a third experiment, we assimilated only PIRATA data, while in a fourth assimilation system excludes PIRATA data. We want to address on which processes and at what scales the assimilation of profiles of temperature and salinity of PIRATA mooring have an impact. Do they also improve the ocean interior below the depth of PIRATA profiles? Assimilation of PIRATA data leads to better equatorial dynamic constraints. The multivariate assimilation in the tropics of temperature and salinity profiles and sea level anomalies allows to constrain the equatorial dynamics and the mesoscale features, and to rectify the mass fields. Compared to altimeter-only assimilation run, it leads to a more realistic thermocline with a warming of the surface layer and a cooling below the thermocline. The improvements are visible in the mixed layer and below down to 300meters. When a lack of PIRATA occurred (if a sensor at a depth does not transmit), the impact is immediate but is more sensitive mainly between 200 and 400 meters. We also discuss the changes in the current system, mainly on the strength of the equatorial undercurrent and on the current system of the western boundary, the North Brasilan Current, regions where we usually found strong error growths.

  8. Clearance sensing hydrostatic bearing restrictor for the homopolar generator systems tester

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This work documents the development of an advanced hydrostatic bearing system for the subcritical operation of the Homopolar Generator Systems Tester. Since this Systems Tester is unique in that it was built with stationary shaft bearings, several new hydrostatic bearing ideas were developed. First, a new clearance sensing variable restrictor was developed to accommodate the almost five fold increase in radial bearing clearance intrinsic to the machine geometry encountered during each machine cycle. A new dynamic hydrostatic thrust-bearing model was developed that permits tilt about any axis perpendicular to the axis of rotation as well as axial motion. These bearings are well instrumented providing data to verify the models both at rest and during operation. In addition to the bearing advances, overall machine design decisions, as well as the factors which influenced them, are examined. Magnetic effects are discussed with respect to both rotor dynamic effects and thrust bearing loading. Bearing sump and sealing philosophies are also discussed. Decisions concerning rotor geometry are similarly reviewed. Finally, the results of the experiment are evaluated in terms of the future impact on not only homopolar generators, but on rotating machinery in general.

  9. OCGen Module Mooring Project

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2015-02-06

    Ocean Renewable Power Company's OCGen Module Mooring Project provided an extensive research, design, development, testing and data collection effort and analysis conducted with respect to a positively buoyant, submerged MHK device secured to the seabed using a tensioned mooring system. Different analytic tools were evaluated for their utility in the design of submerged systems and their moorings. Deployment and testing of a prototype OCGen® system provided significant data related to mooring line loads and system attitude and station keeping. Mooring line loads were measured in situ and reported against flow speeds. The Project made a significant step in the development of designs, methodologies and practices related to floating and mooring of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Importantly for Ocean Renewable Power Company, the Project provided a sound basis for advancing a technically and commercially viable OCGen® Power System. The OCGen® Power System is unique in the MHK industry and, in itself, offers distinct advantages of MHK devices that are secured to the seabed using fixed structural frames. Foremost among these advantages are capital and operating cost reductions and increased power extraction by allowing the device to be placed at the most energetic level of the water column.

  10. Motion performance and mooring system of a floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Haitao

    2012-09-01

    The development of offshore wind farms was originally carried out in shallow water areas with fixed (seabed mounted) structures. However, countries with limited shallow water areas require innovative floating platforms to deploy wind turbines offshore in order to harness wind energy to generate electricity in deep seas. The performances of motion and mooring system dynamics are vital to designing a cost effective and durable floating platform. This paper describes a numerical model to simulate dynamic behavior of a new semi-submersible type floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) system. The wind turbine was modeled as a wind block with a certain thrust coefficient, and the hydrodynamics and mooring system dynamics of the platform were calculated by SESAM software. The effect of change in environmental conditions on the dynamic response of the system under wave and wind loading was examined. The results indicate that the semi-submersible concept has excellent performance and SESAM could be an effective tool for floating wind turbine design and analysis.

  11. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-05-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  12. An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sinpyo; Lee, Inwon; Park, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Cheolmin; Chun, Ho-Hwan; Lim, Hee Chang

    2015-09-01

    An experimental study of the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of a SPAR buoy-type floating offshore wind turbine is presented. The effects of the Center of Gravity (COG), mooring line spring constant, and fair-lead location on the turbine's motion in response to regular waves are investigated. Experimental results show that for a typical mooring system of a SPAR buoy-type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (FOWT), the effect of mooring systems on the dynamics of the turbine can be considered negligible. However, the pitch decreases notably as the COG increases. The COG and spring constant of the mooring line have a negligible effect on the fairlead displacement. Numerical simulation and sensitivity analysis show that the wind turbine motion and its sensitivity to changes in the mooring system and COG are very large near resonant frequencies. The test results can be used to validate numerical simulation tools for FOWTs.

  13. A High Precision Double Tubed Hydrostatic Leveling System for Accelerator Alignment Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singatulin, Shavkat; Volk, J.; Shiltsev, V.; Chupyra, A.; Medvedko, A.; Kondaurov, M.

    2006-09-01

    Since 1998 several hydrostatic leveling systems (HLS) have been installed in different locations at Fermilab. This work was in collaboration with Budker Institute and SLAC. All systems were either half-filled pipe (HF) or full-filled pipe (FF). Issues assembling HLS are covered in this article. An improved and cost-effective water system with temperature stabilized of water media is presented. This proposal is a double-tube full-filled DT-FF system. Examples of hardware configurations are included for systems located at Fermilab.

  14. Numerical estimation of various influence factors on a multipoint hydrostatic leveling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, R. V.; Yepin, V. V.; Shestakov, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    Among various methods that allow controlling quasi-static vertical displacements of structures, the hydrostatic leveling method remains relevant. A multi-point hydrostatic leveling systems allows controlling the vertical displacement field with the required spatial resolution. It is assumed that the liquid level in the each measuring vessel has the same absolute elevation. However, it is influenced by various external factors, which are difficult to eliminate when implementing the method in real constructions. Consequently, it is necessary to assess the influence of these factors and develop methods aimed at their reduction or compensation. A mathematical model, describing the viscous incompressible fluid motion located in a multipoint level with absolutely rigid walls, is presented in the paper. The experiments performed with two point levels of different lengths, as well as analytical estimates of other authors, made it possible to estimate the degree of confidence of the model and the boundaries of applicability. The influence of non-uniform density of a liquid on the liquid level in a 4-point hydrostatic level of different topologies is numerically estimated using the model. An estimation of transient processes in the level, caused by an air pressure surge over one of the measuring vessels is carried out.

  15. Sensitivity analysis of air gap motion with respect to wind load and mooring system for semi-submersible platform design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fa-li; Nie, Yan; Yang, De-qing; Dong, Gang; Cui, Jin

    2016-07-01

    A design of semi-submersible platform is mainly based on the extreme response analysis due to the forces experienced by the components during lifetime. The external loads can induce the extreme air gap response and potential deck impact to the semi-submersible platform. It is important to predict air gap response of platforms accurately in order to check the strength of local structures which withstand the wave slamming due to negative air gap. The wind load cannot be simulated easily by model test in towing tank whereas it can be simulated accurately in wind tunnel test. Furthermore, full scale simulation of the mooring system in model test is still a tuff work especially the stiffness of the mooring system. Owing to the above mentioned problem, the model test results are not accurate enough for air gap evaluation. The aim of this paper is to present sensitivity analysis results of air gap motion with respect to the mooring system and wind load for the design of semi-submersible platform. Though the model test results are not suitable for the direct evaluation of air gap, they can be used as a good basis for tuning the radiation damping and viscous drag in numerical simulation. In the presented design example, a numerical model is tuned and validated by ANSYS AQWA based on the model test results with a simple 4 line symmetrical horizontal soft mooring system. According to the tuned numerical model, sensitivity analysis studies of air gap motion with respect to the mooring system and wind load are performed in time domain. Three mooring systems and five simulation cases about the presented platform are simulated based on the results of wind tunnel tests and sea-keeping tests. The sensitivity analysis results are valuable for the floating platform design.

  16. Bifurcation analysis of surge and rotating stall in the Moore-Greitzer compression system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hos, Csaba; Champneys, Alan; Kullmann, Laszlo

    2003-04-01

    A simple compression system model, described by a set of three ordinary nonlinear differential equations (the Moore-Greitzer model) is studied using bifurcation analysis to give a qualitative understanding of the presence of surge and rotating stall. First, three parameter values are chosen and a reduced planar system is studied to detect the local bifurcations of pure surge modes. The global bifurcation diagrams are then completed with the help of the continuation software AUTO. A special feature of this 2D system is a set of parameter values where two Takens-Bogdanov points merge. As a next step, the interaction of surge and rotating stall modes is analysed using the same branch tracking technique. Several novel bifurcation scenarios are described. Two-parameter bifurcation maps are computed and a satisfactory agreement with experimental results is found. An explanation is given for the onset of deep surge, rotating stall, classic surge and the hysteresis effects experienced in measurements.

  17. An Instrument for Autonomous Measurement of the CO2 System in Seawater via Moored Deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, W. R.; Sayles, F. L.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Recent study of the oceanic uptake of CO2 and its consequences for chemical balances in seawater have made clear the need for continuous, autonomous measurements of the CO2 system. RATS (the Robotic Analyzer for the TCO2 system in Seawater) has been developed to fill that need for mooring-based measurements. The instrument combines conductimetric measurement of TCO2 with spectrophotometric pH measurement for calculation of CO2 speciation. The TCO2/ pH pair of analyses permits precise calculation of both pCO2 (for air-sea exchange studies) and the saturation state of seawater with respect to carbonate minerals (for studies of the effect of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms). Operating under battery power, RATS can perform a total of 800 analyses at intervals of 1.5-hours or more for deployments of up to 8 months. Field tests have shown that TCO2 can be measured over a 6-week interval with precision and accuracy of +/- 3.5 micromol/kg. The recently rebuilt pH system has been shown in the laboratory to have precision of +/- 0.001 pH units and accuracy of +/- 0.005 or better; this performance was sustained over a 2-month test period. The new pH system and TCO2 will be tested in the field in the fall of 2011; tests will include detailed comparison of RATS with discrete, laboratory-based measurements of the CO2 system. RATS is a low-power, mooring-based instrument that meets the needs for the study of CO2 cycling in the surface ocean.

  18. True-slime-mould-inspired hydrostatically coupled oscillator system exhibiting versatile behaviours.

    PubMed

    Umedachi, Takuya; Idei, Ryo; Ito, Kentaro; Ishiguro, Akio

    2013-09-01

    Behavioural diversity is an indispensable attribute of living systems, which makes them intrinsically adaptive and responsive to the demands of a dynamically changing environment. In contrast, conventional engineering approaches struggle to suppress behavioural diversity in artificial systems to reach optimal performance in given environments for desired tasks. The goals of this research include understanding the essential mechanism that endows living systems with behavioural diversity and implementing the mechanism in robots to exhibit adaptive behaviours. For this purpose, we have focused on an amoeba-like unicellular organism: the plasmodium of true slime mould. Despite the absence of a central nervous system, the plasmodium exhibits versatile spatiotemporal oscillatory patterns and switches spontaneously among these patterns. By exploiting this behavioural diversity, it is able to exhibit adaptive behaviour according to the situation encountered. Inspired by this organism, we built a real physical robot using hydrostatically coupled oscillators that produce versatile oscillatory patterns and spontaneous transitions among the patterns. The experimental results show that exploiting physical hydrostatic interplay—the physical dynamics of the robot—allows simple phase oscillators to promote versatile behaviours. The results can contribute to an understanding of how a living system generates versatile and adaptive behaviours with physical interplays among body parts.

  19. A New Experimental System for the Extended Application of Cyclic Hydrostatic Pressure to Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Timothy M.; Hamilton, Douglas W.; Nieponice, Alejandro; Soletti, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical forces have been shown to be important stimuli for the determination and maintenance of cellular phenotype and function. Many cells are constantly exposed in vivo to cyclic pressure, shear stress, and/or strain. Therefore, the ability to study the effects of these stimuli in vitro is important for understanding how they contribute to both normal and pathologic states. While there exist commercial as well as custom-built devices for the extended application of cyclic strain and shear stress, very few cyclic pressure systems have been reported to apply stimulation longer than 48 h. However, pertinent responses of cells to mechanical stimulation may occur later than this. To address this limitation, we have designed a new cyclic hydrostatic pressure system based upon the following design variables: minimal size, stability of pressure and humidity, maximal accessibility, and versatility. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was utilized to predict the pressure and potential shear stress within the chamber during the first half of a 1.0 Hz duty cycle. To biologically validate our system, we tested the response of bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs) from Sprague Dawley rats to a cyclic pressure stimulation of 120/80 mm Hg, 1.0 Hz for 7 days. Cellular morphology was measured using Scion Image, and cellular proliferation was measured by counting nuclei in ten fields of view. CFD results showed a constant pressure across the length of the chamber and no shear stress developed at the base of the chamber where the cells are cultured. BMPCs from Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a significant change in morphology versus controls by reducing their size and adopting a more rounded morphology. Furthermore, these cells increased their proliferation under cyclic hydrostatic pressure. We have demonstrated that our system imparts a single mechanical stimulus of cyclic hydrostatic pressure and is capable of at least 7 days of continuous operation without affecting cellular

  20. A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline by using distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huijuan; Sun, Zhenshi; Qian, Ya; Zhang, Tao; Rao, Yunjiang

    2015-07-01

    A hydrostatic leak test for water pipeline with a distributed optical fiber vibration sensing (DOVS) system based on the phase-sensitive OTDR technology is studied in this paper. By monitoring one end of a common communication optical fiber cable, which is laid in the inner wall of the pipe, we can detect and locate the water leakages easily. Different apertures under different pressures are tested and it shows that the DOVS has good responses when the aperture is equal or larger than 4 mm and the inner pressure reaches 0.2 Mpa for a steel pipe with DN 91cm×EN 2cm.

  1. Implementation of an Expert System for Design of Single-Point Subsurface Oceanographic Moorings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    POINT SUBSURFACE OCEANOGRAPHIC MOORINGS by Santhosh Kumaran and Richard A. Skop December 1988 Approved for public release. Distribution unlimited...Single-(PltSubsurface Oceanographic Moorings !Z. PERSONAL ALITHOR(S) i Santhosh Kuraran and Richard A. Skop 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 1i4

  2. Hydrostatic pressure response of an oxide-based two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabaleta, J.; Borisov, V. S.; Wanke, R.; Jeschke, H. O.; Parks, S. C.; Baum, B.; Teker, A.; Harada, T.; Syassen, K.; Kopp, T.; Pavlenko, N.; Valentí, R.; Mannhart, J.

    2016-06-01

    Two-dimensional electron systems with fascinating properties exist in multilayers of standard semiconductors, on helium surfaces, and in oxides. Compared to the two-dimensional (2D) electron gases of semiconductors, the 2D electron systems in oxides are typically more strongly correlated and more sensitive to the microscopic structure of the hosting lattice. This sensitivity suggests that the oxide 2D systems are highly tunable by hydrostatic pressure. Here we explore the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the well-characterized 2D electron system formed at LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interfaces [A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature (London) 427, 423 (2004), 10.1038/nature02308] and measure a pronounced, unexpected response. Pressure of ˜2 GPa reversibly doubles the 2D carrier density ns at 4 K. Along with the increase of ns, the conductivity and mobility are reduced under pressure. First-principles pressure simulations reveal the same behavior of the carrier density and suggest a possible mechanism of the mobility reduction, based on the dielectric properties of both materials and their variation under external pressure.

  3. Computer-controlled system for investigating the hydrostatic piezoresistive effect as a function of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Ahmed

    1987-08-01

    A system has been developed for investigating the piezoresistive effect in semiconducting solids and conductive polymers under different elastic and thermal boundary conditions. The system provides the necessary information needed for sensor design such as nonlinearity, hysteresis, and temperature dependence of the piezoresistance coefficient. The system operates under full computer control for both data acquisition and data reduction cycles. The temperature dependence of the hydrostatic piezoresistance coefficient of a donor-doped polycrystalline semiconducting barium titanate below and above its ferroelectric-paraelectric Curie point will be presented for the first time. The nonlinear and hysteretic behavior of an electrically conductive polymer over the pressure range of 0-30 MPa will also be demonstrated.

  4. A new hydrostatic leveling system developed for the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Kivioja, L. A.

    1998-09-18

    As a result of the calibration tests performed with the first prototype units using the new measurement principle, we believe that the described leveling method is stable and accurate to the micron level with a sufficiently large range for the expected elevation changes of the support girders used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Although long-term studies with this system have not been conducted, we believe that after installation this system requires little or no servicing for long periods of time. The methods described in this paper cover only the elevation changes of individual vessels. However, changes in the tilt of a girder must also be known. Therefore, a combination of tiltmeters in conjunction with this hydrostatic level system (HLS) would be most suitable for measuring the tilt and elevation changes of the APS girders.

  5. Density Measurement System for Weights of 1 kg to 20 kg Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Jae; Lee, Woo Gab; Abdurahman, Mohammed; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    This paper presents a density measurement system to determine density of weights from 1 kg to 20 kg using hydrostatic weighing. The system works based on Archimedes principle. The density of reference liquid is determined using this setup while determining the density of the test weight. Density sphere is used as standard density ball to determine density of the reference liquid. A new immersion pan is designed for dual purpose to carry the density sphere and the cylindrical test weight for weighing in liquid. Main parts of the setup are an electronic balance, a thermostat controlled liquid bath, reference weights designed for bottom weighing, dual purpose immersion pans and stepping motors to load and unload in weighing process. The results of density measurement will be evaluated as uncertainties for weights of 1 kg to 20 kg.

  6. Computing beyond Moore's Law

    SciTech Connect

    Shalf, John M.; Leland, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Here, photolithography systems are on pace to reach atomic scale by the mid-2020s, necessitating alternatives to continue realizing faster, more predictable, and cheaper computing performance. If the end of Moore's law is real, a research agenda is needed to assess the viability of novel semiconductor technologies and navigate the ensuing challenges.

  7. Computing beyond Moore's Law

    DOE PAGES

    Shalf, John M.; Leland, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Here, photolithography systems are on pace to reach atomic scale by the mid-2020s, necessitating alternatives to continue realizing faster, more predictable, and cheaper computing performance. If the end of Moore's law is real, a research agenda is needed to assess the viability of novel semiconductor technologies and navigate the ensuing challenges.

  8. A new hydrostatic anti-G suit vs. a pneumatic anti-G system: preliminary comparison.

    PubMed

    Eiken, O; Kölegård, R; Lindborg, B; Aldman, M; Karlmar, K E; Linder, J; Kölegoård, R

    2002-07-01

    A newly developed hydrostatic anti-G suit is now commercially available. The suit is said to offer a high level of protection against +Gz acceleration. However, past experience shows that it is difficult to produce a hydrostatic suit with effective high-G protection. Careful testing is, therefore, needed to verify its efficacy. The G-protective properties of the hydrostatic anti-G suit (Libelle; L) were compared with those of a pneumatic anti-G ensemble (AGE-39) used in the Swedish JAS 39 Cripen aircraft. Three pilots were studied during vertical (+Gz) acceleration in a centrifuge using the following: 1) the L-suit with varied straining maneuvers; 2) the AGE-39 in combination with full anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM) throughout each high-G exposure (full maneuver; FM); and 3) the AGE-39 in combination with AGSM during the initial part of each high-G exposure (reduced maneuver; RM). G-intensity tolerance was established during exposures to rapid onset rate (ROR) profiles with G-plateau levels ranging from +6.0 to +9.0 Gz. G-endurance was studied during simulated aerial combat maneuvers (SACM) consisting of 10 cycles of 5.5 to 7.5 G. All three pilots tolerated 9.0 G with the pneumatic system both in the RM and FM conditions; their tolerances averaged 6.3 G (range 6.0 to 7.0 G) for the L suit. Thus, during the ROR exposures only the 6.0 G profile was completed by all subjects in all three conditions. At this G-load both muscle straining (as indicated by electromyographic activity in thigh and abdomen) and heart rate were higher in the L than in the RM condition. Mean arterial pressure at eye level was higher in the FM than in the L and RM conditions. Only one subject was able to complete the SACM profile in the L condition. In the RM condition all subjects completed the SACM profile and in the FM condition two subjects completed the SACM. Whether the AGE-39 was used in combination with maximal AGSM throughout the duration of each high-G exposure or with AGSM only

  9. Lateral vibration behavior analysis and TLD vibration absorption design of the soft yoke single-point mooring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Bai-cheng; Wu, Wen-hua; Yao, Wei-an; Du, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Mooring system is the key equipment of FPSO safe operation. The soft yoke mooring system is regarded as one of the best shallow water mooring strategies and widely applied to the oil exploitation in the Bohai Bay in China and the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the analysis of numerous monitoring data obtained by the prototype monitoring system of one FPSO in the Bohai Bay, the on-site lateral vibration behaviors found on the site of the soft yoke subject to wave load were analyzed. ADAMS simulation and model experiment were utilized to analyze the soft yoke lateral vibration and it was determined that lateral vibration was resonance behaviors caused by wave excitation. On the basis of the soft yoke longitudinal restoring force being guaranteed, a TLD-based vibration damper system was constructed and the vibration reduction experiments with multi-tank space and multi-load conditions were developed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed TLD vibration reduction system can effectively reduce lateral vibration of soft yoke structures.

  10. Comparative analysis of earthquakes data recorded by the innovative Precision Laser Inclinometer instruments and the classic Hydrostatic Level System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaryan, N.; Batusov, V.; Budagov, J.; Glagolev, V.; Lyablin, M.; Trubnikov, G.; Shirkov, G.; Gayde, J.-Ch.; Di Girolamo, B.; Herty, A.; Mainaud Durand, H.; Mergelkuhl, D.; Rude, V.

    2017-05-01

    The Hydrostatic Level System (HLS) data and the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) instruments data have been comparatively analyzed in the event of surface angular oscillations induced by earthquakes. The comparative data analysis has shown an agreement on the arrival and stop time of earthquakes. The data have been analyzed within the instruments sensitivity ranges having an overlap in frequency intervals.

  11. A Long-term Temperature and Depth Logger for Ocean Mooring System

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Tian, Chuan; Guo, Zhongwen; Deng, Zhiqun; Zhao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Temperature, depth and conductivity (CTD) are the most essential physical properties of sea water. CTD instrument is one of the most efficient approaches for collecting the accurate ocean information. However, traditional CTD instruments are not best suited for applications that require high resolution data by a large number of sensors because of their large size and high cost. This paper describes the design of a compact, high-accuracy, and low-cost temperature and depth (TD) logger for ocean mooring system. The noise floor of the TD logger was evaluated in lab for determining the logger measurement resolution. A specific calibration method was implemented for pressure transducer calibration to eliminate the thermal affect. The initial temperature accuracy of the TD logger is ±0.002°C and the pressure accuracy is ±0.05% of full scale. The effective resolution is 0.0001°C and 0.001% full scale for temperature and pressure measurement, respectively. A 150 days off-shore experiment was also conducted to evaluate the stability of TD logger measurement.

  12. Investigation of mooring system design under different environmental conditions in the buoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaoxue

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the mooring system under different environmental conditions in the buoy, steel pipe, steel drums, chain four separate part and the overall stress analysis, the chain were established whether mopping the floor elastic catenary model and mass spring model. In order to solve the problem, analysis found that the buoy, steel pipe, steel drums, chain by the pull is only related to the draft ch, so we use iterative method, initial ch value, calculated by the top of the chain gradually pull Fs, and to judge whether there is lots of drag chain. If we use the elastic part of the chain mopping the floor, the catenary model is improved, and we use the lumped mass spring model. Set the constraint conditions for the water depth of 18 meters; ch does not exceed the height of the buoy; continue to reset the ch value until the same time to meet the above two constraints. When the wind speed is 12m/s, the draft depth is 0.7105m.

  13. Sustaining a Moored Ocean Observing System in the Tropical Pacific: The Evolution of the TAO Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grissom, K.; Kessler, W. S.; McArthur, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array has been a major observational component of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) research and operational climate forecasting since its conception in 1984. Developed by NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) in response to the poorly-observed 1982-1983 El Niño, the moored buoy array was completed in 1994 and transitioned from PMEL to NOAA's National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) in 2005. During this transition, the TAO Refresh project was initiated to address equipment obsolescence and the need for more real-time data. Completed in 2011, the "TAO Refresh" array has new capabilities and added value. Then in 2012, federal resource shortfalls threatened the future sustainability of this array. The resulting limited maintenance caused a decline in real-time data, yet it also served as the impetus to focus international attention on the demands of sustaining an observing system capable of monitoring the tropical ocean-atmosphere interaction. To continue collecting observations at historical levels, NOAA and partners needed an alternate strategy, and to this end conceived the international TPOS 2020 project, the Tropical Pacific Observing System for 2020. At more than 30 years, the TAO array stands as one of the longest sustained in-situ ocean observing networks in the world and provides a rare long-term record of a dominant climate signal. Here we review the evolution of the TAO array, from its development at PMEL, to its transition and modernization at NDBC, and provide a preview of its future as a key element of the Tropical Pacific Observing System.

  14. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely...

  15. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored...

  16. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored...

  17. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored...

  18. High Speed, High Temperature, Fault Tolerant Operation of a Combination Magnetic-Hydrostatic Bearing Rotor Support System for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark; Montague, Gerald; Provenza, Andrew; Palazzolo, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Closed loop operation of a single, high temperature magnetic radial bearing to 30,000 RPM (2.25 million DN) and 540 C (1000 F) is discussed. Also, high temperature, fault tolerant operation for the three axis system is examined. A novel, hydrostatic backup bearing system was employed to attain high speed, high temperature, lubrication free support of the entire rotor system. The hydrostatic bearings were made of a high lubricity material and acted as journal-type backup bearings. New, high temperature displacement sensors were successfully employed to monitor shaft position throughout the entire temperature range and are described in this paper. Control of the system was accomplished through a stand alone, high speed computer controller and it was used to run both the fault-tolerant PID and active vibration control algorithms.

  19. Development and Sensing Properties Study of Underwater Assembled Water Depth-Inclination Sensors for a Multi-Component Mooring System, Using a Self-Contained Technique

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenhua; Feng, Jiaguo; Xie, Bin; Tang, Da; Yue, Qianjin; Xie, Ribin

    2016-01-01

    Prototype monitoring techniques play an important role in the safety guarantee of mooring systems in marine engineering. In general, the complexities of harsh ocean environmental conditions bring difficulties to the traditional monitoring methods of application, implementation and maintenance. Large amounts of existing mooring systems still lack valid monitoring strategies. In this paper, an underwater monitoring method which may be used to achieve the mechanical responses of a multi-point catenary mooring system, is present. A novel self-contained assembled water depth-inclination (D-I) sensor is designed and manufactured. Several advanced technologies, such as standalone, low power consumption and synchronism, are considered to satisfy the long-term implementation requirements with low cost during the design process. The design scheme of the water resistance barrel and installation clamp, which satisfies the diver installation, are also provided in the paper. An on-site test has previously been carried out on a production semisubmersible platform in the South China Sea. The prototype data analyses, including the D-I value in the time domain (including the data recorded during the mooring retraction and release process) and spectral characteristics, are presented to reveal the accuracy, feasibility and stability of the sensor in terms of fitting for the prototype monitoring of catenary mooring systems, especially for in-service aging platforms. PMID:27854357

  20. Development and Sensing Properties Study of Underwater Assembled Water Depth-Inclination Sensors for a Multi-Component Mooring System, Using a Self-Contained Technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenhua; Feng, Jiaguo; Xie, Bin; Tang, Da; Yue, Qianjin; Xie, Ribin

    2016-11-16

    Prototype monitoring techniques play an important role in the safety guarantee of mooring systems in marine engineering. In general, the complexities of harsh ocean environmental conditions bring difficulties to the traditional monitoring methods of application, implementation and maintenance. Large amounts of existing mooring systems still lack valid monitoring strategies. In this paper, an underwater monitoring method which may be used to achieve the mechanical responses of a multi-point catenary mooring system, is present. A novel self-contained assembled water depth-inclination (D-I) sensor is designed and manufactured. Several advanced technologies, such as standalone, low power consumption and synchronism, are considered to satisfy the long-term implementation requirements with low cost during the design process. The design scheme of the water resistance barrel and installation clamp, which satisfies the diver installation, are also provided in the paper. An on-site test has previously been carried out on a production semisubmersible platform in the South China Sea. The prototype data analyses, including the D-I value in the time domain (including the data recorded during the mooring retraction and release process) and spectral characteristics, are presented to reveal the accuracy, feasibility and stability of the sensor in terms of fitting for the prototype monitoring of catenary mooring systems, especially for in-service aging platforms.

  1. Turning performance in squid and cuttlefish: unique dual-mode, muscular hydrostatic systems.

    PubMed

    Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S

    2016-05-01

    Although steady swimming has received considerable attention in prior studies, unsteady swimming movements represent a larger portion of many aquatic animals' locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. Squids and cuttlefishes are cephalopods with unique muscular hydrostat-driven, dual-mode propulsive systems involving paired fins and a pulsed jet. These animals exhibit a wide range of swimming behavior, but turning performance has not been examined quantitatively. Brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, and dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, were filmed during turns using high-speed cameras. Kinematic features were tracked, including the length-specific radius of the turn (R/L), a measure of maneuverability, and angular velocity (ω), a measure of agility. Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, with (R/L)min values of 3.4×10(-3)±5.9×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-3)±4.7×10(-4) (mean±s.e.m.), respectively, which are the lowest measures of R/L reported for any aquatic taxa. Lolliguncula brevis exhibited higher agility than S. bandensis (ωa,max=725.8 versus 485.0 deg s(-1)), and both cephalopods have intermediate agility when compared with flexible-bodied and rigid-bodied nekton of similar size, reflecting their hybrid body architecture. In L. brevis, jet flows were the principal driver of angular velocity. Asymmetric fin motions played a reduced role, and arm wrapping increased turning performance to varying degrees depending on the species. This study indicates that coordination between the jet and fins is important for turning performance, with L. brevis achieving faster turns than S. bandensis and S. bandensis achieving tighter, more controlled turns than L. brevis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. 33 CFR 62.35 - Mooring buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.35 Mooring buoys. Mooring... identification and to avoid confusion with aids to navigation....

  3. 33 CFR 62.35 - Mooring buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.35 Mooring buoys. Mooring... identification and to avoid confusion with aids to navigation....

  4. 33 CFR 62.35 - Mooring buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.35 Mooring buoys. Mooring... identification and to avoid confusion with aids to navigation....

  5. 33 CFR 62.35 - Mooring buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.35 Mooring buoys. Mooring... identification and to avoid confusion with aids to navigation....

  6. 33 CFR 62.35 - Mooring buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.35 Mooring buoys. Mooring... identification and to avoid confusion with aids to navigation....

  7. Reaction Rates in Deformation and Hydrostatic Experiments in the Anhydrous System Anorthite - Forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stunitz, H.; de Ronde, A.; Tullis, J.

    2004-12-01

    The reaction anorthite + forsterite --> cpx + opx + spinel ± gnt proceeds at high temperatures and elevated pressures in the lower crust and upper mantle. This solid-solid reaction was studied experimentally at 900° C in the pressure range of 1000 to 1600 MPa in both shearing deformation and hydrostatic experiments. Powder mixtures (1:1 by vol) of anorthite (An92) and forsterite (Fo93) are hot pressed at 970° C, 750 MPa for 48 hrs in a Griggs apparatus and deformed (˙ γ = 5 × 105 sec-1) after adjustment of P and T to run conditions. H2O content of the samples has been measured by FTIR and is < 30 ppm. At small pressure overstepping (ca. 200 to 300 MPa) undeformed samples show only 10 % reaction progress after 168 hrs, whereas reaction progress in deformed samples after 72 hrs is 60 %. At greater pressure overstepping (700 to 800 MPa) the difference between deformed and undeformed samples is less pronounced (95 % after 60 hrs deformed, 75 % after 168 hrs undeformed) but still present. At greater pressure overstepping, undeformed samples show an exponential reaction rate, whereas that of deformed samples is always linear. Samples initially deformed and then kept hydrostatically show a fast initial reaction rate (85 % of total reaction progress after 0.25 of total run time), followed by a slower reaction progress (15 % reaction after 0.75 of total time) under hydrostatic conditions. The difference in reaction progress is mainly attributed to different nucleation rates. In all experiments, enstatite rims form around olivine grains separating those from other reaction products. Such coronas are indicative of diffusion-controlled reactions. Plots of rim thickness vs time indicate a relative increase of the bulk diffusion coefficient by a factor 5 in the deformed samples compared to undeformed. However, as the grain size of reaction products of deformed samples is 10 times smaller than in undeformed ones, the nucleation rate in deformed samples is ˜ 5000 times

  8. 46 CFR 121.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 121.300 Section 121.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment § 121.300 Ground tackle and mooring lines....

  9. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  10. Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jennifer R A.; Kier, William M.; Walker, I. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal support systems are essential for support, movement, muscular antagonism, and locomotion. Crustaceans shed their rigid exoskeleton at each molt yet are still capable of forceful movement. We hypothesize that the soft water-inflated body of newly molted crabs may rely on a hydrostatic skeleton, similar to that of worms and polyps. We measured internal hydrostatic pressure and the force exerted during claw adduction and observed a strong correlation between force and hydrostatic pressure, consistent with hydrostatic skeletal support. This alternation between the two basic skeletal types may be widespread among arthropods.

  11. Certification of offshore mooring steel wire ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Lohne, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    The trend to produce oil in increasingly deeper water has led to the development of floating production solutions for the exploitation of the energy resources in these areas. It is a fact that steel wire ropes have been used and are being proposed as line segments in the majority of the mooring systems of these units/ships. This paper specifies requirements for the materials, design, manufacture and testing of large diameter offshore mooring steel wire ropes and may serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Typical applications covered are permanently moored floating production systems (FPS), offshore loading systems and mobile offshore units.

  12. Mooring Analysis of the Ocean Sentinel through Field Observation and Numerical Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-22

    8 Figure 10: Examples of typical spread mooring systems (SST 2009...general methods: driving, drilling, or pumping for suction piles. Suction piles are hollow, sealed tubes that are embedded into the seafloor by...simple passive moorings to complex active systems. The three main configuration categories are single-point moorings, spread moorings, and dynamic

  13. Ode to Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2011-01-01

    Best known for his monumental abstract sculptures of reclining figures, Henry Moore's forms are generally pierced or have a hollow space within them. Some say that these "organic undulating forms" are reminiscent of the landscape of his home in Yorkshire, England. Moore was a giant in the world of sculpture and his large cast bronzes and marble…

  14. Ode to Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2011-01-01

    Best known for his monumental abstract sculptures of reclining figures, Henry Moore's forms are generally pierced or have a hollow space within them. Some say that these "organic undulating forms" are reminiscent of the landscape of his home in Yorkshire, England. Moore was a giant in the world of sculpture and his large cast bronzes and marble…

  15. The structure of the microbial communities in low-moor and high-moor peat bogs of Tomsk oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Kukharenko, O. S.; Yakushev, A. V.; Semenova, T. A.; Inisheva, L. A.

    2012-03-01

    The number, structure, and physical state of the microbial communities in high-moor and low-moor peat bogs were compared. Distinct differences in these characteristics were revealed. The microbial biomass in the high-moor peat exceeded that in the low-moor peat by 2-9 times. Fungi predominated in the high-moor peat, whereas bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the low-moor peat. The micromycetal complexes of the high-moor peat were characterized by a high portion of dark-colored representatives; the complexes of the low-moor peat were dominated by fast-growing fungi. The species of the Penicillum genus were dominant in the high-moor peat; the species of Trichoderma were abundant in the low-moor peat. In the former, the bacteria were distinguished as minor components; in the latter, they predominated in the saprotrophic bacterial complex. In the high-moor peat, the microorganisms were represented by bacilli, while, in the low-moor peat, by cytophages, myxobacteria, and actinobacteria. The different physiological states of the bacteria in the studied objects reflecting the duration of the lag phase and the readiness of the metabolic system to consume different substrates were demonstrated for the first time. The relationships between the trophic characteristics of bacterial habitats and the capacity of the bacteria to consume substrates were established.

  16. Nonlinear response of floating buoys with hydro-elastic moors

    SciTech Connect

    Idris, K.; Leonard, J.W.; Yim, S.C.S.

    1996-12-31

    A time-domain model was developed to predict the response of a moored buoy subject to hydrodynamic loadings. External loadings on the buoy include hydrodynamic forces, mooring tension, wind loading and weight. A coupled analysis of the interaction of a buoy and its mooring is included and three-dimensional response is assumed. System nonlinearities include, large translational motions of the buoy and mooring line, large rotations of the mooring line and non-conservative fluid loadings. Numerical examples and experimental results are compared to contrast the validity and capability of the formulations and solution techniques.

  17. Research on analytical method of fatigue characteristics of Soft Yoke Mooring System based on full-scale measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-hua; Lv, Bai-cheng; Yue, Qian-jin; Zhang, Yan-tao; Lin, Yang

    2017-04-01

    By focusing on the vulnerability of the structure of marine equipments, together with considering the randomness of meta-ocean load in statistics, a kind of analytical method of fatigue characteristics of marine structure based on full-scale and actual measurement of prototype is proposed. On the basis of short-term field measurement results of structural response, research is carried out on the fatigue analysis of hinge joints at the upper part of the Soft Yoke single point Mooring System (SYMS) by simultaneously monitoring the environmental load and considering the design criteria of offshore structure. Through analysis of finite element modeling, the time-histories of typical stress response are obtained, and then the assessment of fatigue damage at key hinge joints is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can accurately analyze the fatigue damage of offshore engineering structure caused by the effect of wave load. The present analytical method of fatigue characteristics can be extended on other offshore engineering structures subjected to meta-ocean load.

  18. A Moored System for Understanding the Temporal Variability of Prey Fields of Deep Diving Predators off Cape Hatteras and Response to Gulf Stream Fronts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Duke University Nicholas School of the Environment & Pratt School of Engineering 135 Duke Marine Lab Rd. Beaufort, NC 28516 phone: (252) 504-7566...used for behavioral and ecological studies of marine organisms. Marine mammal prey surveys are typically conducted from the ocean surface during...context to relative temporal variability of the biology for the region. The mooring system (Figures 1-3) is designed for extended durations (servicing

  19. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System Mooring array: Monitoring the Western Boundary Currents of the Coral Sea and Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, C. R.; McAllister, F.; Brinkman, B. W.; Pitcher, C.; Luetchford, J.; Rigby, P.

    2009-05-01

    Since 1987 Great Barrier Reef weather and water temperature observations have been transmitted in near real time using HF radio from pontoons or towers on coral reefs by AIMS. In contrast oceanographic measurements have however been restricted to loggers serviced at quarterly to half yearly downloads. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System (GBROOS) is a regional node of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS is an Australian Government initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and has been supported by Queensland Government since 2006. GBROOS comprises real time observations from weather stations, oceanographic moorings, underway ship observations, ocean surface radar, satellite image reception and reef based sensor networks. This paper focuses on an array of in-line moorings that have been deployed along the outer Great Barrier Reef in order to monitor the Western Boundary currents of the Coral Sea. The Westward flowing Southern Equatorial Current bifurcates into the poleward flowing East Australian Current and the equatorward North Queensland Current. The 4 mooring pairs consist of a continental slope mooring, nominally in 200m of water and one on the outer continental shelf within the GBR matrix in depths of 30 to 70m. The array is designed to detect any changes in circulation, temperature response, mixed layer depth and ocean-shelf interactions. A review of likely impacts of climate change on the physical oceanography of the GBR is providing a basis upon which to explore what processes may be affected by climate change. Sample data and results from the initial year of observations will be presented.

  20. Full time-domain nonlinear coupled dynamic analysis of a truss spar and its mooring/riser system in irregular wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, MinDong; Teng, Bin; Xiao, LongFei; Ning, DeZhi; Shi, ZhongMin; Qu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    A new full time-domain nonlinear coupled method has been established and then applied to predict the responses of a Truss Spar in irregular wave. For the coupled analysis, a second-order time-domain approach is developed to calculate the wave forces, and a finite element model based on rod theory is established in three dimensions in a global coordinate system. In numerical implementation, the higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM) is employed to solve the velocity potential, and the 4th-order Adams-Bashforth-Moultn scheme is used to update the second-order wave surface. In deriving convergent solutions, the hull displacements and mooring tensions are kept consistent at the fairlead and the motion equations of platform and mooring-lines/risers are solved simultaneously using Newmark- β integration scheme including Newton-Raphson iteration. Both the coupled quasi-static analysis and the coupled dynamic analysis are performed. The numerical simulation results are also compared with the model test results, and they coincide very well as a whole. The slow-drift responses can be clearly observed in the time histories of displacements and mooring tensions. Some important characteristics of the coupled responses are concluded.

  1. The Representation of Tropical Cyclones Within the Global William Putman Non-Hydrostatic Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) at Cloud-Permitting Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-S), an earth system model developed in the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), has integrated the non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid. The extension to a non-hydrostatic dynamical framework and the quasi-uniform cubed-sphere geometry permits the efficient exploration of global weather and climate modeling at cloud permitting resolutions of 10- to 4-km on today's high performance computing platforms. We have explored a series of incremental increases in global resolution with GEOS-S from irs standard 72-level 27-km resolution (approx.5.5 million cells covering the globe from the surface to 0.1 hPa) down to 3.5-km (approx. 3.6 billion cells).

  2. A fresh approach to mooring production vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Graney, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    Designers of floating production vessels (FPV) for the development of marginal and deep water oil fields are learning to consider a new kind of mooring system that makes use of a linear chain puller for mooring such vessels - instead of relying on the traditional chain windlass or wire rope systems. FPVs require a system that provides passive yet high capacity mooring capability. Such a system is in conflict with weight restrictions and the available deck space needed for production equipment. In order to achieve maximum operating cost efficiencies, field developers are demanding that the deck load of floating production vessels be increased with various production equipment and that deck space be freed up to accommodate such increased loading. Consequently, a need has arisen for a new kind of mooring system that cuts back on the valuable space that would otherwise be required to accommodate bulky chain windlasses while at the same time achieves savings in weight. For certain applications, linear chain tensioning systems offer significant advantages in terms of weight and deck space. Careful analysis that considers such variables as environmental loading, water depth, and likely dynamic behavior of the vessel will allow proper selection of the mooring system, whether it be wire rope, chain windlass, or the new linear chain tensioner.

  3. Mooring Design for the Floating Oscillating Water Column Reference Model

    SciTech Connect

    Brefort, Dorian; Bull, Diana L.

    2014-09-01

    To reduce the price of the reference Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB), a study was done analyzing the effects of reducing the mooring line length, and a new mooring design was developed. It was found that the overall length of the mooring lines could be reduced by 1290 meters, allowing a significant price reduction of the system. In this paper, we will first give a description of the model and the storm environment it will be subject to. We will then give a recommendation for the new mooring system, followed by a discussion of the severe weather simulation results, and an analysis of the conservative and aggressive aspects of the design.

  4. Linear chain tensioning of moored production vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B. )

    1993-04-01

    As need for development of marginal and deepwater oil fields grows, demand increases for floating production vessels (FPVs) such as floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) units; spread-moored production semi-submersibles; and turret-moored production vessels. The FPV may be purpose-built; or an existing vessel such as an exploration drilling semi-sub or ship-shape vessel may be modified to suit the purpose. In either case, requirements for tensioning systems for the mooring lines on the FPV are quite unique, and are not without the potential for problems when traditional chain windlasses or wire rope systems are employed. This two-part article discusses the range of available technologies and systems for tensioning mooring lines on FPVs. It examines problems of size, weight and safety associated with some available designs; and it considers in detail a specific family of new units. Part 1, presented here, discusses the FPV market, worldwide potential locations and different requirements and evolution of the linear puller concept. The three principal types of chain jack systems - hollow ram, single cylinder and twin cylinders - are introduced and illustrated. And advantages of this relatively new form of passive mooring tensioning are outlined.

  5. Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on Pressure Surge of a Hydrostatic Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajit; Das, Jayanta; Dasgupta, Kabir; Barnwal, Manish Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Hydraulic power system is generally used in off-road vehicles for power transmission such as Heavy Earth Moving Machineries (HEMM). Their energy efficiency and unsubstantial failure becomes an extensive subject of analysis. Various arrangements in the system are compassed along with the utilization of some appropriate components. Application of a hydraulic accumulator is one among them. Benefits of accumulator is its multi-purpose usages like energy saving and pressure surge damping. This paper deals with the control of pressure surges in the hydraulic system and energy saving from the surges by using accumulator. For this purpose, the simulation of the hydraulic system is done in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment and an external disturbance is introduced to generate the pressure surge. The surge absorptivity of the accumulator is studied for different sizes at different pre-charged conditions of the accumulator. The discharge characteristics of different sized accumulators are also analyzed in this paper. It is observed that the ability to absorb the surge and stabilize the system is high in the smaller capacity accumulator. However the energy delivery time of larger sized accumulator is high.

  6. The OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) mooring technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, D. R.; Wendt, R. L.; Johnson, B. A.

    1982-12-01

    Existing technology for mooring components which may be suitable for OTEC use is summarized. Due to the platform size, depth of water, and length of design life required for an operational OTEC plant, only large and high capacity mooring components were investigated. Engineering, test, and manufacturer's data on wire rope, synthetic rope (nylon, polyester and Kevlar), anchors, deck fittings and machinery, and design concepts for tension leg platform mooring systems are included. A significant portion of the effort was directed to the assessment of synthetic rope technology and its application to moorings.

  7. Interview with David Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Dietz, E. Jacquelin; Moor, David

    2013-01-01

    David Moore is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at Purdue University. He served as the first President of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) from 1993-1995 and as President of the American Statistical Association (ASA) in 1998. He is a Fellow of the ASA and of the IMS and was awarded the ASA's Founders Award in…

  8. Interview with David Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Dietz, E. Jacquelin; Moor, David

    2013-01-01

    David Moore is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at Purdue University. He served as the first President of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE) from 1993-1995 and as President of the American Statistical Association (ASA) in 1998. He is a Fellow of the ASA and of the IMS and was awarded the ASA's Founders Award in…

  9. The polyester rope taut leg mooring concept: A feasible means for reducing deepwater mooring cost and improving stationkeeping performance

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, M.M.; McKenna, H.A.

    1995-12-01

    The polyester rope taut leg mooring system offers a unique opportunity to reduce deepwater mooring system cost, while simultaneously improving stationkeeping performance. These gains are over catenary or taut leg systems designed using all steel components. This paper builds upon work presented at prior OTC conferences and focuses on concept feasibility and implementation. Feasibility is addressed from a systems basis including fiber and rope selection, definition of mechanical properties, mooring system integration, and effects of long-term usage. Implementation is believed practical based on current technology and in-place manufacturing capability. Available cyclic tension test results for polyester rope suggest a comparable fatigue performance to wire rope. The most significant challenge facing application of the polyester taut leg mooring concept is the lack of in-service experience compared to conventional steel catenary mooring systems.

  10. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Mooring and Towing Equipment §...

  11. Multi-layer hydrostatic equilibrium of planets and synchronous moons: theory and application to Ceres and to solar system moons

    SciTech Connect

    Tricarico, Pasquale

    2014-02-20

    The hydrostatic equilibrium of multi-layer bodies lacks a satisfactory theoretical treatment despite its wide range of applicability. Here we show that by using the exact analytical potential of homogeneous ellipsoids we can obtain recursive analytical solutions and an exact numerical method for the hydrostatic equilibrium shape problem of multi-layer planets and synchronous moons. The recursive solutions rely on the series expansion of the potential in terms of the polar and equatorial shape eccentricities, while the numerical method uses the exact potential expression. These solutions can be used to infer the interior structure of planets and synchronous moons from their observed shape, rotation, and gravity. When applied to the dwarf planet Ceres, we show that it is most likely a differentiated body with an icy crust of equatorial thickness 30-90 km and a rocky core of density 2.4-3.1 g cm{sup –3}. For synchronous moons, we show that the J {sub 2}/C {sub 22} ≅ 10/3 and the (b – c)/(a – c) ≅ 1/4 ratios have significant corrections of order Ω{sup 2}/(πGρ), with important implications for how their gravitational coefficients are determined from fly-by radio science data and for how we assess their hydrostatic equilibrium state.

  12. Charlotte Moore Sitterly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    2010-07-01

    Charlotte Moore Sitterly was a scientist in an era when it was rare for a woman to have the opportunity to devote her life to forefront science. Following her graduation from Swarthmore College in 1920, she accepted a position at Princeton University as an assistant to Henry Norris Russell. In 1925 she started a study of the solar spectrum. She could then not know that she would devote much of her scientific career to gathering basic atomic data that are invaluable to the scientific community, even today. In 1931 she obtained a Ph.D. degree at the University of California, Berkeley, and returned to Princeton as a staff member of the Princeton University Observatory. In 1945 Moore moved to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), to supervise preparation of the widely-used tables of atomic energy levels. Following the successful launching (1946) of a V2 rocket to obtain the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun, she started working also with Richard Tousey and his group at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Ultimately, they extended the solar spectrum down to 2200 angstroms. She continued her affiliations with both the NBS and the NRL until her death in 1990. Charlotte Moore was a rare scientist who devoted her career to obtaining accurate numbers, thus enabling the scientific community to open her tables and know that the data are reliable.

  13. Mooring apparatus for floating vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.A.; Lucker, L.H. Jr.

    1984-05-08

    A mooring apparatus for a semi-submersible oil exploration and drilling rig includes eight drum anchor hoists and winches on which are carried eight wire rope mooring lines. Each of these lines extends up over one of eight head sheaves and vertically down the outside face of the oil rig through a fairleader rotatably mounted with respect to the rig at a bottom submerged portion thereof. A linear line pull machine is mounted to the rig in encompassing relation to each of the vertical runs of mooring line between the head sheave and the fairleader. These eight mooring line assemblies are distributed around the periphery of the rig. Two mooring lines extend at 90/sup 0/ from each other at each corner of the rig. At least one hydraulic power unit is provided for each two of these mooring line assemblies, and air and hydraulic control means are provided utilizing power from this power unit selectively to: (1) reel out and reel in on the mooring lines when low line forces are involved using the anchor hoist; (2) to exert extremely high forces at slow speeds when necessary to set anchors attached to outer ends of the mooring lines and to positively hold the rig against the upward buoyant effect of the rig's pontoons; or (3) to operatively disassociate the linear pull machines from the mooring lines so that the mooring lines can be reeled outwardly at very high speeds.

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means an...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  19. Extending the Capabilities of the Mooring Analysis Program: A Survey of Dynamic Mooring Line Theories for Integration into FAST: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Masciola, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-03-01

    Techniques to model dynamic mooring lines come in various forms. The most widely used models include either a heuristic representation of the physics (such as a Lumped-Mass, LM, system), a Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) discretization of the lines (discretized in space), or a Finite-Difference (FD) model (which is discretized in both space and time). In this paper, we explore the features of the various models, weigh the advantages of each, and propose a plan for implementing one dynamic mooring line model into the open-source Mooring Analysis Program (MAP). MAP is currently used as a module for the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool to model mooring systems quasi-statically, although dynamic mooring capabilities are desired. Based on the exploration in this manuscript, the lumped-mass representation is selected for implementation in MAP based on its simplicity, computational cost, and ability to provide similar physics captured by higher-order models.

  20. Preliminary investigations into mooring forces on a semisubmersible and a turret moored tanker in pack ice, current and waves

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.J.; Spencer, D.

    1996-12-01

    Physical model tests were carried out on a scale model of a semisubmersible and a monohull tanker in drifting pack ice. The tests covered a range of drift velocities, directions and ice concentrations. The models were tested in both a fully restrained and moored condition. Data from the experiments were used to develop a semi-empirical numerical model to predict maximum global loads on the mooring system. These results were compared with the maximum loads on the mooring system caused by hydrodynamic forces (waves and current) predicted from a linear numerical model for waves. Analysis results showed that the maximum mooring loads due to the pack ice on the semisubmersible were considerably higher than those caused by the hydrodynamic forces on the same vessel. Also, the maximum mooring loads due to pack ice on the tanker were close to the maximum mooring loads caused by the hydrodynamic forces. Maximum mooring loads related to pack ice forces were realized in ice concentrations of 10/10 coverage while for concentrations less than 6/10 coverage loads attributed to pack ice were negligible in comparison to the hydrodynamic forces. The paper also presents a number of recommendations, based on these findings, to improve the performance of both vessel types and to advance the general state-of-the-art for analysis procedures related to offshore vessel moored in pack ice.

  1. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  2. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  3. The Hydrostatic Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alpha E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an example demonstrating the quantitative resolution of the hydrostatic paradox which is the realization that the force due to fluid pressure on the bottom of a vessel can be considerably greater or considerably less than the weight of the fluid in the vessel. (JRH)

  4. A 7-km Non-Hydrostatic Global Mesoscale Simulation with the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) for Observing System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, W.; Suarez, M.; Gelaro, R.; daSilva, A.; Molod, A.; Ott, L. E.; Darmenov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has used the Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) to produce a 2-year non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation for the period of June 2005-2007. This 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run (7km-G5NR) product will provide synthetic observations for observing system simulation experiments (OSSE)s at NASA and NOAA through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation. While GEOS-5 is regularly applied in seasonal-to-decadal climate simulations, and medium range weather prediction and data assimilation, GEOS-5 is also readily adaptable for application as a global mesoscale model in pursuit of global cloud resolving applications. Recent computing advances have permitted experimentation with global atmospheric models at these scales, although production applications like the 7km-G5NR have remained limited. By incorporating a non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core with scale aware physics parameterizations, the 7km-G5NR produces organized convective systems and robust weather systems ideal for producing observations for existing and new remote sensing instruments. In addition to standard meteorological parameters, the 7km-G5NR includes 15 aerosol tracers (including dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. The 7km-G5NR is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. We will discuss the technical challenges of producing the 7km-G5NR including the nearly 5 petabytes of full resolution output at 30-minute intervals as required by the OSSE developers, and modifications to the standard GEOS-5 physics to permit convective organization at the 'grey-zone' resolution of 7km. Highlights of the 7km-G5NR validation will focus on the representation of clouds and organized convection including tropical cyclones

  5. The dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhicheng; Sun, Jingwu; Zhai, Wenjie; Liu, Qingming; Chi, Wei

    1993-07-01

    Results of a theoretical study of the characteristics of hydrostatic bearings performed in terms of the compressibility of the air-contained oil are presented. A formula for the stability criterion of a hydrostatic bearing system and a dynamic stiffness formula is derived. It is found that, under the sinusoidal load, each of the pressure compensation systems has its own load frequency-film characteristics. The greater that compressible volume, V(oa), of oil, the smaller the dynamic stiffness. V(oa) must be reduced in the design of high-precision hydrostatic bearings. If the load frequency is in the low-stiffness area, the dynamic stiffness is small. Methods to enhance the dynamic stiffness are discussed.

  6. PELLISSIER H5 HYDROSTATIC LEVEL

    SciTech Connect

    Imfeld, Hans L.

    2003-05-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of {+-} 100 {micro}m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 {mu}m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accuracy of +/- 5 {mu}m over double leg closed loop surveys. The H5 incorporates several features that eliminate problems common with hydrostatic leveling, primarily errors due to thermal gradients along the fluid tube. It utilizes self-checking software and automatic water level detection to reduce observational errors. Design features also have made the instrument reasonably quick and easy to operate when used on a flat surface. The instrument can be adapted for use in a wide variety of environments by using support fixtures and brackets. The H5 is robust and operators require little training to become proficient in its use. It has been successfully employed on several projects including the FFTB project at SLAC, as well as the Green Bank Telescope project for the NRAO and the SSC project in Texas.

  7. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on emulsifying properties of sweet potato protein in model protein-hydrocolloids system.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nasir Mehmood; Mu, Tai-Hua; Ali, Farman; Arogundade, Lawrence A; Khan, Zia Ullah; Zhang, Maio; Ahmad, Shujaat; Sun, Hong-Nan

    2015-02-15

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on emulsifying properties of sweet potato protein (SPP) in presence of 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% (w/v) of guar gum (GG) and glycerol monostearate (GMS) were investigated. Emulsifying stability index (ESI) of the SPP with GG revealed significant increase (P<0.05) in ESI value at 600MPa treatment, while the stability of SPP-GMS emulsions significantly decreased with increase in GMS concentrations and HHP treatments (200-600MPa). HHP treatment considerably reduced the creaming rate for SPP-GG model while such case was not observed for SPP-GMS model. The flow index for SPP-GG emulsion model was found to decrease with increase in HHP treatment and had non-Newtonian behaviour. The SPP-GMS emulsion models with HHP treatments showed comparatively lower viscosities but had more Newtonian flow character. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Expert system support of a heat transfer model to optimize soot blowing - a case study at Delmarva`s Edge Moor Unit No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Nasal, J.R.; DesJardins, R.R.; Deaver, R.

    1996-05-01

    In response to an increasing demand for operational tools that benefit both efficiency and environmental compliance, General Physics Corporation (GP) has developed and installed a unique aid to optimize sootblowing at Delmarva Power`s Edge Moor Unit No. 5. By combining expert system techniques with a rigorous mathematical model, a robust and reliable indication of boiler section(s) cleanliness is graphically presented to the control room operators on a minute-to-minute basis. The overall approach used in the heat transfer model is based upon technology developed in the former Soviet Union while the expert system component acts as an independent {open_quotes}cross-check{close_quotes} of the values calculated in the math model. This paper presents an overview of the general engineering approach used in developing the boiler cleanliness module as an integral part of a power plant`s, performance monitoring system. It includes graphical displays of the user interface and describes the concepts behind the heat transfer model as well as typical expert system rules used to verify the accuracy of the model. The paper concludes with {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} and a comparison of empirical data versus calculated cleanliness values for the various boiler sections over a wide capacity range of the boiler.

  9. Expert system support of a heat transfer model to optimize soot blowing - A case study at Delmarva`s Edge Moor Unit No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Nasal, J.R.; Deaver, R.

    1995-12-31

    In response to an increasing demand for operational tools that benefit both efficiency and environmental compliance, General Physics Corporation (GP) has developed and installed a unique aid to optimize sootblowing at Delmarva Power`s Edge Moor Unit No. 5. By combining expert system techniques with a rigorous mathematical model, a robust and reliable indication of boiler section(s) cleanliness is graphically presented to the control room operators on a minute-to-minute basis. The overall approach used in the heat transfer model is based upon technology developed in the former Soviet Union while the expert system component acts as an independent {open_quotes}cross-check{close_quotes} of the values calculated in the math model. This paper presents an overview of the general engineering approach used in developing the boiler cleanliness module as an integral part of a power plant`s performance monitoring system. It includes graphical displays of the user interface and describes the concepts behind the heat transfer model as well as typical expert system rules used to verify the accuracy of the model. The paper concludes with {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} and a comparison of empirical data versus calculated cleanliness values for the various boiler sections over a wide capacity range of the boiler.

  10. Coupled Mooring Analyses for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, Senu; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Hall, Matthew; Bosma, Bret

    2016-06-24

    A wave-energy-converter-specific time-domain modeling method (WEC-Sim) was coupled with a lumped-mass-based mooring model (MoorDyn) to improve its mooring dynamics modeling capability. This paper presents a verification and validation study on the coupled numerical method. First, a coupled model was built to simulate a 1/25 model scale floating power system connected to a traditional three-point catenary mooring with an angle of 120 between the lines. The body response and the tension force on the mooring lines at the fairlead in decay tests and under regular and irregular waves were examined. To validate and verify the coupled numerical method, the simulation results were compared to the measurements from a wave tank test and a commercial code (OrcaFlex). Second, a coupled model was built to simulate a two-body point absorber system with a chain-connected catenary system. The influence of the mooring connection on the point absorber was investigated. Overall, the study showed that the coupling of WEC-Sim and the MoorDyn model works reasonably well for simulating a floating system with practical mooring designs and predicting the corresponding dynamic loads on the mooring lines. Further analyses on improving coupling efficiency and the feasibility of applying the numerical method to simulate WEC systems with more complex mooring configuration are still needed.

  11. Coupled Mooring Analyses for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sirnivas, Senu; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Hall, Matthew; Bosma, Bret

    2016-07-01

    A wave-energy-converter-specific time-domain modeling method (WEC-Sim) was coupled with a lumped-mass-based mooring model (MoorDyn) to improve its mooring dynamics modeling capability. This paper presents a verification and validation study on the coupled numerical method. First, a coupled model was built to simulate a 1/25 model scale floating power system connected to a traditional three-point catenary mooring with an angle of 120 between the lines. The body response and the tension force on the mooring lines at the fairlead in decay tests and under regular and irregular waves were examined. To validate and verify the coupled numerical method, the simulation results were compared to the measurements from a wave tank test and a commercial code (OrcaFlex). Second, a coupled model was built to simulate a two-body point absorber system with a chain-connected catenary system. The influence of the mooring connection on the point absorber was investigated. Overall, the study showed that the coupling of WEC-Sim and the MoorDyn model works reasonably well for simulating a floating system with practical mooring designs and predicting the corresponding dynamic loads on the mooring lines. Further analyses on improving coupling efficiency and the feasibility of applying the numerical method to simulate WEC systems with more complex mooring configuration are still needed.

  12. Analyzing the effect of integrating riser/mooring line design

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, P.; Chandwani, R.; Larsen, I.

    1996-12-31

    The design of riser and mooring systems for a floating production system usually assumes uncoupled behavior of the two systems, and each system is analyzed for the effects of the vessel response given as input. In certain situations, such as for a floating production system, the presence of the risers can affect natural periods, damping, and slow drift response of the vessel thereby influencing the system design. This paper discusses a method for analyzing the coupled riser/mooring system with emphasis on the effect of the risers on the total system behavior.

  13. A NANO enhancement to Moore's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jerry; Shen, Yin-Lin; Reinhardt, Kitt; Szu, Harold

    2012-06-01

    In the past 46 years, Intel Moore observed an exponential doubling in the number of transistors in every 18 months through the size reduction of individual transistor components since 1965. In this paper, we are exploring the nanotechnology impact upon the Law. Since we cannot break down the atomic size barrier, the fact implies a fundamental size limit at the atomic or Nanotechnology scale. This means, no more simple 18 month doubling as in Moore's Law, but other forms of transistor doubling may happen at a different slope in new directions. We are particularly interested in the Nano enhancement area. (i) 3-D: If the progress in shrinking the in-plane dimensions (2D) is to slow down, vertical integration (3D) can help increasing the areal device transistor density and keep us on the modified Moore's Law curve including the 3rd dimension. As the devices continue to shrink further into the 20 to 30 nm range, the consideration of thermal properties and transport in such nanoscale devices becomes increasingly important. (ii) Carbon Computing: Instead of traditional Transistors, the other types of transistors material are rapidly developed in Laboratories Worldwide, e.g. IBM Spintronics bandgap material and Samsung Nano-storage material, HD display Nanotechnology, which are modifying the classical Moore's Law. We shall consider the overall limitation of phonon engineering, fundamental information unit 'Qubyte' in quantum computing, Nano/Micro Electrical Mechanical System (NEMS), Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs), single layer Graphemes, single strip Nano-Ribbons, etc., and their variable degree of fabrication maturities for the computing and information processing applications.

  14. Moored offshore structures - evaluation of forces in elastic mooring lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crudu, L.; Obreja, D. C.; Marcu, O.

    2016-08-01

    In most situations, the high frequency motions of the floating structure induce important effects in the mooring lines which affect also the motions of the structure. The experience accumulated during systematic experimental tests and calculations, carried out for different moored floating structures, showed a complex influence of various parameters on the dynamic effects. Therefore, it was considered that a systematic investigation is necessary. Due to the complexity of hydrodynamics aspects of offshore structures behaviour, experimental tests are practically compulsory in order to be able to properly evaluate and then to validate their behaviour in real sea. Moreover the necessity to carry out hydrodynamic tests is often required by customers, classification societies and other regulatory bodies. Consequently, the correct simulation of physical properties of the complex scaled models becomes a very important issue. The paper is investigating such kind of problems identifying the possible simplification, generating different approaches. One of the bases of the evaluation has been found consideringtheresults of systematic experimental tests on the dynamic behaviour of a mooring chain reproduced at five different scales. Dynamic effects as well as the influences of the elasticity simulation for 5 different scales are evaluated together. The paper presents systematic diagrams and practical results for a typical moored floating structure operating as pipe layer based on motion evaluations and accelerations in waves.

  15. A diagnostic interface for the ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) modelling framework based on the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy v2.50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Bastian; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Numerical climate and weather models have advanced to finer scales, accompanied by large amounts of output data. The model systems hit the input and output (I/O) bottleneck of modern high-performance computing (HPC) systems. We aim to apply diagnostic methods online during the model simulation instead of applying them as a post-processing step to written output data, to reduce the amount of I/O. To include diagnostic tools into the model system, we implemented a standardised, easy-to-use interface based on the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) into the ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) modelling framework. The integration of the diagnostic interface into the model system is briefly described. Furthermore, we present a prototype implementation of an advanced online diagnostic tool for the aggregation of model data onto a user-defined regular coarse grid. This diagnostic tool will be used to reduce the amount of model output in future simulations. Performance tests of the interface and of two different diagnostic tools show, that the interface itself introduces no overhead in form of additional runtime to the model system. The diagnostic tools, however, have significant impact on the model system's runtime. This overhead strongly depends on the characteristics and implementation of the diagnostic tool. A diagnostic tool with high inter-process communication introduces large overhead, whereas the additional runtime of a diagnostic tool without inter-process communication is low. We briefly describe our efforts to reduce the additional runtime from the diagnostic tools, and present a brief analysis of memory consumption. Future work will focus on optimisation of the memory footprint and the I/O operations of the diagnostic interface.

  16. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    comparable catenary - moored terminal facility is estimated to require an installation time of about 14 days. A Single Anchor Leg Mooring for the OBFS...installing the anchor. A maximum horizontal force of 222 kips (from model tests) on a catenary moored 50,000-dwt tanker in 65 ft water depth with a 4...completed in less than 7 days. A comparable catenary -moored terminal facility is estimated to required an installation time of about 14 days

  17. Unmanned Aerial Systems, Moored Balloons, and the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Facilities in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Mark; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. Facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska were established at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons will be used in the near future to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. The DOE ARM Program has operated an atmospheric measurement facility in Barrow, Alaska, since 1998. Major upgrades to this facility, including scanning radars, were added in 2010. Arctic Observing Networks are essential to meet growing policy, social, commercial, and scientific needs. Calibrated, high-quality arctic geophysical datasets that span ten years or longer are especially important for climate studies, climate model initializations and validations, and for related climate policy activities. For example, atmospheric data and derived atmospheric forcing estimates are critical for sea-ice simulations. International requirements for well-coordinated, long-term, and sustained Arctic Observing Networks and easily-accessible data sets collected by those networks have been recognized by many high-level workshops and reports (Arctic Council Meetings and workshops, National Research Council reports, NSF workshops and others). The recent Sustaining Arctic Observation Network (SAON) initiative sponsored a series of workshops to "develop a set of recommendations on how to achieve long-term Arctic-wide observing activities that provide free, open, and timely access to high-quality data that will realize pan-Arctic and global value-added services and provide societal benefits." This poster will present information on opportunities for members of the

  18. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  19. Reconsidering Moore's Transactional Distance Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giossos, Yiannis; Koutsouba, Maria; Lionarakis, Antonis; Skavantzos, Kosmas

    2009-01-01

    One of the core theories of distance education is Michael Graham Moore's "Theory of Transactional Distance" that provides the broad framework of the pedagogy of distance education and allows the generation of almost infinite number of hypotheses for research. However, the review of the existing studies relating to the theory showed the use of a…

  20. Synchronous changes in the seismicity rate and ocean-bottom hydrostatic pressures along the Nankai trough: A possible slow slip event detected by the Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kensuke; Nakano, Masaru; Takahashi, Narumi; Hori, Takane; Kamiya, Shinichiro; Araki, Eiichiro; Nakata, Ryoko; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2016-06-01

    We detected long-term hydrostatic pressure changes at ocean-bottom stations of the Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET) along the Nankai trough, off southwestern Japan. We detected these changes after removing the contributions of ocean mass variations and sensor drift from the records. In addition, we detected a decrease in the background seismicity rate of a nearby earthquake cluster that was synchronous with the hydrostatic pressure changes. We interpreted these observed hydrostatic pressure changes to reflect vertical deformation of the ocean floor of 3-8 cm, and we consider the cause of the seafloor crustal deformation to be a slow slip event (SSE) beneath the stations. Because the pressure changes were observed at stations with distances less than 20 km to each other, we inferred that the SSE occurred in the shallow part of the sedimentary wedge, such as on a splay fault system. The synchronous observation of an SSE and a seismicity rate change suggests that both were triggered by a change in the regional stress that may be associated with stress accumulation and release processes occurring along the Nankai trough. These data show that continuous and careful monitoring of crustal activities by DONET stations provides an effective way to detect seismic and geodetic signals related to the occurrence of megathrust or other types of large earthquakes.

  1. Analysis and design of trial well mooring in deepwater of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongfeng; Ji, Shaojun; Tang, Changquan; Li, Jiansong; Zhong, Huiquan; Ian, Ong Chin Yam

    2012-06-01

    Mooring systems play an important role for semi-submersible rigs that drill in deepwater. A detailed analysis was carried out on the mooring of a semi-submersible rig that conducted a trial well drilling at a deepwater location in the South China Sea in 2009. The rig was 30 years old and had a shallow platform with a designed maximum operating water depth of 457 m. Following the mooring analysis, a mooring design was given that requires upgrading of the rig's original mooring system. The upgrade included several innovations, such as installing eight larger anchors, i.e. replacing the original anchors and inserting an additional 600 m of steel wires with the existing chains. All this was done to enhance the mooring capability of the rig in order for the rig to be held in position to conduct drilling at a water depth of 476 m. The overall duration of the drilling was 50 days and the upgraded mooring system proved to be efficient in achieving the goal of keeping the rig stationary while it was drilling the trial well in the South China Sea. This successful campaign demonstrates that an older semi-submersible rig can take on drilling in deep water after careful design and proper upgrading and modification to the original mooring system.

  2. Development of moored oceanographic spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Charles R.; Mitchell, B. Greg; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1987-01-01

    Biospherical Instruments has successfully completed a NASA sponsored SBIR (Small Business Innovational Research Program) project to develop spectroradiometers capable of being deployed in the ocean for long periods of time. The completion of this project adds a valuable tool for the calibration of future spaceborne ocean color sensors and enables oceanographers to extend remote sensing optical techniques beyond the intermittent coverage of spaceborne sensors. Highlights of the project include two moorings totalling 8 months generating extensive sets of optical, biological, and physical data sets in the ocean off La Jolla, California, and a 70 day operational deployment of the resulting commercial product by the ONR and NASA sponsored BIOWATT program. Based on experience gained in these moorings, Biospherical Instruments has developed a new line of spectroradiometers designed to support the oceanographic remote sensing missions of NASA, the Navy, and various oceanographers.

  3. Moore's Law and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voller, V. R.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2002-07-01

    An estimate of the rate of increase in numerical simulation grid sizes with time is obtained by counting the grids (measured in terms of number of node points) reported in the nine volumes of an established proceedings on the numerical modeling of solidification phenomena dating back to 1980. It is shown that the largest grids used in a given year increase at a rate consistent with the well-known Moore's law on computing power, i.e., the number of nodes in the grids double every 18 months. From this observation, approximate bounds on the available grid size in a current year are established. This approximation is used to provide projections as to when, assuming Moore's law continues to hold, direct simulations of physical phenomena, which resolve to the smallest scale present, will be achievable.

  4. Air Deployed Oceanographic Mooring (ADOM).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    Ocean Electronic Applications, Inc. Naval Air Development Center 50 W. Mashta Drive, 44, Key Biscayne , F. 33149 Warminster, PA 18974 Summ ary program...or in the bomb bay . Dimensions were limited to tution (Mooring Mechanics). The University of Miami 330 cm (130 in.) in length, 71 cm (28 in.) in dia... Biscayne , Florida. Data was tele- attaching the ADOM to the cross. The 1981 deployment metered over a three day period. The data is demon- was only

  5. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed the maximum test pressure of any component such as vessels, pumps, or valves in the system. (2) At... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-30 Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (a) Provision of... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic...

  6. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exceed the maximum test pressure of any component such as vessels, pumps, or valves in the system. (2) At... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-30 Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (a) Provision of... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic...

  7. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exceed the maximum test pressure of any component such as vessels, pumps, or valves in the system. (2) At... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-30 Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (a) Provision of... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic...

  8. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exceed the maximum test pressure of any component such as vessels, pumps, or valves in the system. (2) At... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-30 Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (a) Provision of... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic...

  9. 46 CFR 56.97-30 - Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exceed the maximum test pressure of any component such as vessels, pumps, or valves in the system. (2) At... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Pressure Tests § 56.97-30 Hydrostatic tests (modifies 137.4). (a) Provision of... system is filling. (b) Test medium and test temperature. (1) Water will be used for a hydrostatic...

  10. Cabled-observatory Regional Circulation Moorings on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaly, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    In September of 2010, one of four moorings was deployed on the Endeavour node of the NEPTUNE Canada cabled-observatory network. The installation included the laying of a 7km cable from the node to the mooring site in the axial valley about 3km north of the Main Endeavour Vent Field over extraordinary bathymetry. This September, three more cables and secondary junction boxes will be deployed to support the three additional moorings that complete the regional circulation array. The cable-laying is facilitated by the Canadian Scientific Submersible Facility's ROV ROPOS and a remotely operated cable-laying system, whereas the actual deployment of the moorings is a two ship operation. The CCGS John P. Tully lowers the mooring anchor first, while the RV Thomas G. Thompson supports the ROV operations which navigate the mooring to underwater mateable cable end. Precise navigation is needed because there are few areas suitable for placement of the junction boxes. Scientifically, the moorings are designed and located to best constrain the hydrothermally driven circulation within the rift valley, the regional circulation can then be used as a proxy measurement for hydrothermal fluxes. Each mooring carries a current meter/ ctd pair at 4, 50, 125, and 200m, with an upward looking ADCP at 250m. The northern moorings are located between the Hi-Rise and Salty Dawg fields about 700m apart in the ~1km wide rift valley and the southern moorings are located south of the Mothra vent field. Here we present initial results from the four mooring array.

  11. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian F.; Robertson, Amy N.; Jonkman, Jason M.; Hall, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  12. Verification and Validation of Multisegmented Mooring Capabilities in FAST v8: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten T.; Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Hall, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic mooring modules of the open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, have previously been verified and validated, but only for mooring arrangements consisting of single lines connecting each fairlead and anchor. This paper extends the previous verification and validation efforts to focus on the multisegmented mooring capability of the FAST v8 modules: MAP++, MoorDyn, and the OrcaFlex interface. The OC3-Hywind spar buoy system tested by the DeepCwind consortium at the MARIN ocean basin, which includes a multisegmented bridle layout of the mooring system, was used for the verification and validation activities.

  13. High-temperature ''hydrostatic'' extrusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. G.; Rice, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    Quasi-fluids permit hydrostatic extrusion of solid materials. The use of sodium chloride, calcium fluoride, or glasses as quasi-fluids reduces handling, corrosion, and sealing problems, these materials successfully extrude steel, molybdenum, ceramics, calcium carbonate, and calcium oxide. This technique also permits fluid-to-fluid extrusion.

  14. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must...

  15. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must be...

  16. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must be...

  17. 46 CFR 184.300 - Ground tackle and mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ground tackle and mooring lines. 184.300 Section 184.300... Ground tackle and mooring lines. A vessel must be fitted with ground tackle and mooring lines necessary for the vessel to be safely anchored or moored. The ground tackle and mooring lines provided must be...

  18. The asymmetrically stepped, orifice compensated hydrostatic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharrer, J. K.; Hibbs, R. I.; San Andres, L.

    1992-07-01

    An improved hydrostatic bedaring configuration consisting of a conventional orifice compensated, continuous, hydrostatic bearing augmented on one side by a ring with a smaller radial clearance is presented. Results for the leakage and rotordynamic coeffcients of this asymmetrically stepped hydrostatic bearing are calculated using a numerical solution of the film-average Navier-Stokes equations. Results of a parametric study on the effects of ring geometry and recess position on hydrostatic bearing performance are presented. The results show that the presence of the asymmetric step enhances the rotordynamic performance of an orifice compensated hydrostatic bearing.

  19. Optimization and automation of the semi-submersible platforms mooring design

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, J.A. Jr.; Morooka, C.K.

    1994-12-31

    There are a few calculation programs around the world used for determining the main aspects of the Mooring Design of Semi-Submersible Platforms . These programs bold a worldwide acknowledgement and their results are actually reliable. But they require many runs to get a solution that comply with the Classification Society requirements. This paper presents some procedures in order to optimize the semi-submersible mooring design as well as to make it automatic. Regarding the optimization philosophies, the following aspects are treated: (1) the optimization of the platform heading and the mooring pattern based on the spreading of the environmental forces; (2) the searching for the optimum mooring line composition in an automatic mode. Basically, the paper`s main goal is to introduce some methods to find the lowest cost solution for the mooring system in a short time. All of these methods were computationally implemented creating the intelligent system named PROANC, which deals with the semi-submersible mooring design in a quasi-static and deterministic approach. It should be noted that the proposed system exerts a strong appeal as a design tool for feasibility studies of a given oil field and its quasi-static results can be directly applied to a mooring program capable of performing dynamic analysis. Finally some simulations are executed for different water depths and its final results, including the expended time to run, are presented in order to prove the PROANC system wide potential as a design tool.

  20. It's Time to Redefine Moore's Law Again

    DOE PAGES

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.

    2017-02-06

    The familiar story of Moore's law is actually inaccurate. Here, this article corrects the story, leading to different projections for the future. Moore's law is a fluid idea whose definition changes over time. It thus doesn't have the ability to "end," as is popularly reported, but merely takes different forms as the semiconductor and computer industries evolve.

  1. 33 CFR 401.43 - Mooring table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mooring table. 401.43 Section 401.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.43 Mooring table. Unless...

  2. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    1982-01-01

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  3. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-05-04

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

  4. Development of methods and equipment for bellows assemblies testing under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovik, E.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a newbellows assemblies test method for stop and safety valves. To create the real conditions it is suggested testing under external hydrostatic pressure, which is available in the piping system.A designed test apparatus allows testing of the bellows under the effect of external hydrostatic pressure. The paper describes the design of the apparatus, its specifications and the test procedures.

  5. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  6. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  7. Tanker mooring, storage for sub-Arctic waters

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, K.I.; King, R.D.; Post, G.J.

    1985-11-01

    The expansion of exploration into sub-arctic offshore waters has created a need for tanker mooring facilities for floating storage vessels and tanker loading. In many sub-arctic areas mooring facilities are subject to wind, wave and current conditions which approach conditions in the North Sea during storm seasons. In other seasons, the same facilities will be subject to impact and overturning forces from drifting ice floes and massive ice ridges. A study to develop suitable concepts and preliminary designs for such tanker mooring facilities is discussed. The study was limited to areas where risk of iceberg collision may be ignored, but where ice conditions generally occur 4-6 months during each year with ice coverage ranging up to 100% during this period. The scope of the study required development of suitable concepts and preliminary design studies for three basic SPM tanker loading and storage systems: for direct loading of ice-strengthened shuttle tankers; with a permanently moored icebreaking storage vessel with storage capacity for 1,400,000 bbl of crude oil; and with submerged storage capacity for 1,400,00 bbl of crude oil.

  8. ANSYS Modeling of Hydrostatic Stress Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic pressure has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Plasticity textbooks, from the earliest to the most modem, infer that there is no hydrostatic effect on the yielding of metals, and even modem finite element programs direct the user to assume the same. The object of this study is to use the von Mises and Drucker-Prager failure theory constitutive models in the finite element program ANSYS to see how well they model conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure. Data is presented for notched round bar (NRB) and "L" shaped tensile specimens. Similar results from finite element models in ABAQUS are shown for comparison. It is shown that when dealing with geometries having a high hydrostatic stress influence, constitutive models that have a functional dependence on hydrostatic stress are more accurate in predicting material behavior than those that are independent of hydrostatic stress.

  9. ANSYS Modeling of Hydrostatic Stress Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.

    1999-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic pressure has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Plasticity textbooks, from the earliest to the most modem, infer that there is no hydrostatic effect on the yielding of metals, and even modem finite element programs direct the user to assume the same. The object of this study is to use the von Mises and Drucker-Prager failure theory constitutive models in the finite element program ANSYS to see how well they model conditions of varying hydrostatic pressure. Data is presented for notched round bar (NRB) and "L" shaped tensile specimens. Similar results from finite element models in ABAQUS are shown for comparison. It is shown that when dealing with geometries having a high hydrostatic stress influence, constitutive models that have a functional dependence on hydrostatic stress are more accurate in predicting material behavior than those that are independent of hydrostatic stress.

  10. Analysis of single point moored tanker using maneuvering hydrodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, K.; Brinati, H.L.; Fucatu, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Single Point Mooring Systems (SPM) are widely used as a tanker terminal in Brazilian south coast by Petrobras, Brazilian oil company. Although different authors (Wichers, 1987, Obokata, 1987, and Jiang et al., 1988) had analyzed the dynamic stability of SPM system, the down time of these systems due to large oscillatory ship motion in the horizontal plane is significant until now. The main source of the instability of these systems is considered to be the use of inadequate hawser length and bad weather. This paper deals with the dynamic behavior of SPM moored vessels considering the influence of the environmental forces as well as shallow water effects. In a first step, a nonlinear mathematical model developed for the simulation of low speed ship maneuvers (Takashina, 1986) is extended to study the behavior of a tanker moored to a single buoy in comparison with the Obokata`s SPM model, 1987. A large number of tanker motion simulations were carried out both for deep and shallow water and different environmental conditions. The influence of the system parameters shown by the study is, in general, in a good agreement with those obtained by the traditional SPM system analysis.

  11. MITESS: a moored in situ trace element serial sampler for deep-sea moorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Jory; Betts, Joe; Boyle, Edward

    2002-11-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested a trace element clean sampling device for long term deployment (6 months or longer) on deep-sea moorings. The device collects unfiltered 500 ml samples by opening and closing a bottle originally filled with dilute acid (passively replaced by denser seawater). Each sample is collected by an independent module, so failure of a single unit does not affect others. Seven years of deployments have refined the sampler into a rugged and reliable device. The device also can be hung below a wire to collect water column samples. Automated trace element sampler (ATE), a spinoff from moored in situ trace element serial sampler, is a single-module device for allowing trace metal clean near-surface samples to be collected by personnel not trained in trace element sampling. ATE/VANE, another variation, allows the same personnel to collect upper water column profiles on conventional hydrowire. The systems have been tested by comparing samples collected for lead and iron with those collected by previously proven sampling techniques.

  12. 49 CFR 176.178 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.178 Mooring...

  13. 49 CFR 176.178 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.178 Mooring...

  14. 49 CFR 176.178 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.178 Mooring...

  15. 49 CFR 176.178 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.178 Mooring...

  16. Beyond moore computing research challenge workshop report.

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, Mark C.; Aidun, John Bahram

    2013-10-01

    We summarize the presentations and break out session discussions from the in-house workshop that was held on 11 July 2013 to acquaint a wider group of Sandians with the Beyond Moore Computing research challenge.

  17. Sustaining Moore's law with 3D chips

    DOE PAGES

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Badaroglu, Mustafa; Chen, An; ...

    2017-08-01

    Here, rather than continue the expensive and time-consuming quest for transistor replacement, the authors argue that 3D chips coupled with new computer architectures can keep Moore's law on its traditional scaling path.

  18. Optimization of FPGA-based Moore FSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkalov, Aleksander; Titarenko, Larysa; Chmielewski, Sławomir

    2014-10-01

    A metod is proposed for hardware reduction in FPGA-based Moore FSM. It is based on using two sources of codes. It reduces the number of LUTs in the FSM circuit. The results of investigations are shown.

  19. 46 CFR 130.250 - Mooring and towing equipment for OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mooring and towing equipment for OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. 130.250 Section 130.250 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Systems § 130.250 Mooring and towing equipment for OSVs of less than 100 gross tons. Each OSV of less...

  20. Deep Water Single Point Mooring Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-10

    Technology E-1 Introduction This Appendix provides design and performance information for various types of tension members which might be used as mooring...TTINwSC.6OI AD-A286 939 Inulun Deep Water Single Point Mooring Design John F. Flory Henry A. McKenna Tension Technology International, Inc. 9...ORGANIZATIONJ (if appdicable) Tension Technology International J Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division Sc. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code

  1. Hydrostatic compaction of Microtherm HT.

    SciTech Connect

    Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-09-01

    Two samples of jacketed Microtherm{reg_sign}HT were hydrostatically pressurized to maximum pressures of 29,000 psi to evaluate both pressure-volume response and change in bulk modulus as a function of density. During testing, each of the two samples exhibited large irreversible compactive volumetric strains with only small increases in pressure; however at volumetric strains of approximately 50%, the Microtherm{reg_sign}HT stiffened noticeably at ever increasing rates. At the maximum pressure of 29,000 psi, the volumetric strains for both samples were approximately 70%. Bulk modulus, as determined from hydrostatic unload/reload loops, increased by more than two-orders of magnitude (from about 4500 psi to over 500,000 psi) from an initial material density of {approx}0.3 g/cc to a final density of {approx}1.1 g/cc. An empirical fit to the density vs. bulk modulus data is K = 492769{rho}{sup 4.6548}, where K is the bulk modulus in psi, and {rho} is the material density in g/cm{sup 3}. The porosity decreased from 88% to {approx}20% indicating that much higher pressures would be required to compact the material fully.

  2. Moore's Law, disruptive technologies, and the clinician.

    PubMed

    Vosburgh, Kirby G; Newbower, Ronald S

    2002-01-01

    The advancement of technical power described by Moore's Law offers great potential for enabling more cost-effective medical devices and systems. However, progress has been slow. Many factors for this failure have been cited, including the anti-rational economic structure of healthcare and the complexity and long time scale of medical development. Christensen et al. suggest that "disruptive technologies" may circumvent some of these difficulties. "Disruptive Technologies" are defined as those that are established in one market, but then penetrate and overwhelm another market. These incursions are accelerated by economic factors, and capitalize on functionality, reliability, and advancements supported by the original market. Christensen has cited many examples from industrial and service businesses, but few examples can be found yet in healthcare. We argue that positive technology impacts in medicine occur most readily when innovators augment the skills of and collaborate with caregivers, rather than seeking to displace them. In the short term, a new approach may improve efficiency or quality. In the longer term, such approaches may obviate human tasks at lower-skill levels, and even permit task automation. One successful example has been the introduction of flexible monitoring for physiologic information. Systems for computer-aided diagnosis, which have failed to impact complex decision making, have succeeded in simpler specialty areas such as the interpretation of EKG's and mammograms, and may do the same with analysis of some pathology images. The next frontier may the operating room, and the adoption of such systemic technologies by caregivers in emergency medicine and general care may then have an even wider "disruptive" effect. Responding to time and cost pressures, and the desire to move care to the patient, other workers, such as radiologists, will drive the trend away from isolated, complex, large-scale devices, and toward integrated, modular, and simpler

  3. 46 CFR 64.83 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... on the metal identification plate without leaking; and (6) If fitted with an internal heating coil, the heating coil passing a hydrostatic test at a pressure of 200 psig or more or 50 percent or more above the rated pressure of the coil, whichever is greater. (b) If the tank passes the hydrostatic...

  4. Technical note: GODESS - a profiling mooring in the Gotland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prien, Ralf D.; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E.

    2016-07-01

    This note describes a profiling mooring with an interdisciplinary suite of sensors taking profiles between 180 and 30 m depth. It consists of an underwater winch, moored below 180 m depth, and a profiling instrumentation platform. In its described setup it can take about 200 profiles at pre-programmed times or intervals with one set of batteries. This allows for studies over an extended period of time (e.g. two daily profiles over a time of 3 months). The Gotland Deep Environmental Sampling Station (GODESS) in the Eastern Gotland Basin of the Baltic Sea is aimed at investigations of redoxcline dynamics. The described system can be readily adapted to other research foci by changing the profiling instrumentation platform and its payload.

  5. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  6. The hydrodynamic model testing for closed loop DP assisted mooring

    SciTech Connect

    Aalbers, A.B.; Merchant, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Far East Levingston Shipbuilding (FELS) is presently completing the construction of the Smedvig Production Unit SPU 380, which will be operated as FPSO for Esso Balder Field Offshore Norway. In good cooperation with FELS and ND and A Inc. of Houston an extensive model test program was carried out for approval and optimization of the DP assisted mooring system. The main aspects were: investigate the performance of the mooring in two water depths, i.e. 250 m and 70 m; optimization of DP control for the three azimuthing thrusters; measurement of motions and wave induced loads at e.g., the bilge keels, keel and deckhouse front; and determination of limit sea state for turning the vessel around against the weather. The tests were carried out in the Wave and Current Basin of MARIN, using a closed loop DP control system to steer the thrusters. The paper presents the findings with respect to the effect of DP control strategy on mooring loads and presents selected results of wave induced loads on bilge keels and deck house.

  7. Study on global performances and mooring-induced damping of a semi-submersible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ling-zhi; Yang, Jian-min; Lv, Hai-ning; Zhao, Wen-hua; Kou, Yu-feng

    2016-10-01

    The harsh environmental conditions bring strong nonlinearities to the hydrodynamic performances of the offshore floating platforms, which challenge the reliable prediction of the platform coupled with the mooring system. The present study investigates a typical semi-submersible under both the operational and the survival conditions through numerical and experimental methods. The motion responses, the mooring line tensions, and the wave loads on the longitudinal mid-section are investigated by both the fully non-linearly coupled numerical simulation and the physical experiment. Particularly, in the physical model test, the wave loads distributed on the semi-submersible's mid-section were measured by dividing the model into two parts, namely the port and the starboard parts, which were rigidly connected by three six-component force transducers. It is concluded that both the numerical and physical model can have good prediction of the semi-submersible's global responses. In addition, an improved numerical approach is proposed for the estimation of the mooring-induced damping, and is validated by both the experimental and the published results. The characteristics of the mooring-induced damping are further summarized in various sea states, including the operational and the survival environments. In order to obtain the better prediction of the system response in deep water, the mooring-induced damping of the truncated mooring lines applied in the physical experiment are compensated by comparing with those in full length. Furthermore, the upstream taut and the downstream slack mooring lines are classified and investigated to obtain the different mooring line damping performances in the comparative study.

  8. Control of hydrostatic transmission wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabhandharaks, Danop

    In this study, we proposed a control strategy for a wind turbine that employed a hydrostatic transmission system for transmitting power from the wind turbine rotor via a hydraulic transmission line to a ground level generator. Wind turbine power curve tracking was achieved by controlling the hydraulic pump displacement and, at the other end of the hydraulic line, the hydraulic motor displacement was controlled so that the overall transmission loss was minimized. Steady state response, dynamic response, and system stability were assessed. The maximum transmission efficiency obtained ranged from 79% to 84% at steady state when the proposed control strategy was implemented. The leakage and friction losses of the hydraulic components were the main factors that compromised the efficiency. The simulation results showed that the system was stable and had fast and well-damped transient response. Double wind turbine system sharing hydraulic pipes, a hydraulic motor, and a generator were also studied. The hydraulic pipe diameter used in the double-turbine system increased by 27% compared to the single-turbine system in order to make the transmission coefficient comparable between both systems. The simulation results suggested that the leakage losses were so significant that the efficiency of the system was worsened compared with the single-turbine system. Future studies of other behavioral aspects and practical issues such as fluid dynamics, structure strength, materials, and costs are needed.

  9. Hydrostatic Modeling of Buoyant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, A.; Dewar, W. K.; Wienders, N.; Deremble, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has led to increased interest in understanding point source convection dynamics. Most of the existing oil plume models use a Lagrangian based approach, which computes integral measures such as plume centerline trajectory and plume radius. However, this approach doesn't account for feedbacks of the buoyant plume on the ambient environment. Instead, we employ an Eulerian based approach to acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of buoyant plumes. We have performed a series of hydrostatic modeling simulations using the MITgcm. Our results show that there is a dynamical response caused by the presence of the buoyant plume, in that there is a modification of the background flow. We find that the buoyant plume becomes baroclinically unstable and sheds eddies at the neutral buoyancy layer. We also explore different scenarios to determine the effect of the buoyancy source and the temperature stratification on the evolution of buoyant plumes.

  10. The Cole-Moore Effect: Still Unexplained?

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Toshinori; Armstrong, Clay M

    2015-10-06

    In the first issue, on the first page of the Biophysical Journal in 1960, Cole and Moore provided the first confirmation of the Hodgkin and Huxley formulation of the sodium and potassium conductances that underlie the action potential. In addition, working with the squid giant axon, Cole and Moore noted that strong hyperpolarization preceding a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse delayed the rise of the potassium conductance: once started, the time course of the rise was always the same but after significant hyperpolarization there was a long lag before the rise began. This phenomenon has come to be known as the Cole-Moore effect. Their article examines and disproves the hypothesis that the lag reflects the time required to refill the membrane with potassium ions after the ions are swept out of the membrane into the axoplasm by hyperpolarization. The work by Cole and Moore indirectly supports the idea of a membrane channel for potassium conductance. However, the mechanism of the Cole-Moore effect remains a mystery even now, buried in the structure of the potassium channel, which was completely unknown at the time. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Cole-Moore Effect: Still Unexplained?

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Toshinori; Armstrong, Clay M.

    2015-01-01

    In the first issue, on the first page of the Biophysical Journal in 1960, Cole and Moore provided the first confirmation of the Hodgkin and Huxley formulation of the sodium and potassium conductances that underlie the action potential. In addition, working with the squid giant axon, Cole and Moore noted that strong hyperpolarization preceding a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse delayed the rise of the potassium conductance: once started, the time course of the rise was always the same but after significant hyperpolarization there was a long lag before the rise began. This phenomenon has come to be known as the Cole-Moore effect. Their article examines and disproves the hypothesis that the lag reflects the time required to refill the membrane with potassium ions after the ions are swept out of the membrane into the axoplasm by hyperpolarization. The work by Cole and Moore indirectly supports the idea of a membrane channel for potassium conductance. However, the mechanism of the Cole-Moore effect remains a mystery even now, buried in the structure of the potassium channel, which was completely unknown at the time. PMID:26445430

  12. Dynamic response analysis of the equivalent water depth truncated point of the catenary mooring line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huo-ming; Kong, Ling-bin; Guan, Wei-bing; Huang, Sai-hua; Fang, Gui-sheng

    2017-03-01

    The real-time computer-controlled actuators are used to connect the truncated parts of moorings and risers in the active hybrid model testing system. This must be able to work in model-scale real time, based on feedback input from the floater motions. Thus, mooring line dynamics and damping effects are artificially simulated in real time, based on a computer-based model of the problem. In consideration of the nonlinear characteristics of the sea platform catenary mooring line, the equations of the mooring line motion are formulated by using the lumped-mass method and the dynamic response of several points on the mooring line is investigated by the time and frequency domain analysis method. The dynamic response of the representative point on the mooring line is analyzed under the condition of two different corresponding upper endpoint movements namely sine wave excitation and random wave excitation. The corresponding laws of the dynamic response between the equivalent water depth truncated points at different locations and the upper endpoint are obtained, which can provide technical support for further study of the active hybrid model test.

  13. TIDAL TURBULENCE SPECTRA FROM A COMPLIANT MOORING

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Jim; Kilcher, Levi; Richmond, Marshall C.; Talbert, Joe; deKlerk, Alex; Polagye, Brian; Guerra, Maricarmen; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo

    2013-06-13

    A compliant mooring to collect high frequency turbulence data at a tidal energy site is evaluated in a series of short demon- stration deployments. The Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) improves upon recent bottom-mounted approaches by suspend- ing Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) at mid-water depths (which are more relevant to tidal turbines). The ADV turbulence data are superior to Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data, but are subject to motion contamination when suspended on a mooring in strong currents. In this demonstration, passive stabilization is shown to be sufficient for acquiring bulk statistics of the turbulence, without motion correction. With motion cor- rection (post-processing), data quality is further improved; the relative merits of direct and spectral motion correction are dis- cussed.

  14. Mooring and ground handling rigid airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of mooring and ground handling rigid airships are discussed. A brief history of Mooring and Ground Handling Rigid Airships from July 2, 1900 through September 1, 1939 is included. Also a brief history of ground handling developments with large U. S. Navy nonrigid airships between September 1, 1939 and August 31, 1962 is included wherein developed equipment and techniques appear applicable to future large rigid airships. Finally recommendations are made pertaining to equipment and procedures which appear desirable and feasible for future rigid airship programs.

  15. Hybrid Hydrostatic/Transient Roller Bearing Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed bearing assembly for shaft of high-speed turbopump includes both hydrostatic and rolling-element bearings. Rolling-element bearing unloaded at high speed by centrifugal expansion of outer race and transient retainer.

  16. Conceptual design and comparison of aramid and polyester taut leg spread moorings for deepwater applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, B.; Kelly, P.; Librino, F.; Whitehill, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    As the offshore industry looks beyond water depths of 3,000 ft for future oil and gas production, the industry standard steel catenary spread mooring (CSM) system used on all floating production systems installed to date becomes increasingly inefficient and costly. An alternative to the CSM is the Taut Leg Spread Mooring (TLSM) system with its characteristic short scope legs and vertically loaded anchors. In water depths greater than 3,000 ft, it has been shown that TLSMs comprised of synthetic mooring lines have performance advantages over systems utilizing steel wire rope and demonstrated potential for significant cost reductions. Early studies investigated the use of aramid fiber rope due to its high strength, lower in-water weight and lower axial stiffness as compared to ropes made from steel. Later studies indicated that the material properties of polyester fiber, primarily its lower Young`s modulus, made polyester mooring lines more suitable for use in TLSMs. As the TLSM knowledge base expanded, aramid rope construction evolved. Earlier efforts to match the characteristics of steel wire rope have given way to new generation soft aramid constructions. This paper compares the mooring performance and total installed cost of a soft aramid TLSM to a typical polyester configuration. Both systems were designed for use in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with an FPS based on the Aker P45.

  17. An investigation on low frequency fatigue damage of mooring lines applied in a semi-submersible platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Junfeng; Wang, Shuqing; Chang, Anteng; Li, Huajun

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the fatigue life of mooring systems is important for deep water structures. In this paper, a comprehensive fatigue analysis is conducted on the mooring lines applied in a semi-submersible platform with special focus on the low frequency (LF) fatigue damage. Several influential factors, including water depth, wave spectral parameters, and riser system, are considered. Numerical simulation of a semi-submersible platform with the mooring/riser system is executed under different conditions, and the fatigue damage of mooring lines is assessed by using the time domain analysis method as a benchmark. The effects of these factors on the mooring line tension and the fatigue damage are investigated and discussed in detail. Research results indicate that the LF fatigue damage only accounts for a very small portion of the total damage, although the LF components dominate the global motion response and the mooring line tension of the semi-submersible platform. However, it is demonstrated that the LF fatigue damage is clearly affected by the influential factors. The increase in water depth and spectral peak periods, and the existence of risers can weaken the contribution of the LF components to the mooring line fatigue damage, while the fatigue damage due to the LF components increases with the increase of significant wave height.

  18. Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Metal Plasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the theory of plasticity has assumed that hydrostatic stress does not affect the yield or postyield behavior of metals. This assumption is based on the early work of Bridgman. Bridgman found that hydrostatic pressure (compressive stress) does not affect yield behavior until a substantial amount of pressure (greater than 100 ksi) is present. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of hydrostatic tension on yield behavior. Two different specimen geometries were examined: an equal-arm bend specimen and a double edge notch specimen. The presence of a notch is sufficient to develop high enough hydrostatic tensile stresses to affect yield. The von Mises yield function, which does not have a hydrostatic component, and the Drucker-Prager yield function, which includes a hydrostatic component, were used in finite element analyses of the two specimen geometries. The analyses were compared to test data from IN 100 specimens. For both geometries, the analyses using the Drucker-Prager yield function more closely simulated the test data. The von Mises yield function lead to 5-10% overprediction of the force-displacement or force-strain response of the test specimens.

  19. 33 CFR 401.44 - Mooring in locks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mooring in locks. 401.44 Section 401.44 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.44 Mooring in locks. (a) Mooring...

  20. Numerical Simulation Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Spiegel-Moore Circuit and Its Application for Secure Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjaya, W. S. M.; Anggraeni, D.; Denya, R.; Ismail, N.

    2017-03-01

    Spiegel-Moore is a dynamical chaotic system which shows irregular variability in the luminosity of stars. In this paper present the performed the design and numerical simulation of the synchronization Spiegel-Moore circuit and applied to security system for communication. The initial study in this paper is to analyze the eigenvalue structures, various attractors, Bifurcation diagram, and Lyapunov exponent analysis. We have studied the dynamic behavior of the system in the case of the bidirectional coupling via a linear resistor. Both experimental and simulation results have shown that chaotic synchronization is possible. Finally, the effectiveness of the bidirectional coupling scheme between two identical Spiegel-Moore circuits in a secure communication system is presented in details. Integration of theoretical electronic circuit, the numerical simulation by using MATLAB®, as well as the implementation of circuit simulations by using Multisim® has been performed in this study.

  1. 33 CFR 401.10 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 mm for wire line and not greater than 60 mm for approved synthetic lines; (3) Be fitted with a... 1.8 m long spliced eye for approved synthetic lines; (4) Have sufficient strength to check the... certified and a test certificate for each mooring line containing information on breaking strength, material...

  2. 33 CFR 401.10 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 mm for wire line and not greater than 64 mm for approved synthetic lines; (3) Be fitted with a... 1.8 m long spliced eye for approved synthetic lines; (4) Have sufficient strength to check the... certified and a test certificate for each mooring line containing information on breaking strength, material...

  3. 33 CFR 401.10 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 mm for wire line and not greater than 64 mm for approved synthetic lines; (3) Be fitted with a... 1.8 m long spliced eye for approved synthetic lines; (4) Have sufficient strength to check the... certified and a test certificate for each mooring line containing information on breaking strength, material...

  4. 33 CFR 401.10 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 mm for wire line and not greater than 60 mm for approved synthetic lines; (3) Be fitted with a... 1.8 m long spliced eye for approved synthetic lines; (4) Have sufficient strength to check the... certified and a test certificate for each mooring line containing information on breaking strength, material...

  5. In the Style of Henry Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by Henry Moore's sculptures. This project consists of two activities. In the first activity, students select, sand and stain a wood block that would become a base for their plaster sculpture. This activity would keep the students independently engaged (classroom management) while the…

  6. Evolutionary Excesses: A Response to Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    The physicist Edward Teller once gave an interview to a woman from a popular science magazine. He began the interview by saying, "You have heard many bad things about the Hydrogen Bomb. Now I am going to tell you some nice things about it." In reflecting upon a response to Dr. Randy Moore, the author thought of Teller, seeing his role here in…

  7. Evolutionary Excesses: A Response to Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    The physicist Edward Teller once gave an interview to a woman from a popular science magazine. He began the interview by saying, "You have heard many bad things about the Hydrogen Bomb. Now I am going to tell you some nice things about it." In reflecting upon a response to Dr. Randy Moore, the author thought of Teller, seeing his role here in…

  8. In the Style of Henry Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by Henry Moore's sculptures. This project consists of two activities. In the first activity, students select, sand and stain a wood block that would become a base for their plaster sculpture. This activity would keep the students independently engaged (classroom management) while the…

  9. 33 CFR 401.10 - Mooring lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 mm for wire line and not greater than 60 mm for approved synthetic lines; (3) Be fitted with a hand spliced eye or Flemish type mechanical spliced eye of not less than 2.4 m long for wire lines and... by an officer, vessels greater than 150 m shall only use wire mooring lines with a breaking strength...

  10. Hydraulic efficiency of a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement pump and motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Daniel

    Pumps and motors are commonly connected hydraulically to create hydrostatic drives, also known as hydrostatic transmissions. A typical hydrostatic transmission consists of a variable displacement pump and a fixed displacement motor. Maximum efficiency is typically created for the system when the motor operates at maximum volumetric displacement. The objective of this research is to determine if a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient than one with a fixed displacement motor. A work cycle for a Caterpillar 320D excavator was created and the efficiency of the hydrostatic drive system, controlling the swing circuit, with a fixed displacement motor was compared to the efficiency with a variable displacement motor. Both multiplicative and additive uncertainty analysis were performed to determine uncertainty models that could be used to analyze the robustness of the system with feedback control applied. A PID and an H∞ controller were designed for a position control model, as well as velocity control. It was found that while it may seem obvious to achieve maximum efficiency at maximum displacement, there are some cases where maximum efficiency is achieved at a lower displacement. It was also found that for the given work cycle, a hydrostatic transmission with a variable displacement motor can be more efficient.

  11. Dynamic Cores in Hydrostatic Disguise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Klessen, Ralf S.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2003-07-01

    project are small (<~0.18 pc). As a consequence, different projections of the same core may give very different values of the BE fits. Finally, we briefly discuss recent results claiming that Bok globule B68 is in hydrostatic equilibrium, stressing that they imply that this core is unstable by a wide margin. We conclude that fitting BE profiles to observed cores is not an unambiguous test of hydrostatic equilibrium and that fit-estimated parameters such as mass, central density, density contrast, temperature, or radial profile of the BE sphere may differ significantly from the actual values in the cores.

  12. Motion response of a moored buoy in waves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaohong; Huang Xianglu

    1996-12-31

    The motion responses of a moored buoy in both regular and irregular waves were analyzed in frequency domain by the perturbation method up to second order. The couple between the mooring line and buoy was considered in the analysis. For the second order motion, the second order forces induced by the mooring line were determined by a method proposed by authors. The coupling between the mooring line and buoy was determined by the requirement of the continuity of the mooring line and buoy at the attach point. The problem was solved numerically. Examples of calculation results were given in the paper. Comparison between calculated results and model measurement is satisfactory.

  13. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion moored pipe/mobile platform design study

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, H.O.; McNatt, T.R.; Ross, J.M.; Stambaugh, K.A.; Watts, J.L.

    1982-07-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Moored Pipe/Mobile Platform (MP-Squared) Design Study was carried out to investigate an innovative approach to the moored floating OTEC plant. In the past, a number of concepts have been examined by NOAA for floating OTEC plants. These concepts have considered various configurations for platforms, cold water pipes and mooring systems. In most cases the cold water pipe (CWP) was permanently attached to the platform and the platform was permanently moored on station. Even though CWP concepts incorporating articulated joints or flexible pipes were used, the CWP stresses induced by platform motion were frequently excessive and beyond the design limits of the CWP. This was especially true in the survival (100-year storm) case. It may be feasible that the concept of a permanently moored CWP attached through a flexible transition CWP to the platform could reduce the degree of technical risk by de-coupling the CWP from the motions of the platform. In addition, if the platform is capable of disconnecting from the CWP during survival conditions, even less technical risk may be inherent in the OTEC system. The MP-Squared Design Study was an engineering evaluation of the concepts described above. The effort has been carried through to the conceptual design level, and culminated in model tests in an experimental wave basin.

  14. Patrick Moore's millennium yearbook : the view from AD 1001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Patrick, Chapman, Allan

    In a year that will probably be remembered almost as much for books about the millennium as for the turn of 2000 A.D itself, Patrick Moore's Millennium Yearbook celebrates.....well, the wrong millennium! This thoroughly entertaining book - which is for everyone, not just astronomers - contains articles on King Alfred's chronological work, reviews of the new Star Catalogue by the Arab Al-Sufi and the latest edition of Ptolemy's Almagast. And foreshadowing the change to metric units by 1000 years, the book uses arabic numbers instead of Roman - but there is a conversion table if you have trouble with the idea of "zero" and prefer the older system.

  15. Diego Garcia Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Project Execution Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    CHESAPEAKE DIV 1980 UNCLRSSIFIED COE$/NAVFC-FPO-8225 F/G 3 /2 ML iiiiiiiiimmE 13.2. Hill-.- g HIIIIL5 11.2 MIr~nropW CHART IDTIC ~DIV ~DIEGO GARCIA...lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 . DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY OF REP. . Approved for public release...Leg 40 C. TWO POL PIER BUOY DOLPHINS 8.0 Background 41 9.0 Mooring Dolphin System Description 41 10.0 Inspection Procedures 44 10.1 Buoy 44 10.2 Bottom

  16. Positioning More Than Moore Characterization Needs and Methods within the 2011 ITRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graef, Mart

    2011-11-01

    The concept "More than Moore" was introduced in the 2005 edition of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), with the purpose to describe technology features that do not fit the miniaturization trends as implied by Moore's Law. These features typically enable non-digital functionalities, such as wireless communication, power management, sensing and actuation. As these new functionalities are progressively being incorporated into system-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) formats, the complexity of the resulting microsystems is rapidly increasing. Consequently, there is a need for new sets of physical parameters and figures of merit for the characterization of emerging technology options in the More than Moore domain. Recently, the International Roadmap Committee (IRC) of the ITRS has proposed a methodology to address this subject.

  17. A Semi-Hydrostatic Theory of Gravity-Dominated Compressible Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubos, T.; Voitus, F.

    2014-12-01

    Compressible Euler equations support the propagation of acoustic waves. Although much progress has been achieved towards efficient and accurate solutions to the resulting numerical difficulties, it can still be desirable to identify "unified" equations of motion that would not support acoustic waves while retaining accuracy at large and small scales. Even if such equations are eventually not chosen as the basis of a numerical model, they may help identifying the independent degrees of freedom of the atmospheric flow to be modeled and how the dependent fields are related to the independent fields. From Hamilton's least action principle (HP), "semi-hydrostatic" compressible equations of motion with density diagnosed from potential temperature through hydrostatic balance are derived. Energy, potential vorticity and momentum are conserved. Slaving density to potential temperature suppresses the degrees of freedom supporting the propagation of acoustic waves and results in a sound-proof system. Scale analysis and linear normal modes analysis for an isothermal state of rest suggest that the semy-hydrostatic system is accurate from hydrostatic to non-hydrostatic scales, except for deep internal gravity waves (Figure : decimal logarithm of relative error of the frequency of internal normal modes of a non-rotating isothermal atmosphere as a function of horizontal and vertical wavenumbers k,m normalized by the scale height H). Especially the Lamb wave and long Rossby waves are not distorted, unlike with anelastic or pseudo-incompressible systems. Compared to similar equations derived by Arakawa and Konor (2009), the semi-hydrostatic system possesses an additional term in the horizontal momentum budget. This term is an apparent force resulting from the vertical coordinate not being the actual height of an air parcel, but its hydrostatic height, i.e. the hypothetical height it would have after the atmospheric column it belongs to has reached hydrostatic balance through

  18. Implementation of Distributed Services for a Deep Sea Moored Instrument Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreilly, T. C.; Headley, K. L.; Risi, M.; Davis, D.; Edgington, D. R.; Salamy, K. A.; Chaffey, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Monterey Ocean Observing System (MOOS) is a moored observatory network consisting of interconnected instrument nodes on the sea surface, midwater, and deep sea floor. We describe Software Infrastructure and Applications for MOOS ("SIAM"), which implement the management, control, and data acquisition infrastructure for the moored observatory. Links in the MOOS network include fiber-optic and 10-BaseT copper connections between the at-sea nodes. A Globalstar satellite transceiver or 900 MHz Freewave terrestrial line-of-sight RF modem provides the link to shore. All of these links support Internet protocols, providing TCP/IP connectivity throughout a system that extends from shore to sensor nodes at the air-sea interface, through the oceanic water column to a benthic network of sensor nodes extending across the deep sea floor. Exploiting this TCP/IP infrastructure as well as capabilities provided by MBARI's MOOS mooring controller, we use powerful Internet software technologies to implement a distributed management, control and data acquisition system for the moored observatory. The system design meets the demanding functional requirements specified for MOOS. Nodes and their instruments are represented by Java RMI "services" having well defined software interfaces. Clients anywhere on the network can interact with any node or instrument through its corresponding service. A client may be on the same node as the service, may be on another node, or may reside on shore. Clients may be human, e.g. when a scientist on shore accesses a deployed instrument in real-time through a user interface. Clients may also be software components that interact autonomously with instruments and nodes, e.g. for purposes such as system resource management or autonomous detection and response to scientifically interesting events. All electrical power to the moored network is provided by solar and wind energy, and the RF shore-to-mooring links are intermittent and relatively low

  19. Frontiers of More than Moore in Bioelectronics and the Required Metrology Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; Kotanen, Christian; Wilson, A. Nolan

    2011-11-01

    Silicon's intersection with biology is a premise inherent in Moore's prediction. Distinct from biologically inspired molecular logic and storage devices (more Moore) are the integration of solid state electronic devices with the soft condensed state of the body (more than Moore). Developments in biomolecular recognition events per sq. cm parallel those of Moore's Law. However, challenges continue in the area of "More than Moore". Two grand challenge problems must be addressed—the biocompatibility of synthetic materials with the myriad of tissue types within the human body and the interfacing of solid state micro- and nano-electronic devices with the electronics of biological systems. Electroconductive hydrogels have been developed as soft, condensed, biomimetic but otherwise inherently electronically conductive materials to address the challenge of interfacing solid state devices with the electronics of the body, which is predominantly ionic. Nano-templated interfaces via the oriented immobilization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) onto metallic electrodes have engendered reagentless, direct electron transfer between biological redox enzymes and solid state electrodes. In addressing these challenges, metrology needs and opportunities are found in such widely diverse areas as single molecule counting and addressing, sustainable power requirements such as the development of implantable biofuel cells for the deployment of implantable biochips, and new manufacturing paradigms to address plura-biology needs on solid state devices.

  20. Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part I: Motion Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, Samuel; Kilcher, Levi; Thomson, Jim

    2017-06-01

    High-fidelity measurements of turbulence in the ocean have long been challenging to collect, in particular in the middle of the water column. In response, a measurement technique has been developed to deploy an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) to midwater locations on a compliant mooring. A variety of instrumentation platforms have been deployed as part of this work with a range of dynamic motion characteristics. The platforms discussed herein include the streamlined StableMoor buoy (SMB), the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) system based on a conventional 0.9-m spherical buoy, and a 100-lb sounding weight suspended from the stern of a research vessel.more » The ADV head motion is computed from inertial motion sensors integrated into an ADV, and the spectra of these signals are investigated to quantify the motion of each platform. The SMB with a single ADV head mounted on the nose provided the most stable platform for the measurement of tidal turbulence in the inertial subrange for flow speeds exceeding 1.0 m s-1. The modification of the SMB with a transverse wing configuration for multiple ADVs showed a similar frequency response to the nose configuration in the horizontal plane but with large contamination in the vertical direction as a result of platform roll. While the ADV motion on the TTM was significant in the horizontal directions, the vertical motion of this configuration was the most stable of all configurations tested. The sounding weight measurements showed the greatest motion at the ADV head but are likely to be influenced by both prop-wash and vessel motion.« less

  1. The Deep Sea Moorings Fishbite Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    teeth marks The second mooring was set in the fall of 1964. Wood and asbestos board panels were attached at Figure 4. Shark attack on current meter set...only be tentative until more (Figure 4) sharks will even attack an entire uniform coverage has been obtained. instrument case. Of the total number...recorded fisbites: those who implicated in attacks upon moo-ing lines andspent most of their time at or near the surface instruments. Sharks have been

  2. Project Execution Plan for 1978 SQUAW Mooring.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    34 o STRONGBACK 100 KIP (3 EA.) NDBC o RELEASE ELECTRONICS * INTERSTATE ELECTRONICS CORP. o RELEASE RINGS (6 EA.) AMF *aMASTER RELEASE LINK (8 EA...CROSBY (MFR) FLASHING LIGHTS (2 EA.) OCEI SQUAW NIGHT TIME MARKER BUOY ASSY. (2 EA.) PWC, S. D. SQUAW - MOORED DEPTH ELECTRONIC PINGER PACKAGE NOSC, S. D...lights will be rigged for use during night operations. These lights are not to be used while the SQUAW is being towed. An electronics package will be

  3. Peak mooring forces in the horizontal interlaced multi-layered moored floating pipe breakwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, Vishwanath; Rajappa, Sacchi; Rao, Subba; Vittal, Hegde A.

    2011-06-01

    Present study aims to investigate the influence of relative breakwater width W/L (W=width of breakwater, L=wavelength), wave steepness Hi/gT2 (Hi=incident wave height, T=wave period) and relative wave height d/W (d=water depth) on forces in the moorings of horizontal interlaced multi-layered moored floating pipe breakwater (HIMMFPB) model. Studies were conducted on scaled down physical models having three layers of Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) pipes, wave steepness Hi/gT2 varying from 0.063 to 0.849, relative width W/L varying from 0.4 to 2.65 and relative spacing S/D=2 (S=horizontal centre-to-centre spacing of pipes, D=diameter of pipes). Peak mooring forces were also measured and data collected is analyzed by plotting non-dimensional graphs depicting variation of fs/γW2 (fs=Sea side Mooring force, γ=specific weight of water) & fl/γW2 (fl=Lee side Mooring force) with Hi/gT2 for d/W varying from 0.082 to 0.276 and also variation of fs/γW2 and fl/γW2 with W/L for Hi/d varying from 0.06 to 0.400.

  4. Charlotte Moore Sitterly: A Life of Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Charlotte Moore Sitterly was a scientist in an era when it was rare for a woman to have the opportunity to devote her life to forefront science. Following her graduation from Swarthmore College in 1920, she accepted a position at Princeton University as an assistant to Henry Norris Russell. In 1925 she started a study of the solar spectrum. She could then not know that she would devote much of her scientific career to gathering basic atomic data that are invaluable to the scientific community, even today. In 1931 she obtained a PhD degree at U. California, Berkeley, and returned to Princeton as a staff member of the Princeton University Observatory. In 1945 she moved to the National Bureau of Science (NBS), to supervise preparation of the widely used tables of atomic energy levels. Following the successful lunching (1946) of a V2 rocket to obtain the ultra violet spectrum of the sun, Moore started working with Richard Tousey and his group at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Ultimately, they extended the solar spectrum down to 2200 angstroms. She continued her affiliations with NBS and NRL until her death in 1990. Charlotte Moore was rare scientist who devoted her career to obtaining accurate numbers, thus enabling the scientific community to open her tables and know that the data are accurate.

  5. Phase stability limit of c-BN under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jianwei; Du, Jinglian; Wen, Bin Zhang, Xiangyi; Melnik, Roderick; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2014-04-28

    Phase stability limit of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) has been investigated by the crystal structure search technique. It indicated that this limit is ∼1000 GPa at hydrostatic pressure condition. Above this pressure, c-BN turns into a metastable phase with respect to rocksalt type boron nitride (rs-BN). However, rs-BN cannot be retained at 0 GPa owing to its instability at pressure below 250 GPa. For non-hydrostatic pressure conditions, the phase stability limit of c-BN is substantially lower than that under hydrostatic pressure conditions and it is also dramatically different for other pressure mode.

  6. Tender mooring for infill drilling operations: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Tapis-pump platform is a four-leg jacket structure located 230 ft south of the Tapis-D platform and connected to it by a walkway bridge. All crude production (360,000 B/D) from Esso Production Malaysia Inc. (EPMI) wells in the South China Sea offshore Terengganu is piped to the Tapais-pump platform for pumping to an onshore terminal. The continuous operation of this platform is essential. The Tapis-D platform is a manned production platform that also acts as a central communication center and emergency response command center for EPMI`s offshore operations in the South China Sea. A total of nine wells is planned for an infill drilling program at the Tapis-D platform. The rig selected for this infill drilling program is a self-erecting tender-assisted rig that uses an eight-point wire rope mooring system. Eleven pipelines are connected to the Tapis-pump/Tapis-D platform complex. All the pipelines were laid on the seafloor without any special external protection and were not tied down or anchored. The paper describes the planning of the mooring system for drilling.

  7. Modeling Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution Autoregulatory and Hydrostatic Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J. G.; Werner, C.; Nelson, E. S.; Feola, A.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Space flight induces a marked cephalad (headward) redistribution of blood and interstitial fluid potentially resulting in a loss of venous tone and reduction in heart muscle efficiency upon introduction into the microgravity environment. Using various types of computational models, we are investigating how this fluid redistribution may induce intracranial pressure changes, relevant to reported reductions in astronaut visual acuity, part of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Methods: We utilize a lumped parameter cardiovascular system (CVS) model, augmented by compartments comprising the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) space, as the primary tool to describe how microgravity, and the associated lack of hydrostatic gradient, impacts fluid redistribution. Models of ocular fluid pressures and biomechanics then accept the output of the above model as boundary condition input to allow more detailed, local analysis (see IWS Abstract by Ethier et al.). Recently, we enhanced the capabilities our previously reported CVS model through the implementation of robust autoregulatory mechanisms and a more fundamental approach to the implementation of hydrostatic mechanisms. Modifying the approach of Blanco et al., we implemented auto-regulation in a quasi-static manner, as an averaged effect across the span of one heartbeat. This approach reduced the higher frequency perturbations from the regulatory mechanism and was intended to allow longer simulation times (days) than models that implement within-beat regulatory mechanisms (minutes). A more fundamental approach to hydrostatics was implemented by a quasi-1D approach, in which compartment descriptions include compartment length, orientation and relative position, allowed for modeling of body orientation, relative body positioning and, in the future, alternative gravity environments. At this time the inclusion of hydrostatic mechanisms supplies additional capabilities to train and validate the CVS model

  8. A Compilation of Moored Current Meter and Wind Recorder Observations. Volume 26, (1972 Measurements)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Model 850. Both instruments use a Savonius rotor to measure water speed and a vane and int3rnal compass to measure direction. In the VACM, East and North...Analysis of Moored and Drifting Buoy Systems. C. S. Draper Laboratory, Inc. Report R-1066, uses data from mooring 469 for model validation. Chausse, D. and S...Fi ... ... .... _ _ DATA N~UMBER 4q Instrumant Nlo. W-169X$ Instrument Sampling Scheme ModeL 850 data burstb every __8___ see ISI~ 1800 4291 WBI800

  9. 46 CFR 61.30-10 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-10 Hydrostatic test. All new installations of thermal fluid heaters must be given a hydrostatic test of 11/2 times the maximum allowable... condition of the heater warrants such a test. Where hydrostatic tests are required, an inspection is made...

  10. 46 CFR 61.30-10 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-10 Hydrostatic test. All new installations of thermal fluid heaters must be given a hydrostatic test of 11/2 times the maximum allowable... all accessible parts under pressure. The thermal fluid may be used as the hydrostatic test medium. ...

  11. 46 CFR 61.30-10 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-10 Hydrostatic test. All new installations of thermal fluid heaters must be given a hydrostatic test of 11/2 times the maximum allowable... all accessible parts under pressure. The thermal fluid may be used as the hydrostatic test medium. ...

  12. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification... loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b) Special preparation for...

  13. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification... loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b) Special preparation for...

  14. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must... required for inner packagings of combination packagings. For internal pressure requirements for...

  15. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification of all metal, plastic, and...

  16. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification... loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b) Special preparation for...

  17. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must... required for inner packagings of combination packagings. For internal pressure requirements for...

  18. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must... required for inner packagings of combination packagings. For internal pressure requirements for...

  19. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification... loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b) Special preparation for...

  20. 49 CFR 178.814 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.814 Section 178.814... Testing of IBCs § 178.814 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be... contain solids that are loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids. (b)...

  1. 49 CFR 178.605 - Hydrostatic pressure test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic pressure test. 178.605 Section 178.605... Packagings and Packages § 178.605 Hydrostatic pressure test. (a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must... required for inner packagings of combination packagings. For internal pressure requirements for...

  2. A Load Cell for Hydrostatic Weighing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Thomas D.; Schroeder, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Although a load cell is more expensive than the autopsy scale for hydrostatic weighing, it is more accurate, easier to read, has no moving parts, is less susceptible to rust, and is less likely to be damaged by large subjects exceeding its capacity. (Author)

  3. Modifications Of Hydrostatic-Bearing Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbs, Robert I., Jr.; Beatty, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Several modifications made to enhance utility of HBEAR, computer program for analysis and design of hydrostatic bearings. Modifications make program applicable to more realistic cases and reduce time and effort necessary to arrive at a suitable design. Uses search technique to iterate on size of orifice to obtain required pressure ratio.

  4. A Load Cell for Hydrostatic Weighing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Thomas D.; Schroeder, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Although a load cell is more expensive than the autopsy scale for hydrostatic weighing, it is more accurate, easier to read, has no moving parts, is less susceptible to rust, and is less likely to be damaged by large subjects exceeding its capacity. (Author)

  5. Mooring Line Damping Estimation for a Floating Wind Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design. PMID:25243231

  6. Mooring line damping estimation for a floating wind turbine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design.

  7. 71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON ROOF SHIELDING AND BUILDING TRUSS STRUCTURE - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  8. Carousel for vertically moored platform

    SciTech Connect

    Beynet, P.A.; Hall, J.E.

    1984-04-24

    This invention involves a modification of the prior art subsea drilling system. A carousel is positioned on a central post surrounded by a coaxial circular array of well slots and is adapted to be rotated by drill pipe through conventional means, from the floating platform. The carousel utilizes a fixed support platform spaced from the axis of rotation a distance equal to the radius of the array of well slots. The platform has its own well slot and a bearing concentric with the well slot. A well slot platform, or support post platform, is journaled in this bearing and supports a plurality of guide posts on a circle centered at the axis of the well slot. The support posts support cables hanging from the drilling vessel, which are used to guide the drill bit down from the surface to the carousel well slot. The carousel is adapted to revolve while supported by circular rails concentric with the central guide post. Means are provided, such as two gears of equal diameter, one fixed to the template concentric with the turning post, the other fixed to the well slot platform, with an intervening pinion so that as the carousel revolves in one direction by a selected angle, the well slot platform and support rods will rotate through an equal angle with respect to the carousel, in the reverse direction. Thus the guide posts and guide cables will always remain with the same azimuth as that of the drill ship. In this way the twisting and tangling of the support cables is avoided.

  9. Study of glass hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyun; Wang, Jintao; Li, Zhihao; Zhang, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Glass hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. Glass hydrometers calibration based on the Archimedes law, using silicon ring as a reference standard solid density, n-tridecane with density stability and low surface tension as the standard working liquid, based on hydrostatic weighing method designs a glass hydrometer calibration system. Glass hydrometer calibration system uses CCD image measurement system to align the scale of hydrometer and liquid surface, with positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm. Surface tension of the working liquid is measured by Whihemy plate. According to twice glass hydrometer weighing in the air and liquid can calculate the correction value of the current scale. In order to verify the validity of the principle of the hydrostatic weighing method of glass hydrometer calibration system, for measuring the density range of (770-790) kg/m3, with a resolution of 0.2 kg/m3 of hydrometer. The results of measurement compare with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) ,verifying the validity of the calibration system.

  10. A technique to measure rotordynamic coefficients in hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capaldi, Russell J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental technique is described for measuring the rotordynamic coefficients of fluid film journal bearings. The bearing tester incorporates a double-spool shaft assembly that permits independent control over the journal spin speed and the frequency of an adjustable-magnitude circular orbit. This configuration yields data that enables determination of the full linear anisotropic rotordynamic coefficient matrices. The dynamic force measurements were made simultaneously with two independent systems, one with piezoelectric load cells and the other with strain gage load cells. Some results are presented for a four-recess, oil-fed hydrostatic journal bearing.

  11. A technique to measure rotordynamic coefficients in hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaldi, Russell J.

    1993-11-01

    An experimental technique is described for measuring the rotordynamic coefficients of fluid film journal bearings. The bearing tester incorporates a double-spool shaft assembly that permits independent control over the journal spin speed and the frequency of an adjustable-magnitude circular orbit. This configuration yields data that enables determination of the full linear anisotropic rotordynamic coefficient matrices. The dynamic force measurements were made simultaneously with two independent systems, one with piezoelectric load cells and the other with strain gage load cells. Some results are presented for a four-recess, oil-fed hydrostatic journal bearing.

  12. PREFACE: E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, Symposium M: More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Christian; Fompeyrine, Jean; Vallée, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    More than Moore explores a new area of Silicon based microelectronics, which reaches beyond the boundaries of conventional semiconductor applications. Creating new functionality to semiconductor circuits, More than Moore focuses on motivating new technological possibilities. In the past decades, the main stream of microelectronics progresses was mainly powered by Moore's law, with two focused development arenas, namely, IC miniaturization down to nano scale, and SoC based system integration. While the microelectronics community continues to invent new solutions around the world to keep Moore's law alive, there is increasing momentum for the development of 'More than Moore' technologies which are based on silicon technologies but do not simply scale with Moore's law. Typical examples are RF, Power/HV, Passives, Sensor/Actuator/MEMS or Bio-chips. The More than Moore strategy is driven by the increasing social needs for high level heterogeneous system integration including non-digital functions, the necessity to speed up innovative product creation and to broaden the product portfolio of wafer fabs, and the limiting cost and time factors of advanced SoC development. It is believed that More than Moore will add value to society on top of and beyond advanced CMOS with fast increasing marketing potentials. Important key challenges for the realization of the 'More than Moore' strategy are: perspective materials for future THz devices materials systems for embedded sensors and actuators perspective materials for epitaxial approaches material systems for embedded innovative memory technologies development of new materials with customized characteristics The Hot topics covered by the symposium M (More than Moore: Novel materials approaches for functionalized Silicon based Microelectronics) at E-MRS 2012 Spring Meeting, 14-18 May 2012 have been: development of functional ceramics thin films New dielectric materials for advanced microelectronics bio- and CMOS compatible

  13. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-01-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  14. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Anderson, I.

    1981-05-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  15. Transaction Performance vs. Moore's Law: A Trend Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambiar, Raghunath; Poess, Meikel

    Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore postulated in his famous 1965 paper that the number of components in integrated circuits had doubled every year from their invention in 1958 until 1965, and then predicted that the trend would continue for at least ten years. Later, David House, an Intel colleague, after factoring in the increase in performance of transistors, concluded that integrated circuits would double in performance every 18 months. Despite this trend in microprocessor improvements, your favored text editor continues to take the same time to start and your PC takes pretty much the same time to reboot as it took 10 years ago. Can this observation be made on systems supporting the fundamental aspects of our information based economy, namely transaction processing systems?

  16. Development of an aerosol-chemistry transport model coupled to non-hydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM) through applying a stretched grid system to regional simulations around Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, D.; Nakajima, T.; Masaki, S.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution has a great impact on both climate change and human health. One effective way to tackle with these issues is a use of atmospheric aerosol-chemistry models with high-resolution in a global scale. For this purpose, we have developed an aerosol-chemistry model based on a global cloud-resolving model (GCRM), Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM; Tomita and Satoh, Fluid. Dyn. Res. 2004; Satoh et al., J. Comput. Phys. 2008, PEPS, 2014) under MEXT/RECCA/SALSA project. In the present study, we have simulated aerosols and tropospheric ozone over Japan by our aerosol-chemistry model "NICAM-Chem" with a stretched-grid system of approximately 10 km resolution, for saving the computer resources. The aerosol and chemistry modules are based on Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS; Takemura et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2005) and Chemical AGCM for Study of Atmospheric Environment and Radiative Forcing (CHASER; Sudo et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2002). We found that our model can generally reproduce both aerosols and ozone, in terms of temporal variations (daily variations of aerosols and diurnal variations of ozone). Under MEXT/RECCA/SALSA project, we also have used these results obtained by NICAM-Chem for the assessment of their impact on human health.

  17. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy also eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.

  18. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    DOE PAGES

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy alsomore » eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.« less

  19. An Experimental Study of Dynamic Tensile Failure of Rocks Subjected to Hydrostatic Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bangbiao; Yao, Wei; Xia, Kaiwen

    2016-10-01

    It is critical to understand the dynamic tensile failure of confined rocks in many rock engineering applications, such as underground blasting in mining projects. To simulate the in situ stress state of underground rocks, a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system is utilized to load Brazilian disc (BD) samples hydrostatically, and then exert dynamic load to the sample by impacting the striker on the incident bar. The pulse shaper technique is used to generate a slowly rising stress wave to facilitate the dynamic force balance in the tests. Five groups of Laurentian granite BD samples (with static BD tensile strength of 12.8 MPa) under the hydrostatic confinement of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MPa were tested with different loading rates. The result shows that the dynamic tensile strength increases with the hydrostatic confining pressure. It is also observed that under the same hydrostatic pressure, the dynamic tensile strength increases with the loading rate, revealing the so-called rate dependency for engineering materials. Furthermore, the increment of the tensile strength decreases with the hydrostatic confinement, which resembles the static tensile behavior of rock under confining pressure, as reported in the literature. The recovered samples are examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography method and the observed crack pattern is consistent with the experimental result.

  20. Marching to the beat of Moore's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodovsky, Yan

    2006-03-01

    Area density scaling in integrated circuits, defined as transistor count per unit area, has followed the famous observation-cum-prediction by Gordon Moore for many generations. Known as "Moore's Law" which predicts density doubling every 18-24 month, it has provided all important synchronizing guidance and reference for tools and materials suppliers, IC manufacturers and their customers as to what minimal requirements their products and services need to meet to satisfy technical and financial expectations in support of the infrastructure required for the development and manufacturing of corresponding technology generation nodes. Multiple lithography solutions are usually under considerations for any given node. In general, three broad classes of solutions are considered: evolutionary - technology that is extension of existing technology infrastructure at similar or slightly higher cost and risk to schedule; revolutionary - technology that discards significant parts of the existing infrastructure at similar cost, higher risk to schedule but promises higher capability as compared to the evolutionary approach; and last but not least, disruptive - approach that as a rule promises similar or better capabilities, much lower cost and wholly unpredictable risk to schedule and products yields. This paper examines various lithography approaches, their respective merits against criteria of respective infrastructure availability, affordability and risk to IC manufacturer's schedules and strategy involved in developing and selecting best solution in an attempt to sort out key factors that will impact the decision on the lithography choice for large-scale manufacturing for the future technology nodes.

  1. A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool. Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the bottom of the boat…

  2. Hydrostatic lubrication in turbopumps of rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, R.; Ciulli, E.; Piccigallo, B.; Staffilano, U.

    2003-09-01

    The paper presents a computational procedure that can be useful in assessing the main performance parameters (load, flow rate, attitude angle) of hydrostatic journal bearings, without resorting to full numerical computing. The procedure is based on the "lumped resistance method", which has been extended to take into account turbulence and inertia effects. Comparison with available experimental data shows a pretty reasonable agreement, in spite of the heavy approximations that have been introduced.

  3. A Multipurpose Device for Some Hydrostatics Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    A number of well-known hydrostatics problems dealing with Archimedes' principle concern a loaded boat floating in a pool. Examples of this sort of problem include: 1. (a) If a stone is thrown overboard from a boat floating in a pool, does the water level in the pool rise, fall, or remain unchanged? (b) If a hole is made in the bottom of the boat…

  4. 75 FR 73072 - Moore, Cody; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Moore, Cody; Notice of Filing November 19, 2010. Take notice that, on November 17, 2010, Cody Moore filed an application to hold an interlocking position, pursuant to...

  5. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  6. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  7. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  8. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  9. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  10. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  11. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  12. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  13. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  14. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  15. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  16. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  17. 33 CFR 82.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 82.5 Section 82.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.5 Lights for moored vessels. For the purposes of...

  18. 33 CFR 88.13 - Lights on moored barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on moored barges. 88.13... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.13 Lights on moored barges. (a) The following barges shall display at night and if practicable in periods of restricted visibility the lights described in paragraph...

  19. 33 CFR 90.5 - Lights for moored vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights for moored vessels. 90.5 Section 90.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.5 Lights for moored vessels. A vessel at...

  20. CEO to Teacher: An Interview with Randy Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitz, Randy

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the transcript of an interview between the author and Randy Moore. While many leading corporate executives have contributed in various ways to efforts to improve public education, Randy Moore is the only one known by the author to have stepped down from his CEO position to actually teach in the public schools for an extended…

  1. Hydrostatic Adjustment in Vertically Stratified Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrostatic adjustment due to diabatic heat in two nonisothermal atmospheres is examined. In the first case the temperature stratification is continuous; in the second case the atmosphere is composed of a warm, isothermal troposphere and a colder, isothermal semi-infinitely deep stratosphere.In both cases hydrostatic adjustment, to a good approximation, follows the pattern found in the Lamb problem (semi-infinitely deep. isothermal atmosphere): Initially we have acoustic waves with the kinetic energy increasing or decreasing at the expense of available elastic energy. After this initial period the acoustic waves evolve into acoustic-gravity waves with the kinetic, available potential and available elastic energies interacting with each other. Relaxation to hydrostatic balance occurs within a few oscillations. Stratification in an atmosphere with a continuous temperature profile affects primarily the shape and amplitude of the disturbances. In the two-layer atmosphere, a certain amount of energy is trapped in the tropospheric waveguide as disturbances reflect off the tropopause and back into the troposphere. With each internal reflection a portion of this trapped energy escapes and radiates to infinity.

  2. High-pressure, high-temperature bioreactor for comparing effects of hyperbaric and hydrostatic pressure on bacterial growth.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, C M; Schuppenhauer, M R; Clark, D S

    1992-01-01

    We describe a high-pressure reactor system suitable for simultaneous hyperbaric and hydrostatic pressurization of bacterial cultures at elevated temperatures. For the deep-sea thermophile ES4, the growth rate at 500 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa) and 95 degrees C under hydrostatic pressure was ca. three times the growth rate under hyperbaric pressure and ca. 40% higher than the growth rate at 35 atm. PMID:1622255

  3. Primary Cilia Modulate IHH Signal Transduction in Response to Hydrostatic Loading of Growth Plate Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Y, Yvonne Y.; Wang, Lai; Welter, J, Jean F.; Ballock, R. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) is a key component of the regulatory apparatus governing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium is the site of Ihh signaling within the cell, and that primary cilia are essential for bone and cartilage formation. Primary cilia are also postulated to act as mechanosensory organelles that transduce mechanical forces acting on the cell into biological signals. In this study, we used a hydrostatic compression system to examine Ihh signal transduction under the influence of mechanical load. Our results demonstrate that hydrostatic compression increased both Ihh gene expression and Ihh-responsive Gli-luciferase activity. These increases were aborted by disrupting the primary cilia structure with chloral hydrate. These results suggest that growth plate chondrocytes respond to hydrostatic loading by increasing Ihh signaling, and that the primary cilium is required for this mechano-biological signal transduction to occur. PMID:21930256

  4. The Pacific and Indian Ocean Exchange: Analysis of the Imos Timor Passage and Ombai Strait Moorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloyan, B.; Wijffels, S. A.; Cowley, R.

    2014-12-01

    A fundamental aspect of observing, describing, understanding and modeling the global climate and particularly the Maritime Continent, is a better knowledge of the fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater in the ocean. The Indonesian seas are the only major low-latitude connection in the global oceans. This connection permits the transfer of Pacific waters into the Indian Ocean, known as the Indonesian Throughflow. The interaction of the Pacific and Indian basins and their modes of variability (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)), both through atmospheric teleconnections and the ocean link via the Indonesian Throughflow, is now being hotly pursued in the research community. We will present some initial findings from the 3-year time series (2011-2014) of the Timor Passage and Ombai Strait moorings. This mooring array is a component of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), and builds on the earlier results of the INSTANT (2003-2006) observational program. The moorings comprise of velocity, temperature and salinity instruments. Observations from these moorings provide the required spatial and temporal coverage to understand ocean dynamics, the ocean's role in climate variability and change, investigate forcing of the atmosphere and ocean and assess the realism of data-assimilative ocean models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models.

  5. Hybrid hydrostatic-pneumatic power generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, J.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a method of utilizing the kinetic energy associated with the hydraulic head created by a dam having fluid stored behind its upstream side and open on its downstream side, comprising: (A) providing a transfer tank proximate the base of said dam, having air inlet means passing out of said fluid; (B) emptying the fluid from said transfer tank on the downstream side of said dam while simultaneously filling said transfer tank with air through said air inlet means; (C) refilling said transfer tank with fluid from the upstream side of the dam, through a water inlet in said transfer tank while isolating said air inlet means, thereby pressurizing the air located in said tansfer tank; (D) storing said pressurized air in storage tank which is interconnected to said transfer tank; and (E) withdrawing said pressurized air from said storage tank to perform work.

  6. Electronic structure computation and differential capacitance profile in δ-doped FET as a function of hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos-Pinedo, C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work we present the results obtained from the calculation of the level structure of a n-type delta-doped well Field Effect Transistor when is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. We study the energy level structure as a function of hydrostatic pressure within the range of 0 to 6 kbar for different Schottky barrier height (SBH). We use an analytical expression for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the SBH and the pressure dependence of the basic parameters of the system as the effective mass m(P) and the dielectric constant ε(P) of GaAs. We found that due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure, in addition to electronic level structure alteration, the profile of the differential capacitance per unit area C{sup −2} is affected.

  7. Henry (Hank) J. Moore (1928-1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Thomas W.

    Henry (Hank) J. Moore, a member of the AGU Planetary Sciences section, died of a heart attack on September 21, 1998. He was in Utah while on a family trip to visit his daughter. His 70th birthday occurred just 3 weeks before his death. Henry, who was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, took great pride in having found and visited the small town of Albuquerque in the Extremadura region of Spain, noting the geologic similarities between that part of Spain and his birthplace in America.Henry, known for his contributions to the Apollo,Viking, Magellan, and Mars Pathfinder missions, attributed his career to a chance encounter with Gene Shoemaker in 1960. Henry was completing his Ph.D. work in geology at Stanford University and Gene obviously had spotted Henry's keen analytical mind. I suspect this pivotal meeting was far from a chance encounter.

  8. Meso-NH: Non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laboratoire d'Aérologie; Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques

    2016-12-01

    Meso-NH is the non-hydrostatic mesoscale atmospheric model of the French research community jointly developed by the Laboratoire d'Aérologie (UMR 5560 UPS/CNRS) and by CNRM (UMR 3589 CNRS/Météo-France). Meso-NH incorporates a non-hydrostatic system of equations for dealing with scales ranging from large (synoptic) to small (large eddy) scales while calculating budgets and has a complete set of physical parameterizations for the representation of clouds and precipitation. It is coupled to the surface model SURFEX for representation of surface atmosphere interactions by considering different surface types (vegetation, city, ocean, lake) and allows a multi-scale approach through a grid-nesting technique. Meso-NH is versatile, vectorized, parallelized, and operates in 1D, 2D or 3D; it is coupled with a chemistry module (including gas-phase, aerosol, and aqua-phase components) and a lightning module, and has observation operators that compare model output directly with satellite observations, radar, lidar and GPS.

  9. Arsenolite: a quasi-hydrostatic solid pressure-transmitting medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sans, J. A.; Manjón, F. J.; Popescu, C.; Muñoz, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Jordá, J. L.; Rey, F.

    2016-11-01

    This study reports the experimental characterization of the hydrostatic properties of arsenolite (As4O6), a molecular solid which is one of the softest minerals in the absence of hydrogen bonding. The high compressibility of arsenolite and its stability up to 15 GPa have been proved by x-ray diffraction measurements, and the progressive loss of hydrostaticity with increasing pressure up to 20 GPa has been monitored by ruby photoluminescence. Arsenolite has been found to exhibit hydrostatic behavior up to 2.5 GPa and a quasi-hydrostatic behavior up to 10 GPa at room temperature. This result opens the way to explore other molecular solids as possible quasi-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting media. The validity of arsenolite as an insulating, stable, non-penetrating and quasi-hydrostatic medium is explored by the study of the x-ray diffraction of zeolite ITQ-29 at high pressure.

  10. Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings - Part I: Motion Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Harding, Samuel; Kilcher, Levi; Thomson, Jim

    2017-06-20

    High-fidelity measurements of turbulence in the ocean have long been challenging to collect, in particular in the middle of the water column. In response, a measurement technique has been developed to deploy an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) to mid-water locations on a compliant mooring. A variety of instrumentation platforms have been deployed as part of this work with a range of dynamic motion characteristics. The platforms discussed herein include the streamlined StableMoor™ buoy (SMB), the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) system based on a conventional 0.9 m spherical buoy, and a 100 lb sounding weight suspended from the stern of amore » research vessel. The ADV head motion is computed from inertial motion sensors integrated into an ADV, and the spectra of these signals are investigated to quantify the motion of each platform. The SMB with a single ADV head mounted on the nose provided the most stable platform for the measurement of tidal turbulence in the inertial sub-range for flow speeds exceeding 1:0 ms-1. The modification of the SMB with a transverse wing configuration for multiple ADVs showed a similar frequency response to the nose configuration in the horizontal plane but with large contamination in the vertical direction as a result of platform roll. While the ADV motion on the TTM was significant in the horizontal directions, the vertical motion of this configuration was the most stable of all configurations tested. The sounding weight measurements showed the greatest motion at the ADV head but are likely to be influenced by both prop-wash and vessel motion.« less

  11. Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part II: Motion Correction

    DOE PAGES

    Kilcher, Levi F.; Thomson, Jim; Harding, Samuel; ...

    2017-06-20

    Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) are a valuable tool for making high-precision measurements of turbulence, and moorings are a convenient and ubiquitous platform for making many kinds of measurements in the ocean. However, because of concerns that mooring motion can contaminate turbulence measurements and that acoustic Doppler profilers make middepth velocity measurements relatively easy, ADVs are not frequently deployed from moorings. This work demonstrates that inertial motion measurements can be used to reduce motion contamination from moored ADV velocity measurements. Three distinct mooring platforms were deployed in a tidal channel with inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs. In each case, motion correction based on themore » inertial measurements reduces mooring motion contamination of velocity measurements. The spectra from these measurements are consistent with other measurements in tidal channels and have an f–5/3 slope at high frequencies - consistent with Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic turbulence. Motion correction also improves estimates of cross spectra and Reynolds stresses. A comparison of turbulence dissipation with flow speed and turbulence production indicates a bottom boundary layer production-dissipation balance during ebb and flood that is consistent with the strong tidal forcing at the site. Finally, these results indicate that inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs are a valuable new tool for making high-precision turbulence measurements from moorings.« less

  12. Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    minimal effect on the entrance pressure into the seal. Pressures vs shaft speed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor Speed (RPM...speed 3600 rpm water seal, L/D=0.50, c=0.190 mm, D=152 mm L/D=0.50 Pressures vs shaft speed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Rotor...surface speed. Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings 11 - 12 RTO-EN-AVT-143 Leakage vs shaft speed 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 1000 2000

  13. Electrical transport measurements of thin film samples under high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabaleta, J.; Parks, S. C.; Baum, B.; Teker, A.; Syassen, K.; Mannhart, J.

    2017-03-01

    We present a method to perform electrical measurements of epitaxial films and heterostructures a few nanometers thick under high hydrostatic pressures in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Hydrostatic pressure offers the possibility to tune the rich landscape of properties shown by epitaxial heterostructures, systems in which the combination of different materials, performed with atomic precision, can give rise to properties not present in their individual constituents. Measuring electrical conductivity under hydrostatic pressure in these systems requires a robust method that can address all the challenges: the preparation of the sample with side length and thickness that fits in the DAC setup, a contacting method compatible with liquid media, a gasket insulation that resists high forces, as well as an accurate procedure to place the sample in the pressure chamber. We prove the robustness of the method described by measuring the resistance of a two dimensional electron system buried at the interface between two insulating oxides under hydrostatic conditions up to ˜5 GPa. The setup remains intact until ˜10 GPa, where large pressure gradients affect the two dimensional conductivity.

  14. Moore's law and the impact on trusted and radiation-hardened microelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Kwok Kee

    2011-12-01

    In 1965 Gordon Moore wrote an article claiming that integrated circuit density would scale exponentially. His prediction has remained valid for more than four decades. Integrated circuits have changed all aspects of everyday life. They are also the 'heart and soul' of modern systems for defense, national infrastructure, and intelligence applications. The United States government needs an assured and trusted microelectronics supply for military systems. However, migration of microelectronics design and manufacturing from the United States to other countries in recent years has placed the supply of trusted microelectronics in jeopardy. Prevailing wisdom dictates that it is necessary to use microelectronics fabricated in a state-of-the-art technology for highest performance and military system superiority. Close examination of silicon microelectronics technology evolution and Moore's Law reveals that this prevailing wisdom is not necessarily true. This presents the US government the possibility of a totally new approach to acquire trusted microelectronics.

  15. Numerical simulations and model tests of the mooring characteristic of a tension leg platform under random waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jia-yang; Yang, Jian-min; Lü, Hai-ning

    2013-10-01

    Analyzing the dynamic response and calculating the tendon tension of the mooring system are necessary for the structural design of a tension leg platform (TLP). The six-degree-of-freedom dynamic coupling responses and the mooring characteristics of TLP under random waves are studied by using a self-developed program. Results are verified by the 1:40 scaling factor model test conducted in the State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering at Shanghai JiaoTong University. The mean, range, and standard deviation of the numerical simulation and model test are compared. The influences of different sea states and wave approach angles on the dynamic response and tendon tension of the mooring system are investigated. The acceleration in the center and corner of the deck is forecasted.

  16. Oscillatory high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Palou, E; López-Malo, A; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Welti-Chanes, J; Swanson, B G

    1998-09-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii inactivation was evaluated in oscillatory high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments at sublethal pressures (207, 241, or 276 MPa) and compared with continuous HHP treatments in laboratory model systems with a water activity (aw) of 0.98 and pH 3.5. The yeast was inoculated into laboratory model systems and subjected to HHP in sterile bags. Two HHP treatments were conducted: continuous (holding times of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, or 90 min) and oscillatory (two, three, or four cycles with holding times of 5 min and two cycles with holding times of 10 min). Oscillatory pressure treatments increased the effectiveness of HHP processing. For equal holding times, Z. bailii counts decreased as the number of cycles increased. Holding times of 20 min in HHP oscillatory treatments at 276 MPa assured inactivation (< 10 CFU/ml) of Z. bailii initial inoculum. Oscillatory pressurization could be useful to decrease Z. bailii inactivation time.

  17. Evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore.

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin. Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into the species that currently inhabit the new world was certainly a topic about which zoologists could disagree. But it was in discussing the broader implications of the theory...that tempers flared and statements were made which could transform what otherwise would have been a quiet scholarly meeting into a social scandal' (Farber 1994, 22). Some resistance to the biological thesis of Darwinism sprung from the thought that it was incompatible with traditional morality and, since one of them had to go, many thought that Darwinism should be rejected. However, some people did realize that a secular ethics was possible so, even if Darwinism did undermine traditional religious beliefs, it need not have any effects on moral thought. Before I begin my discussion of evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore, I would like to make some more general remarks about its development. There are three key events during this history of evolutionary ethics. First, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859). Since one did not have a fully developed theory of evolution until 1859, there exists little work on evolutionary ethics until then. Shortly thereafter, Herbert Spencer (1898) penned the first systematic theory of evolutionary ethics, which was promptly attacked by T.H. Huxley (Huxley 1894). Second, at about the turn of the century, moral philosophers entered the fray and attempted to demonstrate logical errors in Spencer's work; such errors were alluded

  18. Hydrostatic compression in glycerinated rabbit muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Ranatunga, K W; Fortune, N S; Geeves, M A

    1990-12-01

    Glycerinated muscle fibers isolated from rabbit psoas muscle, and a number of other nonmuscle elastic fibers including glass, rubber, and collagen, were exposed to hydrostatic pressures of up to 10 MPa (100 Atm) to determine the pressure sensitivity of their isometric tension. The isometric tension of muscle fibers in the relaxed state (passive tension) was insensitive to increased pressure, whereas the muscle fiber tension in rigor state increased linearly with pressure. The tension of all other fiber types (except rubber) also increased with pressure; the rubber tension was pressure insensitive. The pressure sensitivity of rigor tension was 2.3 kN/m2/MPa and, in comparison with force/extension relation determined at atmospheric pressure, the hydrostatic compression in rigor muscle fibers was estimated to be 0.03% Lo/MPa. As reported previously, the active muscle fiber tension is depressed by increased pressure. The possible underlying basis of the different pressure-dependent tension behavior in relaxed, rigor, and active muscle is discussed.

  19. Todd Moore d/b/a TM Construction Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Todd Moore d/b/a TM Construction (the Company) is located in St. Louis, Missouri. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a residential property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  20. 72. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON COOLING TOWERS (3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON COOLING TOWERS (3 SHOWN) AND MOTOR GENERATOR ON RIGHT - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  1. 26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED IN LOCK SIDEWALL. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  2. Biographical sketch: John Royal Moore, MD 1899-1988.

    PubMed

    Brand, Richard A

    2011-10-01

    This biographical sketch on John R. Moore corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: Cartilaginous-cup Arthroplasty in Ununited Fractures of the Neck of the Femur (1948), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-011-1974-z.

  3. 70. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST TOWARD 51A - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  4. 73. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON HIGH BAY: SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING EAST TOWARD MAIN CONTROL ROOM - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  5. Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Mary Tyler Moore Helps Launch NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. Among those attending the NIH MedlinePlus magazine launch on Capitol Hill were (l-r) NIH ...

  6. A Low-Cost, Compact, Moored Spectral Radiometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    spectral irradiance over time at prescribed depths. Data from a mooring in the Arabian Sea are presented, and clearly show the change in spectral quality...after the onset of the SW monsoon. The operation of the moored spectral radiometer (MSR) agrees closely with the data from an MER-2040, once a... data collected during a six-month deployment during the Forced Upper Ocean Dynamics Experiment in the Arabian Sea(Trask et. al., 1995), and a

  7. 46 CFR 61.30-10 - Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic test. 61.30-10 Section 61.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-10 Hydrostatic test. All...

  8. A Simple Explanation of the Classic Hydrostatic Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the…

  9. A Simple Explanation of the Classic Hydrostatic Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the…

  10. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  11. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  12. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  13. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  14. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test....

  15. Low-Frequency Responses of Nonlinearly Moored Vessels in Random Waves: Coupled Surge, Pitch and Heave Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, A.; Eatock Taylor, R.

    2001-01-01

    The responses of a multi-degree-of-freedom model of a moored vessel are analysed, accounting for the hydroelastic interaction between the nonlinear wave hydrodynamics and the nonlinear mooring stiffness. A two-scale perturbation method developed by Sarkar & Eatock Taylor to determine low-frequency hydrodynamic forces on a single-degree-of-freedom model of a nonlinearly moored vessel has been extended to analyse the nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom dynamics of the system. Surge, heave and pitch motions are considered. The perturbation equations of successive orders are derived. To illustrate the approach, semi-analytical expressions for the higher-order hydrodynamic force components have been obtained for a truncated circular cylinder in finite water depth. In addition to conventional quadratic force transfer functions, a new type of higher-order force transfer function is introduced. This is used to characterize the hydrodynamic forces on the vessel which arise due to nonlinearity of the mooring stiffness. These are a type of radiation force, generated by the nonlinear interaction of the fluid-structure coupled system. Based on a Volterra series model, the power spectral densities of the new higher-order forces are then derived for the case of Gaussian random seas. It is shown that the additional response arising due to nonlinear dynamics of the mooring system can significantly contribute to low-frequency drift forces and responses of the vessel. Unlike conventional non-Gaussian second-order forces which are quadratic transformations of a Gaussian random process, the new higher-order forces arising due to the nonlinear mooring stiffness are polynomials of a Gaussian random process (up to fourth order for a Duffing oscillator model). This may significantly influence the extreme responses.

  16. Charles Bachman Moore (1920-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, William; Krehbiel, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Charles B. Moore passed away 2 March 2010 at the age of 89, following a long and varied scientific career in meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. He will be remembered best for his substantial contributions in the field of atmospheric electricity and for the students and faculty he guided as chairman of Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and professor of physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. He possessed a unique sense of humor and an excellent memory that served as a reservoir of scientific and historical knowledge. Like many of his generation, Charlie's career was profoundly influenced by the Second World War. Following Pearl Harbor, he interrupted his undergraduate studies in chemical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology to enlist in the Army Air Corps, where he became the chief weather equipment officer in the 10th Weather Squadron, setting up and operating remote meteorological stations behind enemy lines in the China-Burma-India theater. He served with distinction alongside Athelstan Spilhaus Sr., who had been one of Charlie's instructors in the Army meteorology program.

  17. James Moores Ball: Ophthalmologist, medical historian, bibliophile.

    PubMed

    Feibel, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    James Moores Ball (1862-1929) was an ophthalmologist in St. Louis, Missouri, who excelled as a medical historian and collector of rare and historic books about the history of anatomy. During his lifetime, he was best known as the author of a comprehensive, authoritative, and popular textbook titled Modern Ophthalmology First published in 1904, there were five further editions. Ball was very interested in the history of anatomy and wrote two books on this subject, the first being a biography of Andreas Vesalius, one of the earliest in English, and the second a history of the resurrection men or grave robbers who sold corpses to professors of anatomy and surgery for teaching purposes. His legacy today is the 470 volumes of his personal library, which are now in the Archives and Rare Books department of the Becker Medical Library of the Washington University School of Medicine. These texts are one of their major collections, concentrating on the history of anatomy, beginning with a first edition of Vesalius's De Humani Corporis Fabrica and holding many important and beautiful landmark volumes of anatomical atlases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Vertical finite-element scheme for the hydrostatic primitive equations on a cubed-sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. R.; Yi, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    A vertical finite-element (VFE) scheme of three-dimensional hydrostatic primitive equations is adopted for the numerical weather prediction system, which is horizontally discretized with spectral elements on a cubed-sphere. The hybrid pressure-based vertical coordinate is employed to discretize a vertical grid, in which only the full levels of the coordinate are used in the VFE. Vertical integrals and derivatives in the hydrostatic equations are derived based on Galerkin-based finite elements with b-spline functions. These basis functions and their first-order derivatives are constructed using the Cox-de Boor algorithm. The computation of vertical integrals, derivatives and advections in the hydrostatic equations are easily done in physical space by matrix multiplication with the corresponding vertical operators. The VFE discretization scheme implemented into the global three-dimensional hydrostatic model on the cubed-sphere is evaluated by performing ideal test cases including the steady-state, baroclinic wave, 3D Rossby-Haurwitz wave, and mountain-induced Rossby wave train test cases. The two types of the VFE scheme are compared to the vertical finite difference scheme.

  19. Fatigue life prediction of mooring chains for a floating tidal current power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Fengmei; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Zhong

    2012-06-01

    As a kind of clean and renewable energy, tidal current energy is becoming increasingly popular all over the world with the shortage of energy and environmental problems becoming more and more severe. A floating tidal current power station is a typical type of tidal current power transformers which can sustain the loads of wind, waves, and current, and even the extreme situation of a typhoon. Therefore, the mooring system must be reliable enough to keep the station operating normally and to survive in extreme situations. The power station examined in this paper was installed at a depth of 40 m. A 44 mm-diameter R4-RQ4 chain was chosen, with a 2 147 kN minimum break strength and 50 kN pretension. Common studless link chain was used in this paper. Based on the Miner fatigue cumulative damage rule, S-N curves of chains, and MOSES software, a highly reliable mooring system was designed and analyzed. The calculation results show that the mooring system designed is reliable throughout a 10-year period. It can completely meet the design requirements of American Petroleum institution (API). Therefore, the presented research is significant for advancing the design of this kind of power station.

  20. Verifying the interactive convergence clock synchronization algorithm using the Boyer-Moore theorem prover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, William D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of formal methods to the analysis of computing systems promises to provide higher and higher levels of assurance as the sophistication of our tools and techniques increases. Improvements in tools and techniques come about as we pit the current state of the art against new and challenging problems. A promising area for the application of formal methods is in real-time and distributed computing. Some of the algorithms in this area are both subtle and important. In response to this challenge and as part of an ongoing attempt to verify an implementation of the Interactive Convergence Clock Synchronization Algorithm (ICCSA), we decided to undertake a proof of the correctness of the algorithm using the Boyer-Moore theorem prover. This paper describes our approach to proving the ICCSA using the Boyer-Moore prover.

  1. Computer simulations of 3C-SiC under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stresses.

    PubMed

    Guedda, H Z; Ouahrani, T; Morales-García, A; Franco, R; Salvadó, M A; Pertierra, P; Recio, J M

    2016-03-21

    The response of 3C-SiC to hydrostatic pressure and to several uni- and bi-axial stress conditions is thoroughly investigated using first principles calculations. A topological interpretation of the chemical bonding reveals that the so-called non-covalent interactions enhance only at high pressure while the nature of the covalent Si-C bonding network keeps essentially with the same pattern. The calculated low compressibility agrees well with experimental values and is in concordance with the high structural stability of this polymorph under hydrostatic pressure. Under uniaxial [001] stress, the c/a ratio shows a noticeable drop inducing a closure of the band gap and the emergence of a metallic state around 40 GPa. This behavior correlates with a plateau of the electron localization function exhibiting a roughly constant and non-negligible value surrounding CSi4 and SiC4 covalent bonded units.

  2. Food processing by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazutaka

    2017-04-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process, as a nonthermal process, can be used to inactivate microbes while minimizing chemical reactions in food. In this regard, a HHP level of 100 MPa (986.9 atm/1019.7 kgf/cm(2)) and more is applied to food. Conventional thermal process damages food components relating color, flavor, and nutrition via enhanced chemical reactions. However, HHP process minimizes the damages and inactivates microbes toward processing high quality safe foods. The first commercial HHP-processed foods were launched in 1990 as fruit products such as jams, and then some other products have been commercialized: retort rice products (enhanced water impregnation), cooked hams and sausages (shelf life extension), soy sauce with minimized salt (short-time fermentation owing to enhanced enzymatic reactions), and beverages (shelf life extension). The characteristics of HHP food processing are reviewed from viewpoints of nonthermal process, history, research and development, physical and biochemical changes, and processing equipment.

  3. Transport through the Solomon Sea observed by Moorings and Inverted Echo Sounder with Bottom Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anutaliya, A.; Send, U.

    2016-02-01

    The Solomon Sea, located between Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands in the western Pacific, is dominated by the northward flowing New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCUC). The NGCUC connects the subtropics to the equatorial region by acting as a conduit of water from the South Pacific to the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC). Despite this important linkage, the structure and dynamics of the current system through the Solomon Sea are not fully understood. Since July 2012, moorings and bottom pressure sensors have been deployed at the western and eastern sides of the Solomon Sea allowing a continuous observation of the vertical structure of the current down to 500m depth along with the associated transport. The mean current has a maximum near 300m and the current fluctuates the most at the surface. Transport across the Solomon Sea has a seasonal pattern with a drastic change between April and August. Short-term variability can be as large as 15 Sv in a week or less. The available temperature and salinity profiles from moorings also permit identification of the sources of water coming into the Solomon Sea, whose transports can be distinguished. Finally, a technique is developed to reconstruct the transport and most of its vertical distribution based only on satellite altimetry and bottom pressure utilizing the vertical structure measured by moorings. The derived transport agrees quite well with the direct measurements suggesting the possibility of an economical monitoring system in the future.

  4. A quantitative experimental paradigm to optimize construction of rank order lists in the National Resident Matching Program: the ROSS-MOORE approach.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; Moore, Edward Z

    2013-09-01

    As part of the National Resident Matching Program, programs must submit a rank order list of desired applicants. Despite the importance of this process and the numerous manifest limitations with traditional approaches, minimal research has been conducted to examine the accuracy of different ranking strategies. The authors developed the Moore Optimized Ordinal Rank Estimator (MOORE), a novel algorithm for ranking applicants that is based on college sports ranking systems. Because it is not possible to study the Match in vivo, the authors then designed the Recruitment Outcomes Simulation System (ROSS). This program was used to simulate a series of interview seasons and to compare MOORE and traditional approaches under different conditions. The accuracy of traditional ranking and the MOORE approach are equally and adversely affected with higher levels of intrarater variability. However, compared with traditional ranking methods, MOORE produces a more accurate rank order list as interrater variability increases. The present data demonstrate three key findings. First, they provide proof of concept that it is possible to scientifically test the accuracy of different rank methods used in the Match. Second, they show that small amounts of variability can have a significant adverse impact on the accuracy of rank order lists. Finally, they demonstrate that an ordinal approach may lead to a more accurate rank order list in the presence of interviewer bias. The ROSS-MOORE approach offers programs a novel way to optimize the recruitment process and, potentially, to construct a more accurate rank order list.

  5. Investigation of a FAST-OrcaFlex Coupling Module for Integrating Turbine and Mooring Dynamics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Masciola, M.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.

    2011-10-01

    To enable offshore floating wind turbine design, the following are required: accurate modeling of the wind turbine structural dynamics, aerodynamics, platform hydrodynamics, a mooring system, and control algorithms. Mooring and anchor design can appreciably affect the dynamic response of offshore wind platforms that are subject to environmental loads. From an engineering perspective, system behavior and line loads must be studied well to ensure the overall design is fit for the intended purpose. FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) is a comprehensive simulation tool used for modeling land-based and offshore wind turbines. In the case of a floating turbine, continuous cable theory is used to emulate mooring line dynamics. Higher modeling fidelity can be gained through the use of finite element mooring theory. This can be achieved through the FASTlink coupling module, which couples FAST with OrcaFlex, a commercial simulation tool used for modeling mooring line dynamics. In this application, FAST is responsible for capturing the aerodynamic loads and flexure of the wind turbine and its tower, and OrcaFlex models the mooring line and hydrodynamic effects below the water surface. This paper investigates the accuracy and stability of the FAST/OrcaFlex coupling operation.

  6. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  7. Time series pCO2 at a coastal mooring: Internal consistency, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Xue, Liang; Vargas, Rodrigo; Noakes, Scott; Hu, Xinping; Signorini, Sergio R.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Feely, Richard A.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Sabine, Christopher; Musielewicz, Sylvia; Chen, Baoshan; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2017-08-01

    Marine carbonate system monitoring programs often consist of multiple observational methods that include underway cruise data, moored autonomous time series, and discrete water bottle samples. Monitored parameters include all, or some of the following: partial pressure of CO2 of the water (pCO2w) and air, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH. Any combination of at least two of the aforementioned parameters can be used to calculate the others. In this study at the Gray's Reef (GR) mooring in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) we: examine the internal consistency of pCO2w from underway cruise, moored autonomous time series, and calculated from bottle samples (DIC-TA pairing); describe the seasonal to interannual pCO2w time series variability and air-sea flux (FCO2), as well as describe the potential sources of pCO2w variability; and determine the source/sink for atmospheric pCO2. Over the 8.5 years of GR mooring time series, mooring-underway and mooring-bottle calculated-pCO2w strongly correlate with r-values > 0.90. pCO2w and FCO2 time series follow seasonal thermal patterns; however, seasonal non-thermal processes, such as terrestrial export, net biological production, and air-sea exchange also influence variability. The linear slope of time series pCO2w increases by 5.2 ± 1.4 μatm y-1 with FCO2 increasing 51-70 mmol m-2 y-1. The net FCO2 sign can switch interannually with the magnitude varying greatly. Non-thermal pCO2w is also increasing over the time series, likely indicating that terrestrial export and net biological processes drive the long term pCO2w increase.

  8. Obituary: Ben Hawkins Moore, 1921-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, James F.

    2004-12-01

    Ben H. Moore, emeritus professor of physics, astronomy and earth sciences at St. Cloud State University, Minnesota, died 7 November 2003, in South Padre Island, Texas. Ben was born 18 March 1921, in Kansas City, Missouri, to Fraser D. and Cora R. (Hawkins) Moore. Though his parents provided a strong guiding influence on Ben's development, Ben's career was impacted most clearly by his work as a student and research assistant for Allen Basset (Ben's father-in-law) at Park College. This relationship turned Ben's early interest in chemistry and biology toward a focus on physics. Ben received his undergraduate degree from Park College where he graduated Phi Delta Kappa. He received a MS in physics from Kansas State University. He also did post-masters work at the University of Kansas, the University of Colorado, the University of Washington and Temple University. In addition to his work as a research assistant, Ben taught at Park College as well as Washington Kansas High School, Wyandotte High School, and Kansas City Kansas Junior College before moving to St. Cloud State University in 1960. He retired from this teaching position in May 1982 but remained involved in activities of his department, including some teaching, through most of his years in retirement. Ben's accomplishments were mainly centered on his teaching. His development of courses and his rapport with students consistently brought praise from both his colleagues and his students. Above all, his work involved innovative development of the curriculum in the sciences at St. Cloud State. Soon after his arrival at the university, Ben took over the fledgling field geology course and continued to shape this offering into a program in earth sciences. The popularity of his classes, which attracted both general students and a growing number of majors, finally enabled the university to establish an earth sciences department in the late 1960's and Ben was the first chair of that department. In the mid-1960's Ben took

  9. Verification and Validation of the New Dynamic Mooring Modules Available in FAST v8

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Andersen, Morten T.; Robertson, Amy N.; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2016-07-01

    The open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, was recently coupled to two newly developed mooring dynamics modules: MoorDyn and FEAMooring. MoorDyn is a lumped-mass-based mooring dynamics module developed by the University of Maine, and FEAMooring is a finite-element-based mooring dynamics module developed by Texas A&M University. This paper summarizes the work performed to verify and validate these modules against other mooring models and measured test data to assess their reliability and accuracy. The quality of the fairlead load predictions by the open-source mooring modules MoorDyn and FEAMooring appear to be largely equivalent to what is predicted by the commercial tool OrcaFlex. Both mooring dynamic model predictions agree well with the experimental data, considering the given limitations in the accuracy of the platform hydrodynamic load calculation and the quality of the measurement data.

  10. Verification and Validation of the New Dynamic Mooring Modules Available in FAST v8: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Fabian; Robertson, Amy; Jonkman, Jason; Andersen, Morten T.

    2016-08-01

    The open-source aero-hydro-servo-elastic wind turbine simulation software, FAST v8, was recently coupled to two newly developed mooring dynamics modules: MoorDyn and FEAMooring. MoorDyn is a lumped-mass-based mooring dynamics module developed by the University of Maine, and FEAMooring is a finite-element-based mooring dynamics module developed by Texas A&M University. This paper summarizes the work performed to verify and validate these modules against other mooring models and measured test data to assess their reliability and accuracy. The quality of the fairlead load predictions by the open-source mooring modules MoorDyn and FEAMooring appear to be largely equivalent to what is predicted by the commercial tool OrcaFlex. Both mooring dynamic model predictions agree well with the experimental data, considering the given limitations in the accuracy of the platform hydrodynamic load calculation and the quality of the measurement data.

  11. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  12. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma. PMID:26716691

  13. Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure on Carcinogenic Properties of Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Kim, Young Hak; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. The inflammation increases the permeability of blood vessels and consequently elevates pressure in the interstitial tissues. However, there have been only a few reports on the effects of hydrostatic pressure on cultured cells, and the relationship between elevated hydrostatic pressure and cell properties related to malignant tumors is less well understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the cultured epithelial cells seeded on permeable filters. Surprisingly, hydrostatic pressure from basal to apical side induced epithelial stratification in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) I and Caco-2 cells, and cavities with microvilli and tight junctions around their surfaces were formed within the multi-layered epithelia. The hydrostatic pressure gradient also promoted cell proliferation, suppressed cell apoptosis, and increased transepithelial ion permeability. The inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) promoted epithelial stratification by the hydrostatic pressure whereas the activation of PKA led to suppressed epithelial stratification. These results indicate the role of the hydrostatic pressure gradient in the regulation of various epithelial cell functions. The findings in this study may provide clues for the development of a novel strategy for the treatment of the carcinoma.

  14. A Robust Self-Alignment Method for Ship's Strapdown INS Under Mooring Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng; Lan, Haiyu; Yu, Chunyang; El-Sheimy, Naser; Zhou, Guangtao; Cao, Tong; Liu, Hang

    2013-01-01

    Strapdown inertial navigation systems (INS) need an alignment process to determine the initial attitude matrix between the body frame and the navigation frame. The conventional alignment process is to compute the initial attitude matrix using the gravity and Earth rotational rate measurements. However, under mooring conditions, the inertial measurement unit (IMU) employed in a ship's strapdown INS often suffers from both the intrinsic sensor noise components and the external disturbance components caused by the motions of the sea waves and wind waves, so a rapid and precise alignment of a ship's strapdown INS without any auxiliary information is hard to achieve. A robust solution is given in this paper to solve this problem. The inertial frame based alignment method is utilized to adapt the mooring condition, most of the periodical low-frequency external disturbance components could be removed by the mathematical integration and averaging characteristic of this method. A novel prefilter named hidden Markov model based Kalman filter (HMM-KF) is proposed to remove the relatively high-frequency error components. Different from the digital filters, the HMM-KF barely cause time-delay problem. The turntable, mooring and sea experiments favorably validate the rapidness and accuracy of the proposed self-alignment method and the good de-noising performance of HMM-KF. PMID:23799492

  15. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, O.; Ruhon, R.; Lavery, P. S.; Kendrick, G. A.; Hickey, S.; Masqué, P.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2016-03-01

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m-2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m-2 yr-1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m-2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation.

  16. Impact of mooring activities on carbon stocks in seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, O.; Ruhon, R.; Lavery, P. S.; Kendrick, G. A.; Hickey, S.; Masqué, P.; Arias-Ortiz, A.; Steven, A.; Duarte, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Boating activities are one of the causes that threaten seagrass meadows and the ecosystem services they provide. Mechanical destruction of seagrass habitats may also trigger the erosion of sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks, which may contribute to increasing atmospheric CO2. This study presents the first estimates of loss of Corg stocks in seagrass meadows due to mooring activities in Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Sediment cores were sampled from seagrass meadows and from bare but previously vegetated sediments underneath moorings. The Corg stores have been compromised by the mooring deployment from 1930s onwards, which involved both the erosion of existing sedimentary Corg stores and the lack of further accumulation of Corg. On average, undisturbed meadows had accumulated ~6.4 Kg Corg m−2 in the upper 50 cm-thick deposits at a rate of 34 g Corg m−2 yr−1. The comparison of Corg stores between meadows and mooring scars allows us to estimate a loss of 4.8 kg Corg m−2 in the 50 cm-thick deposits accumulated over ca. 200 yr as a result of mooring deployments. These results provide key data for the implementation of Corg storage credit offset policies to avoid the conversion of seagrass ecosystems and contribute to their preservation. PMID:26979407

  17. Effect of Elasticity on Capillary Compensated Flexible Multi-recess Hydrostatic Journal Bearing Operating with Micropolar Lubricant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Suresh; Kumar, Vijay; Gupta, Kapil Dev

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the effects of bearing shell deformation upon the performance characteristics of a capillary compensated multi-recess hydrostatic journal bearing system operating with micropolar lubricant. The finite element method has been used to solve the modified Reynolds' equation governing the micropolar lubricant flow in the bearing and the three dimensional elasticity equations governing the displacement field in the bearing shell. The elasto-hydrostatic performance characteristics of the bearing are presented for various values of micropolar parameters ( l m and N 2) and for a wide range of the deformation coefficient bar{C}d which takes into account the flexibility of the bearing shell. The computed results indicate that the influence of the bearing shell flexibility is quite significant on the performance characteristics of recessed hydrostatic journal bearing system operating with micropolar lubricant.

  18. Improvement of the accuracy of continuous GPS/Acoustic measurement using a slackly moored buoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imano, M.; Kido, M.; Ohta, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Fukuda, T.; Ochi, H.; Honsho, C.; Hino, R.

    2016-12-01

    For the real-time detection of seafloor crustal movement and tsunami associated with large earthquakes, it is necessary to monitor them continuously in their source regions. For this purpose, Tohoku University, JAMSTEC, and JAXA have co-developed a continuous GPS/Acoustic (GPS/A) measurement system using a moored buoy, and the third sea-trial is ongoing for a year in Kumano-nada, Nankai Trough. In this presentation, we report of the positioning accuracy of the continuous GPS/Acoustic measurement in the buoy system. We have adopted the array positioning technique developed by researchers at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography with some improvements. The advantage of this method is that errors in assumed sound velocity and array geometry (relative positions of individual seafloor transponders) little affect positioning results when measurements are conducted in the vicinity of the array center. However, the GPS/A measurement using a moored buoy is generally conducted under much worse condition than the conventional one using a research vessel. In our system, the mooring cable length was determined to be 1.5 times the water depth for safety reasons against strong current. Therefore, the buoy is drifting within a relatively wide area by the wind and the current, and measurements are randomly performed at various points within the area. These features can lead to significant systematic errors in the array positioning, because the effect of errors in pre-defined array geometry increases as the observation point goes farther from the array center. At the moments, the positioning accuracy of GPS/A measurement using a moored buoy is estimated as 0.6/0.7 m, for the EW/NS components, respectively, from the data obtained during the third sea-trial. It is considered that errors in the assumed array geometry result in considerable errors in the array positioning. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the array geometry more precisely in order to improve the accuracy of GPS

  19. A hydrostatic pressure-cycle energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, Michael W.; Hahn, Gregory; Morgan, Eric

    2015-04-01

    There have been a number of new applications for energy harvesting with the ever-decreasing power consumption of microelectronic devices. In this paper we explore a new area of marine animal energy harvesting for use in powering tags known as bio-loggers. These devices record data about the animal or its surroundings, but have always had limited deployment times due to battery depletion. Reduced solar irradiance below the water's surface provides the impetus to explore other energy harvesting concepts beyond solar power for use on marine animals. We review existing tag technologies in relation to this application, specifically relating to energy consumption. Additionally, we propose a new idea for energy harvesting, using hydrostatic pressure changes as a source for energy production. We present initial testing results of a bench-top model and show that the daily energy harvesting potential from this technology can meet or exceed that consumed by current marine bio-logging tags. The application of this concept in the arena of bio-logging technology could substantially increase bio-logger deployment lifetimes, allowing for longitudinal studies over the course of multiple breeding and/or migration cycles.

  20. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  1. Mechanical stability of iron under hydrostatic stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, K. L.; Thakur, O. P.; Thakur, K. P.

    1991-09-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the mechanics of iron subjected to arbitrary fluid pressure has been carried out. Apart from the classical elastic moduli ( k, μ, and μ') and conventional elastic moduli (Green and stretch moduli) computations are carried out for a family of generalised moduli of which the conventional moduli are just specific members. With the generalised moduli the mechanical stability of iron is investigated through Born criteria. It is found that classical stability, Green stability and stretch stability are all represented uniquely by the present generalised scheme. The definition of effective classical moduli under stresses enabled the amalgamation of the Born criteria of lattice stability into the single classical criteria of lattice stability of cubic crystal under hydrostatic loading environment. Computations are also carried out to investigate the coordinate and stress dependence of Young's modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, mean velocity of elastic wave, and Debye temperature. Surprisingly, it is found that all these properties of solids play an important role in representing the mechanical stability of the solid. The path of uniaxial loading of iron is also investigated along with its internal energy variation on this path. This indicated the existance of stress-free fcc phase of iron on the path of uniaxial deformation at cell length a=3.6444 Å giving enthalpy of transformation (bcc→fcc) of 1.1 kJ/mol in good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study of the dynamic transient characteristics of a hydrostatic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhicheng; Wang, Shuguo; Liu, Qingming; Chi, Wei

    1993-01-01

    The transient characteristics of a hydrostatic bearing under a step load have been studied by considering the compressibility of oil (containing air bubbles). The characteristic equations of the beating during the transient stage have been set up, the duration of the transient stage has been obtained and the effects of the main parameters of the bearing system on the transient characteristics have been analyzed. This study provides a new theoretical basis for improving the dynamic support precision of high quality bearings.

  3. An optimized design for a moored instrument array in the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackert, Eric C.; Miller, Robert N.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) which are intended as a design study for a proposed array of instrumented moorings in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Fields of TOPEX/Poseidon sea surface height anomalies are subsampled with the goal being reconstruction of the original fields through the use of reduced-space Kaiman filter data assimilation at a restricted number of locations. Our approach differs from typical identical and fraternal twin experiments in that real observed data (i.e., TOPEX/Poseidon data) are subsampled and used in place of synthetic data in all phases of the OSSEs. In this way the question of how closely a particular model-generated data set resembles nature is avoided. Several data assimilation runs are performed in order to optimize the location of a limited number of moorings for the proposed Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). Results of experiments in which data are assimilated at 2°N, 2°S and the equator and the longitude is systematically varied by 5° show that the greatest impact of the assimilated data occurs when the observations are taken between 15°W and 30°W. Next, a more systematic technique is presented which allows us to determine optimal points in an objective fashion by applying a least squares regression approach to reconstruct the errors on a dense array of points from the data misfits at any three selected points. The forecast error structure from the Kaiman filter is used in a novel way to assess the optimality of mooring locations. From a large sample of triads of points, the optimal mooring locations are found to be along the equator at 35°W, 20°W, and 10°W. Additional experiments are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the initial and final PIRATA configurations and the added value that can be expected from PIRATA observations beyond existing expendable bathythermograph observations.

  4. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.

    PubMed

    Praveen, K; Rajiniganth, M P; Arun, A D; Sahoo, P; Murty, S A V Satya

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ∼4 s, respectively.

  5. Hydrodynamic and hydrostatic modelling of hydraulic journal bearings considering small displacement condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Yin; Chuang, Jen-Chen; Tu, Jia-Ying

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes modified coefficients for the dynamic model of hydraulic journal bearing system that integrates the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties. In recent years, design of hydraulic bearing for machine tool attracts worldwide attention, because hydraulic bearings are able to provide higher capacity and accuracy with lower friction, compared to conventional bearing systems. In order to achieve active control of the flow pressure and enhance the operation accuracy, the dynamic model of hydraulic bearings need to be developed. Modified coefficients of hydrostatic stiffness, hydrodynamic stiffness, and squeeze damping of the dynamic model are presented in this work, which are derived referring to small displacement analysis from literature. The proposed modified coefficients and model, which consider the pressure variations, relevant geometry size, and fluid properties of the journal bearings, are able to characterise the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties with better precision, thus offering the following pragmatic contribution: (1) on-line prediction of the eccentricity and the position of the shaft in the face of external force that results in vibration; (2) development of active control system to regulate the supply flow pressure and to minimize the eccentricity of the shaft. Theoretical derivation and simulation results with different vibration cases are discussed to verify the proposed techniques.

  6. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveen, K.; Rajiniganth, M. P.; Arun, A. D.; Sahoo, P.; Satya Murty, S. A. V.

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ˜4 s, respectively.

  7. Optimization of hydrostatic transmissions by means of virtual instrumentation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion Guta, Dragos Daniel; Popescu, Teodor Costinel; Dumitrescu, Catalin

    2010-11-01

    Obtaining mathematical models, as close as possible to physical phenomena which are intended to be replicated or improved, help us in deciding how to optimize them. The introduction of computers in monitoring and controlling processes caused changes in technological systems. With support from the methods for identification of processes and from the power of numerical computing equipment, researchers and designers can shorten the period for development of applications in various fields by generating a solution as close as possible to reality, since the design stage [1]. The paper presents a hybrid solution of modeling / simulation of a hydrostatic transmission with mixed adjustment. For simulation and control of the examined process we have used two distinct environments, AMESim and LabVIEW. The proposed solution allows coupling of the system's model to the software control modules developed using virtual instrumentation. Simulation network of the analyzed system was "tuned" and validated by an actual model of the process. This paper highlights some aspects regarding energy and functional advantages of hydraulic transmissions based on adjustable volumetric machines existing in their primary and secondary sectors [2].

  8. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume B. Engineering drawings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This is one part of a two-volume report that presents baseline design data for two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants: (a) a moored plant that uses underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company, and (b) a cruising plantship that uses the OTEC electric power to produce an energy-intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market. This volume provides the engineering drawings of the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  9. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume B: Engineering drawings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    Baseline design data are presented for two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants: (1) a moored plant that uses underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company, and (2) a cruising plantship that uses the OTEC electric power to produce an energy-intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market. Engineering drawings of the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers are provided.

  10. Static characteristics design of hydrostatic guide-ways based on fluid-structure interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shuo; Yin, YueHong

    2016-10-01

    With the raising requirements in micro optical systems, the available machines become hard to achieve the process dynamic and accuracy in all aspects. This makes compact design based on fluid/structure interactions (FSI) important. However, there is a difficulty in studying FSI with oil film as fluid domain. This paper aims at static characteristic design of a hydrostatic guide-way with capillary restrictors based on FSI. The pressure distribution of the oil film land is calculated by solving the Reynolds-equation with Galerkin technique. The deformation of structure is calculated by commercial FEM software, MSC. Nastran. A matlab program is designed to realize the coupling progress by modifying the load boundary in the submitting file and reading the deformation result. It's obvious that the stiffness of the hydrostatic bearing decreases with the weakening of the bearing structure. This program is proposed to make more precise prediction of bearing stiffness.

  11. Getting It Wrong: Comment on Moore's "Behaviorism and the Stages of Scientific Activity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Moore's (2010) illogical attack on the matching law which was published by "The Behavior Analyst." Moore begins by attacking the psychophysical power law because he claims it is based on mentalism. One may argue about theory, but one cannot argue with data. Moore's attack on the generalized matching law is…

  12. Thomas E. Moore's "Sour Sofkee" in the Tradition of Muskogee Dialect Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petete, Timothy; Womack, Craig S.

    2006-01-01

    The Muskogee dialect letters provide one of the most interesting combinations of fictional viewpoints and political commentary in American Indian letters. This article features the life story of Thomas E. Moore. This article also presents the fictional literary works of Moore and compares his dialect writings to Alexander Posey. Moore is the most…

  13. Thomas E. Moore's "Sour Sofkee" in the Tradition of Muskogee Dialect Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petete, Timothy; Womack, Craig S.

    2006-01-01

    The Muskogee dialect letters provide one of the most interesting combinations of fictional viewpoints and political commentary in American Indian letters. This article features the life story of Thomas E. Moore. This article also presents the fictional literary works of Moore and compares his dialect writings to Alexander Posey. Moore is the most…

  14. Getting It Wrong: Comment on Moore's "Behaviorism and the Stages of Scientific Activity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Moore's (2010) illogical attack on the matching law which was published by "The Behavior Analyst." Moore begins by attacking the psychophysical power law because he claims it is based on mentalism. One may argue about theory, but one cannot argue with data. Moore's attack on the generalized matching law is…

  15. A Different Perspective of the Teaching Philosophy of RL Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    Dr RL Moore was undoubtedly one of the finest mathematics teachers ever. He developed a unique teaching method designed to teach his students to think like mathematicians. His method was not designed to convey any particular mathematical knowledge. Instead, it was designed to teach his students to think. Today, his method has been modified to…

  16. Modification of Moore measuring machine/Leitz microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greth, H. A.; Brubaker, L.

    1976-01-01

    Quality assurance mechanical inspection, anticipating the need for improved measuring techniques for the various laboratory programs, has perfected a modification of the Leitz microscope for the Moore measuring machine that has the capability of significantly reducing inspection time with increased reliability.

  17. Meeting Report: Patrick Moore at the Royal Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arditti, D.

    2010-02-01

    'Developments in amateur astronomy: past, present and future'. A special meeting in honour of Sir Patrick Moore to celebrate his 75 years as a BAA member, held on 2009 November 21 at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, Albemarle Street, London W1

  18. Design for a Moore No. 1 1/2 lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    To increase our capability to machine small spherical parts, we are designing an ultraprecision lathe based on a Moore No. 1 1/2 measuring machine. The machine is being designed for single axis cutting, utilizing an accurate rotary table for spherical cuts. This report summarizes the design and presents an error budget analysis for the design.

  19. Alice Moore and the Kanawha County Textbook Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe

    1980-01-01

    The author considers the 1974 Kanawha County textbook censorship controversy as an attempt by fundamentalist parents to banish "alien" moral influences from the schools and to strengthen community control over learning. He focuses on the role and views of school board member Alice Moore, a leading spokesperson of the fundamentalists.…

  20. Maintaining Moore's law: enabling cost-friendly dimensional scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Arindam; Ryckaert, Julien; Mercha, Abdelkarim; Verkest, Diederik; Ronse, Kurt; Thean, Aaron

    2015-03-01

    Moore's Law (Moore's Observation) has been driving the progress in semiconductor technology for the past 50 years. The semiconductor industry is at a juncture where significant increase in manufacturing cost is foreseen to sustain the past trend of dimensional scaling. At N10 and N7 technology nodes, the industry is struggling to find a cost-friendly solution. At a device level, technologists have come up with novel devices (finFET, Gate-All-Around), material innovations (SiGe, Ge) to boost performance and reduce power consumption. On the other hand, from the patterning side, the relative slow ramp-up of alternative lithography technologies like EUVL and DSA pushes the industry to adopt a severely multi-patterning-based solution. Both of these technological transformations have a big impact on die yield and eventually die cost. This paper is aimed to analyze the impact on manufacturing cost to keep the Moore's law alive. We have proposed and analyzed various patterning schemes that can enable cost-friendly scaling. We evaluated the impact of EUVL introduction on tackling the high cost of manufacturing. The primary objective of this paper is to maintain Moore's scaling from a patterning perspective and analyzing EUV lithography introduction at a die level.

  1. A Different Perspective of the Teaching Philosophy of RL Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    Dr RL Moore was undoubtedly one of the finest mathematics teachers ever. He developed a unique teaching method designed to teach his students to think like mathematicians. His method was not designed to convey any particular mathematical knowledge. Instead, it was designed to teach his students to think. Today, his method has been modified to…

  2. Picture Books about Blacks: An Interview with Opal Moore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Donnarae; Richard, Olga

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview with Opal Moore, who discusses Black imagery in picture books published in the last four years and the institutions that circulate that imagery. Topics discussed include the issue of race pride; interracial themes; appropriate illustrations; African versus African-American books; and the roles of publishers, books reviewers,…

  3. Biographical sketch: Charles Hewitt Moore, FRCS (1821-1870).

    PubMed

    Brand, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    This biographical sketch on Charles Moore corresponds to the historic text, The Classic: An account of a Case of Fracture and Distortion of the Pelvis, combined with an unusual form of Dislocation of the Femur (1851), available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-012-2425-1 .

  4. Neuromorphic Computing: A Post-Moore's Law Complementary Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, John Douglas; Dean, Mark; Plank, James; Rose, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    We describe our approach to post-Moore's law computing with three neuromorphic computing models that share a RISC philosophy, featuring simple components combined with a flexible and programmable structure. We envision these to be leveraged as co-processors, or as data filters to provide in situ data analysis in supercomputing environments.

  5. CLIMODE Subsurface Mooring Report: November 2005 - November 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    02. Cruise Report, CLIMODE 2, AT013, 18-31 January 2006 R/V Atlantis R/V Oceanus 434 Nov 16, 2006 - Dec 3, 2006 Cruise Report, CLIMODE 4, Leg...V Atlantis for their knowledgeable help during the CLIMODE field program. 32 Appendix A: Mooring A time series plots Figure A-1

  6. Simulation of Storm Surge by a Depth-integrated Non-hydrostatic Nested-gird Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Wu, Tso-Ren; Terng, Chuen-Teyr; Cheung, Mei-Hui

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents COMCOT-SS (COrnell Multi-grid Coupled of Tsunami Model - Storm Surge) operational model, a depth integrated non-hydrostatic storm surge model developed for the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in Taiwan. This model is based on the widely-validated COMCOT tsunami model. However, the governing equations were modified to be a depth-integrated vertical momentum equation, and the nonlinear shallow water equations including extra terms, such as the non-hydrostatic pressure, weather forcing, and tidal terms. The non-hydrostatic term enables the model to simulate relatively steep waves in the near-shore region. The conventional features in COMCOT, such as the nested-grid system, spherical and Cartesian coordinate systems, and the moving boundary scheme for inundation prediction were preserved. In this study, we carefully validated the model with analytic solutions for wind shear stress and pressure gradient terms. TWRF (Typhoon Weather Research and Forecasting) model was coupled for providing the meteorological forces generated by typhoons. Besides, parametric typhoon models such as Holland model (1980) and CWB model were also coupled with COMCOT-SS in which the drag coefficient was advised by Large and Pond (1981) and Powell (2003). Astronomical tide provided by the TPXO global tidal model was imported from the domain boundaries. As for the model performance, COMCOT-SS spends less than 30 minutes to finish a 48-hrs forecasting with a large computational domain which covers Taiwan Strait and most parts of Western Pacific Ocean and South China Sea and satisfies the requirement of early warning. In this paper, we also presented the results of nine typical typhoon routes defined by CWB in Taiwan for the model verification. The simulation results accompanied with the non-hydrostatic effect presented good agreement with observation data. Detailed results and discussion will be presented in EGU, 2015.

  7. Cdiac Data Management and Archival Support for a High-Frequency Atmospheric and Seawater PCO2 Data Set from 14 Open Ocean Moorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyr, A.; Sutton, A.

    2016-02-01

    One important project at CDIAC is the data management support for the Global CO2 Time-series and Moorings Project. This poster will describe the collaboration between NOAA/PMEL Mooring group and CDIAC in the data management and archival of a high-frequency atmospheric and seawater pCO2 data from 14 open ocean sites using moored autonomous systems.. Advancements in the ocean carbon observation network over the last decade, such as the development and deployment of Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) systems, have dramatically improved our ability to characterize ocean climate, sea-air gas exchange, and biogeochemical processes. The Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system provides high-resolution surface seawater and atmospheric CO2 data that can help us understand inter-annual, seasonal, and sub-seasonal dynamics and provide constrains on the impact of short-term biogeochemical variability on CO2 fluxes. CDIAC NDP-092 provides a description of the data as well as the methods and data quality control involved in developing an open-ocean MAPCO2 data set

  8. Lens intracellular hydrostatic pressure is generated by the circulation of sodium and modulated by gap junction coupling

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; Moore, Leon C.; White, Thomas W.; Brink, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    We recently modeled fluid flow through gap junction channels coupling the pigmented and nonpigmented layers of the ciliary body. The model suggested the channels could transport the secretion of aqueous humor, but flow would be driven by hydrostatic pressure rather than osmosis. The pressure required to drive fluid through a single layer of gap junctions might be just a few mmHg and difficult to measure. In the lens, however, there is a circulation of Na+ that may be coupled to intracellular fluid flow. Based on this hypothesis, the fluid would cross hundreds of layers of gap junctions, and this might require a large hydrostatic gradient. Therefore, we measured hydrostatic pressure as a function of distance from the center of the lens using an intracellular microelectrode-based pressure-sensing system. In wild-type mouse lenses, intracellular pressure varied from ∼330 mmHg at the center to zero at the surface. We have several knockout/knock-in mouse models with differing levels of expression of gap junction channels coupling lens fiber cells. Intracellular hydrostatic pressure in lenses from these mouse models varied inversely with the number of channels. When the lens’ circulation of Na+ was either blocked or reduced, intracellular hydrostatic pressure in central fiber cells was either eliminated or reduced proportionally. These data are consistent with our hypotheses: fluid circulates through the lens; the intracellular leg of fluid circulation is through gap junction channels and is driven by hydrostatic pressure; and the fluid flow is generated by membrane transport of sodium. PMID:21624945

  9. Numerical modeling of a spar platform tethered by a mooring cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangqian; Yoo, Wan-Suk

    2015-07-01

    Virtual simulation is an economical and efficient method in mechanical system design. Numerical modeling of a spar platform, tethered by a mooring cable with a spherical joint is developed for the dynamic simulation of the floating structure in ocean. The geometry modeling of the spar is created using finite element methods. The submerged part of the spar bears the buoyancy, hydrodynamic drag force, and effect of the added mass and Froude-Krylov force. Strip theory is used to sum up the forces acting on the elements. The geometry modeling of the cable is established based on the lumped-mass-and-spring modeling through which the cable is divided into 10 elements. A new element-fixed local frame is used, which is created by the element orientation vector and relative velocity of the fluid, to express the loads acting on the cable. The bottom of the cable is fixed on the seabed by spring forces, while the top of the cable is connected to the bottom of the spar platform by a modified spherical joint. This system suffers the propagating wave and current in the X-direction and the linear wave theory is applied for setting of the propagating wave. Based on the numerical modeling, the displacement-load relationships are analyzed, and the simulation results of the numerical modeling are compared with those by the commercial simulation code, ProteusDS. The comparison indicates that the numerical modeling of the spar platform tethered by a mooring cable is well developed, which provides an instruction for the optimization of a floating structure tethered by a mooring cable system.

  10. The Effect of Size and Species on Lens Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; Moore, Leon C.; Brink, Peter R.; White, Thomas W.; Mathias, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Previous experiments showed that mouse lenses have an intracellular hydrostatic pressure that varied from 335 mm Hg in central fibers to 0 mm Hg in surface cells. Model calculations predicted that in larger lenses, all else equal, pressure should increase as the lens radius squared. To test this prediction, lenses of different radii from different species were studied. Methods. All studies were done in intact lenses. Intracellular hydrostatic pressures were measured with a microelectrode-manometer–based system. Membrane conductances were measured by frequency domain impedance analysis. Intracellular Na+ concentrations were measured by injecting the Na+-sensitive dye sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate. Results. Intracellular hydrostatic pressures were measured in lenses from mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs with radii (cm) 0.11, 0.22, 0.49, and 0.57, respectively. In each species, pressure varied from 335 ± 6 mm Hg in central fiber cells to 0 mm Hg in surface cells. Further characterization of transport in lenses from mice and rats showed that the density of fiber cell gap junction channels was approximately the same, intracellular Na+ concentrations varied from 17 mM in central fiber cells to 7 mM in surface cells, and intracellular voltages varied from −45 mV in central fiber cells to −60 mV in surface cells. Fiber cell membrane conductance was a factor of 2.7 times larger in mouse than in rat lenses. Conclusions. Intracellular hydrostatic pressure is an important physiological parameter that is regulated in lenses from these different species. The most likely mechanism of regulation is to reduce the density of open Na+-leak channels in fiber cells of larger lenses. PMID:23211824

  11. A 3D unstructured non-hydrostatic ocean model for internal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Congfang; Ding, Weiye

    2016-10-01

    A 3D non-hydrostatic model is developed to compute internal waves. A novel grid arrangement is incorporated in the model. This not only ensures the homogenous Dirichlet boundary condition for the non-hydrostatic pressure can be precisely and easily imposed but also renders the model relatively simple in its discretized form. The Perot scheme is employed to discretize horizontal advection terms in the horizontal momentum equations, which is based on staggered grids and has the conservative property. Based on previous water wave models, the main works of the present paper are to (1) utilize a semi-implicit, fractional step algorithm to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE); (2) develop a second-order flux-limiter method satisfying the max-min property; (3) incorporate a density equation, which is solved by a high-resolution finite volume method ensuring mass conservation and max-min property based on a vertical boundary-fitted coordinate system; and (4) validate the developed model by using four tests including two internal seiche waves, lock-exchange flow, and internal solitary wave breaking. Comparisons of numerical results with analytical solutions or experimental data or other model results show reasonably good agreement, demonstrating the model's capability to resolve internal waves relating to complex non-hydrostatic phenomena.

  12. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces.

  13. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  14. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  15. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  16. Three-D CFD analysis of hydrostatic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shyi-Jang; Hibbs, Robert I., Jr.

    1993-07-01

    The hydrostatic bearing promises life and speed characteristics currently unachievable with rolling element bearings alone. In order to achieve the speed and life requirements of the next generation of rocket engines, turbopump manufacturers are proposing hydrostatic bearings to be used in place of, or in series with, rolling element bearings. The design of a hydrostatic bearing is dependent on accurate pressure in the bearing. The stiffness and damping of the hydrostatic bearing is very sensitive to the bearing recess pressure ratio. In the conventional approach, usually ad hoc assumptions were made in determining the bearing pressure of this approach is inherently incorrect. In the present paper, a more elaborate approach to obtain bearing pressure is used. The bearing pressure and complete flow features of the bearing are directly computed by solving the complete 3-D Navier Stokes equation. The code used in the present calculation is a modified version of REACT3D code. Several calculations have been performed for the hydrostatic bearing designed and tested at Texas A&M. Good agreement has been obtained between computed and test results. Detailed flow features in the bearing will also be described and discussed.

  17. Three-D CFD Analysis of Hydrostatic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shyi-Jang; Hibbs, Robert I., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrostatic bearing promises life and speed characteristics currently unachievable with rolling element bearings alone. In order to achieve the speed and life requirements of the next generation of rocket engines, turbopump manufacturers are proposing hydrostatic bearings to be used in place of, or in series with, rolling element bearings. The design of a hydrostatic bearing is dependent on accurate pressure in the bearing. The stiffness and damping of the hydrostatic bearing is very sensitive to the bearing recess pressure ratio. In the conventional approach, usually ad hoc assumptions were made in determining the bearing pressure of this approach is inherently incorrect. In the present paper, a more elaborate approach to obtain bearing pressure is used. The bearing pressure and complete flow features of the bearing are directly computed by solving the complete 3-D Navier Stokes equation. The code used in the present calculation is a modified version of REACT3D code. Several calculations have been performed for the hydrostatic bearing designed and tested at Texas A&M. Good agreement has been obtained between computed and test results. Detailed flow features in the bearing will also be described and discussed.

  18. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  19. Mooring Operations Support for the University of Miami Project: Impact of Typhoons on the Pacific (ITOP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-03

    0.01 m/s to 0.20 m/s Currents 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Horizontal Offset (m) 3000 3500 4000 Figure 2. Black circles represent wire - rope /nylon...and upper SDOmwitie rope section JS on spread sheet i312i5m*-ra3ke +230*) 1Thx52(+1153fcg.+25«^ •:n32mt2n9Bh ASOOMCtfHh -BS 9* SfiflT P. 53" S tor... rope junction and red circles represent top of the glass balls. Final Report 2 of 2 140802SP WORK COMPLETED The two mooring systems were

  20. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume A: Detailed report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. F.; Richards, D.

    1980-06-01

    Baseline designs of two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants are presented. Both designs feature floating concrete hull structures that house up to 40 MW sub e (net) of OTEC power systems. One plant is designed for moored operation at an island site, and use underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company. The other plant is self-propelled and cruises slowly through tropical waters, using the OTEC electric power to produce an energy intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market.

  1. Hydrostatic Microextrusion of Steel and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Guido; Monti, Manuel; D'Angelo, Luciano

    2011-05-01

    The paper presents an experimental investigation based on hydrostatic micro extrusion of billets in low carbon steel and commercially pure copper, and the relevant results. The starting billets have a diameter of 0.3 mm and are 5 mm long; a high pressure generator consisting of a manually operated piston screw pump is used to pressurize the fluid up to 4200 bar, the screw pump is connected through a 3-way distribution block to the extrusion die and to a strain gauge high pressure sensor. The sensor has a full scale of 5000 bar and the extrusion pressure is acquired at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by means of an acquisition program written in the LabVIEW environment. Tests have been conducted at room temperature and a lubricant for wire drawing (Chemetall Gardolube DO 338) acts both as the pressurizing fluid and lubricant too. In addition, billets were graphite coated. Different fluid pressures and process durations have been adopted, resulting in different extrusion lengths. The required extrusion pressure is much higher than in non-micro forming operations (this effect is more evident for steel). On the cross section of the extruded parts, hardness and grain size distribution have been measured, the former through Vickers micro hardness (10 g load) tests. In the case of the extrusion of copper, the material behaves as in microdrawing process. In the case of the extrusion of steel, the hardness increases from the core to the surface as in the drawing process, but with lower values. The analysis evidenced the presence of the external layer, but its thickness is about 1/3 of the external layer in the drawn wire and the grains appear smaller than in the layer of the drawn wire. The extruding force required along the extruding direction is higher (22-24 N) than the drawing force along the same direction (12 N): being the material, the reduction ratio, the die sliding length the same in both cases, the higher extrusion force should be caused by a higher tangential friction

  2. Hydrostatic Microextrusion of Steel and Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, Guido; Monti, Manuel; D'Angelo, Luciano

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents an experimental investigation based on hydrostatic micro extrusion of billets in low carbon steel and commercially pure copper, and the relevant results. The starting billets have a diameter of 0.3 mm and are 5 mm long; a high pressure generator consisting of a manually operated piston screw pump is used to pressurize the fluid up to 4200 bar, the screw pump is connected through a 3-way distribution block to the extrusion die and to a strain gauge high pressure sensor. The sensor has a full scale of 5000 bar and the extrusion pressure is acquired at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by means of an acquisition program written in the LabVIEW environment. Tests have been conducted at room temperature and a lubricant for wire drawing (Chemetall Gardolube DO 338) acts both as the pressurizing fluid and lubricant too. In addition, billets were graphite coated. Different fluid pressures and process durations have been adopted, resulting in different extrusion lengths. The required extrusion pressure is much higher than in non-micro forming operations (this effect is more evident for steel). On the cross section of the extruded parts, hardness and grain size distribution have been measured, the former through Vickers micro hardness (10 g load) tests. In the case of the extrusion of copper, the material behaves as in microdrawing process. In the case of the extrusion of steel, the hardness increases from the core to the surface as in the drawing process, but with lower values. The analysis evidenced the presence of the external layer, but its thickness is about 1/3 of the external layer in the drawn wire and the grains appear smaller than in the layer of the drawn wire. The extruding force required along the extruding direction is higher (22-24 N) than the drawing force along the same direction (12 N): being the material, the reduction ratio, the die sliding length the same in both cases, the higher extrusion force should be caused by a higher tangential friction

  3. pCO2 time series ground truthing and internal consistency at the Gray's Reef mooring (NDBC-41008) in the South Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, J.; Cai, W. J.; Noakes, S.; Hu, X.; Chen, B.; Wang, A. Z.; Jiang, L.; Salisbury, J.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Barbero, L.; Feely, R. A.; Sutton, A.; Mathis, J. T.; Sabine, C. L.

    2016-02-01

    Periodic cruises allow us to ground truth autonomous moored time series of pCO2 via underway system measurements and discrete bottle samples for carbonate parameters (DIC, TA, pH). These time series are essential for monitoring ocean acidification (OA), yet their performance with respect to internal consistency is not yet widely documented. During cruises we focus extra effort at the Gray's Reef (GR) mooring to ground truth and perform inter-consistency checks on our instrumentation by collecting water samples for carbonate parameters as well as underway pCO2. We remain as close to the GR mooring as possible for an extended period, up to several hours. Cruises include seasonal 2005-2015 and the three major east coast efforts: GOMECC I (Aug. 2007), GOMECC II (Aug. 2012), and ECOA (July 2015). We compare mooring and underway observations, which for the three major cruises agreed within ±8 µatm, with differences likely due to spatial heterogeneity and known system uncertainty. With bottle data we also calculate pCO2 from the DIC-TA pair, for which we have the most observations, which agrees with the mooring within ±17 µatm, approximately ¼ of the mean daily variability of the GR mooring time series (2006-2014). One of the goals of autonomous moored time series is to use continuous salinity to estimate TA (using known regional linear models), then use TA and pCO2 to calculate the other parameters. An internal consistency check for the three major cruises between the various discrete measured parameters and calculated mooring parameters all result in Ωar values, the OA biological measure, within the best-practices uncertainty range of ±0.2 units. These preliminary results GOMECC's I and II and ECOA show that the mooring time series can be used to calculate DIC, TA, pH, Ωar, however ongoing work seeks to incorporate smaller scale regional cruises. Finally, this work may be a guide in other regional intercomparisons across platforms.

  4. A conservative method for hydrostatic flow in isentropic coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, B.; Bokhove, O.; Frank, J.

    2010-05-01

    Although our climate is ultimately driven by (nonuniform) solar heating, many aspects of the flow can be understood qualitatively from forcing-free and frictionless dynamics. In the limit of zero forcing and dissipation, our weather system falls under the realm of Hamiltonian fluid dynamics and the flow conserves potential vorticity (PV), energy and phase-space structure. We have found a conservative numerical scheme for a hydrostatic atmosphere based on a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, the so-called parcel formulation [1]. For adiabatic flow, the entropy is materially conserved. Under stable stratifications, we introduce isentropic coordinates to simplify the governing equations. The entropic direction is discretized using finite elements. The discretization of horizontal Lagrangian label space (from infinitesimal fluid parcels to discrete fluid particles) yields a discrete Poisson bracket. New is that we apply the Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh method [2], and view the potential as an Eulerian function, reconstructed from the particle data. The use of an Eulerian grid makes the method more efficient and stable. The Hamiltonian consists of a Lagrangian kinetic energy and an Eulerian potential energy. The discrete system of ODE's is thus a Hamiltonian system conserving mass, PV, energy and phase-space structure. If we incorporate a symplectic time integrator, the resulting fully discrete system conserves energy approximately without any drift in energy. Several challenging (nonlinear) solutions will be tested, such a flow over a rising bump. Also, preliminary results for bottom-intersecting isentropes will be demonstrated. REFERENCES [1] O. Bokhove and M. Oliver, Parcel Eulerian-Lagrangian fluid dynamics for rotating geophysical flows, Proc. Roy. Soc. A. 462, pp. 2563-2573 (2006) [2] J. Frank, G. Gottwald, S. Reich, A Hamiltonian particle-mesh method for the rotating shallow-water equations, Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Vol. 26, Springer

  5. A hydrostatic stress-dependent anisotropic model of viscoplasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Tao, Q.; Verrilli, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrostatic stress-dependent, anisotropic model of viscoplasticity is formulated as an extension of Bodner's model. This represents a further extension of the isotropic Bodner model over that made to anisotropy by Robinson and MitiKavuma. Account is made of the inelastic deformation that can occur in metallic composites under hydrostatic stress. A procedure for determining the material parameters is identified that is virtually identical to the established characterization procedure for the original Bodner model. Characterization can be achieved using longitudinal/transverse tensile and shear tests and hydrostatic stress tests; alternatively, four off-axis tensile tests can be used. Conditions for a yield stress minimum under off-axis tension are discussed. The model is applied to a W/Cu composite; characterization is made using off-axis tensile data generated at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC).

  6. Further improvement of hydrostatic pressure sample injection for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Zhang, Qingquan; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2007-12-01

    Hydrostatic pressure sample injection method is able to minimize the number of electrodes needed for a microchip electrophoresis process; however, it neither can be applied for electrophoretic DNA sizing, nor can be implemented on the widely used single-cross microchip. This paper presents an injector design that makes the hydrostatic pressure sample injection method suitable for DNA sizing. By introducing an assistant channel into the normal double-cross injector, a rugged DNA sample plug suitable for sizing can be successfully formed within the cross area during the sample loading. This paper also demonstrates that the hydrostatic pressure sample injection can be performed in the single-cross microchip by controlling the radial position of the detection point in the separation channel. Rhodamine 123 and its derivative as model sample were successfully separated.

  7. Hydrostaticity of Pressure Media in Diamond Anvil Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Shu-Jie; Chen, Liang-Chen; Jin, Chang-Qing

    2009-09-01

    Hydrostaticity under high pressure of several materials from solid, fluid to gas, which are widely used as pressure media in modern high-pressure experiments, is investigated in diamond anvil cells. Judging from the R-line widths and R1 - R2 peak separation of Ruby fluorescence, the inert argon gas is hydrostatic up to about 30 GPa. The behavior of silicon oil is found to be similar to argon at pressures less than 10 GPa, while the widening of R-lines and increase of R1 - R2 peak separation at higher pressure loads indicate a significant degradation of hydrostaticity. Therefore silicon oil is considered as a good pressure medium at pressures less than 10 GPa but poor at higher pressures.

  8. Extreme waves impact on the ship mooring near berth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'ev, Victor; Nudner, Igor; Semenov, Konstantin; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    Ensuring safe ships berthing and loading-unloading operations at berths need reliable mooring systems. The choice of its parameters corresponds to calculating of the maximum displacements of the boat, which are caused by external impact of extreme waves, winds, and currents. Ship motions are described by system of differential equations, which contain disturbing, inertia, damping, and restoring forces, which magnitude strongly depends on the berth design and configuration of its elements. The major impact on the boat movements is caused by sea waves. In the given paper, an interaction between sea waves and ship located near the berth is studied. The cross-sectional shape of the boat is assumed to be rectangular and under-berth slope profile is approximated by finite number of steps. Different types of berth constructions are taken into account: containing impermeable or partially permeable front vertical wall, wave attenuation camera behind it with or without under-berth slope. The fluid is assumed ideal and incompressible, and its motion is potential. The stated problem is reduced to the determination of the velocity potential that satisfies the Laplace equation; the boundary condition on the free surface; the condition of non-flux through the impermeable bottom, the ship and berth elements; the condition on the surface of the permeable wall that is in proportionality between the wave flow velocity through the wall and pressure drop from its front to back faces. The problem is solved by dividing of the region into sub-domains with conditions of the hydrodynamic pressure and velocity continuity on its boundaries. In each sub-domain the solution is found using Fourier method in the form of functional series with unknown coefficients which are found from the system of linear algebraic equations. Calculated velocity potentials are used to determine different hydrodynamic characteristics of ship motions, such as horizontal and vertical components of disturbing force

  9. Accurate pressure gradient calculations in hydrostatic atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, John J.; Mendez-Nunez, Luis R.; Tanrikulu, Saffet

    1987-01-01

    A method for the accurate calculation of the horizontal pressure gradient acceleration in hydrostatic atmospheric models is presented which is especially useful in situations where the isothermal surfaces are not parallel to the vertical coordinate surfaces. The present method is shown to be exact if the potential temperature lapse rate is constant between the vertical pressure integration limits. The technique is applied to both the integration of the hydrostatic equation and the computation of the slope correction term in the horizontal pressure gradient. A fixed vertical grid and a dynamic grid defined by the significant levels in the vertical temperature distribution are employed.

  10. A model for hydrostatic consolidation of Pierre shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.Z.; Braddock, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for consolidation of transversely isotropic porous media under hydrostatic stress. The solutions are applied to model the time variation of pore pressure, volume strain and strains parallel and normal to bedding, and to obtain coefficients of consolidation and permeability, as well as other properties, and the bulk modulus resulting from hydrostatic consolidation of Pierre shale. It is found that the coefficients consolidation and permeability decrease and the bulk moduli increase with increasing confining pressure, reflecting the closure of voids in the rock. ?? 1991.

  11. Geology and mineral deposits of the Minnie Moore and Bullion mineralized areas, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Paul Karl; Worl, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1880?s the discovery of rich ores in the Minnie Moore and Bullion mineralized areas sparked a rush to settle and develop the Wood River valley. Silver and lead discoveries in these areas spurred the boom in mining after completion of the Oregon Short Line Railroad to Hailey in 1883. In both areas the ore comprises galena, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite in a gangue of siderite, calcite, or quartz. Minor goldbearing quartz veins are also present. The ore is in fissure and replacement veins along fracture systems that formed in Late Cretaceous time, after intrusion of nearby granodiorite or quartz diorite stocks. The ore formed under mesothermal conditions and heat was supplied by the nearby plutons. In the Minnie Moore area, the mineralized veins are cut by low-angle normal faults that are of probable Eocene age. In the Minnie Moore mineralized area, the host rock is the middle part of the Devonian Milligen Formation, (the informal Lucky Coin limestone and Triumph argillite), which is the same stratigraphic level as the host ore in the rich Triumph mine northeast of Hailey. In the Bullion mineralized area, the ore is hosted by the lower member of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Dollarhide Formation. Rich ore was mined in several tunnels that reached the Mayflower vein, a northwest-striking mineralized shear zone. The deposits are thought to be mainly mesothermal veins that formed in association with Cretaceous magmatism. The syngenetic stratiform model of ore formation has often been applied to these deposits, however, no evidence of syngenetic mineralization was found in this study. Faulting has displaced most of the major orebodies and thus has made mining these deposits a challenge.

  12. Hip hemiarthroplasty: from Venable and Bohlman to Moore and Thompson.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Quiennec, Steffen; Guissou, Isaac

    2014-03-01

    In 1939, Frederick R. Thompson of New York and Austin T. Moore of South Carolina separately developed replacements for the entire ball of the hip. These were used to treat hip fractures and also certain arthritis cases. This type of hemiarthroplasty addressed the problem of the arthritic femoral head only. The diseased acetabulum (hip socket) was not replaced. This prosthesis consisted of a metal stem that was placed into the marrow cavity of the femur, connected in one piece with a metal ball fitted into the hip socket. Bohlman and Austin T. Moore (1939) collaborated for the fabrication and implantation of a custom made 12-inch-long vitallium (metal alloy invented by Venable) femoral head prosthesis for a patient with a recurrent giant cell tumour. This prosthesis functioned well and later on influenced the development of long stem femoral head prostheses.

  13. Case comment: Moore v. Regents of the University of California.

    PubMed

    Bergman, H R

    1992-01-01

    The increasing use of human tissues in medical research has spawned a host of ethical and legal debates. Legal analysis in this area has almost exclusively focused on the question of property rights in both the tissues used in research and in the resulting products. One illustrative case is Moore v. Regents of the University of California, in which a patient sued his doctor for conversion of his spleen which had been removed for therapeutic purposes. The doctor later used the spleen to develop a patented and profitable cell-line. This Comment examines and rejects the property law approach to this issue. Instead, this Comment proposes two legislative changes which would 1) eliminate any trade in human tissues and 2) require doctors to inform their patients of any research interest in proposed medical procedures. These proposals resolve the problem presented in Moore, and avoid the misleading, and inevitably unanswerable, question of property rights.

  14. The Moore-Penrose Inverse of Block Magic Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakopian, Y. R.; Eloyan, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    As is known, a semi-magic square is an "n x n" matrix having the sum of entries in each row and each column equal to a constant. This note generalizes this notion and introduce a special class of block matrices called "block magic rectangles." It is proved that the Moore-Penrose inverse of a block magic rectangle is also a block magic rectangle.

  15. Design of a Subsurface Moored Acoustic Array in Deep Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    concepts were a culmination of many years design teams past experience with undersea cable structures. Offshore structural analysis software [2] was...concept as a baseline, the complete STAFAC mooring with umbilicals is shown in Fig 8., both in elevation view and plan view. Umbilical cables are...navigation. The umbilicals are attached near the upper portion of the HGMS arrays to be consistent with the associate Southeast Alaska Acoustic

  16. Nuclear track studies of the Pasamonte and Moore County eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkening, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    The selective annealing technique was applied to samples from the Pasamonte eucrite with a view to obtaining fission track ages of clasts in the meteorite. The method did not permit cosmic ray tracks to be distinguished from fission tracks in either Pasamonte or Moore County. A difference between the fossil track densities observed in an igneous clast and the surrounding host material appears to be due to a pre-irradiation on the Pasamonte parent planet.

  17. The Moore-Penrose Inverse of Block Magic Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakopian, Y. R.; Eloyan, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    As is known, a semi-magic square is an "n x n" matrix having the sum of entries in each row and each column equal to a constant. This note generalizes this notion and introduce a special class of block matrices called "block magic rectangles." It is proved that the Moore-Penrose inverse of a block magic rectangle is also a block magic rectangle.

  18. Use of Suction Piles for Mooring of Mobile Offshore Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-11

    ANNUAL PERFORMANCE REPORT Title: Use of Suction Piles for Mooring of Mobile Offshore Bases (ONR Grant No. N00014-97-1-0887) Period: June...Literature Review The literature study on suction piles has been completed and the final report has been submitted to the Naval Facilities Engineering...Analytical Performance Study of Suction Piles The suction pile performance study using linear elastic soil material properties has been completed. Results

  19. Non-hydrostatic simulation of tsunamis: application to the April 2014 Iquique earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aïssiouene, Nora; Bristeau, Marie-Odile; Godlewski, Edwige; Mangeney, Anne; Parés, Carlos; Sainte-Marie, Jacques; Vallée, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of non-hydrostatic effects in tsunami modelling is still an open issue. We present here a new numerical method to solve the two-dimensional dispersive shallow water system with topography proposed recently by [3]. This model is a depth averaged Euler system and takes into account a non-hydrostatic pressure. Interestingly, this model is close to but not the same as the Green-Naghdi model. An incompressible system has to be solved to find the numerical solution of this model. The solution method [1,2] is based on a prediction-correction scheme initially introduced by Chorin-Temam [4] for the Navier-Stokes system. The prediction part leads to solving a shallow water system for which we use finite volume methods, while the correction part leads to solving a mixed problem in velocity and pressure. For the correction part, we apply a finite element method with compatible spaces on unstructured grids. Several numerical tests are performed to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, in particular, comparisons with analytical solutions are given. Finally we simulate the tsunami generated by the Iquique earthquake that occured on April 1 2014 and compare the simulation with the tsunami data at two DART stations for both hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models. N. Aissiouene, M.-O. Bristeau, E. Godlewski, and J. Sainte-Marie. A combined finite volume - finite element scheme for a dispersive shallow water system. Networks and Heterogeneous Media, 11(1):1-27, 2016. N. Aissiouene, M. O. Bristeau, E. Godlewski, and J. Sainte-Marie. A robust and stable numerical scheme for a depth-averaged euler system. Submitted, 2016. M.-O. Bristeau, A. Mangeney, J. Sainte-Marie, and N. Seguin. An energy-consistent depth-averaged euler system: Derivation and properties. Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems - Series B, 20(4):961-988, 2015. R. Rannacher. On Chorin's projection method for the incompressible {N}avier-{S}tokes equations. In G. Heywood, John, K. Masuda, R

  20. Three-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation of a Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel During Hydrostatic Pressure Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revilock, Duane M., Jr.; Thesken, John C.; Schmidt, Timothy E.

    2007-01-01

    Ambient temperature hydrostatic pressurization tests were conducted on a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) to understand the fiber stresses in COPV components. Two three-dimensional digital image correlation systems with high speed cameras were used in the evaluation to provide full field displacement and strain data for each pressurization test. A few of the key findings will be discussed including how the principal strains provided better insight into system behavior than traditional gauges, a high localized strain that was measured where gages were not present and the challenges of measuring curved surfaces with the use of a 1.25 in. thick layered polycarbonate panel that protected the cameras.

  1. The future of EUV lithography: enabling Moore's Law in the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirati, Alberto; van Schoot, Jan; Troost, Kars; van Ballegoij, Rob; Krabbendam, Peter; Stoeldraijer, Judon; Loopstra, Erik; Benschop, Jos; Finders, Jo; Meiling, Hans; van Setten, Eelco; Mika, Niclas; Dredonx, Jeannot; Stamm, Uwe; Kneer, Bernhard; Thuering, Bernd; Kaiser, Winfried; Heil, Tilmann; Migura, Sascha

    2017-03-01

    While EUV systems equipped with a 0.33 Numerical Aperture lenses are readying to start volume manufacturing, ASML and Zeiss are ramping up their development activities on a EUV exposure tool with Numerical Aperture greater than 0.5. The purpose of this scanner, targeting a resolution of 8nm, is to extend Moore's law throughout the next decade. A novel, anamorphic lens design, has been developed to provide the required Numerical Aperture; this lens will be paired with new, faster stages and more accurate sensors enabling Moore's law economical requirements, as well as the tight focus and overlay control needed for future process nodes. The tighter focus and overlay control budgets, as well as the anamorphic optics, will drive innovations in the imaging and OPC modelling, and possibly in the metrology concepts. Furthermore, advances in resist and mask technology will be required to image lithography features with less than 10nm resolution. This paper presents an overview of the key technology innovations and infrastructure requirements for the next generation EUV systems.

  2. Enabling More than Moore: Accelerated Reliability Testing and Risk Analysis for Advanced Electronics Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza; Evans, John W.

    2014-01-01

    For five decades, the semiconductor industry has distinguished itself by the rapid pace of improvement in miniaturization of electronics products-Moore's Law. Now, scaling hits a brick wall, a paradigm shift. The industry roadmaps recognized the scaling limitation and project that packaging technologies will meet further miniaturization needs or ak.a "More than Moore". This paper presents packaging technology trends and accelerated reliability testing methods currently being practiced. Then, it presents industry status on key advanced electronic packages, factors affecting accelerated solder joint reliability of area array packages, and IPC/JEDEC/Mil specifications for characterizations of assemblies under accelerated thermal and mechanical loading. Finally, it presents an examples demonstrating how Accelerated Testing and Analysis have been effectively employed in the development of complex spacecraft thereby reducing risk. Quantitative assessments necessarily involve the mathematics of probability and statistics. In addition, accelerated tests need to be designed which consider the desired risk posture and schedule for particular project. Such assessments relieve risks without imposing additional costs. and constraints that are not value added for a particular mission. Furthermore, in the course of development of complex systems, variances and defects will inevitably present themselves and require a decision concerning their disposition, necessitating quantitative assessments. In summary, this paper presents a comprehensive view point, from technology to systems, including the benefits and impact of accelerated testing in offsetting risk.

  3. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... supporting structure during the hydrostatic test should be considered. The design shall consider the combined stress during hydrostatic testing due to pressure and the support reactions. This stress shall not exceed... the supporting structure during hydrostatic testing should be considered in the design. (c)...

  4. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... supporting structure during the hydrostatic test should be considered. The design shall consider the combined stress during hydrostatic testing due to pressure and the support reactions. This stress shall not exceed... the supporting structure during hydrostatic testing should be considered in the design. (c)...

  5. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... supporting structure during the hydrostatic test should be considered. The design shall consider the combined stress during hydrostatic testing due to pressure and the support reactions. This stress shall not exceed... the supporting structure during hydrostatic testing should be considered in the design. (c)...

  6. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... supporting structure during the hydrostatic test should be considered. The design shall consider the combined stress during hydrostatic testing due to pressure and the support reactions. This stress shall not exceed... the supporting structure during hydrostatic testing should be considered in the design. (c)...

  7. 46 CFR 54.10-10 - Standard hydrostatic test (modifies UG-99).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supporting structure during the hydrostatic test should be considered. The design shall consider the combined stress during hydrostatic testing due to pressure and the support reactions. This stress shall not exceed... the supporting structure during hydrostatic testing should be considered in the design. (c)...

  8. Hydrostatic self-aligning axial/torsional mechanism

    DOEpatents

    O'Connor, Daniel G.; Gerth, Howard L.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a self-aligning axial/torsional loading mechanism for testing the strength of brittle materials which are sensitive to bending moments. Disposed inside said self-aligning loading mechanism is a frictionless hydrostatic ball joint with a flexure ring to accommodate torsional loads through said ball joint.

  9. Hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings in high-speed turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielson, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A high speed, high pressure liquid hydrogen turbopump was designed, fabricated, and tested under a previous contract. This design was then modified to incorporate hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on both the pump end and turbine end to replace the original conventional ball bearing packages. The design, analysis, turbopump modification, assembly, and testing of the turbopump with hybrid bearings is presented here. Initial design considerations and rotordynamic performance analysis was made to define expected turbopump operating characteristics and are reported. The results of testing the turbopump to speeds of 9215 rad/s (88,000 rpm) using a wide range of hydrostatic bearing supply pressures are presented. The hydrostatic bearing test data and the rotordynamic behavior of the turbopump was closely analyzed and are included in the report. The testing of hybrid hydrostatic/ball bearings on a turbopump to the high speed requirements has indicated the configuration concept is feasible. The program has presented a great deal of information on the technology requirements of integrating the hybrid bearing into high speed turbopump designs for improved bearing life.

  10. Implausibility of Hydrostatic Funnels Constituting the Sun's Upper Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Carpio, Melisa M.; Sheung, Janet

    2007-09-01

    Over the past thirty years, two bodies of literature have developed in parallel presenting mutually exclusive views of the Sun’s upper transition region. One model holds that the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas are confined primarily in hydrostatic funnels with a substantial backheating component. The other model holds that discrete structures, which are effectively isolated from the corona, predominate in the Sun’s upper transition region. Purveyors of the latter position have recently begun to present near-resolved observations of discrete structures. The funnel scenario, in contrast, has only been addressed by modeling unresolved upper transition region emission. To address this paradox we have constructed hydrostatic funnel models and tested them against a wider set of solar observations than previously performed. We reproduce the results of the previous analyses, yet find that the hydrostatic funnels are unable to self-consistently match the wider set of observations against which we test the models. We show that it is not possible for a class of funnels having peak temperatures in the transition region or in the corona to match the observations. We conclude that it is implausible that a class of hydrostatic funnels constitutes the dominant emitting component of the Sun’s upper-transition-region plasmas as has been suggested.

  11. Comparison of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure to inactivate foodborne viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HPP) and hydrodynamic pressure (HDP), in combination with chemical treatments, was evaluated for inactivation of foodborne viruses and non-pathogenic surrogates in a pork sausage product. Sausages were immersed in water, 100 ppm EDTA, or 2 percent lactoferrin...

  12. Understanding the behavior of the Pacific-origin waters from the ocean mooring data observed on the Chukchi Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Shimada, Koji; Choi, Youngsuk; Yoshizawa, Eri; Kang, Sung-Ho

    2016-04-01

    In summer 2015, two ocean mooring systems were recovered in the Chukchi Plateau (CP), which had been deployed over the northern CP in 2013 (nCP13) and the southern CP in 2014 (sCP14), respectively. Yearlong temperature and water velocity data show spatial and temporal variations of the Pacific summer water (PSW) over the CP. During the autumn 2014, especially, the period that PSW was weakened in nCP13 coincides with the period that PSW appeared in sCP14. Northeasterly winds and sea ice covering appear to play an important role in initiating substantial heat release/storage within the PSW layer from October and mid-winter of 2014. This study will focus on understanding how winds and sea ice have an influence on the distribution of PSW over the CP through the intensive analysis of the mooring data.

  13. Ocean Acoustic Tomography Mooring Design Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Figure 5 A- 13 APPENDIX B Power Systems for the Long-Range Acoustic Transmitter STRAWMAN #1 Lithium Primary Battery Lithium Thionyl Chloride ...buoyancy provided by a syntactic foam sphere. - LRT and the top buoyancy at the same depth. - Lithium primary battery placed with LRT. - Tension member...much less pressure). 4. Same as 1. except: - Lithium primary battery placed upon the anchor. - Electromechanical cable (also the tension member

  14. SEEP 2 zooplankton data report: Winter, spring and summer collections at mooring 3 during 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, P.V.Z.; Smith, S.L.; Flagg, C.N.; Schwarting, E.M.

    1991-03-01

    The second Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP II) experiment was designed as an extension of SEEP I work and was a multidisciplinary effort to describe the transport of carbon along and across the shelf and slope of the middle Atlantic Bight. A significant portion of the zooplankton work conducted during this project was devoted to repeated net sampling in close proximity to a moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in order to establish the calibration of the backscatter amplitude with respect to biomass in the water column. The Brookhaven ADCP was deployed at mooring site M-3 of the SEEP II study region. We used a multiple opening/closing net and environmental sensing system to collect stratified samples of zooplankton as close to the ADCP as towing conditions would allow. In addition, when MOCNESS tows were not feasible due to time constraints, Bongo nets were towed vertically in close proximity to the ADCP. The data in this report are the quantitative taxonomic analyses of the samples collected for ADCP calibration in 1988. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-06-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 (Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  16. Numerical Simulation on Dynamic Behavior of Hydrostatic Journal Bearing for LH2 Turbopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Ota, Terukazu

    In the present paper, the dynamic behavior of a rotor supported by externally pressurized liquid hydrogen bearing is theoretically investigated. The bearing treated in this study has 20 recesses arranged in two rows in a staggered manner and will be used in the liquid hydrogen turbopump of rocket engines for space transport systems. The equations of motion for a rotor are numerically solved using predictor-corrector scheme. The dynamic bearing reaction forces are calculated from the numerical solution of unsteady turbulent Reynolds lubrication equation. The transient responses of hydrostatic bearing under several operating conditions are presented. Furthermore, the journal center trajectories with imbalanced moment are examined theoretically.

  17. A 2D Unified (Non-) Hydrostatic Model of the Atmosphere with a Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-07

    xβ = max E∈T |E|β, hβ = ∆xβ k + 1 , with the polynomial order k. This way, a grid with h = 10km and β = 2 effectively has a horizontal resolution of...by long horizontal wave numbers and thus the wave dispersion effect is reduced. For the hydrostatic system in both channels the experiments show no...potential temperture . Then, the convergence rate αθ(h, k) for the variable θ is defined depending on the model resolution h and the fixed polynomial

  18. Beyond Moore's law: towards competitive quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyer, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    A century after the invention of quantum theory and fifty years after Bell's inequality we see the first quantum devices emerge as products that aim to be competitive with the best classical computing devices. While a universal quantum computer of non-trivial size is still out of reach there exist a number commercial and experimental devices: quantum random number generators, quantum simulators and quantum annealers. In this colloquium I will present some of these devices and validation tests we performed on them. Quantum random number generators use the inherent randomness in quantum measurements to produce true random numbers, unlike classical pseudorandom number generators which are inherently deterministic. Optical lattice emulators use ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices to mimic typical models of condensed matter physics. In my talk I will focus especially on the devices built by Canadian company D-Wave systems, which are special purpose quantum simulators for solving hard classical optimization problems. I will review the controversy around the quantum nature of these devices and will compare them to state of the art classical algorithms. I will end with an outlook towards universal quantum computing and end with the question: which important problems that are intractable even for post-exa-scale classical computers could we expect to solve once we have a universal quantum computer?

  19. The impact energy of a moored tanker under the action of regular waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Cheng Li

    1982-09-01

    The influence that factors such as mooring line conditions, fender arrangements, dolphin arrangements, degree of ship loading, waves of long period, wave direction, and wind on the impact energy of a moored tanker were studied. Based on systematic test data, a semi-empirical formula was developed to calculate the impact energy of the moored ship on the berthing facilities under the action of regular waves. It was shown by experiment that this method is suitable for calculating the impact energy of moored ships of capacities as great as 200 X 10/sup 3/ t.

  20. Selection and optimization of mooring cables on floating platform for special purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang-ying; Yao, Yun-long; Zhao, Chen-yao

    2017-08-01

    This paper studied a new type of assembled marine floating platform for special purposes. The selection and optimization of mooring cables on the floating platform are studied. By using ANSYS AQWA software, the hydrodynamic model of the platform was established to calculate the time history response of the platform motion under complex water environments, such as wind, wave, current and mooring. On this basis, motion response and cable tension were calculated with different cable mooring states under the designed environmental load. Finally, the best mooring scheme to meet the cable strength requirements was proposed, which can lower the motion amplitude of the platform effectively.

  1. 67. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON EXPERIMENTAL HALL (51B), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON EXPERIMENTAL HALL (51B), LOOKING SOUTH EAST - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  2. Tropical Moored Buoy Arrays To Advance Climate Science: A 30-Year Progress Report (Fridtjof Nansen Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael J.

    2010-05-01

    Coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropics lead to significant climate fluctuations such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation in the Pacific, the Indian Ocean Dipole, and the Atlantic meridional gradient mode. These and other prominent climate phenomena originating in the tropics on seasonal to decadal time scales affect regional and global patterns of weather variability. Associated floods, droughts, heat waves and other extreme weather events have significant socio-economic consequences that affect millions of people worldwide. This presentation describes a coordinated multi-national effort to develop tropical moored buoy arrays in support of climate research and forecasting. Basin specific components include the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TAO/TRITON) in the Pacific, the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA), and the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA) in the Indian Ocean. These arrays, the origins of which date back to the early 1980s, complement other satellite and in situ elements of the Global Ocean Observing System by providing high temporal resolution time series of key environmental parameters in real time. This presentation will feature a discussion of historical perspectives, recent scientific advances, and future directions in the development of the arrays.

  3. Moored Current Observations in the Southern Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, W. J.; Wijesekera, H. W.; Jarosz, E.; Jensen, T.; Wang, D. W.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Hallock, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Deep moorings were deployed in the southern Bay of Bengal by the Naval Research Laboratory as part of the EBOB (Effects of Bay of Bengal Freshwater Flux on Indian Ocean Monsoon) program in an effort facilitated by the Office of Naval Research and also part of the international research program , ASIRI (Air-Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean; (2013-2017). Six moorings were deployed in December 2013 and recovered in August 2015. Each mooring contained two acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), an upward -looking 300 kHz ADCP and a downward-looking 75 kHz ADCP, mounted on a flotation ball (at depths ranging from 20 to 75m) which provided current velocity profiles for the upper 500 m of the water column, at water depths of about 3800 m. Additionally, seventeen to nineteen sensors, measuring temperature, salinity, and pressure, were mounted over an interval of about 400m below the ADCPs. Wavelet analyses show significant peaks at periods of about 12 h, 5 d, 40 d, 70 d, and 320 d. The peak at about 12 h is tidal. The 5 d peak is likely related to inertial or atmospheric activity. Large near-surface currents (6 m) in excess of 140 cm/s were observed and were consistent with southwest monsoon winds of 10 to 15 m/s. Currents exceeding 50 cm/s were found down to depths of 80 m. Currents greater than 20 cm/s were common at depths of 450 m. High salinity inflow was observed during the summer monsoon periods. The observed current magnitudes in the interior of the southern Bay of Bengal were similar in magnitude to boundary currents observed near Sri Lanka.

  4. Fleet Mooring Underwater Inspection Report La Maddalena, Italy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    in two . phases. During Phase One, with the Tender moored in place, the divers used an "" underwater television camera to video tape the existing...dlPorto4 LIO BIANO -I SCOGLIO AS AC SLC;CA DI PUINTANERA 0 NASSUP~ss MEZZOe 1-OJEIELE:;--- TONDO’ * DA DI LA MADDALENk’ -1 - - _ * STEFAO 04 - paga . el...Pese.ZUCCHERO k~ 11 A, paga dlPse’> SANT : A DEL AL.AU ISOLOTTO ROMA %’\\ -- - . * ~.- ~ ’~-KFuniv dodja udob -Forte’S. Giorgia-o - \\\\Y\\ - -a (Nak

  5. Intel turns to photonics to extend Moore's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitz, Breck

    2009-07-01

    Mario Paniccia settles into his chair with an air of confidence that comes from having been right all along. "We have done all the things that sceptics said we could not," he says. Paniccia, who is director of Intel's Photonics Technology Laboratory in Santa Clara, California, ticks off his group's accomplishments: silicon lasers; high-speed silicon modulators; fast, sensitive silicon photodetectors in the infrared. "We have got beyond the proof-of-principle stage," he says. "Now we're putting it all together so that Moore's law can extend for decades into the future."

  6. SQUAW Mooring Project. Volume 2. Appendix 2. Project Execution Plan.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    STRONCBACK 40 KIP AMF o STRONGBACK 100 KIP (3 EA.) NDBC o RELEASE ELECTRONICS INTERSTATE ELECTRONICS CORP. o RELEASE RINGS (6 EA.) AMF o MASTER RELEASE...LINK (8 EA.) CROSBY (MFR) "° FLASHING LIGHTS (2 EA.) OCEI SQUAW - NIGHT TIME MARKER BUOY ASSY. (2 EA.) PWC, S. D. SQUAW - MOORED DEPTH ELECTRONIC ...lights are not to be used while the SQUAW is being towed. An electronics package will be installed on deck by PWC. This package is to be provided by NOSC

  7. An in-vitro traumatic model to evaluate the response of myelinated cultures to sustained hydrostatic compression injury.

    PubMed

    Frieboes, Laura R; Gupta, Ranjan

    2009-12-01

    While a variety of in-vitro models have been employed to investigate the response of load-bearing tissues to hydrostatic pressure, long-term studies are limited by the need to provide for adequate gas exchange during pressurization. Applying compression in vitro may alter the equilibrium of the system and thereby disrupt the gas exchange kinetics. To address this, several sophisticated compression chamber designs have been developed. However, these systems are limited in the magnitude of pressure that can be applied and may require frequent media changes, thereby eliminating critical autocrine and paracrine signaling factors. To better isolate the cellular response to long-term compression, we created a model that features continuous gas flow through the chamber during pressurization, and a negative feedback control system to rigorously control dissolved oxygen levels. Monitoring dissolved oxygen continuously during pressurization, we find that the ensuing response exhibits characteristics of a second- or higher-order system which can be mathematically modeled using a second-order differential equation. Finally, we use the system to model chronic nerve compression injuries, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and spinal nerve root stenosis, with myelinated neuron-Schwann cell co-cultures. Cell membrane integrity assay results show that co-cultures respond differently to hydrostatic pressure, depending on the magnitude and duration of stimulation. In addition, we find that myelinated Schwann cells proliferate in response to applied hydrostatic compression.

  8. Therapeutic Vaccination against Adjuvant Arthritis Using Autoimmune T Cells Treated with Hydrostatic Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lider, Ofer; Karin, Nathan; Shinitzky, Meir; Cohen, Irun R.

    1987-07-01

    An ideal treatment for autoimmune diseases would be a nontoxic means of specifically neutralizing the autoreactive lymphocytes responsible for the disease. This goal has been realized in experimental autoimmunity models by immunizing rats or mice against their own autoimmune cells such that the animals generate an immune response specifically repressive to the disease-producing lymphocytes. This maneuver, termed lymphocyte vaccination, was demonstrated to be effective using some, but not all, autoimmune helper T-lymphocyte lines. We now report that T lymphocytes, otherwise incapable of triggering an immune response, can be transformed into effective immunogens by treating the cells in vitro with hydrostatic pressure. Clone A2b, as effector clone that recognized cartilage proteoglycan and caused adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats, is such a cell. Untreated A2b could not trigger an immune response, but inoculating rats with pressure-treated A2b induced early remission of established adjuvant arthritis as well as resistance to subsequent disease. Specific resistance to arthritis was associated with anti-idiotypic T-cell reactivity to clone A2b and could be transferred from vaccinated rats to naive recipients using donor lymphoid cells. Aggregation of T-lymphocyte membrane components appeared to be important for an immune response because the effects of hydrostatic pressure could be reproduced by treatment of A2b with chemical cross-linkers or with agents disrupting the cytoskeleton. Populations of lymph node cells from antigen-primed rats, when treated with hydrostatic pressure, could also induce suppression of disease. Thus, effective vaccines can be developed without having to isolate the autoimmune T lymphocytes as lines or clones. These results demonstrate that effector T lymphocytes suitably treated may serve as agents for specifically controlling the immune system.

  9. Hydrostatic Pressure Sensing with High Birefringence Photonic Crystal Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Fávero, Fernando C.; Quintero, Sully M. M.; Martelli, Cicero; Braga, Arthur M.B.; Silva, Vinícius V.; Carvalho, Isabel C. S.; Llerena, Roberth W. A.; Valente, Luiz C. G.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the waveguiding properties of high birefringence photonic crystal fibers (HiBi PCF) is evaluated both numerically and experimentally. A fiber design presenting form birefringence induced by two enlarged holes in the innermost ring defining the fiber core is investigated. Numerical results show that modal sensitivity to the applied pressure depends on the diameters of the holes, and can be tailored by independently varying the sizes of the large or small holes. Numerical and experimental results are compared showing excellent agreement. A hydrostatic pressure sensor is proposed and demonstrated using an in-fiber modal interferometer where the two orthogonally polarized modes of a HiBi PCF generate fringes over the optical spectrum of a broad band source. From the analysis of experimental results, it is concluded that, in principle, an operating limit of 92 MPa in pressure could be achieved with 0.0003% of full scale resolution. PMID:22163435

  10. NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Hydrostatic Bearing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, Theodore G.

    1991-01-01

    The basic approach for analyzing hydrostatic bearing flows at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is briefly discussed. The Hydrostatic Bearing Team has responsibility for assessing and evaluating flow codes; evaluating friction, ignition, and galling effects; evaluating wear; and performing tests. The Office of Aerospace and Exploration Technology Turbomachinery Seals Tasks consist of tests and analysis. The MSFC in-house analyses utilize one-dimensional bulk-flow codes. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is used to enhance understanding of bearing flow physics or to perform parametric analysis that are outside the bulk flow database. As long as the bulk flow codes are accurate enough for most needs, they will be utilized accordingly and will be supported by CFD analysis on an as-needed basis.

  11. Air Bearings Machined On Ultra Precision, Hydrostatic CNC-Lathe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knol, Pierre H.; Szepesi, Denis; Deurwaarder, Jan M.

    1987-01-01

    Micromachining of precision elements requires an adequate machine concept to meet the high demand of surface finish, dimensional and shape accuracy. The Hembrug ultra precision lathes have been exclusively designed with hydrostatic principles for main spindle and guideways. This concept is to be explained with some major advantages of hydrostatics compared with aerostatics at universal micromachining applications. Hembrug has originally developed the conventional Mikroturn ultra precision facing lathes, for diamond turning of computer memory discs. This first generation of machines was followed by the advanced computer numerically controlled types for machining of complex precision workpieces. One of these parts, an aerostatic bearing component has been succesfully machined on the Super-Mikroturn CNC. A case study of airbearing machining confirms the statement that a good result of the micromachining does not depend on machine performance alone, but also on the technology applied.

  12. Hydrostatic pressure sensing with high birefringence photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Fávero, Fernando C; Quintero, Sully M M; Martelli, Cicero; Braga, Arthur M B; Silva, Vinícius V; Carvalho, Isabel C S; Llerena, Roberth W A; Valente, Luiz C G

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the waveguiding properties of high birefringence photonic crystal fibers (HiBi PCF) is evaluated both numerically and experimentally. A fiber design presenting form birefringence induced by two enlarged holes in the innermost ring defining the fiber core is investigated. Numerical results show that modal sensitivity to the applied pressure depends on the diameters of the holes, and can be tailored by independently varying the sizes of the large or small holes. Numerical and experimental results are compared showing excellent agreement. A hydrostatic pressure sensor is proposed and demonstrated using an in-fiber modal interferometer where the two orthogonally polarized modes of a HiBi PCF generate fringes over the optical spectrum of a broad band source. From the analysis of experimental results, it is concluded that, in principle, an operating limit of 92 MPa in pressure could be achieved with 0.0003% of full scale resolution.

  13. Hydrostatics and steady dynamics of spatially varying electromechanical flow structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1974-01-01

    The hydrostatic and steady laminar hydrodynamic equilibria of spatially varying electromechanical flow structures are investigated. Under certain conditions the relationship between the dielectric height of rise and the applied voltage is found to be double valued. It is found that one of the two equilibrium values is always unstable. This gives rise to the experimentally observed spontaneous rise of the fluid to the top of the structure, once a certain critical voltage is reached. Starting above this critical voltage with the structure completely filled and decreasing the applied voltage toward the critical value results in pinch-in failure at an intermediate point along the structure and trapping of dielectric fluid at the top. The simple mathematical model developed predicts all these phenomena, without recourse to tedious point-by-point surface force equilibrium determination. Experiments are reported which verify the results for the hydrostatic case.

  14. Dipole moment and polarizability of impurity doped quantum dots driven by noise: Influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas

    2017-06-01

    Present study examines the pattern of variation of electric dipole moment (μ) and polarizability (αp) of impurity doped GaAs quantum dots (QDs) under combined presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature and in presence of noise. Noise term carries a Gaussian white character and it has been introduced to the system via two different pathways; additive and multiplicative. Profiles of μ and αp have been monitored against the variations of hydrostatic pressure (HP), temperature and the noise strength. Under a given condition of HP and temperature, application of noise prominently influences the above two properties. However, the extent of influence depends on the noise strength and the pathway through which noise is introduced. The findings divulge feasible routes to control the dipole moment and polarizability of doped QD system through the interplay between HP, temperature and noise.

  15. Rectangular Shell Plating Under Uniformly Distributed Hydrostatic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, M; Sommer, A

    1940-01-01

    A check of the calculation methods used by Foppl and Henky for investigating the reliability of shell plating under hydrostatic pressure has proved that the formulas yield practical results within the elastic range of the material. Foppl's approximate calculation leaves one on the safe side. It further was found on the basis of the marked ductility of the shell plating under tensile stress that the strength is from 50 to 100 percent higher in the elastic range than expected by either method.

  16. Steel pressure vessels for hydrostatic pressures to 50 kilobars.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, A; Whalley, E

    1978-07-01

    Cylindrical steel pressure vessels are described that can be used for hydrostatic pressures up to 50 kilobars. Monoblock vessels of 350 maraging steel can be used to 40 kilobars and compound vessels with an inner vessel of 350 maraging steel and an outer vessel of 300 maraging steel to 50 kilobars. Neither requires the cylinder to be end loaded, and so they are much easier to use than the more usual compound vessels with a tungsten carbide inner and steel outer vessel.

  17. Static Characteristics of Conical Hydrostatic Journal Bearing Under Micropolar Lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, N. K.; Gautam, S. S.; Verma, S.

    2014-10-01

    A theoretical analysis for static characteristics of a conical hydrostatic journal bearing for a multirecess constant flow valve compensated under micropolar lubrication has been carried out in this work. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation for the conical bearing has been done using Finite Element Method (FEM) using necessary boundary conditions. The various static characteristics have been presented to analyze the performance of bearing at zero speed.

  18. Muscular hydrostat mechanism for lip protrusion in speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Honda, Kiyoshi

    2005-09-01

    The lip is an organ consisting mostly of muscle similar to the tongue. While the tongue is known as a muscular hydrostat, it is unclear whether the lip is also. In this paper the muscular hydrostat issue was explored from the anatomical and functional point of view using high-resolution static MRI (hr-MRI 0.125 mm/pixel) and tagged-cineMRI (t-MRI). A 3-D reconstruction of the lips and its muscles was obtained from hr-MRI during sustained vowels /i/ and /u/. The muscular geometry of the orbicularis oris, mentalis, and depressor labii inferior muscles were superimposed onto the principal strains that depicts compression and expansion of the internal tissue obtained from t-MRI. It is shown that (1) orbicularis oris muscle shape can predict both the borderline of glabrous and hairy skin and the manner in which the lips are protruded; (2) the lips volume is almost identical for both speech tasks; and (3) direction and intensity of compression of orbicularis oris and mentalis muscle bundles imply the role of these muscles in the protrusion appearance. These results indicate that the muscular architecture and volume preserving characteristics of the lips are consistent with a muscular hydrostat. [This work was supported by NIH (USA) and NiCT (Japan).

  19. LAHRI: Laparoscopic-Assisted Hydrostatic Reduction of Intussusception.

    PubMed

    Geltzeiler, Cristina B; Sims, Thomas L; Zigman, Andrew F

    2015-09-01

    Intussusception is the most common cause of bowel obstruction in children from 3 months to 3 years of age. In the absence of peritonitis, initial treatment is either hydrostatic or pneumatic reduction. If these measures fail, operative intervention is required. In nonreducible cases, we propose the use of intraoperative hydrostatic enema to achieve or confirm reduction. In this study we describe a cohort of patients who have undergone laparoscopic-assisted hydrostatic reduction of intussusception (LAHRI). This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing LAHRI from the years 2011 to 2013. We performed LAHRI in seven children 4 months to 2 years of age. All patients had ileocolic intussusception that failed initial reduction by radiographic enema. With the patient under general anesthesia, saline enema reduction was facilitated by direct laparoscopic visualization. In 2 of the 7 cases, intussusception reduction was visually confirmed in real time, and only a laparoscopic camera port was required. In 1 patient, the bowel was extensively dilated, requiring mini-laparotomy for visualization. The enema, however, reduced the intussusception without any need for manual reduction. In the remaining 4 cases, minimal laparoscopic manipulation was required after the enema failed to completely reduce the intussusceptum, but enema was used to confirm reduction. No child required bowel resection. In cases of failed reduction by contrast enema, we have demonstrated LAHRI to be a successful treatment modality. The technique has the advantage of little to no bowel manipulation and has evolved into one performed via a single umbilical port.

  20. Flow-induced oscillations of a floating moored cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Daniel; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    An experimental study of flow-induced oscillations of a floating model spar buoy was conducted. The model spar consisted of a floating uniform cylinder moored in a water tunnel test section, and free to oscillate about its mooring attachment point near the center of mass. For the bare cylinder, counter-clockwise (CCW) figure-eight trajectories approaching A* =1 in amplitude were observed at the lower part of the spar for a reduced velocity range of U* =4-11, while its upper part experienced clockwise (CW) orbits. It was hypothesized that the portion of the spar undergoing CCW figure eights is the portion within which the flow excites the structure. By adding helical strakes to the portion of the cylinder with CCW figure eights, the response amplitude was significantly reduced, while adding strakes to portions with clockwise orbital motion had a minimal influence on the amplitude of response. This work is partially supported by the NSF-sponsored IGERT: Offshore Wind Energy Engineering, Environmental Science, and Policy (Grant Number 1068864).

  1. Intra-operative implantation errors during Austin Moore Hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Zohaib Gulzar; Markhand, Javed Ali; Ahmed, Syed Kamran; Chinoy, Amin; Khan, Mansoor Ali

    2016-10-01

    Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty is an established treatment in elderly patients with neck of femur fractures. Being commonly performed, it is also associated with several technical errors of implantation which results in complications and failure requiring revision surgery. This retrospective pre- and post-operative radiographic study to determine the frequency of technical errors was conducted at the Indus Hospital, Karachi, and comprised data of 50 patients who underwent Austin Moore hemiarthroplasty between January and November 2016. Of the total, 29(58%%) patients had no error of implantation. Overhanging of prosthesis was observed in 21(42%) patients, followed by inadequate length of the neck remnant in 18(36%). Moreover, 8(16%) patients sustained intra-operative periprosthetic fractures managed with cerclage wire. Also, 33(66%) patients had a Dorr type-Afemur morphologic pattern. Hemiarthroplasty was found to be a technically demanding procedure associated with avoidable intra-operative implantation errors by proper preoperative planning, careful patient selection, proper training of surgeons, hence avoiding failure.

  2. Influencing Factors on Life-Cycle Cost of Mooring Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Wataru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Katsufumi; Furuya, Koichi; Kato, Hirotoshi

    It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.

  3. Optimising a hydrostatic ocean model for long-term climate runs of glacier-fjord dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfried, Merten; Burchard, Hans

    2017-04-01

    Glacier-fjord systems in Greenland contribute substantially to the total ice discharge via submarine melting and calving. Especially in South East Greenland, where warm saline water from the Atlantic enters deep narrow fjords at the bottom, melt und calving rates of marine terminating glaciers are high. The subglacial discharge of fresh and cold water at the glacier's grounding line drives a buoyant plume, which turbulently rises up. Due to entrainment of ambient warm Atlantic water, the higher thermal forcing causes drastically increased submarine melting and induces a circulation in the fjord. Beside this buoyant plume, pycnocline displacements and stratification profiles for temperature and salinity at the fjord's mouth as well as bathymetry, winds and tides are relevant to fjord dynamics. We investigate the long-term response of generic glacier-fjord pairs to climate change varying bathymetry and external forcings. In the end, a fjord model coupled to a comprehensive ice-sheet model of intermediate complexity running for up to thousand years is to be developed. Therefore, we examine the fjord dynamics applying the hydrostatic General Estuarine Circulation Model (GETM). For the sake of efficiency (I) across-fjord effects are neglected by modelling only in along-fjord direction and (II) a vertically adaptive grid is employed requiring less vertical layers. A modified plume model including a melt rate parameterisation has been implemented to handle non-hydrostatic effects appearing at the glacier front due to highly buoyant fresh subglacial discharge. Further, the shifting of the grounding line changes the bathymetry at the glacier front and thereby affects the submarine melt rate. We resolve this with a newly implemented horizontally adaptive grid following the glacier's movement. We present implementation details of our modified plume model and compare the output of our optimised hydrostatic model with non-hydrostatic model results near the glacier front

  4. Non-Hydrostatic Modelling of Waves and Currents over Subtle Bathymetric Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, E.; Mulligan, R. P.; McNinch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Localized areas with high rates of shoreline erosion on beaches, referred to as erosional hotspots, can occur near clusters of relict shore-oblique sandbars. Wave transformation and wave-driven currents over these morphological features could provide an understanding of the hydrodynamic-morphologic coupling mechanism that connects them to the occurrence of erosional hotspots. To investigate this, we use the non-hydrostatic SWASH model that phase-resolves the free surface and fluid motions throughout the water column, allowing for high resolution of wave propagation and breaking processes. In this study we apply a coupled system of nested models including SWAN over a large domain of the North Carolina shelf with smaller nested SWASH domains in areas of interest to determine the hydrodynamic processes occurring over shore oblique bars. In this presentation we focus on a high resolution grid (10 vertical layers, 10 m horizontal resolution) applied to the Duck region with model validation from acoustic wave and current data, and observations from the Coastal Lidar And Radar Imaging System (CLARIS). By altering the bathymetry input for each model run based on bathymetric surveys and comparing the predicted and observed wave heights and current profiles, the effects of subtle bathymetric perturbations have on wave refraction, wave breaking, surf zone currents and vorticity are investigated. The ability to predict wave breaking and hydrodynamics with a non-hydrostatic model may improve our understanding of surf zone dynamics in relation to morphologic conditions.

  5. Hyperbaric chamber for evaluating hydrostatic pressure effects on tissues and cells.

    PubMed

    Hogan, P M; Ornhagen, H C; Doubt, T J; Laraway, B S; Morin, R A; Zaharkin, J

    1981-03-01

    A chamber system is described for the study of pure hydrostatic pressure effects on tissues and cells. The small chamber has an internal volume of 7.6 liters and is rated for working pressures up to 400 ATA. Sliding doors at each end permit easy access and quick sealing. A cam-driven pump provides constant flow of physiological solution to the tissue bath containing the preparation. Connections to the pump allow a variety of test solutions to be used in the course of an experiment. The tissue bath is designed to prevent chamber gas from diffusing in to the perfusate, thus allowing for pure hydrostatic compression of the bath contents. The bath is coupled to a motorized stage to facilitate placement of recording devices once the bath is placed inside the chamber. Temperature is controlled within 0.05 degrees C of set point by thermoelectric modules coupled to a feedback amplifier. This system has been used for electrical and mechanical studies of cardiac muscle, but its versatility makes it suitable for a wide range of other biomedical applications.

  6. A new generation of the regional climate model REMO: REMO non-hydrostatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Kevin; Raub, Thomas; Marien, Lennart; Buntemeyer, Lars; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model REMO is well established and has proofed it's value in regional climate simulations for more than a decade. However, due to the hydrostatic formulation REMO is not able to produce useful regional climate information on scales smaller than ~10 km. The demand for higher resolution data especially in the climate service sector is evident. Often climate change information on urban district or even point level is needed. A previous development of a non-hydrostatic dynamical core for REMO utilizing ideas of Miller and Pearce (1974) and Janjic (2001) has been picked up and implemented into the latest hydrostatic REMO version. One of the advantages of the Janjic formulation is that hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic computations are well separated. This offers a straightforward implementation of the non-hydrostatic calculations into an existing hydrostatic model. Other advantages are the easy quantification of the error done by the hydrostatic approximation and the lower computational costs at lower resolutions by switching of the non-hydrostatic part. We will show results from climate simulations on the EURO-CORDEX domain with and without non-hydrostatic option.

  7. Welcome Home Annie: Rethinking Ellis Island and Annie Moore in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Mia

    2008-01-01

    The story of the United States and the people who have made it their home would not be complete without considering the experience of Irish immigrants--particularly the experience of Annie Moore, the first immigrant to be processed on Ellis Island. However, the story of Annie Moore, and how it has been recounted and taught to date, is inaccurate.…

  8. Using the "Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a Feminist Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jule, Allyson

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a teaching tool used with a group of final-year undergraduate students who gathered together last academic year (2007-8) to explore Women in Leadership, as part of a Communications course. The research focus was: How can the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" (a…

  9. Benjamin Moore, Science, and Medical Planning in Early Twentieth-Century Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Gordon S.

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Moore (1867-1922), physiologist and biochemist, was an eminent member of the British scientific and medical community in the early twentieth century. As a founder and president of the State Medical Services Association (SMSA) from its establishment in 1912 until his untimely death in 1922, Moore was a prominent medical services activist…

  10. 33 CFR 147.1106 - Exxon Santa Ynez offshore storage and treatment vessel mooring safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exxon Santa Ynez offshore storage and treatment vessel mooring safety zone. 147.1106 Section 147.1106 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 147.1106 Exxon Santa Ynez offshore storage and treatment vessel mooring safety zone. (a)...

  11. Benjamin Moore, Science, and Medical Planning in Early Twentieth-Century Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Gordon S.

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Moore (1867-1922), physiologist and biochemist, was an eminent member of the British scientific and medical community in the early twentieth century. As a founder and president of the State Medical Services Association (SMSA) from its establishment in 1912 until his untimely death in 1922, Moore was a prominent medical services activist…

  12. Welcome Home Annie: Rethinking Ellis Island and Annie Moore in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Mia

    2008-01-01

    The story of the United States and the people who have made it their home would not be complete without considering the experience of Irish immigrants--particularly the experience of Annie Moore, the first immigrant to be processed on Ellis Island. However, the story of Annie Moore, and how it has been recounted and taught to date, is inaccurate.…

  13. 33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: LNG mooring slip... § 165.751 Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a) Security zone. The... security zone; or (4) Actively engaged in escort, maneuvering, or support duties for an LNG tankship....

  14. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  15. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  16. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  17. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-up walls. (a) Upon arrival at a lock, a vessel awaiting instructions to advance shall moor at the tie-up wall, close up to the designated limit or approach sign or to the ship preceding it, whichever is... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls....

  18. 33 CFR 401.37 - Mooring at tie-up walls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mooring at tie-up walls. 401.37 Section 401.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.37 Mooring at tie...

  19. Using the "Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a Feminist Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jule, Allyson

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" as a teaching tool used with a group of final-year undergraduate students who gathered together last academic year (2007-8) to explore Women in Leadership, as part of a Communications course. The research focus was: How can the use of "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" (a…

  20. A Steady State and Dynamic Analysis of a Mooring System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-25

    element of eabla subject to weight and ataady hydro - dynamic forces are given aa: d &<*< I £*m d> -X+^^w) (J, dLT — yUr.^^^ - -jj-^TfoL £*7ir...t a «a e c o « H > • ::§ * * f ? **!££: ! »> — — — «.-»«-•» - ~ «. («punod) aoTBaax S — -^-.^ • . •T?? wrf

  1. Compression of α-cristobalite under different hydrostatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cernok, Ana; Marquardt, Katharina; Bykova, Elena; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2015-04-01

    The response of α-cristobalite to high-pressure has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies for more than two decades. The results indicated prolific polymorphism under high pressures, yet no consensus has emerged on what is the sequence of these pressure-induced transformations. In particular, the structure of the high-pressure polymorph that appears above ~10 GPa (hereafter cristobalite X-I), which is believed to be a direct link between the low-pressure (silicon in SiO4 tetrahedra) and the high-pressure (SiO6 octahedra) forms of silica remained elusive. This study examined the response of α-cristobalite when compressed at different levels of hydrostaticity, with the special focus on formation and stability of cristobalite X-I. The structural behavior of cristobalite under pressure was investigated up to ~80 GPa and at ambient temperature. We investigated behavior of single crystals and powders, in either (quasy)-hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic environment. In situ high pressure transformation path and structural behavior was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). The samples recovered after pressure release were additionally investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Low- or α-cristobalite responds differently to high pressure depending on the degree of the hydrostaticity. The highest attainable hydrostaticity preserves the initial structure of cristobalite at least up to ~15 GPa. When the crystal experiences even slight stresses during an experiment, transformation sequence leads to cristobalite X-I - a monoclinic polymorph with silicon in octahedral coordination. This polymorph belongs to the family of the high-pressure silica phases that are comprised of distorted close-packed array of oxygen ions in which silicon atoms fully or partially occupy octahedral sites. The reflections collected on a single crystal at ~11 GPa can be indexed by a monoclinic unit cell a=6.658(9) Å, b=4

  2. Moore-Gibson-Thompson equation with memory, part I: exponential decay of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasiecka, Irena; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-04-01

    We are interested in the Moore-Gibson-Thompson equation with memory τ{u}_{ttt}+ α u_{tt}+c2Au+bAu_t -int_0tg(t-s)A w(s){d}s=0. This model arises in high-frequency ultrasound applications accounting for thermal flux and molecular relaxation times. According to revisited extended irreversible thermodynamics, thermal flux relaxation leads to the third-order derivative in time while molecular relaxation leads to non-local effects governed by memory terms. The resulting model is of hyperbolic type with viscous effects. We first classify the memory into three types. Then, we study how a memory term creates damping mechanism and how the memory causes energy decay even in the cases when the original memoryless system is unstable.

  3. Podcasting at the University of Virginia Claude Moore Health Sciences Library.

    PubMed

    Ragon, Bart; Looney, Ryan P

    2007-01-01

    The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library co-sponsors a History of the Health Sciences Lecture Series in the fall and spring of each year. Each lecture is produced and recorded for the benefit of the University of Virginia Heath System and members of the surrounding community. In the fall of 2005, the Library decided to begin podcasting the lectures via the Internet. This article describes the investigation process for creating access to the content via podcast, Webcast, and direct download. The article also addresses how the Library is teaching podcasting in its annual Multimedia Bootcamp and exploring additional uses for podcasting. doi:10.1300/J115v26n01_02.

  4. Neutral fermion excitations in the Moore-Read state at filling factor ν = 5/2.

    PubMed

    Möller, Gunnar; Wójs, Arkadiusz; Cooper, Nigel R

    2011-07-15

    We present evidence supporting the weakly paired Moore-Read phase in the half-filled second Landau level, focusing on some of the qualitative features of its excitations. Based on numerical studies, we show that systems with odd particle number at the flux N(ϕ)=2N-3 can be interpreted as a neutral fermion mode of one unpaired fermion, which is gapped. The mode is found to have two distinct minima, providing a signature that could be observed by photoluminescence. In the presence of two quasiparticles the same neutral fermion excitation is shown to be gapless, confirming expectations for non-abelian statistics of the Ising model with degenerate fusion channels 1 and ψ.

  5. Simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on diamagnetic susceptibility of impurity doped quantum dots under the aegis of noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas

    2016-11-01

    We explore the diamagnetic susceptibility (DMS) of impurity doped quantum dot (QD) in presence of Gaussian white noise and under the combined influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T). Presence of noise and also its mode of application discernibly affect the DMS profile. Application of HP and T invites greater delicacies in the observed DMS profiles. However, whereas the interplay between T and noise comes out to be extremely sensitive in fabricating the DMS profile, the pressure-noise interplay appears to be not that much noticeable. Under all conditions of temperature and pressure, the presence of multiplicative noise diminishes the value of DMS in comparison with that in presence of its additive analogue. The present study renders a deep insight into the remarkable role played by the interplay between noise, hydrostatic pressure and temperature in controlling the effective confinement imposed on the system which bears unquestionable relevance.

  6. What is going on up there? - The Chukchi Sea Ecosystem Mooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, C.; McCammon, M.; Danielson, S. L.; Winsor, P.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Lalande, C.; Stafford, K.; Hauri, C.; McDonnell, A. M. P.

    2016-02-01

    As Arctic regions are projected to strongly reflect the impacts of a changing climate, an effort is underway to make sustained, year-round measurements of concurrent physical and biogeochemical parameters in the Arctic. Deploying highly instrumented year-round moorings in the water is no simple feat, given harsh Arctic conditions that include the presence of sea ice and deep ice keels during much of the year. Enter the late-breaking ecosystem mooring located in the northeast Chukchi Sea. This mooring complements established biophysical moorings elsewhere in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas, including those maintained by NOAA-PMEL (M8), UW-APL (Bering Strait) and JAMSTEC moorings. (southern Chukchi and Barrow Canyon). The mooring described here is located on the southern flank of Hanna Shoal and provides a multi-disciplinary approach to year-round observations within a biological hotspot. The Chukchi Ecosystem Mooring is equipped with a sensor suite aimed to monitor and document the state of ocean acidification, nutrient and carbon cycles, particles, waves, currents and physical properties, and even passive and active acoustic monitoring for zooplankton, fish, and marine mammals. Having the simultaneous interdisciplinary measurements provides data valuable to an ecosystem-based approach to research and resource management. The fully outfitted observatory is providing an unprecedented view into the mechanistic workings of the Chukchi Shelf Ecosystem. The first mooring was deployed in September 2014 and recovered in August 2015. The August 2015 deployment consisted of three moorings, each with incremental sensor packages to complete the ecosystem sensor suite. The mooring construction and instrumentation are described in detail, including introduction to the advances in sensor technologies that enable such deployments. Year one data recovery summaries and plots are provided to demonstrate the capabilities.

  7. The Tangled Tale of Genes and Environment: Moore's The Dependent Gene: The Fallacy of “nature VS. Nurture”

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    Nature–nurture views that smack of genetic determinism remain prevalent. Yet, the increasing knowledge base shows ever more clearly that environmental factors and genes form a fully interactional system at all levels. Moore's book covers the major topics of discovery and dispute, including behavior genetics and the twin studies, developmental psychobiology, and developmental systems theory. Knowledge of this larger life-sciences context for behavior principles will become increasingly important as the full complexity of gene–environment relations is revealed. Behavior analysis both contributes to and gains from the larger battle for the recognition of how nature and nurture really work.

  8. Hydrostatic Simulation of Earth's Atmospheric Gas Using Multi-particle Collision Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Purqon, Acep; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2016-01-01

    Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a mesoscopic simulation method to simulate fluid particle-like flows. MPCD has been widely used to simulate various problems in condensed matter. In this study, hydrostatic behavior of gas in the Earth's atmospheric layer is simulated by using MPCD method. The simulation is carried out by assuming the system under ideal state and is affected only by gravitational force. Gas particles are homogeneous and placed in 2D box. Interaction of the particles with the box is applied through implementation of boundary conditions (BC). Periodic BC is applied on the left and the right side, specular reflection on the top side, while bounce-back on the bottom side. Simulation program is executed in Arch Linux and running in notebook with processor Intel i5 @2700 MHz with 10 GB DDR3 RAM. The results show behaviors of the particles obey kinetic theory for ideal gas when gravitational acceleration value is proportional to the particle mass. Density distribution as a function of altitude also meets atmosphere's hydrostatic theory.

  9. Influence of boundary conditions and turntable speeds on the stability of hydrostatic oil cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaomiao; Zhang, Chengyin; Shen, Feng

    2011-09-01

    The flow, bearing, and carrying capacity of the cycloidal hydrostatic oil cavity in hydrostatic turntable systems are numerically simulated, considering the rotation speeds of a turntable from 0 to 5 m/s and different boundary conditions. The vortex effect is weakened, and the stability of the oil cavity is enhanced with the increase in lubricant viscosity. However, the increase in inlet speed, depth, and inlet radius of the oil cavity causes the vortex effect to increase and the stability of oil cavity to reduce. With the increase in the oil film thickness, the carrying capacity of the oil cavity diminishes. The oil cavity pressure increases along the direction of the motion of the turntable; it is distributed unevenly because of the rotation of the turntable. With the increase in turntable speed, the location and size of the vortex scope in the oil cavity flow field and the strength of the vortex near the entrance gradually weaken and move away from the entry. The distribution of pressure is determined by the locations of the vortex. When the vortex is close to the wall, the wall pressure increases at its location. Otherwise, the wall pressure decreases first and then increases after the center of the vortex.

  10. Vertical discretization with finite elements for a global hydrostatic model on the cubed sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tae-Hyeong; Park, Ja-Rin

    2017-06-01

    A formulation of Galerkin finite element with basis-spline functions on a hybrid sigma-pressure coordinate is presented to discretize the vertical terms of global Eulerian hydrostatic equations employed in a numerical weather prediction system, which is horizontally discretized with high-order spectral elements on a cubed sphere grid. This replaces the vertical discretization of conventional central finite difference that is first-order accurate in non-uniform grids and causes numerical instability in advection-dominant flows. Therefore, a model remains in the framework of Galerkin finite elements for both the horizontal and vertical spatial terms. The basis-spline functions, obtained from the de-Boor algorithm, are employed to derive both the vertical derivative and integral operators, since Eulerian advection terms are involved. These operators are used to discretize the vertical terms of the prognostic and diagnostic equations. To verify the vertical discretization schemes and compare their performance, various two- and three-dimensional idealized cases and a hindcast case with full physics are performed in terms of accuracy and stability. It was shown that the vertical finite element with the cubic basis-spline function is more accurate and stable than that of the vertical finite difference, as indicated by faster residual convergence, fewer statistical errors, and reduction in computational mode. This leads to the general conclusion that the overall performance of a global hydrostatic model might be significantly improved with the vertical finite element.

  11. The Enigmatic Core L1451-mm: A First Hydrostatic Core? Or a Hidden VeLLO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Arce, Héctor G.; Schnee, Scott; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Tanner, Joel; Kauffmann, Jens; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-01

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and 12CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L ⊙ is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect 12CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope, the Submillimeter Array, and CARMA. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. Support for CARMA construction was derived from the states of California, Illinois, and Maryland, the James S. McDonnell Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Kenneth T

  12. 75 FR 6065 - Extension of Public Comment Period on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... COMMISSION Extension of Public Comment Period on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Moore Ranch... for the NRC's Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for the Moore Ranch In... public comment period on the Draft SEIS for the Moore Ranch ISR Project to March 3, 2010. DATES:...

  13. 75 FR 1839 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on Surplus Property Release at Moore County Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Moore County Airport, Pinehurst/Southern Pines, NC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... that the FAA is considering a request from the Moore County Airport Authority to waive the requirement that a 27.7 acre parcel of surplus property, located at the Moore County Airport, be used...

  14. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575... objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? (a) Each object protruding from the water that is within 100 yards of a platform or single point mooring (SPM...

  15. 33 CFR 149.575 - How must objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? 149.575 Section 149.575... objects protruding from the water, other than platforms and single point moorings, be marked? (a) Each object protruding from the water that is within 100 yards of a platform or single point mooring (SPM...

  16. Titan's Hydrostatic Figure and a Possible Dynamic Tidal Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Schubert, G.

    2012-12-01

    An archive of radio Doppler data from the Cassini mission can be found in NASA's PDS Atmospheres Node as a series of binary files called Orbit Data Files (ODF). We have downloaded six ODFs from the Cassini mission for six Titan gravity passes T11 (27-Feb-2006), T22 (28-Dec-2006), T33 (29-Jun-2007), T45 (31-Jul-2008), T68 (20-May-2010) and T74 (18-Feb-2011). After converting to text files with JPL space-navigation software (ODDUMP), we convert the observed Doppler shift for the Cassini spacecraft to radial velocity along the line of sight (LOS) at one-second sample interval. These data can be fit by a numerical integration of the equations of motion for the craft with respect to Titan, and a subsequent projection of the velocity so obtained along the LOS. The orbital parameters are represented by six standard Kepler elements with the plane of sky as the fundamental reference system, the system used for spectroscopic binary stars. While the systemic velocity Vs is taken as a constant for binary stars, it is represented for spacecraft by six parameters in a function developed for the Doppler detection of gravitational waves. We adopt well-determined values for the GM of Titan and Saturn and add a 13th gravity parameter C22 for an ellipsoidal hydrostatic Titan distorted by the Saturn tide and synchronous rotation (J2 = (10/3) C22). Also, we adopt the IAU definition for the pole and prime meridian of Titan in the ICRF/J2000 reference system. The interval of observation for each flyby is held to two hours, centered as closely as possible on the time of closest approach to Titan. This interval is sufficiently long for purposes of including all the detectable signal from C22, but short enough that spacecraft-generated translational forces can be neglected. By iterating on a linear least-squares system, 13 converged parameters and associated covariance matrix are found by singular-value decomposition of the least-squares design matrix for each of the six flybys. With

  17. An analysis of the 70-meter antenna hydrostatic bearing by means of computer simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartos, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, the computer program 'A Computer Solution for Hydrostatic Bearings with Variable Film Thickness,' used to design the hydrostatic bearing of the 70-meter antennas, was modified to improve the accuracy with which the program predicts the film height profile and oil pressure distribution between the hydrostatic bearing pad and the runner. This article presents a description of the modified computer program, the theory upon which the computer program computations are based, computer simulation results, and a discussion of the computer simulation results.

  18. A new concept for airship mooring and ground handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations were made to determine the feasibility of applying the negative air cushion (NAC) principle to the mooring of airships. Pressures required for the inflation of the flexible trunks are not excessive and the maintenance of sufficient hold down force is possible in winds up to 50 knots. Fabric strength requirements for a typical NAC sized for a 10-million cubic foot airship were found to be approximately 200 lbs./in. Corresponding power requirements range between 66-HP and 5600-HP. No consideration was given to the internal airship loads caused by the use of a NAC and further analysis in much greater detail is required before this method could be applied to an actual design, however, the basic concept appears to be sound and no problem areas of a fundamental nature are apparent.

  19. Public Works Center Pearl Harbor Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    CHESNAVFACENGCOM REPORT FPO-1-83, "PWC PEARL HARBOR FLEET MOORINGS INSPECTION REPORT... -’..-.-..;-.-. . s,’. v V’* vi. 0.0 o 4. t!J IA -0 iiiA a𔃼 𔃺’ CL :2I...8217 . . 7 - - - -- - - ". iA Avi << o, .t2.% -AAl ZLI. ,1* . . . . . . . . 4 vi * U)A 0 a 7 -uj z .13 Zn x- -I-z 0 z d= -3 I =- I u2 (N N I...I * * J .p II VI%’ I1. IA IIIq 9> <-- - - - - - - - - - _us: * > 13 Z - - - -A- - zz C6 aa wi a 06 > cc - - _=j = - =Il p 2 Z

  20. Results from a winter 2009-2010 nearshore mooring test in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dever, E. P.; Waldorf, B. W.; Risien, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), two surface moorings will be placed in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon and Grays Harbor, Washington. These moorings are intended to acquire continuous observations over the inner-shelf, where the surface boundary layer interacts continuously with the ocean bottom boundary layer. The moorings will utilize the WHOI-developed stretch hose technology implemented at several operational moorings along the US east coast. For the purposes of mooring survival, the largest significant waves need to be considered. Analysis of the historical record indicates the 100-year return period storm would generate 14.5 m high waves. The harsh wind and wave conditions encountered over the inner-shelf have the potential to cause mooring failure either by destroying surface buoy components, or by causing subsurface mooring components to fail. For example, during a winter storm in December 2007, several NDBC moorings along the Oregon and Washington coasts broke. To test modeling of mooring performance under winter conditions we constructed a test/pilot mooring with hardware, communications and power similar to the OOI buoy design. The test focused on the survivability of components. The mooring was equipped with a load cell to examine responses under varying wave and mean flow conditions. A secondary objective of the deployment was to test Ship-to-Ship/Ship-to-Shore Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) telemetry from the buoy to shore over a distance of 1.5 km. Load cell data as well as buoy instruments (conductivity, temperature) were telemetered. This test mooring was deployed near one of the OOI sites in 25 m of water off Newport, Oregon in late October 2009. The mooring parted in mid-March 2010, two weeks prior to planned recovery. We recovered all mooring components, and we will report on the mooring design, the test, and the science and engineering data received.

  1. TRPV1: Contribution to Retinal Ganglion Cell Apoptosis and Increased Intracellular Ca2+ with Exposure to Hydrostatic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sappington, Rebecca M.; Sidorova, Tatiana; Long, Daniel J.; Calkins, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Elevated hydrostatic pressure induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in culture. The authors investigated whether the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, which contributes to pressure sensing and Ca2+-dependent cell death in other systems, also contributes to pressure-induced RGC death and whether this contribution involves Ca2+. Methods trpv1 mRNA expression in RGCs was probed with the use of PCR and TRPV1 protein localization through immunocytochemistry. Subunit-specific antagonism (iodo-resiniferatoxin) and agonism (capsaicin) were used to probe how TRPV1 activation affects the survival of isolated RGCs at ambient and elevated hydrostatic pressure (+70 mm Hg). Finally, for RGCs under pressure, the authors tested whether EGTA chelation of Ca2+ improves survival and whether, with the Ca2+ dye Fluo-4 AM, TRPV1 contributes to increased intracellular Ca2+. Results RGCs express trpv1 mRNA, with robust TRPV1 protein localization to the cell body and axon. For isolated RGCs under pressure, TRPV1 antagonism increased cell density and reduced apoptosis to ambient levels (P ≤ 0.05), whereas for RGCs at ambient pressure, TRPV1 agonism reduced density and increased apoptosis to levels for elevated pressure (P ≤ 0.01). Chelation of extracellular Ca2+ reduced RGC apoptosis at elevated pressure by nearly twofold (P ≤ 0.01). Exposure to elevated hydrostatic pressure induced a fourfold increase in RGC intracellular Ca2+ that was reduced by half with TRPV1 antagonism. Finally, in the DBA/2 mouse model of glaucoma, levels of TRPV1 in RGCs increased with elevated IOP. Conclusions RGC apoptosis induced by elevated hydrostatic pressure arises substantially through TRPV1, likely through the influx of extracellular Ca2+. PMID:18952924

  2. Evaluation of a hybrid hydrostatic bearing for cryogenic turbopump application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spica, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.; Meyer, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid hydrostatic bearing was designed to operate in liquid hydrogen at speeds to 80,000 rpm and radial loads to 440 n (100 lbf). The bearing assembly consisted of a pair of 20-mm angular-contact ball bearings encased in a journal, which was in turn supported by a fluid film of liquid hydrogen. The size and operating conditions of the bearing were selected to be compatible with the operating requirements of an advanced technology turbopump. Several test parameters were varied to characterize the bearing's steady-state operation. The rotation of the tester shaft was varied between 0 and 80,000 rpm. Bearing inlet fluid pressure was varied between 2.07 and 4.48 MPa (300 and 650 psia), while the fluid sump pressure was independently varied between 0.34 and 2.07 MPa (50 and 300 psia). The maximum radial load applied to the bearing was 440 N (110 lbf). Measured hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing stiffness was 1.5 times greater than predicted, while the fluid flow rate through the bearing was 35 to 65 percent less than predicted. Under two-phase fluid conditions, the stiffness was even greater and the flow rate was less. The optimal pressure ratio for the bearing should be between 0.2 and 0.55 depending on the balance desired between bearing efficiency and stiffness. Startup and shutdown cyclic tests were conducted to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing assembly to survive at least a 300-firing-duty cycle. For a typical cycle, the shaft was accelerated to 50,000 rpm in 1.8 sec. The bearing operated for 337 start-stop cycles without failure.

  3. Validation of HF Radar ocean surface currents in the Ibiza Channel using lagrangian drifters, moored current meter and underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana, Arancha; Fernández, Vicente; Orfila, Alejandro; Troupin, Charles; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    SOCIB High Frequency (HF) radar is one component of a multi-platform system located in the Balearic Islands and made up of Lagrangian platforms (profilers and drifting buoys), fixed stations (sea-level, weather, mooring and coastal), beach monitoring (camera), gliders, a research vessel as well as an ocean forecast system (waves and hydrodynamics). The HF radar system overlooks the Ibiza Channel, known as a 'choke point" where Atlantic and Mediterranean water masses interact and where meridional exchanges of water mass properties between the Balearic and the Algerian sub-basins take place. In order to determine the reliability of surface velocity measurements in this area, a quality assessment of the HF Radar is essential. We present the results of several validation experiments performed in the Ibiza Channel in 2013 and 2014. Of particular interest is an experiment started in September 2014 when a set of 13 surface drifters with different shapes and drogue lengths were released in the area covered by the HF radar. The drifter trajectories can be examined following the SOCIB Deployment Application (DAPP): http://apps.socib.es/dapp. Additionally, a 1-year long time series of surface currents obtained from a moored surface current-meter located in the Ibiza Channel, inside the area covered by the HF radar, was also used as a useful complementary validation exercise. Direct comparison between both radial surface currents from each radar station and total derived velocities against drifters and moored current meter velocities provides an assessment of the HF radar data quality at different temporal periods and geographical areas. Statistics from these comparisons give good correlation and low root-mean-square deviation. The results will be discussed for different months, geographical areas and types of surface drifters and wind exposure. Moreover, autonomous underwater glider constitutes an additional source of information for the validation of the observed velocity

  4. The Determination of the Elastic Modulus of Rubber Mooring Tethers and Their Use in Coastal Moorings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    signals from the sensors to the buoy for logging and telemetry. 14 Mast/Antenna/GPS/PAR Radar Reflector/Air Temperature Guard Light Solar Pannels - Wave...Temperature & PAR Steel Buoy with Solar Power 0- SData System with Telemetry -Temperature/Conductivity - Load Cell for Cable Tension < 7 meters 1/2" Chain...and Long Wave Radiation Surlyn Foam Buoy with Solar Panels B tteries/Data System/GOES/ARGOS 0 Sea Surface Temperature -T, C (5) 10 <-- Bio-Optical

  5. Hydrostatic pressure studies of polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.; Bauer, F.

    1987-01-01

    The frequency, temperature and hydrostatic pressure (less than or equal to10 kbar) dependences of the dielectric properties, molecular relaxations and phase transitions in PVDF and a copolymer with a 30% trifluorethylene were investigated. For the copolymer, both the ferroelectric transition (T/sub c/) and dynamic melting (T/sub m/) temperatures exhibit large increases with pressure. PVDF itself does not exhibit a T/sub c/ below T/sub m/, but its T/sub m/ also shows a large increase with pressure. The pressure and frequency dependences suggest an explanation for why it is possible to use these polymers as piezoelectric shock wave gauges to relatively high shock pressures.

  6. Pasteurization of food by hydrostatic high pressure: chemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Tauscher, B

    1995-01-01

    Food pasteurized by hydrostatic high pressure have already been marketed in Japan. There is great interest in this method also in Europe and USA. Temperature and pressure are the essential parameters influencing the state of substances including foods. While the influence of temperature on food has been extensively investigated, effects of pressure, also in combination with temperature, are attracting increasing scientific attention now. Processes and reactions in food governed by Le Chatelier's principle are of special interest; they include chemical reactions of both low- and macromolecular compounds. Theoretical fundamentals and examples of pressure affected reactions are presented.

  7. Hydrostatic extrusion of Cu-Ag melt spun ribbon

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Mary Ann; Bingert, John F.; Bingert, Sherri A.; Thoma, Dan J.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing high-strength and high-conductance copper and silver materials comprising the steps of combining a predetermined ratio of the copper with the silver to produce a composite material, and melt spinning the composite material to produce a ribbon of copper and silver. The ribbon of copper and silver is heated in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thereafter die pressed into a slug. The slug then is placed into a high-purity copper vessel and the vessel is sealed with an electron beam. The vessel and slug then are extruded into wire form using a cold hydrostatic extrusion process.

  8. Hydrostatic extrusion of Cu-Ag melt spun ribbon

    DOEpatents

    Hill, M.A.; Bingert, J.F.; Bingert, S.A.; Thoma, D.J.

    1998-09-08

    The present invention provides a method of producing high-strength and high-conductance copper and silver materials comprising the steps of combining a predetermined ratio of the copper with the silver to produce a composite material, and melt spinning the composite material to produce a ribbon of copper and silver. The ribbon of copper and silver is heated in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thereafter die pressed into a slug. The slug then is placed into a high-purity copper vessel and the vessel is sealed with an electron beam. The vessel and slug then are extruded into wire form using a cold hydrostatic extrusion process. 5 figs.

  9. Dielectric breakdown field of strained silicon under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chiho; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2017-09-01

    First-principles density functional theory calculations are used to reveal a quantitative relationship between the dielectric breakdown field and hydrostatic pressure of crystalline Si. The electronic band structure, phonon dispersion, and electron scattering rate are computed for pressures from 62.2 kbar (compressive) to -45.6 kbar (tensile) to estimate the rate of kinetic energy gain and loss for the electron. The theoretical dielectric breakdown fields are then determined using the von Hippel-Fröhlich criterion. Compressive stresses lead to a lower breakdown field, while significant increases in the dielectric breakdown field can be achieved by tensile stresses.

  10. Multicore MgB 2 wires made by hydrostatic extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováč, P.; Pachla, W.; Hušek, I.; Kulczyk, M.; Melišek, T.; Holúbek, T.; Diduszko, R.; Reissner, M.

    2008-12-01

    Seven-filament MgB2/Fe and MgB2/Nb/Cu wires have been made by in situ process using hydrostatic extrusion, drawing and two-axial drawing deformation into the wire size of 1.1 × 1.1 mm2. The conductors were sintered at 650 °C/0.5 h and studied in terms of field-dependent transport critical current density and thermal stability. XRD, SEM and EDX analysis were applied for structural characterization. Transport current property and compositional/structural differences are compared and discussed in connection to used powders and metallic materials.

  11. Single-molecule imaging at high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, Hugh; Lucas Black, S.; Flors, Cristina; Lloyd, Diarmuid; Bruce Ward, F.; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2013-04-01

    Direct microscopic fluorescence imaging of single molecules can provide a wealth of mechanistic information, but up to now, it has not been possible under high pressure conditions, due to limitations in microscope pressure cell design. We describe a pressure cell window design that makes it possible to image directly single molecules at high hydrostatic pressure. We demonstrate our design by imaging single molecules of Alexa Fluor 647 dye bound to DNA, at 120 and 210 bar, and following their fluorescence photodynamics. We further show that the failure pressure of this type of pressure cell window can be in excess of 1 kbar.

  12. Nonaxisymmetric incompressible hydrostatic pressure effects in radial face seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    A flat seal having an angular misalinement is analyzed, taking into account the radial variations in seal clearance. An analytical solution for axial force, tilting moment, and leakage is presented that covers the whole range from zero to full angular misalinement. Nonaxisymmetric hydrostatic pressures due to the radial variations in the film thickness have a considerable effect on seal stability. When the high pressure is on the outer periphery of the seal, both the axial force and the tilting moment are nonrestoring. The case of high-pressure seals where cavitation is eliminated is discussed, and the possibility of dynamic instability is pointed out.

  13. Hydrostatic pressure sensing with surface-core fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osório, Jonas H.; Franco, Marcos A. R.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report the employment of surface-core fibers for hydrostatic pressure sensing. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the use of these fibers for the referenced purpose. Theoretical simulations of the fiber structure were performed in order to estimate fiber phase and group birefringence values and its pressure sensitivity coefficient. In order to test fiber performance when acting as a pressure sensor, the same was placed in an polarimetric setup and its spectral response was measured. A sensitivity of 4.8 nm/MPa was achieved, showing good resemblance to the expected sensitivity value (4.6 nm/MPa).

  14. Accuracy in GPS/Acoustic positioning on a moored buoy moving around far from the optimal position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imano, M.; Kido, M.; Ohta, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Fukuda, T.; Ochi, H.; Hino, R.

    2015-12-01

    For detecting the seafloor crustal deformation and Tsunami associated with large earthquakes in real-time, it is necessary to monitor them just above the possible source region. For this purpose, we have been dedicated in developing a real-time continuous observation system using a multi-purpose moored buoy. Sea-trials of the system have been carried out near the Nanakai trough in 2013 and 2014 (Takahashi et al., 2014). We especially focused on the GPS/Acoustic measurement (GPS/A) in the system for horizontal crustal movement. The GPS/A on a moored buoy has a critical drawback compared to the traditional ones, in which the data can be stacked over ranging points fixed at an optimal position. Accuracy in positioning with a single ranging from an arbitrary point is the subject to be improved in this study. Here, we report the positioning results in the buoy system using data in the 2014 sea-trial and demonstrate the improvement of the result. We also address the potential resolving power in the positioning using synthetic tests. The target GPS/A site consists of six seafloor transponders (PXPs) forming a small inner- and a large outer-triangles. The bottom of the moored cable is anchored nearly the center of the triangles. In the sea-trial, 11 times successive ranging was scheduled once a week, and we plotted positioning results from different buoy position. We confirmed that scatter in positioning using six PXPs simultaneously is ten times smaller than that using individual triangle separately. Next, we modified the definition of the PXP array geometry using data obtained in a campaign observation. Definition of an array geometry is insensitive as far as ranging is made in the same position, however, severely affects the positioning when ranging is made from various positions like the moored buoy. The modified PXP array is slightly smaller and 2m deeper than the original one. We found that the scatter of positioning results in the sea-trial is reduced from 4m to 1

  15. Feedback Regulation of Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure in Surface Cells of the Lens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; White, Thomas W.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Mathias, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    In wild-type lenses from various species, an intracellular hydrostatic pressure gradient goes from ∼340 mmHg in central fiber cells to 0 mmHg in surface cells. This gradient drives a center-to-surface flow of intracellular fluid. In lenses in which gap-junction coupling is increased, the central pressure is lower, whereas if gap-junction coupling is reduced, the central pressure is higher but surface pressure is always zero. Recently, we found that surface cell pressure was elevated in PTEN null lenses. This suggested disruption of a feedback control system that normally maintained zero surface cell pressure. Our purpose in this study was to investigate and characterize this feedback control system. We measured intracellular hydrostatic pressures in mouse lenses using a microelectrode/manometer-based system. We found that all feedback went through transport by the Na/K ATPase, which adjusted surface cell osmolarity such that pressure was maintained at zero. We traced the regulation of Na/K ATPase activity back to either TRPV4, which sensed positive pressure and stimulated activity, or TRPV1, which sensed negative pressure and inhibited activity. The inhibitory effect of TRPV1 on Na/K pumps was shown to signal through activation of the PI3K/AKT axis. The stimulatory effect of TRPV4 was shown in previous studies to go through a different signal transduction path. Thus, there is a local two-legged feedback control system for pressure in lens surface cells. The surface pressure provides a pedestal on which the pressure gradient sits, so surface pressure determines the absolute value of pressure at each radial location. We speculate that the absolute value of intracellular pressure may set the radial gradient in the refractive index, which is essential for visual acuity. PMID:26536260

  16. Sea-Change in Ocean Observations on Moored Buoys from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, R. H.; Elliott, J.; Pounder, D.; Kern, K.

    2014-12-01

    The presentation will provide the technical specifications, the systems engineering processes, and preliminary results from laboratory and field tests, as the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) undertakes a fundamental and broad transformation (sea-change) of its ocean observing systems on moored buoys. This transformation is necessary to gain efficiencies in maintaining operational ocean observation networks and to increase their reliability, which will reduce maintenance costs. The presentation will also compare and contrast existing and planned systems. The Self-Contained Ocean Observations Payload (SCOOP) takes advantage of the advances in communications and small, efficient, multi-purpose sensors to reduce the size and costs of systems and expand the suite of available real-time ocean observations. The communications will allow NDBC to increase the precision and decrease the latency of the observations. The hallmark of SCOOP is the modularity of the payloads that allow NDBC to host specialized systems, for the oceanographic research community, which may include observing ocean acidification and algal blooms, and tracking marine life, alongside its standard suite of meteorological, oceanographic, and wave systems. SCOOP will include cameras, primarily to document vandalism incidents, but they can also serve to corroborate many of the automatic observations. The two-year integration project - focused on recapitalization of NDBC's network of Hurricane Weather buoys - is aided by NDBC's 40 years of experience with marine observations and its continually improving approach to testing. Testimony to the rigor of NDBC's development and test procedures is that the World Meteorological Organization and the Intergovernmental Ocean Commission have designated NDBC as the first Regional Marine Instrumentation Center (RMIC). Integral to the fielding of these new systems is a Mission Control Center (MCC) performing the real-time, specialized monitoring and analyses and

  17. Opportunities of hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators for haptic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; De Rossi, Danilo

    2011-04-01

    As a means to improve versatility and safety of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for several fields of application, so-called 'hydrostatically coupled' DEAs (HC-DEAs) have recently been described. HC-DEAs are based on an incompressible fluid that mechanically couples a DE-based active part to a passive part interfaced to the load, so as to enable hydrostatic transmission. This paper presents ongoing developments of HC-DEAs and potential applications in the field of haptics. Three specific examples are considered. The first deals with a wearable tactile display used to provide users with tactile feedback during electronic navigation in virtual environments. The display consists of HCDEAs arranged in contact with finger tips. As a second example, an up-scaled prototype version of an 8-dots refreshable cell for dynamic Braille displays is shown. Each Braille dot consists of a miniature HC-DEA, with a diameter lower than 2 mm. The third example refers to a device for finger rehabilitation, conceived to work as a sort of active version of a rehabilitation squeezing ball. The device is designed to dynamically change its compliance according to an electric control. The three examples of applications intend to show the potential of the new technology and the prospective opportunities for haptic interfaces.

  18. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Chambliss, K.; Diwan, M.; Simos, N.; ...

    2014-10-09

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for allmore » measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.« less

  19. Photomultiplier tube failure under hydrostatic pressure in future neutrino detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chambliss, K.; Diwan, M.; Simos, N.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2014-10-09

    Failure of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) under hydrostatic pressure is a concern in neutrino detection, specifically, in the proposed Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment project. Controlled hydrostatic implosion tests were performed on prototypic PMT bulbs of 10-inch diameter and recorded using high speed filming techniques to capture failures in detail. These high-speed videos were analyzed frame-by-frame in order to identify the origin of a crack, measure the progression of individual crack along the surface of the bulb as it propagates through the glass, and estimate crack velocity. Crack velocity was calculated for each individual crack, and an average velocity was determined for all measurable cracks on each bulb. Overall, 32 cracks were measured in 9 different bulbs tested. Finite element modeling (FEM) of crack formation and growth in prototypic PMT shows stress concentration near the middle section of the PMT bulbs that correlates well with our crack velocity measurements in that section. The FEM model predicts a crack velocity value that is close to the terminal crack velocity reported. Our measurements also reveal significantly reduced crack velocities compared to terminal crack velocities measured in glasses using fracture mechanics testing and reported in literature.

  20. DX centers in III-V semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, Jeffrey Alan

    1992-11-01

    DX centers are deep level defects found in some III-V semiconductors. They have persistent photoconductivity and large difference between thermal and optical ionization energies. Hydrostatic pressure was used to study microstructure of these defects. A new local vibrational mode (LVM) was observed in hydrostatically stressed, Si-doped GaAs. Corresponding infrared absorption peak is distinct from the SiGa shallow donor LVM peak, which is the only other LVM peak observed in our samples, and is assigned to the Si DX center. Analysis of the relative intensities of the Si DX LVM and the Si shallow donor LVM peaks, combined with Hall effect and resistivity indicate that the Si DX center is negatively charged. Frequency of this new mode provides clues to the structure of this defect. A pressure induced deep donor level in S-doped InP was also discovered which has the properties of a DX center. Pressure at which the new defect becomes more stable than the shallow donor is 82 kbar. Optical ionization energy and energy dependence of the optical absorption cross section was measured for this new effect. Capture barrier from the conduction band into the DX state were also determined. That DX centers can be formed in InP by pressure suggests that DX states should be common in n-type III-V semiconductors. A method is suggested for predicting under what conditions these defects will be the most stable form of the donor impurity.